WorldWideScience

Sample records for binational

  1. 78 FR 57838 - North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice... to the Decision and Order of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Binational Panel...

  2. BESTNET: Binational English & Spanish Telecommunications Network. Final FIPSE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Armando A., Jr.; Bellman, Beryl L.

    The final evaluation of BESTNET (the Binational English and Spanish Telecommunications Network) is described. Undertaken as a collaborative effort to experiment with new telecommunications media in distance education and to attract Hispanic students into the science and engineering fields, the project involved the development of a number of…

  3. 77 FR 65864 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review...

  4. 75 FR 74686 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade...

  5. 77 FR 29965 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade...

  6. 76 FR 4633 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review...

  7. 76 FR 14917 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department..., (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade...

  8. Gore-Mbeki Binational Commission integrated housing program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This report documents the work done under Grant DE-FG36-97GO10209, Innovative Renewable Energy Technology Transfer Program. PEER Consultants, PC, and its subcontractor, PEER Africa (Pty.) Ltd., received an $88,000.00 grant to plan and build two energy efficient homes in the black township of Gugulethu in Cape Town, South Africa. These demonstration homes were given to the people of South Africa as a gesture of goodwill by the US government as part of the Gore-Mbeki Binational Commission (BNC) agreements and cooperation. The BNC is the term used to describe the agreement to work together by the US and the South African governments for economic development of South Africa in the areas of energy, commerce, agriculture, housing, and transportation. The BNC was formed in 1995. This project under the auspices of the BNC started in September 1996. The DOE-funded portion was performed between January 11, 1997 and February 28, 1997.

  9. Binational collaboration to study Gulf of Mexico's harmful algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Inia; Hu, Chuanmin; Steidinger, Karen; Muller-Karger, Frank; Cannizzaro, Jennifer; Wolny, Jennifer; Cerdeira-Estrada, Sergio; Santamaria-del-Angel, Eduardo; Tafoya-del-Angel, Fausto; Alvarez-Torres, Porfirio; Herrera Silveira, Jorge; Allen, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis cause massive fish kills and other public health and economic problems in coastal waters throughout the Gulf of Mexico [Steidinger, 2009]. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a gulf-wide problem that require a synoptic observing system for better serving decision-making needs. The major nutrient sources that initiate and maintain these HABs and the possible connectivity of blooms in different locations are important questions being addressed through new collaborations between Mexican and U.S. researchers and government institutions. These efforts were originally organized under the U.S./Mexico binational partnership for the HABs Observing System (HABSOS), led by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Gulf of Mexico Program (EPAGMP) and several agencies in Veracruz, Mexico, since 2006. In 2010 these efforts were expanded to include other Mexican states and institutions with the integrated assessment and management of the Gulf of Mexico Large Marine Ecosystem (GoMLME) program sponsored by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

  10. 78 FR 51708 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade...

  11. 76 FR 62364 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the International Trade Commission's final determination of Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe from...

  12. 76 FR 23286 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the final remand determination made by the United States International Trade Commission, in the matter...

  13. 77 FR 49781 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel..., Washington, DC 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: On August 9, 2012, a Motion to...

  14. 76 FR 48145 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews... American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Termination of Panel Review of the...

  15. 75 FR 54594 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the International Trade Administration's final determination of Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from...

  16. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  17. Meeting a Binational Research Challenge: Substance Abuse Among Transnational Mexican Farmworkers in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Victor

    2007-01-01

    To help in understanding the manner in which community, individual, and other factors in the United States and Mexico contribute to drug use among transnational migrants, this paper introduces a binational social ecology model of substance abuse in this population. We draw on our 2 NIH-funded ethnographic studies—1 on problem drinking and the other on drug abuse—among transnational Mexican workers in the mushroom industry of southeastern Pennsylvania. Our model demonstrates that major reasons...

  18. Bi-National Same-Sex Unmarried Partners in Census 2000: A demographic portrait

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary J.

    2005-01-01

    While current United States immigration policy is based primarily on family reunification, it does not provide any rights for unmarried partners of citizens. In order to inform current legislative debates about expanding the policy of family reunification to include same-sex couples, this report provides a demographic and geographic portrait of bi-national same-sex “unmarried partners” from Census 2000.

  19. Issues in United States-Mexican Agricultural Relations: A Binational Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Grindle, Merilee

    1983-01-01

    In February, 1981, the Center for US-Mexican Studies hosted a Binational Consultation on US-Mexican Agricultural Relations. The consultation sought to define the nature, causes, and consequences of flows of labor, capital, technology, and agricultural commodities across the US-Mexican border and to identify fruitful areas for additional research. Sections of the consultation were devoted to US-Mexican agricultural trade in an era of oil wealth and “food power†; Mexico’s crisis of produc...

  20. Lake trout in the Great Lakes: Basin-wide stock collapse and binational restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Taylor, William W.; Ferreri, C. Paola

    1999-01-01

    The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was important to the human settlement of each of the Great Lakes, and underwent catastrophic collapses in each lake in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The timing of lake trout stock collapses were different in each lake, as were the causes of the collapses, and have been the subject of much scientific inquiry and debate. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize and review pertinent information relating historical changes in Great Lakes lake trout stocks, binational efforts to restore those stocks, and progress toward stock restoration. This presentation attempts to generalize patterns across the Great Lakes, rather than to focus within each lake. Lake specific analyses have been used to understand lake specific causes and effects, but there is continuing debate about some of these causes and effects. A basinwide review may suggest mechanisms for observed changes that are not evident by lake specific analysis.

  1. Uneven exchange and urban binational complexes in Dominican Republic’s border with Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Dilla Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dominican/Haitian border is signed by profound asymmetries and the predominance of a relation of uneven exchange in benefit of Dominican Republic. Transborder relations summary this contradictory relation, but at the same time constitute the only form of survival for more than half million of Haitians that inhabit the region. This article discusses the history of this relation and its present tendencies, including the formation of economic regions and urban binational systems. The weakness of regulatory public policies and the aggressive action of the market generate a very contradictory setting that could lead to conflicts by the use of shared natural resources, the exploitation of the Haitian labour force, and the agitation of nationalist positions.

  2. Binational management of hazardous waste: The maquiladora industry at the US-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Diane M.; Sanchez, Roberto; Glaze, William H.; Mazari, Marisa

    1990-07-01

    Foreign-owned industry in the form of assembly plants, termed maquiladora, has become very important in Mexico to the extent that it represents the second largest source of foreign exchange and is a valuable source for employment and regional development. The economic prosperity gained from the rapid growth of the maquiladora industry has been accompanied by increased environmental and human health risks associated with generation of hazardous waste. Diversification of industry has resulted in the predomination of those sectors that likely use hazardous substances. The Mexicali-Calexico border region was selected to demonstrate the potential for environmental and health risks associated with the generation of hazardous waste. Estimates for the generation of hazardous waste were obtained from 34 maquiladora plants in Mexicali, represented by the electronic and electrical equipment and parts, mechanical and transportation equipment, and toys and sporting equipment sectors. Repeated detection of volatile organic compounds in the New River at the US-Mexico border suggests that hazardous waste from the printed circuit board industry in Mexicali is not being disposed of in a proper manner. Potential adverse health effects, such as carcinogenic and mutagenic responses associated with the detected volatiles, are discussed. US and Mexico national legislation and the Binational Environmental Agreement were examined for their adequacy to ensure proper management of hazardous waste generated by the maquiladora industry. Environmental policy options are presented that focus on: (1) increased environmental accountability of US parent companies for their maquiladora assembly plants in Mexico; and (2) more integration between US Customs and border states with the US Environmental Protection Agency to improve the binational management of hazardous waste generated by the maquiladora industry.

  3. Legal Status at Entry, Economic Performance, and Self-Employment Proclivity: A Bi-National Study of Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Constant, Amelie F.; Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    2006-01-01

    There are concerns about the attachment of immigrants to the labor force, and the potential policy responses. This paper uses a bi-national survey on immigrant performance to investigate the sorting of individuals into full-time paid-employment and entrepreneurship and their economic success. Particular attention is paid to the role of legal status at entry in the host country (worker, refugee, and family reunification), ethnic networks, enclaves and other differences among ethnicities for th...

  4. Cooperation on Climate Services in the Binational Rio Grande/Bravo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G. M.; Shafer, M. A.; Brown, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Rio Grande/Bravo River Basin (RGB) of the United States and México is exposed to tornadoes, severe storms, hurricanes, winter storms, wildfire, and drought. The combination of these weather and climate-related hazards has resulted in impacts, such as wildfire, crop loss, water supply reduction, and flooding, with exceedingly high economic costs ($13 billion in 2011). In order to contribute to increased binational information flow and knowledge exchange in the region, we have developed a prototype quarterly bilingual RGB Climate Outlook, in PDF, supplemented by Twitter messages and Facebook posts. The goal of the project is to improve coordination between institutions in the U.S. and Mexico, increase awareness about climate variations, their impacts and costs to society, and build capacity for enhanced hazard preparedness. The RGB Outlook features a synthesis of climate products, impact data and analysis, is expressed in user-friendly language, and relies substantially on visual communication in contrast to text. The RGB Outlook is co-produced with colleagues in the U.S. and Mexico, in conjunction with the North American Climate Services Partnership (NACSP) and NOAA's regional climate services program. NACSP is a tri-national initiative to develop and deliver drought-based climate services in order to assist water resource managers, agricultural interests, and other constituents as they prepare for future drought events and build capacity to respond to other climate extremes. The RGB Climate Outlook builds on lessons learned from the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS) Southwest Climate Outlook (PDF, html), La Niña Drought Tracker (PDF, html), the Southern Climate Impacts Policy Program (SCIPP) Managing Drought in the Southern Plains webinar series, the Border Climate Summary (PDF), and Transborder Climate newsletter (PDF) and webinar series. The latter two have been the only regularly occurring bilingual climate information products in the U

  5. Nutrition labelling: perspectives of a bi-national agency for Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Margaret A

    2002-01-01

    Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA) is a bi-national government agency forming a partnership between all of Australia's States and Territories and the New Zealand government. Australia New Zealand Food Authority employs scientific, legal policy, communication and administrative staff in our Australia and New Zealand offices. Prior to 1991 each of Australia's States and Territories had their own food standards; however, in 1991 Commonwealth legislation was introduced to consolidate responsibility for developing food standards in one specialist agency and to ensure the uniformity of Standards across all States and Territories in Australia. This was extended to New Zealand in 1995 when we became a bi-national agency following the signing of a Treaty between Australia and New Zealand to develop joint food standards for both countries. Australia New Zealand Food Authority's objectives in setting food standards are to: protect public health and safety; provide adequate information to enable consumers to make informed choices; and prevent misleading or deceptive conduct. Health Ministers have recently approved a new Joint Food Standards Code for Australia and New Zealand. This is the result of over 6 year's work and many rounds of public consultation. The new Code has had extensive input from government agencies, industry and consumers. In drafting the new code our emphasis has been on making decisions based on sound science and the most up-to-date information available. We also recognized the need for Standards to be practical in not imposing unnecessary costs on food manufacturers with an inevitable flow on effect to consumer prices. The Joint Code will replace both the existing Australian Food Standards Code and the New Zealand Food Regulations after a 2-year transition period. During the development of the Joint Code a wide range of matters were considered in relation to labelling. Amongst these were consumer needs, costs to industry, voluntary versus

  6. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  7. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Jason; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Harris, Robin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated. PMID:22690182

  8. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B. Harris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001. Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  9. Report on the Binational Conference: In Search of a Border Pedagogy (4th, El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, January 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    This report contains a synopsis of the binational conference and features brief summaries of all the papers presented at the conference. Over 350 educators, community leaders, and researchers were brought together to discuss the educational extremes found along the border between the United States and Mexico and to investigate instructional…

  10. [Population in the northern border area. Urban dynamism and binational interrelation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham Chande, R

    1988-01-01

    The 3300 km border between Mexico and the US constitutes the geopolitical separation between an underdeveloped country on the 1 hand and 1 of the most technologically and economically powerful countries in the world on the other. The border region is characterized by the contrasts on either side of the border and by the strong interrelation between both sides. Vast streams of persons, merchandise, money, services, communications, and cultural influences flow from 1 side to the other. The border region as a seat of population has a recent history. The border was defined in near current form only in the mid-19th century, when the expansionist tendencies of the US encountered a vast area of very sparse population. In 1900, the principal localities of the border zone had only about 39,000 inhabitants, of whom fewer than 5000 lived west of Ciudad Juarez. Between 1910-20, the population of the border region increased from 53,000 to 96,000 as a result of migrants fleeing the ravages of the revolution. The population of the border region was estimated at 3.826 million in 1988, resulting from rates of growth above Mexico's national average. Settlement in the area has depended on events and conditions in Mexico and on such US occurrences as Prohibition, the Great Depression, the 2nd World War, the Bracero program, and the Program of Border Industrialization. 82% of the border population lives in urban zones, partly because of lack of water. 80% of the urban population is concentrated in 6 cities, Juarez, Tijuana, Mexicali, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, and Matamoros. Much of the population of the 6 cities is composed of persons born elsewhere. The border area also has a large floating population of undocumented migrants in transit to or from the US. The high rates of urbanization and of binational interaction are reflected in demographic dynamics. In 1979, 71% of women in union in the border area vs 54% in the rest of Mexico had used contraception, and the infant mortality rate was

  11. [Population in the northern border area. Urban dynamism and binational interrelation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham Chande, R

    1988-01-01

    The 3300 km border between Mexico and the US constitutes the geopolitical separation between an underdeveloped country on the 1 hand and 1 of the most technologically and economically powerful countries in the world on the other. The border region is characterized by the contrasts on either side of the border and by the strong interrelation between both sides. Vast streams of persons, merchandise, money, services, communications, and cultural influences flow from 1 side to the other. The border region as a seat of population has a recent history. The border was defined in near current form only in the mid-19th century, when the expansionist tendencies of the US encountered a vast area of very sparse population. In 1900, the principal localities of the border zone had only about 39,000 inhabitants, of whom fewer than 5000 lived west of Ciudad Juarez. Between 1910-20, the population of the border region increased from 53,000 to 96,000 as a result of migrants fleeing the ravages of the revolution. The population of the border region was estimated at 3.826 million in 1988, resulting from rates of growth above Mexico's national average. Settlement in the area has depended on events and conditions in Mexico and on such US occurrences as Prohibition, the Great Depression, the 2nd World War, the Bracero program, and the Program of Border Industrialization. 82% of the border population lives in urban zones, partly because of lack of water. 80% of the urban population is concentrated in 6 cities, Juarez, Tijuana, Mexicali, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, and Matamoros. Much of the population of the 6 cities is composed of persons born elsewhere. The border area also has a large floating population of undocumented migrants in transit to or from the US. The high rates of urbanization and of binational interaction are reflected in demographic dynamics. In 1979, 71% of women in union in the border area vs 54% in the rest of Mexico had used contraception, and the infant mortality rate was

  12. The US/Mexico Border: A Binational Approach to Framing Challenges and Constructing Solutions for Improving Farmworkers’ Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Aranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the US-Mexico border region face health hazards and occupational risks and are becoming commonly known in the public health literature. According to several studies, farmworkers have high levels of chronic diseases such as diabetes and respiratory problems, are at risk for infectious diseases, and experience among the highest incidences of work-related injuries of any profession. The findings from two studies are considered and presented with the objective of contributing to an overall understanding of migrant farmworkers as a workforce moving across national boundaries and affected by the work environments and health stressors both shared and unique to each context. We propose a binational approach to comprehensively address the health problems and socioeconomic challenges faced by migrant and seasonal farmworkers. In this paper we present the results of two distinct but complementary studies of farmworker health on the Arizona-Sonora border.

  13. Assessing potential impacts of climate change and variability on the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin: A binational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential impacts of climate change and variability on the Great Lakes environment are serious and complex. The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin is home to 42.5 million US and Canadian citizens and is the industrial and commercial heartland of both nations. The region is rich in human and natural resources, with diverse economic activities and substantial infrastructure which would be affected by major shifts in climate. For example, water level changes could affect wetland distribution and functioning; reductions in streamflow would alter assimilative capacities while warmer water temperatures would influence spring and fall turnover and incidence of anoxia. A binational program has been initiated to conduct interdisciplinary, integrated impact assessments for the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin. The goal of this program is to undertake interdisciplinary, integrated studies to improve the understanding of the complex interactions between climate, the environment, and socioeconomic systems in order to develop informed regional adaptation responses

  14. Framing Scenarios of Binational Water Policy with a Tool to Visualize, Quantify and Valuate Changes in Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Labiosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Santa Cruz Watershed, located on the Arizona-Sonora portion of the U.S.-Mexico border, an international wastewater treatment plant treats wastewater from cities on both sides of the border, before discharging it into the river in Arizona. These artificial flows often subsidize important perennial surface water ecosystems in the region. An explicit understanding of the benefits of maintaining instream flow for present and future generations requires the ability to assess and understand the important trade-offs implicit in water-resource management decisions. In this paper, we outline an approach for modeling and visualizing impacts of management decisions in terms of rare terrestrial and aquatic wildlife, vegetation, surface water, groundwater recharge, real-estate values and socio-environmental vulnerable communities. We identify and quantify ecosystem services and model the potential reduction in effluent discharge to the U.S. that is under scrutiny by binational water policy makers and of concern to stakeholders. Results of service provisioning are presented, and implications for policy makers and resource managers are discussed. This paper presents a robust ecosystem services assessment of multiple scenarios of watershed management as a means to discern eco-hydrological responses and consider their potential values for future generations living in the borderlands.

  15. Depressed Mood During Early to Middle Adolescence: A Bi-national Longitudinal Study of the Unique Impact of Family Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Adrian B; Mason, W Alex; Chmelka, Mary B; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Kim, Min Jung; Patton, George C; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2016-08-01

    Adolescent depressed mood is related to the development of subsequent mental health problems, and family problems have been linked to adolescent depression. Longitudinal research on adolescent depressed mood is needed to establish the unique impact of family problems independent of other potential drivers. This study tested the extent to which family conflict exacerbates depressed mood during adolescence, independent of changes in depressed mood over time, academic performance, bullying victimization, negative cognitive style, and gender. Students (13 years old) participated in a three-wave bi-national study (n = 961 from the State of Washington, United States, n = 981 from Victoria, Australia; 98 % retention, 51 % female in each sample). The model was cross-lagged and controlled for the autocorrelation of depressed mood, negative cognitive style, academic failure, and bullying victimization. Family conflict partially predicted changes in depressed mood independent of changes in depressed mood over time and the other controls. There was also evidence that family conflict and adolescent depressed mood are reciprocally related over time. The findings were closely replicated across the two samples. The study identifies potential points of intervention to interrupt the progression of depressed mood in early to middle adolescence. PMID:26861643

  16. A multitemporal (1979-2009) land-use/land-cover dataset of the binational Santa Cruz Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Trends derived from multitemporal land-cover data can be used to make informed land management decisions and to help managers model future change scenarios. We developed a multitemporal land-use/land-cover dataset for the binational Santa Cruz watershed of southern Arizona, United States, and northern Sonora, Mexico by creating a series of land-cover maps at decadal intervals (1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009) using Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper data and a classification and regression tree classifier. The classification model exploited phenological changes of different land-cover spectral signatures through the use of biseasonal imagery collected during the (dry) early summer and (wet) late summer following rains from the North American monsoon. Landsat images were corrected to remove atmospheric influences, and the data were converted from raw digital numbers to surface reflectance values. The 14-class land-cover classification scheme is based on the 2001 National Land Cover Database with a focus on "Developed" land-use classes and riverine "Forest" and "Wetlands" cover classes required for specific watershed models. The classification procedure included the creation of several image-derived and topographic variables, including digital elevation model derivatives, image variance, and multitemporal Kauth-Thomas transformations. The accuracy of the land-cover maps was assessed using a random-stratified sampling design, reference aerial photography, and digital imagery. This showed high accuracy results, with kappa values (the statistical measure of agreement between map and reference data) ranging from 0.80 to 0.85.

  17. One Shared Region and Two Different Change Patterns: Land Use Change in the Binational Californian Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Eaton-Gonzalez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Californian Floristic Province, ranging from Northern California, USA, to the northwestern portion of the state of Baja California, Mexico, is a region of great biological richness that has a high risk of loss of species due to the effect of human activities. The main stressor that threatens its biodiversity is the change in land use and vegetation cover, which severely impacts the environmental and socio-economic systems’ functioning, affecting the provision of environmental services including the maintenance of biodiversity. The Tijuana River Watershed (TRW is located within this floristic province. It has experienced rapid population growth during the last 50 years, demanding development of infrastructure in areas where native vegetation existed. As a binational watershed, it is an ideal area to study the processes involved in fragmentation and connectivity of natural environments, since both countries, while sharing the same environment, contrast greatly in their economic and social systems, which impose different pressures to these shared natural resources. Our research addresses change in vegetation cover and land use in the TRW, analyzing the changes and differences between Mexico and the United States. This analysis will be a basis to propose future management strategies for the conservation of ecological processes and biodiversity, according to the policies and actions for land management and conservation in both countries.

  18. Development of a high-resolution binational vegetation map of the Santa Cruz River riparian corridor and surrounding watershed, southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Norman, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the development of a binational vegetation map developed for the Santa Cruz Watershed, which straddles the southern border of Arizona and the northern border of Sonora, Mexico. The map was created as an environmental input to the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM) that is being created by the U.S. Geological Survey for the watershed. The SCWEPM is a map-based multicriteria evaluation tool that allows stakeholders to explore tradeoffs between valued ecosystem services at multiple scales within a participatory decision-making process. Maps related to vegetation type and are needed for use in modeling wildlife habitat and other ecosystem services. Although detailed vegetation maps existed for the U.S. side of the border, there was a lack of consistent data for the Santa Cruz Watershed in Mexico. We produced a binational vegetation classification of the Santa Cruz River riparian habitat and watershed vegetation based on NatureServe Terrestrial Ecological Systems (TES) units using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) modeling. Environmental layers used as predictor data were derived from a seasonal set of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (spring, summer, and fall) and from a 30-meter digital-elevation-model (DEM) grid. Because both sources of environmental data are seamless across the international border, they are particularly suited to this binational modeling effort. Training data were compiled from existing field data for the riparian corridor and data collected by the NM-GAP (New Mexico Gap Analysis Project) team for the original Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) modeling effort. Additional training data were collected from core areas of the SWReGAP classification itself, allowing the extrapolation of the SWReGAP mapping into the Mexican portion of the watershed without collecting additional training data.

  19. A Binational Overview of Reproductive Health Outcomes Among US Hispanic and Mexican Women in the Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. McDonald, PhD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The US–Mexico border region has 15 million residents and 300,000 births annually. Reproductive health concerns have been identified on both sides of the border, but comparable information about reproductive health is not available. The objective of this study was to compare reproductive health indicators among populations in this region. Methods We used 2009 US Hispanic and Mexican birth certificate data to compare births inside the border region, elsewhere within the border states, and in the United States and Mexico overall. We examined trends in total fertility and birth rates using birth data from 2000 through 2009 and intercensal population estimates. Results Among women in the border region, US women had more lifetime births than Mexican women in 2009 (2.69 births vs 2.15 births and throughout the decade. Birth rates in the group aged 15 to 19 years were high in both the US (73.8/1,000 and Mexican (86.7/1,000 border regions. Late or no prenatal care was nearly twice as prevalent in the border regions as in the nonborder regions of border states. Low birth weight and preterm and early-term birth were more prevalent in the US border than in the Mexican border region; US border rates were higher and Mexican rates were lower than their corresponding nonborder and national rates. We found some variations within border states. Conclusion These findings constitute the first population-based information on the reproductive health of the entire Hispanic US–Mexico border population. Evidence of disparities warrants exploration at state and local levels. Teen pregnancy and inadequate prenatal care are shared problems in US–Mexico border communities and suggest an area for binational cooperation.

  20. Nutrient delivery to Lake Winnipeg from the Red-Assiniboine River Basin – A binational application of the SPARROW model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoy, Glenn A; Jenkinson, R. Wayne; Robertson, Dale; Saad, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive phosphorus (TP) and nitrogen (TN) inputs from the Red–Assiniboine River Basin (RARB) have been linked to eutrophication of Lake Winnipeg; therefore, it is important for the management of water resources to understand where and from what sources these nutrients originate. The RARB straddles the Canada–United States border and includes portions of two provinces and three states. This study represents the first binationally focused application of SPAtially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models to estimate loads and sources of TP and TN by jurisdiction and basin at multiple spatial scales. Major hurdles overcome to develop these models included: (1) harmonization of geospatial data sets, particularly construction of a contiguous stream network; and (2) use of novel calibration steps to accommodate limitations in spatial variability across the model extent and in the number of calibration sites. Using nutrient inputs for a 2002 base year, a RARB TP SPARROW model was calibrated that included inputs from agriculture, forests and wetlands, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and stream channels, and a TN model was calibrated that included inputs from agriculture, WWTPs and atmospheric deposition. At the RARB outlet, downstream from Winnipeg, Manitoba, the majority of the delivered TP and TN came from the Red River Basin (90%), followed by the Upper Assiniboine River and Souris River basins. Agriculture was the single most important TP and TN source for each major basin, province and state. In general, stream channels (historically deposited nutrients and from bank erosion) were the second most important source of TP. Performance metrics for the RARB SPARROW model are similarly robust compared to other, larger US SPARROW models making it a potentially useful tool to address questions of where nutrients originate and their relative contributions to loads delivered to Lake Winnipeg.

  1. Proceedings of the Binational Conference on Libraries in California and Baja California (1st, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, January 13-14, 1984) = Memorias de la Primera Conferencia Binacional de Bibliotecas de las Californias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Marta Stiefel, Ed.; And Others

    This document includes the text of presentations given at the First Binational Conference on Libraries in California and Baja California, as well as minutes from four roundtables held at the conference. Following a prologue and a brief background on the conference, the following presentations are included: (1) "State Support for Public Libraries…

  2. Establishing an Ongoing Binational U.S.-Mexico Border Climate Diagnostic Summary: Developing a Prototype and Navigating the Institutional Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G.; Varady, R.; Morehouse, B.; Wilder, M.; Crawford, B.

    2007-05-01

    climate information or risk that the product of their efforts will end up as another seldom used box of digital information merchandise heaped on the loading dock of the Internet. This presentation describes progress to date in developing a collaborative, binational semi-operational product, obtaining funding, and taking the first steps to establish regional climate services for the U.S.-Mexico border region.

  3. Water First Aid Is Beneficial In Humans Post-Burn: Evidence from a Bi-National Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M Wood

    Full Text Available Reported first aid application, frequency and practices around the world vary greatly. Based primarily on animal and observational studies, first aid after a burn injury is considered to be integral in reducing scar and infection, and the need for surgery. The current recommendation for optimum first aid after burn is water cooling for 20 minutes within three hours. However, compliance with this guideline is reported as poor to moderate at best and evidence exists to suggest that overcooling can be detrimental. This prospective cohort study of a bi-national burn patient registry examined data collected between 2009 and 2012. The aim of the study was to quantify the magnitude of effects of water cooling first aid after burn on indicators of burn severity in a large human cohort.The data for the analysis was provided by the Burn Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ. The application of first aid cooling prior to admission to a dedicated burn service, was analysed for its influence on four outcomes related to injury severity. The patient related outcomes were whether graft surgery occurred, and death while the health system (cost outcomes included total hospital length of stay and admission to ICU. Robust regression analysis using bootstrapped estimation adjusted using a propensity score was used to control for confounding and to estimate the strength of association with first aid. Dose-response relationships were examined to determine associations with duration of first aid. The influence of covariates on the impact of first aid was assessed.Cooling was provided before Burn Centre admission for 68% of patients, with at least twenty minutes duration for 46%. The results indicated a reduction in burn injury severity associated with first aid. Patients probability for graft surgery fell by 0.070 from 0.537 (13% reduction (p = 0.014. The probability for ICU admission fell by 0.084 from 0.175 (48% reduction (p<0.001 and hospital length of stay

  4. Binational school-based monitoring of traffic-related air pollutants in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (México).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raysoni, Amit U; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Garcia, Jośe Humberto; Holguin, Fernando; Luèvano, Silvia Flores; Li, Wen-Whai

    2011-10-01

    Paired indoor and outdoor concentrations of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM), PM2.5 reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) were determined for sixteen weeks in 2008 at four elementary schools (two in high and two in low traffic density zones) in a U.S.-Mexico border community to aid a binational health effects study. Strong spatial heterogeneity was observed for all outdoor pollutant concentrations. Concentrations of all pollutants, except coarse PM, were higher in high traffic zones than in the respective low traffic zones. Black carbon and NO(2) appear to be better traffic indicators than fine PM. Indoor air pollution was found to be well associated with outdoor air pollution, although differences existed due to uncontrollable factors involving student activities and building/ventilation configurations. Results of this study indicate substantial spatial variability of pollutants in the region, suggesting that children's exposures to these pollutants vary based on the location of their school.

  5. Binational school-based monitoring of traffic-related air pollutants in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paired indoor and outdoor concentrations of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM), PM2.5 reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were determined for sixteen weeks in 2008 at four elementary schools (two in high and two in low traffic density zones) in a U.S.-Mexico border community to aid a binational health effects study. Strong spatial heterogeneity was observed for all outdoor pollutant concentrations. Concentrations of all pollutants, except coarse PM, were higher in high traffic zones than in the respective low traffic zones. Black carbon and NO2 appear to be better traffic indicators than fine PM. Indoor air pollution was found to be well associated with outdoor air pollution, although differences existed due to uncontrollable factors involving student activities and building/ventilation configurations. Results of this study indicate substantial spatial variability of pollutants in the region, suggesting that children's exposures to these pollutants vary based on the location of their school. - Highlights: → First binational investigation characterizing traffic air pollutants at four schools in El Paso, USA and Cd. Juarez, Mexico. → Paired in-outdoor sampling of PM2.5, PM10-2.5, reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and NO2 for 16 weeks in 2008 at each school. → Two schools (one in each city) were located in high traffic density areas and the other two in areas of low traffic density. Usage of spatially resolved environmental indictors of traffic pollutants in a range of exposure settings. → Substantial intra-urban spatial variability in pollutant concentrations observed between and within the two cities. - Spatial variability in traffic-mediated pollutant concentrations can exist at the intra-urban level and ambient monitoring sites may not accurately represent these concentration gradients.

  6. Binational school-based monitoring of traffic-related air pollutants in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raysoni, Amit U., E-mail: auraysoni@miners.utep.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Ph.D. Program, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt [Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Garcia, Jose Humberto [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Ciudad Juarez, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua 32470 (Mexico); Holguin, Fernando [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Flores Luevano, Silvia [Interdisciplinary Health Science Ph.D. Program, College of Health Sciences, The University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Li, Wen-Whai [Environmental Science and Engineering Ph.D. Program, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Paired indoor and outdoor concentrations of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM), PM2.5 reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) were determined for sixteen weeks in 2008 at four elementary schools (two in high and two in low traffic density zones) in a U.S.-Mexico border community to aid a binational health effects study. Strong spatial heterogeneity was observed for all outdoor pollutant concentrations. Concentrations of all pollutants, except coarse PM, were higher in high traffic zones than in the respective low traffic zones. Black carbon and NO{sub 2} appear to be better traffic indicators than fine PM. Indoor air pollution was found to be well associated with outdoor air pollution, although differences existed due to uncontrollable factors involving student activities and building/ventilation configurations. Results of this study indicate substantial spatial variability of pollutants in the region, suggesting that children's exposures to these pollutants vary based on the location of their school. - Highlights: > First binational investigation characterizing traffic air pollutants at four schools in El Paso, USA and Cd. Juarez, Mexico. > Paired in-outdoor sampling of PM{sub 2.5}, PM{sub 10-2.5}, reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and NO{sub 2} for 16 weeks in 2008 at each school. > Two schools (one in each city) were located in high traffic density areas and the other two in areas of low traffic density. > Usage of spatially resolved environmental indictors of traffic pollutants in a range of exposure settings. > Substantial intra-urban spatial variability in pollutant concentrations observed between and within the two cities. - Spatial variability in traffic-mediated pollutant concentrations can exist at the intra-urban level and ambient monitoring sites may not accurately represent these concentration gradients.

  7. Volcano-hazards Education for Emergency Officials Through Study Trip Learning—The 2013 Colombia-USA Bi-national Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedger, C. L.; Ewert, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    A central tenant of hazard communication is that colleagues with principal responsibilities for emergency planning and response sustain a 'long-term conversation' that builds trust, and increases understanding of hazards and successful protocols. This requires well maintained partnerships among a broad spectrum of officials who are knowledgeable about volcano hazards; credible within their communities; and who have personal and professional stake in their community's safety. It can require that volcano scientists facilitate learning opportunities for partners in emergency management who have little or no familiarity with eruption response. Scientists and officials from Colombia and the Cascades region of the United States recognized that although separated by geographic and cultural distance, their communities faced similar hazards from lahars. For the purpose of sharing best practices, the 2013 Colombia-USA Bi-national Exchange was organized by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Washington Emergency Management Division, with support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). Nine Colombian emergency officials and scientists visited the U.S. to observe emergency response planning and protocols and to view the scale of a potential lahar disaster at Mount Rainier. Ten U.S. delegates visited Colombia to absorb best practices developed after the catastrophic 1985 eruption and lahars at Nevado del Ruiz. They observed the devastation and spoke with survivors, first responders, and emergency managers responsible for post-disaster recovery efforts. Delegates returned to their nations energized and with improved knowledge about volcanic crises and effective mitigation and response. In the U.S., trainings, hazard signage, evacuation routes and assembly points, and community websites have gained momentum. Colombian officials gained a deeper appreciation of and a renewed commitment to response planning, education, and disaster preparedness.

  8. Don't let cacto blast us: Development of a bi-national plan to stop the spread of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    infestations; initiated a multimedia (newspaper, radio and TV) public awareness programme; conducted economic and pathway risk analyses; and begun a field survey of all cactus growing areas. Results to date confirm that the cactus moth is not yet in Mexico. Discussions are now on-going between the USA and Mexico to establish a memorandum of understanding that would provide joint funding for a bi-national programme to stop the spread of the cactus moth in North America. (author)

  9. Air quality in selected binational Great Lakes urban regions (Detroit-Windsor, Port-Huron-Sarnia, and Sault Ste. Marie) : a report from the International Air Quality Advisory Board to the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    The International Joint Commission reviewed the issues, control programs, and binational efforts currently underway on transboundary air quality in the Detroit-Windsor, Port Huron-Sarnia, and Sault Ste. Marie (Michigan and Ontario) corridors. Data on ambient concentrations of ozone, particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and total reduced sulphur, was analyzed along with the concentrations and emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants. The analysis revealed that in all three regions, and with some frequency, smog reaches levels that could affect the well being of the entire population, with the most negative impacts on the young and the elderly. Smog alerts are more frequent for the two southerly regions, while the northern region experiences a higher annual average ozone concentration. Regional and local sources of smog have been identified. The data shows that since 1991, when hazardous air pollutants first began to be tracked by the Commission, emissions of several pollutants have declined. The concentrations of hazardous air pollutants are more strongly associated with local sources. The differences between the various guidelines and standards in effect in the jurisdictions make it difficult to provide additional assessment of the health impact of the hazardous air pollutants. It was recommended that all levels of government should provide a more comprehensive, current and joint overview of air quality in the three regions. The development of an appropriate bilateral control strategy should be a priority to achieve significant reductions in regional and local concentrations of pollutants. It was suggested that the Commission should facilitate the communication among the parties and jurisdictions. The continued development of a mechanism to compare air quality standards and guidelines in transboundary airsheds was also proposed. It was also recommended that the outcomes of a study underway in 10 cities in the United States on urban hazardous

  10. D’une problématique locale-frontalière à un enjeu binational : le cas de la contrebande transfrontalière de carburants entre la Colombie et le Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Andrade Benitez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose d’appréhender le processus d’inscription de la question de la contrebande transfrontalière de carburants dans l’agenda d’intégration binational entre la Colombie et le Venezuela. Peu de travaux s’intéressent à ce sujet qui est habituellement abordé dans une perspective de politique intérieure et non pas extérieure. Notre étude s’inscrit dans le cadre théorique de la « mise en agenda » traitée par Cobb et Elders (1983 et des travaux de Jones et Baumgartner (2005 sur l’évolution de l’agenda politique après l’introduction de nouveaux enjeux. Elle vise à comprendre la manière dont la contrebande de carburants trouve une place dans l’agenda d’intégration énergétique bilatéral et devient un enjeu de coopération entre les deux pays. Les effets économiques de la contrebande ainsi que ses conséquences sur la sécurité de la frontière ont été des facteurs déterminants dans la signature d’un accord entre les deux pays. Les agences énergétiques de Colombie et du Venezuela ont été les acteurs privilégiés du processus d’inscription du problème dans l’agenda d’intégration entre les deux pays.This article analyzes the gradual inclusion of the illegal oil trade in the binational integration agenda between Venezuela and Colombia. Few scholars have focused on this question, which is generally examined through the prism of domestic –not foreign– policy. This study borrows from Cobb and Elders’ (1983 agenda setting theory and its development by Jones and Baumgartner (2005 on the evolution of political agendas following the incorporation of new issues. The purpose is to understand the ways in which illegal oil trade found its place in the bilateral energy integration agenda and became the subject of cooperation between Venezuela and Colombia. The economic effects of this illegal traffic along with its consequences on border security were crucial factors in the signing of a

  11. Developing a Binational Geography Curriculum in Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Alex; Araya, Fabian; Cortés, Ximena; Ullestad, Mollie

    2015-01-01

    In a world with an ever-increasing population, diminishing natural resources, and greater levels of consumption, sustainability has emerged as a critical concept and it encompasses everything from international policy to lifestyle changes to "green" technologies. While various aspects of sustainability have been adopted by schools and…

  12. Proceedings of the 24. National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services and 7. Binational seminar on energy saving [Selected Papers]; 24. Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios y 7. Seminario binacional de ahorro de energia. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document contains the technical briefings of the 24. National Seminar on the rational use of energy, and exhibition of the equipment and services and the 7. Binational seminar on energy saving, organized by the Asociacion de Profesionistas y Tecnicos en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, from November 9 to 11, 2005. This seminar dealt with subjects such as: electrical energy saving, energy distribution, solar energy, energy saving in compressed air, biomass, administration and control of the demand of the electrical energy, bioclimatic architecture, use of the compressed natural gas, renewable energy, co-generation, qualification and consultancy for the intelligent use of the energy in PyMES. [Spanish] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 24 Seminario Nacional sobre el uso racional de energia, y exposicion de los equipos y servicios y el 7 Seminario binacional de ahorro de energia, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, del 9 al 11 de noviembre del 2005. Este seminario trato temas tales como: ahorro de energia electrica, distribucion de la energia, energia solar, ahorro de energia en aire comprimido, biomasa, administracion y control de la demanda de la energia electrica, arquitectura bioclimatica, uso del gas natural comprimido, energia renovable, cogeneracion, capacitacion y consultoria para el uso inteligente de la energia en las Pymes.

  13. Science Anxiety, Science Attitudes, and Constructivism: A Binational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry

    2013-08-01

    Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.

  14. [Colombian migration to the Venezuelan agrarian sector: a binational context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J; Gomez, A

    1980-01-01

    The authors attempt to determine the reasons for the chronic national labor shortage in the Venezuelan agrarian sector and for the large-scale emigration of Colombians to work in Venezuelan agriculture. The income of agricultural wage earners and the conditions of labor force reproduction in Venezuela are discussed as factors contributing to the labor shortage. With reference to Colombia, the rapid growth of international commerce and the policy of limiting wages are suggested as factors which contribute to emigration PMID:12338618

  15. Salmonella contamination during production of cantaloupe: a binational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A; Mercado, I; Lucia, L M; Martínez-Ruiz, Y; Ponce de León, J; Murano, E A; Acuff, G R

    2004-04-01

    Six cantaloupe farms and packing plants in South Texas (950 cantaloupe, 140 water, and 45 environmental samples), including the Rio Grande Valley area, and three farms in Colima State, Mexico (300 cantaloupe, 45 water, and 15 environmental samples), were sampled to evaluate cantaloupe contamination with Salmonella and Escherichia coli during production and processing. Samples collected from external surfaces of cantaloupes, water, and the environments of packing sheds on cantaloupe farms were examined for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli. Of a total of 1,735 samples collected, 31 (1.8%) tested positive for Salmonella. Fifteen Salmonella serotypes were isolated from samples collected in Texas, and nine from samples collected in Colima. Two serotypes (Poona and Oranienburg) that have been associated with three large Salmonella outbreaks in the United States and Canada linked to the consumption of contaminated cantaloupe were found in water samples collected at four farms (three from the United States). Susceptibility of Salmonella isolates to 10 antimicrobials was evaluated by disk diffusion. Eighty-eight percent of the isolates from the United States and Mexico were pansusceptible to the antimicrobials tested; eight isolates from the United States demonstrated an intermediate susceptibility to streptomycin and only two isolates were resistant to the same antimicrobial. From Mexico, four isolates showed an intermediate susceptibility to streptomycin and one isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid and streptomycin. Repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis of Salmonella isolates helped to trace potential sources of Salmonella contamination in source water and in subsequent water samples obtained after the filtration systems of U.S. and Mexican cantaloupe farms. No differences could be seen between the levels of Salmonella contamination in melons from both countries.

  16. Salmonella contamination during production of cantaloupe: a binational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A; Mercado, I; Lucia, L M; Martínez-Ruiz, Y; Ponce de León, J; Murano, E A; Acuff, G R

    2004-04-01

    Six cantaloupe farms and packing plants in South Texas (950 cantaloupe, 140 water, and 45 environmental samples), including the Rio Grande Valley area, and three farms in Colima State, Mexico (300 cantaloupe, 45 water, and 15 environmental samples), were sampled to evaluate cantaloupe contamination with Salmonella and Escherichia coli during production and processing. Samples collected from external surfaces of cantaloupes, water, and the environments of packing sheds on cantaloupe farms were examined for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli. Of a total of 1,735 samples collected, 31 (1.8%) tested positive for Salmonella. Fifteen Salmonella serotypes were isolated from samples collected in Texas, and nine from samples collected in Colima. Two serotypes (Poona and Oranienburg) that have been associated with three large Salmonella outbreaks in the United States and Canada linked to the consumption of contaminated cantaloupe were found in water samples collected at four farms (three from the United States). Susceptibility of Salmonella isolates to 10 antimicrobials was evaluated by disk diffusion. Eighty-eight percent of the isolates from the United States and Mexico were pansusceptible to the antimicrobials tested; eight isolates from the United States demonstrated an intermediate susceptibility to streptomycin and only two isolates were resistant to the same antimicrobial. From Mexico, four isolates showed an intermediate susceptibility to streptomycin and one isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid and streptomycin. Repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis of Salmonella isolates helped to trace potential sources of Salmonella contamination in source water and in subsequent water samples obtained after the filtration systems of U.S. and Mexican cantaloupe farms. No differences could be seen between the levels of Salmonella contamination in melons from both countries. PMID:15083723

  17. Innovation in Sustainable Products: Cross-Cultural Analysis Of Bi-National Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Cleber José Cunha Dutra; Adriana Avelino Mazza; Leonardo Mendes Lacerda de Menezes

    2014-01-01

    Innovation has been required as a vital asset for organizational survival in many areas, especially in the sustainability organizational field of concerns. Changes in Brazilian consumers’ consumption are perceived from the growing demand for environmentally-friendly products and services which are pressuring companies to achieve environmental efficiency. Tools like Cleaner Production, Sustainable Supply-Chain Management, and Ecodesign are essential to help firms achieve this goal. However, th...

  18. Professional Development across Borders: The Promise of U.S.-Mexico Binational Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Adam

    2014-01-01

    As the school year gave way to summer vacation, a group of 11 Nebraska educators embarked on a 16-day professional development journey to the western Mexico city of Guadalajara. During a two week stay in Mexico, these educators--who were made up of in-service and pre-service teachers and school support personnel--engaged in a structured program of…

  19. 78 FR 45181 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... -- 2011 New Shipper Antidumping Administrative Review of Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from Mexico... February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review in this matter was requested and terminated pursuant...

  20. 76 FR 77777 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686... Panel Review of the U.S. International Trade Commission's final determination of Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from Mexico was filed by the Government of Mexico (Secretariat File No....

  1. Weight perceptions among overweight and obese women: a US-Mexico binational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Ritterman-Weintraub, Miranda L; Fernald, Lia C H; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2011-12-01

    We examined actual and perceived weight in nationally representative cohorts of adults in Mexico (n = 9,527) and the United States (n = 855) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (waves 2001-2006) and Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (2006). Actual weight was assessed by health technicians using BMI and perceived weight was collected through self-report. The prevalence of overweight or obesity (OO) in Mexican women was 72% and in Mexican-American women was 71%. OO Mexican-American women were more likely than OO Mexican women to label themselves as "overweight" (86% vs. 64%, P women from both populations, those who had been told by a health provider that they were OO were much more likely to perceive themselves as such (odds ratio = 5.3; 95% confidence intervals: 3.8-7.3). Significantly fewer OO women in Mexico than in the United States (13% vs. 42%, P Mexico, and low screening by health providers may be an important contributor to poor weight control in both countries.

  2. Federal law enforcement in bi-national perspective: the United States FBI and the Mexican PFM

    OpenAIRE

    Fuerte, Erik M.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Mexico’s Federal Ministerial Police (PFM) agency was structured similar to the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Although there have been significant reforms within the PFM, it has been ineffective at preventing criminals from orchestrating drug trafficking and organized crime. Institutional law enforcement policies drive the quality of police officers in an agency, and the policies in Mexico’s PFM agency have not be...

  3. Migration selection, protection, and acculturation in health: a binational perspective on older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosmena, Fernando; Wong, Rebeca; Palloni, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    In this article, we test for four potential explanations of the Hispanic Health Paradox (HHP): the "salmon bias," emigration selection, and sociocultural protection originating in either destination or sending country. To reduce biases related to attrition by return migration typical of most U.S.-based surveys, we combine data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study in Mexico and the U.S. National Health Interview Survey to compare self-reported diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, obesity, and self-rated health among Mexican-born men ages 50 and older according to their previous U.S. migration experience, and U.S.-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. We also use height, a measure of health during childhood, to bolster some of our tests. We find an immigrant advantage relative to non-Hispanic whites in hypertension and, to a lesser extent, obesity. We find evidence consistent with emigration selection and the salmon bias in height, hypertension, and self-rated health among immigrants with less than 15 years of experience in the United States; we do not find conclusive evidence consistent with sociocultural protection mechanisms. Finally, we illustrate that although ignoring return migrants when testing for the HHP and its mechanisms, as well as for the association between U.S. experience and health, exaggerates these associations, they are not fully driven by return migration-related attrition.

  4. Occupational Channels for Mexican Migration: New Destination Formation in a Binational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew; Painter, Matthew, II

    2011-01-01

    In the 1990s, Mexican immigration dispersed spatially, leading to the emergence of many "new destinations," in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States. Previous studies constrain the scope of the analysis to the United States, limiting our understanding of how new destinations are formed. We place new destination formation into a binational…

  5. Exploring Binational Educational Issues: A Report from the Border Colloquy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace-Matluck, Betty; Boethel, Martha

    "La frontera" is the unique, highly interdependent region spanning the boundary between the United States and Mexico. As this region develops into a zone of cooperation, it must address such issues as poverty and unemployment on both sides of the border, differing educational requirements and structures, continuing migration of Mexican students to…

  6. Intercultural Education in Italy and in the United States: the Results of a Binational Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Manuela CONTINI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consistency and the complexity of the migration fluxes towards Italy, their degree of stabilization, as well as the increase of migration families and the presence of first and second generations in the Italian scholastic system, require new educational policies and choices on behalf of the decision makers. The characteristics and the specificity of the migration fluxes and of the different persons and families that are oriented towards Italy, involve educational strategies that are able to combine needs and cultural models that are quite articulate. The United States, throughout its history, has also experienced similar societal transformations which continue to be the driving force to the creation of new policies that can respond to a new multicultural society. The paper presents a thorough analysis on the topics of the new educational needs expressed by new generations that live and make experiences in multi-ethnic social and scholastic contexts. Such a theme is framed within the wider context of globalization processes, of the widening of the European Union, of the presence on the territory of the Union of people and citizens originally immigrated and the questions on belonging and social cohesion. In specific, the study discuss the school policies for intercultural integration adopted in Italy and with reference to educational policies implemented in other European countries and in bilingual schools in the United States: welcoming practices for immigrant students in the schools; relationship between immigrant families and schools; practices of learning/teaching Italian as second language; promoting multilinguism approach; promoting social relation between students in the classroom, to prevent discrimination; team work between teachers; school networks; network between schools and local entities; intercultural education.

  7. Immigration and the Family Circumstances of Mexican-Origin Children: A Binational Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Landale, Nancy S.; Oropesa, R.S.; Noah, Aggie J.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the birth cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (n = 1,200) and the Mexican Family Life Survey (n = 1,013), this study investigated the living arrangements of Mexican-origin preschool children. The analysis examined children’s family circumstances in both sending and receiving countries, used longitudinal data to capture family transitions, and considered the intersection between nuclear and extended family structures. Between ages 0–1 and 4–5, Mexican children of i...

  8. Innovation in Sustainable Products: Cross-Cultural Analysis Of Bi-National Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber José Cunha Dutra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovation has been required as a vital asset for organizational survival in many areas, especially in the sustainability organizational field of concerns. Changes in Brazilian consumers’ consumption are perceived from the growing demand for environmentally-friendly products and services which are pressuring companies to achieve environmental efficiency. Tools like Cleaner Production, Sustainable Supply-Chain Management, and Ecodesign are essential to help firms achieve this goal. However, these tools require integration between different functions in a company, demanding that members with different expertise work together as a team. Based on a long tradition of collaboration, Germany is a potential partner for Brazil, combining expertise in the development of innovations aimed at more sustainable products. In today’s global environment, transnational teams should become the most effective teams in an organization but, because of the potential for miscommunication and conflict, the management of these teams needs special attention. Cultural differences between German and Brazilian members of work teams represent risks/advantages for the management of process of innovative products development. The paper draws on previously reviewed studies to ground an analysis of cultural dimensions and national characters, within Brazilian-German teams. In essence, this study is an essay with the main aim to open perspectives for further research and to support organizations in their sustainable management practices.

  9. 78 FR 5778 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the Department of Commerce's final determination of Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils from Mexico (Secretariat File No....

  10. 78 FR 11627 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the Department of Commerce's final determination of Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils from Mexico (Secretariat File No....

  11. 78 FR 17639 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the Department of Commerce's final determination of Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils from Mexico (Secretariat File No....

  12. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the Department of Commerce's final determination of Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils from Mexico (Secretariat File No....

  13. 78 FR 10600 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the Department of Commerce's final determination of Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils from Mexico (Secretariat File No....

  14. Online Physics Lab Exercises--A Binational Study on the Transfer of Teaching Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theyßen, Heike; Struzyna, Sarah; Mylott, Elliot; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and the results of a comparative study that evaluated the success of a transfer of an online-teaching resource between two universities, one in Germany and one in the USA. The teaching resource is an online physics lab that has been used in the physics education of medical students in Germany since 2003. The…

  15. Bi-national Social Networks and Assimilation: A Test of the Importance of Transnationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Mouw, Ted; Chavez, Sergio; Edelblute, Heather; Verdery, Ashton

    2014-01-01

    While the concept of transnationalism has gained widespread popularity among scholars as a way to describe immigrants’ long-term maintenance of cross-border ties to their origin communities, critics have argued that the overall proportion of immigrants who engage in transnational behavior is low and that, as a result, transnationalism has little sustained effect on the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation. In this paper, we argue that a key shortcoming in the current empirical deb...

  16. Diverging Policy Approaches to Diversity in a Bi-National Country: The Case of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Armony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Canada’s policy approach to immigration- and minority-related diversity in light of its federal structure and the contrast between the predominantly French-language province of Québec and the mainly English-speaking rest of the country, with a particular focus on the province of Ontario. While the two parts of the country share many common features, some contrasts are quite significant. Canada is bilingual at the federal level, but French is Québec’s only official language and the Charter of the French Language, which regulates the use of language in many areas of social life, has constitutional status in that province. A long-standing agreement lets Québec handle the selection of its own immigrants with a similar system than the one used by the federal government for Ontario and other provinces, but with different weighing assigned to language skills. Also, religious diversity is treated differently in the two Canadian provinces, on account of diverging views on secularism, even if both share a public commitment to the protection of minorities. Likewise, there is a difference in their policy approaches regarding the promotion of cultural expressions and the arts, partly because of the French-speaking people’s nationalist outlook. In sum, Canada’s case demonstrates that a country can embrace more than a single approach to diversity. Québec has taken a different path and, in a way, showcases a “third way” between North American multiculturalism and European-like integrationism.

  17. Immigration and the Family Circumstances of Mexican-Origin Children: A Binational Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landale, Nancy S; Oropesa, R S; Noah, Aggie J

    2014-02-01

    Using data from the birth cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (n = 1,200) and the Mexican Family Life Survey (n = 1,013), this study investigated the living arrangements of Mexican-origin preschool children. The analysis examined children's family circumstances in both sending and receiving countries, used longitudinal data to capture family transitions, and considered the intersection between nuclear and extended family structures. Between ages 0-1 and 4-5, Mexican children of immigrants experienced significantly more family instability than children in Mexico. They were more likely to transition from 2-parent to single-parent families and from extended family households to simple households. There were fewer differences between U.S. children with immigrant versus native parents, but the higher level of single parenthood among children of natives at ages 0-1 and the greater share making transitions from a 2-parent to a single-parent family suggest ongoing erosion of children's family support across generations in the United States. PMID:25228783

  18. 75 FR 20567 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... adjustments to the U.S. indirect selling expense ratio are not in accordance with law, the Panel remands this matter back to Commerce to re-calculate the indirect selling expense ratio in a manner not inconsistent...''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel...

  19. 76 FR 56156 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ...''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review...) Recalculate Mexinox's dumping margins without zeroing, and (2) to recalculate the indirect selling expense ratio (ISE) in a manner not inconsistent with the panel's opinion and affirming...

  20. Unrest of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex: A binational Ecuador - Colombia effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Gomez, D.; Torres, R.; Cadena, O.; Mothes, P. A.; Anzieta, J. C.; Pacheco, D. A.; Bernard, B.; Acero, W.; Hidalgo, S.; Enriquez, W.; Cordova, A.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing seismic activity at the area of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located at the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto OVSP, a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area and more than 100.000 events are recorded since November 2013. The largest and more recent swarm has a daily average of 676 events between March and June 2014. Currently a seismic network of 8 seismic stations (5 in the Colombian and 3 in Ecuadorean side) are deployed in this area. Epicenters of more than 315 seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0 and 10 or more phases are located in an area 1-4 km south of Chiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most of events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Nine events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 and the largest event occurred on April 30. 2014 with a local magnitude of 4.7 and inverse-transcurrent component focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. Events with large magnitudes (above 3.0) show a very long-period component. Hot spring and deformation measurements also show signals of volcanic unrest.

