WorldWideScience

Sample records for binational

  1. Binational Learning Communities: A Work in Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The author, having directed, taught and evaluated five study-abroad programmes in three different countries, created her own programme based on the pros and cons she had observed. In December 2013, she completed a pilot run of a binational learning community focused on food, culture and social justice in Ecuador and Oregon, and here she shares…

  2. 75 FR 20567 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration,...

  3. 77 FR 65864 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration,...

  4. 77 FR 49781 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Article 1904 Binational Panel Review, this panel review is terminated. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of Termination of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States...

  5. 76 FR 56156 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration,...

  6. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration,...

  7. 76 FR 4633 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration,...

  8. Relationship satisfaction of European binational couples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mol, C.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on relationship satisfaction of European binational unions. Although such couples can be considered icons of European integration, little is known about these partnerships as well as the factors affecting relationship satisfaction. We base our analysis on the Dutch data of th

  9. Binational Health Care for Migrants: The Health Data Exchange Pilot Project and the Binational Health Data Transfer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Mondragon, Hector Eduardo; And Others

    As the economic integration of Mexico and the United States intensifies, so does the cross-migration of labor forces. Subsequently, when migrant workers or their families become ill, health care is often disjointed and suboptimal. Binational health data exchange among providers of health care becomes essential. GUAPA (incorporating the first three…

  10. Childhood Obesity Among Children of Mexican Descent: A Binational Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, Lisa G.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically in the United States over the past 30 years, especially among children of Mexican origin. Children of Mexican origin are an especially high-risk group because of their increased risk for morbidities associated with obesity in adulthood, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and uncontrolled hypertension compared to other racial and ethnic groups. This study takes a binational approach to understanding the health disparity in ...

  11. 76 FR 48145 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of Termination of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International... Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the...

  12. 78 FR 51708 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... binational panel issued its decision in the review of the final results of the 2008-2009...

  13. 78 FR 45181 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ...) of the Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Review, the panel review is terminated as... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of Termination of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States...

  14. 76 FR 77777 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... appointed to this panel review. Pursuant to Rule 71(2) of the Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of Termination of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States...

  15. 75 FR 74686 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... panel issued its decision in the review of the United States International Trade Commission's...

  16. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration,...

  17. 76 FR 23286 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of Completion of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of...

  18. 76 FR 56404 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... issued its decision in the review of the United States International Trade Commission's (the...

  19. 76 FR 14917 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... issued its decision in the review of the determination on remand made by the International...

  20. Gore-Mbeki Binational Commission integrated housing program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This report documents the work done under Grant DE-FG36-97GO10209, Innovative Renewable Energy Technology Transfer Program. PEER Consultants, PC, and its subcontractor, PEER Africa (Pty.) Ltd., received an $88,000.00 grant to plan and build two energy efficient homes in the black township of Gugulethu in Cape Town, South Africa. These demonstration homes were given to the people of South Africa as a gesture of goodwill by the US government as part of the Gore-Mbeki Binational Commission (BNC) agreements and cooperation. The BNC is the term used to describe the agreement to work together by the US and the South African governments for economic development of South Africa in the areas of energy, commerce, agriculture, housing, and transportation. The BNC was formed in 1995. This project under the auspices of the BNC started in September 1996. The DOE-funded portion was performed between January 11, 1997 and February 28, 1997.

  1. Binational collaboration to study Gulf of Mexico's harmful algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Inia; Hu, Chuanmin; Steidinger, Karen; Muller-Karger, Frank; Cannizzaro, Jennifer; Wolny, Jennifer; Cerdeira-Estrada, Sergio; Santamaria-del-Angel, Eduardo; Tafoya-del-Angel, Fausto; Alvarez-Torres, Porfirio; Herrera Silveira, Jorge; Allen, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis cause massive fish kills and other public health and economic problems in coastal waters throughout the Gulf of Mexico [Steidinger, 2009]. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a gulf-wide problem that require a synoptic observing system for better serving decision-making needs. The major nutrient sources that initiate and maintain these HABs and the possible connectivity of blooms in different locations are important questions being addressed through new collaborations between Mexican and U.S. researchers and government institutions. These efforts were originally organized under the U.S./Mexico binational partnership for the HABs Observing System (HABSOS), led by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Gulf of Mexico Program (EPAGMP) and several agencies in Veracruz, Mexico, since 2006. In 2010 these efforts were expanded to include other Mexican states and institutions with the integrated assessment and management of the Gulf of Mexico Large Marine Ecosystem (GoMLME) program sponsored by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

  2. European Liaisons? A study on European bi-national marriages in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelet, S.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    European bi-national marriages as a special case of interethnic unions have received relatively little attention in research. Existing studies on interethnic marriage mainly orient on union formation among non-western migrants and in particular intermarriages between the majority group and non-weste

  3. 75 FR 54594 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of Completion of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States...

  4. 76 FR 62364 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were discharged from... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews; Notice of Completion of Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States...

  5. 78 FR 10600 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    .... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration,...

  6. 78 FR 11627 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    .... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration,...

  7. 78 FR 5778 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    .... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration,...

  8. 78 FR 17639 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    .... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration,...

  9. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    .... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration,...

  10. 77 FR 29965 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... issued its decision in the review of the final results of the 2005/2006 antidumping administrative...

  11. A Comprehensive Approach to Bi-National Regional Energy Planning in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Morrison

    2007-12-31

    The Pacific NorthWest Economic Region, a statutory organization chartered by the Northwest states of Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon, and the western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and the Yukon through its Energy Working Group launched a bi-national energy planning initiative designed to create a Pacific Northwest energy planning council of regional public/private stakeholders from both Canada and the US. There is an urgent need to deal with the comprehensive energy picture now before our hoped for economic recovery results in energy price spikes which are likely to happen because the current supply will not meet predicted demand. Also recent events of August 14th have shown that our bi-national energy grid system is intricately interdependent, and additional planning for future capacity is desperately needed.

  12. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  13. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Robin B.; Burgess, Jefferey L; Maria Mercedes Meza-Montenegro; Luis Enrique Gutiérrez-Millán; Mary Kay O’Rourke; Jason Roberge

    2012-01-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and...

  14. From Language Maintenance to Bilingual Parenting: Negotiating Behavior and Language Choice at the Dinner Table in Binational-Bilingual Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Pitton, Liliane

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the study of language maintenance as an everyday activity in binational-bilingual families. By embedding the question of language maintenance into a language socialization framework and adopting a conversation-analytic approach to language alternation, three excerpts of mealtime interactions in Russian-French speaking…

  15. 76 FR 45311 - International Joint Commission Public Hearings on Binational Management of Lake of the Woods and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... International Joint Commission Public Hearings on Binational Management of Lake of the Woods and Rainy River Watershed The International Joint Commission (IJC) will hold public hearings on the final report of its.... Section, International Joint Commission, 2000 L Street, NW., Suite 615, Washington, DC 20440, Fax:...

  16. Uneven exchange and urban binational complexes in Dominican Republic’s border with Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Dilla Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dominican/Haitian border is signed by profound asymmetries and the predominance of a relation of uneven exchange in benefit of Dominican Republic. Transborder relations summary this contradictory relation, but at the same time constitute the only form of survival for more than half million of Haitians that inhabit the region. This article discusses the history of this relation and its present tendencies, including the formation of economic regions and urban binational systems. The weakness of regulatory public policies and the aggressive action of the market generate a very contradictory setting that could lead to conflicts by the use of shared natural resources, the exploitation of the Haitian labour force, and the agitation of nationalist positions.

  17. Lake trout in the Great Lakes: Basin-wide stock collapse and binational restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Taylor, William W.; Ferreri, C. Paola

    1999-01-01

    The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was important to the human settlement of each of the Great Lakes, and underwent catastrophic collapses in each lake in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The timing of lake trout stock collapses were different in each lake, as were the causes of the collapses, and have been the subject of much scientific inquiry and debate. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize and review pertinent information relating historical changes in Great Lakes lake trout stocks, binational efforts to restore those stocks, and progress toward stock restoration. This presentation attempts to generalize patterns across the Great Lakes, rather than to focus within each lake. Lake specific analyses have been used to understand lake specific causes and effects, but there is continuing debate about some of these causes and effects. A basinwide review may suggest mechanisms for observed changes that are not evident by lake specific analysis.

  18. Binational management of hazardous waste: The maquiladora industry at the US-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Diane M.; Sanchez, Roberto; Glaze, William H.; Mazari, Marisa

    1990-07-01

    Foreign-owned industry in the form of assembly plants, termed maquiladora, has become very important in Mexico to the extent that it represents the second largest source of foreign exchange and is a valuable source for employment and regional development. The economic prosperity gained from the rapid growth of the maquiladora industry has been accompanied by increased environmental and human health risks associated with generation of hazardous waste. Diversification of industry has resulted in the predomination of those sectors that likely use hazardous substances. The Mexicali-Calexico border region was selected to demonstrate the potential for environmental and health risks associated with the generation of hazardous waste. Estimates for the generation of hazardous waste were obtained from 34 maquiladora plants in Mexicali, represented by the electronic and electrical equipment and parts, mechanical and transportation equipment, and toys and sporting equipment sectors. Repeated detection of volatile organic compounds in the New River at the US-Mexico border suggests that hazardous waste from the printed circuit board industry in Mexicali is not being disposed of in a proper manner. Potential adverse health effects, such as carcinogenic and mutagenic responses associated with the detected volatiles, are discussed. US and Mexico national legislation and the Binational Environmental Agreement were examined for their adequacy to ensure proper management of hazardous waste generated by the maquiladora industry. Environmental policy options are presented that focus on: (1) increased environmental accountability of US parent companies for their maquiladora assembly plants in Mexico; and (2) more integration between US Customs and border states with the US Environmental Protection Agency to improve the binational management of hazardous waste generated by the maquiladora industry.

  19. Binational climate change vulnerability assessment of migratory birds in the Great Lakes Basins: Tools and impediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Robert S; Hornseth, Megan L

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a global concern, requiring international strategies to reduce emissions, however, climate change vulnerability assessments are often local in scope with assessment areas restricted to jurisdictional boundaries. In our study we explored tools and impediments to understanding and responding to the effects of climate change on vulnerability of migratory birds from a binational perspective. We apply and assess the utility of a Climate Change Vulnerability Index on 3 focal species using distribution or niche modeling frameworks. We use the distributional forecasts to explore possible changes to jurisdictional conservation responsibilities resulting from shifting distributions for: eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna), wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and hooded warbler (Setophaga citrina). We found the Climate Change Vulnerability Index to be a well-organized approach to integrating numerous lines of evidence concerning effects of climate change, and provided transparency to the final assessment of vulnerability. Under this framework, we identified that eastern meadowlark and wood thrush are highly vulnerable to climate change, but hooded warbler is less vulnerable. Our study revealed impediments to assessing and modeling vulnerability to climate change from a binational perspective, including gaps in data or modeling for climate exposure parameters. We recommend increased cross-border collaboration to enhance the availability and resources needed to improve vulnerability assessments and development of conservation strategies. We did not find evidence to suggest major shifts in jurisdictional responsibility for the 3 focal species, but results do indicate increasing responsibility for these birds in the Canadian Provinces. These Provinces should consider conservation planning to help ensure a future supply of necessary habitat for these species.

  20. Binational climate change vulnerability assessment of migratory birds in the Great Lakes Basins: Tools and impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a global concern, requiring international strategies to reduce emissions, however, climate change vulnerability assessments are often local in scope with assessment areas restricted to jurisdictional boundaries. In our study we explored tools and impediments to understanding and responding to the effects of climate change on vulnerability of migratory birds from a binational perspective. We apply and assess the utility of a Climate Change Vulnerability Index on 3 focal species using distribution or niche modeling frameworks. We use the distributional forecasts to explore possible changes to jurisdictional conservation responsibilities resulting from shifting distributions for: eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna), wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and hooded warbler (Setophaga citrina). We found the Climate Change Vulnerability Index to be a well-organized approach to integrating numerous lines of evidence concerning effects of climate change, and provided transparency to the final assessment of vulnerability. Under this framework, we identified that eastern meadowlark and wood thrush are highly vulnerable to climate change, but hooded warbler is less vulnerable. Our study revealed impediments to assessing and modeling vulnerability to climate change from a binational perspective, including gaps in data or modeling for climate exposure parameters. We recommend increased cross-border collaboration to enhance the availability and resources needed to improve vulnerability assessments and development of conservation strategies. We did not find evidence to suggest major shifts in jurisdictional responsibility for the 3 focal species, but results do indicate increasing responsibility for these birds in the Canadian Provinces. These Provinces should consider conservation planning to help ensure a future supply of necessary habitat for these species. PMID:28225817

  1. From language maintenance to bilingual parenting: Negotiating behavior and language choice at the dinner table in binational-bilingual families

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer Pitton, Liliane

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the study of language maintenance as an everyday activity in binational-bilingual families. By embedding the question of language maintenance into a language socialization framework and adopting a conversation-analytic approach to language alternation, three excerpts of mealtime interactions in Russian–French speaking families are analyzed. Their analysis shows that in bilingual families situations focusing on the interactional definition and negotiation of childre...

  2. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B. Harris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001. Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  3. Binational arsenic exposure survey: methodology and estimated arsenic intake from drinking water and urinary arsenic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Jason; O'Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L; Harris, Robin B

    2012-04-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  4. 77 FR 18296 - Notice of U.S. Hosting of 2012-2013 United States-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of U.S. Hosting of 2012-2013 United States-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings Meetings; Executive Order 11423, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs; Department of State....

  5. Report on the Binational Conference: In Search of a Border Pedagogy (4th, El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, January 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    This report contains a synopsis of the binational conference and features brief summaries of all the papers presented at the conference. Over 350 educators, community leaders, and researchers were brought together to discuss the educational extremes found along the border between the United States and Mexico and to investigate instructional…

  6. Cervical Cancer Screening in the US–Mexico Border Region: A Binational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Emily L.; Smith, Ruben; Rojas, Rosalba; Mirchandani, Gita G.; McDonald, Jill A.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer mortality is high along the US–Mexico border. We describe the prevalence of a recent Papanicolaou screening test (Pap) among US and Mexican border women. We analyzed 2006 cross-sectional data from Mexico’s National Survey of Health and Nutrition and the US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Women aged 20–77 years in 44 US border counties (n = 1,724) and 80 Mexican border municipios (n = 1,454) were studied. We computed weighted proportions for a Pap within the past year by age, education, employment, marital status, health insurance, health status, risk behaviors, and ethnicity and adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) for the US, Mexico, and the region overall. Sixty-five percent (95 %CI 60.3–68.6) of US women and 32 % (95 %CI 28.7–35.2) of Mexican women had a recent Pap. US residence (APR = 2.01, 95 %CI 1.74–2.33), marriage (APR = 1.31, 95 %CI 1.17–1.47) and insurance (APR = 1.38, 95 %CI 1.22–1.56) were positively associated with a Pap test. Among US women, insurance and marriage were associated (APR = 1.21, 95 %CI 1.05–1.38 and 1.33, 95 %CI 1.10–1.61, respectively), and women aged 20–34 years were about 25 % more likely to have received a test than older women. Insurance and marriage were also positively associated with Pap testing among Mexican women (APR = 1.39, 95 %CI 1.17–1.64 and 1.50; 95 %CI 1.23–1.82, respectively), as were lower levels of education (≤8th grade or 9th–12th grade versus some college) (APR = 1.74; 95 %CI 1.21–2.52 and 1.60; 95 %CI 1.03–2.49, respectively). Marriage and insurance were associated with a recent Pap test on both sides of the border. Binational insurance coverage increases and/or cost reductions might bolster testing among unmarried and uninsured women, leading to earlier cervical cancer diagnosis and potentially lower mortality. PMID:22965734

  7. [Population in the northern border area. Urban dynamism and binational interrelation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham Chande, R

    1988-01-01

    The 3300 km border between Mexico and the US constitutes the geopolitical separation between an underdeveloped country on the 1 hand and 1 of the most technologically and economically powerful countries in the world on the other. The border region is characterized by the contrasts on either side of the border and by the strong interrelation between both sides. Vast streams of persons, merchandise, money, services, communications, and cultural influences flow from 1 side to the other. The border region as a seat of population has a recent history. The border was defined in near current form only in the mid-19th century, when the expansionist tendencies of the US encountered a vast area of very sparse population. In 1900, the principal localities of the border zone had only about 39,000 inhabitants, of whom fewer than 5000 lived west of Ciudad Juarez. Between 1910-20, the population of the border region increased from 53,000 to 96,000 as a result of migrants fleeing the ravages of the revolution. The population of the border region was estimated at 3.826 million in 1988, resulting from rates of growth above Mexico's national average. Settlement in the area has depended on events and conditions in Mexico and on such US occurrences as Prohibition, the Great Depression, the 2nd World War, the Bracero program, and the Program of Border Industrialization. 82% of the border population lives in urban zones, partly because of lack of water. 80% of the urban population is concentrated in 6 cities, Juarez, Tijuana, Mexicali, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, and Matamoros. Much of the population of the 6 cities is composed of persons born elsewhere. The border area also has a large floating population of undocumented migrants in transit to or from the US. The high rates of urbanization and of binational interaction are reflected in demographic dynamics. In 1979, 71% of women in union in the border area vs 54% in the rest of Mexico had used contraception, and the infant mortality rate was

  8. Unravelling long-term vegetation change patterns in a binational watershed using multitemporal land cover data and historical photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, M.L.; Norman, L.M.; Webb, R.H.; Boyer, D.E.; Turner, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of research conducted in the Sonoran Desert of North America has documented, both anecdotally and empirically, major vegetation changes over the past century due to human land use activities. However, many studies lack coincidental landscape-scale data characterizing the spatial and temporal manifestation of these changes. Vegetation changes in a binational (USA and Mexico) watershed were documented using a series of four land cover maps (1979-2009) derived from multispectral satellite imagery. Cover changes are compared to georeferenced, repeat oblique photographs dating from the late 19th century to present. Results indicate the expansion of grassland over the past 20 years following nearly a century of decline. Historical repeat photography documents early-mid 20th century mesquite invasions, but recent land cover data and rephotography demonstrate declines in xeroriparian/riparian mesquite communities in recent decades. These vegetation changes are variable over the landscape and influenced by topography and land management. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  9. The US/Mexico Border: A Binational Approach to Framing Challenges and Constructing Solutions for Improving Farmworkers’ Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Aranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the US-Mexico border region face health hazards and occupational risks and are becoming commonly known in the public health literature. According to several studies, farmworkers have high levels of chronic diseases such as diabetes and respiratory problems, are at risk for infectious diseases, and experience among the highest incidences of work-related injuries of any profession. The findings from two studies are considered and presented with the objective of contributing to an overall understanding of migrant farmworkers as a workforce moving across national boundaries and affected by the work environments and health stressors both shared and unique to each context. We propose a binational approach to comprehensively address the health problems and socioeconomic challenges faced by migrant and seasonal farmworkers. In this paper we present the results of two distinct but complementary studies of farmworker health on the Arizona-Sonora border.

  10. Innovative Power of Health Care Organisations Affects IT Adoption: A bi-National Health IT Benchmark Comparing Austria and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüsers, Jens; Hübner, Ursula; Esdar, Moritz; Ammenwerth, Elske; Hackl, Werner O; Naumann, Laura; Liebe, Jan David

    2017-02-01

    Multinational health IT benchmarks foster cross-country learning and have been employed at various levels, e.g. OECD and Nordic countries. A bi-national benchmark study conducted in 2007 revealed a significantly higher adoption of health IT in Austria compared to Germany, two countries with comparable healthcare systems. We now investigated whether these differences still persisted. We further studied whether these differences were associated with hospital intrinsic factors, i.e. the innovative power of the organisation and hospital demographics. We thus performed a survey to measure the "perceived IT availability" and the "innovative power of the hospital" of 464 German and 70 Austrian hospitals. The survey was based on a questionnaire with 52 items and was given to the directors of nursing in 2013/2014. Our findings confirmed a significantly greater IT availability in Austria than in Germany. This was visible in the aggregated IT adoption composite score "IT function" as well as in the IT adoption for the individual functions "nursing documentation" (OR = 5.98), "intensive care unit (ICU) documentation" (OR = 2.49), "medication administration documentation" (OR = 2.48), "electronic archive" (OR = 2.27) and "medication" (OR = 2.16). "Innovative power" was the strongest factor to explain the variance of the composite score "IT function". It was effective in hospitals of both countries but significantly more effective in Austria than in Germany. "Hospital size" and "hospital system affiliation" were also significantly associated with the composite score "IT function", but they did not differ between the countries. These findings can be partly associated with the national characteristics. Indicators point to a more favourable financial situation in Austrian hospitals; we thus argue that Austrian hospitals may possess a larger degree of financial freedom to be innovative and to act accordingly. This study is the first to empirically demonstrate the

  11. Framing scenarios of binational water policy with a tool to visualize, quantify and valuate changes in ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Niraula, Rewati; Meixner, Thomas; Frisvold, George; Labiosa, William

    2013-01-01

    In the Santa Cruz Watershed, located on the Arizona-Sonora portion of the U.S.-Mexico border, an international wastewater treatment plant treats wastewater from cities on both sides of the border, before discharging it into the river in Arizona. These artificial flows often subsidize important perennial surface water ecosystems in the region. An explicit understanding of the benefits of maintaining instream flow for present and future generations requires the ability to assess and understand the important trade-offs implicit in water-resource management decisions. In this paper, we outline an approach for modeling and visualizing impacts of management decisions in terms of rare terrestrial and aquatic wildlife, vegetation, surface water, groundwater recharge, real-estate values and socio-environmental vulnerable communities. We identify and quantify ecosystem services and model the potential reduction in effluent discharge to the U.S. that is under scrutiny by binational water policy makers and of concern to stakeholders. Results of service provisioning are presented, and implications for policy makers and resource managers are discussed. This paper presents a robust ecosystem services assessment of multiple scenarios of watershed management as a means to discern eco-hydrological responses and consider their potential values for future generations living in the borderlands.