  1. Un Projet d'actions educatives binational? Une pratique de communication interculturelle liee a l'amenagement de nouveaux espaces educatifs (A Binational Educational Action Project? An Exercise in Intercultural Communication Tied to the Preparation of New Educational Spaces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alix, Christian; Petit, Rene

    1983-01-01

    A program involving one French and two German secondary schools in an interdisciplinary program featuring a bicultural teaching team is described and a project focusing on habitat and lifestyle is used for illustration. Issues of program administration and coordination are also discussed. (MSE)

  2. Binational Dengue Outbreak Along the United States-Mexico Border - Yuma County, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson M; Lopez, Benito; Adams, Laura; Gálvez, Francisco Javier Navarro; Núñez, Alfredo Sánchez; Santillán, Nubia Astrid Hernández; Plante, Lydia; Hemme, Ryan R; Casal, Mariana; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Acevedo, Veronica; Ernst, Kacey; Hayden, Mary; Waterman, Steve; Gomez, Diana; Sharp, Tyler M; Komatsu, Kenneth K

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is an acute febrile illness caused by any of four dengue virus types (DENV-1-4). DENVs are transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes (1) and are endemic throughout the tropics (2). In 2010, an estimated 390 million DENV infections occurred worldwide (2). During 2007-2013, a total of three to 10 dengue cases were reported annually in Arizona and all were travel-associated. During September-December 2014, coincident with a dengue outbreak in Sonora, Mexico, 93 travel-associated dengue cases were reported in Arizona residents; 70 (75%) cases were among residents of Yuma County, which borders San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora, Mexico. San Luis Río Colorado reported its first case of locally acquired dengue in September 2014. To investigate the temporal relationship of the dengue outbreaks in Yuma County and San Luis Río Colorado and compare patient characteristics and signs and symptoms, passive surveillance data from both locations were analyzed. In addition, household-based cluster investigations were conducted near the residences of reported dengue cases in Yuma County to identify unreported cases and assess risk for local transmission. Surveillance data identified 52 locally acquired cases (21% hospitalized) in San Luis Río Colorado and 70 travel-associated cases (66% hospitalized) in Yuma County with illness onset during September-December 2014. Among 194 persons who participated in the cluster investigations in Yuma County, 152 (78%) traveled to Mexico at least monthly during the preceding 3 months. Four (2%) of 161 Yuma County residents who provided serum samples for diagnostic testing during cluster investigations had detectable DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM); one reported a recent febrile illness, and all four had traveled to Mexico during the preceding 3 months. Entomologic assessments among 105 households revealed 24 water containers per 100 houses colonized by Ae. aegypti. Frequent travel to Mexico and Ae. aegypti colonization indicate risk for local transmission of DENV in Yuma County. Public health officials in Sonora and Arizona should continue to collaborate on dengue surveillance and educate the public regarding mosquito abatement and avoidance practices. Clinicians evaluating patients from the U.S.-Mexico border region should consider dengue in patients with acute febrile illness and report suspected cases to public health authorities. PMID:27196619

  3. Binational Dengue Outbreak Along the United States-Mexico Border - Yuma County, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson M; Lopez, Benito; Adams, Laura; Gálvez, Francisco Javier Navarro; Núñez, Alfredo Sánchez; Santillán, Nubia Astrid Hernández; Plante, Lydia; Hemme, Ryan R; Casal, Mariana; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Acevedo, Veronica; Ernst, Kacey; Hayden, Mary; Waterman, Steve; Gomez, Diana; Sharp, Tyler M; Komatsu, Kenneth K

    2016-05-20

    Dengue is an acute febrile illness caused by any of four dengue virus types (DENV-1-4). DENVs are transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes (1) and are endemic throughout the tropics (2). In 2010, an estimated 390 million DENV infections occurred worldwide (2). During 2007-2013, a total of three to 10 dengue cases were reported annually in Arizona and all were travel-associated. During September-December 2014, coincident with a dengue outbreak in Sonora, Mexico, 93 travel-associated dengue cases were reported in Arizona residents; 70 (75%) cases were among residents of Yuma County, which borders San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora, Mexico. San Luis Río Colorado reported its first case of locally acquired dengue in September 2014. To investigate the temporal relationship of the dengue outbreaks in Yuma County and San Luis Río Colorado and compare patient characteristics and signs and symptoms, passive surveillance data from both locations were analyzed. In addition, household-based cluster investigations were conducted near the residences of reported dengue cases in Yuma County to identify unreported cases and assess risk for local transmission. Surveillance data identified 52 locally acquired cases (21% hospitalized) in San Luis Río Colorado and 70 travel-associated cases (66% hospitalized) in Yuma County with illness onset during September-December 2014. Among 194 persons who participated in the cluster investigations in Yuma County, 152 (78%) traveled to Mexico at least monthly during the preceding 3 months. Four (2%) of 161 Yuma County residents who provided serum samples for diagnostic testing during cluster investigations had detectable DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM); one reported a recent febrile illness, and all four had traveled to Mexico during the preceding 3 months. Entomologic assessments among 105 households revealed 24 water containers per 100 houses colonized by Ae. aegypti. Frequent travel to Mexico and Ae. aegypti colonization indicate risk for local transmission of DENV in Yuma County. Public health officials in Sonora and Arizona should continue to collaborate on dengue surveillance and educate the public regarding mosquito abatement and avoidance practices. Clinicians evaluating patients from the U.S.-Mexico border region should consider dengue in patients with acute febrile illness and report suspected cases to public health authorities.

  4. and Disaster: A Bi-National Case Study of Ciudad Acuña, Coahuila and Del Rio, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Tiefenbacher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta la investigación, vulnerabilidad y riesgo de diluvio en dos comunidades de la zona fronteriza. El modelo para evaluar la debilidad se aplica a EE.UU. y las comunidades de Del Río y Ciudad Acuña para dar cuenta de la distribución espacial de las características de las personas, lugares, barrios y sistemas que infl uyen en los impactos de eventos de diluvio que ocurren a lo largo del Río Grande / Río Bravo. Los datos espaciales de EE.UU. y los censos en México de 2000 se combinan al grupo del bloque y Área Geográfi ca Estadística Básica (AGEB para determinar las balanzas que evalúen el descriptor demográfi co y otro de las áreas afectadas por los diluvios. Se resaltan las diferencias entre los modelos resultantes de vulnerabilidades a la distribución de riesgo de diluvio en las dos ciudades y se discuten las implicaciones de estos modelos.

  5. The management of stakeholder and public participation at US and binational AOCs: Overcoming challenges and looking beyond delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although stakeholder and public participation has been important throughout the history of the AOC program, the process of involving stakeholders in preparing and implementing RAPs—along with the challenges involved with this process—has varied both historically and g...

  6. Falling in love with(in) Europe: European bi-national love relationships, European identification and transnational solidarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mol, C.; de Valk, H.A.G.; van Wissen, L.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Love is often a key factor in migration decisions. Partner relationships and union formation have also been identified as forming an intrinsic part of intra-European migration. Nevertheless, empirical research into intra-European love migration remains rather scarce. In this paper, we focus on the o

  7. Goodenough Spring, Texas, USA: Discharge and water chemistry of a large spring deeply submerged under the binational Amistad Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Ray H.; Tatum, Gregg S.; Gault, Mike; Groeger, Alan W.

    2009-06-01

    Goodenough Spring (Texas, USA) is a large spring near the border of the American state of Texas and the Mexican state of Coahuila, discharging into the international Amistad Reservoir on the river Rio Grande (Rio Bravo). Discharge was routinely measured from 1928 until 1968 to partition the flow of the river between the two countries in accordance with water-use treaties. Samples were analyzed for water-quality parameters in 1967-1968 prior to inundation under 45 m of Amistad Reservoir in 1968. Subsequently, discharge has been estimated indirectly by the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC). For the first direct measurements of the spring in 37 years, velocity and cross-sectional measurements were made and water samples collected in the summer of 2005 using advanced self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) techniques. Spring discharge was calculated at 2.03 m3 s-1, approximately one-half of the historical mean of 3.94 m3 s-1. In situ and laboratory analyses of samples for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, alkalinity, nitrate-nitrogen, dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, fluoride, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron showed the water quality to be very good for human consumption and crop irrigation. Measurement values are relatively unchanged from those reported 37 years prior.

  8. Binational Studies Leading to an Ecosystems-based Management Strategy for Common Thresher Shark in the Southern California Bight (SCB).

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Jeffrey B.; Cartamil, Daniel P.

    2010-01-01

    Survey of the Mexican SCB Sector Artisanal and Commercial Shark Fisheries Hypotheses: a) Common thresher sharks represent a substantial portion of the catch of artisanal and commercial shark fisheries in the Mexican SCB sector. b) Exploitation of common threshers and other elasmobranchs is important to the economy of northern Baja California and, by extension, is directly linked to U.S. fishery management. Mexican SCB Longlining Survey Hypotheses: a) Thresher shark nursery grounds extend sout...

  9. Binational air quality studies along the Arizona-Sonora border: Ambos Nogales and Douglas-Agua Prieta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy, G.J. Keene, F.E.

    1999-07-01

    A study to address Ambos (Both) Nogales' air quality concerns was conducted by the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ), in conjunction with Mexico's Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca (SEMARNAP), from 1994 to 1998. The study, which is part of the US-Mexico Border XXI Program, consisted of the following tasks: (1) air sampling/monitoring; (2) emissions inventory; (3) meteorological modeling; and, (4) health risk assessment. The following types of samples were collected: particulate matter (PM); volatile organic compounds; semi-volatile organic compounds; and aldehydes. All samples were collected for a 24-hour period; every sixth day during the warm months (April--September), and every third day during the cold months (October--March). There were a total of six sampling stations; three on each side of the border. PM samples were collected at all six sites, while samples for Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) were collected at four of those sites. Sample analyses were performed at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) in Reno, Nevada. Furthermore, four of the sites were outfitted with meteorological equipment, in order to gather data on wind speed and direction. PM and meteorological data are still being collected at two sampling sites, one in Arizona and one in Sonora. An emissions inventory of point, mobile and area sources for the Ambos Nogales area (12 x 19 km. domain), was developed following completion of the sampling effort. In order to accomplish this task, ADEQ contracted the services of RADIAN International and Powers Engineering; which in turn enlisted the services of Heuristica Ambiental of Hermosillo, Sonora. This task was completed in July, 1997. Vehicular emissions were found to be one of the main contributors of air emissions in the Ambos Nogales area. The third task of this project consisted developing meteorological models of the study area.

  10. Concentrations and spatial patterns of organic contaminants in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs at United States and binational Great Lakes Areas of Concern, 2010–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, were sampled across the Great Lakes basin in 2010 through 2015 to provide a system-wide assessment of current exposure to organic contaminants. The results provide information identified as critical by regulators to assess the “bird or animal deformity or reproductive problems” beneficial use impairment. Eggs were collected from 69 sites across all 5 Great Lakes, including 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs), some with multiple sites, and 10 sites not listed as an AOC. Concentrations of organic contaminants in eggs were quantified and compared with background and reproductive effect thresholds. Approximately 30% of AOCs had geometric mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at or below average background exposure (0.34 μg/g wet wt). Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was minimal, and only 3 of 27 AOCs and 1 non-AOC had geometric mean concentrations that exceeded background for tree swallows (96 ng/g wet wt). Concentrations of both PCBs and PBDEs were 10 to 20 times below the lower limit associated with impaired hatching success. In contrast, geometric mean concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and furan (PCDD-F) toxic equivalents (TEQs) at the Saginaw River and Bay AOC and Midland, Michigan, USA (a non-AOC site), exceeded the lower limit for hatching effects (181 pg/g PCDD-F TEQs). The rest of the sites had geometric mean concentrations of PCDD-F TEQs below background levels (87 pg/g PCDD-F TEQs). Other organic contaminants, including p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mirex, heptachlor, and chlordane, were at or below background or adverse effect concentrations.

  11. Validation of Neutron Calculation Codes and Models by means of benchmark cases in the frame of the Binational Commission of Nuclear Energy. Criticality Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In year 2008 the Atomic Energy National Commission (CNEA) of Argentina, and the Brazilian Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research (IPEN), under the frame of Nuclear Energy Argentine Brazilian Agreement (COBEN), among many others, included the project “Validation and Verification of Calculation Methods used for Research and Experimental Reactors. At this time, it was established that the validation was to be performed with models implemented in the deterministic codes HUEMUL and PUMA (cell and reactor codes) developed by CNEA and those ones implemented in MCNP by CNEA and IPEN. The necessary data for these validations would correspond to theoretical-experimental reference cases in the research reactor IPEN/MB-01 located in São Paulo, Brazil. The staff of the group Reactor and Nuclear Power Studies (SERC) of CNEA, from the argentine side, performed calculations with deterministic models (HUEMUL-PUMA) and probabilistic methods (MCNP) modeling a great number of physical situations of de reactor, which previously have been studied and modeled by members of the Center of Nuclear Engineering of the IPEN, whose results were extensively provided to CNEA. In this paper results for critical configurations are shown. (author)

  12. Social Work and Social Work Education in Times of Crises. A comparative Bi-National Study on Disability, Social Change and Social Policy in Slovenia and Luxembourg.

    OpenAIRE

    Limbach-Reich, Arthur; Zavirsek, Darja

    2015-01-01

    The current economic and social crisis in the EU has an impact on the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD, 2006), a challenge that has only just begun to emerge as a collective task within social work and has matured as an important topic in social work education and research within European social work. This paper brings together findings from two countries (Luxembourg and Slovenia), comparing the situation of persons with disabilities and foc...

  13. Development of a Bi-National Great Lakes Coastal Wetland and Land Use Map Using Three-Season PALSAR and Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bourgeau-Chavez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods using extensive field data and three-season Landsat TM and PALSAR imagery were developed to map wetland type and identify potential wetland stressors (i.e., adjacent land use for the United States and Canadian Laurentian coastal Great Lakes. The mapped area included the coastline to 10 km inland to capture the region hydrologically connected to the Great Lakes. Maps were developed in cooperation with the overarching Great Lakes Consortium plan to provide a comprehensive regional baseline map suitable for coastal wetland assessment and management by agencies at the local, tribal, state, and federal levels. The goal was to provide not only land use and land cover (LULC baseline data at moderate spatial resolution (20–30 m, but a repeatable methodology to monitor change into the future. The prime focus was on mapping wetland ecosystem types, such as emergent wetland and forested wetland, as well as to delineate wetland monocultures (Typha, Phragmites, Schoenoplectus and differentiate peatlands (fens and bogs from other wetland types. The overall accuracy for the coastal Great Lakes map of all five lake basins was 94%, with a range of 86% to 96% by individual lake basin (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie and Superior.

  14. Transitional Care and Adherence of Adolescents and Young Adults After Kidney Transplantation in Germany and Austria: A Binational Observatory Census Within the TRANSNephro Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Martin; Prüfe, Jenny; Oldhafer, Martina; Bethe, Dirk; Dierks, Marie-Luise; Müther, Silvia; Thumfart, Julia; Hoppe, Bernd; Büscher, Anja; Rascher, Wolfgang; Hansen, Matthias; Pohl, Martin; Kemper, Markus J; Drube, Jens; Rieger, Susanne; John, Ulrike; Taylan, Christina; Dittrich, Katalin; Hollenbach, Sabine; Klaus, Günter; Fehrenbach, Henry; Kranz, Birgitta; Montoya, Carmen; Lange-Sperandio, Bärbel; Ruckenbrodt, Bettina; Billing, Heiko; Staude, Hagen; Heindl-Rusai, Krisztina; Brunkhorst, Reinhard; Pape, Lars

    2015-12-01

    Transition from child to adult-oriented care is widely regarded a challenging period for young people with kidney transplants and is associated with a high risk of graft failure. We analyzed the existing transition structures in Germany and Austria using a questionnaire and retrospective data of 119 patients transferred in 2011 to 2012. Most centers (73%) confirmed agreements on the transition procedure. Patients' age at transfer was subject to regulation in 73% (18 years). Median age at transition was 18.3 years (16.5-36.7). Median serum creatinine increased from 123 to 132 μmol/L over the 12 month observation period before transfer (P = 0.002). A total of 25/119 patients showed increased creatinine ≥ 20% just before transfer. Biopsy proven rejection was found in 10/119 patients. Three patients lost their graft due to chronic graft nephropathy.Mean coefficient of variation (CoV%) of immunosuppression levels was 0.20 ± 0.1. Increased creatinine levels ≥ 20% just before transfer were less frequently seen in patients with CoV < 0.20 (P = 0.007). The majority of pediatric nephrology centers have internal agreements on transitional care. More than half of the patients had CoV of immunosuppression trough levels consistent with good adherence. Although, 20% of the patients showed increase in serum creatinine close to transfer.

  15. Early-Age Alcohol Use and Later Alcohol Problems in Adolescents: Individual and Peer Mediators in a Bi-National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, W. Alex; Toumbourou, John W.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.; Patton, George C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether there is cross-national similarity in the longitudinal relationship between early-age alcohol use and adolescent alcohol problems. Potential mechanisms underlying this relationship also are examined, testing adolescent alcohol use, low self-regulation, and peer deviance as possible mediators. Students (N=1945) participating in the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal panel survey study, responded to questions on alcohol use and influencing factors,...

  16. Utilization of a Binational Training Program to Investigate the Prevalence, Correlates, and Etiology of Anemia Among Women and Children in Rural Baja California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Moor, Molly Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a public health concern among Mexican women and children, particularly among those of low socioeconomic status and indigenous heritage. Conducting research among vulnerable populations requires a dependable, long-term relationship with community support and engagement. Thus, Viajes Interinstitucional de Integración, Docente, Asistencia y de Investigación [VIIDAI] (Inter-institutional Field Experiences for Integration, Teaching, Medical Service, and Research), a partners...

  17. A Physical Assessment of the Opportunities for Improved Management of the Water Resources of the Bi-National Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, J.; McKinney, D.; Valdes, J.; Guitron, A.; Thomas, G.

    2007-05-01

    The hydro-physical opportunities for expanding the beneficial uses of the fixed water supply in the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin to better satisfy an array of water management goals are examined. These include making agriculture more resilient to periodic conditions of drought, improving the reliability of supplies to cities and towns, and restoring lost environmental functions in the river system. This is a comprehensive, outcome-neutral, model- based planning exercise performed by some 20 technical, primarily non-governmental institutions from both countries, aimed at proposing strategies that can reduce future conflicts over water throughout the entire basin. The second track consists in generating a set of future water management scenarios that respond to the needs and objectives of the basin stakeholders in each segment and each country. An array of scenarios for improved water management has been developed for the lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin in Texas and the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. Another set under development will focus on the Rio Conchos and the El Paso/Juarez region. Eventually, scenarios will be generated such that will comprehend the entire basin on both sides of the border. These scenarios are the product of consultations with agricultural water districts, governmental organizations and environmental NGOs. They include strategies for reducing the physical losses of water in the system, conservation transfers, improvements in the operations of the Mexican and international reservoirs, improvements in environmental flow conditions, improvements in reliability of water supplies, and drought coping strategies.These scenarios will be evaluated for hydrologic feasibility by the basin-wide model and the gaming exercises. Modeling is necessary to understand how these options will affect the entire system and how they can be crafted to maximize the benefits and avoid unintended or uncompensated effects. The scenarios that have the potential to provide large mutual benefits to all stakeholders in the basin will then be subjected to an economic feasibility analysis, and, finally, a legal and political feasibility analysis. The scenario development, hydrologic modeling, economic and institutional analysis will culminate in the presentation of technical recommendations to policy-makers on both sides of the border on the potential for improved water management in the basin.

  18. 76 FR 51004 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ...: Binational Migrant Education Program (BMEP) State MEP Director Survey. OMB Control Number: 1810-0670. Agency.... Abstract: This survey collects information from State Migrant Education Programs on their participation in the Binational Migrant Education Initiative to serve children who migrate between Mexico and the...

  19. 76 FR 64329 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Type of Review: Extension. Title of Collection: State MEP Director Survey Binational Migrant Education... Estimated Annual Burden Hours: 60. Abstract: This survey collects information from State Migrant Education Programs on their participation in the Binational Migrant Education Initiative to serve children...

  20. Testimony submitted to the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary “The Uniting American Families Act: Addressing Inequality in Federal Immigration Law”

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary

    2009-01-01

    I am pleased to offer testimony for this UAFA hearing showing that, like their different-sex married counterparts, the nearly 36,000 same-sex bi-national couples living in the U.S. are in stable relationships, raising children, and making positive contributions to the economic and social life of this country. I commend Senator Leahy for advocating for inclusion of gay and lesbian bi-national families through comprehensive immigration reform.

  1. Technology evaluation of a USA-Mexico health information system for epidemiological surveillance of Mexican migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Mondragón, H E; Martin, J; Chacón-Sosa, F

    2000-03-01

    From 1994 through 1996, federal, state, and nongovernmental organizations in Mexico and in the United States of America developed and piloted a Binational Health Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Mexican migrant workers. The system allowed data exchange for epidemiological surveillance between the state of Guanajuato in Mexico and the Commonwealth (state) of Pennsylvania in the United States, for case detection, prevention, and treatment, through shared contact investigation and case management of communicable diseases. The target population consisted of migrant workers traveling between Guanajuato and Pennsylvania to work mainly in the mushroom industry, and their sexual partners in their Mexican communities of origin. Computerized migrant health information modules were set up in Guanajuato and in Pennsylvania. Patient information and epidemiological surveillance data were encrypted and communicated electronically between the modules, using the WONDER communications system of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluation of the Guanajuato-Pennsylvania Binational Health Information System showed that major barriers to binational epidemiological surveillance and control are: a) lack of communication binationally; b) interrupted medical care due to migration; c) inconsistent diagnosis and treatment criteria between the two countries; d) lack of referral clinical records from one country to the other; and e) deficient legal regulations concerning binational clinical data transfer. To our knowledge, this is the first project that has successfully demonstrated the technological feasibility of a binational disease control system linking a state in the interior of one country with a state in the interior of another country, rather than just states in the border region. The project also advanced the understanding of health service organizational issues that facilitate or hinder communication, outreach, disease prevention, and

  2. German-brazilians from eastern Paraguay: brief notes on historical factors with regard to the formation of the binational frontier - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v9i3.132 Teuto-brasiguaios do oriente paraguaio: alguns apontamentos sobre as condicionantes históricas da formação de uma fronteira de caráter binacional - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v9i3.132

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Manoel da Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis establishes constructive elements of migration and colonization dynamics in eastern Paraguay that started in the 1960s. The phenomenon involved different ethnic groups from different occupations as well as space organization, which, as a result, comprised specifically adapted arrangements and conditionings. Estimates show that the approximate number amounts to 500.000 Brazilians living on the eastern Paraguayan border, or rather, more than 10% of that country’s population. Sixty percent originally hail from the Brazilian meridian states, mostly of German descent. Nevertheless, the relevance of this group does not just express itself in terms of numbers but especially with regard to its role in the process of the agricultural modernization and the structure of the country.Este texto busca estabelecer alguns elementos constitutivos da dinâmica migratória e colonizadora do Oriente Paraguaio, a qual se iniciou nos anos 1960. Tal fenômeno envolveu diferentes grupos étnicos e modos distintos de ocupação e organização do espaço, os quais, por sua vez, envolveram arranjos e condicionamentos adaptativos específicos. As estimativas atuais apontam para um número aproximado de 500.000 brasileiros vivendo na fronteira oriental do Paraguai, ou seja, mais de 10% da população total daquele país. Desse percentual, quase 60% são oriundos dos estados meridionais brasileiros, em sua maioria teuto-descendentes. No entanto, a relevância desse grupo não decorre apenas de sua expressividade numérica, mas do papel por ele representado no processo de modernização agrícola e fundiária do país.

  3. Mapping socio-environmentally vulnerable populations access and exposure to ecosystem services at the U.S.-Mexico borderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Lara-Valencia, Francisco; Yuan, Yongping; Nie, Wenming; Wilson, Sylvia; Amaya, Gladys; Sleeter, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Socio-environmental vulnerable populations are often unrepresented in land-use planning yet have great potential for loss when exposed to changes in ecosystem services. Administrative boundaries, cultural differences, and language barriers increase the disassociation between land-use management and marginalized populations living in the U.S.–Mexico borderlands. This paper describes the development of a Modified Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index (M-SEVI), using determinants from binational census and neighborhood data that describe levels of education, access to resources, migratory status, housing, and number of dependents, to provide a simplified snapshot of the region's populace that can be used in binational planning efforts. We apply this index at the SCW, located on the border between Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. For comparison, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool is concurrently applied to assess the provision of erosion- and flood control services over a 9-year period. We describe how this coupling of data can form the base for an ecosystem services assessment across political boundaries that can be used by land-use planners. Results reveal potential disparities in environmental risks and burdens throughout the binational watershed in residential districts surrounding and between urban centers. The M-SEVI can be used as an important first step in addressing environmental justice for binational decision-making.

  4. 76 FR 58781 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...- National Recovery Plan (Recovery Plan) for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii). The Recovery...: The Bi-National Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) is available...

  5. The Origins of Christian Liberal Arts Higher Education in Russia: A Case Study of the Russian-American Christian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Victor N.

    2011-01-01

    This is a case study of the historical development of a private Christian faith-based school of higher education in post-Soviet Russia from its conception in 1990 until 2010. This binational school was founded as Russian-American Christian University (RACU) in 1996. In 2003, business and economics as well as social work undergraduate academic…

  6. 76 FR 72677 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ..., independently of the country of origin. This merchandise is classified in tariff items 3823.11.01 and 3823.19... involving imports from a NAFTA country with review by independent bi-national panels. When a Request for... law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came...

  7. Hot rolling condition effect on properties and structure of sheets of high-strength stainless martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical properties and the structure of high strength VNS-2 and VNS-5 steels depending on the regimes of hot rolling are investigated. It is established that the best com. bination of strength and toughness is achieved during rolling in the temperature range of 1100-850 deg C after seven passes with a summary deformation of 87 %

  8. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which to build…

  9. "Cooking Lunch, That's Swiss": Constructing Hybrid Identities Based on Socio-Cultural Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Kellie

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the discursive construction and negotiation of hybrid identities within binational couples. I analyze conversations produced by Anglophones married to German-speaking Swiss residing in central Switzerland. I employ Bucholtz & Hall's sociocultural linguistic model (2004, 2005, 2010), which views identity as emergent in…

  10. Law 18.871. It approve the Security Energetic agreement between the Republic of Uruguay and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal of this law is the agreement between Venezuela and Uruguay about the implementation of the energy security legislation . Both countries are committed to have a binational structure in this follows areas: oil, gas, refining, petrochemicals, transport, storage, electricity, alternative energy and marine transport

  11. 76 FR 2432 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: FY2012 Humphrey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    .... Embassies or binational Fulbright Commissions, based on the candidates' professional backgrounds, academic....S. society and culture and to participate with U.S. colleagues in current approaches to the fields... education, treatment, and prevention; teaching of English as a foreign language; technology policy...

  12. Viable Global Networked Learning. JSRI Occasional Paper No. 23. Latino Studies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Armando A., Jr.

    This paper discusses an innovative paradigm for looking at computer mediated/networked teaching, learning, and research known as BESTNET (Binational English and Spanish Telecommunications Network). BESTNET is functionally defined as an international community of universities and institutions linked by common educational goals and processes,…

  13. Computer-Mediated Classrooms for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Armando, Jr.; Bellman, Beryl

    1990-01-01

    Describes a project that uses computer mediated communication in universities in the United States and Mexico to teach minority students effectively. BESTNET (Binational English and Spanish Telecommunications Network) is explained, use for distance education is discussed, computer conferencing and electronic mail are described, and problems of…

  14. Computer Communications and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellman, Beryl L.

    1992-01-01

    Computer conferencing offers many opportunities for linking college students and faculty at a distance. From the Binational English and Spanish Telecommunications Network (BESTNET) has evolved a variety of bilingual video/computer/face-to-face instructional packages to serve institutions and nontraditional students on several continents. (MSE)

  15. MODELING OF SPINEL SETTLING IN WASTE GLASS MELTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The topic of this multi-institutional bi-national research is the formation and settling of spinel, the most common crystalline phase that precipitates in molten high-level waste HLW) glass. For the majority of HLW streams, spinel formation in the HLW melter limits the waste fra...

  16. My Classroom: Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Angela Huanca Barrantes, a highly respected teacher of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the city of Ilo, has a strong impact on the lives of students at the Admirante Miguel Grau secondary school and at Centro Cultural Peruano Norteamericano, which is one of four binational centers in southern Peru. Due to Ms. Huanca's lack of understanding…

  17. Renegotiating the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement: The Process for a Sustainable Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Krantzberg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a defining moment for the Great Lakes St Lawrence region, with the opportunity to renovate the regime for ecosystem improvement, protection and sustainability. The binational Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was first signed in 1972. The outcome of a 2007 review of the Agreement by government and citizens, resulted in a broad call for and revisions to the Agreement, so that it can once again serve as a visionary document driving binational cooperation to address long-standing, new and emerging Great Lakes environmental issues in the 21st century. A prescription for renegotiating the Agreement to generate a revitalized and sustainable future mandates that science inform contemporary public policy, third Party Mediation presses for and coordinates a deliberate negotiation, and inclusive discourse and public engagement be integral through the process.

  18. Characterizaton of the Zarumilla aquifer - Peru, Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1998, Peru and Ecuador signed the Brasilia Agreements on Ecuadro-Peru border issues, representing the end of historical conflicts, differences and misunderstnadings. The two countries became partners after years of armed conflicts, and move forward through cooperation and integration, both facing social and aconomic challenges. In May 2001, the Special Bi-national Project Puyango-Tumbes (Peru) and the Ecuadorian Commission PREDESUR, province of El Oro, as technical institutes in charge of projects dealing with binational development, were invited to participate in the regional project RLA/8/031. The results of the first phase of the study are presented in this document. The study will be continued under the TC project RlA/8/039 - 'Characterization of the Zarumilla aquifer and monitoring of water quality in the Puyango-Tumbes basin'. (author)

  19. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under Different Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica De Falco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows. This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  20. La feria binacional de camélidos y las instituciones del desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natividad González

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on the Binational Camelid Fair organized by local institutions in the border towns of Jujuy (Argentina and Potosí (Bolivia with the aim of encouraging social and economic integration in the region and promoting camelid husbandry. By recording the views the different actors hold concerning development and politics we seek to show how a lack of clearly defined views and a multiplicity of interests can complicate the process of defining goals.

  1. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission–Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United Sta...

  2. Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystalline powder catalyzed one-pot synthesis of fully substituted new indeno[1,2-b]pyridines at room temperature by a multi-component reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heshmatollah Alinezhad; Sahar Mohseni Tavakkoli; Pourya Biparva

    2014-01-01

    Cu doped ZnO nanocrystalline powder (10 mol%) has been found to be an efficient catalyst for the one-pot multi-component synthesis of fully substituted new indeno[1,2-b]pyridines through a com-bination of 1,3-indandione, propiophenone or acetophenone derivatives, aromatic aldehydes, and ammonium acetate in ethanol/H2O at room temperature. The methodology is mild, efficient and high to excellent yielding.

  3. Establishment of a One Health Surveillance Initiative in the CA/Baja CA Border Region

    OpenAIRE

    Marikos, Sarah C.; Ferran, Karen L.; Iniguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; NAVARRO, FRANCISCO JAVIER MONGE

    2013-01-01

    Objective To showcase One Border One Health, a binational, multidiscipli-nary initiative in the California/Baja California (CA/BC) border region whose aim is to reconfigure traditional species-specific approaches to surveillance for emerging and re-emerging pathogens. Introduction The CA/BC border region encompasses a wide range of ecosystems, topography, dense urban areas, and agricultural developments that coexist in a limited geographic area and create numerous human-animal-environmental i...

  4. Characteristics of Young Women Who Gave Birth in the US-Mexico Border Region, 2005: The Brownsville-Matamoros Sister City Project for Women’s Health

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Jill A.; Galván González, Francisco Gerardo; Mirchandani, Gita G; Castrucci, Brian C.; Gossman, Ginger L; Lewis, Kayan L; Ruiz, Mauro; Echegollen Guzmán, Alonso

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Childbearing during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with adverse effects on health and quality of life. Lowering birth rates among young women is a binational priority in the US-Mexico border region, yet baseline information about birth rates and pregnancy risk is lacking. Increased understanding of the characteristics of young women who give birth in the region will help target high-risk groups for sexual and reproductive health services. Methods We examined data o...

  5. Expected Improvement in Efficient Global Optimization Through Bootstrapped Kriging - Replaces CentER DP 2010-62

    OpenAIRE

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C.; van Beers, W.C.M.; Nieuwenhuyse, I. van

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a sequentialized experimental design to select simulation input com- binations for global optimization, based on Kriging (also called Gaussian process or spatial correlation modeling); this Kriging is used to analyze the input/output data of the simulation model (computer code). This design and analysis adapt the clas- sic "expected improvement" (EI) in "efficient global optimization" (EGO) through the introduction of an unbiased estimator of the Kriging predictor variance; ...

  6. Computer-based business simulations as revealers of cultural and learning differences. The case of Business Administration and Business Informatics Students in Egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    Antheaume, Nicolas; Catalo, Marie; Ismail, Howayda

    2012-01-01

    In this article we demonstrate, through the case of Egypt, how the emphasis on one specific learning mode from primary through to secondary school, and to a lesser extent, culture, impact learning abilities. We describe how Egyptian students are impaired when confronted to learning modes they have not encountered prior to University, when they join a businessadministration, bi-national, double-degree programme. We explain how a "globalized" method (computer based business simulation) was blen...

  7. Identifying and Measuring the Lifelong Human Capital of “Unskilled” Migrants in the Mexico-US Migratory Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Hagan; Jean Luc Demonsant; Sergio Chávez

    2014-01-01

    Most human capital and migration studies classify migrants with limited formal education as “unskilled,” despite substantial skills developed through job and life experiences.  Drawing on a binational multi-stage research project that involved interviews with 320 Mexican migrants and return migrants in North Carolina and Guanajuato, Mexico, we identify the lifelong human capital they acquired and transferred throughout their careers and discover that these include not only basic education and...

  8. The Minimax Estimator of Stochastic Regression Coefficients and Parameters in the Class of All Estimators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wen XU; Song Gui WANG

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors address the problem of the minimax estimator of linear com-binations of stochastic regression coefficients and parameters in the general normal linear model with random effects. Under a quadratic loss function, the minimax property of linear estimators is inves- tigated. In the class of all estimators, the minimax estimator of estimable functions, which is unique with probability 1, is obtained under a multivariate normal distribution.

  9. A new species of Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopidae, Cyclopinae) from the Chihuahuan desert, northern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Mercado-Salas; Eduardo Suarez-Morales; Alejandro Maeda-Martínez; Marcelo Silva-Briano

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the freshwater cyclopoid copepod genus Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is described from a single pond in northern Mexico, within the binational area known as the Chihuahuan Desert. This species belongs to a group of Metacyclops species with a 3443 spine formula of swimming legs. It is morphologically similar to Metacyclops lusitanus Lindberg, 1961 but differs from this and other congeners by having a unique combination of characters, including a caudal rami length/width pr...

  10. Developing a Community Tradition of Migration: A Field Study in rural Zacatecas, Mexico, and California Settlement Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mines, Richard

    1981-01-01

    This study sought to take a close-up look at cross-border Mexican migration by collecting detailed information about one binational migratory village-based community. five major findings have resulted from this investigation: 1. Migrants are generally poor rural or urban dwellers who depend on reciprocity networks of mutual exchange with their friends and relatives and not on public institutions for their survival. 2. Migratory networks undergo a maturation process over time. 3. Job and so...

  11. Regularization and error assignment to unfolded distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zech, Gunter

    2011-01-01

    The commonly used approach to present unfolded data only in graphical formwith the diagonal error depending on the regularization strength is unsatisfac-tory. It does not permit the adjustment of parameters of theories, the exclusionof theories that are admitted by the observed data and does not allow the com-bination of data from different experiments. We propose fixing the regulariza-tion strength by a p-value criterion, indicating the experimental uncertaintiesindependent of the regularization and publishing the unfolded data in additionwithout regularization. These considerations are illustrated with three differentunfolding and smoothing approaches applied to a toy example.

  12. Measuring the impacts of natural amenities and the US-Mexico Border, on housing values in the Santa Cruz Watershed, using spatially-weighted hedonic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Gladys; Norman, Laura M.; Frisvold, George

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the sustainability of International policy or urban development requires consideration of the impacts of these decisions on Ecosystem Services, or the values that humans receive from the ecosystem, including market-land price, environmental, and human well-being values. Hedonic modeling helps to identify the market land price, considering the price is determined by multiple factors affecting it. In U.S. portions of the bi-national Santa Cruz Watershed (SCW), situated at the Arizona-Sonora International border, natural amenities like the riparian corridor and green space have been documented as positive amenities that boost local real estate.

  13. Excerpt from Judah L. Magnes: An American Jewish Nonconformist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Kotzin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Kotzin’s Judah L. Magnes: An American Jewish Nonconformist offers a new view of Magnes, a prominent American rabbi and Zionist leader who emigrated to Palestine after World War I and became the first president of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Paradoxically, as Kotzin demonstrates, it was through his work in Jerusalem that Magnes most clearly sought to realize his American values. In the face of pressure from leaders of the Yishuv for a Jewish state, Magnes championed democracy, humanistic values, and Jewish–Arab binationalism.

  14. Biotechnology: Japan. March 1985-November 1989 (Citations from the Biobusiness data base). Report for March 1985-November 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning Japanese commercial agricultural and pharmaceutical biotechnology research and development. The major emphasis of this bibliography is on Japanese/U.S. cooperative agreements with discussion of patent rights, bulk pharmaceutical production facilities, bi-national technology transfer activities, and related topics. Some attention is given to Japanese industrial and governmental efforts to garner and protect new biotechnical processes and applications. This bibliography will be useful to individuals and organizations seeking biotechnical opportunities with Pacific Rim countries. (Contains 238 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  15. Punctuated Entropy as Culture-Induced Change:The Case of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher LDyer(Author); ZHANG Yongchun(Translators); LIU Yuan(Translators); YANG Gongwei(Translators)

    2013-01-01

    This article grew out of the obser-vation that as disaster events increase in frequency and severity , recovery from certain kinds , or com-binations of , disasters becomes increasingly diffi-cult, if not impossible.This phenomenon is not new.Throughout history , civilizations have faced ecological and cultural collapse resulting from drought , disease , or earthquake .It is made more cogent, however, by the rapidity of modern culture change , and the increased risk associated with hu-man-induced catastrophes , also known as techno-logical disasters .

  16. Foreword

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Mary Aizawa; Peres, João Andrade

    2005-01-01

    The papers published in this issue of the Journal of Portuguese Linguistics resulted from a binational project – Português Europeu e Português Brasileiro: Unidade e Diversidade na Passagem do Milénio (European and Brazilian Portuguese: Unity and Diversity at the Turn of the Century) –, launched in the year 2000, and coordinated by the guest editors and authors of this foreword, with the sponsorship of CNPq, in Brazil, and ICCTI, in Portugal. This comparative project has focused on the two bes...

  17. A novel heterogeneous reaction for generating gaseous nitrous acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The short-lived reactive specimen nitrous acid HONO was generated in the gas phase by the heterogeneous reaction of gaseous HCl with AgNO2 which can generate higher concentration of HONO than other methods. We investigated the process from generation to dissociation in the gas phase under different controlled temperatures, and discussed the ionization and reaction on the solid surface by com-bination of the photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization mass spectroscopy (PES-PIMS) and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS).

  18. The Argentine-Brazilian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the Argentine-Brazilian Fast Reactor Programme and gives reasons for the decision of a binational venture. The work carried out by both countries is described, showing how they complement each other, with the corresponding saving of resources. The main objectives of the Programme and tentative schedules in three progressing integrating stages are given and the present nuclear know-how in each country is identified as a good starting point. The paper also gives some details regarding the economical and human resources involved. (author). 1 graph

  19. Immigrant advantage? Substance use among Latin American immigrant and native-born youth in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen; Luengo, Maria Ángeles; Nieri, Tanya; Villar, Paula

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the results of a descriptive study conducted with middle school and high school age youth residing in northwestern Spain. The main outcome of the study is to advance knowledge about the drug use attitudes and behaviors of immigrants versus native youth in a social context where Latin American immigrants share a common language and a set of core cultural norms with the host society. The research was conducted by a bi-national Spain–US research team as a preliminary study l...

  20. Drug: D08227 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 303] D DERMATOLOGICALS D07 CORTICOSTEROIDS, DERMATOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS D07A CORTICOSTEROIDS, PLAIN D07AC Corticosteroids...TIONS FOR TOPICAL USE R01AD Corticosteroids R01AD09 Mometasone D08227 Mometasone (INN) R03 DRUGS FOR OBSTRUC...lmonary Agents Anti-inflammatories, Inhaled Corticosteroids Mometasone D08227 Mometasone (INN) Target-based ...BINATIONS D07XC Corticosteroids, potent, other combinations D07XC03 Mometasone D0..., potent (group III) D07AC13 Mometasone D08227 Mometasone (INN) D07X CORTICOSTEROIDS, OTHER COM

  1. Challenge theme 7: information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  2. Basic criteria for a sustainable water management at the U.S.-México border: the case of ambos Nogales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ernesto Cervera Gómez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze some basic criteria for a sustainable use of water in an international watershed shared by Mexico and the United States. The study area comprises the region of Ambos Nogales, which is located inside the Upper Santa Cruz River Basin. This portion of the watershed represents the main ecosystem and the main source of water for urban and rural populations located in this region. Following criteria of sustainability the authors revise and adapt to the case of Ambos Nogales, a set of guidelines proposed by the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security. These guidelines include the following elements: basic water requirements needed to maintain quality of life in the population and the health of ecosystems; water quality that meets certain minimum standards; human actions and their impact on long-term renewability of freshwater stocks and flows; collection of data concerning water resources, use and quality of water; institutional mechanisms to prevent and resolve conflicts; and a democratic process of water-planning and decision-making. These twin cities have a long history of cooperation and conflict linked to water resources, which makes available enough information to create a diagnostic about the water management inside a binational arena, and allowing to explore possibilities for a better water resources management under a sustainable regime and from an international perspective. Keywords: Sustainability, binational water management, ambos Nogales region.

  3. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck Høg, B; Sommer, H M; Larsen, L S; Sørensen, A I V; David, B; Hofshagen, M; Rosenquist, H

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacteriosis has become the leading bacterial zoonosis in humans in the European Union and other developed countries. There are many sources of human Campylobacter infections, but broilers and broiler meat have been shown to be the most important. In order to implement effective interventions that reduce the probability of Campylobacter colonisation of broiler flocks, it is essential to fully understand the risk factors involved. We present a bi-national risk factor survey comprising Campylobacter data from more than 5200 Danish and Norwegian indoor, conventional broiler flocks and the responses to a standardised questionnaire, with more than 40 explanatory variables from 277 Danish and Norwegian farms. We explored several models by using different combinations of the Danish and Norwegian data, including models with single-country datasets. All models were analysed using a generalized linear model using backwards elimination and forward selection. The results show that Norwegian broiler flocks had a lower risk of being colonised than Danish flocks. Farm specific variables that increased the risk of flocks becoming colonised with Campylobacter in both countries were: broiler houses older than five years; longer downtime (no. of days between flocks), probably a consequence of longer downtimes being associated with less focus on maintaining a high biosecurity level; broiler houses without a separate ante-room or barrier; and the use of the drinker nipples with cups or bells compared with nipples without cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having boot dips or low stocking density increased the risk of a flock becoming Campylobacter positive. The different model approaches allowed us to explore the effect of having a large

  4. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck Høg, B; Sommer, H M; Larsen, L S; Sørensen, A I V; David, B; Hofshagen, M; Rosenquist, H

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacteriosis has become the leading bacterial zoonosis in humans in the European Union and other developed countries. There are many sources of human Campylobacter infections, but broilers and broiler meat have been shown to be the most important. In order to implement effective interventions that reduce the probability of Campylobacter colonisation of broiler flocks, it is essential to fully understand the risk factors involved. We present a bi-national risk factor survey comprising Campylobacter data from more than 5200 Danish and Norwegian indoor, conventional broiler flocks and the responses to a standardised questionnaire, with more than 40 explanatory variables from 277 Danish and Norwegian farms. We explored several models by using different combinations of the Danish and Norwegian data, including models with single-country datasets. All models were analysed using a generalized linear model using backwards elimination and forward selection. The results show that Norwegian broiler flocks had a lower risk of being colonised than Danish flocks. Farm specific variables that increased the risk of flocks becoming colonised with Campylobacter in both countries were: broiler houses older than five years; longer downtime (no. of days between flocks), probably a consequence of longer downtimes being associated with less focus on maintaining a high biosecurity level; broiler houses without a separate ante-room or barrier; and the use of the drinker nipples with cups or bells compared with nipples without cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having boot dips or low stocking density increased the risk of a flock becoming Campylobacter positive. The different model approaches allowed us to explore the effect of having a large

  5. Deportation experiences of women who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Burgos, José Luis; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Rangel, Gudelia; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2012-04-01

    Deportation from the United States for drug offenses is common, yet the consequences of deportation for women drug users are poorly documented. In 2008, in Tijuana, Mexico, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study of migration, deportation, and drug abuse by interviewing 12 Mexican injection-drug-using women reporting U.S. deportation. Women reported heavy drug use before and after deportation, but greater financial instability and physical danger following deportation than when in the United States. We identified an unmet need for health and social services among deported drug-using women, including HIV prevention, drug treatment, physical and mental health services, and vocational training. Binational coordination is needed to help deported women resettle in Mexico.

  6. Treatment of malignant glioma using hyperthermia*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahang Sun; Mian Guo; Hengyuan Pang; Jingtao Qi; Jinwei Zhang; Yunlong Ge

    2013-01-01

    Thirty pathological y diagnosed patients with grade III-IV primary or recurrent malignant glioma (tumor diameter 3-7 cm) were randomly divided into two groups. The control group underwent conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the hyperthermia group, primary cases received hyperthermia treatment, and patients with recurrent tumors were treated with hyperthermia in com-bination with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Hyperthermia treatment was administered using a 13.56-MHz radio frequency hyperthermia device. Electrodes were inserted into the tumor with the aid of a CT-guided stereotactic apparatus and heat was applied for 1 hour. During 3 months after hyperthermia, patients were evaluated with head CT or MRI every month. Gliomas in the hyper-thermia group exhibited growth retardation or growth termination. Necrosis was evident in 80%of the heated tumor tissue and there was a decrease in tumor diameter. Our findings indicate that ra-dio frequency hyperthermia has a beneficial effect in the treatment of malignant glioma.

  7. Geologic map of the Rio Rico and Nogales 7.5’ quadrangles, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Menges, Christopher M.; Gray, Floyd; Berry, Margaret E.; Bultman, Mark W.; Cosca, Michael A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2016-04-15

    The Rio Rico and Nogales (Arizona) 1:24,000-scale quadrangles are located in the Basin and Range Province of southern Arizona, and the southern edge of the map is the international border with Sonora, Mexico.  The major urban area is Nogales, a bi-national city known as “the gateway to Mexico.”  Rocks exposed in the map area range in age from Jurassic through Quaternary.  Major physiographic, geologic, and hydrologic features in the map area include the southern San Cayetano Mountains, Grosvenor Hills, and Sonoita Creek in the northern part, and Mount Benedict and the Mount Benedict horst block in the southcentral part. The horst block is bounded by the Santa Cruz River on the east and Nogales Wash on the west.

  8. Cascadia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie; Singh, Jay; Lee, Robert

    2004-01-01

    bi-national space. On one hand, the neo-liberal business community is redefining borders in terms of free trade while on the other hand the environmentalists are redefining borders in terms of eco-systems. However, to create and maintain this regional identity and redefinition of transnational space......This paper aims to demonstrate how globalization and discourses on regional/national identities cannot only create cross-border/regional social spaces but also the criteria to select a transnational elite to occupy the cross-border space reified by interplay of myths and logic. Using the case...... of Cascadia, we observe a construction of regional social space, taking place along the Pacific Northwest border of U.S. and Canada, through the process of globalization. In this socially constructed region of Cascadia, two often-antagonistic groups are mutually benefiting from each other by creating a unique...

  9. Screening and Optimization transplant Media for Dendrobium officianle%铁皮石斛穴盘育苗基质的优化筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹恒花

    2015-01-01

    Using Dendrobium officianle as the study object, peat, perlite, vermiculite and coco coir were mixed in different proportions as medium ingredient to screen plug transplant media for . The results showed the com-bination peat+vermiculite+perlite (3:1:1) was the best providing the highest survival rate and the highest quality of the seedlings.%以铁皮石斛为研究对象,以泥炭、珍珠岩、蛭石和椰糠为基质配料,按不同比例混合,筛选适合铁皮石斛穴盘育苗的移栽基质。试验结果表明:采用基质泥炭:珍珠岩:蛭石配比为3:1:1成活率及幼苗质量均达到了最佳状态。

  10. Clinical use of Plasma and Plasma Fractions in Bleeding Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆钺

    2008-01-01

    Internal and/or external bleeding is a common and sometimes very severe clinical manifestations of disorders of hemostasis. It may follow minor trauma or may arise apparently spontaneously. Disorders of hemostasis are generally divided into those caused by abnormalities of platelets, abnormalities of blood vessels, abnormalities of plasma coagulation factors, and hyperfibrinolysis, or com-binations of these. The use of plasma and plasma fractions dependents on the causing diseases and their severity. Several plasma products and plasma fractions are availa-ble in China and other plasma components and deriva-tives are commercially obtained. There have been the guidelines for their clinical use, and the revised ones will soon be published by Chinese Medical Association.

  11. Economic and Financial Interactions between Brazil and Mexico: ¿Which Degree of Integration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Esther Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes trade and financial transactions between Brazil and Mexico in order to evaluate the magnitude of their reciprocal integration. Our results suggest that both countries have successfully got inserted into the international economy, which can be observed in their high volumes of trade, in their receiving foreign direct investment and in the size of their capital markets, as well as in the magnitude of their association with the most important countries and financial centers throughout the world. However, even if their bi-na-tional trade and financial integration has notably increased, especially after the Economic Complementation Agreements came into force in 2003 and due to the "translatinization" of Brazilian and Mexican firms, the magnitude of their reciprocal trade and financial transactions remains at very low relative levels, a situation that may significantly change in the framework of a possible strategic agreement of economic integration between these two countries.

  12. Psychodynamic groups as used to work through collective trauma memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomba, Jacek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Israeli-Polish Mental Health Association is a bi-national society of mental health professionals. Presentation of its twelve years’ experience in working through memories of traumatic past was rationale of the text. The traumatic past had been extermination of Jews, by Germans on Polish territory with witnessing Poles. Dynamic group technique had been employed in debate stimulated by theoretical lectures and research results presentations concerning background of anti-Semitism, hatred, Shoah, collective trauma consequences and intergenerational transmission of trauma. Obstacles in the process and suggested measures aiming to overcome these difficulties as described by participants were discussed. Author’s assessment of results of using therapeutic methods to solve mass trauma consequences in next generation of victims and witnesses conclude the essay.

  13. The Analysis of the Path on the Unified Legislation of Collective Consultation on Enterprise Wages in Our Country-Based on the Analysis of the Local Legislative Text%我国企业工资集体协商统一立法的路径检视--以地方立法文本为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭世强

    2014-01-01

    based on the comparative analysis of the text of the new local legislation on collective consultation on wages in the past two years , in com-bination with the practice, analyze the typical problems in the collective consultation ,explore the practice base、the guiding principles and the mode selection on the unified legislation ,provide reference for being published of the unified legislation .%通过对近两年来新出台的工资集体协商地方立法文本的比较分析,结合实践,解析工资集体协商中的典型问题,探索工资集体协商全国统一立法的实践基础、指导原则、模式选择,为统一立法的出台提供借鉴与参考。

  14. High-resolution gene mapping using admixture linkage disequilibrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This note reports simulation study on the rate of decay in linkage dis equilibrium (LD) in mixed populations over multiple discrete generations and explores the usefulness of the LD analysis in high-resolution gene mapping. The results indicate that the smaller the recombination fraction and the fewer generati ons since admixtureevent, the higher power of the approach in gene mapping. The expected estimate of recombination fraction would give an estimate that is slig htly biased upwards, if relevant genes are in tight linkage. The estimated recom bination fraction is usually larger than the true value within 2-5 generations. From generations 10-20, the mean estimates are in good agreement with the true value. The method presented here enables estimation of means and corresponding confidence intervals of the recombination fraction at any number of generations.

  15. Different hydrogen-bonded structures in three 2-thienyl-substituted tetra­hydro-1,4-ep­oxy-1-benzazepines

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Maria C.; Palma, Alirio; Bahsas, Ali; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The mol­ecules of (2RS,4SR)-2-exo-(5-bromo-2-thienyl)-7-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-1,4-ep­oxy-1-benzazepine, C14H11BrClNOS, (I), are linked into cyclic centrosymmetric dimers by C—H⋯π(thienyl) hydrogen bonds. Each such dimer makes rather short Br⋯Br contacts with two other dimers. In (2RS,4SR)-2-exo-(5-methyl-2-thienyl)-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-1,4-ep­oxy-1-benzazepine, C15H15NOS, (II), a com­bination of C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π(thienyl) hydrogen bonds links the mol­ecules into chains of rings. A mor...

  16. Migrações complementares: sobreposições escalares entre os movimentos internos e internacionais nas conexões entre Brasil e Paraguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gomes Braga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a methodology for the identification and analysis of internal and international migration complementary systems in the border between Brazil and Paraguay. From the second half of the twentieth century, the linkages betwe- en these two countries leading to increased binational projects like Itaipu Dam. This new ties between nations led to an increase in international migration in addition to internal flows that have occurred in the expansion of the agricultural frontier of the two countries. According to the 2000 Census, Paraguay was the country that sent the largest number of migrants to Brazil in the 1990s, forming a migratory connection that can impact the territorial organization of these nations. This paper proposes to apply the Local Indicators of Spatial Association (Lisa and Network Analysis to verify the hypothesis of a migratory subsystem in Bra- zil whose spatial structure supports the connections between localities receiving migrants from Paraguay.

  17. Video-Based Self-Observation as a Component of Developmental Teacher Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Mercado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the benefits to teacher evaluation when video-based self-observation is done by teachers as a vehicle for individual, reflective practice. We explore how it was applied systematically at the Instituto Cultural Peruano Norteamericano (ICPNA bi-national center in Lima, Peru among hundreds of English as a foreign language (EFL teachers in two institution-wide initiatives that have relied on self-observation through video professional development. In these cases, we provide a descriptive framework for each initiative as well as information on what was ultimately achieved by teachers, supervisors and the institution as a whole. We conclude with recommendations for implementing video-based self-evaluation.

  18. Papers of the EECO 2003 Environment and Energy Conference : preserving the environment and promoting U.S. and Canada trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environment and Energy Conference is a bi-national cross-border forum on trade and environmental issues pertaining to the Great Lakes Economy in both Canada and the United States. Delegates from business, government and non-government organizations attended the conference to gain insight on how to ensure economic and environmental health of the Great Lakes region in order to contribute to sustainable growth. The presentations addressed environmental issues such as energy security; restructuring; urban transit; threats to clean air; cities; water demands in the Great Lakes ecosystems; new cars and new fuels; and, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The conference featured 32 presentations, of which 4 were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  19. Antiangiogenic agents combined with chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanshan Chen; Shun Lu 

    2015-01-01

    As a targeted therapy, antiangiogenic treatment has been increasingly studied for advanced non-smal cel lung cancer (NSCLC) and has proven ef ective for the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting angiogenesis, is the only antiangiogenic agent approved for use in com-bination with first-line chemotherapy for non-squamous NSCLC. Smal-molecule inhibitors targeting the tyrosine kinase receptor have also shown promise when combined with standard chemotherapeutic agents in patients with advanced NSCLC. However, unlike bevacizumab, not al other antiangiogenic agents show significant benefits when combined with chemotherapy. As for the failures of most other combinations, the combination schedule may be an important reason that has so far been overlooked in clinical trials. This article reviews the combination of angiogenic agents with chemotherapy in the treatment of NSCLC.

  20. The Need Of Laboratory Experiments In Parallel To Astrobiological Space Fligth Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    For laboratory studies on the responses of resistant life forms to simulated interplane- tary space conditions, test beds are available that simulate the parameters of space, such as vacuum, solar electromagnetic and cosmic ionizing radiation, temperature extremes and reduced gravity, which can be applied separately or in selected com- binations. Appropriate biological test systems are extremophiles, i.e. microorganisms that are adapted to grow or survive in extreme conditions of our biosphere. Examples are airborne microbes, endolithic or endoevaporitic microbial communities, or isolated biomolecules. The studies contribute to answer several questions of astrobiology, such as (i) the role of solar UV radiation in genetic stability, (ii) the role of gravity in basic biological functions, (iii) the chances and limits for interplanetary transfer of life, (iv) strategies of adaptation to environmental extremes, and (v) the needs for planetary protection. As an example, the ground controls that were performed in parallel with 3 BIOPAN flight experiments will be presented.

  1. Generating Combinations by Three Basic Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-xi Cheng

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the problem of listing combinations using a special class of operations, prefix shifts. Com- binations are represented as bitstrings of O's and l's, and prefix shifts are the operations of rotating some prefix of a bitstring by one position to left or right. We give a negative answer to an open problem asked by F. Ruskey and A. Williams (Generating combinations by prefix shifts, In Proc. Llth Annual International Computing and Combinatorics Conference 2005, LNCS 3595, Springer, 2005, pp.570~576), that is whether we can generate combinations by only using three very basic prefix shifts on bitstrings, which are transposition of the first two bits and the rotation of the entire bitstring by one position in either direction (I.e., applying the permutations σ2, σn and σn1- to the indices of the bitstrings).

  2. U.S.-Mexico Border Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the development of extensive geodatabases have become invaluable tools for addressing a variety of contemporary societal issues and for making predictions about the future. The United States-Mexico Geographic Information System (USMX-GIS) is based on fundamental datasets that are produced and/or approved by the national geography agencies of each country, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Y Geografia (INEGI) of Mexico, and the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC). The data are available at various scales to allow both regional and local analysis. The USGS and the INEGI have an extensive history of collaboration for transboundary mapping including exchanging digital technology and developing methods for harmonizing seamless national level geospatial datasets for binational environmental monitoring, urban growth analysis, and other scientific applications.

  3. A Preliminary Study on the Relationship Between the Indica-Japonica RAPD Differentiation of Parents and Heterosis in Dian Type Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Wen-hong; XU Ming-hui; ZHANG Shu-hua

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between the indica-japonica differentiation of parents and heterosis of hybridin rice was studied with 10 sterile lines, 10 maintainer lines of the sterile lines, 38 restorer lines of Dian typehybrid rice and 40 hybrids derived from the sterile lines and restorer lines. The results indicated that there wasa parabolic correlation between the indica-japonica differentiation of parents detected by RAPD markers andheterosis of hybrid rice. When certain indica-japonica differentiation of parents exists, the percentage of com-binations with positve heterosis and the mean heterosis of hybrids were high. But that didn't mean too muchdifference of parents could lead to stronger hetesosis, that meant overdiffernt parents seldom bring positve het-erotic hybrids. Suitable difference of percent of indica alleles of parents of stronger heterotic hybrid was 12 -16%.

  4. Zionism & Bilingualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    and TV reports were made about the schools. In this paper, the way in which the schools are presented in documentary films is illuminated. The paper provides an analysis of how certain views of linguistic and cultural co-existence within an educational setting are brought forward. The paper’s main......In Today’s Israel the school system is divided by nationality and language. Jews study in Jewish only schools and the medium of instruction is Hebrew, while Arabs study in Arab only schools and the medium of instruction is Arabic. The first initiative of Arab-Jewish bilingual education is from...... the 70s. Then, the Arab-Jewish village ‘Neve Shalom’ was founded, and a bi-national & bilingual school was established. In 1998 a grass-root movement of educationalists and parents started the “Hand in Hand” organization of Arab-Jewish bilingual education in Israel. This organization consists today of 4...

  5. Explore and Analyse of Development Model of Eco-Agricultural Tourism Based on Circular Economy Theory%基于循环经济理论的生态农业旅游发展模式探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱智

    2013-01-01

    对循环经济理论进行了简要阐述,以河源连平县大湖镇九里鱼生态旅游度假区发展生态农业旅游的实践,提出了“生态农业链、生态能源链、生态景观链三结合”的生态农业旅游发展新模式。%This paper raised the Circular Economy Theory briefly ,and proposed a new model of eco-agricultural tourism of three com-binations in eco-agriculture chain ,eco-energy chain and eco-landscape chain based on the developmental practice of eco-agricultural tourism of the Jiuliyu eco-tourism resort of Heyuan .

  6. Balancing Energy, Food, Natural Resources and Environment in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dilli Bahadur

    2010-09-15

    Nepal could harness less than 1% of its 83000 MW hydropower potential. Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project (6720 MW) is a bi-national project on Mahakali River bordering between Nepal and India. The earnings from: electricity (NRs. 34.55 billion/year); irrigation (NRs. 5.55 billion/year), fish farming (NRs. 8.65 billion/year), carbon trading (NRs. 4.42 billion/year) and many billions from other sources e.g. eco-tourism, industry, horticulture, herbiculture, floriculture, sericulture, rafting and water sports, educational and vocational training and other industrial/commercial activities can catapult the socioeconomic horizon of Nepal. Hence, PMP should be jointly developed in the earliest and build confidence for the further hydropower development.

  7. High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project Advanced Space-Rated Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) has an agreement with China National Offshore Oil Corporation New Energy Investment Company, Ltd. (CNOOC), under the United States-China EcoPartnerships Framework, to create a bi-national entity seeking to develop technically feasible and economically viable solutions to energy and environmental issues. Advanced batteries have been identified as one of the initial areas targeted for collaborations. CWRU invited NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) personnel from the Electrochemistry Branch to CWRU to discuss various aspects of advanced battery development as they might apply to this partnership. Topics discussed included: the process for the selection of a battery chemistry; the establishment of an integrated development program; project management/technical interactions; new technology developments; and synergies between batteries for automotive and space operations. Additional collaborations between CWRU and NASA GRC's Electrochemistry Branch were also discussed.

  8. Papers of the EECO 2003 Environment and Energy Conference : preserving the environment and promoting U.S. and Canada trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environment and Energy Conference is a bi-national cross-border forum on trade and environmental issues pertaining to the Great Lakes Economy in both Canada and the United States. Delegates from business, government and non-government organizations attended the conference to gain insight on how to ensure economic and environmental health of the Great Lakes region in order to contribute to sustainable growth. The presentations addressed environmental issues such as energy security; restructuring; urban transit; threats to clean air; cities; water demands in the Great Lakes ecosystems; new cars and new fuels; and, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The conference featured 32 presentations, of which 4 were indexed separately for inclusion in this database

  9. Drug treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    China Medical Abstracts(Intenal Medicine) 930428 In vitro antibacterial activity and clini-cal significance of domestic fluroqinolones com-binations with other antimicrobial agenls.LI Li-jin(李立津),et al.Instit Infect Dis,2nd TeachHosp,Tianjin Med Coll,Tianjin,300211.Chin JIntern Med 1993;32(2):148—151.The minimal inhibitory concentration of nor-floxacia,pefloxacin,ciprofloxacin and other tenantimicrobial agents for 143 strains of Gram-positive cocci and 267 strains of Gram-negativebacilli of recent clinical isolates from June 1990to March 1991 was analyzed.The results showedthat ciprofloxacin and norvancomycin were moreactive than other antimicrobial agents against

  10. Developing an Ecosystem Services Online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed: Where We Live, Work, and Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura; Tallent-Halsell, Nita; Labiosa, William; Weber, Matt; McCoy, Amy; Hirschboeck, Katie; Callegary, James; van Riper, Charles, III; Gray, Floyd

    2010-01-01

    Using respective strengths of the biological, physical, and social sciences, we are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), to help promote the use of information relevant to water allocation and land management in a binational watershed along the U.S.-Mexico border. The SCWEPM will include an ES valuation system within a suite of linked regional driver-response models and will use a multicriteria scenario-evaluation framework that builds on GIS analysis and spatially-explicit models that characterize important ecological, economic, and societal endpoints and consequences that are sensitive to climate patterns, regional water budgets, and regional LULC change in the SCW.

  11. Urban-environmental study from the Juarez municipality brick factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Romo Aguilar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to evaluate the current situation of the traditional and ecological brick kilns in Juarez. The evaluation is addressed in both the environmental and socio-economic context. The brick production belongs to the informal economic sector without any regulatory scheme and without taxation. Its very low technology has serious impacts on the binational environment of the Paso del Norte region, through the highly polluted emissions to the atmosphere. However, the social and economic context of people working in this industry does not allow important changes, thus, making difficult any initiative for the brick kilns improvements and relocation. The main information source was a very concise survey applied to whole universe of brick makers. Data survey was registered in a Geographic Information System (GIS environment allowing us the analysis of the brick kilns in a spatial context. Finally, this document presents a descriptive profile of the brick kilns production and for the brickmakers.

  12. The new Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database (SCANDAT2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus; Vasan, Senthil K;

    2015-01-01

    AND METHODS: We have previously created the anonymized Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) database, containing data on blood donors, blood transfusions, and transfused patients, with complete follow-up of donors and patients for a range of health outcomes. Here we describe the re...... registers to attain complete follow-up for up to 47 years regarding hospital care, cancer, and death. RESULTS: After removal of erroneous records, the database contained 25,523,334 donation records, 21,318,794 transfusion records, and 3,692,653 unique persons with valid identification, presently followed......: It is possible to create a binational, nationwide database with almost 50 years of follow-up of blood donors and transfused patients for a range of health outcomes. We aim to use this database for further studies of donor health, transfusion-associated risks, and transfusion-transmitted disease....

  13. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Laredo, Crystal City-Eagle Pass, San Antonio, and Del Rio 1 x 2 Quadrangles, Texas, and the Nuevo Laredo, Ciudad Acuna, Piedras Negras, and Nueva Rosita 1 x 2 Quadrangles, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Berry, Margaret E.; VanSistine, D. Paco; Snyders, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this map is to provide an integrated, bi-national geologic map dataset for display and analyses on an Arc Internet Map Service (IMS) dedicated to environmental health studies in the United States-Mexico border region. The IMS web site was designed by the US-Mexico Border Environmental Health Initiative project and collaborators, and the IMS and project web site address is http://borderhealth.cr.usgs.gov/. The objective of the project is to acquire, evaluate, analyze, and provide earth, biologic, and human health resources data within a GIS framework (IMS) to further our understanding of possible linkages between the physical environment and public health issues. The geologic map dataset is just one of many datasets included in the web site; other datasets include biologic, hydrologic, geographic, and human health themes.

  14. John’s use of Scripture in Revelation 1:7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J.J Menken

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Four questions are asked in this paper: (1 Which are the Old Testament passages from which John quotes in Revelation 1:7? (2 To what extent do the separate quotations and their combination belong to the early Christian tradition used by John? (3 How and where did this combination of quotations come into being? (4 What does John aim at with this com- bination of quotations in this context? John makes use of the combination of God’s eschatological agent as depicted in Daniel 7 and the “pierced one” from Zechariah 12 into one figure, to present the traditional early Christian eschatology, phrased in Old Testament terms, as the basis and the starting point of his book.

  15. Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudelia Rangel M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US, and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico-San Diego (California, US border region (N=1 429. RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.

  16. Developing spatially explicit footprints of plausible land-use scenarios in the Santa Cruz Watershed, Arizona and Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Feller, Mark; Villarreal, Miguel L.

    2012-01-01

    The SLEUTH urban growth model is applied to a binational dryland watershed to envision and evaluate plausible future scenarios of land use change into the year 2050. Our objective was to create a suite of geospatial footprints portraying potential land use change that can be used to aid binational decision-makers in assessing the impacts relative to sustainability of natural resources and potential socio-ecological consequences of proposed land-use management. Three alternatives are designed to simulate different conditions: (i) a Current Trends Scenario of unmanaged exponential growth, (ii) a Conservation Scenario with managed growth to protect the environment, and (iii) a Megalopolis Scenario in which growth is accentuated around a defined international trade corridor. The model was calibrated with historical data extracted from a time series of satellite images. Model materials, methodology, and results are presented. Our Current Trends Scenario predicts the footprint of urban growth to approximately triple from 2009 to 2050, which is corroborated by local population estimates. The Conservation Scenario results in protecting 46% more of the Evergreen class (more than 150,000 acres) than the Current Trends Scenario and approximately 95,000 acres of Barren Land, Crops, Deciduous Forest (Mesquite Bosque), Grassland/Herbaceous, Urban/Recreational Grasses, and Wetlands classes combined. The Megalopolis Scenario results also depict the preservation of some of these land-use classes compared to the Current Trends Scenario, most notably in the environmentally important headwaters region. Connectivity and areal extent of land cover types that provide wildlife habitat were preserved under the alternative scenarios when compared to Current Trends.

  17. Institutions and Societal Impacts of Climate in the Lower Colorado and San Pedro Basins of the U.S.-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, R. G.; Wilder, M.; Morehouse, B. J.; Garfin, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Southwest and Mexico border region feature two prominent river basins, the Colorado and Rio Grande, and ecologically important sub-basins such as the San Pedro. The area within which these transboundary basins lie is characterized by overall aridity and high climatic variability over seasonal to decadal and longer time scales. Throughout human occupation, numerous and diverse strategies for buffering climate impacts have emerged. The most notable response has been an increasingly complex system of institutions and structures designed to buffer water scarcity. The Colorado River Compact, and the laws governing allocation of waters from the Rio Grande River, together with the dams, hydropower generators, canals and other engineered features, represent two of the most complex systems. Drought nevertheless remains a looming specter across much of the binational border region. Institutional mechanisms for responding to drought range from awareness-raising and capacity-building efforts, to implementation of formal drought plans, to storing water to make up for deficits, and water conservation rules that become increasingly stringent as drought intensifies. A number of formal and informal binational institutions operate in the region. Some are venerable, like the century-old International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) and its Mexican counterpart the Comision Internacional de Limites y Agua (CILA). Others, like the Border Environment Cooperation Commission and the North American Development Bank, were created in the mid-1990s with the North American Free Trade Agreement. These institutions, both domestic and transnational, operate in a complex binational, bicultural environment with contrasting legal and administrative traditions. Under such constraints, they manage water resources and ecosystems and attempt to improve water and sanitation infrastructure in the context of deep and extended drought. But in spite of their efforts, society and natural habitat

  18. Apoyo a la integración urbana y regional de la zona fronteriza del Eje Vial N° 1 Piura – Guayaquil: una aproximación desde una perspectiva binacional y sostenible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Castillo García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Support for urban and regional integration of the frontier zone of the Axis Road N° 1 Piura – Guayaquil: an aproach from a binational and sustainable perspectiveThe objective of this paper is to show a concrete experience of territorial management of the frontier zone of the Axis Road N° 1 Piura–Guayaquil formed by Zarumilla Province (Perú and Huaquillas and Arenillas Cantons (Ecuador, from a binational and sustainable perspective, having as regional framework the Region of Tumbes (Perú and El Oro Province (Ecuador. In this study area there are social inequities, such as scarce educational opportunities, insufficient youngsters’ training and health access. Thus, the university education supply is short, which gives way to youngsters’ emigration to Tumbes, Machala and other cities when they want to get a university education. Health services are also insufficient in terms of infrastructure, equipment, human resources, and quality of the services offered, which justifies a territorial management.El objetivo del presente artículo es presentar una experiencia concreta de ordenamiento territorialde la zona fronteriza del Eje Vial N° 1 Piura – Guayaquil, conformada por la provincia de Zarumilla (Perú y los cantones de Huaquillas y Arenillas (Ecuador, desde una perspectiva binacional y sostenible; considerando como marco regional a la región Tumbes (Perú, y a la provincia de El Oro (Ecuador. En esta área de estudio se presentan situaciones de inequidad social como escasas  oportunidades de educación, de formación de jóvenes y de acceso a la salud. Así, la oferta de oportunidades de educación universitaria es restringida, lo que motiva que los jóvenes con aspiraciones de lograr una formación universitaria se trasladen a las ciudades de Tumbes, Machala y otras para satisfacer sus anhelos. Los servicios de salud se ofrecen de manera insuficiente, en términos de infraestructura, equipamiento, recursos humanos y calidad en la

  19. The gradience of multilingualism in typical and impaired language development: Positioning bilectalism within comparative bilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleanthes K. Grohmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of factors characterizes bi- and multilingual compared to monolingual language acquisition. Two of the most prominent viewpoints have recently been put in perspective and enriched by a third (Tsimpli 2014: age of onset of children’s exposure to their native languages, the role of the input they receive, and the timing in monolingual first language development of the phenomena examined in bi- and multilingual children’s performance. This article picks up a fourth potential factor (Grohmann 2014b: language proximity, that is, the closeness between the two or more grammars a multilingual child acquires. It is a first attempt to flesh out the proposed gradient scale of multilingualism within the approach dubbed ‘comparative bilingualism’. The empirical part of this project comes from three types of research: (i the acquisition and subsequent development of pronominal object clitic placement in two closely related varieties of Greek by bilectal, binational, bilingual, and multilingual children; (ii the performance on executive control tasks by monolingual, bilectal, and bi- or multilingual children; and (iii the role of comparative bilingualism in children with a developmental language impairment for both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment as well as the possible avoidance or weakening of how language impairment presents.

  20. Hydrogen disproportionation phase diagram and magnetic properties for Nd15Fe79B6 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mateusz Szymaski; Bartosz Michalski; Elbieta Jezierska; Marcin Leonowicz; Zbigniew Miazga

    2016-01-01

    Transformation-temperature-hydrogen pressure phase diagram was constructed for a Nd15Fe79B6 alloy in order to estimate appropriate conditions for hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination reaction (the HDDR). Optimised recom-bination time (the highest coercivity) was found to be 10 min. for 5 g samples processed at 740 ºC. Several HDDR processes were carried out at 30 kPa of hydrogen pressure at various temperatures. No correlation between magnetic propertiec and a direction of measurement was observed for the samples processed at 740 ºC. Remanence anisotropy was induced along an alignment direction when the temperature of the HDDR process was increased up to 800 ºC and 850 ºC for<100μm and 100–160μm particles, respec-tively. Simultaneously, a small drop in coercivity was observed in the direction of alignment for <100 μm particles, but no for 100–160μm particles. Furthermore, probably an ordered phase was found by TEM microstructure analysis in the bulk sample dis-proportionated at 850 ºC under 150 kPa of hydrogen. Grains with antiphase domains were observed and corresponding electron dif-fraction patterns were resolved, likely indicating superlattice structures.

  1. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Charles Edwards; Wooten, Wilma; Gomez, María Gudelia Rangel; Kozo, Justine; Fernandez, April; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-01-01

    There are hundreds of people and organizations working on border health issues in the California-Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health. These efforts are being conducted without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. Thus, there is a need to coordinate these organizations to work together and benefit from their collective effort and each other's best practices. The outcome of such an effort could effectively improve the health in the border region. The newly developed "California Border Health Collaborative" unites organizations and provides the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region; it is referred to as the "Collaborative." This article describes the developmental process of this Collaborative, including partner engagement, governance, strategic planning, key elements for success, the roles of multi-level jurisdictions, and policy implications. This paper focuses on describing the preparation and processes that created the U.S./California side of this binational collaborative effort and is a strong reflection of the theory of border collaboration as described by Denman and De Sonora (1) in "Working beyond Borders: A Handbook for Transborder Projects in Health." PMID:26075195

  2. Experiment and simulation study on construction of a three-dimensional network model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jian; LI ZhenQuan; ZHANG SunKang; CAO XuLong; SONG XinWang; GAO DeBo

    2008-01-01

    The construction of a network model is one of the key techniques in organic com-bination of microscopic flow experiment and simulation. The construction method of a three-dimensional network model is presented on the basis of CT scanning images in this paper. A series of CT slice images describing microscopic pore structure and fluid distribution of actual rock is obtained with the help of the in-dustrial microfocus CT system. Based on the extraction of pore space skeleton, pore and throat information, the corresponding network model is established, and the conversion from three-dimensional CT image information to pore-throat size distribution and topological information is also achieved. The feature of this me-thod lies in the fact that complicated pore space of rock may be characterized by pores and throats with a simple shape while keeping the geometry and flow char-acteristics. It is indicated that the calculated results of porosity, permeability, rela-tive permeability curve and microscopic remaining oil distribution match very well the experimental results of water flooding and polymer flooding. This network model may fairly well characterize the rock microscopic pore-throat size and topo-logical characteristics.

  3. United States-Mexico cross-border health insurance initiatives: Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Laugesen, Miriam; Caban, Mabel; Rosenau, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    While U.S. health care reform will most likely reduce the overall number of uninsured Mexican-Americans, it does not address challenges related to health care coverage for undocumented Mexican immigrants, who will remain uninsured under the measures of the reform; documented low-income Mexican immigrants who have not met the five-year waiting period required for Medicaid benefits; or the growing number of retired U.S. citizens living in Mexico, who lack easy access to Medicare-supported services. This article reviews two promising binational initiatives that could help address these challenges-Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico; discusses their prospective applications within the context of U.S. health care reform; and identifies potential challenges to their implementation (legal, political, and regulatory), as well as the possible benefits, including coverage of uninsured Mexican immigrants, and their integration into the U.S. health care system (through Salud Migrante), and access to lower-cost Medicare-supported health care for U.S. retirees in Mexico (Medicare in Mexico).

  4. Can't buy my love: a typology of female sex workers' commercial relationships in the Mexico-U.S. Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Amaro, Hortensia; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) experience elevated risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) through unprotected sex with male clients, yet the complexity of these commercial relationships remains understudied. From 2010 to 2011, we explored FSWs' conceptualizations of various client types and related risk behavior patterns using semistructured interviews with 46 FSWs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, where FSWs' HIV/STI prevalence is increasing. Our grounded theory analysis identified four types of commercial relationships: nonregular clients, regular clients and friends, clients who "fell in love" with FSWs, and long-term financial providers who often originated from the United States. As commercial relationships developed, clients' social and emotional connections to FSWs increased, rendering condom negotiation and maintaining professional boundaries more difficult. Drug abuse and poverty also influenced behaviors, particularly in Ciudad Juárez, where lucrative U.S. clients were increasingly scarce. While struggling to cultivate dependable relationships in a setting marked by historical sex tourism from a wealthier country, some FSWs ceased negotiating condom use. We discuss the need for HIV/STI research and prevention interventions to recognize the complexity within FSWs' commercial relationships and how behaviors (e.g., condom use) evolve as relationships develop through processes that are influenced by local sociopolitical contexts and binational income inequality. PMID:23659340

  5. Concentration and distribution of contaminants in lake trout and walleye from the Laurentian Great Lakes (2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, Daryl J; Murphy, Elizabeth W

    2016-10-01

    Biomonitoring programs for persistent, bioaccumulative, and/or toxic chemicals of concern in fish tissues have been operated by the governments of Canada and the United States in the Great Lakes since the 1970's. The objectives of these programs are to assess concentrations of harmful chemicals in whole body top predator fish as an indicator of ecosystem health and to infer potential harm to fish and fish consuming wildlife in the Great Lakes Basin. Chemicals of interest are selected based upon national and binational commitments, risk assessment, and regulation, and include a wide range of compounds. This review summarizes all available data generated by Environment Canada and the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemicals measured in whole body homogenates of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Walleye (Sander vitreus) for the time period spanning 2008 to 2012 from each of the five Great Lakes. The summary shows that concentrations of legacy compounds, such as, POPs listed in the Stockholm Convention and mercury continue to dominate the chemical burden of Great Lakes fish. This assessment, and others like it, can guide the creation of environmental quality targets where they are lacking, optimize chemical lists for monitoring, and prioritize chemicals of concern under agreements such as the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Stockholm Convention.

  6. Biodiversity losses and conservation trade-offs: Assessing future urban growth scenarios for a North American trade corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Boykin, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The Sonoran Desert and Apache Highlands ecoregions of North America are areas of exceptionally high plant and vertebrate biodiversity. However, much of the vertebrate biodiversity is supported by only a few vegetation types with limited distributions, some of which are increasingly threatened by changing land uses. We assessed the impacts of two future urban growth scenarios on biodiversity in a binational watershed in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. We quantified and mapped terrestrial vertebrate species richness using Wildlife Habitat Relation models and validated the results with data from National Park Service biological inventories. Future urban growth, based on historical trends, was projected to the year 2050 for 1) a “Current Trends” scenario and, 2) a “Megalopolis” scenario that represented a transnational growth corridor with open-space conservation attributes. Based on Current Trends, 45% of existing riparian woodland (267 of 451species), and 34% of semi-desert grasslands (215 of 451 species) will be lost, whereas, in the Megalopolis scenario, these types would decline by 44% and 24% respectively. Outcomes of the two models suggest a trade-off at the taxonomic class level: Current Trends would reduce and fragment mammal and herpetofauna habitat, while Megalopolis would result in loss of avian-rich riparian habitat.

  7. 学案导学与案例教学双模式在数学教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易同贸

    2014-01-01

    A s higher vocational education develops rapidly, m athem atics, an im portant basic course, faces difficulties and challenges in teaching. T his calls for reform and innovation in teaching m ode. A ccording to the present learning situation of students, com bined w ith the function and characteristics of higher vocational m ath course, the adoption and com bination of the tw o teaching m odeplan-guided learning and case teaching can increase the teaching effect.%随着高等职业教育的快速发展,作为高等职业教育中的一门重要基础课程,高等数学课面临很大的困难与挑战,教学模式在实践探索中需要不断地改革与创新。根据学生的学习现状,结合了高职数学课的作用及特点,采用“学案导学”与“案例教学”两种教学模式,使之有机结合,可提高教学效果。

  8. Concentration and distribution of contaminants in lake trout and walleye from the Laurentian Great Lakes (2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, Daryl J; Murphy, Elizabeth W

    2016-10-01

    Biomonitoring programs for persistent, bioaccumulative, and/or toxic chemicals of concern in fish tissues have been operated by the governments of Canada and the United States in the Great Lakes since the 1970's. The objectives of these programs are to assess concentrations of harmful chemicals in whole body top predator fish as an indicator of ecosystem health and to infer potential harm to fish and fish consuming wildlife in the Great Lakes Basin. Chemicals of interest are selected based upon national and binational commitments, risk assessment, and regulation, and include a wide range of compounds. This review summarizes all available data generated by Environment Canada and the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemicals measured in whole body homogenates of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Walleye (Sander vitreus) for the time period spanning 2008 to 2012 from each of the five Great Lakes. The summary shows that concentrations of legacy compounds, such as, POPs listed in the Stockholm Convention and mercury continue to dominate the chemical burden of Great Lakes fish. This assessment, and others like it, can guide the creation of environmental quality targets where they are lacking, optimize chemical lists for monitoring, and prioritize chemicals of concern under agreements such as the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Stockholm Convention. PMID:26740246

  9. Latest progress of research on acute abdominal injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ionut Negoi; Sorin Paun; Bogdan Stoica; Ioan Tanase; Mihaela Vartic; Ruxandra Irina Negoi; Sorin Hostiuc; Mircea Beuran

    2016-01-01

    Major abdominal trauma, both blunt and penetrating, is commonly seen nowadays, being particularly difficult to manage due to the frequent altered mental status of the patients and severity of associated injuries. The review article aims to make an uptodate study of the current strategies for therapeutic approach of abdominal injuries in polytrauma setting. Review of the medical literature is up to 2015, by using the PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. We have used different com-binations of the keywords of“abdominal trauma”,“liver”,“spleen”,“renal”, to review the reference list of retrieved articles for further relevant studies. Nowadays, we are facing a major change in abdominal trauma therapeutic approach, due to the continuous extending indications and very high successful rate of selective nonoperative management, completed or not with minimally invasive techniques like angiography and angiographic embolization. New imaging methods offer a high-quality characterization of solid organ injuries, being a secure support for decision algorithm in polytrauma patients. After a continuous decrease in number of laparotomies for trauma, new techniques should be developed for maintaining and developing the trauma surgeons' skills. According to the current standards, for a low morbidity and mortality, the trauma patients may be approached by a multidisciplinary and experienced trauma team. Even if nonoperative management is continuously expanding, this may be applied only by a trained and skillful trauma surgeon, who is able to perform difficult surgical techniques at any moments.

  10. Effects of follistatin on testosterone secretion of rat Leydig cell in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江源; 邵迎红; 窦京涛; 李明

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of follistatin(rhFS-288) on biosynthesis andsecretion of testosterone in rat Leydig cell in vitro.Methods: Leydig cells were isolated from Wistar rat testes by a discontinuous Per-coll gradient procedure. Purified cells were incubated in 24-well plate(105 cell/ml/well)and maintained for 24 h in a CO2 incubator. rhFS-288 and Ca2+ were added to the wellsindependently or jointly in both baseline (without hCG) and stimulation condition (1.0IU/ml of hCG) to observe the change of testosterone concentration in the media.Results: rhFS-288 showed a dose-dependent inhibiting effect on testosterone releasein baseline and stimulating condition. Ca2+ presented inhibitory effect either. Whereas,escape phenomenon emerged while Ca2+ concentration reached to 100 mmol/L. A com-bination of rhFS-288 with Ca2+ displayed a dose-dependent inhibition on testosterone se-cretion.Conclusion: rhFS-288 inhibits testosterone secretion in a dose-dependent manner.Calcium is thought to be the second messenger of FS action. The mechanism of escapephenomenon during high dose of Ca2+ along is unknown.

  11. Numerical simulation and combination optimization of aluminum holding furnace linings based on simulated annealing☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jimin Wang; Shen Lan; Tao Chen; Wenke Li; Huaqiang Chu

    2015-01-01

    To reduce heat loss and save cost, a combination decision model of reverb aluminum holding furnace linings in aluminum casting industry was established based on economic thickness method, and was resolved using sim-ulated annealing. Meanwhile, a three-dimensional mathematical model of aluminum holding furnace linings was developed and integrated with user-defined heat load distribution regime model. The optimal combination was as follows:side wal with 80 mm alumino-silicate fiber felts, 232 mm diatomite brick and 116 mm chamotte brick;top wall with 50 mm clay castables, 110 mm alumino-silicate fiber felts and 200 mm refractory concrete;and bottom wal with 232 mm high-alumina brick, 60 mm clay castables and 68 mm diatomite brick. Lining tem-perature from high to low was successively bottom wal , side wal , and top wall. Lining temperature gradient in increasing order of magnitude was refractory layer and insulation layer. It was indicated that the results of com-bination optimization of aluminum holding furnace linings were valid and feasible, and its thermo-physical mechanism and cost characteristics were reasonably revealed.

  12. Study on the Connotation of Community in Discipline of Social Work%社会工作学视野下的社区内涵探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺志峰

    2012-01-01

      在社会工作领域,社区工作备受争议的关键点之一就在于对社区内涵的理解。本文在静态上,分析了社区概念的三种研究维度,即地理的社区、心理的社区和行动的社区。在动态上,指出随着社会的变迁,社区概念的内涵及要素会在地理的、心理的和行动的维度上呈现出不同的组合形式。%  In social work field, community work is frequently dis-puted due to the connotation of community. Based on development of so-cial work in Macao , Hong Kong and Tai Wan,the paper mainly studies evolution of conception of community. It maybe be divided into three di-mensionalities,which are geographical community,psychological com-munity and action community. Along with society changes, Understand-ing toward connotation of community would present some different com-binations of above dimensionalities.

  13. Dual Targeting of a Mitochondrial Protein: The Case Study of Cytochrome C1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anja R(o)diger; Bianca Baudisch; Uwe Langner; Ralf Bernd Kl(o)sgen

    2011-01-01

    As a result of the endosymbiotic gene transfer, the majority of proteins of mitochondria and chloroplasts is encoded in the nucleus and synthesized in the cytosol as precursor molecules carrying N-terminal transit peptides for the transport into the respective target organelle. In most instances, transport takes place into either mitochondria or chlor-oplasts, although a few examples of dual targeting into both organelles have been described. Here, we show by a com-bination of three different experimental strategies that also cytochrome c of potato, a component of the respiratory electron transport chain, is imported not only into mitochondria, but also into plastids. In organello import experiments with isolated mitochondria and chloroplasts, which were analyzed in both single and mixed organelle assays, demonstrate that the processing products accumulating after import within the two endosymbiotic organelles are different in size. Dual targeting of cytochrome c is observed also in vivo, after biolistic transformation of leaf epidermal cells with suitable reporter constructions. Finally, Western analyses employing cytochrome c-specific antiserum provide evidence that the protein accumulates in significant amounts in mitochondria and chloroplasts of both pea and spinach. The possible consequences of our findings on the relevance of the dual targeting phenomenon are discussed.

  14. Substance P combined with epidermal stem cells promotes wound healing and nerve regeneration in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-bin Zhu; Xiang-jing Fang; De-wu Liu; Ying Shao; Hong-yan Zhang; Yan Peng; Qing-ling Zhong; Yong-tie Li; De-ming Liu

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous substance P accelerates wound healing in diabetes, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we established a rat model by intraperitoneally injecting streptozotocin. Four wounds (1.8 cm diameter) were drilled using a self-made punch onto the back, bilateral to the vertebral column, and then treated using amniotic membrane with epidermal stem cells and/or substance P around and in the middle of the wounds. With the combined treatment the wound-healing rate was 100% at 14 days. With prolonged time, type I col-lagen content gradually increased, yet type III collagen content gradually diminished. Abundant protein gene product 9.5- and substance P-immunoreactive nerve ifbers regenerated. Partial nerve ifber endings extended to the epidermis. The therapeutic effects of combined substance P and epidermal stem cells were better than with amniotic membrane and either factor alone. Our results suggest that the com-bination of substance P and epidermal stem cells effectively contributes to nerve regeneration and wound healing in diabetic rats.

  15. Lake Ontario zooplankton in 2003 and 2008: community changes and vertical redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudstam, Lars G.; Holeck, Kristen T.; Bowen, Kelly L.; Watkins, James M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Luckey, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Lake-wide zooplankton surveys are critical for documenting and understanding food web responses to ecosystem change. Surveys in 2003 and 2008 during the binational intensive field year in Lake Ontario found that offshore epilimnetic crustacean zooplankton declined by a factor of 12 (density) and factor of 5 (biomass) in the summer with smaller declines in the fall. These declines coincided with an increase in abundance of Bythotrephes and are likely the result of direct predation by, or behavioral responses to this invasive invertebrate predator. Whole water column zooplankton density also declined from 2003 to 2008 in the summer and fall (factor of 4), but biomass only declined in the fall (factor of 2). The decline in biomass was less than the decline in density because the average size of individual zooplankton increased. This was due to changes in the zooplankton community composition from a cyclopoid/bosminid dominated community in 2003 to a calanoid dominated community in 2008. The increase in calanoid copepods was primarily due to the larger species Limnocalanus macrurus and Leptodiaptomus sicilis. These coldwater species were found in and below the thermocline associated with a deep chlorophyll layer. In 2008, most of the zooplankton biomass resided in or below the thermocline during the day. Increased importance of copepods in deeper, colder water may favor cisco and rainbow smelt over alewife because these species are better adapted to cold temperatures than Alewife.

  16. Vocational Colleges Class Management Based on Psychological Perspective%基于心理学视角的高职院校班级管理工作探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦卫红

    2012-01-01

    高职生是一个特殊的群体,他们既有失落感、自卑感,又具有极强的自尊心。在高职生的班级管理中,要根据高职生的心理特征及班级管理中存在的问题,有针对性地运用心理学的一些原理进行思想工作,道德教育与情感教育相结合,构建和谐班级,引导学生对立合理的期望值,进行职业生涯规划,以达到高职教育的目标。%Vocational college students is a special group, their sense of loss, inferiority complex, but also has a strong self- esteem. Vocational students in class management, according to the existing problems in the psychological characteristics of vocational students and class management, targeted use of psychological principles to carry out ideological work, the com- bination of moral education and emotional education, building a harmonious classes guide the reasonable expectations of stu- dent opposition, career planning, in order to achieve the goals of vocational education.

  17. Evaluation of Catalysts and Optimization of Reaction Conditions for the Dehydration of Methyl Lactate to Acrylates%乳酸甲酯脱水制备丙烯酸酯催化剂评价及反应条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金锋; 林建平; 许晓波; 岑沛霖

    2008-01-01

    The production of acrylates from biomass-originated lactic acid is of extraordinary importance, to over- come the increasing worldwide shortage of petroleum. In this study, the catalytic dehydration of methyl lactate over a calcium sulfate catalyst, with various promoters, has been carried out to identify potential catalyst/promoter com- binations for acrylate production. The best catalyst for methyl acrylate formation in this study has been calcium sulfate, with cupric sulfate and phosphates as promoters. The optimal mass ratio of m(CaSO4) : m(CuSO4) : m(Na2HPO4) : m(KH2PO4) is 150.0 13.8 : 2.5 : 1.2. Effects of carrier gas, reaction temperature, feed concentra- tion as well as contact time on the dehydration of methyl lactate have been investigated. With nitrogen as a carrier gas, a combined yield of acrylic acid and methyl acrylate is 63.9% from 60% (by mass) methyl lactate at 400℃ with 7.7 seconds contact time.

  18. On the influences of micro-blogging on the management of higher vocational college students and countermeasures%浅论微博对高职院校学生管理的影响及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏舒

    2014-01-01

    探讨新媒体视域下高职院校学生管理的新特点及微博对学生管理的影响,积极探索改进和转换学生教育管理的方式,提出适应新媒体时代的应对策略和工作思路,引导大学生树立正确的微博观,有机结合情感教育和理性教育,利用好微博群,有的放矢地开展教育。%This thesis discusses the new features of student management and the influences of micro-blogging on the management of higher vocational college students under the new media era and actively explores ways to improve and transform the student education management.It puts forward the coping strategies and working methods to adapt to the new media era for the purpose of guiding students to set up the correct view on micro-blogging.Organic com-bination of emotional education and rational education is needed in leading students to take advantages of micro-blogging group for specific education.

  19. Building a sustainable clinical academic workforce to meet the future healthcare needs of Australia and New Zealand: report from the first summit meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, J; Searle, J; Hanney, R; Chapman, A; Grigg, M; Choong, P; Mackay, A; Smithers, B M; Churchill, J A; Carney, S; Smith, J A; Wainer, Z; Talley, N J; Gladman, M A

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of healthcare that meets the requirements for quality, safety and cost-effectiveness relies on a well-trained medical workforce, including clinical academics whose career includes a specific commitment to research, education and/or leadership. In 2011, the Medical Deans of Australia and New Zealand published a review on the clinical academic workforce and recommended the development of an integrated training pathway for clinical academics. A bi-national Summit on Clinical Academic Training was recently convened to bring together all relevant stakeholders to determine how best to do this. An important part understood the lessons learnt from the UK experience after 10 years since the introduction of an integrated training pathway. The outcome of the summit was to endorse strongly the recommendations of the medical deans. A steering committee has been established to identify further stakeholders, solicit more information from stakeholder organisations, convene a follow-up summit meeting in late 2015, recruit pilot host institutions and engage the government and future funders.

  20. Synthesis of Geological and Geophysical Data on the Delta of the Colorado River with Relevance to the Evolution of the Grand canyon of Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Espinosa-Cardena, J. M.; Martin-Barajas, A.; Hunt, A. G.

    2001-12-01

    The origin and details of the history of Grand Canyon of Arizona is a classical but still controversial problem in geology. The Delta of Colorado River, which extends from the Imperial Valley of California to the Gulf of California of Mexico, is formed of the detritus eroded from the Grand Canyon. A great deal has been written about the Grand Canyon, however to date no one has attempted to correlate the history of the development of Canyon with the history and development of the Delta. This is mainly because information on the Delta and Northern Gulf of California is sparser and is disseminated among various governmental, educational and industrial organizations. We have therefore begun a binational effort to synthesize available geological and geophysical data from both sides of the international border and use this information to estimate the volume of sediment deposited by the Colorado River. A comparison of this volume with the volume of rocks eroded from the Grand Canyon is a first and necessary step in developing the history of the growth of the Delta as a record of the erosion of the Canyon. This progress report of our on-going project of compiling the available geological and geophysical data from the Mexicali and Imperial Valleys presents a preliminary estimation of the volume of sediments, based on deep wells, seismic reflection/refraction data, and 3D modeling of gravity data, along the crest of the modern Colorado delta.

  1. Search for the single production of doubly-charged higgs bosons at OPAL

    CERN Document Server

    Groll, M

    2003-01-01

    Abstract A searc h for the single pro duction of doubly-c harged Higgs bosons H deca ying into two like-signed leptons is performed using 600.7 pb-1 of e+e- collision data collected by the OP AL exp erimen t at LEP at cen tre-of-mass energies between 189 GeV and 209 GeV. Doubly-c harged Higgs bosons arise in Higgs triplet mo dels, whic h implemen t extensions in the Standard Mo del (SM) Higgs sector. Under certain circumstances the H could be also the ligh test Higgs boson and it should be accessible for LEP energies. No evidence for the existence of H is observ ed. Upp er limits are deriv ed on h ee , the Yukawa coupling of the H to like-signed electron pairs. A 95% con dence lev el upp er limit of h ee < 0.071 is inferred for M (H ) < 160 GeV assuming that the sum of the branc hing fractions of the H to all lepton avour com binations is 100%.

  2. Influence of Cultivation Measures on Anthocyan Accumulation in Potato%栽培技术对马铃薯花青素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许婷; 吴秋云; 李倩; 刘明月; 宋勇; 何长征; 熊兴耀; 黄科

    2015-01-01

    O rthogonalexperim entaldesign w as used to investigate the effectofdifferentcultivation m easures on anthocyan accum ulation in stolonsand tubersofpotato.The resultsshow ed thatthe optim alcom bination foranthocyan accum ulation in potato stolon and tuberw as:a potato variety Ziyang,w ith the fertilization rate of2 700 kg/hm 2,the density of83 325 plants/hm 2,and no cover.%采用正交试验设计,研究了不同栽培技术措施对马铃薯匍匐茎和块茎的花青素积累的影响。结果表明,最有利于花青素在马铃薯匍匐茎和块茎中积累的组合为:品种选用紫洋,施肥水平180 kg/667m2,密度为5555株/667m2,采取不覆盖方式,成熟期匍匐茎和块茎中花青素含量分别达19.203和33.127 mg/kg。

  3. Physical aging in Zr46.75Ti8.25Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 typical bulk metallic glass manifested as enthalpy relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Ping; ZHAO ZuoFeng; WANG WeiHua

    2008-01-01

    Enthalpy recovery is not only an important characteristic of physical aging of glass, but also a good tool to investigate the physical aging. Using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), the enthalpy recovery of Zr46.75Ti8.25Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 bulk metallic glass (BMG) was studied. The typical characteristics of enthalpy recovery of glass including the sub-Tg peak and 'overshot' were found in BMG. The evolution of the sub-Tg peak and 'overshot' were described by the free volume theory and Hodge's model, respectively. It was found that the former failed to describe the enthalpy recovery in the BeG, while the latter could give a qualitative explanation. In com-bination with the dynamics in the BMG, the origin of the enthalpy recovery in the BMG was discussed. The results show that BMGs are an ideal material to investi-gate the physical aging. The further understanding of physical aging of BMGs is useful to clarify the nature of glass and improve the application and device of new types of BMGs.

  4. Physical aging in Zr46.75Ti8.25Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 typical bulk metallic glass manifested as enthalpy relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Enthalpy recovery is not only an important characteristic of physical aging of glass,but also a good tool to investigate the physical aging. Using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC),the enthalpy recovery of Zr46.75Ti8.25Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 bulk metallic glass (BMG) was studied. The typical characteristics of enthalpy recovery of glass including the sub-Tg peak and ‘overshot’ were found in BMG. The evolution of the sub-Tg peak and ‘overshot’ were described by the free volume theory and Hodge’s model,respectively. It was found that the former failed to describe the enthalpy recovery in the BMG,while the latter could give a qualitative explanation. In com-bination with the dynamics in the BMG,the origin of the enthalpy recovery in the BMG was discussed. The results show that BMGs are an ideal material to investi-gate the physical aging. The further understanding of physical aging of BMGs is useful to clarify the nature of glass and improve the application and device of new types of BMGs.

  5. Identification and Mapping of the Edwards Stratigraphic Sequence in the State of Chihuahua Assisted by ten ArcMap Based Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pina, C.; Granados, A.; Goodell, P.

    2007-05-01

    Edwards Formation is a reef limestone that hosts one of the largest aquifers of the State of Texas. In 2004 the United States and Mexico signed an agreement intended to characterize and identify the shared binational underground resources. Texas Water Development Board Report 360 established for the Edwards Aquifer an area of more than 31,000 km2, half of which is in the State of Coahuila, Mexico (the agreement did not include the State of Chihuahua). This led to the idea that Chihuahua may also have hydrologic potential in the Edwards equivalent, where numerous large cavern systems are already recognized (Naica's Sword Cavern, and the Coyame, Nombre de Dios and Bocagrande Caverns). The objective of this study is to establish the existence, in the State of Chihuahua, of the stratigraphic sequence and geohydrologic properties such as faulting, sinkholes, and springs, within the Edwards equivalent. The Consejo de Recursos Minerales geologic map, INEGI's hydrologic study, petroleum, mining and hydrogeology studies of Chihuahua, and many others, constitute the database used. ArcMap is used to define the geologic framework and construct different thematic layers (structural, lithological, hydrological) that would aid in the identification of the stratigraphic sequence. The results show that all the Edwards Stratigraphic Sequence (ESS) exists in Chihuahua; that there are isolated areas of groundwater production in eastern Chihuahua possibly from ESS but this is not well established. Overall the ESS presents an unusual opportunity as a potentially productive aquifer in the State of Chihuahua.

  6. The San Pedro Basin: A Case Study of US and Mexican Strategies to Connect Science to Societal Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. L.; Goodrich, D. C.; Browning-Aiken, A.; Richter, H.; Varady, R.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

    2007-05-01

    The San Pedro River originates in northern Sonora near the town of Cananea and spans the U.S. - Mexico border into southeastern Arizona. The San Pedro Basin and perennial portions of its river support one of the most ecological diverse regions in the world. The regional groundwater aquifer which largely supports perennial flow and the associated riparian ecosystem is the primary water source for a number of communities, and for the Cananea copper mine in Sonora, which produces roughly two to three percent of the world's copper, and Ft. Huachuca, a major military installation in Arizona and the largest employer of southern Arizona. This presentation will discuss strategies and efforts over the past decade on both sides of the border to link hydrological, ecological and social sciences to aid elected officials and decision-makers in managing the basin, its growing population, and the water it so vitally depends upon. The disparate legal, cultural, economic and scientific environments, as well as the unequal degrees of decentralization and regional autonomy on the two sides of the border have resulted in distinct concerns and approaches to water resource management and varying rates of success. In the Sonoran portion of the basin water quality is the primary concern and in Arizona, water quantity is the major concern. The paper will report on sustained binational efforts and constraints encountered by researchers at the University of Arizona's NSF-funded SAHRA project and several NOAA-supported efforts in the basin region.

  7. Gender Equality? Attitudes towards Equal Opportunity for Women in Higher Education among Israeli Muslim Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Soen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic assumption of the paper is that Israel is practically a bi-national State, where the Arab minority constitutes approximately 20% of the population. The Arab minority is now in an interim state – it is passing from a traditional, collective way of life to a modern, individualistic one. Israeli Arabs recognize the fact that education is the key to socio-economic status. Part of the social change is the growing dominance of women in secondary and higher education in the Arab sector. Women now constitute approximately two thirds of Arab students in the Israeli institutions of higher education. The article sets out to explore the impact of education and religiosity of Israeli Muslim males on their attitudes towards women’s right to pursue higher education. The main finding of the research is the wide support for women’s right to higher education. Religiosity and education of the interviewees have been found to impact their attitudes.

  8. Radiation Testing of a Low Voltage Silicone Nuclear Power Plant Cable.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White II, Gregory Von; Schroeder, John Lee.; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Wichhart, Derek; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; Zorrilla, Jorge; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes the results generated in FY13 for cable insulation in support of the Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, in collaboration with the US-Argentine Binational Energy Working Group (BEWG). A silicone (SiR) cable, which was stored in benign conditions for %7E30 years, was obtained from Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) in Argentina with the approval of NA-SA (Nucleoelectrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima). Physical property testing was performed on the as-received cable. This cable was artificially aged to assess behavior with additional analysis. SNL observed appreciable tensile elongation values for all cable insulations received, indicative of good mechanical performance. Of particular note, the work presented here provides correlations between measured tensile elongation and other physical properties that may be potentially leveraged as a form of condition monitoring (CM) for actual service cables. It is recognized at this point that the polymer aging community is still lacking the number and types of field returned materials that are desired, but Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) -- along with the help of others -- is continuing to work towards that goal. This work is an initial study that should be complimented with location-mapping of environmental conditions of Argentinean plant conditions (dose and temperature) as well as retrieval, analysis, and comparison with in- service cables.

  9. The Benchmark Extensible Tractable Testbed Engineering Resource (BETTER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siranosian, Antranik Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schembri, Philip Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Nathan Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-02

    The Benchmark Extensible Tractable Testbed Engineering Resource (BETTER) is proposed as a family of modular test bodies that are intended to support engineering capability development by helping to identify weaknesses and needs. Weapon systems, subassemblies, and components are often complex and di cult to test and analyze, resulting in low con dence and high uncertainties in experimental and simulated re- sults. The complexities make it di cult to distinguish between inherent uncertainties and errors due to insu cient capabilities. BETTER test bodies will rst use simpli ed geometries and materials such that testing, data collection, modeling and simulation can be accomplished with high con dence and low uncertainty. Modi cations and com- binations of simple and well characterized BETTER test bodies can then be used to increase complexity in order to reproduce relevant mechanics and identify weaknesses. BETTER can provide both immediate and long-term improvements in testing and simulation capabilities. This document presents the motivation, concept, bene ts and examples for BETTER.

  10. Forecasting urban growth across the United States-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Feller, M.; Phillip, Guertin D.

    2009-01-01

    The sister-city area of Nogales, Arizona, and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, is known collectively as Ambos (both) Nogales. This area was historically one city and was administratively divided by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. These arid-lands have limited and sensitive natural resources. Environmental planning can support sustainable development to accommodate the predicted influx of population. The objective of this research is to quantify the amount of predicted urban growth for the Ambos Nogales watershed to support future planning for sustainable development. Two modeling regimes are explored. Our goal is to identify possible growth patterns associated with the twin-city area as a whole and with the two cities modeled as separate entities. We analyzed the cross-border watershed using regression analysis from satellite images from 1975, 1983, 1996, and 2002 and created urban area classifications. We used these classifications as input to the urban growth model, SLEUTH, to simulate likely patterns of development and define projected conversion probabilities. Model results indicate that the two cities are undergoing very different patterns of change and identify locations of expected growth based on historical development. Growth in Nogales, Arizona is stagnant while the urban area in Nogales, Sonora is exploding. This paper demonstrates an application that portrays how future binational urban growth could develop and affect the environment. This research also provides locations of potential growth for use in city planning.

  11. Combination of Circumcision and Microwave in Treatment of Genital Warts in Uncircumcised Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊翌明; 马泽粦; 吴志华; 李顺凡; 陈秋霞

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of combina-tion of circumcision and microwave on genital warts in uncircumcised men.Methods: A randomized, prospective study of 109 uncircumcised adult men with genital warts was con-ducted in a STD clinic in Zhanjiang, Guangdong. One group (n=54) received microwave therapy only, while the other group (n=55) was taken the combination of circumcision and microwave therapy. The recurrences were observed at the end of months 3, 6 and 12, and operative complications were also recorded.Results: There were no significant differences in the mean age and duration of the disease between two groups (P>0.05). No serious operative complications were documented. The recurrence rate in circumci-sion plus microwave group was markedly lower than that in microwave group (12.7% vs 29.6%, PO.05).Conclusion: Circumcision can be safely performed under local anesthesia in an outpatient setting. Com-bination of circumcision and microwave can produce excellent effect as well as less tissue damage,therefore, it may be ideal for uncircumcised patients with extensive condvlomas.

  12. Epistemic Disobedience and Decolonial Healing in Norma Elía Cantú’s Canícula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poks Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the U.S.-Mexican border as the place of enunciation, Cantú’s autoethnobiographical novel insists on the materiality of the border, especially for those living on its southern side, while simultaneously deconstructing it as artificial - a line splitting families and assigning nationalities on an arbitrary basis. Being a collage of photographs from the time the writer was growing up in southern Texas and the cuentos inspired by these visuals, Cantú’s Canícula documents how border crossings and re-crossings become symptomatic of living in a liminal space and how they destabilize the concept of nationality as bi-national families must learn to live with ambiguity. On the one hand, there is the undeniable materiality of the border, with its pain, fear, deportations, and other discriminatory practices; on the other, there is a growing border community of resistance cultivating the memory that they are not immigrants, that they lived in Texas before the Guadalupe-Hidalgo treaty. The paper examines the community’s strategies of survival in the contested cultural and social space and advances the thesis that, giving her community an awareness of its homogeneity and reclaiming its place within the larger socio-political context, Cantú becomes an agent of empowerment and change. She helps decolonize knowledge and being.

  13. 图书馆工作中制度化管理与人性化服务的有机结合%The Library Work in the Combination of Institutionalized Management & Humanized Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小春

    2014-01-01

    通过对图书馆工作制度化管理和人性化服务有机结合的必要性的阐述,提出了有效实行图书馆制度化管理与人性化服务有机结合的途径:即树立“以服务为中心”的管理理念、优化图书馆阅读环境、简化和规范借阅制度、创新管理,提高图书馆服务水平。%By means of the work institutionalized management in the libraries expound the necessity of the organic com-bination of humanized service, and puts forward the effective practice library of institutionalized management and hu-manized service organic combination way:Namely establish the management idea with"service as the center", to opti-mize the environment of the library to read, to simplify and specify the lending system, innovation management, and im-prove the level of library services.