  12. One Shared Region and Two Different Change Patterns: Land Use Change in the Binational Californian Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Eaton-Gonzalez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Californian Floristic Province, ranging from Northern California, USA, to the northwestern portion of the state of Baja California, Mexico, is a region of great biological richness that has a high risk of loss of species due to the effect of human activities. The main stressor that threatens its biodiversity is the change in land use and vegetation cover, which severely impacts the environmental and socio-economic systems’ functioning, affecting the provision of environmental services including the maintenance of biodiversity. The Tijuana River Watershed (TRW is located within this floristic province. It has experienced rapid population growth during the last 50 years, demanding development of infrastructure in areas where native vegetation existed. As a binational watershed, it is an ideal area to study the processes involved in fragmentation and connectivity of natural environments, since both countries, while sharing the same environment, contrast greatly in their economic and social systems, which impose different pressures to these shared natural resources. Our research addresses change in vegetation cover and land use in the TRW, analyzing the changes and differences between Mexico and the United States. This analysis will be a basis to propose future management strategies for the conservation of ecological processes and biodiversity, according to the policies and actions for land management and conservation in both countries.

  13. Framing Scenarios of Binational Water Policy with a Tool to Visualize, Quantify and Valuate Changes in Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Labiosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Santa Cruz Watershed, located on the Arizona-Sonora portion of the U.S.-Mexico border, an international wastewater treatment plant treats wastewater from cities on both sides of the border, before discharging it into the river in Arizona. These artificial flows often subsidize important perennial surface water ecosystems in the region. An explicit understanding of the benefits of maintaining instream flow for present and future generations requires the ability to assess and understand the important trade-offs implicit in water-resource management decisions. In this paper, we outline an approach for modeling and visualizing impacts of management decisions in terms of rare terrestrial and aquatic wildlife, vegetation, surface water, groundwater recharge, real-estate values and socio-environmental vulnerable communities. We identify and quantify ecosystem services and model the potential reduction in effluent discharge to the U.S. that is under scrutiny by binational water policy makers and of concern to stakeholders. Results of service provisioning are presented, and implications for policy makers and resource managers are discussed. This paper presents a robust ecosystem services assessment of multiple scenarios of watershed management as a means to discern eco-hydrological responses and consider their potential values for future generations living in the borderlands.

  14. Development of a high-resolution binational vegetation map of the Santa Cruz River riparian corridor and surrounding watershed, southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Norman, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the development of a binational vegetation map developed for the Santa Cruz Watershed, which straddles the southern border of Arizona and the northern border of Sonora, Mexico. The map was created as an environmental input to the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM) that is being created by the U.S. Geological Survey for the watershed. The SCWEPM is a map-based multicriteria evaluation tool that allows stakeholders to explore tradeoffs between valued ecosystem services at multiple scales within a participatory decision-making process. Maps related to vegetation type and are needed for use in modeling wildlife habitat and other ecosystem services. Although detailed vegetation maps existed for the U.S. side of the border, there was a lack of consistent data for the Santa Cruz Watershed in Mexico. We produced a binational vegetation classification of the Santa Cruz River riparian habitat and watershed vegetation based on NatureServe Terrestrial Ecological Systems (TES) units using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) modeling. Environmental layers used as predictor data were derived from a seasonal set of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (spring, summer, and fall) and from a 30-meter digital-elevation-model (DEM) grid. Because both sources of environmental data are seamless across the international border, they are particularly suited to this binational modeling effort. Training data were compiled from existing field data for the riparian corridor and data collected by the NM-GAP (New Mexico Gap Analysis Project) team for the original Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) modeling effort. Additional training data were collected from core areas of the SWReGAP classification itself, allowing the extrapolation of the SWReGAP mapping into the Mexican portion of the watershed without collecting additional training data.

  15. A Binational Overview of Reproductive Health Outcomes Among US Hispanic and Mexican Women in the Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. McDonald, PhD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The US–Mexico border region has 15 million residents and 300,000 births annually. Reproductive health concerns have been identified on both sides of the border, but comparable information about reproductive health is not available. The objective of this study was to compare reproductive health indicators among populations in this region. Methods We used 2009 US Hispanic and Mexican birth certificate data to compare births inside the border region, elsewhere within the border states, and in the United States and Mexico overall. We examined trends in total fertility and birth rates using birth data from 2000 through 2009 and intercensal population estimates. Results Among women in the border region, US women had more lifetime births than Mexican women in 2009 (2.69 births vs 2.15 births and throughout the decade. Birth rates in the group aged 15 to 19 years were high in both the US (73.8/1,000 and Mexican (86.7/1,000 border regions. Late or no prenatal care was nearly twice as prevalent in the border regions as in the nonborder regions of border states. Low birth weight and preterm and early-term birth were more prevalent in the US border than in the Mexican border region; US border rates were higher and Mexican rates were lower than their corresponding nonborder and national rates. We found some variations within border states. Conclusion These findings constitute the first population-based information on the reproductive health of the entire Hispanic US–Mexico border population. Evidence of disparities warrants exploration at state and local levels. Teen pregnancy and inadequate prenatal care are shared problems in US–Mexico border communities and suggest an area for binational cooperation.

  16. Nutrient delivery to Lake Winnipeg from the Red-Assiniboine River Basin – A binational application of the SPARROW model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoy, Glenn A; Jenkinson, R. Wayne; Robertson, Dale; Saad, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive phosphorus (TP) and nitrogen (TN) inputs from the Red–Assiniboine River Basin (RARB) have been linked to eutrophication of Lake Winnipeg; therefore, it is important for the management of water resources to understand where and from what sources these nutrients originate. The RARB straddles the Canada–United States border and includes portions of two provinces and three states. This study represents the first binationally focused application of SPAtially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models to estimate loads and sources of TP and TN by jurisdiction and basin at multiple spatial scales. Major hurdles overcome to develop these models included: (1) harmonization of geospatial data sets, particularly construction of a contiguous stream network; and (2) use of novel calibration steps to accommodate limitations in spatial variability across the model extent and in the number of calibration sites. Using nutrient inputs for a 2002 base year, a RARB TP SPARROW model was calibrated that included inputs from agriculture, forests and wetlands, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and stream channels, and a TN model was calibrated that included inputs from agriculture, WWTPs and atmospheric deposition. At the RARB outlet, downstream from Winnipeg, Manitoba, the majority of the delivered TP and TN came from the Red River Basin (90%), followed by the Upper Assiniboine River and Souris River basins. Agriculture was the single most important TP and TN source for each major basin, province and state. In general, stream channels (historically deposited nutrients and from bank erosion) were the second most important source of TP. Performance metrics for the RARB SPARROW model are similarly robust compared to other, larger US SPARROW models making it a potentially useful tool to address questions of where nutrients originate and their relative contributions to loads delivered to Lake Winnipeg.

  17. Proceedings of the Binational Conference on Libraries in California and Baja California (1st, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, January 13-14, 1984) = Memorias de la Primera Conferencia Binacional de Bibliotecas de las Californias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Marta Stiefel, Ed.; And Others

    This document includes the text of presentations given at the First Binational Conference on Libraries in California and Baja California, as well as minutes from four roundtables held at the conference. Following a prologue and a brief background on the conference, the following presentations are included: (1) "State Support for Public…

  18. Water First Aid Is Beneficial In Humans Post-Burn: Evidence from a Bi-National Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M Wood

    Full Text Available Reported first aid application, frequency and practices around the world vary greatly. Based primarily on animal and observational studies, first aid after a burn injury is considered to be integral in reducing scar and infection, and the need for surgery. The current recommendation for optimum first aid after burn is water cooling for 20 minutes within three hours. However, compliance with this guideline is reported as poor to moderate at best and evidence exists to suggest that overcooling can be detrimental. This prospective cohort study of a bi-national burn patient registry examined data collected between 2009 and 2012. The aim of the study was to quantify the magnitude of effects of water cooling first aid after burn on indicators of burn severity in a large human cohort.The data for the analysis was provided by the Burn Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ. The application of first aid cooling prior to admission to a dedicated burn service, was analysed for its influence on four outcomes related to injury severity. The patient related outcomes were whether graft surgery occurred, and death while the health system (cost outcomes included total hospital length of stay and admission to ICU. Robust regression analysis using bootstrapped estimation adjusted using a propensity score was used to control for confounding and to estimate the strength of association with first aid. Dose-response relationships were examined to determine associations with duration of first aid. The influence of covariates on the impact of first aid was assessed.Cooling was provided before Burn Centre admission for 68% of patients, with at least twenty minutes duration for 46%. The results indicated a reduction in burn injury severity associated with first aid. Patients probability for graft surgery fell by 0.070 from 0.537 (13% reduction (p = 0.014. The probability for ICU admission fell by 0.084 from 0.175 (48% reduction (p<0.001 and hospital length of stay

  19. Establishing an Ongoing Binational U.S.-Mexico Border Climate Diagnostic Summary: Developing a Prototype and Navigating the Institutional Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G.; Varady, R.; Morehouse, B.; Wilder, M.; Crawford, B.

    2007-05-01

    climate information or risk that the product of their efforts will end up as another seldom used box of digital information merchandise heaped on the loading dock of the Internet. This presentation describes progress to date in developing a collaborative, binational semi-operational product, obtaining funding, and taking the first steps to establish regional climate services for the U.S.-Mexico border region.

  20. Binational school-based monitoring of traffic-related air pollutants in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (México).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raysoni, Amit U; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Garcia, Jośe Humberto; Holguin, Fernando; Luèvano, Silvia Flores; Li, Wen-Whai

    2011-10-01

    Paired indoor and outdoor concentrations of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM), PM2.5 reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) were determined for sixteen weeks in 2008 at four elementary schools (two in high and two in low traffic density zones) in a U.S.-Mexico border community to aid a binational health effects study. Strong spatial heterogeneity was observed for all outdoor pollutant concentrations. Concentrations of all pollutants, except coarse PM, were higher in high traffic zones than in the respective low traffic zones. Black carbon and NO(2) appear to be better traffic indicators than fine PM. Indoor air pollution was found to be well associated with outdoor air pollution, although differences existed due to uncontrollable factors involving student activities and building/ventilation configurations. Results of this study indicate substantial spatial variability of pollutants in the region, suggesting that children's exposures to these pollutants vary based on the location of their school.

  1. Binational school-based monitoring of traffic-related air pollutants in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raysoni, Amit U., E-mail: auraysoni@miners.utep.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Ph.D. Program, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt [Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Garcia, Jose Humberto [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Ciudad Juarez, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua 32470 (Mexico); Holguin, Fernando [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Flores Luevano, Silvia [Interdisciplinary Health Science Ph.D. Program, College of Health Sciences, The University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Li, Wen-Whai [Environmental Science and Engineering Ph.D. Program, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Paired indoor and outdoor concentrations of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM), PM2.5 reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) were determined for sixteen weeks in 2008 at four elementary schools (two in high and two in low traffic density zones) in a U.S.-Mexico border community to aid a binational health effects study. Strong spatial heterogeneity was observed for all outdoor pollutant concentrations. Concentrations of all pollutants, except coarse PM, were higher in high traffic zones than in the respective low traffic zones. Black carbon and NO{sub 2} appear to be better traffic indicators than fine PM. Indoor air pollution was found to be well associated with outdoor air pollution, although differences existed due to uncontrollable factors involving student activities and building/ventilation configurations. Results of this study indicate substantial spatial variability of pollutants in the region, suggesting that children's exposures to these pollutants vary based on the location of their school. - Highlights: > First binational investigation characterizing traffic air pollutants at four schools in El Paso, USA and Cd. Juarez, Mexico. > Paired in-outdoor sampling of PM{sub 2.5}, PM{sub 10-2.5}, reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and NO{sub 2} for 16 weeks in 2008 at each school. > Two schools (one in each city) were located in high traffic density areas and the other two in areas of low traffic density. > Usage of spatially resolved environmental indictors of traffic pollutants in a range of exposure settings. > Substantial intra-urban spatial variability in pollutant concentrations observed between and within the two cities. - Spatial variability in traffic-mediated pollutant concentrations can exist at the intra-urban level and ambient monitoring sites may not accurately represent these concentration gradients.

  2. 龙须草居群间叶片光合性能与光合色素比较研究%Comparison of Photosynthesis Abilities and Photosynthetic Pigment of Leaf among Populations of Eulaliopsis binate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹典; 朱育锋; 喻夜兰; 简燕; 戴菁

    2012-01-01

    采用大田小区试验,在相对一致的环境中,比较观测了国内9省20个县龙须草野生种质资源(居群)的叶片光合性能和光合色素参数,并对叶片光合功能进行了综合评价.结果表明:供试龙须草居群间叶片净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、胞间CO2浓度(Ci)和水分利用率等光合性能参数存在差异,叶片叶绿素A、叶绿素B和类胡萝卜素含量以及叶绿素A+B和叶绿素A/B等光合色素参数也存在差异,均达到极显著水平;根据叶片光合功能综合评价得分,认为湖南慈利、湖北郧县和河南西峡居群是龙须草新品种选育最优的种质资源.%Parameters of photosynthesis ability and photosynthetic pigment of leaf of wild Eulaliopsis binate germplasm resources (populations) from nine provinces and 20 counties in China were observed and compared under relatively uniform environment, and leaf photosynthetic function were comprehensive evaluated. The results indicated that there were differences in photosynthesis ability parameters (net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and water use efficiency) and photosynthetic pigment parameters (chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B, carotenoid content, chlorophyll A+B and chlorophyll A/B) among populations of Eulaliopsis binate, which all reached extremely significant level. Wild populations of Eulaliopsis binate from Hunan Cili, Hubei Yunxian and Henan Xixia were considered as optimum germplasm resources for breeding new varieties of Eulaliopsis binate according to the comprehensive evaluation score of leaf photosynthetic function.

  3. Volcano-hazards Education for Emergency Officials Through Study Trip Learning—The 2013 Colombia-USA Bi-national Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedger, C. L.; Ewert, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    A central tenant of hazard communication is that colleagues with principal responsibilities for emergency planning and response sustain a 'long-term conversation' that builds trust, and increases understanding of hazards and successful protocols. This requires well maintained partnerships among a broad spectrum of officials who are knowledgeable about volcano hazards; credible within their communities; and who have personal and professional stake in their community's safety. It can require that volcano scientists facilitate learning opportunities for partners in emergency management who have little or no familiarity with eruption response. Scientists and officials from Colombia and the Cascades region of the United States recognized that although separated by geographic and cultural distance, their communities faced similar hazards from lahars. For the purpose of sharing best practices, the 2013 Colombia-USA Bi-national Exchange was organized by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Washington Emergency Management Division, with support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). Nine Colombian emergency officials and scientists visited the U.S. to observe emergency response planning and protocols and to view the scale of a potential lahar disaster at Mount Rainier. Ten U.S. delegates visited Colombia to absorb best practices developed after the catastrophic 1985 eruption and lahars at Nevado del Ruiz. They observed the devastation and spoke with survivors, first responders, and emergency managers responsible for post-disaster recovery efforts. Delegates returned to their nations energized and with improved knowledge about volcanic crises and effective mitigation and response. In the U.S., trainings, hazard signage, evacuation routes and assembly points, and community websites have gained momentum. Colombian officials gained a deeper appreciation of and a renewed commitment to response planning, education, and disaster preparedness.

  4. Air quality in selected binational Great Lakes urban regions (Detroit-Windsor, Port-Huron-Sarnia, and Sault Ste. Marie) : a report from the International Air Quality Advisory Board to the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    The International Joint Commission reviewed the issues, control programs, and binational efforts currently underway on transboundary air quality in the Detroit-Windsor, Port Huron-Sarnia, and Sault Ste. Marie (Michigan and Ontario) corridors. Data on ambient concentrations of ozone, particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and total reduced sulphur, was analyzed along with the concentrations and emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants. The analysis revealed that in all three regions, and with some frequency, smog reaches levels that could affect the well being of the entire population, with the most negative impacts on the young and the elderly. Smog alerts are more frequent for the two southerly regions, while the northern region experiences a higher annual average ozone concentration. Regional and local sources of smog have been identified. The data shows that since 1991, when hazardous air pollutants first began to be tracked by the Commission, emissions of several pollutants have declined. The concentrations of hazardous air pollutants are more strongly associated with local sources. The differences between the various guidelines and standards in effect in the jurisdictions make it difficult to provide additional assessment of the health impact of the hazardous air pollutants. It was recommended that all levels of government should provide a more comprehensive, current and joint overview of air quality in the three regions. The development of an appropriate bilateral control strategy should be a priority to achieve significant reductions in regional and local concentrations of pollutants. It was suggested that the Commission should facilitate the communication among the parties and jurisdictions. The continued development of a mechanism to compare air quality standards and guidelines in transboundary airsheds was also proposed. It was also recommended that the outcomes of a study underway in 10 cities in the United States on urban hazardous

  5. D’une problématique locale-frontalière à un enjeu binational : le cas de la contrebande transfrontalière de carburants entre la Colombie et le Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Andrade Benitez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose d’appréhender le processus d’inscription de la question de la contrebande transfrontalière de carburants dans l’agenda d’intégration binational entre la Colombie et le Venezuela. Peu de travaux s’intéressent à ce sujet qui est habituellement abordé dans une perspective de politique intérieure et non pas extérieure. Notre étude s’inscrit dans le cadre théorique de la « mise en agenda » traitée par Cobb et Elders (1983 et des travaux de Jones et Baumgartner (2005 sur l’évolution de l’agenda politique après l’introduction de nouveaux enjeux. Elle vise à comprendre la manière dont la contrebande de carburants trouve une place dans l’agenda d’intégration énergétique bilatéral et devient un enjeu de coopération entre les deux pays. Les effets économiques de la contrebande ainsi que ses conséquences sur la sécurité de la frontière ont été des facteurs déterminants dans la signature d’un accord entre les deux pays. Les agences énergétiques de Colombie et du Venezuela ont été les acteurs privilégiés du processus d’inscription du problème dans l’agenda d’intégration entre les deux pays.This article analyzes the gradual inclusion of the illegal oil trade in the binational integration agenda between Venezuela and Colombia. Few scholars have focused on this question, which is generally examined through the prism of domestic –not foreign– policy. This study borrows from Cobb and Elders’ (1983 agenda setting theory and its development by Jones and Baumgartner (2005 on the evolution of political agendas following the incorporation of new issues. The purpose is to understand the ways in which illegal oil trade found its place in the bilateral energy integration agenda and became the subject of cooperation between Venezuela and Colombia. The economic effects of this illegal traffic along with its consequences on border security were crucial factors in the signing of a

  6. Developing a Binational Geography Curriculum in Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Alex; Araya, Fabian; Cortés, Ximena; Ullestad, Mollie

    2015-01-01

    In a world with an ever-increasing population, diminishing natural resources, and greater levels of consumption, sustainability has emerged as a critical concept and it encompasses everything from international policy to lifestyle changes to "green" technologies. While various aspects of sustainability have been adopted by schools and…

  7. Proceedings of the 24. National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services and 7. Binational seminar on energy saving [Selected Papers]; 24. Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios y 7. Seminario binacional de ahorro de energia. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document contains the technical briefings of the 24. National Seminar on the rational use of energy, and exhibition of the equipment and services and the 7. Binational seminar on energy saving, organized by the Asociacion de Profesionistas y Tecnicos en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, from November 9 to 11, 2005. This seminar dealt with subjects such as: electrical energy saving, energy distribution, solar energy, energy saving in compressed air, biomass, administration and control of the demand of the electrical energy, bioclimatic architecture, use of the compressed natural gas, renewable energy, co-generation, qualification and consultancy for the intelligent use of the energy in PyMES. [Spanish] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 24 Seminario Nacional sobre el uso racional de energia, y exposicion de los equipos y servicios y el 7 Seminario binacional de ahorro de energia, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, del 9 al 11 de noviembre del 2005. Este seminario trato temas tales como: ahorro de energia electrica, distribucion de la energia, energia solar, ahorro de energia en aire comprimido, biomasa, administracion y control de la demanda de la energia electrica, arquitectura bioclimatica, uso del gas natural comprimido, energia renovable, cogeneracion, capacitacion y consultoria para el uso inteligente de la energia en las Pymes.

  8. Science Anxiety, Science Attitudes, and Constructivism: A Binational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry

    2013-08-01

    Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.

  9. Salmonella contamination during production of cantaloupe: a binational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A; Mercado, I; Lucia, L M; Martínez-Ruiz, Y; Ponce de León, J; Murano, E A; Acuff, G R

    2004-04-01

    Six cantaloupe farms and packing plants in South Texas (950 cantaloupe, 140 water, and 45 environmental samples), including the Rio Grande Valley area, and three farms in Colima State, Mexico (300 cantaloupe, 45 water, and 15 environmental samples), were sampled to evaluate cantaloupe contamination with Salmonella and Escherichia coli during production and processing. Samples collected from external surfaces of cantaloupes, water, and the environments of packing sheds on cantaloupe farms were examined for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli. Of a total of 1,735 samples collected, 31 (1.8%) tested positive for Salmonella. Fifteen Salmonella serotypes were isolated from samples collected in Texas, and nine from samples collected in Colima. Two serotypes (Poona and Oranienburg) that have been associated with three large Salmonella outbreaks in the United States and Canada linked to the consumption of contaminated cantaloupe were found in water samples collected at four farms (three from the United States). Susceptibility of Salmonella isolates to 10 antimicrobials was evaluated by disk diffusion. Eighty-eight percent of the isolates from the United States and Mexico were pansusceptible to the antimicrobials tested; eight isolates from the United States demonstrated an intermediate susceptibility to streptomycin and only two isolates were resistant to the same antimicrobial. From Mexico, four isolates showed an intermediate susceptibility to streptomycin and one isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid and streptomycin. Repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis of Salmonella isolates helped to trace potential sources of Salmonella contamination in source water and in subsequent water samples obtained after the filtration systems of U.S. and Mexican cantaloupe farms. No differences could be seen between the levels of Salmonella contamination in melons from both countries.

  10. Science Anxiety, Science Attitudes, and Constructivism: A Binational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to…

  11. Intercultural Education in Italy and in the United States: the Results of a Binational Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Manuela CONTINI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consistency and the complexity of the migration fluxes towards Italy, their degree of stabilization, as well as the increase of migration families and the presence of first and second generations in the Italian scholastic system, require new educational policies and choices on behalf of the decision makers. The characteristics and the specificity of the migration fluxes and of the different persons and families that are oriented towards Italy, involve educational strategies that are able to combine needs and cultural models that are quite articulate. The United States, throughout its history, has also experienced similar societal transformations which continue to be the driving force to the creation of new policies that can respond to a new multicultural society. The paper presents a thorough analysis on the topics of the new educational needs expressed by new generations that live and make experiences in multi-ethnic social and scholastic contexts. Such a theme is framed within the wider context of globalization processes, of the widening of the European Union, of the presence on the territory of the Union of people and citizens originally immigrated and the questions on belonging and social cohesion. In specific, the study discuss the school policies for intercultural integration adopted in Italy and with reference to educational policies implemented in other European countries and in bilingual schools in the United States: welcoming practices for immigrant students in the schools; relationship between immigrant families and schools; practices of learning/teaching Italian as second language; promoting multilinguism approach; promoting social relation between students in the classroom, to prevent discrimination; team work between teachers; school networks; network between schools and local entities; intercultural education.