  14. A new species of Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopidae, Cyclopinae) from the Chihuahuan desert, northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Salas, Nancy F.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Maeda-Martínez, Alejandro M.; Silva-Briano, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the freshwater cyclopoid copepod genus Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is described from a single pond in northern Mexico, within the binational area known as the Chihuahuan Desert. This species belongs to a group of Metacyclops species with a 3443 spine formula of swimming legs. It is morphologically similar to Metacyclops lusitanus Lindberg, 1961 but differs from this and other congeners by having a unique combination of characters, including a caudal rami length/width proportion of 3.5–3.8, a innermost terminal seta slightly longer than the outermost terminal seta, intercoxal sclerites of legs 1-4 naked, a strong apical spine of the second endopodal segment of leg 1 and one row of 6-8 small spinules at the insertion of this spine. The finding of this species represents also the first record of the genus in Mexico and the third in North America, where only two other species, Metacyclops gracilis (Lilljeborg, 1853)and Metacyclops cushae Reid, 1991 have been hitherto reported. This is also the first continental record of a species of Metacyclops from an arid environment in the Americas. This species appears to be endemic to the Chihuahuan Desert, thus emphasizing the high endemicity of this area. PMID:23794845

  15. The Gradience of Multilingualism in Typical and Impaired Language Development: Positioning Bilectalism within Comparative Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Kleanthes K; Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of factors characterizes bi- and multilingual compared to monolingual language acquisition. Two of the most prominent viewpoints have recently been put in perspective and enriched by a third (Tsimpli, 2014): age of onset of children's exposure to their native languages, the role of the input they receive, and the timing in monolingual first language development of the phenomena examined in bi- and multilingual children's performance. This article picks up a fourth potential factor (Grohmann, 2014b): language proximity, that is, the closeness between the two or more grammars a multilingual child acquires. It is a first attempt to flesh out the proposed gradient scale of multilingualism within the approach dubbed "comparative bilingualism." The empirical part of this project comes from three types of research: (i) the acquisition and subsequent development of pronominal object clitic placement in two closely related varieties of Greek by bilectal, binational, bilingual, and multilingual children; (ii) the performance on executive control tasks by monolingual, bilectal, and bi- or multilingual children; and (iii) the role of comparative bilingualism in children with a developmental language impairment for both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment as well as the possible avoidance or weakening of how language impairment presents.

  16. Development of a shared vision for groundwater management to protect and sustain baseflows of the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Holly E.; Gungle, Bruce; Lacher, Laurel J.; Turner, Dale S.; Bushman, Brooke M.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping along portions of the binational San Pedro River has depleted aquifer storage that supports baseflow in the San Pedro River. A consortium of 23 agencies, business interests, and non-governmental organizations pooled their collective resources to develop the scientific understanding and technical tools required to optimize the management of this complex, interconnected groundwater-surface water system. A paradigm shift occurred as stakeholders first collaboratively developed, and then later applied, several key hydrologic simulation and monitoring tools. Water resources planning and management transitioned from a traditional water budget-based approach to a more strategic and spatially-explicit optimization process. After groundwater modeling results suggested that strategic near-stream recharge could reasonably sustain baseflows at or above 2003 levels until the year 2100, even in the presence of continued groundwater development, a group of collaborators worked for four years to acquire 2250 hectares of land in key locations along 34 kilometers of the river specifically for this purpose. These actions reflect an evolved common vision that considers the multiple water demands of both humans and the riparian ecosystem associated with the San Pedro River.

  17. 基于 VPython 的三维场景构建在光学教学中的应用%Applications on Construction of Three di mensional Scene in Optics Teaching Based on VPython

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    VPython is a com bination of the Python program ming language and a 3D graphics module called“Visual” .VPython is designed to create interactive 3D scenes and animations quickly .In this paper ,four 3D scenes about reflection and refraction ,imaging of the thin lens ,aberration of the spherical lens and polarization phenomenon of light are introduced to illustrate application of VPython in optics teaching ,which is helpful to show specific optical phenomenon more directly and reveal related physics .%VPython 是 Python 语言和三维图像模块 Visual 的组合,可用于快速创建交互式的三维场景和动画。本文以光的反射折射、薄透镜成像、球面透镜像差和光的偏振现象为例,阐述了基于 VPython 的三维交互场景构建技术在光学课程教学中的应用。三维场景构建在光学课程教学过程中的应用有助于更直观地展现特定的光学现象并揭示其物理规律。

  18. Predation on Pacific salmonid eggs and carcass's by subyearling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Abbett, Ross; Verdoliva, Francis

    2016-01-01

    A binational effort to reintroduce Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that were extirpated in the Lake Ontario ecosystem for over a century is currently being undertaken by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Reintroduction actions include the release of several life stages including fry, fall fingerlings, and yearling smolts. In this study we describe the diet of recently released fall fingerling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of the Salmon River, New York. A specific objective of the study was to determine if juvenile Atlantic salmon would utilize the high caloric food source provided by introduced Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) that includes eggs and carcass flesh. Salmon eggs and carcass flesh comprised 20.5% of the October to January diet in 2013–14 and 23.9% in 2014–15. The consumption of steelhead (O. mykiss) eggs was a major part of the diet in April in both 2014 (54.1%) and 2015 (33.2%). This study documented that recently released Atlantic salmon will consume the high caloric food material provided by Pacific salmonids and that the consumption of this material extends for several months.

  19. Culturally Specific Youth Substance Abuse Resistance Skills: Applicability across the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Kulis, Stephen; Rodriguez, Gregorio Martinez; Becerra, David; Castillo, Jason

    2009-03-01

    This study tests the applicability among adolescents in Mexico of the keepin' it REAL (refuse, explain, avoid, and leave) strategies that are common and effective ways that U.S. youth resist substance use. Following a social learning, communication competence and ecological theory integrated approach, the study draws on self-reported questionnaire data from a non-probability sample of 327 adolescents attending two public high schools in Monterrey, Nuevo León. Multivariate regressions were used to test whether the respondents' use of the REAL strategies by the participants could be predicted by key demographic variables. Separate models were estimated for the frequency of use of each strategy and for different substances. Findings indicate that most adolescents in this sample utilized each of the REAL strategies as well as other strategies to respond to offers of alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana. Mexican and U.S. youth residing close to the US border appear to use similar drug resistance strategies. Use of the strategies varied considerably by the level of exposure to offers, but only minimally by gender and age. There were no notable differences by socioeconomic status or academic performance. Implications for prevention science, social work practice and social work research are discussed in the context of the bi-national border region and the applicability and prospect for dissemination of U.S. evidence based youth substance use prevention interventions.

  20. Photogeneration of Polarons in Sexithiophene Oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, Eitan

    1996-03-01

    We present photoexcitation studies of vacuum deposited neutral films of sexithiophene (6T) using photoinduced absorption spectroscopy and photoinduced absorption detected magnetic resonance (PADMR) techniques. We find evidence for photoinduced polarons (photoexcited ``radical ions'') having spin 1/2, with two absorption bands at 0.80 and 1.54 eV, respectively, and with negative PADMR signal at g~=2. Similar absorption bands are observed in lightly p-doped sexithiophene, and are interpreted as due to 6T^ -- + radical cations. In addition, a photoinduced absorption band is found at ~=1.1 eV, which is shorter lived and decreases faster with increasing temperature than the polaron bands. We identify this band as due to spinless bipolarons (photoexcited ``di-ions''). A similar di-cation (6T^++) band has been identified in heavily p-doped sexithiophene. Each of the polaron and bipolaron peaks, observed here, is accompanied by a secondary shoulder on its low energy side. This observation may indicate a possible breaking of charge conjugation symmetry, with negatively charged polarons (bipolarons) having lower energy transitions than positively charged polarons (bipolarons). Finally, we have identified triplet excitons (S=1) with triplet-triplet transition energy at ~=1.45 eV. Work done in collaboration with J. Poplawski (Technion), X. Wei, P. Lane and Z.V. Vardeny (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT), M. Ibrahim and A.J. Frank (NREL, Golden, CO). Supported by the US--Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF 94--256).

  1. Creating experimental color harmony map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamaret, Christel; Urban, Fabrice; Lepinel, Josselin

    2014-02-01

    Starting in the 17th century with Newton, color harmony is a topic that did not reach a consensus on definition, representation or modeling so far. Previous work highlighted specific characteristics for color harmony on com- bination of color doublets or triplets by means of a human rating on a harmony scale. However, there were no investigation involving complex stimuli or pointing out how harmony is spatially located within a picture. The modeling of such concept as well as a reliable ground-truth would be of high value for the community, since the applications are wide and concern several communities: from psychology to computer graphics. We propose a protocol for creating color harmony maps from a controlled experiment. Through an eye-tracking protocol, we focus on the identification of disharmonious colors in pictures. The experiment was composed of a free viewing pass in order to let the observer be familiar with the content before a second pass where we asked "to search for the most disharmonious areas in the picture". Twenty-seven observers participated to the experiments that was composed of a total of 30 different stimuli. The high inter-observer agreement as well as a cross-validation confirm the validity of the proposed ground-truth.

  2. An Alternative Approach to the Operation of Multinational Reservoir Systems: Application to the Amistad & Falcon System (Lower Rio Grande/Rí-o Bravo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Valdes, J. B.

    2005-12-01

    An optimization approach for the operation of international multi-reservoir systems is presented. The approach uses Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) algorithms, both steady-state and real-time, to develop two models. In the first model, the reservoirs and flows of the system are aggregated to yield an equivalent reservoir, and the obtained operating policies are disaggregated using a non-linear optimization procedure for each reservoir and for each nation water balance. In the second model a multi-reservoir approach is applied, disaggregating the releases for each country water share in each reservoir. The non-linear disaggregation algorithm uses SDP-derived operating policies as boundary conditions for a local time-step optimization. Finally, the performance of the different approaches and methods is compared. These models are applied to the Amistad-Falcon International Reservoir System as part of a binational dynamic modeling effort to develop a decision support system tool for a better management of the water resources in the Lower Rio Grande Basin, currently enduring a severe drought.

  3. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, I

    1998-05-12

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United States. Thanks to the cooperation of the survivors and the contributions of a multitude of scientists, these studies flourish to this day in what must be the most successful long-term research collaboration between the two countries. Although these studies are necessarily limited to the effects of acute, whole-body, mixed gamma-neutron radiation from the atom bombs, their comprehensiveness and duration make them the most definitive descriptions of the late effects of radiation in humans. For this reason, the entire world relies heavily on these data to set radiation standards. As vital as the study results are, they still represent primarily the effects of radiation on older survivors. Another decade or two should correct this deficiency and allow us to measure definitively the human risk of heritable mutation from radiation. We look to the worldwide radiation and risk community as well as to the survivors who have contributed so much to what has been done already to accomplish this goal. PMID:9576897

  4. Psicología política de la integración fronteriza / Political psychology of border integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro González Riesle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Con el fin de contribuir a instaurar una Cultura de Paz en la zona fronteriza peruano-chilena de Tacna-Arica, se propone la aplicación de una estrategia psicopolítica binacional de educación para la paz que contribuya a la consolidación de las relaciones de cooperación entre ambos países con miras a la construcción de una agenda de futuro dentro del marco de los desafíos que plantea la integración regional en la Alianza del Pacífico. ABSTRACT In order to help establish a Peace Culture in the Peruvian – Chilean border of Tacna - Arica, we propose the implementation of a psychopolitical binational education strategy for peace that will contribute to strengthen the relationship of cooperation between both countries with a view of constructing a future agenda within the framework of the regional integration challenges in the Pacific Alliance.

  5. Improvement Design and Artistic Study of HD Monitor in Printing Press%印刷机高清套准监视器改良设计及艺术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛芬

    2012-01-01

    在对印刷机高清套准监视器背景及意义进行研究的基础上,通过对其造型设计、色彩设计、材质表现、装饰设计及人机工程学原理几个方面进行详尽的研究,力求营造产品使用功能与形式优美相结合的特性,赋予产品新的使用价值,展现了其广阔的市场前景。%This paper, based on the study of background and significance of the printing machine HD registration monitor, through the detailed research of its design, color design, material performance, decoration design and ergonomics principle, strives to create a com- bination of product function beauty in form, endowing the product with new values and showing its broad market prospects.

  6. Thermocapilary transport in thin films using traveling thermal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Valeri; Oron, Alex; Mao, Wenbin; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    We use modeling and direct numerical simulations to investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a two-layer system consisting of a thin liquid film and an overlying gas layer sandwiched between two solid walls. Fluid flow in the system is driven by the Marangoni instability induced by thermal waves propagating along the bottom wall. We show that for relatively small Marangoni numbers interfacial capillary waves form in the thin film that transport liquid along the solid wall. In this case, the frequency of thermal waves leading to the most efficient net transport is defined by their wave length and weakly depends on other system parameters. For larger Marangoni numbers which are still sufficiently small to prevent film rupture, a periodic structure consisting of localized drops interconnected by thin liquid bridges emerges. This train of drops travels unidirectionally along the heated substrate following the thermal wave and effectively transport liquid enclosed in the drops. The results of our study are useful for developing new approaches for transporting and directing liquids in microfluidic systems with a free surface. Funding from US - Israel Binational Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. CHIPS: Monitoring Colonias along the United States-Mexico border in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. The expansion of colonias in the United States-Mexico border region can be traced to the rapid growth associated with the Mexican Border Industrial Program during the 1960s. This rapid population growth created a lack of affordable housing, causing new migrants in the United States to purchase rural homestead lots through a contract-for-deed program from land developers. Because of the need to keep prices affordable and the absence of effective land-use controls, these homesteads expanded into rural subdivisions, commonly called colonias, without proper infrastructure. Colonias have been identified in the four U.S. border states, with Texas having designated the majority, which numbered over 1,400 colonias in 2001. Because the region is binationally interconnected economically, politically, and socially, the phenomenon of colonias in the United States is a transborder issue.

  8. Flexibility of MIP Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jinlian; Gong Jianhong; Xu Youhao

    2015-01-01

    The lfexibility of MIP technology to meet market demand is mainly introduced in this study. Their commercial application and technical principle are analyzed too. The MIP technology with wide feed adaptability can form a good com-bination with other technologies. The MIP technology has been applied extensively in China. Based on this platform, the CGP, MIP-LTG and MIP-DCR technologies have been developed, which can further improve the lfexibility of MIP tech-nology. Based on its novel reaction control technique with a sole sequential two-zone riser, the MIP users can easily switch to different operating modes between producing either more clean gasoline and propylene or diesel through changing the catalysts and varying the operating conditions. That offers MIP users with enough production lfexibility and a rational pro-duction arrangement to meet the market demand. The MIP-DCR technology with less dry gas and coke yields can provide a more lfexible operating mode since the catalysts to oil ratio has become an independent variable.

  9. 辅助根管冲洗器械的研究新进展%Advances in auxiliary root canal irrigation instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽更; 穆颖

    2012-01-01

    Root canal irrigation is a must in root canal therapy, however,not a irrigating solution or a com-bination of some irrigating solutions can completely remove the smear layer. Consequently, auxiliary root canal irrigation instrument arises to improve the cleaning efficiency of root canal system . This article reviews four kinds of auxiliary root canal irrigation instruments, namely, the manual irrigation system, pressure switch system, acoustic system and ul-trasonic system.%目前尚未发现一种冲洗液或多种冲洗液的联合应用能够彻底清除根管玷污层.因此,各种辅助根管冲洗器械应运而生,以提高根管系统的清洁率.本文就各种辅助根管冲洗器械如:手动冲洗系统、压力转换系统、声波系统、超声波系统作一综述.

  10. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States–Mexico border region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Burgos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons. By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. Activities and outcomes: This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP, a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US–Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. Discussion: The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US–Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students’ desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings.

  11. A Study on the Role of Public Library in Development of Citizen Art Schools of Chengdu%公共图书馆在成都市民艺术学校建设发展中的作用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张轶

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the development , running mechanism and social benefits of citizen art schools of Chengdu in public cultural service system , the significance and function of training citizens from public library perspective , the organic com-bination of public library training and citizen art schools that provides the feasible way of creating cultural brand and innovation serv-ice for public library.%本文详细介绍了成都市在公共文化服务体系建设中打造的市民艺术学校的发展历程、运行机制和社会效益,以公共图书馆的视角着重研究市民培训的意义和作用,以及公共图书馆培训工作与市民艺术学校的有机结合,从而为公共图书馆打造文化品牌,创新服务方式提供一条可行之路。

  12. Current approaches to the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia in women with uterine leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov V.A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 155 women, of which 30 healthy women were in the control group. 125 women with uterine leiomyomas and endometrial hyperplasia constituted the main groups. In all women with uterine leiomyoma myomectomy was performed. Further treatment included randomized study of a new regimen of GnRH agonists together with COCs after myomectomy using comparison techniques: monotherapy with a-GnRH, progestins (dydrogesterone or COCs. The treatment using different medication regimens of endometrial hyperplasia after myomectomy convincingly demonstrated significantly greater efficacy of GnRH-a and COCs com¬bination in reducing frequency of symptoms of these diseases, volume of menstrual blood loss and improvement quality of life through the entire observation period. Greater efficacy of COCs and a-GnRH combination, to our opinion, is associated with a greater degree of suppression of cell proliferation and angiogenesis as a result of local (COCs, and systemic effects (a-GnRH.Thus, the proposed method of adjuvant therapy after myomectomy for women with associated endometrial hyperplasia has significant clinical benefits with minimal impact on bone mineral density and other menopausal signs caused by a-GnRH monotherapy.

  13. Can't buy my love: a typology of female sex workers' commercial relationships in the Mexico-U.S. Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Amaro, Hortensia; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) experience elevated risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) through unprotected sex with male clients, yet the complexity of these commercial relationships remains understudied. From 2010 to 2011, we explored FSWs' conceptualizations of various client types and related risk behavior patterns using semistructured interviews with 46 FSWs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, where FSWs' HIV/STI prevalence is increasing. Our grounded theory analysis identified four types of commercial relationships: nonregular clients, regular clients and friends, clients who "fell in love" with FSWs, and long-term financial providers who often originated from the United States. As commercial relationships developed, clients' social and emotional connections to FSWs increased, rendering condom negotiation and maintaining professional boundaries more difficult. Drug abuse and poverty also influenced behaviors, particularly in Ciudad Juárez, where lucrative U.S. clients were increasingly scarce. While struggling to cultivate dependable relationships in a setting marked by historical sex tourism from a wealthier country, some FSWs ceased negotiating condom use. We discuss the need for HIV/STI research and prevention interventions to recognize the complexity within FSWs' commercial relationships and how behaviors (e.g., condom use) evolve as relationships develop through processes that are influenced by local sociopolitical contexts and binational income inequality.

  14. The Influence of Photolysis Rate Constants in Ozone Production for the Paso del Norte Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Fernando; Fitzgerald, Rosa

    2012-03-01

    In this research work we are focusing on understanding the relationship between photolysis rates and the photochemical ozone changes observed in the Paso del Norte region. The city of El Paso, Texas together with Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, forms the largest contiguous bi-national metropolitan area. This region suffers year-round ozone pollution events, and a better understanding is needed to mitigate them. Previous studies have found that ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends rather than on weekdays, this phenomenon being referred to, as the ``weekend effect.'' If the ozone standard is exceeded more frequently on weekends, then this phenomenon must be considered in the design of ozone control strategies. In this work we investigate some of the most representative weekend ozone episodes at El Paso, TX, during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 using the ozone photolysis rates. In this research the TUV radiative-transfer model is used to calculate the local photolysis rates and a UV MFRSR instrument is used to obtain experimental parameters. Seasonal variations and the weekday-weekend effect is studied. The results of this research will help to understand the underlying behavior of the photolysis rate constants when different atmospheric conditions are present.

  15. Branding simbólico e hibridación: una aproximación en la intersección cultural fronteriza México-Estados Unidos de América: el caso de Ciudad Juárez-El Paso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ramos Rubio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the inclusion of symbolic branding hybridization in the Mexico-United States of America border from the perspective of an open and poly significant binational region where complex processes and sometimes conflicting groups of interest and stakeholders become articulated. Using hybridization as a tool, it's possible to establish a common starting point conceiving branding within the dichotomy, as the attribute of a product that leaves a lasting impression on the minds of consumers and which turns the brand into a cultural icon directly impacting the thoughts and attitudes of people. This paper thrives to approach common knowledge of the major commercial brands that have taken root in the region of Ciudad Juarez-El Paso by contrasting the commercial culture from the per136 172 11 Vol. 21 ¿ número 41 ¿ 2012 spective of boundary and crossborder conditions. The investigation presents a quantitative methodology divided in three stages: The 1st stage is office work by reviewing the literature; stage 2, approaching the phenomenon through network theory (ARS, linking the EGR Theory Alderfer on resource dependency; and a stage 3 with the implementation, under the EGR (Existence, Value and Growth criteria, of 105 surveys, where 18 items where considered for evaluation. Instrumentation is done through the snowball method and the main results of hybridization are: Office Depot, Coca-Cola and Colgate.

  16. Historic and modern abundance of wild lean lake trout in Michigan waters of Lake Superior: Implications for restoration goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberg, Michael J.; Hansen, Michael J.; Bronte, Charles R.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior collapsed in the late 1950s due to overfishing and predation by sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. A binational effort to restore the lean morphotype of lake trout began with the stocking of hatchery-reared fish followed by the chemical control of sea lampreys and closure of the commercial fishery. Previous comparisons of the contemporary abundance of wild lean lake trout with that from historic commercial fishery statistics indicate that abundance was higher historically. However, this conclusion may be biased because several factors—the inclusion of siscowet (the “fat” morphotype of lake trout) in the catch statistics, the soak time of nets, seasonal effects on catch per effort, and the confounding effects of effort targeted at lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis—were not accounted for. We developed new indices of historic lean lake trout abundance that correct for these biases and compared them with the assessment data from 1984 to 1998 in Michigan waters of Lake Superior. The modern (1984–1998) abundance of wild lean lake trout is at least as high as that during 1929–1943 in six of eight management areas but lower in one area. Measures to promote and protect naturally reproducing populations have been more successful than previously realized.

  17. Geological and geophysical remote sensing of Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. S., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A binational, multidisciplinary research effort in Iceland is directed at an analysis of MSS imagery from ERTS-1 to study a variety of geologic, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural phenomena. Initial findings are: (1) recent lava flows can be delineated from older ones; (2) ERTS-1 and NOAA-2 recorded volcanic eruptions on Heimaey, Vestmann Islands; (3) coastline changes are mappable; (4) areas covered with new or residual snow can be mapped, and dark appearance of newly fallen snow on band 7 appears to be related to melting; (5) sediment plumes from discharge of glacial rivers can be delineated; (6) the area encompassed by glacial ice can be mapped, including the new position of a surging glacier, Eyjabakkajokull, and related phenomena of nunataks and moraines; (7) changes in position of rivers, lake sizes, and new lakes can be mapped; (8) low sun angle imagery enhances the morphologic expression of constructional glacial and volcanic landforms; (9) MSS color composites permit regional mapping of distribution of vegetation; and (10) at least at 1:250, 000 map scale and smaller, ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of updating various types of maps of Iceland and will permit the compilation of maps specifically aimed at those dynamic environmental phenomena which impact on the Icelandic economy.

  18. Small-amplitude magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth in cylindrical liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Clark, R. W.; Mikitchuk, D.; Kroupp, E.; Maron, Y.; Fisher, A.; Schmit, P. F.

    2014-10-01

    Recent progress in developing the MagLIF approach to pulsed-power driven inertial confinement fusion has stimulated the interest in observation and mitigation of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRTI) of liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field. Theoretical analysis of these issues is particularly important because direct numerical simulation of the MRTI development is challenging due to intrinsically 3D helical structure of the fastest-growing modes. We review the analytical small-amplitude theory of the MRTI perturbation development and the weakly nonlinear theory of MRTI mode interaction, emphasizing basic physics, opportunity for 3D code verification against exact analytical solutions, and stabilization criteria. The theory is compared to the experimental results obtained at Weizmann Institute with gas-puff Z pinches and on the Z facility at Sandia with solid liners imploded in an axial magnetic field. Work supported by the US DOE/NNSA, and by the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Effect of Electroacupuncture and Psychological Rehabilitation on Alpha Competitive Structure in Patients with Internet Addiction Disorder%电针和心理康复对网络成瘾者脑α波竞争图的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宇鹏; 朱天民; 金荣疆; 徐守宇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of electroacupuncture and psychological rehabilitation on internet addiction disorder (IAD). Methods 111 IAD patients were divided into electroacupuncture group, psychology group and comprehension group (both electroacupunc-ture and psychological rehabilitation). They were measured with frequency and entropy of alpha competitive structure before and after treat-ment. Results The frequency increased and the entropy decreased in the comprehension group after treatment (P0.05). Conclusion The com-bination of electroacupuncture and psychological rehabilitation may be effective on IAD.%目的:观察电针和心理康复对网络成瘾的效果。方法111例网络成瘾患者分为电针组、心理组和综合组(电针+心理)。分别于治疗前后检测脑a波竞争图主频及熵值。结果治疗后综合组主频升高,熵值减小(P0.05)。结论电针和心理康复相结合可以改善网络成瘾患者α波主频,降低α竞争图熵值。

  20. Fertility in the context of Mexican migration to the United States: A case for incorporating the pre-migration fertility of immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Choi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mexican-American fertility is poorly understood because data limitations prevent researchers from accurately estimating the fertility levels of members of this group and from determining how their fertility changes within and across generations. Objective: Using binational data and an innovative methodological addressing key methodological limitations, I (1 estimate the fertility of Mexican Americans, (2 describe how selective Mexican migration to the United States is in terms of fertility, (3 document how Mexican-American fertility changes within and across generations, and (4 assess how educational selectivity and assimilation contribute to levels of fertility and fertility changes within and across generations. Results: My findings show that migration from Mexico to the United States is positively selective with respect to fertility. Among the migrants studied, there was a disruption in fertility in anticipation of migration, but a resumption of pre-migration fertility patterns and partial compensation for the earlier fertility loss after migration. Fertility levels among Mexican-Americans appear to be decreasing within and across generations, as immigrants deviate from their pre-migration fertility patterns and increasingly adopt those of whites. Nonetheless, Mexican-American fertility has not yet fully converged with white fertility. Educational assimilation explains a considerable portion of this fertility decline within and across generations. Comments: These findings highlight the importance of empirically observing the pre-migration fertility of immigrants.

  1. The Gradience of Multilingualism in Typical and Impaired Language Development: Positioning Bilectalism within Comparative Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Kleanthes K; Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of factors characterizes bi- and multilingual compared to monolingual language acquisition. Two of the most prominent viewpoints have recently been put in perspective and enriched by a third (Tsimpli, 2014): age of onset of children's exposure to their native languages, the role of the input they receive, and the timing in monolingual first language development of the phenomena examined in bi- and multilingual children's performance. This article picks up a fourth potential factor (Grohmann, 2014b): language proximity, that is, the closeness between the two or more grammars a multilingual child acquires. It is a first attempt to flesh out the proposed gradient scale of multilingualism within the approach dubbed "comparative bilingualism." The empirical part of this project comes from three types of research: (i) the acquisition and subsequent development of pronominal object clitic placement in two closely related varieties of Greek by bilectal, binational, bilingual, and multilingual children; (ii) the performance on executive control tasks by monolingual, bilectal, and bi- or multilingual children; and (iii) the role of comparative bilingualism in children with a developmental language impairment for both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment as well as the possible avoidance or weakening of how language impairment presents. PMID:26903890

  2. “元四家”山水画的隐逸特征%Seclusive characteristics of landscape paintings by the four renowned artists in the Yuan Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞冬仙

    2014-01-01

    元四家在长期的绘画实践中,融合笔墨的写意精神,通过对物象描绘表达画家的主观心绪,忽略物象的形似而重神似,逐渐形成了尚逸、尚意的山水画风。文人画家主张“逸笔草草,不求形似”,追求“脱俗”和“自娱”的美学思想体现了文人画家之“隐”与山水画之“逸”的结合。%The four renowned artists in the Yuan Dynasty made a spiritual fusion of hands and ink in the long-term practice of painting.They expressed the painters’subjective state of mind by depicting the images with emphasis on spiritual similarities and ignorance of the objective shapes.Such practice of painting gradually developed into a style of landscaoe paintings worshiping confort and spirit.Literati painters advocated “leisure pen in painting,not for the shape”with the aesthetic pursuit of“Free from vulgarity”and “self entertainment”,which reflects the con-bination of the literati painters’ “hidden”with the landscape painters’ “ease”.

  3. Environmental re-adaptations of farms seeking to the water contamination reduction (Itaipu/UNIOESTE integrated project); Readequacao ambiental de propriedades rurais visando a reducao de contaminacao das aguas (Projeto integrado Itaipu/UNIOESTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daga, Jacir; Campos, Alessandro Torres; Navarini, Franciele; Matsuo, Melissa [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia; Feiden, Armin [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paran (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias

    2004-07-01

    The work is destined to diagnose and to elaborate environmental adaptation projects in agricultural properties located in the micro basins: Arroio Fundo, Corregos Curvado and Ajuricaba, selected and located in the Rio Sao Francisco Verdadeiro basin, in the west Parana State area, by means of accord between ITAIPU Binational and UNIOESTE (West Parana State University). Four hundred and forty farms properties will be visited in a eleven months period. It will be lifted up environmental problems, in what it refers the ciliary forest, law reserves, fishing, crops, production and handling of dejections by: swine, dairy cattle, as well as readaptations projects of the farms in the areas of the micro basins, seeking to the environmental adaptation, reducing, consequently, the contamination of the waters that provisions the ITAIPU reservoir. The projects will be leaded to the IAP (Parana State environmental organ), by ITAIPU, for the environmental norms adaptation of the farms. Besides the environmental preservation and sustainability, with the environmental adaptations, ITAIPU will also benefit with the reduction of the ITAIPU lake water contamination, which arrives to the turbines. (author)

  4. How did the Supreme Court ruling on DOMA affect astronomers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Jane R.; The AAS Working Group on LGBTIQ Equality

    2014-01-01

    In June 2013, the United States Supreme Court ruled that Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) was unconstitutional. Section 3 had barred the federal government from recognizing same-sex marriages. The decision in United States v. Windsor, made headlines around the world, and particularly affected astronomers, since astronomers in the US are more likely than the general population to be foreign nationals, to have a foreign-born spouse, or to work for the federal government. In this poster, we highlight some of the real-world ways that the Windsor case has affected US astronomers and our profession. Bi-national couples can now apply for green cards granting permanent residency. Scientists who work for the federal government, including NASA and the NSF, can now obtain health insurance for a same-sex spouse. From taxes to death benefits, health insurance to daycare, immigration to ethics laws, the end of S3 of DOMA has had profoundly improved the lives of US scientists who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT). Here we, highlight several real-world examples of how DOMA's demise has improved the lives and careers of US astronomer.

  5. Clinical Study on Endometrial Ovarian Cyst Treated by Combined Laparoscopy and Chinese Herbal Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a new method of combined laparoscopy edici ne (CHM) in treating endometrial ovarian cyst. Methods: One hundre d and fifty-two patients with endometrial ovarian cyst three therapies: combined laparoscopy with CHM (combination group), CHM (TCM group) and To compare the clinical efficacy and side-effects shown by the three groups and to elucidate the therapeutic mechanism by ne hormone, plasma prostaglandin F 2α , prostaglandin E 2 etc. Results: The shrinking rate, ate of the cysts and markedly effective rate in the combination group were obviously higher than those in the TCM group and WM bination group was also higher than that of the WM group (P<0.05). Few side-effects constituted age for the combination g roup and TCM group. After treatment, the plasm a prostaglandin F 1α lowered remarkably, serum obviously (P<0. 01, P<0.05). Conclusion: The laparoscopy and CHM combination therapy is a new method in cyst which has signifi cant efficacy, minimal adverse effect and maximal preservation of reproductive function.

  6. Differential expression of microRNAs in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anjie Lu; Zufa Huang; Chaoyue Zhang; Xianfang Zhang; Jiuhong Zhao; Haiying Zhang; Quanpeng Zhang; Song Wu; Xinan Yi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the possible involvement of microRNAs in the regulation of genes that participate in peripheral neural regeneration. A microRNA microarray analysis was conducted and 23 microRNAs were identiifed whose expression was signiifcantly changed in rat dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve transection. The expression of one of the downregulated microRNAs, microRNA-214, was validated using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. MicroRNA-214 was predicted to target the 3′-untranslated region of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3. In situ hybridization veriifed that microRNA-214 was located in the cytoplasm of dorsal root ganglia primary neurons and was downregulated following sciatic nerve transection. Moreover, a com-bination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that microRNA-214 and Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 were co-localized in dorsal root ganglion primary neu-rons. Western blot analysis suggested that Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 was upregulated in dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve transection. These data demonstrate that mi-croRNA-214 is located and differentially expressed in dorsal root ganglion primary neurons and may participate in regulating the gene expression of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 after sciatic nerve transection.

  7. Novel approaches to HIV prevention and sexual health promotion among Guatemalan gay and bisexual men, MSM, and transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Simán, Florence M; Andrade, Mario; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H

    2014-08-01

    The burden of HIV is disproportionate for Guatemalan sexual minorities (e.g., gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men [MSM], and transgender persons). Our bi-national partnership used authentic approaches to community-based participatory research (CBPR) to identify characteristics of potentially successful programs to prevent HIV and promote sexual health among Guatemalan sexual minorities. Our partnership conducted Spanish-language focus groups with 87 participants who self-identified as male (n=64) or transgender (n=23) and individual in-depth interviews with ten formal and informal gay community leaders. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we identified 20 characteristics of potentially successful programs to reduce HIV risk, including providing guidance on accessing limited resources; offering supportive dialogue around issues of masculinity, socio-cultural expectations, love, and intimacy; using Mayan values and images; harnessing technology; increasing leadership and advocacy skills; and mobilizing social networks. More research is clearly needed, but participants reported needing and wanting programming and had innovative ideas to prevent HIV exposure and transmission. PMID:25068181

  8. Combined Action of Uniform Flow and Oscillating Flow Around Marine Riser at Low Keulegan-Carpenter Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yue; HUANG Weiping; ZHAO Jingli

    2014-01-01

    With the increase of petroleum and gas production in deep ocean, marine risers of circular cylinder shape are widely used in the offshore oil and gas platform. In order to research the hydrodynamic performance of marine risers, the dynamic mesh technique and User-Defined Function (UDF) are used to simulate the circular cylinder motion. The motion of a transversely oscillat-ing circular cylinder in combination of uniform flow and oscillating flow is simulated. The uniform flow and oscillating flow both are in x direction. SIMPLE algorithm is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. The User-Defined Function is used to control the cylinder transverse vibration and the inlet flow. The lift and drag coefficient changing with time and the map of vorticity isolines at different phase angle are obtained. Force time histories are shown for uniform flow at Reynolds number (Re) of 200 and for the com-bination of uniform and oscillating flows. With the increase of amplitude of oscillating flow in combined flow, the change of lift am-plitude is not sensitive to the the change of cylinder oscillating frequency. Lift amplitude increases with the increase of oscillating flow amplitude in the combined flow, but there is no definite periodicity of the lift coefficient. The drag and inertia force coefficients change when the maximum velocity of the oscillating flow increases in the combined flow. The vortex shedding near the circular cylinder shows different characteristics.

  9. Knot Insertion Algorithms for ECT B-spline Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Huan-huan; TANG Yue-hong; LI Yu-juan

    2013-01-01

    Knot insertion algorithm is one of the most important technologies of B-spline method. By inserting a knot the local prop-erties of B-spline curve and the control flexibility of its shape can be further improved, also the segmentation of the curve can be re-alized. ECT spline curve is drew by the multi-knots spline curve with associated matrix in ECT spline space;Muehlbach G and Tang Y and many others have deduced the existence and uniqueness of the ECT spline function and developed many of its important properties .This paper mainly focuses on the knot insertion algorithm of ECT B-spline curve.It is the widest popularization of B-spline Behm algorithm and theory. Inspired by the Behm algorithm, in the ECT spline space, structure of generalized Pólya poly-nomials and generalized de Boor Fix dual functional, expressing new control points which are inserted after the knot by linear com-bination of original control vertex the single knot, and there are two cases, one is the single knot, the other is the double knot. Then finally comes the insertion algorithm of ECT spline curve knot. By application of the knot insertion algorithm, this paper also gives out the knot insertion algorithm of four order geometric continuous piecewise polynomial B-spline and algebraic trigonometric spline B-spline, which is consistent with previous results.

  10. Vocastim吞咽语言治疗仪联合风池穴针刺治疗急性脑卒中后假性延髓麻痹的临床研究%Effect o fVocastim M aster and Acupuncture at Fengchi on Pseudobulbar Paralysis AfterAcute S troke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 徐鹏; 董军立; 陈光辉; 赵斌

    2014-01-01

    O bjective To explore the clinical therapeutic effect of Vocastim M aster and acupuncture at GB20( Fengchi) on pseudobulbar paralysis after acute stroke .M ethods O ne hundred and tw enty e ight patients w ere divided in tw o groups at random , the contro l group treated w ith Vocastim M aster,the com bination group treated w ith Vocastim M aster and acupuncture .Before and after treatm ent the clinical therapeutic effectw ere observed.Results Before trea tm ent the sw alow ing function score in bo th group w ere no t different.After treatm ent the scores were different significantly betw eencombination group and controlgroup ( P < 0.05 orP < 0.01) . C om pared w ith contro lgroup ,the clinical efficacy in com bination g roup on dysarthria and dysphagia w ere significantdifferent( P < 0.01) . C onclusion Vocastim M aster and acupuncture in treatm ent of dysarthria and dysphag ia after acute stroke is confirm ed efficacy , should be introduced.%目的:观察 Vocastim 吞咽语言治疗仪联合风池穴针刺治疗急性脑卒中后假性延髓麻痹的疗效。方法将128例急性脑卒中后假性延髓麻痹患者随机分为对照组(63例)和联合组(65例),对照组给予常规 Vocastim 吞咽治疗仪进行治疗,联合组给予Vocastim 吞咽语言治疗仪联合风池穴针刺进行治疗,观察两组的临床治疗效果。结果两组治疗1个疗程、2个疗程后吞咽 X线透视检查(VFSS)评分均较治疗前明显升高,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05或 P <0.01),且两组治疗1个疗程、2个疗程后 VFSS 评分差异有统计学意义( P <0.05)。联合组改善吞咽障碍总有效率可达92.3%,改善构音障碍有效率可达90.8%,与对照组相比差异有统计学意义( P <0.01)。结论 Vocastim 吞咽语言治疗仪联合风池穴针刺治疗急性脑卒中患者假性延髓麻痹疗效显著,能够有效改善患者吞咽、构音障碍。

  11. Cultural impacts on public perceptions of agricultural biotechnology: A comparison of South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Richard Harrison

    According to Millar (1996), the gulf between science and society is growing. Technologies are tools cultures develop to solve society's problems. The rapid dispersion of science and technology across cultural borders through trade, technology transfer and exchange, increasingly requires people in different cultures to make choices about accepting or rejecting artifacts of science and technology such as genetically modified (GM) foods, which originate primarily from the United States. These issues challenge policy makers and scientists to account for the affects of different cultural perspectives on controversial scientific issues. Given the controversy across cultures over acceptance or rejection of genetically modified (GM) foods, GM foods are an excellent example with which to begin to reveal how culture impacts public perceptions of the risk and benefits of science and technology in different societies. This research will: (1) Define public awareness and understanding of science, specifically GM foods; (2) Examine culture's impact on knowledge, including different cultural approaches to research; and (3) Compare recent findings of a bi-national public opinion survey on GM comparing in South Korea and the United States. The proposed research outlines two research questions: (1) How and in what ways do South Koreans and Americans differ in their opinions about GMOs? This question is important for gathering current points of contrast about how the two cultures may differ; and (2) What role does culture play on opinion formation about GM foods? Through grounded theory, the researcher will investigate how cultural differences help explain opinion on public perceptions of GM foods. Is it possible to identify common cultural factors that impact public perceptions of GM foods between South Koreans and Americans? The study will utilize both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Higher education is a major producer of new science and technology. The study is

  12. US - India Partnership in Science and Technology, Environment and Health: Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Satish V [Georgetown University

    2010-10-06

    Today, the US – India strategic partnership is rooted in shared values and is broad in nature and scope, with our two countries working together on global and energy security, climate change and clean environment, life sciences and public health, economic prosperity and trade, and education. A key outcome of this partnership has been the signing of the historic Indo-US Civil Nuclear Deal. Science and technology (S&T) have always been important elements of this partnership, and US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and Indian S&T Minister Kapil Sibal signed an agreement on S&T Cooperation between the two countries in October 2005. In March 2006, recognizing the expanding role of S&T, President George Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh formed a Bi-National S&T Commission and established a Joint S&T Endowment Fund focused on innovation, entrepreneurship and commercialization. In July 2009, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Indian Foreign Minister Krishna signed the Endowment Agreement with a total equivalent funding of $30M (equal contribution from US and India). While these steps take our engagement to new heights, US-India collaboration in S&T is not new and has been ongoing for several decades, principally through agencies like NSF, NIH, EPA, DOE, NASA, NOAA, the PL480 US-India Fund, and the Indian Diaspora. However, acting as a damper, especially during the cold war days, this engagement has been plagued by sanctions and the resulting tensions and mistrust which continue to linger on even today. In this context, several ongoing activities in energy, space, climate change and education will be highlighted. Also, with the S&T and the Civil Nuclear Agreements and climate change as examples, the interplay of science, policy and politics will be discussed.

  13. Short-term effects on substance use of the keepin' it real pilot prevention program: linguistically adapted for youth in Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Booth, Jaime M; Ayers, Stephanie L; Nuño-Gutierrez, Bertha L; Kulis, Stephen; Hoffman, Steven

    2014-10-01

    This article presents the short-term effects of a pilot study of keepin'it REAL (Manténte REAL) conducted in central Mexico by a binational team of investigators. This middle school-based model program for preventing substance use was adapted for Mexico linguistically but not culturally. Two Guadalajara public middle schools were recruited and randomly assigned to either implement the prevention program or serve as a control site. The program was implemented in the treatment site by the students' regular teachers, who were trained by the research team. Seventh graders in ten classrooms in the treatment and control schools (N = 432) completed a pretest and posttest survey in Spanish similar to the survey utilized in the original efficacy trial of keepin'it REAL in the US. T-tests and OLS regressions were conducted to determine the effects of the intervention on substance use outcomes. Differences between treatment and control groups in frequency of use of alcohol and tobacco, the two substances of choice in this sample, were significant and in the desired direction. Differences in amount of use were also in the preferred direction but were not significant for alcohol and only marginally significant for tobacco. When the sample was split by gender, statistically significant treatment effects remained for females but were not observed among males. Effects of the linguistically adapted version of keepin'it REAL appears to be driven by the change in female use; however, the difference in male and female outcomes was not statistically significant. Implications for cultural adaptation and prevention in Mexico are discussed from a communication competency perspective. The promising results of the pilot study suggest that the linguistic adaptation was effective, but that a comprehensive cultural adaptation of keepin'it REAL in partnership with Mexican investigators and communities may be warranted.

  14. Preliminary United States-Mexico border watershed analysis, twin cities area of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Laura Margaret; Gray, Floyd; Castaneda, Mario; Bultman, Mark; Bolm, Karen Sue

    2002-01-01

    The United States - Mexico border area faces the challenge of integrating aspects of its binational physical boundaries to form a unified or, at least, compatible natural resource management plan. Specified geospatial components such as stream drainages, mineral occurrences, vegetation, wildlife, and land-use can be analyzed in terms of their overlapping impacts upon one another. Watersheds have been utilized as a basic unit in resource analysis because they contain components that are interrelated and can be viewed as a single interactive ecological system. In developing and analyzing critical regional natural resource databases, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal and non-governmental agencies have adopted a ?watershed by watershed? approach to dealing with such complicated issues as ecosystem health, natural resource use, urban growth, and pollutant transport within hydrologic systems. These watersheds can facilitate the delineation of both large scale and locally important hydrologic systems and urban management parameters necessary for sustainable, diversified land-use. The twin border cities area of Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona, provide the ideal setting to demonstrate the utility and application of a complete, cross-border, geographic information systems (GIS) based, watershed analysis in the characterization of a wide range of natural resource as well as urban features and their interactions. In addition to the delineation of a unified, cross-border watershed, the database contains sewer/water line locations and status, well locations, geology, hydrology, topography, soils, geomorphology, and vegetation data, as well as remotely sensed imagery. This report is preliminary and part of an ongoing project to develop a GIS database that will be widely accessible to the general public, researchers, and the local land management community with a broad range of application and utility.

  15. Exploring the link between urban form and work related transportation using combined satellite image and census information: Case of the Great lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Guindon, Bert; Sun, Krista

    2016-05-01

    Aspects of urban transportation have significant implications for resource consumption and environmental quality. The level of travel activity, the viability of various modes of transportation and hence the level of transportation-related emissions are influenced by the structure of cities, i.e., their urban forms. While it is widely recognized that satellite remote sensing can provide spatial information on urban land cover and land use, its effective use for understanding impacts of urban form on issues such as transportation requires that this information be integrated with relevant demographic information. A comprehensive bi-national urban database, the Great Lakes Urban Survey (GLUS), comprising all cities with populations in excess of 200,000 has been created from Landsat imagery and national census and transportation survey information from Canada and the United States. A suite of analysis tools are proposed to utilize information sets such as GLUS to investigate the link between urban form and work-related travel. A new indicator, the Employment Deficit Measure (EDM), is proposed to quantify the balance between employment and worker availability at different transit horizons and hence to assess the viability of alternate modes of transportation. It is argued that the high degree of residential and commercial/industrial land uses greatly impact travel to work mode options as well as commute distance. A spatial interaction model is developed and found to accurately predict travel distance aggregated at the census tract level. We argue that this model could also be used to explore the relative levels of travel activity associated with different urban forms.

  16. A watershed-based adaptive knowledge system for developing ecosystem stakeholder partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hebin; Thornton, Jeffrey A.; Shadrin, Nickolai

    2015-11-01

    This study proposes a Watershed-based Adaptive Knowledge System (WAKES) to consistently coordinate multiple stakeholders in developing sustainable partnerships for ecosystem management. WAKES is extended from the institutional mechanism of Payments for Improving Ecosystem Services at the Watershed-scale (PIES-W). PIES-W is designed relating to the governance of ecosystem services fl ows focused on a lake as a resource stock connecting its infl owing and outfl owing rivers within its watershed. It explicitly realizes the values of conservation services provided by private land managers and incorporates their activities into the public organizing framework for ecosystem management. It implicitly extends the "upstream-to-downstream" organizing perspective to a broader vision of viewing the ecosystems as comprised of both "watershed landscapes" and "marine landscapes". Extended from PIES-W, WAKES specifies two corresponding feedback: Framework I and II. Framework I is a relationship matrix comprised of three input-output structures of primary governance factors intersecting three subsystems of a watershed with regard to ecosystem services and human stakeholders. Framework II is the Stakeholder-and-Information structure channeling five types of information among four stakeholder groups in order to enable the feedbacks mechanism of Framework I. WAKES identifies the rationales behind three fundamental information transformations, illustrated with the Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis and the Strategic Action Program of the Bermejo River Binational Basin. These include (1) translating scientific knowledge into public information within the Function-and-Service structure corresponding to the ecological subsystem, (2) incorporating public perceptions into political will within the Service- and- Value structure corresponding to the economic subsystem, and (3) integrating scientific knowledge, public perceptions and political will into management options within the Value

  17. Educational gradients in five Asian immigrant populations: Do country of origin, duration and generational status moderate the education-health relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie; Geronimus, Arline; Bound, John; Griffith, Derek; Gee, Gilbert

    2016-12-01

    Education usually shows a relationship with self-rated health such that those with highest education have the best health and those with lowest education have the worst health. We examine these educational gradients among Asian immigrants and whether they differ by country of origin, duration in the United States, and generational status. Migration theories suggest that recent immigrants from poorer countries should show a weaker relationship between education and health than US-born Whites. Acculturation theory further suggests that differences in gradients across country of origin should diminish for longer-term immigrants and the US-born and that these groups should display gradients similar to US-born Whites. We use the March Current Population Survey (2000 - 2010) to examine educational gradients in self-rated health among recent immigrants (≤ 15 years duration), longer-term immigrants (> 15 years duration), and second generation US-born Asians from China (n = 4473), India (n = 4,307), the Philippines (n = 5746), South Korea (n = 2760), and Japan (n = 1265). We find weak or non-significant educational gradients among recent Asian immigrants across the five countries of origin. There is no indication that longer-term immigrants display significant differences across educational status. Only second generation Chinese and Filipinos show significant differences by educational status. Overall, Asians show an attenuated relationship between education and self-rated health compared to US-Whites that persists over duration in the US and generational status. Our findings show shortcomings in migration and acculturation theories to explain these gradient patterns. Future research could use binational data or explore psychosocial factors to identify potential suppressors of educational gradients. PMID:27486564

  18. La política exterior norteamericana desde la óptica educativa del vecino del sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, Rene A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este estudio los investigadores analizan las percepciones de profesoras, profesores, personal administrativo y estudiantes en una ciudad norteña de México, en relación con la política exterior de los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica. Esta investigación tiene lugar en un momento en que las relaciones entre ambos países son tensas a raíz de la autorización de la construcción del muro fronterizo entre las dos naciones. El objetivo del estudio es generar una mayor comprensión acerca de las recientes políticas estadounidenses, y su impacto en el extranjero. Además, compara y contrasta la perspectiva de profesores y estudiantes mexicanos sobre los mensajes trasmitidos por los medios de comunicación norteamericanos. Finalmente, se presenta una serie de recomendaciones en las que se enfatiza en la construcción de puentes de entendimiento en un tiempo en el que al parecer los muros van ganando la batalla.Abstract: Researchers analyze the perceptions and pedagogies of educators and students in northern Mexico with regard to United States foreign policies. The key objective of the research is to provide additional insight to the impact abroad of recent actions taken by the United States government. Furthermore, this study compares and contrasts the viewpoints of Mexican educators and students with coverage provided by the mainstream United States media and United States educational systems. Educators and future teachers in both the United States and Mexico benefit from broader understandings of educators’ roles and students’ perceptions in a bi-national community.

  19. Assessing the vulnerability of human and biological communities to changing ecosystem services using a GIS-based multi-criteria decision support tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Labiosa, William B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe an application of a GIS-based multi-criteria decision support web tool that models and evaluates relative changes in ecosystem services to policy and land management decisions. The Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio (SCWEPM) was designed to provide credible forecasts of responses to ecosystem drivers and stressors and to illustrate the role of land use decisions on spatial and temporal distributions of ecosystem services within a binational (U.S. and Mexico) watershed. We present two SCWEPM sub-models that when analyzed together address bidirectional relationships between social and ecological vulnerability and ecosystem services. The first model employs the Modified Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index (M-SEVI), which assesses community vulnerability using information from U.S. and Mexico censuses on education, access to resources, migratory status, housing situation, and number of dependents. The second, relating land cover change to biodiversity (provisioning services), models changes in the distribution of terrestrial vertebrate habitat based on multitemporal vegetation and land cover maps, wildlife habitat relationships, and changes in land use/land cover patterns. When assessed concurrently, the models exposed some unexpected relationships between vulnerable communities and ecosystem services provisioning. For instance, the most species-rich habitat type in the watershed, Desert Riparian Forest, increased over time in areas occupied by the most vulnerable populations and declined in areas with less vulnerable populations. This type of information can be used to identify ecological conservation and restoration targets that enhance the livelihoods of people in vulnerable communities and promote biodiversity and ecosystem health.

  20. The antioxidant status in human population based on the concept of prakruthi in Ayurveda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhukar Mallya H; Revathi P Shenoy; Sreejith Ramakrishnan; Linta Thampi; Rashmi Ste-vens; MSethukumar Kamath; Anupama Nayak; Anjali Rao

    2008-01-01

    Objective:In the Ayurvedic system of medicine,body constitution (prakruthi)is said to play a vital role in the disease process as well as in its progression.Free radical toxicity is also involved in the etiopathogenesis of many disorders.Hence,in the present study an attempt has been made to correlate the body constitution type and the antioxidant status of that prakruthi.Methods:Healthy volunteers from Manipal University Campus, South Karnataka,India were classified into three main human constitutions (prakruthi)and their possible com-binations and their serum total antioxidant activity was determined.Results:There was a significant negative correlation of the total antioxidant status with the pitta prakruthi whereas vata and kapha constitutions showed no significant correlation with the total antioxidant status.Conclusion:Ayurveda classifies each individual based on his/her prakruthi into three categories of Doshas:Vata,Pitta and Kapha (collectively known as Tri-doshas).The three Doshas are fundamental regulatory principles responsible for maintaining organism functio-ning and manifesting those characteristics typifying each individual,that is,in equilibrium Tridoshas signify health and an imbalance leads to disease.Thus,in this study a significantly decreased antioxidant status in the Pitta group would render them more susceptible to damage by oxidative stress.Hence,we suggest that supple-mentation with antioxidants of herbal (Ayurvedic)origin to such a group would prove to be beneficial -opening up the arena for pharmacogenomics and customized antioxidant drug administration based on the prakruthi of an individual.

  1. Anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies in free-ranging and captive capybaras from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Fortes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris are among the main hosts of Amblyomma spp. ticks, which is able to transmit Rickettsia species to human beings and animals. Since they are often infested with potential vector ticks, capybaras may be used as sentinels for rickettsiosis, such as the Brazilian Spotted Fever. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against Rickettsia spp. using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA in 21 free-ranging and 10 captive animals from the Zoological Park of the 'Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary' (BVBS, Itaipu Binational, Foz do Iguaçu, Southern Brazil. Antigens of six rickettsial species already identified in Brazil (Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. bellii, R. rhipicephali, R. amblyommii and R. felis were used for IFA. Ticks from each capybara were collected for posterior taxonomic identification. A total of 19 (61.3% samples reacted to at least one of tested species. Seropositivity was found in 14 (45.2%, 12 (38.7%, 5 (16.1%, 4 (12.9%, 3 (9.7% and 3 (9.7% animals for R. rickettsii, R. bellii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, R. felis and R. rhipicephali, respectively. Two captive capybaras presented suggestive titers of R. rickettsii infection and one sample showed homologous reaction to R. parkeri. Only one free-ranging capybara presented evidence R. bellii infection. Ticks collected on capybaras were identified as Amblyomma dubitatum e Amblyomma sp. Results evidenced the rickettsial circulation in the area, suggesting a potential role of capybaras on bacterial life cycle.

  2. Translating Volcano Hazards Research in the Cascades Into Community Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.

  3. Salvar la patria judía. Hannah Arendt y la cuestión palestina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo López Chaves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hannah Arendt se ha convertido en una figura consagrada en el campo de la reflexión filosófica y política contemporánea, siendo hoy objeto de un renovado interés. El presente artículo trata de exponer sintéticamente las claves de su análisis sobre la creación de un estado en Palestina. Su lectura de las consecuencias de la historia contemporánea europea y la “cuestión judía”, su posición con respecto al sionismo y sus alternativas y la evolución de sus críticas se entretejen en una rica y singular visión, que ofrece perspectivas útiles aún hoy para comprender el conflicto. Basados en una parte de su producción aparentemente secundaria, los “escritos judíos” permiten asimismo apreciar mejor el significado y las implicaciones personales de algunos conceptos capitales en la obra de esta pensadora.Palabras Clave: Hannah Arendt, escritos judíos, cuestión judía, conflicto Palestina, estado de Israel, sionismo, binacionalismo.___________________________Abstract:Recent interest on Hannah Arendt’s writings on philosophy and political theory places her among the most remarkable intellectuals on XXth century scholarship. This paper exposes her analysis of the foundation of a state in Palestine in a synthetic approach. It intends to show the relevance of her apparently secondary “Jewish writings” not to merely cast a singular view on the conflict, but also to provide new insights on how personal experience and contemporary issues intertwine with her broader historical, philosophical and political thought.Keywords: Hannah Arendt, Jewish writings, Jewish question, Palestine conflict, State of Israel, Zionism, binationalism.

  4. JNC-DOE collaborative program on Mass Transport. Characterization and Predictive Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the sixth year of a continuing collaborative program which started in April, 1993 under an Annex pursuant to the Agreement of November 20, 1986 between the Nuclear Power and Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), Japan and United States Department of Energy (DOE) on Cooperation in the Area of Radioactive Waste Management. The Annex was originally signed on March 26, 1993 to be effective for four years, and was subsequently renewed on September 15, 1997 for three additional years based on the renewed PNC-DOE Binational Agreement. The subject of research covered under this Annex is Mass Transport: Characterization and Predictive Technologies. In 1998, PNC was renamed Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). The DOE Office overseeing this annex agreement is the Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (EM-50). The work is performed at the Earth Sciences Division of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with funding support from JNC. The primary objective of this Collaborative Program is to (a) improve the understanding of the fundamental physics and chemistry that govern the processes which play a significant role in radio-active waste isolation/disposal in geologic systems and (b) develop characterization and predictive technologies of release and transport of radio-nuclides in heterogeneous geologic media. The Collaborative Program focuses on the definition and investigation of the processes of primary importance to the release and transport of radionuclides, and the development and application of theories and models to predict the phenomena accurately. Available laboratory and field experiments within and outside of the Collaborative Program provide the basic phenomenological data to test the validity of the theories and the modeling approach itself. (J.P.N.)

  5. The nuclear safeguards system and the process of global governance accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Roberto Salles, E-mail: xavier@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Planejamento e Avaliacao

    2011-07-01

    Due to rising energy costs and climate concerns, nuclear energy is again being seriously considered as an energy source for several countries. Along with the resurgence of nuclear energy comes the concern of the world if these countries will develop their programs for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. If on one hand the growth potential of nuclear energy should not be stifled, on the other hand it is imperative that a climate of mutual trust is developed, respecting the right of each country to develop its nuclear program without taking a climate of mistrust to a possible 'intention' behind the pursuit of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Therefore, it is essential that appropriate mechanisms of accountability of global governance are institutionalized at the institutional architecture of the international process of nuclear safeguards, more specifically to the nuclear fuel cycle, so that abuses of power in this sphere does not happen, both by countries that aspire to develop projects nuclear, and by the suppliers of technology. In this context, the case study of Brazil and Argentina gained importance, because these two countries have a single binational organization of nuclear safeguards in the world: Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials - ABACC. In the theoretical question, the paper tries to understand what happens with the process of legitimacy and authority of the organizations of global governance by analyzing the degree of publicness and constrictiveness. This work intends to focus on the role of ABACC as an interstate institution of accountability, which has a key role to control the nation States of Brazil and Argentina regarding the appropriate use of nuclear material used in their programs, and analyze how this Agency behaves within of tension legitimacy-authority, taking into account existing studies on accountability in global governance. (author)

  6. Dynamic analysis of QTL for plant height at different developmental stages in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jianbing; TANG Hua; HUANG Yiqin; SHI Yonggang; LI Jiansheng; ZHENG Yonglian

    2003-01-01

    Plant height in maize is not only one of important agronomic traits, but also one of model traits suitablefor study of developmental biology. Using data from fieldtests in two locations (Wuhan and Xiangfan) within the sameyear and a molecular linkage map covering all of 10 chro-mosomes, QTLs affecting plant height at five different de-velopmental stages were mapped and analyzed by the com-bination of composite interval mapping and the conditionalanalysis method. Eight QTLs for plant height at differentstages were located at different regions of five chromosomes(LOD≥2.5). The results showed that there were differenteffect values of QTL on plant height at different develop-mental stages. Three QTLs were detected at all of five stages.With different stages, contributory percentage of single QTL to plant height varied between 3.8% and 17.1%. It suggestedthat the expression of each QTL controlling plant height wasdifferent at different stages. With net growth, seven condi-tional QTLs for plant height were detected. Conditional QTLs were nearly detected at each stage, and QTLs of Ph1-1, Ph1-2, Ph3, Ph5-2 and Ph9 were detected at both locations (Wuhan and Xiangfan). The contributory percentage of single conditional QTL to plant height varied between 3.8% and 12.3%, indicating that QTLs for plant height are expressed in different time-space. Therefore, QTL expressed at different stages should be considered when marker assistant selection is conducted for quantitative traits.

  7. The Upper San Pedro Partnership: A Case Study of Successful Strategies to Connect Science to Societal Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Richter, H.; Varady, R.; Browning-Aiken, A.; Shuttleworth, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Upper San Pedro Partnership (USPP) (http://www.usppartnership.com/) has been in existence since 1998. Its purpose is to coordinate and cooperate in the implementation of comprehensive policies and projects to meet the long-term water needs of residents within the U.S. side of the basin and of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area. The Partnership consists of 21 local, state, and Federal agencies, NGO's and a private water company. In 2004 it was recognized by Congress in Section 321 of Public Law 108-136 and required to make annual reports to Congress on its progress in bringing the basin water budget into balance by 2011. The Partnership is dedicated to science-based decision making. This presentation will provide an overview of the evolution of natural resources research in the binational (U.S.-Mexico) San Pedro Basin into a mature example of integrated science and decision making embodied in the USPP. It will discuss the transition through science and research for understanding; to science for addressing a need; to integrated policy development and science. At each stage the research conducted becomes more interdisciplinary, first across abiotic disciplines (hydrology, remote sensing, atmospheric science), then a merging of abiotic and biotic disciplines (adding ecology and plant physiology), and finally a further merging with the social sciences and policy and decision making for resource management. Federal, university, and NSF SAHRA Science and Technology Center research has been planned and conducted directly with the USPP. Because of the success the San Pedro has been designated as an operational HELP (Hydrology for the Environment, Life, and Policy) demonstration basin—the most advanced category. Lessons learned from this experience will be reviewed with the intent providing guidance to ensure that hydrologic and watershed research is socially and scientifically relevant and will directly address the needs of policy makers and resource

  8. Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico Prevalencia de factores de riesgo para la infección por VIH entre migrantes mexicanos: encuesta probabilística en la frontera norte de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gudelia Rangel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US, and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico-San Diego (California, US border region (N=1 429. RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de prácticas de riesgo para la infección por VIH en migrantes mexicanos durante su estancia en distintos contextos geográficos, incluyendo sus comunidades de origen en México, las comunidades de destino en Estados Unidos de América (EUA, y la frontera Norte de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Encuesta probabilística de migrantes mexicanos que transitan por la región fronteriza Tijuana (Baja California, México-San Diego (California, EUA (N=1 429. RESULTADOS: La encuesta reveló una alta prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual, uso compartido de agujas, y prácticas sexuales de riesgo en todos los contextos geográficos estudiados. CONCLUSIONES: Los niveles de riesgo de infección por VIH estimados para migrantes mexicanos en diferentes contextos geográficos exigen estudios e intervenciones preventivas binacionales que identifiquen y aborden los distintos factores de riesgo personales, ambientales, y estructurales que contribuyen al riesgo de infección por VIH en cada

  9. ABACC - Brazil-Argentina Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, a model of integration and transparence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina and Brazil began its activities in the nuclear area about the same time, in the 50 century past. The existence of an international nuclear nonproliferation treaty-TNP-seen by Brazil and Argentina as discriminatory and prejudicial to the interests of the countries without nuclear weapons, led to the need for a common system of control of nuclear material between the two countries to somehow provide assurances to the international community of the exclusively peaceful purpose of its nuclear programs. The creation of a common system, assured the establishment of uniform procedures to implement safeguards in Argentina and Brazil, so the same requirements and safeguards procedures took effect in both countries, and the operators of nuclear facilities began to follow the same rules of control of nuclear materials and subjected to the same type of verification and control. On July 18, 1991, the Bilateral Agreement for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy created a binational body, the Argentina-Brazil Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials-ABACC-to implement the so-called Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear materials - SCCC. The deal provided, permanently, a clear commitment to use exclusively for peaceful purposes all material and nuclear facilities under the jurisdiction or control of the two countries. The Quadripartite Agreement, signed in December of that year, between the two countries, ABACC and IAEA completed the legal framework for the implementation of comprehensive safeguards system. The 'model ABACC' now represents a paradigmatic framework in the long process of economic, political, technological and cultural integration of the two countries. Argentina and Brazil were able to establish a guarantee system that is unique in the world today and that consolidated and matured over more than twenty years, has earned the respect of the international community

  10. Trade-linked Canada–United States household environmental impact analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with total household expenditures and activities in Canada and US in 1997, the first detailed estimate of environmental burdens for Canadian households. We estimate direct burdens from published government data and indirect burdens using an industry-by-commodity, bi-national economic input–output life cycle assessment model developed in this study. Comparing 30 expenditure and two activity categories, per capita US household expenditures were 70% higher, while per capita household energy use and GHG emissions were only 10% and 44% higher, respectively. Energy use/dollar of expenditure was higher in most Canadian categories, while the average ratio of GHG emissions/energy use was higher in the US (65 vs 50 kg Eq. CO2/GJ) due largely to a higher proportion of electricity from nonrenewable sources. Indirect environmental burdens represented 63–69% of total burdens and 62–70% of total burdens were associated with household operation and transportation. Key drivers of differences between energy profiles were: higher per capita electricity use by Canadian households, and higher US household private health care expenditures and motor fuel use. Energy-intensive production for export represented a higher proportion of Canadian production, resulting in less agreement between consumption and production-based analyses for Canada than US. - Highlights: ► The study documents the first detailed household environmental impact study of Canada. ► Household operation/transportation represented >60% of energy use/greenhouse gas emissions. ► For the year studied (1997), US per capita expenditures were 70% higher than Canada's. ► US household energy use and greenhouse gas emissions/capita were 10% and 44% higher than Canada's.

  11. Towards an Informed Mexican and Mexican-American Citizenry: Bridging the Gap to Increase Human Capacity and Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, M. D.; Ramirez, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    The research translation and community outreach goal of The University of Arizona's (UA) Superfund Basic Research Program and U.S.-Mexico Binational Center for Environmental Sciences and Toxicology is to increase human capacity and information dissemination to diverse stakeholders, including federal, state, and local government agencies as well as northern Mexican and border community stakeholders. Due to Arizona's demographic characteristics and the UA's proximity to the U.S. - Mexico border, activities target primarily Mexican and Mexican-American populations. With this in mind, a model has been established that pulls from human capital, community-based participatory research and public participation theories. The theories applied to our target population have resulted in the creation of a successful model that is used in both research translation and community outreach work. The model contains four components: community needs (participation), science translation (information), engagement (outreach), and training (education). Examples of how this model operates for various stakeholders involved in environmental science and health issues will be discussed. A case in point of how this model has been applied effectively is the partnership with promotoras (community health advocates) to do environmental science and health trainings to increase the knowledge base of specific populations disproportionately exposed to contaminants of concern. Additional case studies and methodologies used to develop innovative communicative tools (that takes into consideration cultural idiosyncrasies) for stakeholders at all levels in Arizona, the border, and Mexico will be highlighted, such as: 1) information sheets regarding local environmental issues for communities neighboring contaminated sites, 2) SciTransfer Bulletins targeting professional level stakeholders such as Project Managers, Community Involvement Coordinators and the general public, 3) coordinating technical and

  12. 旅游移动支付风险评价指标体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳震青; 彭润华

    2012-01-01

    Along with increasing development of mobile communication terminals, the mobile e-commerce has entered a period of rapid development. The security of the mobile payment which acts as an important constituent of the mobile e-commerce has become a determinant for the healthy development of the mobile business. According to the general definitions of risks, and in com- bination of the special demand for security of the tourism mobile payment system, this paper adopts the data of the expert surveys and the principal component analysis to generalize a risk evaluation index system in the tourism mobile payments, covering 5 first-class indexes like credit risk, economic risk, market transaction risk, mobile risk and technical risk, and 17 second-class indexes like buyer faith breaking and so on.%随着手机等移动通信终端的不断发展,移动电子商务进入了高速发展期。作为移动电子商务重要组成部分的移动支付的安全性成为移动商务能否健康发展的决定因素。根据风险的一般定义,本文结合旅游移动支付系统对安全的特殊需求,通过专家调查与主成分分析方法归纳出评价旅游移动支付风险的指标体系,包括信用风险、经济风险、市场交易风险、移动风险和技术风险5个一级指标和买方失信等17个二级指标。

  13. The Development of a Novice Teacher's Autonomy in the Context of EFL in Colombia El desarrollo de la autonomía de una profesora principiante en el contexto de la enseñanza de inglés como lengua extranjera en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Frodden

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the experience of a novice English teacher taking part in a collaborative action research project with a group of children in a bi-national language center in Colombia, where a theme-based approach to teaching had been recently introduced. The purpose of the study was to learn how to solve problems encountered with the approach and to develop learner and teacher autonomy. The findings show how reflection, collaborative work and critical thinking were promoted and enabled the teacher to find alternatives in her teaching, to gain a new understanding of this approach, and to develop teacher autonomy.Este artículo informa acerca de la experiencia de una profesora principiante de inglés que formó parte de un proyecto de investigación acción colaborativa con un grupo de niños en un centro binacional en Colombia, en el cual se había introducido recientemente un enfoque basado en temas. El propósito del estudio fue aprender a resolver los problemas encontrados con el enfoque y desarrollar la autonomía de los estudiantes y de la profesora. Los hallazgos muestran cómo se promovieron la reflexión, el trabajo colaborativo y el pensamiento crítico de manera que hicieron posible que la profesora encontrara vías alternativas en su enseñanza, comprendiera mejor el enfoque y desarrollara su autonomía como profesora.

  14. Reflections on Curriculum Teaching Reform of Universities in China during Post-MOOC Period%后MOOC时期我国高校课程教学改革的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范建丽; 方辉平

    2015-01-01

    The article, starting from the existing problems of curriculum teaching in universities of China, analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of traditional course teaching and online course teaching, puts forward the assumption of blended teaching model of com-bination of the two, and designs the corresponding blended teaching models and evaluation systems according to different types of cour-ses, hoping to realize the deep integration between online course teaching and traditional course teaching and to be harmonious coexis-tence, to accelerate the process of humanization, internationalization and informationization of higher education in China, to cultivate more and better individualized talents for the development of human society.%从我国高校课程教学存在的问题出发,对传统课程教学和在线课程教学的优劣势进行分析,提出将二者结合的混合式教学模式的设想,并针对不同类型的课程设计相应的混合式教学模式及评价体系,以期实现在线课程教学和传统课程教学的深度融合、和谐共生,加速我国高等教育人本化、国际化和信息化进程,为人类社会发展培养出更多更好的个性化人才.

  15. From the twenty - sixth Shenzhen Universiade Research on U- niversities Athletics Sports Present Situation%从第26届深圳大运会探究我国高校竞技体育现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金黄斌; 白银龙

    2012-01-01

    Using the methods of mathematical statistics, for the twenty - sixth Shenzhen games on our analysis of the results, aimed at the university athletics sports development to provide advice. Studies show that: China 's competitive sports in universities has reached the world leading level; China in Shenzhen Universiade gold medal project focus; full basket of row whole competitive strength is weaker, yinshengyangshuai; gold in regional difference; the project is divided into advantage, latent advantage, inferior po- sition three. Key recommendations: face the achievement, the com- bination of sports and education, physical education; broaden the coverage of the three ball gold medal ; strengthen the development of college competitive sports Midwest ; attention ; advantage, potential advantages and disadvantages of project coordination development.%运用数理统计等方法,对第26届深圳大运会上我国的成绩进行分析,旨在为高校竞技体育发展提供咨询。研究表明:我国高校竞技体育达到了世界领先水平;我国在深圳大运会夺金项目集中;篮、足、排整体较弱,竞技实力呈阴盛阳衰;夺金高校地域差异显著;将项目分为优势、潜优势、劣势三类。建议:正视成绩,体教结合,体育回归教育;拓宽金牌覆盖面;加强三大球发展;重视中西部高校竞技体育;优势、潜优势及劣势项目协调发展。

  16. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ce-doped ZnO nanopowders synthesized by combustion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪樟连

    2015-01-01

    Facile and fast combustion method was used to synthesize ZnO and Ce-doped ZnO (CZO) nanocrystalline powders photo-catalysts with different cerium concentrations (0.5 wt.%–10.0 wt.%) followed by calcination at 700 ºC for 3 h. The prepared samples were characterized by a variety of characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible spectroscopy, BET surface area analyser and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), to study the crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical compo-sition and optical properties. It was observed from XRD results that synthesized powders had hexagonal wurtzite structure with the smallest crystallite size about 13 nm. Absorption spectra showed that cerium doping enhanced the light absorption properties towards the visible light region. Photoluminescence spectra for Ce-doped ZnO samples exhibited relatively weak near band edge (NBE) emis-sion peaks as compared to that of pristine ZnO. The photocatalytic activities of the prepared samples were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under UV light and visible light (λ≥420 nm) irradiation. The textile mill effluent containing or-ganic matters was also treated under sunlight using photocatalysis and the reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the treated effluent revealed a complete destruction of the organic molecules along with colour removal. The results showed that the CZO photocatalyst doped with 3.0 wt.% cerium exhibited four times enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to pure ZnO. The en-hanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to extended visible light absorption and inhibition of the electron-hole pair’s recom-bination.

  17. The nuclear safeguards system and the process of global governance accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to rising energy costs and climate concerns, nuclear energy is again being seriously considered as an energy source for several countries. Along with the resurgence of nuclear energy comes the concern of the world if these countries will develop their programs for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. If on one hand the growth potential of nuclear energy should not be stifled, on the other hand it is imperative that a climate of mutual trust is developed, respecting the right of each country to develop its nuclear program without taking a climate of mistrust to a possible 'intention' behind the pursuit of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Therefore, it is essential that appropriate mechanisms of accountability of global governance are institutionalized at the institutional architecture of the international process of nuclear safeguards, more specifically to the nuclear fuel cycle, so that abuses of power in this sphere does not happen, both by countries that aspire to develop projects nuclear, and by the suppliers of technology. In this context, the case study of Brazil and Argentina gained importance, because these two countries have a single binational organization of nuclear safeguards in the world: Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials - ABACC. In the theoretical question, the paper tries to understand what happens with the process of legitimacy and authority of the organizations of global governance by analyzing the degree of publicness and constrictiveness. This work intends to focus on the role of ABACC as an interstate institution of accountability, which has a key role to control the nation States of Brazil and Argentina regarding the appropriate use of nuclear material used in their programs, and analyze how this Agency behaves within of tension legitimacy-authority, taking into account existing studies on accountability in global governance. (author)

  18. Toxicity of waters from the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern to the plankton species Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Duffy, Brian T.; Smith, Alexander J; George, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    The lower Genesee River and Rochester Embayment of Lake Ontario are a designated Area of Concern (AOC) under the binational Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The “degradation of phytoplankton and zooplankton populations” or plankton Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) was classified as unknown and in need of further assessment in this AOC because water quality data suggested plankton communities could be effected and community data were either unavailable or indicated impacts. The plankton BUI may now be obsolete because local contaminant sources have been largely eliminated. The present study was conducted between July 2013 and August 2014 to assess the BUI-removal criteria: “AOC plankton bioassays confirm that toxicity in ambient waters (i.e., no growth inhibition) is not significantly higher than comparable non-AOC controls”. Acute and chronic toxicity of waters from 13 sites were quantified seasonally using standardized bioassays with the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and water flea Ceriodaphnia dubia to test the hypothesis that toxicity of waters from AOC sites was not higher than that of waters from comparable non-AOC reference sites. Survival and reproduction of C. dubia did not differ significantly between site types, systems, or months. The growth of P. subcapitata did not differ between site types, but differed among systems and months. All results indicate that waters from AOC sites were no more toxic to both plankton species than waters from reference sites. Assuming test species represent natural plankton assemblages, water quality should not negatively affect survival and growth of resident plankton populations in the Rochester Embayment AOC.

  19. Design and optimization of hybrid structure robot%混联机器人结构设计及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德成; 刁燕; 陈章平

    2011-01-01

    针对传统开放手术病人创伤大、微创手术医生易疲劳等现状,设计出一种基于混联结构的微创手术机器人.为满足微创手术的各种复杂动作,该机器人采用冗余8自由度结构提高其灵活性;结合球关节结构紧凑特点,所设计机器人采用串并联相结合的混联结构提高自身刚度,满足微创手术机器人高精度、小尺寸要求.依据所设计结构,在Matlab软件中对机器人的运动学、灵活工作空间等求解及仿真,论证了结构设计的合理性.%Specific to big trauma of patients in traditional open surgery and easy fatigue of doctors inMinimally Invasive Surgery(MIS),a MIS robot based on hybrid structure Was designed,which could meetvarious complex movements in MIS by applying redundancy 8 DOF to improve itsflexibility;Combined withthe compact structure of globe joint,the robot designed adopts hybrid structure with series and parallel corn-bination to improve its free stiffness and meet the requirement of MIS robot for high precision and smallsize.According to the structure design,simulation and solving for the kinematics andflexible space of robotis carried out with MATLAB software,which rationality of the structure design is demorhstrated.

  20. The role of the Therapeutic Goods Administration and the Medicine and Medical Devices Safety Authority in evaluating complementary and alternative medicines in Australia and New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the regulation of complementary and alternative medicines and related health claims in Australia and New Zealand is managed in a number of ways. Complementary medicines, including herbal, minerals, nutritional/dietary supplements, aromatherapy oils and homeopathic medicines are regulated under therapeutic goods/products legislation. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), a division of the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing is responsible for administering the provisions of the legislation in Australia. The New Zealand Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority (Medsafe) administers the provision of legislation in New Zealand. In December 2003 the Australian and New Zealand governments signed a Treaty to establish a single, bi-national agency to regulate therapeutic products, including medical devices prescription, over-the-counter and complementary medicines. A single agency will replace the Australian TGA and the New Zealand Medsafe. The role of the new agency will be to safeguard public health through regulation of the quality, safety and efficacy or performance of therapeutic products in both Australia and New Zealand. The major activities of the new joint Australia New Zealand therapeutic products agency are in product licensing, specifying labelling standards and setting the advertising scheme, together with determining the risk classes of medicines and creating an expanded list of ingredients permitted in Class I medicines. A new, expanded definition of complementary medicines is proposed and this definition is currently under consultation. Related Australian and New Zealand legislation is being developed to implement the joint scheme. Once this legislation is passed, the Treaty will come into force and the new joint regulatory scheme will begin. The agency is expected to commence operation no later than 1 July 2006 and will result in a single agency to regulate complementary and alternative medicines

  1. Study on the Model of Whole Course of Prevention and Treatment of Liver Disease Based on the Chronic Disease Management Platform of a Third Grade A Hospital%基于某三级甲等医院慢性病管理平台的全程肝病防治模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣梅; 李雪梅; 孟雯; 刘梦佳; 罗娜; 林伟; 李宁

    2016-01-01

    This article introduced the different models of prevention and treatment of liver disease,and proposed the characteristics and advantages of the whole course of prevention and treatment model of liver disease based on the chronic disease management platform.This article proposed that the model could ensure the long-term and the continuity of patient care,and could effectively carry out liver health education and health promotion work.But im-proving the follow-up technique and management measures was still an important issue the hospital facing.The com-bination of prevention and treatment was a powerful measure to reduce the health care costs for patients with liver disease,and the financing of liver disease follow-up activities should be supported by policies and environment.%介绍慢性肝病的防治模式,提出基于慢性病管理平台的全程肝病防治模式的改善措施。通过文献研究,进行了不同肝病防治模式的对比分析。基于慢病管理平台的全程肝病管理模式,确保了患者服务的长期性、连续性,能有效开展肝病健康教育和健康促进工作;目前提高肝病患者随访的技术与管理措施仍是医院面对的重要问题。防治结合是降低肝病患者医疗费用的有力措施,专科医院开展肝病随访管理筹资需要政策和环境的支持。

  2. Thinking about Sports Psychology Load Concept and Its Evaluation%关于体育心理负荷概念及其测评的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦雪梅; 刘震

    2016-01-01

    把近年来对体育心理负荷的研究进行梳理,将体育心理负荷的概念及其测评方法进行概括和总结。研究认为:体育心理负荷是有机体在运动负荷或外部环境刺激的作用下,人的心理结构、神经系统的单位时间工作量。通过人的情绪、意志、注意等模糊指标表现出来;在心理负荷测评中,将量表法和模糊评判法相结合更能准确的进行体育心理负荷的测评。从而为把握体育心理负荷的概念以及测评方法的运用提供借鉴与参考。%In recent years ,researchers have to study sports psychology load to sort out ,the concept of sports psychology load and evaluation methods summed up and summarized .Studies suggest that :sport psychological load is an organism under exercise stress or external environmental stimuli role ,in the psy‐chological workload per unit time structure of the nervous system .Through people's emotions ,will ,at‐tention and other vague indicators manifested ;mental load evaluation ,the scaling method and Fuzzy Com‐bination more accurate evaluation for physical mental load .To provide reference for the application of sports psychology load grasp concepts and assessment methods .

  3. ABACC - Brazil-Argentina Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, a model of integration and transparence; ABACC - Agencia Brasileno-Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares, un ejemplo de integracion y transparencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio A.; Do Canto, Odilon Marcusso, E-mail: oliveira@abacc.org.br, E-mail: odilon@abacc.org.br [Agencia Brasileno Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares (ABACC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Argentina and Brazil began its activities in the nuclear area about the same time, in the 50 century past. The existence of an international nuclear nonproliferation treaty-TNP-seen by Brazil and Argentina as discriminatory and prejudicial to the interests of the countries without nuclear weapons, led to the need for a common system of control of nuclear material between the two countries to somehow provide assurances to the international community of the exclusively peaceful purpose of its nuclear programs. The creation of a common system, assured the establishment of uniform procedures to implement safeguards in Argentina and Brazil, so the same requirements and safeguards procedures took effect in both countries, and the operators of nuclear facilities began to follow the same rules of control of nuclear materials and subjected to the same type of verification and control. On July 18, 1991, the Bilateral Agreement for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy created a binational body, the Argentina-Brazil Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials-ABACC-to implement the so-called Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear materials - SCCC. The deal provided, permanently, a clear commitment to use exclusively for peaceful purposes all material and nuclear facilities under the jurisdiction or control of the two countries. The Quadripartite Agreement, signed in December of that year, between the two countries, ABACC and IAEA completed the legal framework for the implementation of comprehensive safeguards system. The 'model ABACC' now represents a paradigmatic framework in the long process of economic, political, technological and cultural integration of the two countries. Argentina and Brazil were able to establish a guarantee system that is unique in the world today and that consolidated and matured over more than twenty years, has earned the respect of the international community.

  4. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a 60Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release

  5. Effects of gumping support and pinching on the yield of grass pea%搭架与摘心对草豌豆产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马生发

    2011-01-01

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) is easy to become creeping due to thin and soft stem, which often causes the decomposition of lower leaf and stem. An experiment was conduct to determine the effect of humping support and pinching on the yield and of grass pea in this study. This study showed that the com- bination of the humping support and pinching significantly increased the yield and "the pinching at the flow- ering stage increased the yield by 20.2%. The Spearman analysis result indicated that the branches per plant, one hundred seed weight, and pod number per plant were main factors affecting the yield. This also showed that the humping support and pinching increased the yield of grass pea by increasing the branch number of main stem and pod number per plant.%为解决草豌豆(Lathyrussativus)茎秆细软,导致匍匐生长、严重郁蔽、下层茎叶衰败的问题,进行搭架与摘心试验研究。结果表明,搭架结合摘心增产效果显著,盛花期摘心较对照增产率高达20.2%;利用Spearman法分析各处理产量构成因子之间的相互关系,探明产量影响因子主要为主茎分枝数、百粒重和单株荚数,搭架与摘心均能增加主茎分枝数和单株结荚数,是获得高产的有效措施。

  6. Redshift Survey Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. W.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Kaiser, N.

    1994-12-01

    In the first half of 1995, the Anglo-Australian Observatory is due to commission a wide field (2.1(deg) ), 400-fiber, double spectrograph system (2dF) at the f/3.3 prime focus of the AAT 3.9m bi-national facility. The instrument should be able to measure ~ 4000 galaxy redshifts (assuming a magnitude limit of b_J ~\\ 20) in a single dark night and is therefore ideally suited to studies of large-scale structure. We have carried out simple 3D numerical simulations to judge the relative merits of sparse surveys and contiguous surveys. We generate a survey volume and fill it randomly with particles according to a selection function which mimics a magnitude-limited survey at b_J = 19.7. Each of the particles is perturbed by a gaussian random field according to the dimensionless power spectrum k(3) P(k) / 2pi (2) determined by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (1994) from the IRAS QDOT survey. We introduce some redshift-space distortion as described by Kaiser (1987), a `thermal' component measured from pairwise velocities (Davis & Peebles 1983), and `fingers of god' due to rich clusters at random density enhancements. Our particular concern is to understand how the window function W(2(k)) of the survey geometry compromises the accuracy of statistical measures [e.g., P(k), xi (r), xi (r_sigma ,r_pi )] commonly used in the study of large-scale structure. We also examine the reliability of various tools (e.g. genus) for describing the topological structure within a contiguous region of the survey.

  7. Optimization of thread partitioning parameters in speculative multithreading based on artificial immune algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-xiang LI; Yin-liang ZHAO‡; Bin LIU; Shuo JI

    2015-01-01

    Thread partition plays an important role in speculative multithreading (SpMT) for automatic parallelization of ir-regular programs. Using unified values of partition parameters to partition different applications leads to the fact that every ap-plication cannot own its optimal partition scheme. In this paper, five parameters affecting thread partition are extracted from heuristic rules. They are the dependence threshold (DT), lower limit of thread size (TSL), upper limit of thread size (TSU), lower limit of spawning distance (SDL), and upper limit of spawning distance (SDU). Their ranges are determined in accordance with heuristic rules, and their step-sizes are set empirically. Under the condition of setting speedup as an objective function, all com-binations of five threshold values form the solution space, and our aim is to search for the best combination to obtain the best thread granularity, thread dependence, and spawning distance, so that every application has its best partition scheme. The issue can be attributed to a single objective optimization problem. We use the artificial immune algorithm (AIA) to search for the optimal solution. On Prophet, which is a generic SpMT processor to evaluate the performance of multithreaded programs, Olden bench-marks are used to implement the process. Experiments show that we can obtain the optimal parameter values for every benchmark, and Olden benchmarks partitioned with the optimized parameter values deliver a performance improvement of 3.00%on a 4-core platform compared with a machine learning based approach, and 8.92%compared with a heuristics-based approach.

  8. Developmental expression of CAPON and Dexras1 in spinal cord of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin LI; Chun CHENG; Jian ZHAO; Mengling CHEN; Shuqiong NIU; Shangfeng GAO; Aiguo SHEN

    2008-01-01

    To study the expression of the carboxy-ter-minal PSD-95/DLG/ZO-1 ligand of nNOS (CAPON) and Dexrasl mRNA during development in the spinal cord of rats, real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR), as a quantitative method, was used to study the developmental expression of CAPON and Dexrasl mRNA level in the spinal cord. The spatial expression of CAPON and Dexrasl mRNA was examined by a com-bination of in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunofluor-escence. During the development of the spinal cord, CAPON mRNA was expressed in low levels from embryo day 14 to day 18. At postnatal day 1, it reached the peak and was expressed in the part which will become the dor-sal horn when mature. It then decreased gradually until postnatal week 12, when it presented in the ventral horn. At embryo day 14, Dexrasl mRNA was expressed at low levels, increased during embryo day 16 to day 18 and peaked at postnatal day 1. Spatiotemporal expression of Dexrasl mRNA was similar to CAPON as confirmed by correlation analysis and colocalization. CAPON and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was expressed within the same cells of the dorsal horn at postnatal day 1 but had different subcellular localizations. Co-express-ion of CAPON and Dexrasl mRNA in myeloid tissue during development process of rat indicates that the adaptor protein, CAPON may play a probable role in differentiation of neurons, synaptic plasticity and synap-togenesis by regulating nNOS to activate Dexrasl.

  9. Deep Geothermal:The‘Moon Landing’ Mission in the Unconventional Energy and Minerals Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus Regenauer-Lieb; Jie Liu; Vladimir Lyakhovsky; Elena Pasternak; Robert Podgorney1; Thomas Poulet; Sheik Rahman; Christoph Schrank; Mike Trefry; Manolis Veveakis; Bisheng Wu; Andrew Bunger; David A. Yuen; Florian Wellmann; Xi Zhang; Hui Tong Chua; Arcady Dyskin; Florian Fusseis; Oliver Gaede; Rob Jeffrey; Ali Karrech; Thomas Kohl

    2015-01-01

    Deep geothermal from the hot crystalline basement has remained an unsolved frontier for the geothermal industry for the past 30 years. This poses the challenge for developing a new un-conventional geomechanics approach to stimulate such reservoirs. While a number of new uncon-ventional brittle techniques are still available to improve stimulation on short time scales, the aston-ishing richness of failure modes of longer time scales in hot rocks has so far been overlooked. These failure modes represent a series of microscopic processes: brittle microfracturing prevails at low temperatures and fairly high deviatoric stresses, while upon increasing temperature and decreasing applied stress or longer time scales, the failure modes switch to transgranular and intergranular creep fractures. Accordingly, fluids play an active role and create their own pathways through fa-cilitating shear localization by a process of time-dependent dissolution and precipitation creep, rather than being a passive constituent by simply following brittle fractures that are generated in-side a shear zone caused by other localization mechanisms. We lay out a new theoretical approach for the design of new strategies to utilize, enhance and maintain the natural permeability in the deeper and hotter domain of geothermal reservoirs. The advantage of the approach is that, rather than engineering an entirely new EGS reservoir, we acknowledge a suite of creep-assisted geological processes that are driven by the current tectonic stress field. Such processes are particularly sup-ported by higher temperatures potentially allowing in the future to target commercially viable com-binations of temperatures and flow rates.

  10. TRANSNATIONAL MOBILITY IN A BORDER TERRITORY: ASIAN COMMUNITIES IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Beltrán Antolín

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain, an European Union country, has become a new location for Asian transnationalism, a new territory to explore, an horizon to discover, a border to cross over. The Spanish economy is an attractive sector for Asian investment and business initiatives, that receives projects and initiatives already tested in other places, or new ones, particularly adapted to the local factors. The diasporas that have taken place, can be categorised, in general terms, into three typologies: the commercial diaspora, the elite and “bottom-up transnationalism”; three models of transnationalism which –in Spain– have demonstrated great adaptability and a high level of integration into the social and economic life of the welcoming country. However, at the same time, inevitable processes of economic competition have been unleashed and have sometimes given rise to violent outbreaks of racism and xenophobia. The Asian disembarkation of its diasporas in a boundary territory of Europe such as Spain, together with the accompanying economic and entrepreneurial dynamism, foster both the increase of wealth and the internationalisation of the national economy. Asian transnationalism –in the context of Spain– should be considered as multinodal and not exclusively binational (origin and destination, as the links actively maintained by the actors-agents of transnationalism include different Asian immigrant communities scattered throughout the world, as well as the countrie of origin. Spain is just another location, one step more in the cross-over that Asian transnationalism involves; in short, a boundary territory that is still filled with opportunities to explore.

  11. Research for applying genetic algorithm thought to self-learning of knowledge base%应用遗传算法思想进行知识库自学习的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄林林; 赵祎; 姚青

    2009-01-01

    For the problem of knowledge acquisition, manual method which has low efficiency can no longer meet the needs of the people. Therefore, the machine learning is provided to deal with this problem. On the basis of a virtual travel agent platform, by using theories and methods of genetic algorithms and machine learning, the problem of goal acquisition is transformed into the problem of com-bination optimization and a self-learning algorithm of goal knowledge base is provided which can optimize the new travel goals and update goal base. The experimental results show that the method is effective.%对于知识获取问题,常用的手工方法效率较低,已经不能满足人们的需求,因此提出使用机器学习这种自动知识获取方法来解决该问题.以虚拟旅行代理平台为背景,采用遗传算法和机器学习相结合的理论和方法,将目标知识库的目标荻取问题转化为组合优化问题,并提出了一个目标知识库自学习算法.通过该算法优化出新的旅行目标,实现目标库的更新.实验结果表明,该方法是有效的.

  12. 论艺术与仿生学的结缘%On the combination of art and bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏梁

    2001-01-01

    建筑仿生、工艺仿生以及人工智能艺术,是艺术与仿生学结缘的三个突出的方面。对之所进行的边缘性研究,旨在用艺术与科学相结合的方法,仿照某些生物的特征、机能,制作新的建筑物、艺术品、工艺品和具有独特审美价值的工业产品。艺术与仿生学的结缘是艺术起源观中的摹仿说在新的科学技术发展时代的一个质的飞跃。在技术美学领域,对艺术与仿生学的结缘尤为重视。%The application of bionics in architecture and industrial art and artificial intelligence are mostimportant areas in which art and bionics are combined. The interdisciplinary research in these areas isaimed at producing new architectural works, art items and industrial products with unique aesthetic valuethrough a combination of art and science and modeling features and functions of animate objects. The com-bination of art and bionics presents an essential step forward of the imitation theory in the study of the ori-gin of art in the new era of highly developed technology and science. This combination is particularly sig-nificant for technological aesthetics.

  13. Fishes and aquatic habitats of the Orinoco River Basin: diversity and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasso, C A; Machado-Allison, A; Taphorn, D C

    2016-07-01

    About 1000 freshwater fishes have been found so far in the Orinoco River Basin of Venezuela and Colombia. This high ichthyological diversity reflects the wide range of landscapes and aquatic ecosystems included in the basin. Mountain streams descend from the high Andes to become rapid-flowing foothill rivers that burst out upon vast savannah flatlands where they slowly make their way to the sea. These white-water rivers are heavily laden with sediments from the geologically young Andes. Because their sediment deposits have formed the richest soils of the basin, they have attracted the highest density of human populations, along with the greatest levels of deforestation, wildfires, agricultural biocides and fertilizers, sewage and all the other impacts associated with urban centres, agriculture and cattle ranching. In the southern portion of the basin, human populations are much smaller, where often the only inhabitants are indigenous peoples. The ancient rocks and sands of the Guiana Shield yield clear and black water streams of very different quality. Here, sediment loads are miniscule, pH is very acid and fish biomass is only a fraction of that observed in the rich Andean tributaries to the north. For each region of the basin, the current state of knowledge about fish diversity is assessed, fish sampling density evaluated, the presence of endemic species and economically important species (for human consumption or ornamental purposes) described and gaps in knowledge are pointed out. Current trends in the fishery for human consumption are analysed, noting that stocks of many species are in steep decline, and that current fishing practices are not sustainable. Finally, the major impacts and threats faced by the fishes and aquatic ecosystems of the Orinoco River Basin are summarized, and the creation of bi-national commissions to promote standardized fishing laws in both countries is recommended. PMID:27250805

  14. U.S.Mexico cross-border workforce training needs:survey implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Cecilia B.; Nuno, Tomas; Dieke, Ada; Galvez, Francisco Navarro; Dutton, Ronald J.; Guerrero, Robert; Dulin, Paul; Jiménez, Elisa Aguilar; Granillo, Brenda; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Since the tragic events experienced on September 11, 2001, and other recent events such as the hurricane devastation in the southeastern parts of the country and the emergent H1N1season, the need for a competent public health workforce has become vitally important for securing and protecting the greater population. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to assess the training needs of the U.S. Mexico border states public health workforce. Methods: The Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness of the Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health at The University of Arizona implemented a border-wide needs assessment. The online survey was designed to assess and prioritize core public health competencies as well as bioterrorism, infectious disease, and border/binational training needs. Results: Approximately 80% of the respondents were employed by agencies that serve both rural and urban communities. Respondents listed 23 different functional roles that best describe their positions. Approximately 35% of the respondents were primarily employed by state health departments, twenty-seven percent (30%) of the survey participants reported working at the local level, and 19% indicated they worked in other government settings (e.g. community health centers and other non-governmental organizations). Of the 163 survey participants, a minority reported that they felt they were well prepared in the Core Bioterrorism competencies. The sections on Border Competency, Surveillance/Epidemiology, Communications/Media Relations and Cultural Responsiveness, did not generate a rating of 70% or greater on the importance level of survey participants. Conclusions: The study provided the opportunity to examine the issues of public health emergency preparedness within the framework of the border as a region addressing both unique needs and context. The most salient findings highlight the need to enhance the border competency skills of individuals whose

  15. Cloning, expression and characterization of human tissue-specific DNA polymerase λ2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    DNA polymerase (POL) λ plays an important role during DNA repair and DNA nonhomologous recom-bination processes. A novel POL λ variant was cloned from a human liver cDNA library and named POL λ2 (GenBank Accession No. AY302442). POL λ2 has 2206 base pairs in length with an open reading frame of 1452 base pairs encoding a 482-amino-acids protein. Bioinformatics analysis reveals that POL λ2 spans 7.9 kb on human chromosome 10q24 and is composed of 8 exons and 7 introns. It has the specific domain of DNA polymerase X family-POL Xc at the C-terminus and BRCT domain at the N-terminus. POL λ2 was localized predominantly in nucleus in transfected L0-2 cells. It was expressed abundantly in liver and testis, weakly in ovary, and undetectably in other tested human tissues. In comparison with the expression ratio between POL λ and POL λ2 in normal liver tissues and hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC) adjacent tissues, the ratio was aberrant in 80% of those 15 HCC specimens examined due to the up-regulated expression of POL λ. This abnormality might be involved in hepato-carcinogenesis. The recombinant POL λ2 with His-tag was expressed as a soluble active protein in E. coli BL21 (DE3)CONDON Plus and purified by Ni-NTA resin and then desalted by Superdex-75 chro-matography in an FPLC system. The analysis using isotope α-32P-dCTP incorporation in vitro showed that the purified recombinant POL λ2 exhibited DNA polymerase activity.

  16. Educational gradients in five Asian immigrant populations: Do country of origin, duration and generational status moderate the education-health relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie; Geronimus, Arline; Bound, John; Griffith, Derek; Gee, Gilbert

    2016-12-01

    Education usually shows a relationship with self-rated health such that those with highest education have the best health and those with lowest education have the worst health. We examine these educational gradients among Asian immigrants and whether they differ by country of origin, duration in the United States, and generational status. Migration theories suggest that recent immigrants from poorer countries should show a weaker relationship between education and health than US-born Whites. Acculturation theory further suggests that differences in gradients across country of origin should diminish for longer-term immigrants and the US-born and that these groups should display gradients similar to US-born Whites. We use the March Current Population Survey (2000 - 2010) to examine educational gradients in self-rated health among recent immigrants (≤ 15 years duration), longer-term immigrants (> 15 years duration), and second generation US-born Asians from China (n = 4473), India (n = 4,307), the Philippines (n = 5746), South Korea (n = 2760), and Japan (n = 1265). We find weak or non-significant educational gradients among recent Asian immigrants across the five countries of origin. There is no indication that longer-term immigrants display significant differences across educational status. Only second generation Chinese and Filipinos show significant differences by educational status. Overall, Asians show an attenuated relationship between education and self-rated health compared to US-Whites that persists over duration in the US and generational status. Our findings show shortcomings in migration and acculturation theories to explain these gradient patterns. Future research could use binational data or explore psychosocial factors to identify potential suppressors of educational gradients.

  17. Development of a seismic design method based on response spectra for building structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiyuan; YU Ruifang

    2007-01-01

    The assumption and problem of the mode-superposition response spectrum method in seismic design code is discussed based on a brief review of the development of the seismic design method for building structures. The scope of application for the classical damping theory is ana- lyzed and the necessity of the research on mode-superposition method for non-classical damping is presented. The pro- gresses on the mode superposition response spectrum theory are discussed. This includes: 1) the complex mode superposi- tion method (in real form) for the non-classically damped linear system and the general calculation formula for the application of code; 2) the complex complete quadratic com- bination (CCQC) method for the non-classically damped linear system, which is based on the same assumptions as in deducing the complete quadratic combination (CQC) method which is popularly used in seismic design codes of many countries; 3) the complex complete quadratic combination with three components (CCQC3) method, which is a general- ization of the CCQC method to the case of multi-components and multiple-support seismic excitations and deducing cor- responding method; 4) the approach for calculation of seismic response of the non-classically damped system with over- critical damping and the calculation method of seismic response for the linear system with multiple eigenvalues; 5) the time-dependent CCQC(t) algorithm considering non- stationary earthquake ground motion; 6) an applied and effec- tive method to solve the low order complex vector basis for the large linear non-classically damped system, which can be expediently used in practice to avoid the unknown errors coming from the forced uncoupling method; 7) bringing for- ward the concept of partial quadratic combination in order to reduce the calculation amount of CQC and CCQC methods, and studying the primary estimation-criterion. The reason- ability and applicable scope of these methods are also briefly discussed in this

  18. Advances in the Knowledge of Transboundary Aquifers Shared by Canada and the USA, through the UNESCO's IHP ISARM Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.

    2015-12-01

    Canada's involvement in the UNESCO IHP ISARM initiative prompted an accrued analysis on the knowledge and state of transboundary aquifers located along the Canada-USA border. As a result, 10 Transboundary Aquifer Systems (TAS) were identified and some have been assessed in cooperation with the United States. This study is a review of the current state of the 10 TAS. Documentation of scientifically-based knowledge on TAS is an important step in identifying potential issues in policies that might be adopted to address shared water-resource issues. The newly acquired hydrological insights for this very long international border emphasizes the need for more scientific data, widespread communication and information sharing between Canadian and American organizations, and a more clearly defined governments' role to manage groundwater at the international level. The study reviews the legal frameworks and summarises the current scientific knowledge for the TAS with respect to the hydrologic and geologic framework as well as some of the major drivers for supply and demand. It also describes the links, approach and relevance of studies on the TAS to the UN Law of Transboundary Aquifers and on how these might fit in the ISARM's regional strategy for the assessment and management of the TAS. Clear communication, shared knowledge and common objectives in the management of TAS will prepare the countries for future negotiations and cooperative binational programs. Encouraged by the ISARM approach of the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO, Canada is now looking forward to playing a key regional role in improving water management, facilitating transboundary water sharing, and enhancing water research and data sharing in future relations between these two nations.

  19. Labor Migration, Drug Trafficking Organizations, and Drug Use: Major Challenges for Transnational Communities in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Víctor; González, Laura

    2009-06-01

    In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the

  20. On Teachers' Morality Construction from the Perspective of Scientific Outlook on Development in Transition Peri-od:Problems and Countermeasures%科学发展观视域下转型期师德师风建设的问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明

    2015-01-01

    During the period of social transformation, because of the impact of economic diversification and the value pluralism, the teachers' ethics appeared some tendency and problems that can not be ignored. In order to form a good teachers' ethics in colleges, we must understand the social, economic, and cultural characteristics in transformation period, and with the scientific development concept as a guide, strengthen the people-oriented and teacher-oriented humane education mode, and take teachers' morality construction as a long-term and basic task of college construction and development. Only when we realize"five com-binations" of teachers' morality construction, and promote the formation of good school spirit and style of study with good pro-fessional ethics, can we realize the comprehensive and sustain-able development of colleges.%社会转型期,由于经济多样化以及价值多元化的影响,高校师德师风出现了一些不容忽视的倾向和问题。高校要形成良好的师德师风,就必须认清转型时期社会经济、文化特点,以科学发展观为指导,强化以人为本、以师为本的人性化办学模式,注重把师德师风建设作为学校建设和发展的一项长期和基本的工作来抓,实现师德师风建设的“五大结合”,以良好师德师风来促成良好校风学风的形成,从而实现学校全面和可持续发展。

  1. Obstetric emergencies at the United States–Mexico border crossings in El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jill A.; Rishel, Karen; Escobedo, Miguel A.; Arellano, Danielle E.; Cunningham, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the frequency, characteristics, and patient outcomes for women who accessed Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for obstetric emergencies at the ports of entry (POE) between El Paso, Texas, United States of America, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Methods A descriptive study of women 12–49 years of age for whom an EMS ambulance was called to an El Paso POE location from December 2008–April 2011 was conducted. Women were identified through surveillance of EMS records. EMS and emergency department (ED) records were abstracted for all women through December 2009 and for women with an obstetric emergency through April 2011. For obstetric patients admitted to the hospital, additional prenatal and birth characteristics were collected. Frequencies and proportions were estimated for each variable; differences between residents of the United States and Mexico were tested. Results During December 2008–December 2009, 47.6% (68/143) of women receiving EMS assistance at an El Paso POE had an obstetric emergency, nearly 20 times the proportion for Texas overall. During December 2008–April 2011, 60.1% (66/109) of obstetric patients with ED records were admitted to hospital and 52 gave birth before discharge. Preterm birth (23.1%; No. = 12), low birth weight (9.6%; No. = 5), birth in transit (7.7%; No. = 4), and postpartum hemorrhage (5.8%; No. = 3) were common; fewer than one-half the women (46.2%; No. = 24) had evidence of prenatal care. Conclusions The high proportion of obstetric EMS transports and high prevalence of complications in this population suggest a need for binational risk reduction efforts. PMID:25915011

  2. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edwards Matthews III

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hundreds of departments and organizations working on border health issues in the California/Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. As a result, there is a need to effectively improve the health in the border region by coordinating these organizations to work together and benefit from each other’s best practices. The newly developed California Border Health Collaborative (CBHC can provide the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region. This article aims to describe the development process of this collaborative to include key ingredients to success, the roles of mulit-level jurisdictions, and policy implications.This article describes the methods used to develop key aspects of collaborative leadership, strategic alignment and a common vision toward the building of this collective impact approach to border health. In addition, we describe the role of key local County (County of San Diego Live Well San Diego initiative, State, (California Department of Public Health- Office of Binational Border Health, Federal (US-Mexico Border Health Commission’s Leaders across Borders, Academia (e.g., University of California San Diego and San Diego State University and non-profit entities (e.g., Project Concern International, San Ysidro Health Center in forming the BHCC. Evaluating the consortium development process included a literature review of similar processes, a review of internal documents and an analysis of developmental events. To this point the CBHC has built a strong, cohesive collaborative on the U.S. side of the border. It is sharing and leveraging local expertise to address many border health issues. Even more importantly, the BHCC has reached a key stage in which it can effectively engage its Baja California, Mexico counterparts in a manner that will prove extremely powerful

  3. U.S.-Mexico cross-border workforce training needs: survey implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Guernsey de Zapien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the tragic events experienced on September 11, 2001, and other recent events such as the hurricane devastation in the southeastern parts of the country and the emergent H1N1season, the need for a competent public health workforce has become vitally important for securing and protecting the greater population. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to assess the training needs of the U.S. Mexico border states public health workforce. METHODS: The Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness of the Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health at The University of Arizona implemented a border-wide needs assessment. The online survey was designed to assess and prioritize core public health competencies as well as bioterrorism, infectious disease, and border/binational training needs. RESULTS: Approximately 80% of the respondents were employed by agencies that serve both rural and urban communities. Respondents listed 23 different functional roles that best describe their positions. Approximately 35% of the respondents were primarily employed by state health departments, twenty-seven percent (30% of the survey participants reported working at the local level, and 19% indicated they worked in other government settings (e.g. community health centers and other non-governmental organizations. Of the 163 survey participants, a minority reported that they felt they were well prepared in the Core Bioterrorism competencies. The sections on Border Competency, Surveillance/Epidemiology, Communications/Media Relations and Cultural Responsiveness, did not generate a rating of 70% or greater on the importance level of survey participants. CONCLUSIONS: The study provided the opportunity to examine the issues of public health emergency preparedness within the framework of the border as a region addressing both unique needs and context. The most salient findings highlight the need to enhance the border competency skills of individuals

  4. PHENIX Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta'ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bing, X.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Castera, P.; Chang, B. S.; Chang, W. C.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; DeBlasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Guragain, H.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Harper, C.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; Hayashi, S.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Hoshino, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isinhue, A.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanishchev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Javani, M.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kaneta, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K.-B.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klatsky, J.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Kofarago, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Krizek, F.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Layton, D.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, B.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Ma, M.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Mašek, L.; Masui, H.; Masumoto, S.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Midori, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, A. J.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D. K.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Miyachi, Y.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, H. J.; Moon, T.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Nattrass, C.; Nederlof, A.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nukariya, A.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; Obayashi, H.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Oide, H.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Savastio, M.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shim, H. H.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Skutnik, S.; Slunečka, M.; Sodre, T.; Solano, S.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Soumya, M.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tomášek, L.; Tomášek, M.; Tomita, Y.; Torii, H.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Utsunomiya, K.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Voas, B.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; Whitaker, S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wolin, S.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xie, W.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. S.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zimányi, J.; Zolin, L.

    2014-12-01

    We thank the staff of the Collider-Accelerator and Physics Departments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the staff of the other PHENIX participating institutions for their vital contributions. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, a sponsored research grant from Renaissance Technologies LLC, Abilene Christian University Research Council, Research Foundation of SUNY, and Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University (USA), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Brazil), Natural Science Foundation of China, (People's Republic of China), Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (Croatia), Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (Czech Republic), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, and Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (France), Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst, and Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung (Germany), OTKA NK 101 428 grant and the Ch. Simonyi Fund (Hungary), Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Science and Technology (India), Israel Science Foundation (Israel), National Research Foundation and WCU program of the Ministry Education Science and Technology (Republic of Korea), Physics Department, Lahore University of Management Sciences (Pakistan), Ministry of Education and Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Agency of Atomic Energy (Russia), VR and Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), the US Civilian Research and Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, and the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

  5. The impact of extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ on ethanol-induced smooth muscle contraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naciye YAKTUBAY DONDAS; Mahir KAPLAN; Derya KAYA; Ergin SiNGiRiK

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the impact of extracellular and intracellular Ca~(2+) on contractions induced by ethanol in smooth muscle.Methods: Longitudinal smooth muscle strips were prepared from the gastric fundi of mice. The contractions of smooth muscle strips were recorded with an isometric force displacement transducer.Results: Ethanol (164 mmol/L) produced reproducible contractions in isolated gastric fundal strips of mice. Although lidocaine (50 and 100 μmol/L), a local anesthetic agent, and hexamethonium (100 and 500 μmol/L), a ganglionic blocking agent, failed to affect these contractions, verapamil (1-50 μmol/L) and nifedipine (1-50 μmol/L), selective blockers of L-type Ca~(2+) channels, significantly inhibited the contractile responses of ethanol. Using a Ca~(2+)-free medium nearly eliminated these contractions in the same tissue. Ryanodine (1-50 μmol/L) and ruthenium red (10-100 μmol/L), selective blockers of intracellular Ca~(2+) channels/ryanodine receptors; cyclopiazonic acid (CPA; 1-10 μmol/L), a selective inhibitor of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca~(2+)-ATPase; and caffeine (0.5-5 mmol/L), a depleting agent of intracellular Ca~(2+) stores, significantly inhibited the contractile responses induced by ethanol. In addition, the com-bination of caffeine (5 mmol/L) plus CPA (10 μmol/L), and ryanodine (10 μmol/L) plus CPA (10 μmol/L), caused further inhibition of contractions in response to ethanol. This inhibition was significantly different from those associated with caffeine, ryanodine or CPA. Furthermore the combination of caffeine (5 mmol/L), ryanodine (10 μmol/L) and CPA(10 μmol/L) eliminated the contractions induced by ethanol in isolated gastric fundal strips of mice.Conclusion: Both extracellular and intracellular Ca~(2+) may have important roles in regulating contractions induced by ethanol in the mouse gastric fundus.