  12. Professional Development across Borders: The Promise of U.S.-Mexico Binational Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Adam

    2014-01-01

    As the school year gave way to summer vacation, a group of 11 Nebraska educators embarked on a 16-day professional development journey to the western Mexico city of Guadalajara. During a two week stay in Mexico, these educators--who were made up of in-service and pre-service teachers and school support personnel--engaged in a structured program of…

  13. Federal Law Enforcement in Bi-National Perspective: The United States FBI and the Mexican PFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    65   a.   Special Canine Unit ................................................................67   b.   Forensics ...AFI Federal Investigation Agency BATT ballistic armored tactical transport CIRG critical incident response group CoC chain of command CRS...establishing the first scientific forensic data analysis laboratory of its time.75 The bureau continued to increase its authority with the support of

  14. Improving occupational safety and health among Mexican immigrant workers: a binational collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael A; Check, Pietra; Eggerth, Donald E; Tonda, Josana

    2013-11-01

    Latino immigrants are 50% more likely than all workers in the United States to experience a fatal injury at work. Occupational safety and health (OSH) organizations often find that the approaches and networks they successfully use to promote OSH among U.S.-born workers are ineffective at reaching Latino immigrants. This article describes the collaboration between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores) to promote OSH among Mexican immigrant workers. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs operates 50 consulates throughout the U.S. that provide four million discrete service contacts with Mexican citizens annually. The focus of this ongoing collaboration is to develop the internal capacity of Mexican institutions to promote OSH among Mexican immigrants while simultaneously developing NIOSH's internal capacity to create effective and sustainable initiatives to better document and reduce occupational health disparities for Mexican immigrants in the U.S.

  15. Diverging Policy Approaches to Diversity in a Bi-National Country: The Case of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Armony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Canada’s policy approach to immigration- and minority-related diversity in light of its federal structure and the contrast between the predominantly French-language province of Québec and the mainly English-speaking rest of the country, with a particular focus on the province of Ontario. While the two parts of the country share many common features, some contrasts are quite significant. Canada is bilingual at the federal level, but French is Québec’s only official language and the Charter of the French Language, which regulates the use of language in many areas of social life, has constitutional status in that province. A long-standing agreement lets Québec handle the selection of its own immigrants with a similar system than the one used by the federal government for Ontario and other provinces, but with different weighing assigned to language skills. Also, religious diversity is treated differently in the two Canadian provinces, on account of diverging views on secularism, even if both share a public commitment to the protection of minorities. Likewise, there is a difference in their policy approaches regarding the promotion of cultural expressions and the arts, partly because of the French-speaking people’s nationalist outlook. In sum, Canada’s case demonstrates that a country can embrace more than a single approach to diversity. Québec has taken a different path and, in a way, showcases a “third way” between North American multiculturalism and European-like integrationism.

  16. Migration selection, protection, and acculturation in health: a binational perspective on older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosmena, Fernando; Wong, Rebeca; Palloni, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    In this article, we test for four potential explanations of the Hispanic Health Paradox (HHP): the "salmon bias," emigration selection, and sociocultural protection originating in either destination or sending country. To reduce biases related to attrition by return migration typical of most U.S.-based surveys, we combine data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study in Mexico and the U.S. National Health Interview Survey to compare self-reported diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, obesity, and self-rated health among Mexican-born men ages 50 and older according to their previous U.S. migration experience, and U.S.-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. We also use height, a measure of health during childhood, to bolster some of our tests. We find an immigrant advantage relative to non-Hispanic whites in hypertension and, to a lesser extent, obesity. We find evidence consistent with emigration selection and the salmon bias in height, hypertension, and self-rated health among immigrants with less than 15 years of experience in the United States; we do not find conclusive evidence consistent with sociocultural protection mechanisms. Finally, we illustrate that although ignoring return migrants when testing for the HHP and its mechanisms, as well as for the association between U.S. experience and health, exaggerates these associations, they are not fully driven by return migration-related attrition.

  17. Weight perceptions among overweight and obese women: a US-Mexico binational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Ritterman-Weintraub, Miranda L; Fernald, Lia C H; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2011-12-01

    We examined actual and perceived weight in nationally representative cohorts of adults in Mexico (n = 9,527) and the United States (n = 855) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (waves 2001-2006) and Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (2006). Actual weight was assessed by health technicians using BMI and perceived weight was collected through self-report. The prevalence of overweight or obesity (OO) in Mexican women was 72% and in Mexican-American women was 71%. OO Mexican-American women were more likely than OO Mexican women to label themselves as "overweight" (86% vs. 64%, P women from both populations, those who had been told by a health provider that they were OO were much more likely to perceive themselves as such (odds ratio = 5.3; 95% confidence intervals: 3.8-7.3). Significantly fewer OO women in Mexico than in the United States (13% vs. 42%, P Mexico, and low screening by health providers may be an important contributor to poor weight control in both countries.

  18. Innovation in Sustainable Products: Cross-Cultural Analysis Of Bi-National Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber José Cunha Dutra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovation has been required as a vital asset for organizational survival in many areas, especially in the sustainability organizational field of concerns. Changes in Brazilian consumers’ consumption are perceived from the growing demand for environmentally-friendly products and services which are pressuring companies to achieve environmental efficiency. Tools like Cleaner Production, Sustainable Supply-Chain Management, and Ecodesign are essential to help firms achieve this goal. However, these tools require integration between different functions in a company, demanding that members with different expertise work together as a team. Based on a long tradition of collaboration, Germany is a potential partner for Brazil, combining expertise in the development of innovations aimed at more sustainable products. In today’s global environment, transnational teams should become the most effective teams in an organization but, because of the potential for miscommunication and conflict, the management of these teams needs special attention. Cultural differences between German and Brazilian members of work teams represent risks/advantages for the management of process of innovative products development. The paper draws on previously reviewed studies to ground an analysis of cultural dimensions and national characters, within Brazilian-German teams. In essence, this study is an essay with the main aim to open perspectives for further research and to support organizations in their sustainable management practices.

  19. Unrest of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex: A binational Ecuador - Colombia effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Gomez, D.; Torres, R.; Cadena, O.; Mothes, P. A.; Anzieta, J. C.; Pacheco, D. A.; Bernard, B.; Acero, W.; Hidalgo, S.; Enriquez, W.; Cordova, A.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing seismic activity at the area of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located at the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto OVSP, a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area and more than 100.000 events are recorded since November 2013. The largest and more recent swarm has a daily average of 676 events between March and June 2014. Currently a seismic network of 8 seismic stations (5 in the Colombian and 3 in Ecuadorean side) are deployed in this area. Epicenters of more than 315 seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0 and 10 or more phases are located in an area 1-4 km south of Chiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most of events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Nine events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 and the largest event occurred on April 30. 2014 with a local magnitude of 4.7 and inverse-transcurrent component focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. Events with large magnitudes (above 3.0) show a very long-period component. Hot spring and deformation measurements also show signals of volcanic unrest.

  20. Binational Dengue Outbreak Along the United States-Mexico Border - Yuma County, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson M; Lopez, Benito; Adams, Laura; Gálvez, Francisco Javier Navarro; Núñez, Alfredo Sánchez; Santillán, Nubia Astrid Hernández; Plante, Lydia; Hemme, Ryan R; Casal, Mariana; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Acevedo, Veronica; Ernst, Kacey; Hayden, Mary; Waterman, Steve; Gomez, Diana; Sharp, Tyler M; Komatsu, Kenneth K

    2016-05-20

    Dengue is an acute febrile illness caused by any of four dengue virus types (DENV-1-4). DENVs are transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes (1) and are endemic throughout the tropics (2). In 2010, an estimated 390 million DENV infections occurred worldwide (2). During 2007-2013, a total of three to 10 dengue cases were reported annually in Arizona and all were travel-associated. During September-December 2014, coincident with a dengue outbreak in Sonora, Mexico, 93 travel-associated dengue cases were reported in Arizona residents; 70 (75%) cases were among residents of Yuma County, which borders San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora, Mexico. San Luis Río Colorado reported its first case of locally acquired dengue in September 2014. To investigate the temporal relationship of the dengue outbreaks in Yuma County and San Luis Río Colorado and compare patient characteristics and signs and symptoms, passive surveillance data from both locations were analyzed. In addition, household-based cluster investigations were conducted near the residences of reported dengue cases in Yuma County to identify unreported cases and assess risk for local transmission. Surveillance data identified 52 locally acquired cases (21% hospitalized) in San Luis Río Colorado and 70 travel-associated cases (66% hospitalized) in Yuma County with illness onset during September-December 2014. Among 194 persons who participated in the cluster investigations in Yuma County, 152 (78%) traveled to Mexico at least monthly during the preceding 3 months. Four (2%) of 161 Yuma County residents who provided serum samples for diagnostic testing during cluster investigations had detectable DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM); one reported a recent febrile illness, and all four had traveled to Mexico during the preceding 3 months. Entomologic assessments among 105 households revealed 24 water containers per 100 houses colonized by Ae. aegypti. Frequent travel to Mexico and Ae. aegypti colonization indicate risk for local transmission of DENV in Yuma County. Public health officials in Sonora and Arizona should continue to collaborate on dengue surveillance and educate the public regarding mosquito abatement and avoidance practices. Clinicians evaluating patients from the U.S.-Mexico border region should consider dengue in patients with acute febrile illness and report suspected cases to public health authorities.

  1. Falling in love with(in) Europe: European bi-national love relationships, European identification and transnational solidarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mol, C.; de Valk, H.A.G.; van Wissen, L.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Love is often a key factor in migration decisions. Partner relationships and union formation have also been identified as forming an intrinsic part of intra-European migration. Nevertheless, empirical research into intra-European love migration remains rather scarce. In this paper, we focus on the o

  2. Organic contamination in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings at United States and binational great Lakes Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J Christian; Erickson, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Contaminant exposure of tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, nesting in 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the Great Lakes basin was assessed from 2010 to 2014 to assist managers and regulators in their assessments of Great Lakes AOCs. Contaminant concentrations in nestlings from AOCs were compared with those in nestlings from nearby non-AOC sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in tree swallow nestling carcasses at 30% and 33% of AOCs, respectively, were below the mean concentration for non-AOCs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in nestling stomach contents and perfluorinated compound concentrations in nestling plasma at 67% and 64% of AOCs, respectively, were below the mean concentration for non-AOCs. Concentrations of PCBs in nestling carcasses were elevated at some AOCs but modest compared with highly PCB-contaminated sites where reproductive effects have been documented. Concentrations of PAHs in diet were sufficiently elevated at some AOCs to elicit a measurable physiological response. Among AOCs, concentrations of the perfluorinated compound perfluorooctane sulfonate in plasma were the highest on the River Raisin (MI, USA; geometric mean 330 ng/mL) but well below an estimated toxicity reference value (1700 ng/mL). Both PAH and PCB concentrations in nestling stomach contents and PCBs in carcasses were significantly correlated with concentrations in sediment previously reported, thereby reinforcing the utility of tree swallows to assess bioavailability of sediment contamination.

  3. Identification of differentially expressed genes in esophageal cancer through SSH in com- bination with high throughput reverse Northern screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis of esophagus and to isolate genes with different expression levels in esophageal cancer, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was combined with PCR-based cDNA synthesis and reverse Northern on the cancer tissues and matched almost normal mucosa using 5 microgram of total RNA as starting marterial. Eight genes were found expressed differentially in esophageal cancer, in which 5 were known genes and 3 were novel ones; and 6 were down-regulated in cancer tissues, while 2 were up-regulated; 6 were of mid-high abundance and 2 were of low abundance in esophagus. The results revealed that alteration in expression level of multiple genes underlied the initiation and development of esophageal cancer. The differentially expressed genes identified in this study such as liporcotinⅠ, cystatin A, cystatin B, cytokeratin 13 may play roles in dedifferentiation, transformation and malignant proliferation of esophageal cancer. The combination of SSH with PCR-based double- strand cDNA synthesis and high throughput reverse Northern screening is an efficient way to isolate differentially expressed genes from microgram of total RNA.

  4. The management of stakeholder and public participation at US and binational AOCs: Overcoming challenges and looking beyond delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although stakeholder and public participation has been important throughout the history of the AOC program, the process of involving stakeholders in preparing and implementing RAPs—along with the challenges involved with this process—has varied both historically and g...

  5. and Disaster: A Bi-National Case Study of Ciudad Acuña, Coahuila and Del Rio, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Tiefenbacher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta la investigación, vulnerabilidad y riesgo de diluvio en dos comunidades de la zona fronteriza. El modelo para evaluar la debilidad se aplica a EE.UU. y las comunidades de Del Río y Ciudad Acuña para dar cuenta de la distribución espacial de las características de las personas, lugares, barrios y sistemas que infl uyen en los impactos de eventos de diluvio que ocurren a lo largo del Río Grande / Río Bravo. Los datos espaciales de EE.UU. y los censos en México de 2000 se combinan al grupo del bloque y Área Geográfi ca Estadística Básica (AGEB para determinar las balanzas que evalúen el descriptor demográfi co y otro de las áreas afectadas por los diluvios. Se resaltan las diferencias entre los modelos resultantes de vulnerabilidades a la distribución de riesgo de diluvio en las dos ciudades y se discuten las implicaciones de estos modelos.

  6. Operator training for the Yacyreta binational hydroelectric power plant; Formacion de operadores para la Central Hidroelectrica de Yacireta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dure, Francisco; Tachella, Heriberto [Entidad Binacional Yacyreta, Isla Yacireta (Paraguay). Central Hidroelectrica Yacyreta]. E-mail: yacyreta@internet.siscotel.com

    1998-07-01

    This work is oriented to the power plant operators, by exposing the criteria and methods adopted for operators selection, training and incorporation to the Yacyreta Hydroelectric Power Plant. The used criteria considered some aspects, as follows: the operation staff should be consisted of equal numbers of Argentine and Paraguayan nationalities, viewing the both systems operation; experience of the shift supervisors in operating a plant for a minimum of 10 years; the supervisors should participate training the auxiliary operators.

  7. RECEPTOR MODEL COMPARISONS AND WIND DIRECTION ANALYSES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND SUBMICROMETER PARTICLES IN AN ARID, BINATIONAL, URBAN AIRSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between continuous measurements of volatile organic compounds sources and particle number was evaluated at a Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Station Network (PAMS) site located near the U.S.-Mexico Border in central El Paso, TX. Sources of volatile organic...

  8. Nurses and opioids: results of a bi-national survey on mental models regarding opioid administration in hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Charlotte; Sobotka, Fabian; Karavasopoulou, Athina; Ward, Stephen; Bantel, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Objective Pain remains insufficiently treated in hospitals. Increasing evidence suggests human factors contribute to this, due to nurses failing to administer opioids. This behavior might be the consequence of nurses’ mental models about opioids. As personal experience and conceptions shape these models, the aim of this prospective survey was to identify model-influencing factors. Material and methods A questionnaire was developed comprising of 14 statements concerning ideations about opioids and seven questions concerning demographics, indicators of adult learning, and strength of religious beliefs. Latent variables that may underlie nurses’ mental models were identified using undirected graphical dependence models. Representative items of latent variables were employed for ordinal regression analysis. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,379 nurses in two London, UK, hospitals (n=580) and one German (n=799) hospital between September 2014 and February 2015. Results A total of 511 (37.1%) questionnaires were returned. Mean (standard deviation) age of participants were 37 (11) years; 83.5% participants were female; 45.2% worked in critical care; and 51.5% had more than 10 years experience. Of the nurses, 84% were not scared of opioids, 87% did not regard opioids as drugs to help patients die, and 72% did not view them as drugs of abuse. More English (41%) than German (28%) nurses were afraid of criminal investigations and were constantly aware of side effects (UK, 94%; Germany, 38%) when using opioids. Four latent variables were identified which likely influence nurses’ mental models: “conscious decision-making”; “medication-related fears”; “practice-based observations”; and “risk assessment”. They were predicted by strength of religious beliefs and indicators of informal learning such as experience but not by indicators of formal learning such as conference attendance. Conclusion Nurses in both countries employ analytical and affective mental models when administering the opioids and seem to learn from experience rather than from formal teaching. Additionally, some attitudes and emotions towards opioids are likely the result of nurses’ cultural background. PMID:28280383

  9. Early age alcohol use and later alcohol problems in adolescents: individual and peer mediators in a bi-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W Alex; Toumbourou, John W; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Catalano, Richard F; Patton, George C

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines whether there is cross-national similarity in the longitudinal relationship between early age alcohol use and adolescent alcohol problems. Potential mechanisms underlying this relationship also are examined, testing adolescent alcohol use, low self-regulation, and peer deviance as possible mediators. Students (N = 1,945) participating in the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal panel survey study, responded to questions on alcohol use and influencing factors, and were followed annually over a 3-year period from 2002 to 2004 (98% retention rate). State-representative, community student samples were recruited in grade 7 in Washington State, United States (US, n = 961, 78% of those eligible; Mage = 13.09, SD = .44) and Victoria, Australia (n = 984, 76% of those eligible; Mage = 12.93, SD = .41). Analyses were conducted using multiple-group structural equation modeling. In both states, early age alcohol use (age 13) had a small but statistically significant association with subsequent alcohol problems (age 15). Overall, there was little evidence for mediation of early alcohol effects. Low self-regulation prospectively predicted peer deviance, alcohol use, and alcohol problems in both states. Peer deviance was more positively related to alcohol use and low self-regulation among students in Victoria compared to students in Washington State. The small but persistent association of early age alcohol use with alcohol problems across both samples is consistent with efforts to delay alcohol initiation to help prevent problematic alcohol use. Self-regulation was an important influence, supporting the need to further investigate the developmental contribution of neurobehavioral disinhibition.

  10. Nurses and opioids: results of a bi-national survey on mental models regarding opioid administration in hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guest C

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Charlotte Guest,1 Fabian Sobotka,2 Athina Karavasopoulou,3 Stephen Ward,3 Carsten Bantel4,5 1Pain Medicine, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 2Division of Epidemiology and Biometry, Department of Health Services Research, Faculty 6, Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany; 3Pain Service, Barts Health, St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London, UK; 4Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine and Pain Therapy, Oldenburg University, Klinikum Oldenburg Campus, Oldenburg, Germany; 5Department of Surgery and Cancer, Anaesthetics Section, Imperial College London, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital Campus, London, UK Objective: Pain remains insufficiently treated in hospitals. Increasing evidence suggests human factors contribute to this, due to nurses failing to administer opioids. This behavior might be the consequence of nurses’ mental models about opioids. As personal experience and conceptions shape these models, the aim of this prospective survey was to identify model-influencing factors. Material and methods: A questionnaire was developed comprising of 14 statements concerning ideations about opioids and seven questions concerning demographics, indicators of adult learning, and strength of religious beliefs. Latent variables that may underlie nurses’ mental models were identified using undirected graphical dependence models. Representative items of latent variables were employed for ordinal regression analysis. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,379 nurses in two London, UK, hospitals (n=580 and one German (n=799 hospital between September 2014 and February 2015. Results: A total of 511 (37.1% questionnaires were returned. Mean (standard deviation age of participants were 37 (11 years; 83.5% participants were female; 45.2% worked in critical care; and 51.5% had more than 10 years experience. Of the nurses, 84% were not scared of opioids, 87% did not regard opioids as drugs to help patients die, and 72% did not view them as drugs of abuse. More English (41% than German (28% nurses were afraid of criminal investigations and were constantly aware of side effects (UK, 94%; Germany, 38% when using opioids. Four latent variables were identified which likely influence nurses’ mental models: “conscious decision-making”; “medication-related fears”; “practice-based observations”; and “risk assessment”. They were predicted by strength of religious beliefs and indicators of informal learning such as experience but not by indicators of formal learning such as conference attendance. Conclusion: Nurses in both countries employ analytical and affective mental models when administering the opioids and seem to learn from experience rather than from formal teaching. Additionally, some attitudes and emotions towards opioids are likely the result of nurses’ cultural background. Keywords: nurses, opioids, mental models, decision-making

  11. Binational air quality studies along the Arizona-Sonora border: Ambos Nogales and Douglas-Agua Prieta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy, G.J. Keene, F.E.

    1999-07-01

    A study to address Ambos (Both) Nogales' air quality concerns was conducted by the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ), in conjunction with Mexico's Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca (SEMARNAP), from 1994 to 1998. The study, which is part of the US-Mexico Border XXI Program, consisted of the following tasks: (1) air sampling/monitoring; (2) emissions inventory; (3) meteorological modeling; and, (4) health risk assessment. The following types of samples were collected: particulate matter (PM); volatile organic compounds; semi-volatile organic compounds; and aldehydes. All samples were collected for a 24-hour period; every sixth day during the warm months (April--September), and every third day during the cold months (October--March). There were a total of six sampling stations; three on each side of the border. PM samples were collected at all six sites, while samples for Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) were collected at four of those sites. Sample analyses were performed at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) in Reno, Nevada. Furthermore, four of the sites were outfitted with meteorological equipment, in order to gather data on wind speed and direction. PM and meteorological data are still being collected at two sampling sites, one in Arizona and one in Sonora. An emissions inventory of point, mobile and area sources for the Ambos Nogales area (12 x 19 km. domain), was developed following completion of the sampling effort. In order to accomplish this task, ADEQ contracted the services of RADIAN International and Powers Engineering; which in turn enlisted the services of Heuristica Ambiental of Hermosillo, Sonora. This task was completed in July, 1997. Vehicular emissions were found to be one of the main contributors of air emissions in the Ambos Nogales area. The third task of this project consisted developing meteorological models of the study area.