  6. ICP-OES与ICP-MS测定人体汗液的5种微量重金属元素%Determination of five heavy trace metal elements in human sweat by ICP-OES and ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤盛翔; 孟达; 吴次南

    2015-01-01

    In this study, different digestion methods were used to prepare samples for determination of five heavy trace metal elements ( Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in human sweat by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry ( ICP -OES ) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ( ICP -MS ) . We found that the HNO3 -HClO4 wet digestion method combining with ICP-MS is more accurate to determine these five heavy trace metal elements because their relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 0. 3% ~9. 4%and the recovery rates of ICP-MS were 92. 8% ~118. 6%. It is concluded that, comparing with other com-binations, HNO3 -HClO4 wet digestion-ICP-MS is the fast and accurate method for determining the heavy metal elements in human sweat.%采用不同的样品消化方法和电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法(ICP-OES)与质谱法(ICP-MS),尝试建立适合的测定汗液中铬( Cr)、铜( Cu)、锌( Zn)、镉( Cd)和铅( Pb)五种微量重金属元素的方法。结果显示,湿法消解-ICP-MS法检测汗液中这五种微量金属元素的相对偏差( RSD)为0.3%~9.4%,ICP-MS的加标回收率为92.8%~118.6%。相较其他方法,该法能快速精确地同时检测出汗液中多种微量重金属元素。

  7. A coupled model approach to reduce nonpoint-source pollution resulting from predicted urban growth: A case study in the Ambos Nogales watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Guertin, D.P.; Feller, M.

    2008-01-01

    The development of new approaches for understanding processes of urban development and their environmental effects, as well as strategies for sustainable management, is essential in expanding metropolitan areas. This study illustrates the potential of linking urban growth and watershed models to identify problem areas and support long-term watershed planning. Sediment is a primary source of nonpoint-source pollution in surface waters. In urban areas, sediment is intermingled with other surface debris in transport. In an effort to forecast the effects of development on surface-water quality, changes predicted in urban areas by the SLEUTH urban growth model were applied in the context of erosion-sedimentation models (Universal Soil Loss Equation and Spatially Explicit Delivery Models). The models are used to simulate the effect of excluding hot-spot areas of erosion and sedimentation from future urban growth and to predict the impacts of alternative erosion-control scenarios. Ambos Nogales, meaning 'both Nogaleses,' is a name commonly used for the twin border cities of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The Ambos Nogales watershed has experienced a decrease in water quality as a result of urban development in the twin-city area. Population growth rates in Ambos Nogales are high and the resources set in place to accommodate the rapid population influx will soon become overburdened. Because of its remote location and binational governance, monitoring and planning across the border is compromised. One scenario described in this research portrays an improvement in water quality through the identification of high-risk areas using models that simulate their protection from development and replanting with native grasses, while permitting the predicted and inevitable growth elsewhere. This is meant to add to the body of knowledge about forecasting the impact potential of urbanization on sediment delivery to streams for sustainable development, which can be

  8. A Study Protocol for the Australasian Oncofertility Registry: Monitoring Referral Patterns and the Uptake, Quality, and Complications of Fertility Preservation Strategies in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazodo, Antoinette C; Stern, Catharyn J; McLachlan, Robert I; Gerstl, Brigitte; Agresta, Franca; Cohn, Richard J; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Wakefield, Claire E; Daly, Genevieve; Chan, Daisy; Gilbert, Lorrae; Kemertzis, Matthew; Orme, Lisa M; Wand, Handan; Viney, Rosalie; Gillam, Lynn; Deans, Rebecca; Jetti, Murali; Wu, John; Chapman, Michael; Ledger, William; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    Improvements in cancer diagnosis and treatment in patients of a reproductive age have led to significant improvements in survival rates; however, a patient's fertility can be affected by both cancer and its treatment. As survival rates improve, there is an expectation by clinicians and patients that patient's reproductive potential should be considered and protected as much as possible. However, there is a lack of data about current fertility preservation (FP) uptake as well as accurate data on the acute or permanent reproductive risks of cancer treatment, complications of FP in cancer patients, and the use and success of assisted reproductive technology by cancer survivors. FP remains a major gap in acute cancer management with lifelong implications for cancer survivors. The FUTuRE Fertility research team has established the first binational multisite Australasian Oncofertility Registry, which is collecting a complete oncofertility data set from cancer and fertility centers in Australia and New Zealand. Outcomes from the research study will monitor referral, uptake, and complications of FP, document patient's reproductive potential after treatment, and collect data on the use of assisted reproductive technology following cancer treatment. The data will be linked to other routine health and administrative data sets to allow for other research projects to be carried out. The changes in oncofertility care will be benchmarked against the Australasian Oncofertility Charter. The data will be used to develop evidence-based guidelines and resources, including development of accurate risk projections for patients' risk of infertility, allowing clinicians to make recommendations for FP or assisted reproductive technology. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Number-12615000221550.

  9. Lead Contamination of Urban Soil in the El Paso (Texas)--Juarez (Mexico) Border Metroplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Amaya, M. A.; Clague, J.

    2005-12-01

    We present an unusually detailed map of the distribution of lead in El Paso--Juarez soils, one that is based on x-ray fluorescence analysis of 1000 composite soil samples collected in the region. Mixing equal volumes of samples taken from the public space in front of individual houses or structures around a single municipal block created a single composite sample to characterize each of the 500 blocks studied in each city. Maps based on such composites highlight the distribution of lead at the neighborhood level, and de-emphasize any anomalous elevated level associated with an individual house or structure. In both cities, levels of lead are highest in their contiguous downtown commercial districts, which date to the 19th Century and are linked by the traditional border river crossing area at the Rio Grande. Rail yards, transport hubs, light industry complexes, and the oldest residential areas lie adjacent to, and inter-tongue with, this commercial district on both sides of the border. A century-old smelter, placed on standby six years ago, abuts the western limit of the old urban core in El Paso. The continuity of this elevated-lead zone, the proximity of the smelter, the many potential lead sources associated with traditional commercial activities, and the age of its structures, make it difficult to differentiate lead sources. Lead values decrease systematically away from this urban core zone, with the lowest levels generally encountered in peripheral, lightly populated developments and communities. The binational distribution of Pb in soil is consistent with Pb measurements reported on particulate matter taken from nine air monitoring stations (covering both cities) during the 1990s. Soil data thus can complement air studies by providing an essentially infinite geographic network of sampling sites that, with varying accuracy, record and integrate air conditions over years and decades. Research supported by NIEHS Grant 1RO1-ES11367.

  10. Immigrant advantage? Substance use among Latin American immigrant and native-born youth in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen; Luengo, Maria Angeles; Nieri, Tanya; Villar, Paula

    2008-04-01

    This article reports the results of a descriptive study conducted with middle school and high school age youth residing in northwestern Spain. The main outcome of the study is to advance knowledge about the drug use attitudes and behaviors of immigrants versus native youth in a social context where Latin American immigrants share a common language and a set of core cultural norms with the host society. The research was conducted by a bi-national Spain-US research team as a preliminary study leading to the development of joint culturally appropriate prevention interventions for youth in the northern region of Galicia, Spain. Surveys were administered in Spring 2005 to 817 students in 7th to 10th grades in 10 urban, secondary schools with high immigrant enrollment. The sample included Spanish natives (two-thirds) and Latin American immigrants (one-third), mainly from Colombia, Argentina, and Venezuela. Multiple regression analyses predicted substance use intentions, and a composite variable measuring lifetime and last 30-day frequency and amount of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use. Controlling for the fact that the immigrant students were generally older and performing less well academically than natives, and for other predictors, Latin American immigrant youth were less at risk than native youth on their intentions to use substances and on their reported actual substance use. In a mediational analysis, most of the key explanatory variables in youth substance use etiology failed to account for the immigrant versus native differences, including a range of risk and protective factors for substance use, substance use norms, strength of ethnic identity, and degree of social integration within native-born social networks. Differential access to drugs mediated the immigrant-native gap in substance use intentions but did not mediate differences in actual substance use. PMID:18425712

  11. Strengthening Adaptation to Extreme Climate Events in Southwestern Amazonia: an Example from the Trinational Acre River Basin in the Madre de Dios/Peru - Acre/Brazil - Pando/Bolivia (MAP) Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. F.

    2015-12-01

    Southwestern Amazonia, where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet, faces numerous challenges to the sustainable utilization of land and water resources as the region experiences rapid population and economic growth, expanding agriculture, transportation and energy sectors, along with frequent flooding and droughts. It is also predicted to be one of the most susceptible areas for climate change in the coming decade. The Acre River Basin, one of the few trinational basins in Amazonia, lies at the center of the Madre de Dios Region (Peru), Acre State (Brazil) and Pando Department (Bolivia) or MAP Region. It covers approximately 7,500 km2 and its inhabitants range from indigenous groups avoiding contact with industrial society to more than 60,000 dwellers of a binational urban center. The basin incorporates most the challenges facing the region and this paper discusses steps underway to address the basin's vulnerability to climate-related threats. A trinational group of professionals used GIS databases and local knowledge to classify these threats and possible societal responses. To prioritize threats and to propose responses, this group adapted a method proposed by the Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence of Australia to develop climate risk matrices for assessing impacts, adaptation, risk and vulnerability. The three priority climate variables were prolonged and more frequent droughts, more intense flooding, and more days with temperatures > 35oC. The final matrix proposed two areas of concentration - 1) Reduce the vulnerability of communities to hydro-meteorological extreme events and 2) Protect and restore ecosystems that maintain critical water-related resources with actions in public policy, capacity-building, and immediate activities. These results are being incorporated into the Amazon Project of the Global Environment Fund of the United Nations Environment Program, administered by the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO).

  12. 太阳能电池用多晶硅材料少数载流子寿命的测试%Measuring Minority Carrier Lifetime in Polycrystalline Silicon for Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵铮铮; 李修建; 戴荣铭

    2015-01-01

    The minority carrier lifetime in p-typed polycrystalline silicon used for solar cells was tested by the high frequency photoconductivity decay method,and the influence of photo injection intensity on the testing re-sult was analyzed in detail. The results show that the decay curve is not exponential damping in a wide area near the peak point,until the signal fade down to lower than half value. In addition,the measured value of the minority carrier lifetime is reduced when reinforcing the photo injection intensity. Based on the surface recom-bination effect and grain boundary recombination effect of the non-equilibrium carriers, we interpreted this physical phenomenon appropriately.%采用高频光电导衰退法测试了太阳能电池用p型多晶硅片的少数载流子寿命,细致分析了光注入强度对测试结果的影响。结果显示光电导衰减曲线在靠近尖峰处较宽的时间区域内并按非指数规律快速衰减,当信号衰减到一定程度后逐渐接近指数规律,且随着光注入强度增大,少子寿命的测量结果显著减小。从非平衡载流子的表面复合效应和晶界复合效应出发,对导致该现象的物理机制进行深入解释。

  13. A Voice of the US Southwestern Border: The 2012 “We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future” Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah McC. Heyman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 2012, a diverse group of US residents living near the US-Mexico border met in El Paso, Texas for a conference entitled, We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future.  This paper describes a vision for the US-Mexico border by diverse border residents that is at odds with the widespread view of the border as a threat to the United States. These border residents viewed their region as a set of human communities with rights, capacities, and valuable insights and knowledge. They embraced an alternative vision of border enforcement that would focus on “quality” (dangerous entrants and contraband over “quantity” (mass migration enforcement.  They called for investments in the functionality and security of ports of entry, rather than in between ports of entry.  They noted the low crime rate in US border cities, and examined how policies of not mixing local law enforcement with federal immigration enforcement contributed to this achievement. They saw the border region as the key transportation and brokerage zone of the emerging, integrated North American economy. In their view, the bilingual, bicultural, and binational skills that characterize border residents form part of a wider border culture that embraces diversity and engenders creativity. Under this vision the border region is not an empty enforcement zone, but is part of the national community and its residents should enjoy the same constitutional and human rights as other US residents. The conference participants emphasized the necessity and value of accountability and oversight of central government enforcement operations, and the need for border communities to participate in federal decision-making that affects their lives. 

  14. 思维导图在热力学与统计物理教学中应用的实践研究%Practice Research on Application about Mind Map in Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴玉梅; 马凤才; 张会; 丁勇; 曾涛; 陈思

    2015-01-01

    使用思维导图制作软件NovaM ind对热力学与统计物理课程教学案例的教学过程进行改进研究。实践证明,在热力学与统计物理教学中,将思维导图和实际教学课程内容相结合,把知识点的讲解进行树状可视化教学,有利于师生知识结构的构建和教学内容全景的呈现,有利于学生巩固知识与查缺补漏,有利于学生全脑的开发。该教学模式可以推广到不同专业、不同课程的教学方法改革实践中去,一定能优化相应课程的教学效果。%The investigations are improved on the teaching process of “thermodynamics and statistical Physics”teaching case , as implemented in mind mapping software , NovaMind . The practice has proved that , in thermodynamics and statistical physics teaching ,com bination of mind mapping and teaching courses ,and tree -like visualization of teaching knowledge ,facilitate the construction of the knowledge structure for both teachers and students , the representation of panoramic teaching content , students consolidating knowledge and finding shortness ,students developing entire brains .This teaching model can be generalized to the revolution practice of teaching methods in different majors and courses .The model will be able to optimize the teaching efficiency of the course .

  15. 旅游市场营销模块化教学改革探析%The Exploration of Modular Teaching on the Course of Tourism Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东; 由亚男

    2014-01-01

    旅游市场营销是一门实践性很强的专业课,如何确定教学内容,以发挥市场营销理论对旅游业发展的指导作用是本课程需要深入思考的重要问题。本课程的模块化教学内容由旅游企业营销环境、旅游企业市场定位和旅游企业营销组合三部分组成,教学过程中应注重教学实践活动、教学与科研的有机结合、综合性知识的学习以及对教学内容和方法适度调整的原则。%Tourism marketing is a practical course. How to determine the teaching content, which plays the guide role of ma-rketing theory to the tourism development, is one of the important problems that we need to think deeply. The modular tea-ching content of this course is composed of marketing environment of tourism enterprise, market positioning and tourism en-terprise marketing mix. In the teaching process, there are some teaching experiences as follow:paying attention to the com-bination of teaching and practice, teaching and scientific research, the comprehensive knowledge to learn and the principle of moderation to the teaching content and method accordingly.

  16. Comparative Study on Traditional Wushu and Com-petitive Wushu Value System from the Development Field of Vision%发展视域下传统武术和竞技武术价值体系的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠伟

    2014-01-01

    The thesis makes a comparative study on the value of traditional Wushu and competitive, Wushu from the philosophical development field of vision and discov-ers that traditional,Wushu has developed from the initial single value as fighting and killing and the art of attack and defense into a traditional national culture system com-bination of“fighting and killing” and the art of attack and defense,keeping in good health and cultivating one�s mor-al character, enjoyment and recreation and culture under the nourishment of traditional culture. In the contrary, competitive Wushu in the west has evolved into a game of the art of attack and defence qualitatively under the influ-ence of fair play culture, which improved its enjoyment and recreation value but almost lost its value of keeping in good health and cultivating one�s moral character and their culture foundations are widely divergent.%在哲学范畴发展视域下,对传统武术和竞技武术的价值进行比较研究,发现传统武术由最初单一的搏杀技击价值后在传统文化的滋养下逐渐发展成为集“搏杀”技击、养生修身、观赏娱乐、文化性于一体的民族传统文化体系;而竞技武术则在西方“费厄泼赖”文化影响下质变发展成为一种“技击”游戏,提高了观赏娱乐价值,却几乎丧失了养生修身价值,文化根基也大相径庭。

  17. Analysis of the Heterobeltiosis and Competitive Advantage of Glyphosate -Resistant Hybrid Cotton%抗草甘膦杂交棉超亲和竞争优势的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚平; 杨兆光; 肖远龙; 曾小林

    2015-01-01

    以2个抗草甘膦棉材料分别与2个常规棉材料进行正反杂交 ,将得到的4个正反交组合后代与它们各自的亲本在农艺性状、产量性状、纤维品质、抗性等方面进行比较,并以江西棉花生产上主栽的杂交棉品种赣棉杂1号作对照 ,研究其抗虫、抗草甘膦性状以及杂种优势的表现.结果表明:果枝数、结铃进度、成铃数、籽皮棉产量均表现为显著的正向竞争优势和正向超亲优势 ,纤维品质多数指标表现为正向竞争优势 ,始果枝着生节位、果枝夹角表现为负向竞争优势 ,亲本独立抗性能够在F1 代比较充分地表达 ,正反交组合后代都同时具有抗虫、抗草甘膦性状.%Four hybrid combinations were obtained through two Glyphosate-Resistant Cotton and two conventional cotton materials in reciprocal cross ,compared with their respective parents in agronomic traits ,yield traits ,fiber quality ,and resis-tance ,etc. Furthermore it taked the main cultivated hybrid cotton variety Gangmianza No.1 in Jiangxi as control check (CK ) studying on the characteristics of the insect resistance ,glyphosate resistance and Heterosis performance. The results indicated that the number of fruit branches ,boll progress ,the number of bolls ,seed cotton yield and lint yield of four combinations showed significant positive competitive advantage and positive transgressive parent advantage ,most of the fiber quality indica-tors showed positive competitive advantage , the height of first fruiting branch and branch angle showed negative competitiveadvantage. Independent resistance of the parents could be relatively stable heredity , and all posterity of reciprocal cross com-binations had the characteristics of insect resistance and glyphosate resistance simultaneously.

  18. A Brief Analysis of Feminist Translation Theory%浅析女性主义翻译理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄菲飞

    2013-01-01

      The combination of translation studies and feminist is derived from their common knowledge and system contexts. Feminist influences on translation are varied and decisive. In the past several years, criticisms on gender discrimination in lan-guage has transformed from corrective and action-based concern to the inquiry into the symbolic power of feminist language. With the development process of feminist as the breakthrough point, this paper analyzes the characteristics and concerns of the com-bination of translation theory and feminist, aiming to analyze and interpret the viewpoints, translation strategies and translation practice of feminist translation theory and reveal its rheology, in-novative and expansion.%  翻译研究和女性主义的结合是源自共同的知识和体制语境。两者都关注“次等性”是如何被定义和典律化的。二者都是对语言再现的差异进行批评性理解的工具。女性主义对翻译的影响是多种多样和决定性的。在过去的几年中,对语言中的性别歧视的批评已经从词汇的纠正式和行动式的关注转为从更为宏大的层面上探究阴性语言的象征力量。关注点已从对单一的语言符码的批评性分析转到规范言语和写作中个体和集体干预的概念性术语。此篇论文以女权主义发展的过程为切入点,并分析了翻译理论与女性主义结合的特点和关注点,旨在分析和阐述女性主义翻译理论的主张、翻译策略和翻译实践,并揭示其流变、创新与拓展。

  19. Study protocol for the recruitment of female sex workers and their non-commercial partners into couple-based HIV research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syvertsen Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers are increasingly recognizing the importance of addressing sexual and drug-related HIV risk within the context of intimate relationships rather than solely focusing on individual behaviors. Practical and effective methods are needed to recruit, screen, and enroll the high risk and hard-to-reach couples who would most benefit from HIV interventions, such as drug-using female sex workers (FSWs and their intimate, non-commercial partners. This paper outlines a bi-national, multidisciplinary effort to develop and implement a study protocol for research on the social context and epidemiology of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI, and high risk behaviors among FSWs and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. We provide an overview of our study and specifically focus on the sampling, recruitment, screening, and successful enrollment of high risk couples into a public health study in this context. Methods/Design We used targeted and snowball sampling to recruit couples through the female partner first and administered a primary screener to check her initial eligibility. Willing and eligible females then invited their primary male partners for couple-based screening using a couple verification screening (CVS instrument adapted from previous studies. The CVS rechecked eligibility and separately asked each partner the same questions about their relationship to "test" if the couple was legitimate. We adapted the original protocol to consider issues of gender and power within the local cultural and socioeconomic context and expanded the question pool to create multiple versions of the CVS that were randomly administered to potential couples to determine eligibility and facilitate study enrollment. Discussion The protocol successfully enrolled 214 high risk couples into a multi-site public health study. This work suggests the importance of collaborating to construct a study protocol

  20. 高职程序设计类课程基础理论教学模式探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建斌

    2013-01-01

    近年来,随着高职院校教学改革的发展,也出现了一些新的问题。以高职院校程序设计类课程为例,出现了重实践、轻基础理论的问题,理论基础教学薄弱,导致学生无法举一反三,教学效果不理想。针对这一现象,为了提高基础理论教学效果,采用“对立”到“统一”的互动教学模式,从“被动”到“主动”的启发教学模式,化“枯燥”为“有趣”的实例教学模式,从“基础”到“高层”的项目实践的驱动教学模式,校外软件公司的培训与学校教学相结合的教学模式等几种教学模式,能够有效消除厌学情绪,使学生学习由被动变主动。改进教学效果,提高课堂效率。%In recent years, with the developm ent of the teaching reform in higher vocational colleges, there are also some new problems. Taking the program design course in higher vocational colleges as an exam ple, the problems of valuing practice but ignoring basic theory em erge. The theoretical basis teaching is weak, the students can not infer other things from one fact, the teaching effect is not ideal. In view of this phenom enon, in order to im prove the teaching effect of basic theories, it is im portant to adopt the follow ing teaching mode : the interactive teaching mode from "opposite" to "unified", the heuristic teaching mode from "passive" to "active" , the exam ple teaching mode changing "boring" into "interesting", the project practice driving teaching mode from "basic" to "advanced", the teaching mode of the com bination of external softw are com pany training and school teaching, which can effectively eliminate the weariness emotion, change passive learning into active learning, im prove the teaching effect and the efficiency of the classroom .

  1. Promoting US-China Critical Zone Science Collaboration and Coordination Through Established Subnational Bilateral Science Partnerships: The US-China EcoPartnership for Economic and Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, T. R.; Guo, D.; Plante, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of critical zone (CZ) science has gained wide recognition with actively funded and emerging CZ observatory programs across the globe. There is much to be gained through international collaboration that links field, laboratory, and modeling efforts from across the emerging global CZ networks, but building international ties is difficult, especially when peer-to-peer connections are nascent, separated by great distances, and span different cultural and political environments. The U.S. and China share many climatic and geological similarities but differ greatly in the magnitude and timescale of human alteration of their landscapes making the comparative study of their respective pasts, current state, and future co-evolution an outstanding scientific opportunity to better understand, predict, and respond to human influence on the CZ. Leveraging the infrastructure and trust capital of longstanding sub-national volunteer scientific networks to bring together people and organizations is a resource-efficient mechanism to build cross-network CZ programs. The U.S.-China EcoPartnership for Environmental Sustainability (USCEES) is one of 30 current EcoPartnerships established beginning in May 2008 by a joint agreement between the U.S. Department of State and China's National Development and Reform Commission with the overarching goal of addressing the interconnected challenges of environmental, social, and economic sustainability through bi-national research innovation, communication, and entrepreneurship. The 2015 USCEES annual conference on "Critical Zone Science, Sustainability, and Services in a Changing World" was co-sponsored by the U.S. Cross-CZO Working Group on Organic Matter Dynamics and hosted three NSF-funded workshops on organic matter dynamics:1) methods for large and complex data analysis, 2) erosion and deposition processes, and 3) mineralogical and microbial controls on reactivity and persistence. This paper highlights outcomes from the workshops

  2. Monitoring Colonias Development along the United States-Mexico Border: A Process Application using GIS and Remote Sensing in Douglas, Arizona, and Agua Prieta, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Donelson, Angela J.; Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Lam, Alven H.; Osborn, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    colonias. The USGS worked with local organizations in developing the Web-based GIS database. Community involvement ensured that the database and map server would meet the current and long-term needs of the communities and end users. Partners include Federal agencies, State agencies, county officials, town representatives, universities, and youth organizations, as well as interested local advocacy groups and individuals. A significant component of this project was development of relationships and partnerships in the border towns for facilitating binational approaches to land management.

  3. Socio-Environmental Health Analysis in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M; Caldeira, Felipe; Callegary, James; Gray, Floyd; O' Rourke, Mary Kay; Meranza, Veronica; Van Rijn, Saskia

    2012-06-01

    to be significantly greater in Colosio (median 29.2 mg/L) although still below the US EPA's maximum contaminant levels of 250 mg/L. Ongoing binational collaboration can promote mechanisms to improve water quality in cities located in the US-Mexico border.

  4. 机器人SLAM算法失真模糊性消除优化方法研究%Research and Simulation of Robot SLAM Algorithm Distortion Ambiguity Elimination Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽丽; 宋志章

    2014-01-01

    为准确有效实现对移动机器人的同时定位和环境创建,提出将传统的粒子滤波SLAM技术和模糊神经网络算法相结合,对粒子滤波SLAM算法进行改进。提出在训练过程中设置频率计数器的方法,使测量的机器人位姿信息参数失真达到最小。实际场地实验和数据仿真结果表明通过本算法的SLAM定位信息轨迹能正确反映机器人的原始行踪轨迹,其行踪轨迹偏差的误差率仅为4.03%。与传统的粒子滤波算法相比,表现为轨迹跟踪的机器人SLAM同时定位性能比传统的粒子滤波算法提高一倍以上,仿真结果展示了新的机器人SLAM算法良好的快速收敛性能和高精度定位性能。%In order to realize the SLAM of robot effectively and efficiently, an improved SLAM method based on the com-bination of partial filter SLAM algorithm and the fuzzy neural network was proposed. The frequency counter method was proposed in the process of the training. Then the parameters of the location information distortion of the robot were de-creased to the minimum. The simulation and experiment were taken in the field with the real robot and the simulation re-sult shows that the new SLAM method can generally reflect the real original trajectory effectively, and the error range rate is just 4.03%. Comparing to the traditional partial filter SLAM method, the performance of location that showed as the trajectory tracking is improved more than one time. The result shows the nice performance of convergence and accuracy of SLAM location for the robot.

  5. Effects of plant growth regulators, carbon sources and pH values on callus induction in Aquilaria malaccensis leaf explants and characteris-tics of the resultant calli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shashita JAYARAMAN; Nurul Hazwani DAUD; Rasmina HALIS; Rozi MOHAMED

    2014-01-01

    The endangered tropical tree, Aquilaria malaccensis, produces agarwood for use in fragrance and medicines. Efforts are currently un-derway to produce valuable agarwood compoundsn tissue culture. The purpose of this study was to develop an optimal growth medium, specif-ically, the best hormone combination for callus suspension culture. Using nursery-grown A. malaccensis, sterilized leaf explants were first incu-bated on basic Murashige and Skoog (MS) gel medium containing 15g/L sucrose and at pH 5.7. Different auxin types including 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), were tested at various concentrations (0.55, 1.1 and 1.65 µM) using the basic medium. Leaf explants were incubated for 30 days in the dark. Callus induced by 1.1 µM NAA had the highest biomass dry weight (DW) of 17.3 mg;however the callus was of a compact type. This auxin concentration was then combined with either 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) or kinetin at 0.55, 1.1, 2.2 or 3.3 µM to induce growth of friable callus. The 1.1µM NAA+2.2µM BAP com-bination produced friable callus with the highest biomass (93.3mg DW). When testing the different carbon sources and pHs, sucrose at 15g/L and pH at 5.7 yielded highest biomasses at 87.7mg and 83mg DW, respec-tively. Microscopic observations revealed the arrangement of the friable cells as loosely packed with relatively large cells, while for the compact callus, the cells were small and densely packed. We concluded that MS medium containing 15 g/L sucrose, 1.1 µM NAA + 2.2 µM BAP hor-mone combination, and a pH of 5.7 was highly effective for inducing friable callus from leaf explants of A. malaccensis for the purpose of establishing cell suspension culture.

  6. Regiones metropolitanas binacionales en el Mercosur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Daher

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza el intercambio de bienes a través del corredor internacional de comercio del Mercosur que relaciona a São Paulo, Buenos Aires y Santiago/Valparaíso. Se demuestra, en el contexto de los megamercados sustentados en microrregiones de mayor competitividad, y de sus tendencias a un creciente comercio al interior del bloque económico junto a las nuevas corrientes intrarregionales de inversión externa, que el comercio registra un fuerte sesgo industrial y denota una importante complementación productiva a través del predominio de bienes intermedios y de capital en las importaciones recíprocas. Esta situación concuerda con la alta urbanización del corredor y, más aún, con su estructuración a partir de las metrópolis referidas. Se concluye perfilando la emergencia de tres regiones metropolitanas binacionales: la Paulista, brasileño-paraguaya; la Rioplatense, argentino-uruguaya; y la Interandina, chileno-argentina. Estas regiones transfronterizas, requieren de una gestión regional a la vez subnacional y supranacional, articulando la descentralización con la globalizaciónThis article analyzes trade along the international commercial corridor linking São Paulo, Buenos Aires, and Santiago-Valparaíso. In the context of the megamarkets supported the most competitiveness microregions and their tendency toward growing trade within the economic bloc along with new intra-regional currents of external investment, the article demonstrates the marked industrial profile of that trade. The dominance of intermediate and capital goods among these reciprocal imports shows that the economies within Mercosur complement each other in production. This situation is in line with the corridor’s high urbanization, and even more so with the key role of the metropolises in shaping the corridor. In conclusion, the article outlines the emergence of three binational metropolitan regions: that of São Paulo, Brasilian-Paraguayan; that of the

  7. Reconstructing hydroclimatic variability of the Bermejo River (Subtropical Andes of Argentina-Bolivia) through Archival Documents - 17th to 20th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario Prieto, M.; Cueto, C.

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use climatic history for contributing to the general objectives of the IAI -CRN II-047 Project. It will reconstruct, from archival documents, the hydroclimatic variability occurring in the high basin of the Bermejo River during the last centuries and its effects on the floods and swellings in the middle basin. The Río Bermejo in the Southern Andes, is a binational (Argentina-Bolivia) river that contributes the largest proportion of the sediment load to the La Plata basin. Its headwaters are in the Subtropical Andes, near Tarija, Bolivia (22?00'14"S, 64?57'38"W). The main headwater tributaries are the Río Grande de Tarija, in Bolivia and the Iruya and San Francisco Rivers in Argentina. When the river abandons the mountain and turns eastwards (Gran Chaco), it acquires the characteristics of typical lowland rivers, widens its course, and occupies a large, low sedimentary plain with vast floodland areas. Quite often during very high sediment discharge the main river avulses and changes its course, creating big alluvial plains that are occupied for many years. Administrative documents from the colonial and republican periods have provided useful information to reconstruct climate and hydrology of the region. Documents from the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Archivo Nacional de Bolivia and Archivo General de la Nación (Argentina) have been used to identify extreme floods and swellings in the high and middle-basin of the Rio Bermejo from the 17th century to the first decades of the 20th century. Old maps of the region, reports from annals, chronicles, priests' and travelers' descriptions were also used. Diaries written by the military, explorers and government officials in charge of discovering and taking possession of the territory also provide important sources of information. The archival documents show abrupt hydrological changes in response to the climatic fluctuations in the headwaters region. These records document

  8. El registro arqueológico de las antiguas poblaciones de los valles orientales de la Provincia Arce, Tarija, Bolivia The Archaeological Record Of The Early Populations Of The Eastern Valleys Of Arce Province, Tarija, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ventura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2001 iniciamos un Proyecto binacional de relevamiento del registro arqueológico de las antiguas poblaciones que habitaron los valles orientales del sur tarijeño y el norte salteño durante los últimos mil años. En este trabajo se presentan los datos de la primera parte del proyecto, en la cual hemos prospectado sectores de ocho valles en el Departamento Arce (Tarija detectando 32 sitios arqueológicos de diversas características. Entre los sitios hay un conglomerado con presencia de arquitectura y materiales incaicos y sectores de caminos empedrados. Hay sitios semi-conglomerados de unas 30 estructuras de paredes dobles de piedra y otros con unas pocas estructuras dispersas. Se hallaron entierros humanos en el interior de una cueva, a partir de los cuales se obtuvo una muestra que fue datada. Otras inhumaciones fueron relevadas tanto en aleros como en cementerios con estructuras de piedra en superficie. Se detectaron sitios con arte rupestre, tanto con motivos grabados como con pinturas. Se ubicaron también sitios posiblemente más antiguos. En todos los casos se verificó un alto grado de destrucción de los sitios y se plantea entonces la necesidad urgente de su preservación y estudio.In 2001, a bi-national project was initiated to study the archaeological record of the early populations that inhabited the eastern valleys of Southern Tarija and Northern Salta during the last thousand years. During stage one of the project, sectors of eight valleys in Arce County, Tarija, were explored, resulting in the detection of 32 archaeological sites. The sites include a conglomerate with presence of Inca materials and architecture, and sectors of stone-paved roads. In addition, there are semi-conglomerated sites approximately 30 structures of double-width stonewalls, and other sites a few dispersed structures. Human burials have been found in the interior of a cave, in rock shelters, and in cemeteries with superficial stone structures

  9. Microbial contamination and chemical toxicity of the Rio Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valles Adrian

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rio Grande River is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX to Brownsville, TX. and is one of the major water resources of the area. Agriculture, farming, maquiladora industry, domestic activities, as well as differences in disposal regulations and enforcement increase the contamination potential of water supplies along the border region. Therefore, continuous and accurate assessment of the quality of water supplies is of paramount importance. The objectives of this study were to monitor water quality of the Rio Grande and to determine if any correlations exist between fecal coliforms, E. coli, chemical toxicity as determined by Botsford's assay, H. pylori presence, and environmental parameters. Seven sites along a 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX were sampled on a monthly basis between January 2000 and December 2002. Results The results showed great variability in the number of fecal coliforms, and E. coli on a month-to-month basis. Fecal coliforms ranged between 0–106 CFU/100 ml while E. coli ranged between 6 to > 2419 MPN. H. pylori showed positive detection for all the sites at different times. Toxicity ranged between 0 to 94% of inhibition capacity (IC. Since values above 50% are considered to be toxic, most of the sites displayed significant chemical toxicity at different times of the year. No significant correlations were observed between microbial indicators and chemical toxicity. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande river from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX exceeds the standards for contact recreation water on a continuous basis. In addition, the presence of chemical toxicity in most sites along the 112-Km segment indicates that water quality is an area of concern for the bi-national region. The presence of H. pylori adds to the potential health hazards of the Rio Grande. Since no

  10. A Research Strategy Case Study of Alcohol and Drug Prevention by Non-Governmental Organizations in Sweden 2003-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Madelene

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and drug prevention is high on the public health agenda in many countries. An increasing trend is the call for evidence-based practice. In Sweden in 2002 an innovative project portfolio including an integrated research and competence-building strategy for non-governmental organisations (NGOs was designed by the National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW. This research strategy case study is based on this initiative. Methods The embedded case study includes 135 projects in 69 organisations and 14 in-depth process or effect studies. The data in the case study has been compiled using multiple methods - administrative data; interviews and questionnaires to project leaders; focus group discussions and seminars; direct and participatory observations, interviews, and documentation of implementation; consultations with the NBHW and the NGOs; and a literature review. Annual reports have been submitted each year and three bi-national conferences Reflections on preventions have been held. Results A broad range of organisations have been included in the NBHW project portfolio. A minority of the project were run by Alcohol or drug organisations, while a majority has children or adolescents as target groups. In order to develop a trustful partnership between practitioners, national agencies and researchers a series of measures were developed and implemented: meeting with project leaders, project dialogues and consultations, competence strengthening, support to documentation, in-depth studies and national conferences. A common element was that the projects were program-driven and not research-driven interventions. The role of researchers-as-technical advisors was suitable for the fostering of a trustful partnership for research and development. The independence of the NGOs was regarded as important for the momentum in the project implementation. The research strategy also includes elements of participatory research. Conclusions This

  11. Perú-Chile: imágenes mutuas (Perú-Chile: mutual images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro González Riesle

    2014-06-01

    of the approach of The Images on the Mirror as an instrument for the analysis of content of blogs which carriers’ messages of hostility and integration between the two countries. A Psychosocial binational strategy is proposed to: 1 deactivate the Expansionism-Revanchism dynamics that can contribute to produce catastrophic consequences for present and future generations of both countries and (2 promote border integration between Tacna (Peru and Arica (Chile

  12. As empresas binacionais e sua efetividade na liberdade de estabelecimento no MERCOSUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena de Almeida Portugal

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration process, begun in the context of MERCOSUL it is also shown through the dynamism of the private section and of the imperatividade of the commercial flows. As foundations of the integration are the freedoms of circulation of goods, services, people and capitals, and, in the specific case, the establishment freedom. Such freedoms are reached through the coordination of politics macroeconomicals and sectorial, as it sets down the Agreement of Assumption, not being this an easy task. In this vein, already in seara of political-economical approach between Brazil and Argentina, in 1990, Binational Enterprises’s Statute was firm, that come as sectorial and bilateral associative form facilitative of the managerial establishment and viabilizadora of the growth of the commercial flow. The juridical structure created by the Statute he/she reveals effective and smoothing roads of the impact of the integration reducing the legislative antinomias that need harmonization. The companies’ binacionais can be used as instruments of the applicability and effectiveness of the establishment freedom in MERCOSUL.O processo de integração, encetado no contexto do MERCOSUL mostra-se também através do dinamismo do setor privado e da imperatividade dos fluxos comerciais. Como fundamentos da integração encontram-se as liberdades de circulação de bens, serviços, pessoas e capitais, e, no caso específico, a liberdade de estabelecimento. Tais liberdades são alcançadas através da coordenação de políticas macroeconômicas e setoriais, como preceitua o Tratado de Assunção, não sendo esta uma tarefa fácil. Neste veio, já em seara de aproximação político-econômica entre Brasil e Argentina, em 1990, firmou-se o Estatuto das Empresas Binacionais, que se apresenta como forma associativa setorial e bilateral facilitadora do estabelecimento empresarial e viabilizadora do crescimento do fluxo comercial. A estrutura jurídica criada pelo Estatuto

  13. Microbial contamination and chemical toxicity of the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jose; Botsford, James; Hernandez, Jose; Montoya, Anna; Saenz, Roswitha; Valles, Adrian; Vazquez, Alejandro; Alvarez, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Background The Rio Grande River is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX to Brownsville, TX. and is one of the major water resources of the area. Agriculture, farming, maquiladora industry, domestic activities, as well as differences in disposal regulations and enforcement increase the contamination potential of water supplies along the border region. Therefore, continuous and accurate assessment of the quality of water supplies is of paramount importance. The objectives of this study were to monitor water quality of the Rio Grande and to determine if any correlations exist between fecal coliforms, E. coli, chemical toxicity as determined by Botsford's assay, H. pylori presence, and environmental parameters. Seven sites along a 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX were sampled on a monthly basis between January 2000 and December 2002. Results The results showed great variability in the number of fecal coliforms, and E. coli on a month-to-month basis. Fecal coliforms ranged between 0–106 CFU/100 ml while E. coli ranged between 6 to > 2419 MPN. H. pylori showed positive detection for all the sites at different times. Toxicity ranged between 0 to 94% of inhibition capacity (IC). Since values above 50% are considered to be toxic, most of the sites displayed significant chemical toxicity at different times of the year. No significant correlations were observed between microbial indicators and chemical toxicity. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande river from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX exceeds the standards for contact recreation water on a continuous basis. In addition, the presence of chemical toxicity in most sites along the 112-Km segment indicates that water quality is an area of concern for the bi-national region. The presence of H. pylori adds to the potential health hazards of the Rio Grande. Since no significant correlation was

  14. The anti-cancer effect of Huaier aqueous extract with rh-Endostatin and DDP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxuan Che; Meixiang Zhou; Peng Zhan; Tiantian Zou; Xiuhua Sun

    2014-01-01

    The-aim-of-our-study-was-to-explore-the-inhibition-and-apoptosis-inducing-ef-ect-of-the-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-with-recombinant-human-Endostatin-and-DDP-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-A549-cel-s.-We-also-investigated-the-reversal-ef-ect-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-in-reversing-cisplatin-resistance-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-A549/DDP-cel-s.-Methods:We-treated-A549-cel-s-with-Huaier-aqueous-extract-and-the-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-ex-tract-and-DDP-or-rh-Endostatin-for-24-h,-36-h-and-48-h.-And-then-we-calculated-the-inhibition-rate-through-MTT-approach-and-detected-the-apoptosis-rate-by-flow-cytometry.-We-also-treated-A549-and-A549/DDP-cel-s-with-DDP,-Huaier-aqueous-extract,-DDP-and-Huaier-aqueous-extract-for-72-h,-respectively.-Results:Huaier-aqueous-extract-can-inhibit-the-growth-of-A549-cel-s-and-the-inhibition-rate-improved-with-the-increase-of-the-concentration.-The-inhibition-rate-of-the-combination-of-rh-Endostatin-and-4-mg/mL-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-in-three-time-points-and-the-combination-of-rh-Endostatin-and-2-mg/mL-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-in-the-time-point-of-48-h-on-the-growth-of-A549-cel-s-al-improved-(P<0.005).-The-inhibition-rate-of-the-com-bination-of-DDP-and-Huaier-aqueous-extract-with-the-concentration-of-2-mg/mL-or-4-mg/mL-on-the-growth-of-A549-cel-s-al-improved-(P<0.005).-The-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-and-DDP-and-the-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-with-rh-Endostatin-and-DDP-can-improve-the-inhibition-on-the-growth-of-A549-cel-s-(P<0.005).-Conclusion:Huaier-aqueous-extract-has-the-inhibition-and-apoptosis-inducing-ef-ects-on-the-A549-cel-s.-And-the-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-and-rh-Endostatin-or-DDP-has-the-synergistic-ef-ects-on-the-inhibition-of-A549-cel-s.-The-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-with-rh-Endostatin-and-DDP-has-the-synergistic-ef-ects-on-the-inhibition-of-A549-cel-s.-Huaier-aqueous-extract-can-reverse-the-cisplatin-resistance-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-A549/DDP-cel-s.

  15. 论“部门法哲学”于高校法学研究和教学的引入%On Introduction of"Branch Legal Philosophy"into Laws Research and Teaching in Universities and Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵静

    2014-01-01

    The branch legal philosophy is a branch of laws, with the theoretical form and taking the universal ap-plication principles, categories, principles, rules, and values etc. as researching objects. It is the product of com-bination of legal philosophy and branch laws, and also the system of basic theories of branch laws. The introduc-tion of"branch legal philosophy"into laws research and teaching of colleges can promote the research and teach-ing of laws, and narrow the gap between the theoretical teaching and practical teaching in laws education of col-leges, promote the construction of laws teaching system and scientific system, and conform to the need of training advanced laws talents. The colleges can make use of different research results and teaching materials on branch legal philosophy, adopt various forms, such as academic lectures, optional and compulsive courses etc. in the un-dergraduate courses, combine with professional advantages and characteristics, and conduct the research and ed-ucation of branch legal philosophy.%部门法哲学是以理论形态存在的,以部门法的普遍适用原理、范畴、原则、规则、价值等为研究对象的法学分支学科,是法哲学和部门法相结合的产物,是部门法基本理论的体系化。在高校法学研究和教学中引入部门法哲学不仅可以促进法学研究和教学,弱化法学本科教育中理论教育与实践教育相脱节的情况,而且有利于推动法学教学体系和学科体系建设,适应新形势下高级法学人才培养的需要。高校可利用不同部门法哲学现有的研究成果和教材成果,在高校本科法学教学中采取学术讲座、选修课、必修课等形式,结合高校自身专业优势和特点开展部门法哲学的研究和教育。

  16. Design of Vehicle Attitude Measuring Instrument%车辆姿态测量仪表的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金亮; 江学焕; 李胜杰

    2014-01-01

    设计了车辆姿态测量仪表系统,系统使用多传感器组合的方法测量车辆的姿态信息。主要包括倾角测试模块、方位夹角测试模块、海拔气压测试模块、时钟显示模块。所设计的姿态仪表能够直接测量当地的气压、海拔、车辆行走方位、汽车行走过程中的前后左右的倾角、系统实时时间等。该测量仪表能直接接在汽车的电源和点火开关上即可使用,安装十分方便,经过实际的装车试验,该测量仪表针对外界环境的变化,传感器能迅速的采集信号,液晶能实时的刷新显示,系统运行稳定,并具有很高的测量精度。%The vehicle attitude measuring instrument system was designed, in which a multi-sensor com⁃bination method was used to measure the vehicle attitude information. The system consists of the dip an⁃gle measurement module, azimuth measurement module, altitude pressure measurement module and clock display module. The local barometric pressure, altitude, travel azimuth, system real time, angle around the vehicle at different directions and other information can be directly measured by the de⁃signed vehicle attitude instrument, which can be simply connected to the vehicle power supply or the ig⁃nition switch for the system installation. By the actual vehicle test, the measuring instrument can quick⁃ly acquire the sensor signals for the external environment changes, the LCD can refresh displayed infor⁃mation in real time, and the system is stable with high measurement accuracy.

  17. Application of Joint Drought Index in Drought Monitoring-A Case Study in Shaoguan of Guangdong Province%联合干旱指数在干旱监测中的应用--以广东韶关地区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄强; 陈子遷; 孔兰; 蒋任飞

    2014-01-01

    It is accepted that climate change has a great impact on water cycle and regional water balance,and thus it would change the formation and evolution of drought conditions in some degree.In this context,the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI),which has also taken another important factor evapotranspiration in the process of regional water balance into consideration, would be more suitable for drought monitoring than the standardized precipitation index (SPI).The different time scales SPEI can re-flect the duration informations of drought,so the single SPEI of a certain time scale can only indicate a fraction of drought information. In order to form an overall judgement in drought monitoring,a new index called joint drought index (JDI)was established by the com-bination with different SPEIs.The accuracy and effectiveness of JDI in drought monitoring were then verified by the forecast evaluation system and comparison with the actual drought.In conclusion,JDI can be used as a new ideal index for future drought monitoring.%气候变化影响了水循环与地区的水量平衡过程,一定程度上改变了干旱的形成与演变条件。以标准化降水量与蒸散发量差值表征水分偏离正常程度的标准化降水蒸散发指数(SPEI)为基础,从多时间尺度联合的视角建立联合干旱指数(JDI),并以广东韶关为例分析修正的新指数JDI在干旱监测中的准确性和有效性。结果表明,综合了不同时间尺度干旱特征信息的JDI能够较全面地反映干旱的形成与演进过程。通过对干旱监测的评价以及与实际旱情的对比分析,验证了联合干旱指数JDI在实际干旱监测中的准确性和有效性,其可作为未来干旱监测的新理想指标。

  18. An Analysis of the Competitiveness of Chaozhou Ceramic Industry Cluster%潮州陶瓷产业集群竞争力探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑銮娟

    2014-01-01

    产业集群是产业组织结构的重要形式,是提高区域产业经济竞争力的有效途径。陶瓷产业作为潮州首要支柱产业,产业总体规模、集聚规模及出口贸易规模都较为强大,且产业链完整和区域品牌厚实,产业集群竞争力比较优势明显。但受宏观环境影响,产业出口贸易增长率放缓,企业产品品牌建设滞后,自主创新能力弱,产业劣势显现。通过对潮州陶瓷产业比较优势的发挥,产业结构的优化升级,企业品牌的建设,产品科技含量的增加,出口增长方式的转变,多元市场的开拓等多种途径的综合运用,可以进一步提升集群竞争力。%Industrial cluster is an important form of industrial organization and construction.It is an effec⁃tive way to upgrade economic competitiveness in regional industrial development. As the pillar industry in Cha⁃ozhou, ceramics industry is strong in general, clustering and exporting scales, having an integrated industrial chain with rich brands, with outstanding advantages in clusterization competitiveness. Impacted by macro envi⁃ronment, however, the industry suffers from a slowdown in export business growth, and is delayed in its brands establishment, and also weakened in creativity. Its competitive strengths can be further exalted by overall com⁃bination of various approaches including advantages exertion, upgrading of industrial construction, brand estab⁃lishment, increasing applications of scientific technology, changes in export increase mode, and strategy imple⁃mentation of market diversification, etc.

  19. Impact of grape cluster defoliation on TDN potential in cool climate Riesling wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttler Armin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cool climate grape vine growing regions are and will be affected by the global climate change. It is likely that increasing temperatures, as well as changing precipitation pattern will impact the wines’ composition and wine styles. In the last decades the sensory concept of German Riesling wines was considered to represent fresh and fruity notes. However, aged wines of this variety are characterized by petrol like aroma, which is not appreciated in modern Riesling wines. The C13-norisoprenoid 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN is considered to be the marker compound for this undesired sensory impression. The biogenesis of this compound is impacted by grape vine growth conditions. Wines made from Riesling grapes grown in warmer climates have higher concentrations of TDN. Therefore “TDN management” will be one of the most challenging tasks in viticulture in Riesling growing regions in general and particularly in cool climate regions. Two approaches considered are the canopy management of the grape vines as well as an appropriate selection of yeast strain for alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, the aim of this project was to study the impact of grape zone defoliation on potential TDN concentrations in grapes, must and finished wines under cool climate conditions, in example of regional conditions of the landmark Hessische Bergstraße, in com- bination with the usage of two commercially available yeast strains during alcoholic fermentation. The experiment consisted of four treatments in a balanced incomplete block design, grape zone defoliation at berry set on the eastern side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at berry set on eastern and western side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at veraison on eastern and western side of the canopy, and a non-defoliated treatment. The treatments and repetitions were harvested separately, pressed, and then fermented with two different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Grape

  20. New Water Management Institutions in Mexico’s ‘New Culture of Water’: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges for Effective Use of Climate Knowledge and Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, M.; Varady, R. G.; Pineda Pablos, N.; Browning-Aiken, A.; Diaz Caravantes, R.; Garfin, G.

    2007-05-01

    Since 1992, Mexico has developed a new set of water management institutions to usher in a ‘new culture of water’ that focuses on decentralized governance and formalized participation of local water users. Reforms to the national water legislation in April 2004 regionalized the governance of water and highlighted the importance of river basin councils as a mechanism for integrated management of major watersheds across Mexico. As a result of the dramatic national water policy reforms, water service delivery in Mexico has been decentralized to the state and municipal level, resulting in a critical new role for municipal governments charged with this important function. A network of river basin councils accompanied and sub-basin councils has been developed to undertake watershed planning. Decentralization and local participation policies embody numerous significant goals and promises, including greater efficiency, more financial accountability, fostering the beginnings of a sense of local stewardship of precious resources, and enhanced environmental sustainability. This paper examines the implications of municipalized water services and emerging river basin councils for utilization of climate knowledge and climate science. We analyze whether these changes open new windows of opportunity for meaningful use of climate science (e.g., forecasts; models). How effectively are municipal water managers and river basin councils utilizing climate knowledge and climate science, and for what purposes? Are there ways to improve the fit between the needs of water managers and river basin councils and the science that is currently available? What is the role of local participation in water policy making in urban settings and river basin councils? The study found overall that the promises and potential for effective utilization of climate science/knowledge to enhance sustainability exists, but is not yet being adequately realized. Binational efforts to develop climate science and

  1. Public attitudes towards marine aquaculture: A comparative analysis of Germany and Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on bi-national (Germany–Israel) research on relationships between public attitudes, behaviours and preferences related to marine aquaculture. Aquaculture's world-wide market share accounts for over half of all aquatic products. In many places, the sector's explosive growth has outstripped scientific knowledge and governance provisions. Small producers such as Israel and Germany seeking to expand domestic production must address environmental challenges posed by fish farming, stakeholder competition in crowded coastal zones and public/consumer receptiveness. Based on survey data obtained from both the countries, correlation analysis (Pearson's r-statistic) was used to test four hypotheses. Of these, one (positive relationship between coastal tourism and aquaculture attitudes) was supported in both countries. The hypothesis of positive relationships between lifestyle (environment/health) behaviours and aquaculture attitudes was supported only in Germany and the hypothesis of negative relationships between concern for the environment and aquaculture attitudes was supported only in Israel. These results are significant for policy, business, NGO and other stakeholders. Moreover, they point to the importance of this type of comparative research in improving our understanding of local factors influencing attitude-formation and inter-relationships. First, the tourism–aquaculture relationship found indicates potential synergies between two sectors reliant on the coastal zone that should be taken into account by planning authorities. The divergent environment–aquaculture results were especially interesting since in both countries, the primary concern regarding aquaculture expansion was environmental impacts. Closer inspection of the survey results revealed that this relationship may have been influenced by the orientation of environmental concerns in each population. Germans focus on depletion of wildstocks and Israelis on cage effluent and marine pollution

  2. 不同砧木嫁接对西瓜叶片生理效应及产量影响%Effects of Different Kinds of Stocks on Leaf Physiological Changes and Yield of Grafted Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫星; 徐小利; 刘喜存; 董彦琪; 常高正; 李晓慧; 梁慎

    2014-01-01

    Using the seedlings of seedless watermelon variety “Heidi” as scion, we studied the effects of different kinds of stocks on the leaf physiological indexes and yield of grafted watermelon through field experiment&physiological and biochemical de -termination.The results showed that there were differences in leaf chlorophyll and MDA contents as well as PPO and NR activities a -mong different grafted combinations at different growth stages .The seedlings of grafted combinations from pumpkin stocks “Xi-jiaqiangsheng” and “Zhengkangzhen No .1” had more prominent comprehensive performance .The yields of these two grafted com-binations were not significantly different from that of the grafted combination from the stock “Chaofengkangshengwang”, but they were significantly higher than those of other 2 grafted combinations .There was no significant difference in soluble solid content a-mong 5 grafted combinations .So“Xijiaqiangsheng” and“Zhengkangzhen No .1” are the good stocks for the grafting of seedless wa-termelon variety “Heidi”.%以无籽西瓜黑帝为接穗材料,采用田间试验、生理生化测定等方法,研究了不同砧木嫁接对西瓜生长过程中叶片生理指标及产量的影响,结果表明:不同砧木嫁接组合西瓜叶片叶绿素、MDA含量和PPO、NR活性在不同生育期表现有差异,其中以南瓜类型砧木西嫁强生和郑抗砧1号嫁接苗综合表现较为突出,其产量除与超丰抗生王嫁接组合差异不显著外,显著高于其他2个嫁接组合,且其可溶性固形物含量与其他嫁接组合间差异不显著。因此,西嫁强生和郑抗砧1号是无籽西瓜黑帝嫁接的优良砧木。

  3. Historic distribution and challenges to bison recovery in the northern Chihuahuan Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Rurik; Ceballos, Gerardo; Curtin, Charles; Gogan, Peter J.; Pacheco, Jesus; Truett, Joe

    2007-01-01

    international boundaries, have acted as barriers in shaping comprehensive approaches to conservation. Bison recovery in the region depends on binational cooperation.