  12. Curriculum Perspectives: Challenges for the Future. Proceedings of a Binational Symnposium = Perspectivas curriculares: Retos para el futuro. Actas del simposio binacional (Austin, Texas, November 9-10, 1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    This proceedings, in English and Spanish, describes the first U.S./Mexico Curriculum Symposium, held in Austin, Texas, in November 1994. The symposium grew out of an ongoing exchange between educators in the Republic of Mexico and the United States and was attended by over 200 teachers, administrators, staff from state and regional education…

  13. Dysarthria in individuals with Parkinson's disease: a protocol for a binational, cross-sectional, case-controlled study in French and European Portuguese (FraLusoPark)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita; Mercier, Céline; Santos, Helena; Atkinson-Clement, Cyril; Carvalho, Joana; Welby, Pauline; Oliveira, Pedro; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Frota, Sónia; Letanneux, Alban; Vigario, Marina; Cruz, Marisa; Martins, Isabel Pavão; Viallet, François

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) have to deal with several aspects of voice and speech decline and thus alteration of communication ability during the course of the disease. Among these communication impairments, 3 major challenges include: (1) dysarthria, consisting of orofacial motor dysfunction and dysprosody, which is linked to the neurodegenerative processes; (2) effects of the pharmacological treatment, which vary according to the disease stage; and (3) particular speech modifications that may be language-specific, that is, dependent on the language spoken by the patients. The main objective of the FraLusoPark project is to provide a thorough evaluation of changes in PD speech as a result of pharmacological treatment and disease duration in 2 different languages (French vs European Portuguese). Methods and analysis Individuals with PD are enrolled in the study in France (N=60) and Portugal (N=60). Their global motor disability and orofacial motor functions is assessed with specific clinical rating scales, without (OFF) and with (ON) pharmacological treatment. 2 groups of 60 healthy age-matched volunteers provide the reference for between-group comparisons. Along with the clinical examinations, several speech tasks are recorded to obtain acoustic and perceptual measures. Patient-reported outcome measures are used to assess the psychosocial impact of dysarthria on quality of life. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the local responsible committees on human experimentation and is conducted in accordance with the ethical standards. A valuable large-scale database of speech recordings and metadata from patients with PD in France and Portugal will be constructed. Results will be disseminated in several articles in peer-reviewed journals and in conference presentations. Recommendations on how to assess speech and voice disorders in individuals with PD to monitor the progression and management of symptoms will be provided. Trial registration number NCT02753192, Pre-results. PMID:27856480

  14. What to Do About That Pack of Wolves at the Door: A Binational Organization and Acquisitions Approach to Homeland Cruise Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    such a weapon. It could fly autonomously across the English Channel and deliver its high-explosive payload to England. Although it was crude and...enterprise to the existing MDA portfolio . This, too, would require POTUS to expand the charter and authorities of the MDA. The agency would need to...Even if the MDA hires the leading experts in the field of CMD, there is still the chance that they will be relegated to second- class status. To

  15. A Physical Assessment of the Opportunities for Improved Management of the Water Resources of the Bi-National Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, J.; McKinney, D.; Valdes, J.; Guitron, A.; Thomas, G.

    2007-05-01

    The hydro-physical opportunities for expanding the beneficial uses of the fixed water supply in the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin to better satisfy an array of water management goals are examined. These include making agriculture more resilient to periodic conditions of drought, improving the reliability of supplies to cities and towns, and restoring lost environmental functions in the river system. This is a comprehensive, outcome-neutral, model- based planning exercise performed by some 20 technical, primarily non-governmental institutions from both countries, aimed at proposing strategies that can reduce future conflicts over water throughout the entire basin. The second track consists in generating a set of future water management scenarios that respond to the needs and objectives of the basin stakeholders in each segment and each country. An array of scenarios for improved water management has been developed for the lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin in Texas and the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. Another set under development will focus on the Rio Conchos and the El Paso/Juarez region. Eventually, scenarios will be generated such that will comprehend the entire basin on both sides of the border. These scenarios are the product of consultations with agricultural water districts, governmental organizations and environmental NGOs. They include strategies for reducing the physical losses of water in the system, conservation transfers, improvements in the operations of the Mexican and international reservoirs, improvements in environmental flow conditions, improvements in reliability of water supplies, and drought coping strategies.These scenarios will be evaluated for hydrologic feasibility by the basin-wide model and the gaming exercises. Modeling is necessary to understand how these options will affect the entire system and how they can be crafted to maximize the benefits and avoid unintended or uncompensated effects. The scenarios that have the potential to provide large mutual benefits to all stakeholders in the basin will then be subjected to an economic feasibility analysis, and, finally, a legal and political feasibility analysis. The scenario development, hydrologic modeling, economic and institutional analysis will culminate in the presentation of technical recommendations to policy-makers on both sides of the border on the potential for improved water management in the basin.

  16. Early-Age Alcohol Use and Later Alcohol Problems in Adolescents: Individual and Peer Mediators in a Bi-National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, W. Alex; Toumbourou, John W.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.; Patton, George C

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether there is cross-national similarity in the longitudinal relationship between early-age alcohol use and adolescent alcohol problems. Potential mechanisms underlying this relationship also are examined, testing adolescent alcohol use, low self-regulation, and peer deviance as possible mediators. Students (N=1945) participating in the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal panel survey study, responded to questions on alcohol use and influencing factors,...

  17. Transitional Care and Adherence of Adolescents and Young Adults After Kidney Transplantation in Germany and Austria: A Binational Observatory Census Within the TRANSNephro Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Martin; Prüfe, Jenny; Oldhafer, Martina; Bethe, Dirk; Dierks, Marie-Luise; Müther, Silvia; Thumfart, Julia; Hoppe, Bernd; Büscher, Anja; Rascher, Wolfgang; Hansen, Matthias; Pohl, Martin; Kemper, Markus J; Drube, Jens; Rieger, Susanne; John, Ulrike; Taylan, Christina; Dittrich, Katalin; Hollenbach, Sabine; Klaus, Günter; Fehrenbach, Henry; Kranz, Birgitta; Montoya, Carmen; Lange-Sperandio, Bärbel; Ruckenbrodt, Bettina; Billing, Heiko; Staude, Hagen; Heindl-Rusai, Krisztina; Brunkhorst, Reinhard; Pape, Lars

    2015-12-01

    Transition from child to adult-oriented care is widely regarded a challenging period for young people with kidney transplants and is associated with a high risk of graft failure. We analyzed the existing transition structures in Germany and Austria using a questionnaire and retrospective data of 119 patients transferred in 2011 to 2012. Most centers (73%) confirmed agreements on the transition procedure. Patients' age at transfer was subject to regulation in 73% (18 years). Median age at transition was 18.3 years (16.5-36.7). Median serum creatinine increased from 123 to 132 μmol/L over the 12 month observation period before transfer (P = 0.002). A total of 25/119 patients showed increased creatinine ≥ 20% just before transfer. Biopsy proven rejection was found in 10/119 patients. Three patients lost their graft due to chronic graft nephropathy.Mean coefficient of variation (CoV%) of immunosuppression levels was 0.20 ± 0.1. Increased creatinine levels ≥ 20% just before transfer were less frequently seen in patients with CoV < 0.20 (P = 0.007). The majority of pediatric nephrology centers have internal agreements on transitional care. More than half of the patients had CoV of immunosuppression trough levels consistent with good adherence. Although, 20% of the patients showed increase in serum creatinine close to transfer.

  18. Concentrations and spatial patterns of organic contaminants in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs at United States and binational Great Lakes Areas of Concern, 2010–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, were sampled across the Great Lakes basin in 2010 through 2015 to provide a system-wide assessment of current exposure to organic contaminants. The results provide information identified as critical by regulators to assess the “bird or animal deformity or reproductive problems” beneficial use impairment. Eggs were collected from 69 sites across all 5 Great Lakes, including 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs), some with multiple sites, and 10 sites not listed as an AOC. Concentrations of organic contaminants in eggs were quantified and compared with background and reproductive effect thresholds. Approximately 30% of AOCs had geometric mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at or below average background exposure (0.34 μg/g wet wt). Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was minimal, and only 3 of 27 AOCs and 1 non-AOC had geometric mean concentrations that exceeded background for tree swallows (96 ng/g wet wt). Concentrations of both PCBs and PBDEs were 10 to 20 times below the lower limit associated with impaired hatching success. In contrast, geometric mean concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and furan (PCDD-F) toxic equivalents (TEQs) at the Saginaw River and Bay AOC and Midland, Michigan, USA (a non-AOC site), exceeded the lower limit for hatching effects (181 pg/g PCDD-F TEQs). The rest of the sites had geometric mean concentrations of PCDD-F TEQs below background levels (87 pg/g PCDD-F TEQs). Other organic contaminants, including p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mirex, heptachlor, and chlordane, were at or below background or adverse effect concentrations.

  19. The Teaching of Inquiry-Based Science in Elementary Classrooms: A Bi-National Comparative Reflection of US and Lithuanian Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bobbi; Buczynski, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a comparative reflection on how two nations, the U.S. and Lithuania, are implementing inquiry-based science in elementary classrooms. The qualitative study explored how fourth grade teachers in Southern California and in Lithuania employed effective inquiry-based strategies in their classrooms. A teacher's use of questioning…

  20. Development of a Bi-National Great Lakes Coastal Wetland and Land Use Map Using Three-Season PALSAR and Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bourgeau-Chavez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods using extensive field data and three-season Landsat TM and PALSAR imagery were developed to map wetland type and identify potential wetland stressors (i.e., adjacent land use for the United States and Canadian Laurentian coastal Great Lakes. The mapped area included the coastline to 10 km inland to capture the region hydrologically connected to the Great Lakes. Maps were developed in cooperation with the overarching Great Lakes Consortium plan to provide a comprehensive regional baseline map suitable for coastal wetland assessment and management by agencies at the local, tribal, state, and federal levels. The goal was to provide not only land use and land cover (LULC baseline data at moderate spatial resolution (20–30 m, but a repeatable methodology to monitor change into the future. The prime focus was on mapping wetland ecosystem types, such as emergent wetland and forested wetland, as well as to delineate wetland monocultures (Typha, Phragmites, Schoenoplectus and differentiate peatlands (fens and bogs from other wetland types. The overall accuracy for the coastal Great Lakes map of all five lake basins was 94%, with a range of 86% to 96% by individual lake basin (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie and Superior.

  1. Asociación inversa entre asma y defectos del tubo neural: estudio ecológico binacional Inverse association between asthma and neural tube defects: a binational ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario H Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Los donadores de metilo como el ácido fólico previenen defectos del tubo neural (DTN, pero estudios recientes sugieren que también favorecen el desarrollo de asma. En este trabajo exploramos una posible asociación ecológica entre DTN y asma. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se consultaron bases de datos de México y EUA para obtener información sobre distribución geográfica (por estado y tendencia temporal (por año de DTN y asma. RESULTADOS: Los estados con menor frecuencia de DTN tuvieron mayor frecuencia de asma, tanto en México (rS=-0.48, p=0.005 como en EUA (rS=-0.39, p=0.005. Las tendencias temporales también mostraron correlación inversa en México (1997-2007, rS=-0.73, p=0.01 y EUA (1979-1998, rS=-0.91, pOBJECTIVE: Dietary intake of methyl donors such as folic acid prevents neural tube defects (NTD, but recent studies showed that it might also favor the development of asthma. In this work a possible ecological association between NTD and asthma was explored. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data bases from Mexico and the United States (US were reviewed to obtain information about geographical distribution (by state and temporal trends (by year of NTD and asthma. RESULTS: Those states with the lowest frequency of NTD had the highest frequency of asthma, both in Mexico (rS=-0.48, p=0.005 and US (rS=-0.39, p=0.005. Temporal trends also showed an inverse correlation in Mexico (1997-2007, rS=-0.73, p=0.01 and US (1979-1998, rS=-0.91, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In both countries the frequency of asthma inversely correlated with the frequency of NTD, both in geographical distribution and annual trends, giving support to the possibility that methyl donors intake in diet or supplements is influencing the asthma frequency.

  2. 78 FR 66899 - International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... duty law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews...

  3. 76 FR 51004 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    .... Abstract: This survey collects information from State Migrant Education Programs on their participation in the Binational Migrant Education Initiative to serve children who migrate between Mexico and the U.S...: Binational Migrant Education Program (BMEP) State MEP Director Survey. OMB Control Number: 1810-0670....

  4. 76 FR 64329 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Type of Review: Extension. Title of Collection: State MEP Director Survey Binational Migrant Education... Estimated Annual Burden Hours: 60. Abstract: This survey collects information from State Migrant Education Programs on their participation in the Binational Migrant Education Initiative to serve children...

  5. 75 FR 82376 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules...

  6. 76 FR 42115 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules...

  7. German-brazilians from eastern Paraguay: brief notes on historical factors with regard to the formation of the binational frontier - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v9i3.132 Teuto-brasiguaios do oriente paraguaio: alguns apontamentos sobre as condicionantes históricas da formação de uma fronteira de caráter binacional - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v9i3.132

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Manoel da Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis establishes constructive elements of migration and colonization dynamics in eastern Paraguay that started in the 1960s. The phenomenon involved different ethnic groups from different occupations as well as space organization, which, as a result, comprised specifically adapted arrangements and conditionings. Estimates show that the approximate number amounts to 500.000 Brazilians living on the eastern Paraguayan border, or rather, more than 10% of that country’s population. Sixty percent originally hail from the Brazilian meridian states, mostly of German descent. Nevertheless, the relevance of this group does not just express itself in terms of numbers but especially with regard to its role in the process of the agricultural modernization and the structure of the country.Este texto busca estabelecer alguns elementos constitutivos da dinâmica migratória e colonizadora do Oriente Paraguaio, a qual se iniciou nos anos 1960. Tal fenômeno envolveu diferentes grupos étnicos e modos distintos de ocupação e organização do espaço, os quais, por sua vez, envolveram arranjos e condicionamentos adaptativos específicos. As estimativas atuais apontam para um número aproximado de 500.000 brasileiros vivendo na fronteira oriental do Paraguai, ou seja, mais de 10% da população total daquele país. Desse percentual, quase 60% são oriundos dos estados meridionais brasileiros, em sua maioria teuto-descendentes. No entanto, a relevância desse grupo não decorre apenas de sua expressividade numérica, mas do papel por ele representado no processo de modernização agrícola e fundiária do país.

  8. Novel Angiogenic Domains: Use in Identifying Unique Transforming and Tumor Promoting Pathways in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    PKCd and MMP9 and extensive remodeling of the microenvironment, and a morphological transition of the MCF-7-Ptn cells and NIH3T3 cells to phenotypes...recom- bination leads to germ-cell apoptosis in male mice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 6734–6738. [15] F. Czubayko, A.T. Riegel, A. Wellstein...Y.S. Li, T.F. Deuel, A dominant- negative pleiotrophin mutant introduced by homologous recom- bination leads to germ-cell apoptosis in male mice, Proc

  9. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  10. Maquiladoras: Corporate America Moves South of the U.S.-Mexican Border; Encouraged by Lax Environmental Enforcement and the Prospect of a NAFTA That Fails to Integrate Internationally Binding Health, Safety and Environmental Safeguards With GATT Principles of Free Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-30

    monitoring does reveal that significant portions of the communities north of the border fail to meet one or more of the national ambient air quality...binational Joint Contingency Plan was intended to prevent "Bhopalse in the U.S-Mexican border area. However, on July 14, 1990, the Quimica Organica Plant

  11. Multimodal Identity Texts as Mediational Spaces in Researching Ph.D. Students' Critical Teacher-Researcher Selves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Marlon; Herath, Sreemali

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses how two Ph.D. students used multimodal identity texts (MMITs) to document their research journeys as they engaged in their doctoral studies. Drawing on qualitative data collected from multiple pre-service teacher preparation programmes in Chile and Sri Lanka, two bi-national researchers (a Colombian-Canadian and a Sri…

  12. 77 FR 35113 - Canadian National Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Niagara County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... milepost 0.20 to approximately milepost 0.35 in the City of Niagara Falls, Niagara County, N.Y., a distance... track in Niagara Falls, extending between the eastern end of the Bridge and the beginning of the Niagara... Niagara Falls, N.Y., and Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, and is owned by the bi-national Niagara......

  13. The Origins of Christian Liberal Arts Higher Education in Russia: A Case Study of the Russian-American Christian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Victor N.

    2011-01-01

    This is a case study of the historical development of a private Christian faith-based school of higher education in post-Soviet Russia from its conception in 1990 until 2010. This binational school was founded as Russian-American Christian University (RACU) in 1996. In 2003, business and economics as well as social work undergraduate academic…

  14. Mapping socio-environmentally vulnerable populations access and exposure to ecosystem services at the U.S.-Mexico borderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Lara-Valencia, Francisco; Yuan, Yongping; Nie, Wenming; Wilson, Sylvia; Amaya, Gladys; Sleeter, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Socio-environmental vulnerable populations are often unrepresented in land-use planning yet have great potential for loss when exposed to changes in ecosystem services. Administrative boundaries, cultural differences, and language barriers increase the disassociation between land-use management and marginalized populations living in the U.S.–Mexico borderlands. This paper describes the development of a Modified Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index (M-SEVI), using determinants from binational census and neighborhood data that describe levels of education, access to resources, migratory status, housing, and number of dependents, to provide a simplified snapshot of the region's populace that can be used in binational planning efforts. We apply this index at the SCW, located on the border between Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. For comparison, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool is concurrently applied to assess the provision of erosion- and flood control services over a 9-year period. We describe how this coupling of data can form the base for an ecosystem services assessment across political boundaries that can be used by land-use planners. Results reveal potential disparities in environmental risks and burdens throughout the binational watershed in residential districts surrounding and between urban centers. The M-SEVI can be used as an important first step in addressing environmental justice for binational decision-making.

  15. 75 FR 25840 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle AGENCIES: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii). The Kemp's Ridley Recovery Plan is a bi-national plan developed... and interested parties to assist in the recovery of loggerhead turtles. The Plan...

  16. 75 FR 12496 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle AGENCIES: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... availability for public review of the draft Bi-National Recovery Plan (Plan) for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle... turtles. The Plan identifies substantive actions needed to achieve recovery by addressing the threats...

  17. 76 FR 58781 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...- National Recovery Plan (Recovery Plan) for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii). The Recovery...: The Bi-National Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) is available...

  18. On the Inclusive and Exclusive Functions of the "Other" Language in Family Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiermann, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyses bilingual conversations taking place in binational families living in the UK. The focus is on two Polish/English stepfamilies, where the Polish mothers' concern with preserving and developing their children's linguistic and cultural identity collides with the English partner's limited knowledge of Polish. While the paper…

  19. 77 FR 66441 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules... Article 1904 of the Agreement, on October 24, 2012, requesting a panel review of the determination...

  20. 77 FR 10479 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; First... to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the U.S... the Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel...

  1. 76 FR 10005 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... Request for Panel Review with the United States Section of the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 ] Binational Panel Reviews...

  2. 76 FR 72677 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel review was... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews...

  3. 75 FR 82375 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... Review with the United States Section of the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North... Government of Mexico established ] Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews...

  4. Peer Coaching in TEFL/TESL Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacilotto, Silvana; Cummings, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the peer coaching model as a professional development tool for pre-service ESL/EFL teachers, and its possible applicability to the Binational Centres in Brazil, as well as to teacher development programmes in general. Peer coaching, a reflective approach to teacher development,…

  5. 77 FR 72296 - Public Meeting of the U.S.-Canada Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC) Motor Vehicles Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Cooperation Council (RCC) Motor Vehicles Working Group AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... 30 and 31, 2012, the RCC and its bi-national working groups facilitated stakeholder meetings in Washington, DC. This notice announces a public meeting of the RCC Motor Vehicles Working Group. DATES:...

  6. Polymer-mediated mesoscale mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ShaoFeng; YU ShuHong

    2009-01-01

    Polymer-controlled mineralization in aqueous solution or in a mixed solvent media, as well as its com-bination with the interface of air-water can lead to the formation of minerals with unique structures and morphologies, which sheds light on the possibility to mimic the detailed structures of the natural min-erals.

  7. Educators Exchange Program Report, 1998-99. Program Report and Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawson, Kenneth D.; Abina, Armando; Alvarez, Rafael; Armstrong, William B.; Buyukkaya, Sonia; Kardos, Althea; Schubert, Cynthia

    In 1998, the San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) completed a successful third cycle of Educators Exchange Program (EEP) activities. The goal of EEP is to promote binational cooperation, cultural understanding and economic development through faculty exchange and technical assistance programs. During the last six years of program…

  8. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which…

  9. Performance improvement through quality evaluations of sterile cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  10. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under Different Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica De Falco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows. This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  11. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Enrica; Mancini, Emilia; Roscigno, Graziana; Mignola, Enrico; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Senatore, Felice

    2013-12-04

    This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L.) under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows). This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  12. Bacteriophage Therapy for Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm-Infected Wounds: A New Approach to Chronic Wound Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    external environment, these results emphasize the need for combination, multimo- dality therapies. As with antibiotics ,11,12 phages may not be capable of...incorpo- ration of phage is particularly advantageous in that it demonstrates comparable efficacy to antibiotics against unprotected, biofilm bacteria, but...and topical antibiotics can be potentially effective when performed in com- bination and at an increased frequency.22 How- ever, given the robust

  13. Modeling the Stability of Topological Matter in Optical Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-18

    is of the same order as the Heisenberg coupling constant, J. (II) We study the phase diagram of the effective spin model using classical Monte Carlo ...I will construct and analyze a model using a combination of mean field theory and quantum Monte Carlo . The proposed work will foster new...construct and analyze a model using a com- bination of mean field theory and quantum Monte Carlo . The proposed work will foster new directions in

  14. La feria binacional de camélidos y las instituciones del desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natividad González

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on the Binational Camelid Fair organized by local institutions in the border towns of Jujuy (Argentina and Potosí (Bolivia with the aim of encouraging social and economic integration in the region and promoting camelid husbandry. By recording the views the different actors hold concerning development and politics we seek to show how a lack of clearly defined views and a multiplicity of interests can complicate the process of defining goals.

  15. Ploidy of Bovine Nuclear Transfer Blastocysts Blastomere Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, P J; VIUFF, D; THOMSEN, P D;

    2000-01-01

    comprised mainly triploid (8.2 6 10.3 [0–26.3]: SD [range]) and tetraploid (10.6 6 19.9 [0–54.9]) nuclei with other ploidy com- binations accounting for only 0.9 6 2.1 [0–2.1]% of deviant nuclei. The proportion of com- pletely normal nuclear transfer embryos was no less than those produced by in vitro...