  4. Implications of multipurpose tree leaf application on wheat productivity in dry tropics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajani Srivastava; K. P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Leaves of multipurpose tree species (those providing more than one function or product of human use) can serve as sources of fer-tilizer for nutrient supply, especially nitrogen (N). In this study chopped leaves of tropical tree species (5 N-fixing species, 5 non-N-fixing species and combinations of 5 N-fixing with a non-N-fixing species) were in-corporated in soil to evaluate its effects on wheat biological productivity (including grain yield, GYIELD) under dryland conditions. High quality leaves of N-fixing tree species (e.g. Dalbergia sissoo, Cassia fistula and Prosopis cineraria) had lower carbon/nitrogen (C/N), lignin/nitrogen (LIG/N), polyphenol/nitrogen (PPL/N) and lignin+polyphenol /nitrogen (LIG+PPL/N) ratios than low quality leaves of non-N-fixing species. Com-bination treatments had intermediate values of different parameters. Application of high quality leaves caused greater increases in wheat productivity and yield than other species. By the application of leaves of N-fixing trees, on average, wheat yield increased 160% relative to the control (no addition of leaves), and when combined with non-N-fixing Terminalia chebula leaves the yield increased 108%. Mean total net productivity (TNP) with N-fixing species treatments, exceeded mean TNP with non-N-fixing species and combination treatments by 50%and 28%, respectively. Multivariate regressions indicated that nitrogen (N) concen-tration in leaves (main nutrient), interacting with lignin (LIG) and poly-phenol (PPL) concentrations, explained 79%−86% of variability in pro-ductivity parameters and yield. Strong correlation between LIG+PPL/N ratio of leaves with GYIELD of wheat crop suggests that the ratio can be used as a reliable index for mass screening of multipurpose tree species for use as soil amendments especially in dryland agriculture. Direct ap-plication of high quality N-fixing tree species leaves (especially D. sissoo, C fistula and P. cineraria), an uncommon practice in dry tropics in India

  5. Design of Virtual Simulation Experiment Platform Based on Web%基于Web的虚拟仿真实验课程平台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周成纲

    2013-01-01

    A tpresentin the university experim entcurriculum system m any courses need to be done by experi-m ents, a lot of experim ental learning content need to learn in the field of concrete intuitive, but the real environ-m entcan help the students to understand the principle ofexperim entdeeply,butdue to various lim itations thatin-cludes inadequate laboratory hardw are investm ent, long m aintenance period, low instrum ent update rate, superfi-cialexperim entcontentand other reasons,m akes the ideallearning conditions to be difficultto achieve.A nd w ith a com bination of the virtual sim ulation experim ent platform based on W eb.N E T technology and the three-dim en-sionalm ultim edia technology,itcan provide a m ore intuitive learning experience for them ,to help students under-stand the course contentbetter to achieve good learning effects.%  目前在大学实验课程体系中在很多课程需要通过技能实验来完成,很多实验学习内容需要在具体直观的现场进行学习,真实的实验环境固然更能加深学生对实验原理的理解,但是由于各种条件的限制,包括实验室硬件投入不足、维修周期长、仪器更新率低、实验内容深度不够等原因,使得理想化的学习条件往往很难实现。而基于W eb的虚拟仿真实验课程平台通过.NET技术结合三维多媒体技术,能够为学生提供更加直观的学习环境体验,帮助他们更好地理解课程内容达到良好的学习效果。

  6. Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process in Evaluation of Bath Method in Space%层次分析法在空间洗浴方法评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭飞马; 党磊; 王小雪; 张美姿

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of bath in the international space station including easy to operate, time saving, water saving and energy saving as well as the commonly used bath methods such as shower and free washing method were introduced in this paper. Analytic hierarchy process is a com⁃bination of qualitative and quantitative, systematic and hierarchical analysis method. The concept and application of analytic hierarchy process were analyzed. Based on the evaluation model of bath methods in the space station, the bath methods in space were estimated by analytic hierarchy process. The results showed that the comprehensive weight of free washing system was higher. The result from trade study indicated that the free washing system was the best choice at the present stage of the space station in three aspects including the occupied space resources, technology maturity and washing effect.%介绍了国际空间站洗浴具有操作简单、省时、节水和节能的特点,以及空间站常用的淋浴和免冲洗两种洗浴方法,简述了一种定性定量相结合、系统化、层次化的分析方法和它的应用范围,并在建立空间站洗浴方法评价指标体系的基础上,运用层次分析法对空间站洗浴方法进行评估。评估结果显示免冲洗方法的综合权重高于淋浴的综合权重,表明从空间资源占用、技术成熟度和洗浴效果三个方面来看,现阶段空间站洗浴的最佳选择是免冲洗系统。

  7. 新能源科学与工程专业“传热学”课程教学研究%Teaching Research on "Heat Transfer" Course for New Energy Science and Engineering Major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈登宇

    2016-01-01

    Heat Transfer is an important foundation course for new energy and engineering major, as well as a difficult course for students. Therefore, to teach the course well has always been an objective of teachers. The Heat Transfer course system con-struction for new energy major should be based on the integra-tion of theory teaching and experiment teaching, and the com-bination of autonomous learning and scientific research. Theory teaching and experiment teaching complement each other, so both of them are indispensable; the combination of autonomous learning and scientific research can not only enhance students' basic theory knowledge on Heat Transfer, but also cultivate their ability to analyze and solve problems, thus promoting their thinking and helping them discover the differences between practice and theory.%传热学是新能源科学与工程专业重要的基础课程,也是学生学习的难点课程之一。如何教好传热学一直以来是广大教师工作者所追求的目标。新能源专业传热学课程体系建设应该将理论教学与实验教学、自主学习与科研活动相结合。理论教学指导实验开展,实验中出现的问题又反馈于教学,两者相互相成,缺一不可;而自主学习与科研活动相结合的模式不仅可以加深学生们的传热学基础理论知识,而且还可以培养学生分析问题和解决问题的能力,促使他们善于思考,发现实际与理论不同之处。

  8. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Upper Santa Cruz Basin (Arizona and Sonora) using Well Logs, Geologic Mapping, Gravity, Magnetics, and Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegary, J. B.; Page, W. R.; Megdal, S.; Gray, F.; Scott, C. A.; Berry, M.; Rangel, M.; Oroz Ramos, L.; Menges, C. M.; Jones, A.

    2011-12-01

    In 2006, the U.S. Congress passed the U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act which provides a framework for study of aquifers shared by the United States and Mexico. The aquifer of the Upper Santa Cruz Basin was chosen as one of four priority aquifers for several reasons, including water scarcity, a population greater than 300,000, groundwater as the sole source of water for human use, and a riparian corridor that is of regional significance for migratory birds and other animals. Several new mines are also being proposed for this area which may affect water quality and availability. To date, a number of studies have been carried out by a binational team composed of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mexican National Water Commission, and the Universities of Arizona and Sonora. Construction of a cross-border hydrogeologic framework model of the basin between Amado, Arizona and its southern boundary in Sonora is currently a high priority. The relatively narrow Santa Cruz valley is a structural basin that did not experience the same degree of late Cenozoic lateral extension and consequent deepening as found in other basin-and-range alluvial basins, such as the Tucson basin, where basin depth exceeds 3000 meters. This implies that storage may be much less than that found in other basin-and-range aquifers. To investigate the geometry of the basin and facies changes within the alluvium, a database of over one thousand well logs has been developed, geologic mapping and transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveys have been carried out, and information from previous electromagnetic, magnetic, and gravity studies is being incorporated into the hydrogeologic framework. Initial geophysical surveys and analyses have focused on the portion of the basin west of Nogales, Arizona, because it supplies approximately 50% of that city's water. Previous gravity and magnetic modeling indicate that this area is a narrow, fault-controlled half graben. Preliminary modeling of airborne

  9. The Border Environmental Health Initiative: Investigation of the Transboundary Santa Cruz Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L. M.; Callegary, J. B.; van Riper, C.; Gray, F.; Paretti, N.; Villarreal, M.

    2009-12-01

    In the borderland region of the desert southwest, human health and the ecosystems upon which humans rely largely depend on the quality, quantity, and distribution of water resources. In the Santa Cruz River Watershed (SCW), located in the Arizona and Sonora, Mexico border region, surface water is scarce and unreliable, and, during much of the year, is composed of effluent from the local wastewater treatment plant. This makes groundwater the preferred and, consequently, primary source for industrial, agricultural, and domestic use. USGS scientists are using an integrative approach, incorporating the expertise of the Geography, Water, Biology, and Geology disciplines to identify risks to water resources in the SCW, and the potential for impacts to riparian ecosystems and ultimately, human health. This includes tracking organic and inorganic contaminants and their effects from sources to sinks in sediment, water, plants, and animals. Existing ground- and surface-water models will be used and modified to assess contaminant and sediment transport. Water quality, sediment, aquatic macro invertebrates, aquatic plants (macrophytes), algae, riparian grasses, fish, and birds will be sampled at five locations along the Santa Cruz River. Field sampling data will be obtained at sites that coincide with historical sampling programs. Site locations include (i.) the Santa Cruz River headwaters (which should be unaffected by downstream contaminant sources), (ii.) a tributary routed through an abandoned mining district, (iii.) a binational tributary that flows though highly urbanized areas, (iv.) effluent from the local wastewater treatment plant, and (v.) the downstream confluence of the first four sources. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model will be used in combination with field data to identify key sources of contaminants, contributing areas, and transport modes to track their movement to surface waters. These data will be used together to test relationships between

  10. 冷战以来柬埔寨地缘政治变动研究%Research on Geopolitical Changes in Cambodia Since the Cold War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方天建; 何跃

    2014-01-01

    Since the cold war, the geopolitical of Cambodia has experienced the changes from fragmentation to restructuring. It is not only one of the forefront to the United States and the Soviet union camps for cold and hot war games during the cold war , and one of the southeast Asian countries has been actively strive for the outside political forces on the geopolitical strategy after the cold war. In cause changes in the Cambodian geopolitical factors, external factors are dominant factors. Moreover, the differentiation and com-bination of domestic political parties to conflict that are the important fac-tors. Therefore, since the cold war, the geopolitical of Cambodia has geopo-litical chessboard and geostrategic wedge characteristics significantly. And to discuss the trend , the causes and characteristics of Cambodia geopolitical changes since the cold war to our country's geopolitical research in Cambodia and China's geopolitical strategic positioning in Cambodia has very important academic significance and practical significance.%冷战以来,柬埔寨地缘政治经历了从碎片化到重组的变动。其既是冷战期间美苏两大阵营进行冷战与热战博弈的最前沿阵地之一,也是冷战后各域外政治力量在地缘战略上积极争取的东南亚国家之一。在导致柬埔寨地缘政治变动的诸多因素中,外部因素是决定其地缘政治变动的主导性因素,国内政治派别斗争的分化与组合是导致其地缘政治变动的重要因素。因此,在双重因素作用下,冷战以来的柬埔寨地缘政治具有地缘政治棋盘和地缘战略楔子的显著特点。而对冷战以来柬埔寨地缘政治变动的趋势、成因和特征的探讨,对我国的柬埔寨地缘政治研究和我国对柬埔寨地缘政治的战略定位具有十分重要的学术意义和现实意义。

  11. Breeding Techniques of Xanthoceras sorbifolia on Sandy Wasteland%沙荒地文冠果播种育苗技术试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国生

    2014-01-01

    Aiming the problems (low seedling emergence,irregular emergence,and poor quality of seedlings)of Xan-thoceras sorbifolia on sandy wasteland,the four factors (the sowing period,covering methods,seed treatment,and sowing methods)were selected to analyze the different treatment combinations.Result shows that:the optimal com-bination mode for breeding by seeds of Xanthoceras sorbifolia in spring is :sowing in April 25th +using film &sand covering mode+ seed germination with high-temperature,spot sowing with film mulching;the emergence rate&growth are significantly higher than that of spring sowing;it is an ideal combination for spring sowing of Xantho-cerassorbifolia;the emergence rate in autumn are averagely 22.8% higher than that of treatment for spring sowing;DBH of seedlings are averagely 3 1 .6% higher than that of spring sowing,that is,the optimal selection is sowing in October 28th+ soil covering + seed without treatment + drill seedling with ditching.%针对沙荒地文冠果种子育苗存在的出苗率低、出苗不整齐、苗木质量差等问题,选择播种时期、覆盖方式、种子处理方法、播种方式4个影响因素作不同处理组合对比试验分析,结果表明:春季文冠果种子育苗以4月25日播种,采用覆膜+沙覆盖方式,种子高温催芽,覆膜点播的组合方式最佳,其出苗率和生长量明显高于春播的其他处理组合,是沙荒地文冠果春季播种比较理想的组合方式;秋季育苗其出苗率比春播处理组合平均高22.8%,苗木地径比春播平均高31.6%,即10月28日播种,采用土覆盖,种子不处理,开沟条播的处理组合是秋季文冠果沙荒地育苗的最佳选择。

  12. Selection of Cd2+ Binding Peptides and Yeast Adsorption of Heavy Metals by Display Technology%基于展示技术的 Cd2+结合肽筛选与酵母重金属吸附研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯侠; 江年; 陈颖; 张薇薇; 李学如; 茆灿泉

    2013-01-01

    Cd2+ binding peptides were effective enriched from the commercially phage 12 random peptide library ,and six different Cd2+ binding peptides were obtained ,two which had strong affi-nity were selected and connected together in series and displayed on yeast surface by gene recom-bination .The recombinant yeasts showed significant higher adsorption rate for Cd2+ and Ni2+ as compared with the control .The recombinant yeasts adsorption rate for Cd2+ increased with the in-crease of the induction time ,when the induction time was 24 h ,the adsorption rate for Cd2+reached the maximum (30 .4% ) ,and the adsorption rate for Ni2+ reached 32 .9% .%利用C d2+螯合树脂,对噬菌体随机十二肽库进行C d2+结合肽筛选,并将亲和力较强的结合肽展示在酵母EB Y 100表面,以期得到耐受和吸附能力具佳的工程菌,为重金属的生物修复提供新的思路。通过筛选共得到6条不同的C d2+结合肽,其中有2条对C d2+亲和力较强,将其串联展示于酵母细胞表面。与对照菌相比,酵母工程菌对C d2+、N i2+的吸附率显著提高。酵母工程菌对C d2+的吸附率随诱导时间的增加而增加,诱导24 h时最高,达30.4%,此时酵母工程菌对N i2+的吸附率达到32.9%。

  13. Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among active duty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, María Luisa; Beletsky, Leo; Patiño, Efraín; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rocha, Teresita; Arredondo, Jaime; Bañuelos, Arnulfo; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Police officers are at an elevated risk for needle-stick injuries (NSI), which pose a serious and costly occupational health risk for HIV and viral hepatitis. However, research on NSIs among police officers is limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the legality of syringe possession in Mexico, half of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana report extrajudicial syringe-related arrests and confiscation by police, which has been associated with needle-sharing and HIV infection. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of NSIs among Tijuana police officers to inform efforts to improve occupational safety and simultaneously reduce HIV risks among police and PWID. Methods Tijuana's Department of Municipal Public Safety (SSPM) is among Mexico's largest. Our binational, multi-sectoral team analyzed de-identified data from SSPM's 2014 anonymous self-administered occupational health survey. The prevalence of NSI and syringe disposal practices was determined. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation via generalized estimating equations identified factors associated with ever having an occupational NSI. Results Approximately one-quarter of the Tijuana police force was given the occupational health survey (N=503). Respondents were predominantly male (86.5%) and ≤35 years old (42.6%). Nearly one in six officers reported ever having a NSI while working at SSPM (15.3%), of whom 14.3% reported a NSI within the past year. Most participants reported encountering needles/syringes while on duty (n=473, 94%); factors independently associated with elevated odds of NSIs included frequently finding syringes that contain drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56–5.67) and breaking used needles (AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.29–3.91), while protective factors included being willing to contact emergency services in case of NSIs (AOR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22–0.69), and wearing needle-stick resistant gloves (AOR: 0

  14. "Hospital utilization by Mexican migrants returning to Mexico due to health needs"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Sierra-de la Vega Luz A

    2011-04-01

    services. The most common diagnostic categories mentioned across hospitals were traumatisms, complications of diabetes and elective surgery, in that order. Private hospitals mention elective surgeries as the main diagnostic category followed by complications of diabetes. Conclusions Hospitals in communities of origin in Mexico are devoting few resources to respond to hospitalization needs of migrants in the US. Currently no hospital programs exist to stimulate migrant demand or to cater to their specific needs. Registering migratory history in clinical and administrative records can be readily implemented. Developing bi-national referral networks and insuring migrants in the US within current Mexican federal programs could greatly increase migrant access to hospitals.

  15. Product color design based on reuse of color scheme%基于色彩方案重用的产品配色感性设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 吕健; 潘伟杰

    2015-01-01

    In the field of industrial design ,product coloring activity is mainly colored and modified manually and the users' emotional involvement is low .In order to reduce the dependence on the knowledge in the design activities ,a color design method based on reuse of color configuration was proposed .It used obfuscation and dominant color extraction technology to obtain color com‐binations from the source image ,then created the sample database of color combinations ,the 3D model library of products and the emotional evaluations collection of color combinations .The im‐agery contribution of single color was obtained from the color combination by using factor analy‐sis .Then it completed the mapping from independent color space to the imagery space .Finally , based on user's evaluation scores and color harmony ,fitness function was built and the optimiza‐tion of program groups was promoted through IGA .An example of cultural souvenir color design demonstrates the effectiveness of this method .%在工业设计界,产品配色活动主要依靠人工赋色和修改,并且用户感性知识参与性较低。为了有效降低设计活动对领域知识的依赖以及增强用户感性需求的满意度,提出了基于色彩配置方案重用的产品配色感性设计方法。运用模糊处理与主色提取等技术从源图像中获取色彩组合方案,建立色彩组合样本库、产品三维模型库及色彩组合感性评价语义集,利用因子分析方法从色彩组合方案中提取单个色彩的意象贡献值,进而完成从独立色彩空间向意象词汇空间的映射,依据用户评价分值与色彩调和度构建适应度评价函数并以交互式遗传算法为工具推进方案群的优化。以文化旅游纪念品配色设计为例对设计方法进行验证,表明该方法的有效性。

  16. Impacto ambiental de modificações ecológicas realizadas em uma área subtropical Environmental impact of ecological changes in a subtropical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gorodner

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available No período de 1994 a 2000, durante a construção e enchimento da represa Yacyretá, foram estudadas em Ituzaingó e Posadas variáveis infecciosas (diarréias e infecções respiratórias, clínico-cirúrgicas (doenças cardiovasculares e politraumatismos e ambientais (pluviais, temperatura e umidade. As diarréias, em Ituzaingó, tiveram um aumento 6,5%, 78,3% e 13%, respectivamente em 1995, 1996 e 1997 e nos anos seguintes os valores foram similares aos de 1994 e em Posadas mostraram uma tendência ascendente. As infecções respiratórias, em Ituzaingó em 1995, aumentaram 143% e nos períodos subseqüentes voltaram aos limites de 1994 e, em Posadas tiveram valores ascendentes. No Hospital de Ituzaingó, em 1995, as doenças incrementaram 97,6%, mostraram decréscimo em 1996 e atingiram 127% em 2000; os politraumatismos aumentaram 107% em 1995, declinaram 38% em 1996 nos anos seguintes apresentaram tendência ascendente atingindo 33% em 2000. O impacto das variáveis ambientais foi maior em Ituzaingó do que em Posadas. O aumento das doenças relacionou-se com a temperatura máxima, mas não com a umidade.Infectious, clinical-surgical and environmental variables were studied in Ituzaingó and Posadas (Argentina and differences were analyzed from 1994 to 2000, which corresponds to the building of the binational dam Yacyretá (Argentina-Paraguay and to the resulting reservoir. The chosen infectious variables were diarrhea and respiratory infections and the clinical-surgical variables were cardiovascular diseases and polytraumas. Environmental variables were also investigated. Taking as a baseline the values corresponding to the year 1994, diarrhea in Ituzaingó, increased 6.5% during 1995 and 78.3% in 1996 returned to 1994 values. Posadas showed a rising tendency throughout the period investigated. In Ituzaingó, respiratory infectious rose 143% in 1995, and later returned to 1994 values. In Posadas they increased each year. Cardiovascular

  17. 环氧化酶-2及其抑制剂与肿瘤耐药的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩惠; 张卿

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,the m alignant tum or m ortality rate has increased year by year,w hich is closely related to the subsequent m ultidrug resistance caused by the long-term effect of anti-cancer drugs.T he em ergence of tum or drug resistance is an im portant cause resulting in failure of chem otherapy and the progress of the disease.C yclooxygenase-2 (C O X-2 )is a key enzym e catalyzing arachidonic acid to generate a variety of prostaglandins,w hich expresses in a w ide variety of tum ors and participate in the occurrence of tum or drug resistance,thus reduces the efficacy of chem otherapy. C O X-2 inhibitors can inhibit the grow th of tum or cells,and reduce the expression of drug resistance proteins.T here-fore,to reverse drug resistance of tum or cells,enhance the sensitivity of antitum or drugs in tum or patients,and to im-prove the treatm ent effect,the research on anti-tum or effect of C O X-2 inhibitors in com bination w ith chem otherapeutic drugs has becom e a focus.%近年来,恶性肿瘤的死亡率逐年增加,这与抗癌药物长期作用所继发的多药耐药( MDR )密切相关,肿瘤耐药性的产生是导致化疗失败、疾病进展的重要原因。环氧化酶-2( COX-2)是催化花生四烯酸生成各种前列腺素的关键酶,在多种肿瘤中表达并参与肿瘤耐药性的发生,从而降低化疗疗效。COX-2抑制剂有抑制肿瘤细胞生长,降低耐药蛋白表达等抗肿瘤作用,因此,为逆转肿瘤细胞耐药性、增强肿瘤患者对抗肿瘤药物的敏感性,进而提高治疗效果,对COX-2抑制剂与化疗药物联合抗肿瘤作用的研究成为了热点。

  18. Historic distribution and challenges to bison recovery in the northern Chihuahuan desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Rurik; Ceballos, Gerardo; Curtin, Charles; Gogan, Peter J P; Pacheco, Jesús; Truett, Joe

    2007-12-01

    international boundaries, have acted as barriers in shaping comprehensive approaches to conservation. Bison recovery in the region depends on binational cooperation. PMID:18173472

  19. 门冬氨酸钾镁及其联合普罗帕酮对家兔心室肌电生理的影响%Effects of Magnesium Potassium Aspartate a nd Its Combination With Propafenone on Ventricular Electrophysiology in Rabbits.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭保静; 李小梅

    2001-01-01

    探讨门冬氨酸钾镁(KMA)及其与普罗帕酮(Pr)联合应用对心脏电生理 的影响。将动物随机分组,分别静脉注射KMA、Pr以及KMA+Pr,采用心外膜单相动作电位( MAP)记录技术于家兔左心室记录MAP。结果:KMA、Pr、KMA+Pr各组均延长窦性心动周期( SCL)、MAP复极达50%时程并增加心室有效不应期(VERP);Pr、KMA+Pr 还增加MAP复极达90%时程(MAPD90)及VERP/MAPD90。较大剂量Pr 有致心律失常 作用,KMA与Pr联合使用 心律失常发生率增加。结论:KMA具有抗心律失常药物的电生理特性,单独应用推荐剂量的K MA是安全的; KMA与Pr联合应用的心脏电生理效应是两药各自作用程度的叠加。为避免致心 律失常风险,KMA与Pr联合应用时应相应减小Pr剂量。%To investigate the effects of potassium magnesium aspartate (KMA) and I ts combination with propafenone (Pr) on heart eletrophysiology,Epicardium contac t monophasic action potential (MAP) probe was used to record MAP on rabbit's lef t ventricle after thoracotomy.The rabbits were randomized into several groups:KM A,Prand KMA+Pr.The drugs were administered by intravenous injection.Results:KMA ,Pr and KMA+Pr prolonged SCL,MAPD50 and increased ventricular effective re fractory period (VERP).Pr and KMA+Pr prolonged MAPD90 and increased VERP/M APD90.There was proarrhythmic effects in group Pr of higher dose.After com bination of KMA with Pr of higher dose,the incidence of proarrhythmia was increa sed.Conclusion:KMA has electrophysiologic characters of antiarrhythmic agents and the administration of KMA in recommended dose is safe.KMA and Pr increased the effects each other after their combination.The dose of Pr should be decreas ed when Pr combine KMA for decreasing the risk of proarrhythmia.

  20. GPS轨迹测量系统在导弹飞行试验中的应用%Application of GPS trajectory measurement system in missile flight test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东; 黄信安

    2014-01-01

    In the process of air-to-air missile development,a serial of tethered flight test must be done to improve the capa-bility of capturing and tracking the real goal of missile guidance system. The traditional tethered flight test results in great uncer-tainty for the flight test results because the test personnel on ground can not grasp the dynamic status of the drone aircraft in real time. With GPS widely used in the system,the target aircraft′s position and speed relative to fighter plane are calculated in com-bination the GPS information received from the airborne missile and target GPS pod,and displayed in the data processing soft-ware,so that the test personnel on ground obtain the relevant information of fighter plane and drone aircraft in real time and pro-vide reliable data for the test command. The practical application result shows that this system can greatly improve the success rate and the missile interception probability,and save the time and fund of the test.%空空导弹研制需要一系列空中系留飞行试验,以解决导弹制导系统对真实目标的截获跟踪能力。传统的系留试验由于地面试验人员无法实时掌握靶机和目标机的动态,给飞行试验结果造成了很大的不确定性;本系统利用日益广泛使用的GPS全球定位技术,从载机的导弹产品和目标机GPS吊舱接收下传的GPS信息,实时解算出目标机相对于载机位置、速度等信息,显示在数据处理软件上,从而使地面试验人员实时获取载机和目标机的相关信息,为试验指挥提供了可靠数据;实际应用结果表明,该系统大大提高了系留试验的成功率和导弹截获概率,为飞行试验节约了试验经费和时间,创造了良好的经济效益。

  1. Identifying and Measuring the Lifelong Human Capital of “Unskilled” Migrants in the Mexico-US Migratory Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Hagan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most human capital and migration studies classify migrants with limited formal education as “unskilled,” despite substantial skills developed through job and life experiences.  Drawing on a binational multi-stage research project that involved interviews with 320 Mexican migrants and return migrants in North Carolina and Guanajuato, Mexico, we identify the lifelong human capital they acquired and transferred throughout their careers and discover that these include not only basic education and English, but also technical and social skills and competences acquired informally on and off the job throughout the course of one’s life.  We further find that the learning and transfer of skills is a lifelong, gendered process, reflecting the different social contexts and jobs in which men and women learn. In this paper we document several mobility pathways associated with the acquisition and transfer of skills across the migratory circuit, including reskilling, occupational mobility, job jumping, and entrepreneurship.Our study has broad implications for the migration policies of both the US and Mexico.  US immigration policy confers preference to “skilled” immigrants who rank high on traditional human capital characteristics, such as education levels and other formal credentials, but limits the entry of “unskilled” migrants, a categorization that ignores the substantial informal skills they bring to US labor markets.  Instead of focusing only on the continued expansion of immigration policy preferences for narrowly defined skilled migrants, the US government needs to consider more carefully what we mean by skilled workers and design fairer and more effective immigration policies that match their abilities to the specific needs of US industry and thereby recognize the economic contributions of all migrants within a lifelong human capital framework. Mexico can also learn from our findings. Between 2005 and 2010 an estimated 1.4 million

  2. Key technologies and development of formation control of mobile robots%移动机器人队形控制关键技术及其进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任立敏; 王伟东; 杜志江

    2013-01-01

    在明确了多机器人队形控制国内外发展现状的基础上,以地面移动机器人为研究对象,从系统结构、机器人模型、队形形状表示方法、参考框架及编队控制策略等方面,对多机器人编队控制的研究成果进行了概述。同时,对队形形状生成、编队跟踪与协调、队形变换与重组以及编队避障等队形控制子问题的国内外研究近况进行了总结和分析。最终指出:研究统一有效的编队控制框架、障碍环境下的队形优化变换、降低系统对通讯能力的要求以及编队控制在实际物理环境下的应用是移动机器人队形控制领域未来可能的研究主题。%On the basis of defining the present development of multi-robot formation control at home and abroad , with ground mobile robots as the research object , the research achievements on the multi-robot formation control are described in aspects of system structure , robot model , the formation shape representation method , reference frame and formation control strategy .In addition, the present domestic and foreign researches on such sub-problems of for-mation control as the generation of formation shape , formation tracking and coordination , formation change , recom-bination and formation , obstacle avoidance are also summarized and analyzed .It is pointed out finally that the uni-form and effective formation control frame , formation optimization and change in the obstacle environment , reducing system requirements on communication and the application of formation control in the actual physical environment are the future possible research topics .

  3. Implementation of an efficacious intervention for high risk women in Mexico: protocol for a multi-site randomized trial with a parallel study of organizational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Thomas L

    2012-10-01

    intervention will be analyzed, and across CBOs, correlations will be examined between individual and organizational provider characteristics and intervention efficacy. Discussion This cooperative, bi-national research study will provide critical insights into barriers and facilitating factors associated with implementing interventions in CBOs using the ‘train the trainer’ model. Our work builds on similar scale-up strategies that have been effective in the United States. This study has the potential to increase our knowledge of the generalizability of such strategies across health issues, national contexts, and organizational contexts. Trial registration NCT01465607

  4. Residential Exposure to Nighttime Retained Heat in the El Paso, Texas, USA Desert Metroplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, M. A.; Mohammed, M.; Pingitore, N. E.; Aldouri, R. K.; Benedict, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    The urban heat island is a well recognized and extensively studied phenomenon that has accelerating importance resulting from two trends associated with world-wide population growth: increasing urbanization and global warming. Urbanization, particularly when unplanned and haphazard, changes such thermal parameters as albedo, surface roughness, and heat capacities of surface materials. Rapid urbanization in the contiguous El Paso, Texas, USA - Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico bi-national metroplex has produced an urban heat island that is warmer than the surrounding Chihuahuan desert (temperature: 35-40 C summer; high elevation: 600-1675 m; rainfall: less than 250 mm annual). Despite the extensive literature on the urban heat island, little is known about urban nighttime land surface temperatures. We employed infrared satellite imaging to establish the variation of nighttime neighborhood surface temperatures across the city of El Paso, as well as all of El Paso County. The underlying purpose of our continuing investigation is to evaluate the geography of morbidity risk: are different neighborhoods at different risk of high nighttime temperatures. Those risks can include heat stress, and irritability and sleep deprivation, with possible resultant violence. Heat exposure at night is significant because residents are at home and 90% of El Pasoans do not have 'refrigerated' air conditioning, but instead have evaporative coolers, which are less expensive to own and operate, but are less effective since they raise the humidity of the partially cooled air. Our geographically weighted regression model showed that both day and nighttime land surface temperatures correlated with the normalized difference vegetation index, population density, and albedo. The association with the index and albedo was stronger during the daytime and with population density during the nighttime. Vegetation (negative) and population density (positive) were the dominant temperature drivers, with

  5. A COMBINED FUZZY MCDM APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING THE SUITABLE LANDS FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT: AN EXAMPLE FROM BANDAR ABBS, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dadras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the suitable lands for urban dev elopment in Bandar Abbas city based on its real world use regarding specific crite ria and sub-criteria. The city of Bandar Abbas is considered as the most important commer cial and economic city of Iran. It is also considered as one of the major cities of Iran which has played a pivotal role in the country's development and progress in recen t years especially after the end of Iran-Iraq war owing to its embracing the country's m ain commercial ports. This process has caused the immigration rate into the city to rise significantly over the past 20 years. Thus, the development of the city is meanwhile c onsidered as a high priority. Bandar Abbas city does not have a rich capacity for g rowth and development due to its special geographical situation being located in coastal border. Among the limitations placed in the city's development way, natural limit ations (heights and sea shore in the northern and southern parts of the city and struc tural limitations (military centers in the east and west sides of the city may be referred . Therefore, identifying the suitable lands for urban development within Bandar Abbas city l imits is becoming an essential priority. Therefore, d ifferent quantitative and quali tative criteria have been studied in order to select and identify these lands. The struct ures of qualitative criteria for most parts involve ambiguities and vagueness. This leads us to use Fuzzy logic in this study as a natural method for determining the solutions fo r problems of Multi- criteria decision making (MCDM. In the current research, a com bination of MCDM methods has been presented for analysis. To assignee weights of the criteria Fuzzy AHP (analytic hierarchy process is used for land selection and Fuzzy TOPSIS (method for order priority by similarity to ideal solution is utilized to choose the alternative that is the most appropriate through these criteria weights. The

  6. Plastid genome engineering:novel optimization strategies and applica-tions%植物质体基因工程:新的优化策略及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周菲; 路史展; 高亮; 张娟娟; 林拥军

    2015-01-01

    植物质体转化技术通过同源重组实现定点整合,与细胞核基因工程相比,使外源基因表达更为精确、安全和高效。该技术在基础研究中为叶绿体功能基因组研究提供了有效手段,同时在应用方面为外源基因表达提供了理想的平台,已成为植物遗传育种的一种新策略。本文总结了近年来质体基因工程在转化体系的建立和优化上的新思路,着重阐述了利用质体转化技术在遗传育种中提高作物抗性、改良品质等应用领域的最新研究进展。克服质体转化技术在作物遗传育种中面临的难题,必将为作物育种的发展带来新的绿色革命。%The plastid genome engineering system allows site-specific modificationsvia two homologous recom-bination events. It is much safer, more precise and efficient compared with the nuclear transformation system. This technology can be applied to the basic research to expand plastid genome function analysis, and it also provides an excellent platform for not only high-level production of recombinant proteins but also plant breeding. In this review, we summarize the state of the art and progresses in this field. We focus on novel breeding strategies in transformation system improvement and new tools to enhance plastid transgene expression levels. In addition, we highlight selected applications in resistance engineering and quality improvementvia metabolic engineering. We believe that by over-coming current technological limitations in the plastid transformation system can another green revolution for crop breeding beckon.

  7. Optimizing Financial Ecological Environment, Boosting Development of Circular Economy%优化金融生态环境,助推循环经济发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付乐

    2012-01-01

    积极推进循环经济的发展是提高资源利用率,缓解资源短缺,减轻环境污染的有效途径,更是实现我国经济可持续发展的本质要求。优化的金融生态环境可以通过资金流向变化和信贷结构调整推动我国产业结构的调整和经济增长方式的转变,为循环经济科学技术支撑提供强有力的资金支持和重要的决策依据。为此,可以通过采取一些有效措施助推循环经济的发展,如加强财政与货币政策的协调性,寻求其支持科技进步和技术创新的最佳组合;倡导金融创新,为企业研发输送资金,推动循环经济发展;利用“歧视性”金融政策对高耗能、高污染企业进行长期约束等。%Actively promoting the development of circular economy is the effective way to improve resources' utilization, to ease the shortage of resources, to reduce environmental pollution. It is also the essential requirement of sustainable economic development. Optimal financial ecological environment can promote China's industrial structure adjustment and economic growth pattern through changing credit structure and adjustment of capital flows to. It also provides strong financial support and an important basis for decision making to scientific and technical support for the recycling economy. This can be done by taking some effective measures to boost the development of circular economy, such as strengthening the coordination of fiscal and monetary policy, to seek their support for the best com- bination of scientific and technological progress and technical innovation ; advocating financial innovation, channeling of financial resources for enterprise development, and promoting cycle of economic development ; making use of fi- nancial policies "discriminatory" to constraint high energy, high -polluting enterprises for long term.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among active duty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Mittal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Police officers are at an elevated risk for needle-stick injuries (NSI, which pose a serious and costly occupational health risk for HIV and viral hepatitis. However, research on NSIs among police officers is limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the legality of syringe possession in Mexico, half of people who inject drugs (PWID in Tijuana report extrajudicial syringe-related arrests and confiscation by police, which has been associated with needle-sharing and HIV infection. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of NSIs among Tijuana police officers to inform efforts to improve occupational safety and simultaneously reduce HIV risks among police and PWID. Methods: Tijuana's Department of Municipal Public Safety (SSPM is among Mexico's largest. Our binational, multi-sectoral team analyzed de-identified data from SSPM's 2014 anonymous self-administered occupational health survey. The prevalence of NSI and syringe disposal practices was determined. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation via generalized estimating equations identified factors associated with ever having an occupational NSI. Results: Approximately one-quarter of the Tijuana police force was given the occupational health survey (N=503. Respondents were predominantly male (86.5% and ≤35 years old (42.6%. Nearly one in six officers reported ever having a NSI while working at SSPM (15.3%, of whom 14.3% reported a NSI within the past year. Most participants reported encountering needles/syringes while on duty (n=473, 94%; factors independently associated with elevated odds of NSIs included frequently finding syringes that contain drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.56–5.67 and breaking used needles (AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.29–3.91, while protective factors included being willing to contact emergency services in case of NSIs (AOR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22–0.69, and wearing needle-stick resistant

  9. International labor migration and external debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, J A

    1987-01-01

    program by which the US would import the production of these agroindustrial units in Mexico would retain previously migratory workers in Mexico; 5) a feasibility study would precede implementing an accord on the amount of financing and the terms of operation; and 6) the time during the binational study would be a grace period, during which payment of a portion of the interest of Mexico's foreign debt would be temporarily suspended. PMID:12281043

  10. Use by small mammals of short-rotation plantations in relation to their structure and isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Giordano

    2010-06-01

    . Dal nostro studio è emerso che le SRF sono largamente sfruttate dai micromammiferi, soprattutto in autunno e che il successo di cattura è massimo negli impianti a file binate. L’abbondanza dei micromammiferi è risultata inversamente correlata alla distanza dagli ambienti che offrono copertura, come boschi o altri impianti di arboricoltura. I risultati hanno mostrato che le SRF possono considerarsi un ambiente idoneo per i micromammiferi, ed esse potrebbero funzionare da habitat di collegamento tra i frammenti di altri habitat utilizzati dai micromammiferi.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4443

  11. Detection activity of chimeric immune receptor in vitro%嵌合免疫受体活性的体外检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆耐香; 刘菁

    2011-01-01

    目的:体外检测嵌合免疫受体3(CIR3)的活性,为肿瘤的过继免疫治疗提供可靠依据.方法:将已经构建好的CIR3通过电穿孔法转染人T淋巴细胞,检测其在T淋巴细胞的表达及与CEA阳性胃癌细胞株MKN-45的结合情况和IL-2产生情况.结果:CIR3成功转染并表达在T细胞的表面,转染CIR3的T细胞体外能够识别胃癌细胞株MKN-45并与之结合形成典型的花环结构,受CEA刺激后能产生细胞因子IL-2.结论:表达在T淋巴细胞表面的CIR3能够有效结合肿瘤细胞并不受MHC的限制,受CEA刺激后能产生细胞因子IL-2,为下一步的体内实验提供可靠依据.%0bjective:To provide reliable evidence for tumor adoptive inmunotherapy ,1he activity of chineric inmune receptor 3 (CIR 3 ) was detected in vitro .Methods :CIR3 with anti-CEA-scFv gene was transfected into human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM C s) obtained from healthy adults by electroporation .The expression of CIR3 was detected by flow cytometry and RT—PCR after 16-hour transfection . And the can bination of transfected T cells with CEA positive MKN-45 cells and L-2 concentration were tested using Rosetting testand ELISA , respectively .Results :Flow cytometry showed that CIR3 gene was efficiently expressed on cells surface after transfection .The transfected T cells could recognize and combine with MKN-45 cells and fomed rosette .ELISA showed IL-2 produced by transfectante .Conclusion :CIR3 gene can successfully express on human Tlym phocytes surface .And CIR 3 transfectants combine with tumor cells by non-MHC restriction and can produce L-2 .It can provide Ihe reliable evidence for further study in vivo .

  12. 64排螺旋CT低剂量筛查肾上腺肿瘤的实验研究%Screening Adrenal Tumors with 64-Slice Spiral CT in Low Dose:an Experimental Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓波; 王小红

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to probe into the optimal scan param eters in low dose when sereening adrenal tumors with 64-slice spiral CT, in order to make itm ore popular in clinical application .Materials and .Methods Wehad selected 30 adrenal tumors patients ( 15 male and 15 fem ale ;between 28 and 67 years old ;mean age 38 years old ) maken a definite diagnosis in general hospital of Jilin Chemical lndustry from June 2009 to June 2010 .All of the selected adrenal tumors patients were confirmed by surgical pathology .Control group; 10 healthy volunteers.Both cases and controls were scanned on a 64-slice spiral CT under auto tube current modulation mode with com blnations of serval param eters ;noise index (NI):8/12/15/18/21/24/27/30/33;tube voltage (TV) :140 kV/120 kV/100 kV/80 kV ;rotation time (RT): 0.4 s/0.5 s.The datum were reconstructed per 0.625m m and then transferred to the ADW 4.3 workstation .Using adrenal imaging special softwate to reconstruct adrenal im aging .An radiologist who has more than 10 years work experience had scored the com prised imaging recorded doze length product (DLP) .The relations between DLP and NI/TV/RT and the relations between IQS and NI/DLP/TV/RT were analyzed through partial correlation .Results Coefficient ofpartial correlation between DLP and NI was- 0.613 (P<0.01) ;Coefficient of partial correlation between DLP and TV was 0 .198 (P>0 .05) ;Coefficient of partial correlation between DLP and RT was -0.054 (P>0.05) .Conclusion The optimal param eters of 64-slice spialCT cobnography was a com bination of 120 kV (TV) ,12 (NI) ,0.5s(RT ) under the auto tube current modulation mode .The dose of screening adrenal tum ors with w ith 64-slice spiral CT using the scan com binated patam eters was about 18.6% of fixed tube current TV ,NI and RT can be used as low dose scan param eters when screening adrenal tumors with 64-slice spiral CT.%目的 探索适用于64层螺旋CT肾上腺成像筛查肾上腺肿瘤的低

  13. Program for Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas: Translation of Science into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Margaret; Pierson, Thomas; Wilkinson, Stuart; Westby, Elizabeth; Driedger, Carolyn; Ewert, John

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Agency for International Development/Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) inaugurated Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas, a program that brings together binational delegations of scientists, civil authorities, and emergency response managers to discuss the challenges of integrating volcano science into crisis response and risk reduction practices. During reciprocal visits, delegations tour areas impacted by volcanic unrest and/or eruption, meet with affected communities, and exchange insights and best practices. The 2013 exchange focused on hazards at Mount Rainier (Washington, USA) and Nevado del Ruiz (Caldas/Tolima, Colombia). Both of these volcanoes are highly susceptible to large volcanic mudflows (lahars). The Colombia-USA exchange allowed participants to share insights on lahar warning systems, self-evacuation planning, and effective education programs for at-risk communities. [See Driedger and Ewert (2015) Abstract 76171 presented at 2015 Fall AGU, San Francisco, Calif., Dec 14-18]. The second exchange, in 2015, took place between the USA and Chile, focusing on the Long Valley volcanic region (California, USA) and Chaitén volcano (Lagos, Chile) - both are centers of rhyolite volcanism. The high viscosity of rhyolite magma can cause explosive eruptions with widespread destruction. The rare but catastrophic "super eruptions" of the world have largely been the result of rhyolite volcanism. Chaitén produced the world's first explosive rhyolite eruption in the age of modern volcano monitoring in 2008-2009. Rhyolite eruptions of similar scale and style have occurred frequently in the Long Valley volcanic region, most recently about 600 years ago. The explosivity and relative rarity of rhyolite eruptions create unique challenges to risk reduction efforts. The recent Chaitén eruption was unexpected - little was known of Chaitén's eruptive history, and because of this, monitoring

  14. 高压氧联合针刺运动疗法治疗急性脑梗死的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆芳; 陈庆华; 孔胜建; 王晨; 王丹

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨高压氧( HBO )联合针刺运动疗法治疗急性脑梗死的疗效。方法129例急性脑梗死患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,两组均按急性脑梗死常规药物治疗并配合针刺运动疗法,治疗组同时加用高压氧,治疗开始及治疗30 d后对两组患者进行神经功能缺损程度评分和临床疗效评定。肢体运动功能( FMA )及日常生活活动能力采用改良Barthel Index ( MBI )评定。结果两组患者治疗前各项评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),高压氧治疗30 d后,联合疗法治疗急性脑梗死有效率95.4%,疗效明显优于对照组。结论高压氧联合针刺运动疗法可提高急性脑梗死的疗效,有利于肢体功能的改善,对减轻脑痉挛,预防挛缩畸形及提高患者日常生活能力有促进作用。%Objective T o discuss the curative effect of hyperbaric oxygen (H B O ) com bined w ith acupuncture exercise therapy in treatm ent of acute cerebral infarction .Methods 129 cases of patients w ith acute cerebral infarction w ere random ly divided into treatm ent group and control group,both groups w ere given conventional drug treatm ent for acute cerebral infarction and acupuncture exercise therapy,w hile the treatm ent group at the sam e tim e w ere given hyperbaric oxygen .T he degree score of neural function defect and clinical curative effect of the tw o groups w ere assessed at the beginning of treatm ent and 30 days after treatm ent.Lim b m ovem ent function (FM A ) and activities of dai-ly living w ere assessed by m odified B arthel Index (M B I).Results T he differences of each item score of the tw o groups before treatm ent w ere not of statistical significance (P>0 .05 ),after 30 days of hyperbaric oxygen therapy ,the effective rate of com bination thera-py reached 95.4% ,whosecurativeeffectwasbetterthanthecontrolgroup.Conclusion Hyperbaricoxygen(HBO)withacupunctureexercise therapy can increase the curative effect of acute

  15. Preliminary estimates of residence times and apparent ages of ground water in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, and water-quality data from a survey of springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Plummer, L. Neil; Bohlke, John K.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Bachman, L. Joseph; Powars, David S.

    1998-01-01

    discharging from 30 of the 46 springs sampled were less than 20 years, including 5 that were 'modern' (0-4 years). Four samples had apparent ages of 22 to 34 years, and two others from thermal springs were 40 years or greater. The remaining ten samples were contaminated with local sources of CFC and could not be dated. Nitrate concentrations and nitrate delta 15 nitrogen (15N) values in water from many springs are similar to those in shallow ground water beneath fertilized fields, and some values are high enough to indicate a probable source from animal-waste components. The nitrogen data reported here highlight the significance of the springs sampled during this study as pathways for nutrient transport in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Ground-water samples were collected from springs during an unusually high flow period and thus may not be representative of low base-flow conditions. Residence times estimated from plausible ranges of aquifer properties and results of previous age-dating analyses generally corroborate the apparent-age analysis made in the current study and suggests that some residence times could be much longer. The shortest residence times tend to be in the Blue Ridge and northern carbonate areas; however, the data are preliminary and not appropriate for statistical tests of significance or variance. Because the age distributions in the aquifer discharging to the springs are not known, and because the apparent ages of water from the springs are based on various com-binations of CFC criteria, the apparent ages and calculated residence times are compared for illustrative purposes but are considered preliminary until further work is accomplished.