  16. The Minimax Estimator of Stochastic Regression Coefficients and Parameters in the Class of All Estimators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wen XU; Song Gui WANG

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors address the problem of the minimax estimator of linear com-binations of stochastic regression coefficients and parameters in the general normal linear model with random effects. Under a quadratic loss function, the minimax property of linear estimators is inves- tigated. In the class of all estimators, the minimax estimator of estimable functions, which is unique with probability 1, is obtained under a multivariate normal distribution.

  17. Ultrahigh Carbon Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Steels have been utilized to prepare compacted powders of white cast iron (2 to 3%C) which exhibit superplastic be- havior at 650 0C and which are ductile ...strength and ductility than many of these commercially-avail- able steels. In particular, austempered fine-grained UHC steels exhibit good co7,binations of... Ductility of Rapidly Solidified White Cast Irons ", Powd. Metall., 26 (1983), pp. 155-160. (29) L. E. Eiselstein, 0. A. Ruano, J. Wadsworth, and 0. D

  18. Punctuated Entropy as Culture-Induced Change:The Case of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher LDyer(Author); ZHANG Yongchun(Translators); LIU Yuan(Translators); YANG Gongwei(Translators)

    2013-01-01

    This article grew out of the obser-vation that as disaster events increase in frequency and severity , recovery from certain kinds , or com-binations of , disasters becomes increasingly diffi-cult, if not impossible.This phenomenon is not new.Throughout history , civilizations have faced ecological and cultural collapse resulting from drought , disease , or earthquake .It is made more cogent, however, by the rapidity of modern culture change , and the increased risk associated with hu-man-induced catastrophes , also known as techno-logical disasters .

  19. Regularization and error assignment to unfolded distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zech, Gunter

    2011-01-01

    The commonly used approach to present unfolded data only in graphical formwith the diagonal error depending on the regularization strength is unsatisfac-tory. It does not permit the adjustment of parameters of theories, the exclusionof theories that are admitted by the observed data and does not allow the com-bination of data from different experiments. We propose fixing the regulariza-tion strength by a p-value criterion, indicating the experimental uncertaintiesindependent of the regularization and publishing the unfolded data in additionwithout regularization. These considerations are illustrated with three differentunfolding and smoothing approaches applied to a toy example.

  20. A novel heterogeneous reaction for generating gaseous nitrous acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The short-lived reactive specimen nitrous acid HONO was generated in the gas phase by the heterogeneous reaction of gaseous HCl with AgNO2 which can generate higher concentration of HONO than other methods. We investigated the process from generation to dissociation in the gas phase under different controlled temperatures, and discussed the ionization and reaction on the solid surface by com-bination of the photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization mass spectroscopy (PES-PIMS) and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS).

  1. Biotechnology: Japan. March 1985-November 1989 (Citations from the Biobusiness data base). Report for March 1985-November 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning Japanese commercial agricultural and pharmaceutical biotechnology research and development. The major emphasis of this bibliography is on Japanese/U.S. cooperative agreements with discussion of patent rights, bulk pharmaceutical production facilities, bi-national technology transfer activities, and related topics. Some attention is given to Japanese industrial and governmental efforts to garner and protect new biotechnical processes and applications. This bibliography will be useful to individuals and organizations seeking biotechnical opportunities with Pacific Rim countries. (Contains 238 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  2. Measuring the impacts of natural amenities and the US-Mexico Border, on housing values in the Santa Cruz Watershed, using spatially-weighted hedonic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Gladys; Norman, Laura M.; Frisvold, George

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the sustainability of International policy or urban development requires consideration of the impacts of these decisions on Ecosystem Services, or the values that humans receive from the ecosystem, including market-land price, environmental, and human well-being values. Hedonic modeling helps to identify the market land price, considering the price is determined by multiple factors affecting it. In U.S. portions of the bi-national Santa Cruz Watershed (SCW), situated at the Arizona-Sonora International border, natural amenities like the riparian corridor and green space have been documented as positive amenities that boost local real estate.

  3. Lymphatic system and lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930583 Analysis of therapeutic efficacy of com- bination chemotherapy and adjuvant radiothera-py in 207 cases of diffuse non—Hodgkin’s lym-phoma.YONG Weiben(勇威本),et al.BeijingCancer Res Instit,Beijing,100000. Chin J Hema-tol 1992;13(12):638—640.Two hundred and seven cases of diffuse non—Hodgkin’s lymphoma(D—NHL)were treatedwith combination chemotherapy(cyclophospha-mide,vincristine,procarbazine,prednisone andpingyingmycin or adriamycin)and adjuvant ra-diotherapy.Complete remission(CR)wasachieved in 94 of 207 patients(45.4%),partial

  4. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...population stratific ation, the genotyping data in com bination with HapMap data (CEU, Yoruban, Han Chinese populations) on 40,000 SNPs with known phase were...fr om Stage 1 of the GWAS. Here we describe our efforts to date on this part of the project . Initially we conducted validation studies of candidate

  5. Basic criteria for a sustainable water management at the U.S.-México border: the case of ambos Nogales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ernesto Cervera Gómez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze some basic criteria for a sustainable use of water in an international watershed shared by Mexico and the United States. The study area comprises the region of Ambos Nogales, which is located inside the Upper Santa Cruz River Basin. This portion of the watershed represents the main ecosystem and the main source of water for urban and rural populations located in this region. Following criteria of sustainability the authors revise and adapt to the case of Ambos Nogales, a set of guidelines proposed by the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security. These guidelines include the following elements: basic water requirements needed to maintain quality of life in the population and the health of ecosystems; water quality that meets certain minimum standards; human actions and their impact on long-term renewability of freshwater stocks and flows; collection of data concerning water resources, use and quality of water; institutional mechanisms to prevent and resolve conflicts; and a democratic process of water-planning and decision-making. These twin cities have a long history of cooperation and conflict linked to water resources, which makes available enough information to create a diagnostic about the water management inside a binational arena, and allowing to explore possibilities for a better water resources management under a sustainable regime and from an international perspective. Keywords: Sustainability, binational water management, ambos Nogales region.

  6. Challenge theme 7: Information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  7. Existing Opportunities to Adapt the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin Water Resources Allocation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzma Fabiola Nava

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the Rio Grande/Bravo (RGB Basin water allocation demonstrates how the United States (U.S. and Mexico have consolidated a transboundary framework based on water sharing. However, the water supply no longer meets the ever-increasing demand for water or the expectations of different stakeholders. This paper explores opportunities for an enhanced management regime that will address past problems and better examine how to balance demands for a precious resource and environmental needs. Based on an overview of the RGB Basin context and the water allocation framework, as well as a discussion on stakeholders’ ability to achieve solutions, this paper explores three key questions: (1 Does the current binational water allocation framework meet current and future human and environmental needs? (2 How can the U.S.-Mexico water allocation framework be adapted to balance social and environmental water demands so it can support and preserve the RGB Basin ecosystem? (3 What are the main opportunities to be explored for expanding the U.S.-Mexico water resources allocation framework? The U.S.-Mexico water resources framework is subject to broad interpretation and may be adapted to the circumstances taking the fullest advantage of its flexibility. Policy recommendations highlight the existing flexibility of the binational framework, the potential to move forward with an ad hoc institutional arrangement, and the creation of political will to achieve change through stakeholders recommendations.

  8. Challenge theme 7: information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  9. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck Høg, B; Sommer, H M; Larsen, L S; Sørensen, A I V; David, B; Hofshagen, M; Rosenquist, H

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacteriosis has become the leading bacterial zoonosis in humans in the European Union and other developed countries. There are many sources of human Campylobacter infections, but broilers and broiler meat have been shown to be the most important. In order to implement effective interventions that reduce the probability of Campylobacter colonisation of broiler flocks, it is essential to fully understand the risk factors involved. We present a bi-national risk factor survey comprising Campylobacter data from more than 5200 Danish and Norwegian indoor, conventional broiler flocks and the responses to a standardised questionnaire, with more than 40 explanatory variables from 277 Danish and Norwegian farms. We explored several models by using different combinations of the Danish and Norwegian data, including models with single-country datasets. All models were analysed using a generalized linear model using backwards elimination and forward selection. The results show that Norwegian broiler flocks had a lower risk of being colonised than Danish flocks. Farm specific variables that increased the risk of flocks becoming colonised with Campylobacter in both countries were: broiler houses older than five years; longer downtime (no. of days between flocks), probably a consequence of longer downtimes being associated with less focus on maintaining a high biosecurity level; broiler houses without a separate ante-room or barrier; and the use of the drinker nipples with cups or bells compared with nipples without cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having boot dips or low stocking density increased the risk of a flock becoming Campylobacter positive. The different model approaches allowed us to explore the effect of having a large

  10. High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project Advanced Space-Rated Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) has an agreement with China National Offshore Oil Corporation New Energy Investment Company, Ltd. (CNOOC), under the United States-China EcoPartnerships Framework, to create a bi-national entity seeking to develop technically feasible and economically viable solutions to energy and environmental issues. Advanced batteries have been identified as one of the initial areas targeted for collaborations. CWRU invited NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) personnel from the Electrochemistry Branch to CWRU to discuss various aspects of advanced battery development as they might apply to this partnership. Topics discussed included: the process for the selection of a battery chemistry; the establishment of an integrated development program; project management/technical interactions; new technology developments; and synergies between batteries for automotive and space operations. Additional collaborations between CWRU and NASA GRC's Electrochemistry Branch were also discussed.

  11. Cascadia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie; Singh, Jay; Lee, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate how globalization and discourses on regional/national identities cannot only create cross-border/regional social spaces but also the criteria to select a transnational elite to occupy the cross-border space reified by interplay of myths and logic. Using the case...... of Cascadia, we observe a construction of regional social space, taking place along the Pacific Northwest border of U.S. and Canada, through the process of globalization. In this socially constructed region of Cascadia, two often-antagonistic groups are mutually benefiting from each other by creating a unique...... bi-national space. On one hand, the neo-liberal business community is redefining borders in terms of free trade while on the other hand the environmentalists are redefining borders in terms of eco-systems. However, to create and maintain this regional identity and redefinition of transnational space...

  12. Generating Combinations by Three Basic Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-xi Cheng

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the problem of listing combinations using a special class of operations, prefix shifts. Com- binations are represented as bitstrings of O's and l's, and prefix shifts are the operations of rotating some prefix of a bitstring by one position to left or right. We give a negative answer to an open problem asked by F. Ruskey and A. Williams (Generating combinations by prefix shifts, In Proc. Llth Annual International Computing and Combinatorics Conference 2005, LNCS 3595, Springer, 2005, pp.570~576), that is whether we can generate combinations by only using three very basic prefix shifts on bitstrings, which are transposition of the first two bits and the rotation of the entire bitstring by one position in either direction (I.e., applying the permutations σ2, σn and σn1- to the indices of the bitstrings).

  13. Clinical use of Plasma and Plasma Fractions in Bleeding Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆钺

    2008-01-01

    Internal and/or external bleeding is a common and sometimes very severe clinical manifestations of disorders of hemostasis. It may follow minor trauma or may arise apparently spontaneously. Disorders of hemostasis are generally divided into those caused by abnormalities of platelets, abnormalities of blood vessels, abnormalities of plasma coagulation factors, and hyperfibrinolysis, or com-binations of these. The use of plasma and plasma fractions dependents on the causing diseases and their severity. Several plasma products and plasma fractions are availa-ble in China and other plasma components and deriva-tives are commercially obtained. There have been the guidelines for their clinical use, and the revised ones will soon be published by Chinese Medical Association.

  14. Polymer network stretching during electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfeld, Israel; Arinstein, Arkadii; Fezzaa, Kamel; Rafailovich, Miriam; Zussman, Eyal

    2011-03-01

    Fast X-ray phase contrast imaging is used to observe the flow of a semi-dilute polyethylene oxide solution during electrospinning. Micron-size glass particles mixed in the polymer solution allow viewing of the jet flow field, and reveal a high-gradient flow that has both longitudinal and radial components that grow rapidly along the jet. The resulting hydrodynamic forces cause substantial longitudinal stretching and transversal contraction of the polymer network within the jet, as confirmed by random walk simulation and theoretical modeling. The polymer network therefore concentrates towards the jet center, and its conformation may transform from a free state to a fully-stretched state within a short distance from the jet start. We acknowledge the financial support of the United States - Israel Bi-National Science Foundation (grant 2006061).

  15. Zionism & Bilingualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    In Today’s Israel the school system is divided by nationality and language. Jews study in Jewish only schools and the medium of instruction is Hebrew, while Arabs study in Arab only schools and the medium of instruction is Arabic. The first initiative of Arab-Jewish bilingual education is from...... the 70s. Then, the Arab-Jewish village ‘Neve Shalom’ was founded, and a bi-national & bilingual school was established. In 1998 a grass-root movement of educationalists and parents started the “Hand in Hand” organization of Arab-Jewish bilingual education in Israel. This organization consists today of 4...... conclusion is, that such films serve as a basis for a fruitful discussion about hegemony and dominance, and that the picture of reality as shown in the films puts a question mark as to whether a bilingual educational system in Israel, could strive within a Zionist framework....

  16. Hebrew-Arabic bilingual schooling in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    . The “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel” is a grass-root movement of bilingual, bi-national primary schools in which Jewish and Arab children study together. The first school was open in Jerusalem in 1998. Currently there are 4 schools throughout the country The schools’ rational is......This paper deals with the policies and practices employed in the teaching of Arabic and Hebrew at a school belonging to the “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel”. Its focus is on strategies that the school has developed in order to support the acquisition of biliteracy......, that by implementing a curriculum which puts emphasis on the equal presentation and representation of the cultural heritage, religious beliefs, and historical narratives of both communities, equality, understanding, respect, reduction fear & prejudice, would be achieved. The linguistic & cultural goal of bilingualism...

  17. Geologic map of the Rio Rico and Nogales 7.5’ quadrangles, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Menges, Christopher M.; Gray, Floyd; Berry, Margaret E.; Bultman, Mark W.; Cosca, Michael A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2016-04-15

    The Rio Rico and Nogales (Arizona) 1:24,000-scale quadrangles are located in the Basin and Range Province of southern Arizona, and the southern edge of the map is the international border with Sonora, Mexico.  The major urban area is Nogales, a bi-national city known as “the gateway to Mexico.”  Rocks exposed in the map area range in age from Jurassic through Quaternary.  Major physiographic, geologic, and hydrologic features in the map area include the southern San Cayetano Mountains, Grosvenor Hills, and Sonoita Creek in the northern part, and Mount Benedict and the Mount Benedict horst block in the southcentral part. The horst block is bounded by the Santa Cruz River on the east and Nogales Wash on the west.

  18. Deportation Experiences of Women Who Inject Drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M.; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Burgos, José Luis; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Rangel, Gudelia; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    Deportation from the United States for drug offenses is common, yet the consequences of deportation for women drug users are poorly documented. In 2008, in Tijuana, Mexico, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study of migration, deportation, and drug abuse by interviewing 12 Mexican injection-drug-using women reporting U.S. deportation. Women reported heavy drug use before and after deportation, but greater financial instability and physical danger following deportation than when in the United States. We identified an unmet need for health and social services among deported drug-using women, including HIV prevention, drug treatment, physical and mental health services, and vocational training. Binational coordination is needed to help deported women resettle in Mexico. PMID:21917563

  19. High-resolution gene mapping using admixture linkage disequilibrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This note reports simulation study on the rate of decay in linkage dis equilibrium (LD) in mixed populations over multiple discrete generations and explores the usefulness of the LD analysis in high-resolution gene mapping. The results indicate that the smaller the recombination fraction and the fewer generati ons since admixtureevent, the higher power of the approach in gene mapping. The expected estimate of recombination fraction would give an estimate that is slig htly biased upwards, if relevant genes are in tight linkage. The estimated recom bination fraction is usually larger than the true value within 2-5 generations. From generations 10-20, the mean estimates are in good agreement with the true value. The method presented here enables estimation of means and corresponding confidence intervals of the recombination fraction at any number of generations.

  20. Urban-environmental study from the Juarez municipality brick factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Romo Aguilar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to evaluate the current situation of the traditional and ecological brick kilns in Juarez. The evaluation is addressed in both the environmental and socio-economic context. The brick production belongs to the informal economic sector without any regulatory scheme and without taxation. Its very low technology has serious impacts on the binational environment of the Paso del Norte region, through the highly polluted emissions to the atmosphere. However, the social and economic context of people working in this industry does not allow important changes, thus, making difficult any initiative for the brick kilns improvements and relocation. The main information source was a very concise survey applied to whole universe of brick makers. Data survey was registered in a Geographic Information System (GIS environment allowing us the analysis of the brick kilns in a spatial context. Finally, this document presents a descriptive profile of the brick kilns production and for the brickmakers.

  1. Deportation experiences of women who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Burgos, José Luis; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Rangel, Gudelia; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2012-04-01

    Deportation from the United States for drug offenses is common, yet the consequences of deportation for women drug users are poorly documented. In 2008, in Tijuana, Mexico, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study of migration, deportation, and drug abuse by interviewing 12 Mexican injection-drug-using women reporting U.S. deportation. Women reported heavy drug use before and after deportation, but greater financial instability and physical danger following deportation than when in the United States. We identified an unmet need for health and social services among deported drug-using women, including HIV prevention, drug treatment, physical and mental health services, and vocational training. Binational coordination is needed to help deported women resettle in Mexico.

  2. The Telescopio San Pedro Mártir project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Michael G.; Lee, William H.; González, Jesús; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Sánchez, Beatriz; Rosales Ortega, Fabián.; Alcock, Charles; Carramiñana Alonso, Alberto; García Díaz, Ma. Teresa; Gutiérrez, Leonel; Herrera, Joel; Hill, Derek; Norton, Timothy J.; Pedrayes, Maria H.; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Reyes-Ruíz, Mauricio; Serrano Guerrero, Hazael; Sierra, Gerardo; Teran, Jose; Urdaibay, David; Uribe, Jorge A.; Watson, Alan M.; Zaritsky, Dennis; García Vargas, Marisa

    2016-07-01

    The Telescopio San Pedro Mártir project intends to construct a 6.5m telescope to be installed at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir in northern Baja California, Mexico. The project is an association of Mexican institutions, lead by the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica and the Instituto de Astronomía at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, in partnership with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the University of Arizona's Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory. The project is currently in the planning and design stage. Once completed, the partners plan to operate the MMT and TSPM as a binational astrophysical observatory.

  3. STRUCTURAL ECONOMIC CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FROM MEXICO AND POLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Kalter, Frank; Pren, Karen A

    2008-01-01

    In this article we use uniquely comparable data sets from two very different settings to examine how exogenous economic transformations affect the likelihood and selectivity of international out-migration. Specifically, we use data from the Mexican Migration Project to construct event history files predicting first U.S. trips from seven communities in the state of Veracruz, which until recently sent very few migrants abroad. Similarly, using data from the Polish Migration Project, we derive comparable event history files predicting first trips to Germany from four Polish communities, which also sent few migrants abroad before the 1980s. Our analyses suggest that the onset of structural adjustment in both places had a significant effect in raising the probability of international migration, even when controlling for a set of standard variables specified by other theories to influence migration propensity, such as the size of the binational income gap and various indicators of human and social capital.

  4. Screening and Optimization transplant Media for Dendrobium officianle%铁皮石斛穴盘育苗基质的优化筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹恒花

    2015-01-01

    Using Dendrobium officianle as the study object, peat, perlite, vermiculite and coco coir were mixed in different proportions as medium ingredient to screen plug transplant media for . The results showed the com-bination peat+vermiculite+perlite (3:1:1) was the best providing the highest survival rate and the highest quality of the seedlings.%以铁皮石斛为研究对象,以泥炭、珍珠岩、蛭石和椰糠为基质配料,按不同比例混合,筛选适合铁皮石斛穴盘育苗的移栽基质。试验结果表明:采用基质泥炭:珍珠岩:蛭石配比为3:1:1成活率及幼苗质量均达到了最佳状态。

  5. Treatment of malignant glioma using hyperthermia*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahang Sun; Mian Guo; Hengyuan Pang; Jingtao Qi; Jinwei Zhang; Yunlong Ge

    2013-01-01

    Thirty pathological y diagnosed patients with grade III-IV primary or recurrent malignant glioma (tumor diameter 3-7 cm) were randomly divided into two groups. The control group underwent conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the hyperthermia group, primary cases received hyperthermia treatment, and patients with recurrent tumors were treated with hyperthermia in com-bination with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Hyperthermia treatment was administered using a 13.56-MHz radio frequency hyperthermia device. Electrodes were inserted into the tumor with the aid of a CT-guided stereotactic apparatus and heat was applied for 1 hour. During 3 months after hyperthermia, patients were evaluated with head CT or MRI every month. Gliomas in the hyper-thermia group exhibited growth retardation or growth termination. Necrosis was evident in 80%of the heated tumor tissue and there was a decrease in tumor diameter. Our findings indicate that ra-dio frequency hyperthermia has a beneficial effect in the treatment of malignant glioma.

  6. Psychodynamic groups as used to work through collective trauma memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomba, Jacek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Israeli-Polish Mental Health Association is a bi-national society of mental health professionals. Presentation of its twelve years’ experience in working through memories of traumatic past was rationale of the text. The traumatic past had been extermination of Jews, by Germans on Polish territory with witnessing Poles. Dynamic group technique had been employed in debate stimulated by theoretical lectures and research results presentations concerning background of anti-Semitism, hatred, Shoah, collective trauma consequences and intergenerational transmission of trauma. Obstacles in the process and suggested measures aiming to overcome these difficulties as described by participants were discussed. Author’s assessment of results of using therapeutic methods to solve mass trauma consequences in next generation of victims and witnesses conclude the essay.

  7. 高职《汽车专业英语》课程的教学改革与实践%Teaching Reform and Practice for "Automotive English" in higher vocational college

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钰

    2013-01-01

    针对高职《汽车专业英语》课程中学生不愿学的现状,文章介绍几点激发学生学习兴趣的教学改革措施,通过实例说明专业知识与岗位技能挂钩的教学实践方法及实施过程。%In according to lacking of interest of studends for "Automotive English", this paper introduces several methods of stimulating students' interest in learning and lots of examples are given to explore the teaching reform of com-bination of professional knowledge and job skills.

  8. Antiangiogenic agents combined with chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanshan Chen; Shun Lu 

    2015-01-01

    As a targeted therapy, antiangiogenic treatment has been increasingly studied for advanced non-smal cel lung cancer (NSCLC) and has proven ef ective for the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting angiogenesis, is the only antiangiogenic agent approved for use in com-bination with first-line chemotherapy for non-squamous NSCLC. Smal-molecule inhibitors targeting the tyrosine kinase receptor have also shown promise when combined with standard chemotherapeutic agents in patients with advanced NSCLC. However, unlike bevacizumab, not al other antiangiogenic agents show significant benefits when combined with chemotherapy. As for the failures of most other combinations, the combination schedule may be an important reason that has so far been overlooked in clinical trials. This article reviews the combination of angiogenic agents with chemotherapy in the treatment of NSCLC.

  9. Drug treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    China Medical Abstracts(Intenal Medicine) 930428 In vitro antibacterial activity and clini-cal significance of domestic fluroqinolones com-binations with other antimicrobial agenls.LI Li-jin(李立津),et al.Instit Infect Dis,2nd TeachHosp,Tianjin Med Coll,Tianjin,300211.Chin JIntern Med 1993;32(2):148—151.The minimal inhibitory concentration of nor-floxacia,pefloxacin,ciprofloxacin and other tenantimicrobial agents for 143 strains of Gram-positive cocci and 267 strains of Gram-negativebacilli of recent clinical isolates from June 1990to March 1991 was analyzed.The results showedthat ciprofloxacin and norvancomycin were moreactive than other antimicrobial agents against

  10. U.S.-Mexico Border Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the development of extensive geodatabases have become invaluable tools for addressing a variety of contemporary societal issues and for making predictions about the future. The United States-Mexico Geographic Information System (USMX-GIS) is based on fundamental datasets that are produced and/or approved by the national geography agencies of each country, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Y Geografia (INEGI) of Mexico, and the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC). The data are available at various scales to allow both regional and local analysis. The USGS and the INEGI have an extensive history of collaboration for transboundary mapping including exchanging digital technology and developing methods for harmonizing seamless national level geospatial datasets for binational environmental monitoring, urban growth analysis, and other scientific applications.

  11. HIV and Mexican migrant workers in the United States: a review applying the vulnerable populations conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarrán, Cynthia R; Nyamathi, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    Mexican migrant workers residing in the United States are a vulnerable population at high risk for HIV infection. This article critically appraises the published data surrounding HIV prevalence in this vulnerable group, as seen through the lens of the Vulnerable Populations Conceptual Model. This model demonstrates how exposure to risk and resource availability affect health status. The health status of Mexican migrants in the United States is compromised by a number of factors that increase risk of HIV: limited access to health services, multiple sexual partners, low rates of condom use, men having sex with men, and lay injection practices. Migration from Mexico to the United States has increased the prevalence of HIV in rural Mexico, making this an issue of urgent binational concern. This review highlights the implications for further nursing research, practice, and policy.

  12. Video-Based Self-Observation as a Component of Developmental Teacher Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Mercado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the benefits to teacher evaluation when video-based self-observation is done by teachers as a vehicle for individual, reflective practice. We explore how it was applied systematically at the Instituto Cultural Peruano Norteamericano (ICPNA bi-national center in Lima, Peru among hundreds of English as a foreign language (EFL teachers in two institution-wide initiatives that have relied on self-observation through video professional development. In these cases, we provide a descriptive framework for each initiative as well as information on what was ultimately achieved by teachers, supervisors and the institution as a whole. We conclude with recommendations for implementing video-based self-evaluation.

  13. Targets set to reduce Lake Erie algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In February 2016, the Great Lakes Executive Committee, which oversees the implementation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) between the U.S. and Canada, approved phosphorus loading targets for Lake Erie to reduce the size of harmful algal blooms (HABs), reduce the presence of the low oxygen zone in the central basin, and protect nearshore water quality. The targets are set with respect to the nutrient loads calculated for 2008. To reduce the impacts of HABs on Lake Erie a target was set of a 40 percent reduction in total and soluble reactive phosphorus loads in the spring from two Canadian rivers and several Michigan and Ohio rivers, especially the Maumee River (https://binational.net/2016/02/22/ finalptargets-ciblesfinalesdep/). States and the province of Ontario are already developing Domestic Action Plans to accomplish the reductions and scientists are developing research and monitoring plans to assess progress.

  14. Developing an Ecosystem Services Online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed; Where We Live, Work, and Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles van Riper III

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Using respective strengths of the biological, physical, and social sciences, we are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM, to help promote the use of information relevant to water allocation and land management in a binational watershed along the U.S.-Mexico border. The SCWEPM will include an ES valuation system within a suite of linked regional driver-response models and will use a multicriteria scenario-evaluation framework that builds on GIS analysis and spatially-explicit models that characterize important ecological, economic, and societal endpoints and consequences that are sensitive to climate patterns, regional water budgets, and regional LULC change in the SCW.

  15. Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudelia Rangel M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US, and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico-San Diego (California, US border region (N=1 429. RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.

  16. Economic and Financial Interactions between Brazil and Mexico: ¿Which Degree of Integration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Esther Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes trade and financial transactions between Brazil and Mexico in order to evaluate the magnitude of their reciprocal integration. Our results suggest that both countries have successfully got inserted into the international economy, which can be observed in their high volumes of trade, in their receiving foreign direct investment and in the size of their capital markets, as well as in the magnitude of their association with the most important countries and financial centers throughout the world. However, even if their bi-na-tional trade and financial integration has notably increased, especially after the Economic Complementation Agreements came into force in 2003 and due to the "translatinization" of Brazilian and Mexican firms, the magnitude of their reciprocal trade and financial transactions remains at very low relative levels, a situation that may significantly change in the framework of a possible strategic agreement of economic integration between these two countries.

  17. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Laredo, Crystal City-Eagle Pass, San Antonio, and Del Rio 1 x 2 Quadrangles, Texas, and the Nuevo Laredo, Ciudad Acuna, Piedras Negras, and Nueva Rosita 1 x 2 Quadrangles, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Berry, Margaret E.; VanSistine, D. Paco; Snyders, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this map is to provide an integrated, bi-national geologic map dataset for display and analyses on an Arc Internet Map Service (IMS) dedicated to environmental health studies in the United States-Mexico border region. The IMS web site was designed by the US-Mexico Border Environmental Health Initiative project and collaborators, and the IMS and project web site address is http://borderhealth.cr.usgs.gov/. The objective of the project is to acquire, evaluate, analyze, and provide earth, biologic, and human health resources data within a GIS framework (IMS) to further our understanding of possible linkages between the physical environment and public health issues. The geologic map dataset is just one of many datasets included in the web site; other datasets include biologic, hydrologic, geographic, and human health themes.

  18. A Preliminary Study on the Relationship Between the Indica-Japonica RAPD Differentiation of Parents and Heterosis in Dian Type Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Wen-hong; XU Ming-hui; ZHANG Shu-hua

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between the indica-japonica differentiation of parents and heterosis of hybridin rice was studied with 10 sterile lines, 10 maintainer lines of the sterile lines, 38 restorer lines of Dian typehybrid rice and 40 hybrids derived from the sterile lines and restorer lines. The results indicated that there wasa parabolic correlation between the indica-japonica differentiation of parents detected by RAPD markers andheterosis of hybrid rice. When certain indica-japonica differentiation of parents exists, the percentage of com-binations with positve heterosis and the mean heterosis of hybrids were high. But that didn't mean too muchdifference of parents could lead to stronger hetesosis, that meant overdiffernt parents seldom bring positve het-erotic hybrids. Suitable difference of percent of indica alleles of parents of stronger heterotic hybrid was 12 -16%.

  19. Balancing Energy, Food, Natural Resources and Environment in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dilli Bahadur

    2010-09-15

    Nepal could harness less than 1% of its 83000 MW hydropower potential. Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project (6720 MW) is a bi-national project on Mahakali River bordering between Nepal and India. The earnings from: electricity (NRs. 34.55 billion/year); irrigation (NRs. 5.55 billion/year), fish farming (NRs. 8.65 billion/year), carbon trading (NRs. 4.42 billion/year) and many billions from other sources e.g. eco-tourism, industry, horticulture, herbiculture, floriculture, sericulture, rafting and water sports, educational and vocational training and other industrial/commercial activities can catapult the socioeconomic horizon of Nepal. Hence, PMP should be jointly developed in the earliest and build confidence for the further hydropower development.

  20. Measuring and Comparing Energy Flexibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility in energy supply and demand becomes more and more important with increasing Renewable Energy Sources (RES) production and the emergence of the Smart Grid. So-called prosumers, i.e., entities that produce and/or consume energy, can offer their inherent flexibilities through so......-called demand response and thus help stabilize the energy markets. Thus, prosumer flexibility becomes valuable and the ongoing Danish project TotalFlex [1] explores the use of prosumer flexibility in the energy market using the concept of a flex-offer [2], which captures energy flexibilities in time and...... induced by time and amount individually, and by their com- bination. To this end, we introduce several flexibility measures that take into account the combined effect of time and energy on flex-offer flexibility and discuss their respective pros and cons through a number of realistic examples....

  1. Bacteriological water quality along the Tijuana-Ensenada, Baja California, México shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Borbón, Ma Victoria; Rico-Mora, Roxana; Weisberg, Stephen B; Noble, Rachel T; Dorsey, John H; Leecaster, Molly K; McGee, Charles D

    2006-10-01

    This survey was part of a Binational Program (Mexico-United States) in microbiological water quality, with a goal to assess the shoreline bacteriological water quality from Tijuana to Ensenada, Mexico. Samples were collected at 29 sites (19 beaches and 10 outfalls), from the United States border to Punta Banda, Baja California, during summer (1998) and winter (1999). Total coliforms, fecal coliforms and enterococci were used as bacterial indicators. Standard methods were used for total and fecal coliforms, while the Enterolert quick method (IDEXX) was used for the enterococci. Compared with outfalls, the beaches exceeded water quality standards by a small percent, 25.3% in summer and 17% in winter. For outfalls, the percentage of shoreline that exceeded bacterial indicator thresholds had a minor value in summer (32.7%) than in winter (50%). Sites near wastewater discharges had the lowest quality and did not meet the microbiological water quality criteria for recreational use.

  2. Developing spatially explicit footprints of plausible land-use scenarios in the Santa Cruz Watershed, Arizona and Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Feller, Mark; Villarreal, Miguel L.

    2012-01-01

    The SLEUTH urban growth model is applied to a binational dryland watershed to envision and evaluate plausible future scenarios of land use change into the year 2050. Our objective was to create a suite of geospatial footprints portraying potential land use change that can be used to aid binational decision-makers in assessing the impacts relative to sustainability of natural resources and potential socio-ecological consequences of proposed land-use management. Three alternatives are designed to simulate different conditions: (i) a Current Trends Scenario of unmanaged exponential growth, (ii) a Conservation Scenario with managed growth to protect the environment, and (iii) a Megalopolis Scenario in which growth is accentuated around a defined international trade corridor. The model was calibrated with historical data extracted from a time series of satellite images. Model materials, methodology, and results are presented. Our Current Trends Scenario predicts the footprint of urban growth to approximately triple from 2009 to 2050, which is corroborated by local population estimates. The Conservation Scenario results in protecting 46% more of the Evergreen class (more than 150,000 acres) than the Current Trends Scenario and approximately 95,000 acres of Barren Land, Crops, Deciduous Forest (Mesquite Bosque), Grassland/Herbaceous, Urban/Recreational Grasses, and Wetlands classes combined. The Megalopolis Scenario results also depict the preservation of some of these land-use classes compared to the Current Trends Scenario, most notably in the environmentally important headwaters region. Connectivity and areal extent of land cover types that provide wildlife habitat were preserved under the alternative scenarios when compared to Current Trends.

  3. 艺术批评的理论自觉%THE THEORETICAL CONSCIOUSNESS OF ART CRITICISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊元义; 王文革

    2014-01-01

    于平对中国当代文化的发展不仅有宏观把握,也有微观研究,在舞蹈艺术批评、艺术批评和文化批评上取得了丰硕的理论成果。于平的艺术批评具有高度的理论自觉,那就是将理论研究和对策研究有机结合起来,积极推进广大艺术家的艺术调整;将宏观把握与微观研究有机结合起来,努力解决艺术批评的理论分歧;大量汲取中国古代艺术理论宝库里活的思想,在一定程度上推进了中国古代艺术理论的现代转型。%Yu Ping takes not only m acroscopic grasp, but also m icrocosm ic researches on the Chinese m odern cultural developm ent, and has gotten a lot of achievem ents on dance art criticism , art criticism and literature criticism . Yu Ping's art criticism show s higher theoretical consciousness, w hich is taking the organic com bination of theory and strategy, pushing forw ard artists' art adjustm ent;taking the organic com bination of m acroscopic grasp and m icrocosm ic researches, efforts to resolve the theoretical difference of art criticism;adopt m ass creative thoughts from the Chinese ancient art theory collection to push forw ard the m odern transform ation of the Chinese ancient art theory.

  4. Using spatial metrics and surveys for the assessment of trans-boundary deforestation in protected areas of the Maya Mountain Massif: Belize-Guatemala border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S D; Omine, K; Ford, J B; Sugimura, K; Yoshida, K

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the trans-boundary deforestation history and patterns in protected areas along the Belize-Guatemala border is of regional and global importance. To assess deforestation history and patterns in our study area along a section of the Belize-Guatemala border, we incorporated multi-temporal deforestation rate analysis and spatial metrics with survey results. This multi-faceted approach provides spatial analysis with relevant insights from local stakeholders to better understand historic deforestation dynamics, spatial characteristics and human perspectives regarding the underlying causes thereof. During the study period 1991-2014, forest cover declined in Belize's protected areas: Vaca Forest Reserve 97.88%-87.62%, Chiquibul National Park 99.36%-92.12%, Caracol Archeological Reserve 99.47%-78.10% and Colombia River Forest Reserve 89.22%-78.38% respectively. A comparison of deforestation rates and spatial metrics indices indicated that between time periods 1991-1995 and 2012-2014 deforestation and fragmentation increased in protected areas. The major underlying causes, drivers, impacts, and barriers to bi-national collaboration and solutions of deforestation along the Belize-Guatemala border were identified by community leaders and stakeholders. The Mann-Whitney U test identified significant differences between leaders and stakeholders regarding the ranking of challenges faced by management organizations in the Maya Mountain Massif, except for the lack of assessment and quantification of deforestation (LD, SH: 18.67, 23.25, U = 148, p > 0.05). The survey results indicated that failure to integrate buffer communities, coordinate among managing organizations and establish strong bi-national collaboration has resulted in continued ecological and environmental degradation. The information provided by this research should aid managing organizations in their continued aim to implement effective deforestation mitigation strategies.

  5. Effects of climate change and population growth on the transboundary Santa Cruz aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christopher A.; Megdal, Sharon; Oroz, Lucas Antonio; Callegary, James; Vandervoet, Prescott

    2012-01-01

    The USA and Mexico have initiated comprehensive assessment of 4 of the 18 aquifers underlying their 3000 km border. Binational management of groundwater is not currently proposed. University and agency researchers plus USA and Mexican federal, state, and local agency staff have collaboratively identified key challenges facing the Santa Cruz River Valley Aquifer located between the states of Arizona and Sonora. The aquifer is subject to recharge variability, which is compounded by climate change, and is experiencing growing urban demand for groundwater. In this paper, we briefly review past, current, and projected pressures on Santa Cruz groundwater. We undertake first-order approximation of the relative magnitude of climate change and human demand drivers on the Santa Cruz water balance. Global circulation model output for emissions scenarios A1B, B1, and A2 present mixed trends, with annual precipitation projected to vary by ±20% over the 21st century. Results of our analysis indicate that urban water use will experience greater percentage change than climate-induced recharge (which remains the largest single component of the water balance). In the Mexican portion of the Santa Cruz, up to half of future total water demand will need to be met from non-aquifer sources. In the absence of water importation and with agricultural water use and rights increasingly appropriated for urban demand, wastewater is increasingly seen as a resource to meet urban demand. We consider decision making on both sides of the border and conclude by identifying short- and longer-term opportunities for further binational collaboration on transboundary aquifer assessment.

  6. Institutions and Societal Impacts of Climate in the Lower Colorado and San Pedro Basins of the U.S.-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, R. G.; Wilder, M.; Morehouse, B. J.; Garfin, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Southwest and Mexico border region feature two prominent river basins, the Colorado and Rio Grande, and ecologically important sub-basins such as the San Pedro. The area within which these transboundary basins lie is characterized by overall aridity and high climatic variability over seasonal to decadal and longer time scales. Throughout human occupation, numerous and diverse strategies for buffering climate impacts have emerged. The most notable response has been an increasingly complex system of institutions and structures designed to buffer water scarcity. The Colorado River Compact, and the laws governing allocation of waters from the Rio Grande River, together with the dams, hydropower generators, canals and other engineered features, represent two of the most complex systems. Drought nevertheless remains a looming specter across much of the binational border region. Institutional mechanisms for responding to drought range from awareness-raising and capacity-building efforts, to implementation of formal drought plans, to storing water to make up for deficits, and water conservation rules that become increasingly stringent as drought intensifies. A number of formal and informal binational institutions operate in the region. Some are venerable, like the century-old International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) and its Mexican counterpart the Comision Internacional de Limites y Agua (CILA). Others, like the Border Environment Cooperation Commission and the North American Development Bank, were created in the mid-1990s with the North American Free Trade Agreement. These institutions, both domestic and transnational, operate in a complex binational, bicultural environment with contrasting legal and administrative traditions. Under such constraints, they manage water resources and ecosystems and attempt to improve water and sanitation infrastructure in the context of deep and extended drought. But in spite of their efforts, society and natural habitat

  7. 丹瓜方对转基因糖尿病小鼠心脏损伤的作用%Study of Dan Gua-Fang in Preventention and Treatment of Heart Injury of Genetically Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄苏萍; 陈燕; 林妙娴; 颜群芳; 王思梅; 叶梦捷

    2014-01-01

    探讨丹瓜方对转基因糖尿病小鼠心脏组织的影响。32只A poE-/-小鼠数字随机等分为模型组、丹瓜方组、联合用药组(丹瓜方+吡格列酮)、吡格列酮组。喂以普通饲料,各组分别给药12周。小鼠处死,取心脏、匀浆,免疫组化测心脏血清反应因子(SR F)含量;解剖冠状动脉,光镜观察比较。结果:与模型组比较,联合用药组与丹瓜方组SR F阳性率降低有显著性差异(P<0.01);形态学观察,丹瓜方组与联合用药组冠状动脉内膜大部分无增厚。结果表明:丹瓜方对糖尿病小鼠心脏具有保护作用。%To observe the effect of D an Gua-Fang on the heart of genetically induced diabetic mice. T hirty-tw o A poE-/-diabetic m ice w ere random ly divided into the m odel group, D an-gua prescription group, the com bined treatm ent group (Dan-gua prescription+ pioglitazone) and pioglitazone group. E ach group w as given m edicine respectively, and fed w ith norm al diet for 12 w eeks. T he heart hom ogenates production w as used to m easure related indicators. T he expression of SR F in heart hom ogenates w as detected by im m unohistochem ical. T he C oronary w as observed under light m icroscopy. C om pared w ith the m odel group, there w ere significant difference of SR F positive rate betw een com bination group and D an-gua prescription group (P<0.01). T he m orphology of D an-gua prescription group and the com bination group w as significantly im proved: m ost of the tunica intim a of the coronary artery cannot be found thickening. C om pared w ith the control group, Pioglitazone group's effect is w eaker,butbetterthan thatofthe untreated group.D an G ua-Fang hasprotective effecton the heartofdiabetic m ice.

  8. Apoyo a la integración urbana y regional de la zona fronteriza del Eje Vial N° 1 Piura – Guayaquil: una aproximación desde una perspectiva binacional y sostenible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Castillo García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Support for urban and regional integration of the frontier zone of the Axis Road N° 1 Piura – Guayaquil: an aproach from a binational and sustainable perspectiveThe objective of this paper is to show a concrete experience of territorial management of the frontier zone of the Axis Road N° 1 Piura–Guayaquil formed by Zarumilla Province (Perú and Huaquillas and Arenillas Cantons (Ecuador, from a binational and sustainable perspective, having as regional framework the Region of Tumbes (Perú and El Oro Province (Ecuador. In this study area there are social inequities, such as scarce educational opportunities, insufficient youngsters’ training and health access. Thus, the university education supply is short, which gives way to youngsters’ emigration to Tumbes, Machala and other cities when they want to get a university education. Health services are also insufficient in terms of infrastructure, equipment, human resources, and quality of the services offered, which justifies a territorial management.El objetivo del presente artículo es presentar una experiencia concreta de ordenamiento territorialde la zona fronteriza del Eje Vial N° 1 Piura – Guayaquil, conformada por la provincia de Zarumilla (Perú y los cantones de Huaquillas y Arenillas (Ecuador, desde una perspectiva binacional y sostenible; considerando como marco regional a la región Tumbes (Perú, y a la provincia de El Oro (Ecuador. En esta área de estudio se presentan situaciones de inequidad social como escasas  oportunidades de educación, de formación de jóvenes y de acceso a la salud. Así, la oferta de oportunidades de educación universitaria es restringida, lo que motiva que los jóvenes con aspiraciones de lograr una formación universitaria se trasladen a las ciudades de Tumbes, Machala y otras para satisfacer sus anhelos. Los servicios de salud se ofrecen de manera insuficiente, en términos de infraestructura, equipamiento, recursos humanos y calidad en la

  9. Water Transfers, Air Quality, Ecosystems and Population Growth at the US-Mexico Border: An Integrated Model of the Mexicali and Imperial Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, C. B.; Gonzalez, T.; Peach, J.; Kjelland, M.; Collins, K.; Grant, W. E.