  16. The application of nucleic acid sequence?based amplification,real?time PCR and GM test in invasive aspergillosis diagnosis%核酸序列依赖性扩增、Real?time PCR及GM试验诊断侵袭性曲霉菌感染的临床应用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立朋; 鲍翠霞; 于丽梅; 张晓录; 于威娟; 张霞; 李玮; 黄葆华; 李杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the diagnostic performance of nucleic acid sequence?based amplification ( NASBA) assay,real?time PCR and GM test in detecting invasive aspergillosis for clinical diagnosis.Methods Blood samples from 80 patients at a high risk for IA were collected during from November 2013 to June 2014.These patients were categorized as 8 proven IA,26 probable IA, and 46 non?IA according to the 2008 revised definitions of EORTC/MSG.Blood samples were tested by NASBA,real?time PCR and GM test and their diagnostic parameters were calculated,respectively.Result The sensitivity of NASBA,real?time PCR and GM test was 76.47%,67.65% and 52.94%,while their specificity was 80.43%,89.13%,80.43%,respectively.The efficiency of various com?binations of tests was also evaluated.Perfect specificity (100%) and positive predictive value (100%) were achieved by combining NASBA and real?time PCR as a serial testing.A combination of NASBA and real?time PCR as a parallel testing was the most sensitive (94.12%).Conclusion The sensitivity and specificity of NASBA and real?time PCR were superior to GM test.Combination of these assays could be particularly useful in specific clinical situations.%目的 核酸序列依赖性扩增 ( nucleic acid sequence?based amplification,NASBA)、Real?time PCR及GM试验在侵袭性曲霉菌感染中的诊断价值. 方法 收集2013年11月~2014年6月临床上曲霉菌感染高危病患的血液标本80例,并根据EORTC/MSG诊断标准分为确诊组8例,拟诊组26例,非感染组46例,分别利用NASBA、real?time PCR及GM试验进行检测,计算3种方法的诊断指标并分析评价. 结果 NASBA、real?time PCR及GM试验3种方法的灵敏度分别为76.47%、67.65%、52.94%,特异度分别为80.43%、89.13%、80.43%. 联合诊断结果显示,NASBA与real?time PCR串联方案有最好的特异度 (100%)及阳性预测值(100%);NASBA与real?time PCR并联方案则最为灵敏(94.12%). 结论 NASBA用于诊断IA最为敏感,而real?time PCR

  17. The comparison of different methods for treating aerobic vaginitis and clinical effect of mixed infection%不同方法治疗需氧菌性阴道炎及其混合感染的临床效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董莉; 寿之炜; 卢梦祺; 姚晓红; 黄华萍

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the different methods for treating aerobic vaginitis and mixed clinical effects of infection.Methods A randomized controlled method was used,298 cases of aerobic vaginitis and mixed infections were randomly divided into control group(149 cases):the use of combination anti -infective therapy,the treatment group(149 cases):the use of combination anti -infective at the same treatment plus lactobacillus vaginal medication.And the therapeutic effect was evaluated.Results The difference of the clinical efficacy of aerobic vagi-nitis treatment of mixed infections was not statistically significant (total effective rate of 95.3% in the treatment group,92.6% in the control group).With the time of treatment extended,the effective rate increased,the use of com-bination anti -infective therapy at the same time plus lactobacillus vaginal administration group of aerobic bacteria vaginosis and recurrence rate was significantly reduced in patients with mixed infection (recurrence rate was 6.0% in the treatment group and 12.8% was in the control group,χ2 =3.941 3,P <0.05).Conclusion The combination of anti -infective therapy at the same time plus lactobacillus vaginal drug treatment aerobic mixed infections and vagini-tis has slightly higher effective rate than the use of combination anti -infective treatment,the former relapse rate was significantly reduced.%目的:比较不同方法治疗需氧菌性阴道炎及其混合感染的临床效果。方法采用随机对照方法,对298例需氧菌性阴道炎及其混合感染患者随机分为对照组(149例):采用联合用药抗感染治疗,治疗组(149例):采用联合用药抗感染治疗同时加用定君生阴道用药。并评价其治疗效果。结果不同治疗方法对需氧菌性阴道炎及其混合感染治疗的临床疗效比较差异均无统计学意义(治疗组总有效率95.3%,对照组总有效率92.6%),随着治疗时间的延长,有效率增加,采

  18. Synergistic effect of exemestane and low-dose methotrexate on exemestane-resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and reversal mechanism of drug-resistance%依西美坦与低剂量甲氨蝶呤对依西美坦耐药人乳腺癌细胞的协同效应及逆转耐药机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    居伶俐; 袁媛; 潘跃银

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the combined effect of exemestane and low-dose methotrexate on exemestane-resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer cells( MCF-7/EXE). Methods Antiproliferative effects of exemestane and low-dose of methotrexate, alone and in combination on growth of MCF-7/EXE cells were assessed by using the MTT assay. Synergistic interaction between the two drugs was evaluated in vitro by using the combination index ( CI) method. The cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry in a half inhibitory concentration of exemestane and low-dose of methotrexate . The changes of apoptosis on MCF-7/EXE cells exposed to two drugs alone or in com-bination were observed by fluorescence microscope. The expression of Bcl-2,AKT,P-AKT and cyclooxygenase-2 was investigated by Western blot. Results MTT assays indicated that the combination treatment apparently decreased the viability of MCF-7/EXE cells compared to single drug treatment (CI<0. 9). In addition, the combination of exemestane and low-dose methotrexate exhibited a synergistic inhibition of cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle in the S phase significantly and produced a stronger inhibitory effects on P-AKT, Bcl-2 and cyclooxygenase-2 ex-pression than control or individual drug treatment. Conclusion The combination of the two inhibitors significantly increases the response as compared to single agent treatment, suggesting that combination treatment which can re-verse the resistance of exemestane could be a more effective approach to breast cancer.%目的研究依西美坦( EXE )与低剂量甲氨蝶呤( MTX)对依西美坦耐药人乳腺癌 MCF-7细胞( MCF-7/EXE)的增殖抑制作用及意义。方法使用 MTT 法检测EXE与低剂量MTX单药和联合给药对MCF-7/EXE细胞的增殖抑制作用,计算依西美坦与低剂量甲氨蝶呤联合给药时的联合指数(CI),评价两药间的相互作用。流式细胞术检测IC50浓度药物EXE组(120μmol/L)、低剂量MTX组(60 nmol

  19. 络合剂和交联剂对凝胶法制备TbMnO3纳米颗粒的影响%Influence of Chelating Agents and Crosslinking on TbMnO3 Nanoparticles Prepared by a Gel Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 林贯军; 县涛; 魏智强; 冯旺军

    2012-01-01

    采用改进的聚丙烯酰胺凝胶法制备了TbMnO3纳米颗粒.以Tb和Mn的无机盐水溶液为原料,通过加入丙烯酰胺使溶液成胶,在溶液成胶过程中,丙烯酰胺聚合形成高分子网络骨架,为粒子提供生长的空间.利用热重(TG)分析、差示扫描量热(DSC)分析、傅里叶变换红外光谱仪(FTIR)及X射线衍射(XRD)等多种手段研究了干凝胶的热分解及TbMnO3的形成.实验表明,分别以柠檬酸和EDTA作为络合剂,在800℃煅烧温度下均可制备出高纯TbMnO3纳米颗粒,但产物的颗粒尺寸和形貌与络合剂的选取有关.扫描电子显微镜(SEM)观察显示,以柠檬酸为络合剂制得的样品,颗粒形貌规整,呈球形,颗粒尺寸分布较窄,平均粒径约为67 nm;以EDTA为络合剂制得的样品,颗粒形态主要以长球形和近球形为主,兼有少量的杆状,平均颗粒尺寸约为115 nm.此外,实验还发现,在前驱体溶液中加入适量的双丙烯酰胺,可以使产物颗粒的尺寸适度减小,形貌变得更为规整.磁滞回线测量结果表明,TbMnO3纳米颗粒在室温下表现为顺磁性.%A modified polyacrylamide gel route was used to fabricate TbMnO3 nanoparticles. In this route, the aqueous solution of inorganic Tb and Mn salts was gelled by using acrylamide and during the gelation process, acrylamide was polymerized to form a polymer network, which provided a structural framework for the growth of particles. Thermogravimetric ( TG) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer( FT1R) and X-ray diffraction ( XRD) were com-binatively used to investigate the thermal decomposition process of xerogel and the formation of TbMnO3 phase. It is demonstrated that high-phase-purity TbMnO3 nanoparticles can be prepared separately by using citric acid and ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid ( EDTA) at a sintering temperature of 800 °C. However, the particle size and morphology of the products are

  20. Explosion Source Location Study Using Collocated Acoustic and Seismic Networks in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, V.; Gitterman, Y.; Arrowsmith, S.; Ben-Horin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We explore a joined analysis of seismic and infrasonic signals for improvement in automatic monitoring of small local/regional events, such as construction and quarry blasts, military chemical explosions, sonic booms, etc. using collocated seismic and infrasonic networks recently build in Israel (ISIN) in the frame of the project sponsored by the Bi-national USA-Israel Science Foundation (BSF). The general target is to create an automatic system, which will provide detection, location and identification of explosions in real-time or close-to-real time manner. At the moment the network comprises 15 stations hosting a microphone and seismometer (or accelerometer), operated by the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII), plus two infrasonic arrays, operated by the National Data Center, Soreq: IOB in the South (Negev desert) and IMA in the North of Israel (Upper Galilee),collocated with the IMS seismic array MMAI. The study utilizes a ground-truth data-base of numerous Rotem phosphate quarry blasts, a number of controlled explosions for demolition of outdated ammunitions and experimental surface explosions for a structure protection research, at the Sayarim Military Range. A special event, comprising four military explosions in a neighboring country, that provided both strong seismic (up to 400 km) and infrasound waves (up to 300 km), is also analyzed. For all of these events the ground-truth coordinates and/or the results of seismic location by the Israel Seismic Network (ISN) have been provided. For automatic event detection and phase picking we tested the new recursive picker, based on Statistically optimal detector. The results were compared to the manual picks. Several location techniques have been tested using the ground-truth event recordings and the preliminary results obtained have been compared to the ground-truth locations: 1) a number of events have been located as intersection of azimuths estimated using the wide-band F-K analysis technique applied to the

  1. Soul and Body Value of Medieval Christianity and its influence on Sports%中世纪基督教的灵肉观及其对体育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昆

    2015-01-01

    从历史与哲学的视角,对中世纪基督教灵肉观的演变及其对体育的影响进行了探讨。中世纪属于基督教,基督教神学影响和形塑了中世纪人们的生活方式,基督教的灵肉观对中世纪体育产生了深刻的影响。主要表现为:(1)中世纪早期和中期,奥古斯丁主义坚持“身体是灵魂的监狱”的灵肉对立观,导致竞技体育的沉寂和体育被排除在教育之外;(2)中世纪晚期,托马斯·阿奎那代表的经院哲学重新阐释灵肉关系,提出“人是由灵魂和肉体构成的一个完整的存在”的灵肉结合观。思想解放带来人们对身体及其健康的重视,在教会学校也开展了课余体育活动,城乡社会也兴起了形式多样的体育活动,它们成为近现代多种运动项目的前身。%From the perspective of history and philosophy, the evolution of soul and body value of medieval Christian-ity and its influence on physical education are discussed. Medieval Christianity belongs to Christianity and Christian theology influenced and shaped the medieval peopleˊs lifestyle. The soul and body value of medieval Christianity has a profound influence on medieval sports, which is mainly indicated in the following aspects:(1) In the early and Middle Ages, the Augustin doctrine adhered to the oppositional idea of spirit and body that"body is the soul of prison", which led to the silence of competitive sports and the exclusion of sports from edu-cation;(2) In the late Middle Ages, Thomas Aquinas reinterpreted of the relation of soul and body on behalf of the scholastic philosophy, put forwarding the view that Man is a complete existence of soul and body of the com-bination of spirit and body. Ideological emancipation aroused people’ s attention to their body and its health. In churches`and schools, extracurricular sports activities were carried out while in the urban and rural society, va-rious forms of sports activities arose

  2. Study on fluid-solid coupling mechanism for water resistance effect of coal floor based on different combination of rock strata%基于不同岩层组合对底板阻水效应的流固耦合机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟晓荣; 张红梅; 窦仲四; 吴基文; 沈书豪; 周盛全

    2016-01-01

    为了探究不同岩层组合底板对承压水的阻隔效果,以淮北矿区下组煤底板为研究对象,建立了三种不同组合特征底板模型.基于FISH语言对FLAC3D软件进行二次开发,对流固耦合条件下不同组合特征底板采动应力及围岩渗透性进行了综合分析.结果表明:流固耦合条件下,底板采后应力转换点深度较不考虑底板水压条件下加深,且底板深部出现了明显的卸压现象;硬软型底板采后卸荷程度及应力转换点降幅最大,而软硬相间型底板受最小;硬软型底板采后渗透性提高4.5倍,而软硬相间型底板仅提高1.4倍,研究结果揭示出软硬相间岩层组合底板阻水效果最好,而硬软型底板最差.%To investigate the resistance effect of coal floor with different combination of rock strata on confined water , taking the coal floor of lower coal group in Huaibei mining area as research object , three coal floor models with different combination characteristics were established .The secondary development was conducted on FLAC 3D software based on FISH language , then the comprehensive analysis on the mining stress of coal floor and the permeability of surrounding rock with different com -bination characteristics under the condition of fluid-solid coupling was carried out .The results showed that under the condi-tion of fluid-solid coupling , the depth of stress transition point for coal floor after mining was larger than that without consid -ering the condition of floor water pressure , and the obvious pressure relief phenomenon appeared in the deep floor .The de-creasing amplitude of unloading degree and stress transition point for hard -soft type coal floor after mining were the largest , while those for alternated soft-hard type coal floor were the smallest .The permeability of hard-soft type coal floor after mining increased by 4.5 times, while that of alternated soft-hard type coal floor increased by 1.5 times only.It revealed that

  3. Effects of ethanol on the hypnosis induced by propofol%乙醇对丙泊酚催眠效应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙林浩; 袁玲; 张露露; 陆悦; 刘烨; 陈铁胜; 周成华; 武玉清

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of ethanol on the hypnosis induced by propofol.Methods Based on stratified randomization, 32 mice were divided into four groups (n =8), according to their different treatments of 30%ethanol (Group E30), 40% ethanol (Group E40), 50% ethanol( Group E50) and 60% ethanol (Group E60).Then, the righting reflex test was performed to observe the rate of LOR in order to determine the optimum concentration of etha-nol.Based on stratified randomization, anther 40 mice were divided into five groups (n =8), according to their different treatments of normal saline (Group NS), fat emulsion (Group F), ethanol (Group E), propofol (Group P) and a com-bination of ethanol +propofol (Group U).Then, the righting reflex test was performed to observe the rate, latency and duration of LOR.Results Compared with Groups E and P, Group U produced a remarkably higher rate of LOR (P <0.01), obviously shorter latency (P <0.01), and markedly extended duration (P <0.01).Conclusion Ethanol can strengthen the hypnotic effect of propofol, and enhance the inhabitation of the central nervous system.%目的:研究乙醇对丙泊酚催眠效应的影响。方法①按分层随机区组设计将32只小鼠分为4组(n=8):30%乙醇组(E30组)、40%乙醇组(E40组)、50%乙醇组(E50组)、60%乙醇组(E60组)。观察小鼠翻正反射消失的比率,确定合适的乙醇浓度。②按分层随机区组设计将40只小鼠分为5组(n =8):生理盐水组(NS组)、脂肪乳组(F 组)、乙醇组(E 组)、丙泊酚组(P 组)及联合组(乙醇+丙泊酚,U 组)。观察小鼠翻正反射消失率、潜伏期以及翻正反射消失持续时间。结果与 E 组及 P 组相比,U 组翻正反射消失率明显升高(P <0.01),潜伏期明显缩短(P <0.01),翻正反射消失持续时间明显延长(P <0.01)。结论乙醇可显著增强丙泊酚的催眠效应,加强中枢抑制作用。

  4. 培养基成分和培养时间对匍匐翦股颖植株再生的影响%Effects of medium components and subculture period on plantlet regeneration of creeping bentgrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓一飞; 张露娜; 吴宜成; 陈沁; 邓志瑞

    2013-01-01

    Mature seeds of creeping bentgrass were used as explants to study the effects of 2,4-D concentration,com-bination of 2,4-D and 6-BA,and sucrose concentration on callus induction and the effects of subculture time,6-BA concentration,sucrose concentration on plantlet regeneration.The results showed that combination of 2 mg·L-1 2,4-D and 0.1 mg·L-1 6-BA produced the best result with 94% callus induction rate,and 30 g·L-1 sucrose gave the best result,callus induction rate being 82%.During regeneration process,1 mg·L-1 6-BA could bring the best differentia-tion frequency (62%)and 40 g·L-1 sucrose resulted in the highest plantlet regeneration frequency (52%).The callus after the second time subculture (40 d after explants were laid on medium)gave the highest differentiation frequency (71%)which began to decline as subculture prolonged.After the fifth time subculture (100 d),only 18%differentia-tion frequency was obtained.%以匍匐翦股颖成熟种子为外植体,研究了培养基2,4-D浓度、2,4-D和6-BA组合配比、蔗糖浓度对匍匐翦股颖愈伤组织诱导的影响以及愈伤组织再生过程中继代时间、6-BA浓度、蔗糖浓度对愈伤组织分化的影响.结果表明:在MS培养基上,2 mg·L-12,4-D和0.1 mg·L-16-BA的组合最利于愈伤组织的诱导,诱导率高达94%.蔗糖浓度为30 g·L-1时愈伤组织诱导率最高,为82%;在再生过程中,当6-BA浓度为1 mg·L-1时分化率最高(62%),蔗糖浓度为40 g·L-1时,愈伤组织分化率最高(52%).经过2次继代培养的愈伤组织(外植体放到培养基后40天)的分化率为最高(71%),随着继代次数增多,分化率逐渐降低,在经过5次继代后(培养100 d)分化率仅有18%.

  5. Activities and future plans of the radiation effects research foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) was established in 1975 as a binational research foundation supported by Japan and the United States. It continues the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) which was established in 1974. ABCC-RERF studies focus on several fixed cohorts of survivors and their children: the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort (120,000 survivors); the In-Utero cohort (3,300 people born within 9 months of the bombings); the F{sub 1} cohort (88,000 people born between mid-1946 and 1984), and the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort (an ongoing clinical study of 17,000 LSS survivors and 1,100 people exposed in-utero). Epidemiological data have shown increased risks of leukemia and solid cancers by radiation exposure among the survivors. Excess leukemia risks, especially for children, were markedly elevated 5 to 10 years after exposure and have continued at reduced levels. Excess solid cancer rates became apparent within 10 years after exposure, increasing throughout life in rough proportion to background rates. For doses of interest in radiation protection excess leukemia risks exhibit an upward curving dose response pattern while the solid cancer excess appears to be linear by dose with no apparent threshold. In addition to malignancy, AHS data has shown dose-related increased risk for various non-malignant diseases; radiation cataracts, benign tumors of uterus, thyroid and parathyroid (hyperparathyroidism), and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Persons exposed in-utero exhibit a broad range of dose-related effects including delayed growth and development and higher rates of microcephaly. Studies of birth defects, chromosome aberrations, childhood mortality, and genetic variants of serum or erythrocyte proteins have provided no indication of heritable mutations in the F{sub 1} cohort. Continued follow-up of survivors exposed as children (90% are still alive) is essential to understanding the temporal pattern of excess risks and lifetime

  6. Analysis of the allergic cough variant asthma in children%小儿过敏性咳嗽分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎艳梅; 托合提布

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To analysis the clinical features and treatment of the allergic cough variant asthma in children.METHODS:All of 56 cases of allergic cough variant asthma were treated in our hospital from May 2012 to August 2013,and these clinical data were analyzed retrospectively.The children were treated by com-bination of salbutamol and ketotifen.In addition,taking the vita-min A as the adjunctive therapy.The clinical efficacy and side effects were observed after treatment.RESULTS:The clinical symptoms of the allergic cough variant asthma in children is not typical,and the misdiagnosis rate is high.The results showed that there were 43 children cured after treatment,10 children im-proved and other 3 children had no change.The total effective rate was 94.64%. Besides, there were six cases with side effects,such as the heart rate increasing,facial flushing,head-ache.But these have no effect on clinical efficacy,and these dis-comfort disappeared after drug withdrawal.CONCLUSION:The clinical efficacy of salbutamol and ketotifen in the treatment of the allergic cough variant asthma in children is remarkable,and it is worthy of the clinical using.%目的:探讨分析小儿过敏性咳嗽的临床特点和治疗方法.方法:对我院2012-05/2013-08收治的56例过敏性患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析.患儿均给予舒喘灵和酮替芬联合治疗,并采用维生素A辅助治疗,观察治疗后患儿的临床疗效及不良反应.结果:小儿过敏性咳嗽患儿的临床症状不典型,误诊率较高.本组经治疗后治愈43例,有效10例,无效3例,总有效率为94.64%,且有6例患儿发生不良反应,主要表现为心率增快,面部潮红,头疼.但不影响疗效,停药后不适症均消失.结论:舒喘灵和酮替芬联合治疗小儿过敏性咳嗽的临床疗效显著,值得临床推广使用.

  7. Enhancing Surveillance for Arboviral Infections in the Arizona Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCotter, Orion; Vanskike, Frank; Ernst, Kacey; Komatsu, Ken; Margolis, Harold; Waterman, Stephen; Tippit, Laura; Tomashek, Kay; Wertheimer, Anne; Montiel, Sonia; Golenko, Catherine; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    that present to medical services for WNV testing and reported to public health officials are the most severe nueroinvasive cases. Much less is understood about the non-neuroinvasive cases with often present with non-descript symptoms. Results Vector mapping: Comparative densities of Ae. aegypti with academic partners of the Entomology and Public Health conducting a study capturing Ae. aegypti may help to enhance environmental programs. Laboratory Capacity: The laboratory training will cover conventional serological methods as well as recently FDA cleared molecular RT-PCR. Participants will include public health laboratory personnel working in molecular and serology diagnostics and other binational partners. Surveillance: A convenient seroprevalence study at sentinel-hospital site of symptomatic patients presenting in Arizona border hospital sites will be performed to better understand circulating levels of arboviral infections. Conclusions Appropriate and timely response to surveillance data is the key to identification human and animal disease associated with WNV, DENV, and other arboviruses. The mosquito vector Ae. aegypti is well established widespread and thriving in Arizona yet there is no autochthonous transmission of DENV identified to date. The results from this study will identify gaps and potential prevention and control measures for emerging infectious diseases including WNV and DENV in Arizona.

  8. Socio-Ecohydrologic Agents And Services: Integrating Human And Natural Components To Address Coupled System Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao-zuckerman, M.; Pope, A.; Chan, D.; Curl, K.; Gimblett, H. R.; Hough, M.; House-Peters, L.; Lee, R.; Scott, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Riparian corridors in arid regions are highly valued for their relative scarcity, and because healthy riparian systems support high levels of biodiversity, can meet human demand for water and water-related resources and functions. Our team is taking a transdiciplinary social-ecological systems approach to assessing riparian corridor resilience in two watersheds (the San Pedro River in USA and Mexico, and the Rio San Miguel in Mexico) through a project funded by the NSF CNH program ("Strengthening Resilience of Arid Region Riparian Corridors"). Multiple perspectives are integrated in the project, including hydrology, ecology, institutional dynamics, and decision making (at the level of both policy and individual choice), as well as the perspectives of various stakeholder groups and individuals in the watersheds. Here we discuss initial findings that center around linking changes in ecohydrology and livelihoods related to decisions in response to climatic, ecological, and social change. The research team is implementing two approaches to integrate the disparate disciplines participating in the research (and the varied perspectives among the stakeholders in this binational riparian context): (1) ecosystem service assessment, and (2) agent based model simulation. We are developing an ecosystem service perspective that provides a bridge between ecological dynamics in the landscape and varied stakeholder perspectives on the implications of ecohydrology for well-being (economic, cultural, ecological). Services are linked on one hand to the spatial patterns of traits of individuals within species (allowing a more predictive application of ecosystem services as they vary with community change in time), and to stakeholder perspectives (facilitating integration of ecosystem services into our understanding of decision making processes) in a case study in the San Pedro River National Conservation Area. The agent- based model (ABM) approach incorporates the influence of human

  9. 不同功能矫治器早期矫治Ⅱ类骨性错(牙合)的系统研究%Early treatment of skeletal class Ⅱ malocclusion: A systematic review speciality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛亦睿; 周洪

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of different functional appliances in the treatment of skeletal class H malocclusion. Methods: A literature survey was performed by applying die database of MEDLINE and CNK1. The Data of clinical randomized con-trolle trials(RCTs) and controlled clinical trials( CCTs) were selected, Meta analysis was conducted with the software Review 4. 2. Results: The search strategy resulted in 111 English articles and43 Chinese articles. 19 articles were qualified for the final analysis. In the qualified articles the treatment effects of 5 kinds of functional appliance were reported. The decrease of SNA was not significantly different between the groups of Activatoer and Binator, SNA decreased more in Twin-block group than in Herbst. The increase of SNB in group Twin-block = in Activator > in Herbst > in Bionator. The decrese of ANB in group of Twin-block > in Activator > in Bionator > in Herbst > in Frankel- II. The decrease of overjet in group of Twin-block > in Herbst > in Frankel- II. The decrease of Ul-NA in group of Frankel- II > in Activator > Herbst. The decrease of Ul-PP in group Twin-block >in Frankel- II > in Bionator. The increase of IMPA in group Herbst > in Bionator > in Twin-block. IMPA was not significantly different between the groups of Activator and Frankel- II ■ Conclusion; Frankel- II is not effective in the treatment of sever skeletal Class II malocclusions while Twin-block and Activor are. Patients with low IMPA or with poor treatment compliance should be treated with Herbst. Activator is more effective than Bionator in correction of skeletal sagital problem and lingual inclination of upper anterior teeth.%目的:对不同功能矫治器早期矫治骨性Ⅱ类错(牙合)的疗效进行比较,了解其临床矫治特点.方法:用循证学方法,网络检索数据库MEDLINE和中国学术期刊全文数据库(CNKI),搜集治疗Ⅱ类错(牙合)的临床试验以及随机对照临床试验的文献,采用Review 4.2

  10. Experimental Study of the Shapes of Fractal Number Sets with Composite Function Iteration%双函复合迭代下分形数集成形试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冠平

    2012-01-01

    Some fractal number sets take some animal shape and 3D self-similar structures, as the result of the single function operation. This paper makes tests of a composite function iteration to determine a number set. These double-function number sets take shapes of neither a union or an intersection of two single-function sets, nor a form of geometry synthesis, but resemble a hybridization of number sets as in biological phenomena. The double-function number sets keep some characteristics of related single-function number sets, but with differences and take their own unique shapes. It is revealed that not only the functions but also the composite order of two iteration functions determine the shape of double-function number sets, which bring about the appearance of binate fractal number sets. And the iteration functions satisfy matching conditions for advanced double-function number sets. The symmetric double-function number set requires symmetric single-function number sets and the self-similar double-function number set requires self-similar single-function number sets. This paper presents 5 iteration functions and 31 pictures which show 3D images of 11 number sets and their self-similar sub-sets. Comparing the double-function number sets with the phenomena of animal hybridization, it is discovered that they are similar. It may be inferred that in the combination of animal genes, we have the order principle and the information of biological genes may be recorded not only in genes but also in orders of genes.%此前分形数集已经出现了动物形模样和三维自相似形态,那还只是单个函数的运算结果.这里进行的是两个函数复合迭代运算共同确定一个数集的试验.这种双函数集的形体模样既不是两单函数集的集合交并,也不是它们形体的几何合成,更像是与生物现象类似的数集杂交.双函数集的形态会传承其两单函数集的某些特征,又不同其单函数集而有自己的独特性.发

  11. A dosimetric comparison of copper and Cerrobend electron inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Benjamin D; Carver, Robert L; Gibbons, John P; Hogstrom, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate differences in dose resulting from the use of copper aperture inserts compared to lead-alloy (Cerrobend) aperture inserts for electron beam therapy. Specifically, this study examines if copper aperture inserts can be used clinically with the same commissioning data measured using lead-alloy aperture inserts. The copper inserts were acquired from .decimal, LLC and matching lead-alloy, Cerrobend inserts were constructed in-house for 32 com-binations of nine square insert field sizes (2 × 2 to 20 × 20 cm2) and five applicator sizes (6 × 6 to 25 × 25 cm2). Percent depth-dose and off-axis relative dose profiles were measured using an electron diode in water for select copper and Cerrobend inserts for a subset of applicators (6 × 6, 10 × 10, 25 × 25 cm2) and energies (6, 12, 20 MeV) at 100 and 110 cm source-to-surface distances (SSD) on a Varian Clinac 21EX accelerator. Dose outputs were measured for all field size-insert combina-tions and five available energies (6-20 MeV) at 100 cm SSD and for a smaller subset at 110 cm SSD. Using these data, 2D planar absolute dose distributions were generated and compared. Criteria for agreement were ± 2% of maximum dose or 1 mm distance-to-agreement for 99% of points. A gamma analysis of the beam dosimetry showed 94 of 96 combinations of insert size, applicator, energy, and SSD were within the 2%/1 mm criteria for > 99% of points. Outside the field, copper inserts showed less bremsstrahlung dose under the insert compared to Cerrobend (greatest difference was 2.5% at 20 MeV and 100 cm SSD). This effect was most prominent at the highest energies for combinations of large applicators with small field sizes, causing some gamma analysis failures. Inside the field, more electrons scattered from the collimator edge of copper compared to Cerrobend, resulting in an increased dose at the field edge for copper at shallow depths (greatest increase was 1% at 20 MeV and 100 cm SSD). Dose

  12. U.S.-MEXICO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; BILATERAL TECHNICAL EXCHANGES FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE BORDER REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Richard, D., Dr.

    2007-10-01

    s challenging environmental issues. The results also brought focus to the potential contributions that DOE’s science and technology could make for solving the many difficult, multi-generational problems faced by hundreds of bi-national communities along the 2,000-mile shared border of the United States and Mexico. Efforts to address these U.S.-Mexico border issues were initially sponsored by the DOE’s Albuquerque and Carlsbad offices. In subsequent years, the U.S. Congress directed appropriations to DOE’s Carlsbad office to address public health, safety and security issues prevalent within U.S.-Mexico border communities. With ASL’s assistance, DOE’s Albuquerque office developed contacts and formed partnerships with interested U.S and Mexican government, academic, and commercial organizations. Border industries, industrial effluents, and public health conditions were evaluated and documented. Relevant technologies were then matched to environmental problem sets along the border. Several technologies that were identified and subsequently supported by this effort are now operational in a number of U.S.-Mexico border communities, several communities within Mexico’s interior states, and in other parts of Latin America. As a result, some serious public health threats within these communities caused by exposure to toxic airborne pollutants have been reduced. During this time, DOE’s Carlsbad office hosted a bilateral conference to establish a cross-border consensus on what should be done on the basis of these earlier investigative efforts. Participating border region stakeholders set an agenda for technical collaborations. This agenda was supported by several Members of Congress who provided appropriations and directed DOE’s Carlsbad office to initiate technology demonstration projects. During the following two years, more than 12 private-sector and DOE-sponsored technologies were demonstrated in partnership with numerous border community stakeholders. All technologies

  13. Research on the Optimizing Design and Hydraulic Characteristics of New Agricultural Products Pipeline Car%新型农产品管道车优化设计及运移特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 李飞; 李永业; 孙西欢

    2015-01-01

    With the development of modern green agriculture and the transformation of the logistics industry chain,the new mode of transpor-tation has drawn more and more attention of agricultural products from scholars. Aimed at the defect of traditional mode of transportation,we designed a matched with pressure pipe with a new type of agricultural products pipeline car. In order to study the new pipeline car movement character of agricultural products,with Reynolds number respectively,car load for the study of the control factors in the test section of the new agricultural products pipeline car speed change,contrast each test section head analysis the pressure variety in the test section. With the orthogonal experiment data analysis,in order to faster the pipeline car speed relative to the flow,small pressure loss and the heavier load as the goal,the integrated assessment model was established by using the multiple attribute test design analysis method. Research results show that the pipeline car movement in the pipe is uniform,as a result,liquid motions are stationary. Synthetically score model car structure pa-rameters on the transmission performance of the pipeline change rule and the comprehensive performance of the highest index parameter com-bination,for the new type of agricultural products pipeline car research plan of design and optimization of structure parameters to provide the reference.%随着现代绿色农业的发展和物流产业链的变革,新型农产品运输方式受到学者越来越多的关注。针对传统运输方式的缺陷,设计了一种与有压管道配套使用的新型农产品管道车。为了研究该新型农产品管道车的运动性状,分别以雷诺数、车荷重为控制因子研究试验段内该新型农产品管道车的速度变化,对比各测试断面压力水头分析试验段内的压力变化。运用正交试验数据分析,以相对于流速较快的管道车运行速度、较小的压力损失和较重

  14. PREFACE: XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteneodo, Celia; da Luz, Marcos G. E.

    2010-09-01

    phenomena in nature, addressing: classical and quantum chaos; instability and bifurcation; cooperative behavior; self-organization; pattern formation and synchronization; far-from-equilibrium and fluctuation dynamics; nonlinearity in fluid, plasmas, granular media, optics, and wave propagation; turbulence onset; and complexity in natural and social systems. The success of the conference was possible thanks to the financial support from many agencies, especially the Brazilian agencies Capes and CNPq, and the international agencies, Binational Itaupú, ICTP-Trieste, and CAIS-Albuquerque. Equally very important was the support by the organizer's institutions PUC-Rio de Janeiro and UFPR-Curitiba. We also must thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series, for believing in the success and scientific quality of the conference, and to the journal staff, specially Anete Ashton, for the kind and prompt help during the whole production process of this publication. Finally, and most important, we acknowledge all the participants of the LAWNP'09, whose interest and enthusiasm in advancing the science of nonlinearity constitutes the true moto making the present Proceedings a very valuable scientific contribution. Celia Anteneodo (PUC-Rio, Brazil) and Marcos G E da Luz (UFPR-Curitiba, Brazil) Conference Chairs Conference photograph Some of the conference participants. CAPES logo This issue was supported by CAPES (Agency for Evaluation and Support of Graduate Studies Programs), Brazilian govern entity devoted to the formation of human resources. CA would like to thank CAPES for financial support.

  15. 光照强度、颜色和温度对狼蛛捕食功能的影响%Effect of Light Intensity, Color and Temperature on Wolf Spider Predation Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭昭君; 汪波; 钟文涛; 龚瑶; 黄婷; 颜亨梅

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore on which factors will affect the predation of wolf spider and what the most ad-vantageous combination of environmental factors will benefit the wolf spider prey, this article choose wolf spider as the experimental object and leafhopper as the prey. By using the control variable method orthogonal experiment method through laboratory conditions, we change the light intensity, color and temperature, and then calculate the wolf spider predation rate in different conditions and determine which factors have a large impact on predation rate. In the end, we filtrate the most favorable environmental factors through three factors and three levels orthogonal ex-periment analysis. The experimental results show that the wolf spider predation rate was significantly affected by the above three factors. Temperature has the most significant influence on the predation, followed by color and light in-tensity. After the analysis of the three factors and three levels of orthogonal experiments, we obtained the best com-bination:When the light intensity is 15 lx, the environment color is red and the environment temperature is 24 ℃, the predation rate is the highest. The results of this experiment can offer people with important information about how to make good use of wolf spider to destroy insect pests efficiently.%为探究狼蛛( Tarantula)捕食猎物受到哪些因素的影响及对狼蛛捕食最有利的环境因素的优化组合,以狼蛛为实验对象,假眼小绿叶蝉( Empoasca flavescens)为狼蛛捕食的猎物,在实验室条件下,采用控制变量法和L9(33)正交试验法,改变光照强度、光照颜色和环境温度,计算不同条件下狼蛛的捕食率,确定对狼蛛捕食影响大的因素,最后通过三因素三水平正交试验分析,筛选出最利于狼蛛捕食猎物的环境因素。结果发现狼蛛捕食猎物均受到以上三种因素的显著影响,而且温度对狼蛛的捕食率影响最显著,其次是光照颜色、

  16. Analysis of Spiking Defense Formation of High Level Women's Volleyball%高水平女子排球接扣球防守站位阵型探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝霖霖; 葛春林; 古松; 水祎舟; 傅鸿浩

    2015-01-01

    Objective :Combined with the spiking defensive data of high level women’s volleyball match ,from defenders'position ,spike landing ,spiking effect ,defense areas ,etc ,this paper deeply analyzes the characteristics of defensive positioning formation under different offensive tactics of opponent ,the main purpose is to provide the reference for teaching and training prac‐tice ,and enriching volleyball technical and tactical theory .Methods :By using Kinovea software to collect defenders'position coordinates ,spike landing coordinates ,defending effect and other data in 34 international women volleyball matches ;and using Photoshop software to visualise coordinate data ,and finally visually and detailedly analysis the characteristics combined with defensive formation graphics .The result shows that there are three kinds of attack tactic com‐bination at receiving time of opponent ,the blockers should choose corresponding station accord‐ing to different combination ,so as to create favorable conditions for blocking .There are eight offensive patterns at passing time of opponent ,and the eight patterns have big differences in passing time ,spike landing ,spiking rate ,spiking strength and defensive difficulty ,the defenders should choose reasonable station so as to improve the defensive success rate .%结合高水平女排比赛中接扣球防守数据,从防守队员站位、扣球落点、扣球效果、防守区域等方面,探讨在对方不同进攻战术情形下的接扣球防守站位阵型特点,为丰富排球技、战术理论,并为技、战术教学及训练实践工作提供参考。运用 Kinovea软件采集2014年34场国际女排大赛中接扣球防守队员站位坐标、扣球落点坐标、防守效果等数据,利用 Pho‐toshop软件对坐标数据进行可视化处理,进而结合图示,直观、深入的分析各类接扣球防守站位阵型特点,研究显示,在对方一传时段存在3种常用的进攻战术组

  17. Effects of Fertilization on Growth, Fruit Yield and Soil Fertility of Jatropha curcas Plantations%施肥对麻疯树生长、产量及土壤肥力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷勇; 殷瑶; 吴昊; 陈喜英; 黄小波; 董平

    2011-01-01

    A fertilization experiment was conducted in Jatropha curcas plantation in 1997. Fifteen treatments with different com binations of fertilizers and a control (without fertilization) were set up. The annual growth of tree height, diameter at breast height, fruit yield per tree, and soil nutrients were analyzed in order to study the effect of fertilization on the growth and soil fertility of J. Curcas plantation. Results show that fertilization has certain effects on tree height, ground diameter, and fruit yield of /. Curcas. Compared with the control, the tree height of /. Curcas in the treatment 12, 13, and 14 in creased by 44.44% , 71.11% and 43.33% , and the ground diameter increased by 55.29% , 65. 88% and 21.17% , re spectively. The fruit yields of /. Curcas in the treatment 13 and 14 were 2. 67 kg and 2. 85 kg higher than that in the con trol. The mixed fertilizer of potassium and phosphorus exhibited the most obvious effect on the soil pH, followed by the compound fertilizer and potassium fertilizer. The contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, effective nitrogen and effective phosphorus in all the treatments increased after fertilization compared with the control. Soil microor ganism quantity in the treatment 13 increased after fertilization, and the total amount of microbes reached 27. 86x 10 indi viduals per gram.%以1997年种植的麻疯树人工林为研究对象,对该林分所在的林地进行施肥试验,设置了15个施肥处理和1个不施肥为对照,运用施肥前后树高和胸径生长量、单株产量和土壤养分变化讨论了施肥对麻疯树生长、产量及土壤肥力的影响.结果表明:施肥对麻疯树树高、地径生长、产量有一定的影响,处理12、处理13和处理14与对照相比,树高分别增加44.44%、71.11%和43.33%,地径分别增加55.29%、65.88%和21.17%;处理13、处理14使麻疯树产果量比对照增产2.67kg和2.85kg;从土壤pH值变化分析,钾、

  18. 坯壳鼓肚对铸机矫直区内铸坯变形的影响%Influence of bulging of solidified shell on slab deformation in straightening zone of continuous casters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩培培; 任廷志

    2016-01-01

    在连铸机辊列矫直段,带液芯铸坯的坯壳同时受钢水静压力与矫直力的作用,坯壳固液交界面处的矫直应变与鼓肚应变发生叠加。如果总应变超过临界值,就会发生内裂。确定矫直区坯壳固液交界面处的应变与应变速率,对铸机辊列设计与工艺参数的设定有重要的意义。基于高温坯壳力学特性,建立了连续矫直理论中铸坯坯壳变形的数学模型。利用该模型计算坯壳鼓肚变形,并与实测数据进行对比,验证了模型的有效性。根据某厂由奥钢联设计的工业板坯连铸机的辊列参数,利用该模型计算铸坯横截面的应变与应变速率。最后分析了不同辊间距与不同拉坯速度情况下矫直区内铸坯坯壳固液交界面处的应变速率变化规律,结合不同钢种的临界应变速率得到铸机矫直段辊间距的取值范围。%In the straightening zone of continuous casters,as the solidifying shell containing molten steel bears the com-bination of ferro-static pressure and straightening foprce,the bulging and unbending deformations of the continuously cast slabs occur simultaneously. The strains caused by bulging and unbending are superimposed. If the strain exceeds the critical strain on the solid-liquid interface,internal cracks may occur. Accurate calculations of the strains and strain rates are significant to the design of strand supporting system and the decision of casting parameters. Thus,based on the elasto-viscoplastic behavior of steel at elevated temperature,a mathematical model of continuously cast slabs with liquid core during the continuous straightening process is estabilished. In order to validate the mathematical model,the calculated bulging profile was compared with the measurements on a pilot caster. Then the strains and strain rates at different points on the cross section of the continuously cast slabs in an industrial caster designed by VAI were computed. Finally

  19. Effects of Hedgerow Patterns on Soil Shear Strength and Anti-scouribility on Slope Farmland in Purple Soil Area%紫色土区植物篱模式对坡耕地土壤抗剪强度与抗冲性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲玉琳; 谢德体; 倪九派; 魏朝富; 林超文

    2014-01-01

    .7%and 50.6%, respectively;the mean ASI of 0-10cm and 10-20 cm soil layers under Eulaliopsis pattern increased by 175%and 26.9%, respectively. The average increment of soil SS and ASI under hedgerow patterns in 20° slope was 85.5% and 48.4%, respectively; that in 13° slope increased by 63.6% and 112%, respectively. Soil ASI increased by power function with increasing of scouring time. However, the added value of soil ASI with increasing of scouring time for hedgerows was higher than conventional contour farming pattern. From low to top slope, soil SS and ASI of conventional contour farming pattern decreased by nearly line or sharply in low or middle slope;those of hedgerow patterns decreased by wave, and they increased in hedgerow belt and decreased in crop belt. [Conclusion]Hedgerow patterns enhanced obviously soil SS and AS. In terms of surface soil (0-10 cm soil layer), in 20° slope farmland, the effect of amorpha pattern on improvement of soil SS and AS was higher than those of vetiver;in 13° slope farmland, the effect of alfalfa on improvement of soil SS was lower than that of Eulaliopsis binat, however the effect of alfalfa pattern on improvement of soil ASI was higher than that of Eulaliopsis binat. The effect of hedgerow patterns on improvement of soil SS in 20° slope farmland was higher than that of 13° slope. The effect of hedgerow patters on improvement of soil AS in 20° slope farmland was lower than that of 13° slope farmland. Hedgerow patterns improved excessive slope heterogeneity of soil SS and AS.%【目的】土壤抗剪强度和抗冲性是反映土壤综合对抗水力侵蚀性能和评价复合农林业模式生态效益的指标。研究植物篱模式对土壤抗剪强度、抗冲性及其坡面分布的影响,为探讨植物篱模式控制水土流失及农业非点源污染机理研究提供参考。【方法】利用植物篱控制水土流失的长期定位试验,采用原位监测法测定土壤抗剪强度,原状土冲刷法测

  20. Pharmacotherapy,cognitive-behavioral therapy alone or in combination for insomnia patients with protracted withdrawal symptoms%药物及认知-行为疗法联合治疗稽延性失眠症状的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石志斌; 王思远

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the clinical efficacy of Pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy alone or in combination on insomnia patients with protracted withdrawal symptoms. Methods:105 patients were randomized into 3 groups for analysis. In cogni-tive- behavior therapy group(n ﹦ 35),patients were treated with sleep hygiene program,cognitive therapy and relaxation therapy. In pharmacotherapy group(n ﹦ 35),patients received a 0. 8mg alprazolam each night. In combination group(n ﹦ 35),patients were trea-ted with both cognitive-behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy. All patients were treated by 4 weeks. The changes in results of subjec-tive(sleep diaries)measures were obtained at the end of the therapy and 16-week follow-up. Results:Sleep diary showed that,com-pared to the time before treatment,patients in all groups experienced extension in total sleep time,shortening in sleep latency and in-crease in sleep efficiency at the end of experiment(P < 0. 05). When the experiment ended,patients in combination group showed the greatest improvement rate on each item of outcome. At the end of 16-week follow-up,patients in cognitive-behavior therapy group were found to have the greatest improvement rate on shortening of sleep latency and increase of sleep efficiency,being equal to those in com-bination group. Conclusion:Pharmacotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy alone may achieve short-term efficacy in insomnia pa-tients with protracted withdrawal symptoms and the latter therapy may lead to a greater long-term improvement. The combined use of pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy may give efficacy faster,and the sustained efficacy may be equal to that of cognitive-behavioral therapy.%目的:比较药物疗法、认知-行为疗法及联合应用对稽延性失眠症状的治疗效果。方法:采集稽延性失眠症状患者105例,随机分为3组:心理治疗(认知-行为疗法)组(n ﹦35),接受睡眠卫生指导、认知疗法和

  1. A saúde do trabalhador na região de fronteira do RS: a experiência do diagnóstico situacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Maria Rosa Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En este artículo se presentan los resultados de la colaboración entre el NEST y el Ministerio de Salud, en el proyecto Colsat en el contexto del MERCOSUR. El trabajo tuvo como meta la realización de un diagnóstico de la situación de los sistemas de vigilancia de la salud ocupacional en las fronteras de Río Grande do Sul. Para ello, se asigna 05 centros de referencia y la red de atención a la salud de los trabajadores, por un total de 27 comarcas fronterizas. El diagnóstico realizado tiene demostrado que las prácticas de vigilancia de la salud tienen poca demanda corporativa de salud de los trabajadores. Por lo tanto, el predominio de la acción de enfoque es la salud y vigilancia epidemiológica, y, el resultado de algunos protocolos binacionales, en su mayoría informales, sigue sin una dirección orientada de impacto y de trabajo a las lesiones en la salud de los trabajadores. Se espera que los datos puedan contribuir al desarrollo de estrategias y actividades de vigilancia en salud en el trabajo que se ocupan de las características regionales; en este caso, las peculiaridades de la región fronteriza. Abstract This article presents the results of the partnership between NEST and the Brazilian Ministry of Health, in the COLSAT project, in the MERCOSUL context. The study aimed to conduct a situational diagnosis of surveillance systems in workers’ health on the border areas of Rio Grande do Sul. Therefore, it maps 05 reference centers and the workers’ health network care, reaching 27 border municipalities. The conducted diagnosis has evidenced that health surveillance practices have not added much to the workers’ health demand. Thus, the predominance of action focus is health and epidemiological surveillance, and the result of some binational protocols, mostly informal, without a direction facing the impact and work injuries in the health of workers. It is expected that data may contribute to the

  2. 骨缝牵引中联合应用骨形态发生蛋白-2和骨保护素的实验研究%The effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteoprotegerin in trans-sutural distraction osteogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚玉胜; 黄华; 常世民; 王程越; 王桂君

    2012-01-01

    maxillary bone sutura after distraction for 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Results New bone formation observed in distracted zone showed a significant increase in group A and C, Transmission electron microscope showed the osteoblast and osteocyte were active with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and a large number of chondriosomes and Golgi complex. After distraction for 6 weeks, indexes of osteoblast of group A, B, and C were 38.5+7.7, 35.7±6.5, and 41.7±11.0, indexes of osteoclast (Ioc) were 5.9±1.0, 1.2±0.3, and 2.8±0.4, bone trabecula thicknesses were (38.36±13.28), (66.20±9.16), and (51.85±9.92) μm respectively- Increased bone density and decreased Ioc were found in group B and C. Conclusion The new elastic distractor is effective in inducing new bone formation. BMP-2 and OPG com-bination acts synergistically, and leads to significant enhancement of bone formation and remodeling.

  3. Research on modeling germination response to salinity of barley seeds%大麦种子对盐的发芽响应模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红香; 田雨; 周道玮; 郑伟; 王敏玲

    2012-01-01

    salinities. Methods Two varieties of barley {Hordeum vulgare) seeds ('Cask' and 'County') were cultured in five binate iso-osmotic polyethylene glycol (PEG) and NaCl solutions (-0.45, -0.88, -1.32, -1.76 and -2.20 MPa, distilled water as the control) at four constant temperatures of 5, 12, 20 and 27 ℃. Germination time courses were recorded and germination rates (the reciprocal of germination time) were calculated. The hydrotime model and the new salinity model were used to calculate the parameters and test which was the better fit. Important findings Results indicated that not only were seeds in saline conditions able to germinate at lower osmotic potentials than seeds germinating in an isotonic PEG-6000 solution, but that they were also able to do so faster. The hydrotime parameters of the NaCl treatments had great differences with the isotonic PEG treatments, which indicated the hydrotime model cannot describe salt effects on seed germination well. Barley seed germination rates in salt solutions were negatively linear with salinity. We proposed a salinity model to quantify germination response to salt. The germination time calculated from the salinity model approached the real data, compared to that calculated from the hydrotime model. Differences of germination rates in NaCl and the isotonic PEG treatments increased and then decreased with decreasing water potential. We suggest three situations of function mode by the osmotic and ion effects of salt. First, at low salinities the osmotic effect acts as the main negative role. Second, at medium salinities the two effects act together, with the positive ion effect stronger than the negative osmotic effect. Third, at high salinities the ion effect begins to harm the germination process.

  4. THE EXPERIMENTAL ON EFFECT OF BRUCEA JAVANICA OIL EMULSION COMBINED WITH CON-VENTIONAL RADIOTHERAPY ON C6 GLIOMA CELLS%鸦胆子油乳注射液联合普通放疗对C6胶质瘤细胞作用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹绍成; 董德宏; 王艳军; 王建宁; 冯娜; 石文建

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨鸦胆子油乳注射液联合常规放疗对C6胶质瘤细胞增殖的影响。方法体外培养大鼠C6胶质瘤细胞,用MTT比色法检测抑制作用。实验分成对照组,单纯放疗组,单纯用药组,用药联合放疗组。药物与放疗联合组分先放疗后给药和先用药后放疗二种。单纯用药组及药物与放疗联合组设药物浓度设为1.25、2.5、5、10g/L四个亚组。结果MTT比色法显示常规放疗联合鸦胆子油乳注射液与单纯常规放疗相比,早期(24h)药物浓度≥2.5g/L时药物联合放疗抑制率高于单纯放疗;随作用时间延长(48h)药物联合放疗抑制率均大于普通放疗。常规放疗联合鸦胆子油乳注射液与单纯应用鸦胆子油乳注射液相比,早期(24h)药物浓度≥2.5g/L时联合放疗对C6胶质瘤细胞抑制率高于单纯用药,但随作用时间延长(48h)抑制率差异不明显。结论体外鸦胆子油乳注射液能抑制C6胶质瘤细胞增殖,并呈时间-剂量依赖性。随时间延长(48h)放疗联合鸦胆子油乳抑制作用高于常规放疗;放疗联合药物与单独用药对C6胶质瘤细胞作用无明显差异。放疗后用药好于放疗前用药。%Objective To explore the effect of brucea javanica oil emulsion combined with conventional ra-diotherapy on proliferation of C6 glioma cells .Methods Rat C6 glioma cells were cultured in vitro .MTT colorimetric assay was used to measure the inhibitory effect .All cells were divided into control group ,sin-gle radiotherapy group ,single drug group and combination group ,while combination group classified drugs before radiotherapy subgroup and drugs after radiotherapy subgroup .Drugs concentration was set at 1 .25 g/L ,2 .5g/L ,5g/L and 10g/L respectively .Results MTT demonstrated that the inhibition rates of com-bination group on C6 glioma cells were higher than them of once radiotherapy alone when drug concentra-tion was equal or

  5. Efficacy and safety of combination of Capecitabine, Docetaxel and Chinese medicine treatment on patients with breast cancer Paclitaxel resistance%乳腺癌紫杉醇耐药患者应用卡培他滨与多西他赛联合中医治疗的疗效及安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揣淑杰; 孙兴华; 周东光; 于淼

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy and safety of combination of Capecitabine, Docetaxel and Chinese medicine treatment on patients with breast cancer Paclitaxel resistance.Methods 78 patients with breast cancer Paclitaxel resistance were randomly divided into two groups.33 cases in control group mainly adopt capecit-abine and Docetaxel for the conventional western medicine treatment,45 cases in the treatment group received the combined application of Chinese medicine treatment on the basis of the control group treatment.The near future cura-tive effect,the median survival time ( MST) ,2 years of survival rate and all kinds of the occurrence of adverse reac-tions were compared in the two groups after 4 times chemotherapy.Results There was no significant difference be-tween two groups on the near future curative effect (P>0.05).The incidence of adverse reactions such as diarrhea, fatigue,hair loss,paralysis,mucositis,nausea,vomiting,thrombocytopenia,liver function damage,muscle joint pain in control group was higher than that in treatment group (P0.05).Conclusion Com-bination of Capecitabine,Docetaxel and Chinese medicine treatment on patients with breast cancer Paclitaxel resist-ance although not able to significantly improve the patient's recent curative effect and survival,but can significantly re-duce some of the adverse reactions during chemotherapy.%目的:观察乳腺癌紫杉醇耐药患者在使用卡培他滨与多西他赛治疗的基础上联合中医治疗的临床疗效及安全性。方法将78例乳腺癌紫杉醇耐药患者随机分为2组。对照组33例主要采用卡培他滨与多西他赛为主的西医常规方案进行治疗,治疗组45例在对照组治疗基础上联合中医疗法进行治疗。比较2组进行4次化疗后的近期疗效、中位生存期( MST)及2组各种不良反应的发生情况。结果2组近期疗效比较差异无统计学意义( P>0.05);对2组的不良反应腹泻、乏力、脱发、麻痹

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of the acellular pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus,inactivated poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccine (DTaP-IPV/Hib combined vaccine):a meta-analysis%吸附无细胞百白破灭活脊髓灰质炎和b型流感嗜血杆菌(结合)联合疫苗的安全性和免疫原性的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任思思; 王栋芳; 钟朝晖

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of DTaP-IPV/Hib combined vaccine in comparison with commercially available DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), tetanus conjugate and IPV monovalent vaccine. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on DTaP-IPV/Hib were retrieved by searching interna-tional and national databases. The pooled mean difference and relative risk and 95% CI were assessed by meta analysis with RevMan 5.0 software. Results Totally 6 studies were included for the final analysis. The seroprotection/seroconversion level of the Anti-PT (RR=0.26, 95%CI: 0.14, 0.48) in combination vaccine was higher. The antibody titer levels of Anti-PT (WMD=21.11, 95%CI:9.36, 32.86), Anti-polio type1 (WMD=59.15, 95%CI:2.81, 115.48), Anti-polio type 3 (WMD=169.82, 95%CI:75.33, 264.30) were higher respectively. But the antibody titer level of Anti-PRP (WMD=-3.58, 95%CI:-5.52,-1.64) in the com-bination vaccine group was lower. Redness (RR=0.82, 95%CI:0.72, 0.93) and Tenderness (RR=0.45, 95%CI:0.30, 0.65) were lower in the combination vaccine. Swelling (RR=2.03, 95%CI:1.02, 4.01) was more common in the patients given the combina-tion vaccine. Conclusions This study supports the conclusion that the DTaP-IPV/Hib combination vaccine is equivalent to the separate injections based on similar antibody responses to the vaccine antigens, effectiveness and safety after primary doses.%目的:评价吸附无细胞百白破灭活脊髓灰质炎和b型流感嗜血杆菌(结合()DTaP-IPV/Hib)五联疫苗与吸附无细胞百白破联合(DTaP)疫苗、b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗(Hib)疫苗、灭活脊髓灰质炎(IPV)疫苗的免疫原性和安全性。方法检索国内外发表的有关DTaP-IPV/Hib联合疫苗与DTaP、Hib、IPV疫苗的随机对照试验(RCTs)文献,采用meta分析方法,利用RevMan 5.0软件评价DTaP-IPV/Hib联合疫苗的安全性和免疫原性。结果最终纳入6篇英

  7. 奇异变形菌ppk1基因缺失株的构建与鉴定%Construction and identification of Proteus mirabilis strain with ppk1 gene deletion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭亮; 潘嘉韵; 罗苏; 吴晓蔓

    2015-01-01

    fused to a recombinant fragment and connected to the suicide vector pCVD442 .After the recombinant suicide plasmid was electransformed into the PMI gene ,the homologous recom‐bination events occurred ,the homologous fragments were replaced ,the p pk1 gene was deleted ,and the PCR and DNA sequencing proved the deletion of the target gene of genome .The in vitro determination of the growing curve of MOPS in culture medium revealed that as compared with the wild strain ,the survival ability of the ppk1 gene deletion strains under the poor nutrition condition was remarkably reduced .CONCLUSION The suicide plasmid ho‐mologous recombination can be applied in the construction of the ppk1 gene deletion P .mirabilis strain and plays an important role in the study of the gene function of the P .mirabilis ,and the p pk1 gene is associated with sur‐vival ability of the P .mirabilis strain under the poor nutrition condition .

  8. U.S.-MEXICO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; BILATERAL TECHNICAL EXCHANGES FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE BORDER REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Richard, D., Dr.

    2007-10-01

    s challenging environmental issues. The results also brought focus to the potential contributions that DOE’s science and technology could make for solving the many difficult, multi-generational problems faced by hundreds of bi-national communities along the 2,000-mile shared border of the United States and Mexico. Efforts to address these U.S.-Mexico border issues were initially sponsored by the DOE’s Albuquerque and Carlsbad offices. In subsequent years, the U.S. Congress directed appropriations to DOE’s Carlsbad office to address public health, safety and security issues prevalent within U.S.-Mexico border communities. With ASL’s assistance, DOE’s Albuquerque office developed contacts and formed partnerships with interested U.S and Mexican government, academic, and commercial organizations. Border industries, industrial effluents, and public health conditions were evaluated and documented. Relevant technologies were then matched to environmental problem sets along the border. Several technologies that were identified and subsequently supported by this effort are now operational in a number of U.S.-Mexico border communities, several communities within Mexico’s interior states, and in other parts of Latin America. As a result, some serious public health threats within these communities caused by exposure to toxic airborne pollutants have been reduced. During this time, DOE’s Carlsbad office hosted a bilateral conference to establish a cross-border consensus on what should be done on the basis of these earlier investigative efforts. Participating border region stakeholders set an agenda for technical collaborations. This agenda was supported by several Members of Congress who provided appropriations and directed DOE’s Carlsbad office to initiate technology demonstration projects. During the following two years, more than 12 private-sector and DOE-sponsored technologies were demonstrated in partnership with numerous border community stakeholders. All technologies

  9. The fruit fly programme in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: country. In fact, no species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha, Dacus and Toxotrypana exist in the country. This programme uses the Fruit fly National Detection System, which includes detection of the pest by trapping and fruit sampling in different areas located between the I and XI Regions of the country. This system is approved by the Chilean trade partners on the basis of the fruit fly-free recognition. For the Chilean fresh fruit exports, this is an important advantage, because there is no need to apply quarantine treatments or any other restriction measure. Chile has also a huge fruit industry, whose export revenues last season reached USD 1,900 million. This fact has permitted to undertake continuously a big effort to maintain that phytosanitary condition. Since Chile is the only fruit-fly free Latin American country, it has to face a continuous biological pressure of fruit flies, mainly C. capitata, to invade its territory. But the country has also some important advantages to prevent flies migrating due to its natural isolation. These natural barriers are the Los Andes ranges in the east, thousands of kilometers of desert in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west and finally an extremely cold, sub polar climate in the south. This isolation has led to the NPPO officials to believe that the passive spread, through smuggling and hidden fruit in passenger's baggage, to be the most likely source of fruit fly entries. Because of that, Chile has a very strict quarantine system with border control stations at every point of entry. The only exception to the mentioned isolation is Arica Province on the border with Peru. There, SAG applies an area-wide preventative approach through the rearing and release of sterile insects, as well as bait spraying in the border area, which is mainly desert, but has some 'green spots' that allow the fly to alight for resting and feeding. Additionally, through bi-national agreements, common activities are

  10. 低分子肝素治疗癌症相关性急性肺血栓栓塞症的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Low Molecular Heparin in the Treatment of Cancer-associated Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of low molecular heparin in the treatment of cancer-associ-ated acute pulmonary thromboembolism(APTE). METHODS:42 patients with cancer-associated APTE were randomly divided into combination group and simple drug group. All patients were given anti-cancer conventional treatment. Based on it,simple drug group was treated with Low molecular heparin injection 0.1 ml/kg by subcutaneous injection after embolism,q12 h;based on the treatment in simple drug group,combination group was additionally treated with Warfarin sodium tablet initial dose was 3 mg after 1-3 d of treatment,orally,qd. The dosage of warfarin was adjusted based on the international normalized ratio(INR),when INR was 2-3 for continuous 2 days,low molecular heparin was stopped,only warfarin was orally gave. The treatment course was 3 months. The clinic data was observed,including clinical efficacy,and pulmonary arterial blood gas indexes [blood oxygen pressure (pO2)and blood carbon dioxide partial pressure(pCO2)] before and after treatment. The fatality rate,re-embolism rate and bleed-ing rate in 6 months were followed-up,and the incidence of adverse reactions was recorded. RESULTS:The total effective rate in simple drug group was significantly higher than combination group,re-embolism and fatality rate were significantly lower than com-bination group,the differences were statistically significant(P0.05). CONCLU-SIONS:Based on conventional treatment,the low molecular heparin has better efficacy than sequential therapy in the treatment of APTE,with similar safety.%目的:观察低分子肝素治疗癌症相关性急性肺血栓栓塞症(APTE)的临床疗效和安全性。方法:42例癌症相关性APTE患者随机均分为联合组和单药组。两组患者均予以常规抗癌治疗。在此基础上,单药组患者于确诊为APTE后给予低分子肝素钠注射液0.1 ml/kg,皮下注射,q12 h;联合组患者在单药组治