    2006-12-01

    Borderland communities in the Imperial-Mexicali Valleys (IMVs) of California (U.S.A.) and Mexicali (Mexico) are experiencing socioeconomic and environmental changes driven by policy makers and environmental conditions both within and outside the IMVs. The Colorado River Quantification Settlement Agreement (QSA) of 2003 will transfer 30 million acre-feet of Colorado River water from Imperial Valley (IV) agricultural users to Southern California urban users over a 75-year period. Because the water level of the Salton Sea is supported by agricultural runoff, reduced water flows to the sea raise concerns that: 1) air quality will be degraded as dust is generated by the drying Sea-bed, and 2) declining fish populations due to increasing salinity will no longer support birds migrating along a key avian flyway. Rapid population growth in the Mexican border-city of Mexicali, combined with new power plants and plans for water reuse, raises concerns that: 1) the quantity and quality of water supplied to the Salton Sea will decline, and 2) increased vehicle use and electrical power generation will lead to declining air quality in the binational air basin. Each concern may be affected by climate change. As environmental factors change, so too may the agricultural economy of the Imperial Valley that, in turn, depends on the availability of both water and manual labor. The economy of Mexicali is dominated by the maquiladora (manufacturing) industry that depends upon the availability of power, labor and water. A system dynamics model, with annual time step, simulates this complex binational system. The model was developed by an academic team with input from local experts/decision-makers from both Mexico and the US. We are preparing to engage community stakeholders and decision-makers in exploring the model. Insights gained from model results yield better understanding of the consequences of alternative future scenarios that include: QSA water transfers and land fallowing plans

  10. Combined Action of Uniform Flow and Oscillating Flow Around Marine Riser at Low Keulegan-Carpenter Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yue; HUANG Weiping; ZHAO Jingli

    2014-01-01

    With the increase of petroleum and gas production in deep ocean, marine risers of circular cylinder shape are widely used in the offshore oil and gas platform. In order to research the hydrodynamic performance of marine risers, the dynamic mesh technique and User-Defined Function (UDF) are used to simulate the circular cylinder motion. The motion of a transversely oscillat-ing circular cylinder in combination of uniform flow and oscillating flow is simulated. The uniform flow and oscillating flow both are in x direction. SIMPLE algorithm is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. The User-Defined Function is used to control the cylinder transverse vibration and the inlet flow. The lift and drag coefficient changing with time and the map of vorticity isolines at different phase angle are obtained. Force time histories are shown for uniform flow at Reynolds number (Re) of 200 and for the com-bination of uniform and oscillating flows. With the increase of amplitude of oscillating flow in combined flow, the change of lift am-plitude is not sensitive to the the change of cylinder oscillating frequency. Lift amplitude increases with the increase of oscillating flow amplitude in the combined flow, but there is no definite periodicity of the lift coefficient. The drag and inertia force coefficients change when the maximum velocity of the oscillating flow increases in the combined flow. The vortex shedding near the circular cylinder shows different characteristics.

  11. Biodiversity losses and conservation trade-offs: Assessing future urban growth scenarios for a North American trade corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Boykin, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The Sonoran Desert and Apache Highlands ecoregions of North America are areas of exceptionally high plant and vertebrate biodiversity. However, much of the vertebrate biodiversity is supported by only a few vegetation types with limited distributions, some of which are increasingly threatened by changing land uses. We assessed the impacts of two future urban growth scenarios on biodiversity in a binational watershed in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. We quantified and mapped terrestrial vertebrate species richness using Wildlife Habitat Relation models and validated the results with data from National Park Service biological inventories. Future urban growth, based on historical trends, was projected to the year 2050 for 1) a “Current Trends” scenario and, 2) a “Megalopolis” scenario that represented a transnational growth corridor with open-space conservation attributes. Based on Current Trends, 45% of existing riparian woodland (267 of 451species), and 34% of semi-desert grasslands (215 of 451 species) will be lost, whereas, in the Megalopolis scenario, these types would decline by 44% and 24% respectively. Outcomes of the two models suggest a trade-off at the taxonomic class level: Current Trends would reduce and fragment mammal and herpetofauna habitat, while Megalopolis would result in loss of avian-rich riparian habitat.

  12. 嫁接对茶树新梢化学成分的影响%Effect of Grafting on Chemical Composition of tea shoots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁月荣; 陆建良; 龚淑英; 徐月荣; 屠幼英

    2001-01-01

    Grafting with eultivar "Yunaadaye" as stock and tea clones"Wuniuzao" and"Zhenong-113" as scio was carried out.Chemical compsition in shoots the combination plants was inveaigated and compared with scion clones trans planted at the same time as grafting did.The results showed that comtents of amino acids and caffeine were increased in com bination plants but tea ployphenols and tea catechins were decreased.%以云南大种为砧木、乌牛早和浙农113为接穗进行嫁接试验,并与同期移栽的乌牛早和淅农113进行化学成分分析比较.结果表明,嫁接对该2品种的化学成分含量均有明显影响,氨基酸和咖啡因含量增加;茶多酚和主要儿茶素类含量减少.

  13. Experiment and simulation study on construction of a three-dimensional network model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The construction of a network model is one of the key techniques in organic com-bination of microscopic flow experiment and simulation. The construction method of a three-dimensional network model is presented on the basis of CT scanning images in this paper. A series of CT slice images describing microscopic pore structure and fluid distribution of actual rock is obtained with the help of the in-dustrial microfocus CT system. Based on the extraction of pore space skeleton, pore and throat information, the corresponding network model is established, and the conversion from three-dimensional CT image information to pore-throat size distribution and topological information is also achieved. The feature of this me-thod lies in the fact that complicated pore space of rock may be characterized by pores and throats with a simple shape while keeping the geometry and flow char-acteristics. It is indicated that the calculated results of porosity, permeability, rela-tive permeability curve and microscopic remaining oil distribution match very well the experimental results of water flooding and polymer flooding. This network model may fairly well characterize the rock microscopic pore-throat size and topo-logical characteristics.

  14. Fertility in the context of Mexican migration to the United States: A case for incorporating the pre-migration fertility of immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Choi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mexican-American fertility is poorly understood because data limitations prevent researchers from accurately estimating the fertility levels of members of this group and from determining how their fertility changes within and across generations. Objective: Using binational data and an innovative methodological addressing key methodological limitations, I (1 estimate the fertility of Mexican Americans, (2 describe how selective Mexican migration to the United States is in terms of fertility, (3 document how Mexican-American fertility changes within and across generations, and (4 assess how educational selectivity and assimilation contribute to levels of fertility and fertility changes within and across generations. Results: My findings show that migration from Mexico to the United States is positively selective with respect to fertility. Among the migrants studied, there was a disruption in fertility in anticipation of migration, but a resumption of pre-migration fertility patterns and partial compensation for the earlier fertility loss after migration. Fertility levels among Mexican-Americans appear to be decreasing within and across generations, as immigrants deviate from their pre-migration fertility patterns and increasingly adopt those of whites. Nonetheless, Mexican-American fertility has not yet fully converged with white fertility. Educational assimilation explains a considerable portion of this fertility decline within and across generations. Comments: These findings highlight the importance of empirically observing the pre-migration fertility of immigrants.

  15. Study on the Connotation of Community in Discipline of Social Work%社会工作学视野下的社区内涵探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺志峰

    2012-01-01

      在社会工作领域,社区工作备受争议的关键点之一就在于对社区内涵的理解。本文在静态上,分析了社区概念的三种研究维度,即地理的社区、心理的社区和行动的社区。在动态上,指出随着社会的变迁,社区概念的内涵及要素会在地理的、心理的和行动的维度上呈现出不同的组合形式。%  In social work field, community work is frequently dis-puted due to the connotation of community. Based on development of so-cial work in Macao , Hong Kong and Tai Wan,the paper mainly studies evolution of conception of community. It maybe be divided into three di-mensionalities,which are geographical community,psychological com-munity and action community. Along with society changes, Understand-ing toward connotation of community would present some different com-binations of above dimensionalities.

  16. The gradience of multilingualism in typical and impaired language development: Positioning bilectalism within comparative bilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleanthes K. Grohmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of factors characterizes bi- and multilingual compared to monolingual language acquisition. Two of the most prominent viewpoints have recently been put in perspective and enriched by a third (Tsimpli 2014: age of onset of children’s exposure to their native languages, the role of the input they receive, and the timing in monolingual first language development of the phenomena examined in bi- and multilingual children’s performance. This article picks up a fourth potential factor (Grohmann 2014b: language proximity, that is, the closeness between the two or more grammars a multilingual child acquires. It is a first attempt to flesh out the proposed gradient scale of multilingualism within the approach dubbed ‘comparative bilingualism’. The empirical part of this project comes from three types of research: (i the acquisition and subsequent development of pronominal object clitic placement in two closely related varieties of Greek by bilectal, binational, bilingual, and multilingual children; (ii the performance on executive control tasks by monolingual, bilectal, and bi- or multilingual children; and (iii the role of comparative bilingualism in children with a developmental language impairment for both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment as well as the possible avoidance or weakening of how language impairment presents.

  17. The Gradience of Multilingualism in Typical and Impaired Language Development: Positioning Bilectalism within Comparative Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Kleanthes K; Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of factors characterizes bi- and multilingual compared to monolingual language acquisition. Two of the most prominent viewpoints have recently been put in perspective and enriched by a third (Tsimpli, 2014): age of onset of children's exposure to their native languages, the role of the input they receive, and the timing in monolingual first language development of the phenomena examined in bi- and multilingual children's performance. This article picks up a fourth potential factor (Grohmann, 2014b): language proximity, that is, the closeness between the two or more grammars a multilingual child acquires. It is a first attempt to flesh out the proposed gradient scale of multilingualism within the approach dubbed "comparative bilingualism." The empirical part of this project comes from three types of research: (i) the acquisition and subsequent development of pronominal object clitic placement in two closely related varieties of Greek by bilectal, binational, bilingual, and multilingual children; (ii) the performance on executive control tasks by monolingual, bilectal, and bi- or multilingual children; and (iii) the role of comparative bilingualism in children with a developmental language impairment for both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment as well as the possible avoidance or weakening of how language impairment presents.

  18. Geological and geophysical remote sensing of Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. S., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A binational, multidisciplinary research effort in Iceland is directed at an analysis of MSS imagery from ERTS-1 to study a variety of geologic, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural phenomena. Initial findings are: (1) recent lava flows can be delineated from older ones; (2) ERTS-1 and NOAA-2 recorded volcanic eruptions on Heimaey, Vestmann Islands; (3) coastline changes are mappable; (4) areas covered with new or residual snow can be mapped, and dark appearance of newly fallen snow on band 7 appears to be related to melting; (5) sediment plumes from discharge of glacial rivers can be delineated; (6) the area encompassed by glacial ice can be mapped, including the new position of a surging glacier, Eyjabakkajokull, and related phenomena of nunataks and moraines; (7) changes in position of rivers, lake sizes, and new lakes can be mapped; (8) low sun angle imagery enhances the morphologic expression of constructional glacial and volcanic landforms; (9) MSS color composites permit regional mapping of distribution of vegetation; and (10) at least at 1:250, 000 map scale and smaller, ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of updating various types of maps of Iceland and will permit the compilation of maps specifically aimed at those dynamic environmental phenomena which impact on the Icelandic economy.

  19. Satellite geological and geophysical remote sensing of Iceland: Preliminary results from analysis of MSS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.; Boedvarsson, A.; Fridriksson, S.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Thorarinsson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.

    1973-01-01

    A binational, multidisciplinary research effort in Iceland is directed at an analysis of MSS imagery from ERTS-1 to study a variety of geologic, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural phenomena. A preliminary evaluation of available MSS imagery of Iceland has yielded several significant results - some of which may have direct importance to the Icelandic economy. Initial findings can be summarized as follows: (1) recent lava flows can be delineated from older flows at Askja and Hekla; (2) MSS imagery from ERTS-1 and VHRR visible and infrared imagery from NOAA-2 recorded the vocanic eruption on Heimaey, Vestmann Islands; (3) coastline changes, particularly changes in the position of bars and beaches along the south coast are mappable; and (4) areas covered with new and residual snow can be mapped, and the appearance of newly fallen snow on ERTS-1, MSS band 7 appears dark where it is melting. ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of updating various types of maps of Iceland and will permit the compilation of special maps specifically aimed at those dynamic environmental phenomena which impact on the Icelandic economy.

  20. Canadian SAR remote sensing for the Terrestrial Wetland Global Change Research Network (TWGCRN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Shannon; Brisco, Brian; Cull, Andrew; Gallant, Alisa L.; Sadinski, Walter J.; Thompson, Dean

    2010-01-01

    The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) has more than 30 years of experience investigating the use of SAR remote sensing for many applications related to terrestrial water resources. Recently, CCRS scientists began contributing to the Terrestrial Wetland Global Change Research Network (TWGCRN), a bi-national research network dedicated to assessing impacts of global change on interconnected wetland-upland landscapes across a vital portion of North America. CCRS scientists are applying SAR remote sensing to characterize wetland components of these landscapes in three ways. First, they are using a comprehensive set of RADARSAT-2 SAR data collected during April to September 2009 to extract multi-temporal surface water information for key TWGCRN study landscapes in North America. Second, they are analyzing polarimetric RADARSAT-2 data to determine areas where double-bounce represents the primary scattering mechanism and is indicative of flooded vegetation in these landscapes. Third, they are testing advanced interferometric SAR techniques to estimate water levels with RADARSAT-2 Fine Quad polarimetric image pairs. The combined information from these three SAR analysis activities will provide TWGCRN scientists with an integrated view and monitoring capability for these dynamic wetland-upland landscapes. These data are being used in conjunction with other remote sensing and field data to study interactions between landscape and animal (birds and amphibians) responses to climate/global change.

  1. 图书馆工作中制度化管理与人性化服务的有机结合%The Library Work in the Combination of Institutionalized Management & Humanized Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小春

    2014-01-01

    通过对图书馆工作制度化管理和人性化服务有机结合的必要性的阐述,提出了有效实行图书馆制度化管理与人性化服务有机结合的途径:即树立“以服务为中心”的管理理念、优化图书馆阅读环境、简化和规范借阅制度、创新管理,提高图书馆服务水平。%By means of the work institutionalized management in the libraries expound the necessity of the organic com-bination of humanized service, and puts forward the effective practice library of institutionalized management and hu-manized service organic combination way:Namely establish the management idea with"service as the center", to opti-mize the environment of the library to read, to simplify and specify the lending system, innovation management, and im-prove the level of library services.

  2. Development of a shared vision for groundwater management to protect and sustain baseflows of the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Holly E.; Gungle, Bruce; Lacher, Laurel J.; Turner, Dale S.; Bushman, Brooke M.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping along portions of the binational San Pedro River has depleted aquifer storage that supports baseflow in the San Pedro River. A consortium of 23 agencies, business interests, and non-governmental organizations pooled their collective resources to develop the scientific understanding and technical tools required to optimize the management of this complex, interconnected groundwater-surface water system. A paradigm shift occurred as stakeholders first collaboratively developed, and then later applied, several key hydrologic simulation and monitoring tools. Water resources planning and management transitioned from a traditional water budget-based approach to a more strategic and spatially-explicit optimization process. After groundwater modeling results suggested that strategic near-stream recharge could reasonably sustain baseflows at or above 2003 levels until the year 2100, even in the presence of continued groundwater development, a group of collaborators worked for four years to acquire 2250 hectares of land in key locations along 34 kilometers of the river specifically for this purpose. These actions reflect an evolved common vision that considers the multiple water demands of both humans and the riparian ecosystem associated with the San Pedro River.

  3. 基于 VPython 的三维场景构建在光学教学中的应用%Applications on Construction of Three di mensional Scene in Optics Teaching Based on VPython

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    VPython is a com bination of the Python program ming language and a 3D graphics module called“Visual” .VPython is designed to create interactive 3D scenes and animations quickly .In this paper ,four 3D scenes about reflection and refraction ,imaging of the thin lens ,aberration of the spherical lens and polarization phenomenon of light are introduced to illustrate application of VPython in optics teaching ,which is helpful to show specific optical phenomenon more directly and reveal related physics .%VPython 是 Python 语言和三维图像模块 Visual 的组合,可用于快速创建交互式的三维场景和动画。本文以光的反射折射、薄透镜成像、球面透镜像差和光的偏振现象为例,阐述了基于 VPython 的三维交互场景构建技术在光学课程教学中的应用。三维场景构建在光学课程教学过程中的应用有助于更直观地展现特定的光学现象并揭示其物理规律。

  4. Predation on Pacific salmonid eggs and carcass's by subyearling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Abbett, Ross; Verdoliva, Francis

    2016-01-01

    A binational effort to reintroduce Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that were extirpated in the Lake Ontario ecosystem for over a century is currently being undertaken by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Reintroduction actions include the release of several life stages including fry, fall fingerlings, and yearling smolts. In this study we describe the diet of recently released fall fingerling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of the Salmon River, New York. A specific objective of the study was to determine if juvenile Atlantic salmon would utilize the high caloric food source provided by introduced Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) that includes eggs and carcass flesh. Salmon eggs and carcass flesh comprised 20.5% of the October to January diet in 2013–14 and 23.9% in 2014–15. The consumption of steelhead (O. mykiss) eggs was a major part of the diet in April in both 2014 (54.1%) and 2015 (33.2%). This study documented that recently released Atlantic salmon will consume the high caloric food material provided by Pacific salmonids and that the consumption of this material extends for several months.

  5. Best practices for community gardening in a US-Mexico border community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangadu, Thenral; Kelly, Michael; Orezzoli, Max C E; Gallegos, Rebecca; Matharasi, Pracheta

    2016-04-22

    Minority communities such as those on the US-Mexico border are placed at disproportionate high risk for child and adult obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. A built environment characterized by an arid desert climate, lack of access to healthy foods, barriers to increasing physical activity, cultural and community norms which deter healthy eating and sustainable food production, shape obesity-related health disparities in these communities. Three pilot community gardens (implemented by two local governmental organizations and one community-based organization) were funded through the local Healthy Eating Active Living (HEAL) initiative in El Paso, Texas, and Las Cruces and Anthony, New Mexico (US-MX border communities with high obesity rates) in order to encourage healthy lifestyles among families in the region. A mixed-methods evaluation (n = 223) examined the implementation process, immediate outcomes and best practices of implementing and sustaining community gardens in these minority binational communities. In addition to nutrition-related outcomes, the potential for psychosocial outcomes from participating in community and school garden projects were observed. The best practices in relation to (i) assessing community norms related to growing food, (ii) increasing access to land and water for community/school gardening and (iii) enhancing social support for gardening are discussed. The implications of these best practices for obesity prevention and implementing community gardens in a minority US-MX border community characterized by cultural, geographical and socioeconomic barriers are examined.

  6. 田口方法及其在注塑成型中的应用%Taguchi method and its application in inj ection molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茆茂; 朱先琦

    2014-01-01

    Taguchi method is introduced and the inj ection molding process parameters are optimized by combining the parameter design method with Moldflow(a simulation software)and Hypermesh(a finite element software).This article studies the influence of inj ection molding process parameters on the warp-age by taking the water segregator in an electrical appliance as an example.The optional parameter com-bination gained from the experiment can greatly reduce the warpage.%本文介绍了田口方法,并将参数设计法、CAE模拟仿真软件 Moldflow和有限元前处理软件 Hypermesh相结合,对注塑成型工艺参数进行优化。以某电器内的洗涤分水器为例,研究了注塑工艺参数对翘曲变形的影响,实验得出的最佳参数组合可以极大减少翘曲变形。

  7. Photogeneration of Polarons in Sexithiophene Oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, Eitan

    1996-03-01

    We present photoexcitation studies of vacuum deposited neutral films of sexithiophene (6T) using photoinduced absorption spectroscopy and photoinduced absorption detected magnetic resonance (PADMR) techniques. We find evidence for photoinduced polarons (photoexcited ``radical ions'') having spin 1/2, with two absorption bands at 0.80 and 1.54 eV, respectively, and with negative PADMR signal at g~=2. Similar absorption bands are observed in lightly p-doped sexithiophene, and are interpreted as due to 6T^ -- + radical cations. In addition, a photoinduced absorption band is found at ~=1.1 eV, which is shorter lived and decreases faster with increasing temperature than the polaron bands. We identify this band as due to spinless bipolarons (photoexcited ``di-ions''). A similar di-cation (6T^++) band has been identified in heavily p-doped sexithiophene. Each of the polaron and bipolaron peaks, observed here, is accompanied by a secondary shoulder on its low energy side. This observation may indicate a possible breaking of charge conjugation symmetry, with negatively charged polarons (bipolarons) having lower energy transitions than positively charged polarons (bipolarons). Finally, we have identified triplet excitons (S=1) with triplet-triplet transition energy at ~=1.45 eV. Work done in collaboration with J. Poplawski (Technion), X. Wei, P. Lane and Z.V. Vardeny (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT), M. Ibrahim and A.J. Frank (NREL, Golden, CO). Supported by the US--Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF 94--256).

  8. Culturally Specific Youth Substance Abuse Resistance Skills: Applicability across the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Kulis, Stephen; Rodriguez, Gregorio Martinez; Becerra, David; Castillo, Jason

    2009-03-01

    This study tests the applicability among adolescents in Mexico of the keepin' it REAL (refuse, explain, avoid, and leave) strategies that are common and effective ways that U.S. youth resist substance use. Following a social learning, communication competence and ecological theory integrated approach, the study draws on self-reported questionnaire data from a non-probability sample of 327 adolescents attending two public high schools in Monterrey, Nuevo León. Multivariate regressions were used to test whether the respondents' use of the REAL strategies by the participants could be predicted by key demographic variables. Separate models were estimated for the frequency of use of each strategy and for different substances. Findings indicate that most adolescents in this sample utilized each of the REAL strategies as well as other strategies to respond to offers of alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana. Mexican and U.S. youth residing close to the US border appear to use similar drug resistance strategies. Use of the strategies varied considerably by the level of exposure to offers, but only minimally by gender and age. There were no notable differences by socioeconomic status or academic performance. Implications for prevention science, social work practice and social work research are discussed in the context of the bi-national border region and the applicability and prospect for dissemination of U.S. evidence based youth substance use prevention interventions.

  9. 彝文文献记载的云南西部彝族谱系%The Pedigree of Yi People in West of Yunnan Province Recorded in Yi Language Document

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继超; 王明贵; 王明亮

    2015-01-01

    在云南省的西部,从商周到秦汉时期,活动着一个起源于什勺氏,而彝文献称之为“蒙确舍”彝族先民的集团,称作“格沓部”的哀牢九夷是其中的重要组成部分之一。什勺、米靡、武僰氏祖的加入“,六祖”系各支的汇入,使这一族群集团愈发壮大,为后来的南诏统一祖国的西南边陲奠定了坚实的基础。%In west of Yunnan, from Shang-zhou to Qin-han period, there live an ancestor group of Yi peo⁃ple originated from Shishao family as called Mengqueshe in Yi language document, Ailaojiuyi as called Geta tribe is one of the important parts.With the joining of Shishao, Mimi and the ancestor of Wubo family and com⁃bination of the branches of the Six ancestors, this group becomes bigger and bigger, establishing a stable foun⁃dation for the unification of southwest border by the latter Nanzhao.

  10. The Fox River PCB transport study: Stepping stone to a healthy Great Lakes ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; Steuer, Jeffrey J.

    1996-01-01

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in the Great Lakes Despite being banned since the 1970's, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) continue to pose a threat to the environment because of their persistence and toxicity to organisms ranging from minute algae to fish, waterfowl, and human beings. PCBs, a set of 209 related chlorinated organic compounds, had various industrial uses such as in hydraulic fluids, cutting oils, sealants, and pesticides. Despite the manufacturing ban in the mid-1970's, PCBs remain ubiquitous in the environment. In the Laurentian Great Lakes of the Midwest. PCBs and other toxic compounds contaminate bottom sediments at almost all designated "areas of concern" (AOC)(figure 1, upper left inset). The International Joint Commission, a binational group from Canada and the United States, has identified these AOCs in their efforts to restore and protect Great Lakes ecosystems. One such area, the Fox River which flows into Green Bay, has been the focus of much scientific study in an effort to improve not only that river but to apply lessons learned to other AOCs. The final goal is a healthy Great Lakes food chain with fish and waterfowl that are safe to consume.

  11. Building a sustainable clinical academic workforce to meet the future healthcare needs of Australia and New Zealand: report from the first summit meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, J; Searle, J; Hanney, R; Chapman, A; Grigg, M; Choong, P; Mackay, A; Smithers, B M; Churchill, J A; Carney, S; Smith, J A; Wainer, Z; Talley, N J; Gladman, M A

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of healthcare that meets the requirements for quality, safety and cost-effectiveness relies on a well-trained medical workforce, including clinical academics whose career includes a specific commitment to research, education and/or leadership. In 2011, the Medical Deans of Australia and New Zealand published a review on the clinical academic workforce and recommended the development of an integrated training pathway for clinical academics. A bi-national Summit on Clinical Academic Training was recently convened to bring together all relevant stakeholders to determine how best to do this. An important part understood the lessons learnt from the UK experience after 10 years since the introduction of an integrated training pathway. The outcome of the summit was to endorse strongly the recommendations of the medical deans. A steering committee has been established to identify further stakeholders, solicit more information from stakeholder organisations, convene a follow-up summit meeting in late 2015, recruit pilot host institutions and engage the government and future funders.

  12. CHIPS: Monitoring Colonias along the United States-Mexico border in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. The expansion of colonias in the United States-Mexico border region can be traced to the rapid growth associated with the Mexican Border Industrial Program during the 1960s. This rapid population growth created a lack of affordable housing, causing new migrants in the United States to purchase rural homestead lots through a contract-for-deed program from land developers. Because of the need to keep prices affordable and the absence of effective land-use controls, these homesteads expanded into rural subdivisions, commonly called colonias, without proper infrastructure. Colonias have been identified in the four U.S. border states, with Texas having designated the majority, which numbered over 1,400 colonias in 2001. Because the region is binationally interconnected economically, politically, and socially, the phenomenon of colonias in the United States is a transborder issue.

  13. Measurements of fluid transport by controllable vertical migrations of plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Isabel A.; Dabiri, John O.

    2016-11-01

    Diel vertical migration of zooplankton has been proposed to be a significant contributor to local and possibly large-scale fluid transport in the ocean. However, studies of this problem to date have been limited to order-of-magnitude estimates based on first principles and a small number of field observations. In this work, we leverage the phototactic behavior of zooplankton to stimulate controllable vertical migrations in the laboratory and to study the associated fluid transport and mixing. Building upon a previous prototype system, a laser guidance system induces vertical swimming of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) in a 2.1 meter tall, density-stratified water tank. The animal swimming speed and spacing during the controlled vertical migration is characterized with video analysis. A schlieren imaging system is utilized to visualize density perturbations to a stable stratification for quantification of fluid displacement length scales and restratification timescales. These experiments can add to our understanding of the dynamics of active particles in stratified flows. NSF and US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

  14. Dual Targeting of a Mitochondrial Protein: The Case Study of Cytochrome C1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anja R(o)diger; Bianca Baudisch; Uwe Langner; Ralf Bernd Kl(o)sgen

    2011-01-01

    As a result of the endosymbiotic gene transfer, the majority of proteins of mitochondria and chloroplasts is encoded in the nucleus and synthesized in the cytosol as precursor molecules carrying N-terminal transit peptides for the transport into the respective target organelle. In most instances, transport takes place into either mitochondria or chlor-oplasts, although a few examples of dual targeting into both organelles have been described. Here, we show by a com-bination of three different experimental strategies that also cytochrome c of potato, a component of the respiratory electron transport chain, is imported not only into mitochondria, but also into plastids. In organello import experiments with isolated mitochondria and chloroplasts, which were analyzed in both single and mixed organelle assays, demonstrate that the processing products accumulating after import within the two endosymbiotic organelles are different in size. Dual targeting of cytochrome c is observed also in vivo, after biolistic transformation of leaf epidermal cells with suitable reporter constructions. Finally, Western analyses employing cytochrome c-specific antiserum provide evidence that the protein accumulates in significant amounts in mitochondria and chloroplasts of both pea and spinach. The possible consequences of our findings on the relevance of the dual targeting phenomenon are discussed.

  15. Psicología política de la integración fronteriza / Political psychology of border integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro González Riesle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Con el fin de contribuir a instaurar una Cultura de Paz en la zona fronteriza peruano-chilena de Tacna-Arica, se propone la aplicación de una estrategia psicopolítica binacional de educación para la paz que contribuya a la consolidación de las relaciones de cooperación entre ambos países con miras a la construcción de una agenda de futuro dentro del marco de los desafíos que plantea la integración regional en la Alianza del Pacífico. ABSTRACT In order to help establish a Peace Culture in the Peruvian – Chilean border of Tacna - Arica, we propose the implementation of a psychopolitical binational education strategy for peace that will contribute to strengthen the relationship of cooperation between both countries with a view of constructing a future agenda within the framework of the regional integration challenges in the Pacific Alliance.

  16. Forecasting urban growth across the United States-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Feller, M.; Phillip, Guertin D.

    2009-01-01

    The sister-city area of Nogales, Arizona, and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, is known collectively as Ambos (both) Nogales. This area was historically one city and was administratively divided by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. These arid-lands have limited and sensitive natural resources. Environmental planning can support sustainable development to accommodate the predicted influx of population. The objective of this research is to quantify the amount of predicted urban growth for the Ambos Nogales watershed to support future planning for sustainable development. Two modeling regimes are explored. Our goal is to identify possible growth patterns associated with the twin-city area as a whole and with the two cities modeled as separate entities. We analyzed the cross-border watershed using regression analysis from satellite images from 1975, 1983, 1996, and 2002 and created urban area classifications. We used these classifications as input to the urban growth model, SLEUTH, to simulate likely patterns of development and define projected conversion probabilities. Model results indicate that the two cities are undergoing very different patterns of change and identify locations of expected growth based on historical development. Growth in Nogales, Arizona is stagnant while the urban area in Nogales, Sonora is exploding. This paper demonstrates an application that portrays how future binational urban growth could develop and affect the environment. This research also provides locations of potential growth for use in city planning.

  17. Treatment of 336 cases of chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To summarize the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of chest trauma. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted among 336 cases of chest trauma admitted to our hospital from January 2009 to May 2011. Results: Out of all cases, 325 were cured, accounting for 96.7%; 11 died, accounting for 3.3%. Among the dead cases, one died of hemorrhagic shock, three of acute respi-ratory distress syndrome, three of multiple organ failure, and four of severe multiple traumas. Conclusions: (1 For patients with severe chest trauma, early emergency treatment is crucial to save life. (2 Open thoracic surgery is needed for acute cardiac tamponade, intrapulmonary vascular injuries, progressive intrathoracic bleeding, lung laceration, tracheal breakage, and diaphrag-matic injury. In addition, operative timing and method should be well chosen. (3 Pulmonary contusion is one of common complications in chest trauma, for which the com-bination of strong anti-infection therapy and mechanical ventilation is an effective treatment strategy. Key words: Thoracic injuries; Thoracotomy; Emer-gency treatment

  18. Flexibility of MIP Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jinlian; Gong Jianhong; Xu Youhao

    2015-01-01

    The lfexibility of MIP technology to meet market demand is mainly introduced in this study. Their commercial application and technical principle are analyzed too. The MIP technology with wide feed adaptability can form a good com-bination with other technologies. The MIP technology has been applied extensively in China. Based on this platform, the CGP, MIP-LTG and MIP-DCR technologies have been developed, which can further improve the lfexibility of MIP tech-nology. Based on its novel reaction control technique with a sole sequential two-zone riser, the MIP users can easily switch to different operating modes between producing either more clean gasoline and propylene or diesel through changing the catalysts and varying the operating conditions. That offers MIP users with enough production lfexibility and a rational pro-duction arrangement to meet the market demand. The MIP-DCR technology with less dry gas and coke yields can provide a more lfexible operating mode since the catalysts to oil ratio has become an independent variable.

  19. 学案导学与案例教学双模式在数学教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易同贸

    2014-01-01

    A s higher vocational education develops rapidly, m athem atics, an im portant basic course, faces difficulties and challenges in teaching. T his calls for reform and innovation in teaching m ode. A ccording to the present learning situation of students, com bined w ith the function and characteristics of higher vocational m ath course, the adoption and com bination of the tw o teaching m odeplan-guided learning and case teaching can increase the teaching effect.%随着高等职业教育的快速发展,作为高等职业教育中的一门重要基础课程,高等数学课面临很大的困难与挑战,教学模式在实践探索中需要不断地改革与创新。根据学生的学习现状,结合了高职数学课的作用及特点,采用“学案导学”与“案例教学”两种教学模式,使之有机结合,可提高教学效果。

  20. THE LARGE MILLIMETER TELESCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Hughes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, presented on behalf of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT project team, describes the status and near-term plans for the telescope and its initial instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between M xico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrof sica, ptica y Electr nica (INAOE and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50 m diameter millimeterwave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the LMT site, at an altitude of 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. First-light at centimeter wavelengths on astronomical sources was obtained in November 2006. Installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation is underway, with the inner 32 m diameter of the surface now complete and ready to be used to obtain rst-light at millimeter wavelengths in 2008. Installation of the remainder of the re ector will continue during the next year and be completed in 2009 for nal commissioning of the antenna. The full LMT antenna, out ted with its initial complement of scienti c instruments, will be a world-leading scienti c research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  1. The Influence of Photolysis Rate Constants in Ozone Production for the Paso del Norte Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Fernando; Fitzgerald, Rosa

    2012-03-01

    In this research work we are focusing on understanding the relationship between photolysis rates and the photochemical ozone changes observed in the Paso del Norte region. The city of El Paso, Texas together with Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, forms the largest contiguous bi-national metropolitan area. This region suffers year-round ozone pollution events, and a better understanding is needed to mitigate them. Previous studies have found that ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends rather than on weekdays, this phenomenon being referred to, as the ``weekend effect.'' If the ozone standard is exceeded more frequently on weekends, then this phenomenon must be considered in the design of ozone control strategies. In this work we investigate some of the most representative weekend ozone episodes at El Paso, TX, during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 using the ozone photolysis rates. In this research the TUV radiative-transfer model is used to calculate the local photolysis rates and a UV MFRSR instrument is used to obtain experimental parameters. Seasonal variations and the weekday-weekend effect is studied. The results of this research will help to understand the underlying behavior of the photolysis rate constants when different atmospheric conditions are present.

  2. Can't buy my love: a typology of female sex workers' commercial relationships in the Mexico-U.S. Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Amaro, Hortensia; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) experience elevated risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) through unprotected sex with male clients, yet the complexity of these commercial relationships remains understudied. From 2010 to 2011, we explored FSWs' conceptualizations of various client types and related risk behavior patterns using semistructured interviews with 46 FSWs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, where FSWs' HIV/STI prevalence is increasing. Our grounded theory analysis identified four types of commercial relationships: nonregular clients, regular clients and friends, clients who "fell in love" with FSWs, and long-term financial providers who often originated from the United States. As commercial relationships developed, clients' social and emotional connections to FSWs increased, rendering condom negotiation and maintaining professional boundaries more difficult. Drug abuse and poverty also influenced behaviors, particularly in Ciudad Juárez, where lucrative U.S. clients were increasingly scarce. While struggling to cultivate dependable relationships in a setting marked by historical sex tourism from a wealthier country, some FSWs ceased negotiating condom use. We discuss the need for HIV/STI research and prevention interventions to recognize the complexity within FSWs' commercial relationships and how behaviors (e.g., condom use) evolve as relationships develop through processes that are influenced by local sociopolitical contexts and binational income inequality.

  3. Teaching Research on Articulation of Singing%歌唱咬字吐字的教学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹玲玲

    2015-01-01

    清晰的语言是声乐艺术的灵魂。正确的咬字、吐字在声乐演唱中具有重要意义,掌握科学的咬字、吐字的方法和能力,是歌唱表现的有力手段。一位成功的演唱者,必须做到发音和吐字的完美结合,因此在歌唱的过程中既要注重发声的方法,又要重视咬字、吐字在歌唱中的应用。%The correct and clear pronunciation is of great significance in the vocal music.Mastering the scientific method of pronunciation is a powerful means for the singing performance.For a successful singer,it is necessary to achieve the perfect com-bination of pronunciation and enunciation,thus we should not only pay attention to pronunciation,but also pay attention to articu-lation in the application of singing.

  4. Five-year interim report of the United States-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program: 2007--2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary aquifers are an essential, and in many cases, singular source of water for United States – Mexico border communities, particularly in arid regions. Declining water levels, deteriorating water quality, and increasing use of groundwater resources by municipal, industrial, and agricultural water users on both sides of the international border have raised concerns about the long-term availability of this supply. Water quantity and quality are determining and limiting factors that ultimately control agriculture, future economic development, population growth, human health, and ecological conditions along the border. Knowledge about the extent, depletion rates, and quality of transboundary aquifers, however, is limited and, in some areas, completely absent. The U.S. – Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act (Public Law 109-448), referred to in this report as “the Act,” was signed into law by the President of the United States on December 22, 2006, to conduct binational scientific research to systematically assess priority transboundary aquifers and to address water information needs of border communities. The Act authorizes the Secretary of the Interior, through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), to collaborate with the States of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas through their Water Resources Research Institutes (WRRIs) and with the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), stakeholders, and Mexican counterparts to provide new information and a scientific foundation for State and local officials to address pressing water-resource challenges along the U.S. – Mexico border.

  5. United States-Mexico cross-border health insurance initiatives: Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Laugesen, Miriam; Caban, Mabel; Rosenau, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    While U.S. health care reform will most likely reduce the overall number of uninsured Mexican-Americans, it does not address challenges related to health care coverage for undocumented Mexican immigrants, who will remain uninsured under the measures of the reform; documented low-income Mexican immigrants who have not met the five-year waiting period required for Medicaid benefits; or the growing number of retired U.S. citizens living in Mexico, who lack easy access to Medicare-supported services. This article reviews two promising binational initiatives that could help address these challenges-Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico; discusses their prospective applications within the context of U.S. health care reform; and identifies potential challenges to their implementation (legal, political, and regulatory), as well as the possible benefits, including coverage of uninsured Mexican immigrants, and their integration into the U.S. health care system (through Salud Migrante), and access to lower-cost Medicare-supported health care for U.S. retirees in Mexico (Medicare in Mexico).

  6. Competitive and innovation factors in wine tourism clusters: A comparative study between consolidated and emerging regions in Brazil and Uruguay / Factores de competitividad e innovación en clusters enoturísticos: Un estudio comparativo entre las regiones consolidadas y emergentes en Brasil y Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Shana Sabbado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to establish a cross-country analysis of the structure and organization of wine tourism clusters in consolidated and emerging wine regions in Brazil and Uruguay, looking for identifying the key factors for competitiveness and innovation. The regions chosen for analysis are: Vale dos Vinhedos, Campanha and Vale do São Francisco, in Brazil, and sites on Montevideo and Canelones, in Uruguay. The study analyze competitive factors in each region, including: the structure and density, support institutions at national and regional level, educational and research institutions, organization process for the geographical indication and the relationship between wine tourism and the promotion of wine and region. Further than comparing the two countries, the research also puts stop regions according to their stage of development in each assessed factor. Thus, the study suggests strategies that can be adopted at regional level or in cooperation between regions (in the country or bi-national cooperation to strengthen and develop the tourist areas of the wine as a whole.

  7. Creating experimental color harmony map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamaret, Christel; Urban, Fabrice; Lepinel, Josselin

    2014-02-01

    Starting in the 17th century with Newton, color harmony is a topic that did not reach a consensus on definition, representation or modeling so far. Previous work highlighted specific characteristics for color harmony on com- bination of color doublets or triplets by means of a human rating on a harmony scale. However, there were no investigation involving complex stimuli or pointing out how harmony is spatially located within a picture. The modeling of such concept as well as a reliable ground-truth would be of high value for the community, since the applications are wide and concern several communities: from psychology to computer graphics. We propose a protocol for creating color harmony maps from a controlled experiment. Through an eye-tracking protocol, we focus on the identification of disharmonious colors in pictures. The experiment was composed of a free viewing pass in order to let the observer be familiar with the content before a second pass where we asked "to search for the most disharmonious areas in the picture". Twenty-seven observers participated to the experiments that was composed of a total of 30 different stimuli. The high inter-observer agreement as well as a cross-validation confirm the validity of the proposed ground-truth.

  8. Numerical simulation and combination optimization of aluminum holding furnace linings based on simulated annealing☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jimin Wang; Shen Lan; Tao Chen; Wenke Li; Huaqiang Chu

    2015-01-01

    To reduce heat loss and save cost, a combination decision model of reverb aluminum holding furnace linings in aluminum casting industry was established based on economic thickness method, and was resolved using sim-ulated annealing. Meanwhile, a three-dimensional mathematical model of aluminum holding furnace linings was developed and integrated with user-defined heat load distribution regime model. The optimal combination was as follows:side wal with 80 mm alumino-silicate fiber felts, 232 mm diatomite brick and 116 mm chamotte brick;top wall with 50 mm clay castables, 110 mm alumino-silicate fiber felts and 200 mm refractory concrete;and bottom wal with 232 mm high-alumina brick, 60 mm clay castables and 68 mm diatomite brick. Lining tem-perature from high to low was successively bottom wal , side wal , and top wall. Lining temperature gradient in increasing order of magnitude was refractory layer and insulation layer. It was indicated that the results of com-bination optimization of aluminum holding furnace linings were valid and feasible, and its thermo-physical mechanism and cost characteristics were reasonably revealed.

  9. Current approaches to the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia in women with uterine leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov V.A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 155 women, of which 30 healthy women were in the control group. 125 women with uterine leiomyomas and endometrial hyperplasia constituted the main groups. In all women with uterine leiomyoma myomectomy was performed. Further treatment included randomized study of a new regimen of GnRH agonists together with COCs after myomectomy using comparison techniques: monotherapy with a-GnRH, progestins (dydrogesterone or COCs. The treatment using different medication regimens of endometrial hyperplasia after myomectomy convincingly demonstrated significantly greater efficacy of GnRH-a and COCs com¬bination in reducing frequency of symptoms of these diseases, volume of menstrual blood loss and improvement quality of life through the entire observation period. Greater efficacy of COCs and a-GnRH combination, to our opinion, is associated with a greater degree of suppression of cell proliferation and angiogenesis as a result of local (COCs, and systemic effects (a-GnRH.Thus, the proposed method of adjuvant therapy after myomectomy for women with associated endometrial hyperplasia has significant clinical benefits with minimal impact on bone mineral density and other menopausal signs caused by a-GnRH monotherapy.

  10. Social, Economic, and Psychological Impacts of MDR-TB Treatment in Tijuana, Mexico: A Patient's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D.; Quezada, Liliana; Bhat, Priya; Moser, Kathleen; Smith, Jennifer; Perez, Hector; Laniado-Laborin, Rafael; Estrada-Guzman, Julia; Rodwell, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Setting The state of Baja California, Mexico had the highest prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Mexico in 2009. Objective To understand the socioeconomic burdens of MDR-TB disease and its treatment on patients in Tijuana and Mexicali, Mexico. Design From July to November 2009, qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 patients who were enrolled in a US-Mexico binational MDR-TB treatment program called “Puentes de Esperanza” (Bridges of Hope), which was designed to support MDR-TB patients. In-depth interviews were coded to identify major themes in patient experiences of MDR-TB diagnosis and care. Results While some patients were able to maintain their pre-MDR-TB lives to a limited extent, most patients reported losing their sense of identity due to their inability to work, social isolation, and stigmatization from family and friends. The majority of participants expressed appreciation for Puentes’ role in “saving their life.” Conclusion Being diagnosed with MDR-TB and undergoing treatment imposes significant psychological, social, and economic stress on patients. Strong social support elements within Puentes helped ameliorate these burdens. Improvements to the program might include peer-support groups for patients undergoing treatment and transitioning back into the community after treatment. PMID:23743315

  11. 青少年田径运动员的选材与早期训练%Selection and Early Training of Juvenile Track and Field Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡旭聪

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes on the all ages teenagers youth track and field athletes based on the selection of characteristics and methods,and puts forward the countermeasures and suggestions for youth track and field athletes and construction of reserve talents.In order to provide a better growth environment for youth track and field athletes,this paper suggests that regarding the sustainable development as a guide,paying attention to com-bination of education,improving the system,and improve the coaches comprehensive quality.%文章在分析各年龄段青少年田径运动员选材特点与方法的基础上,提出了青少年田径运动员选材与后备人才建设的对策与建议,建议以可持续发展理念为指导,注重体教结合、完善制度,提高教练员的综合素质,以便为青少年田径运动员的发展创设一个良好的成长环境。

  12. Environmental re-adaptations of farms seeking to the water contamination reduction (Itaipu/UNIOESTE integrated project); Readequacao ambiental de propriedades rurais visando a reducao de contaminacao das aguas (Projeto integrado Itaipu/UNIOESTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daga, Jacir; Campos, Alessandro Torres; Navarini, Franciele; Matsuo, Melissa [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia; Feiden, Armin [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paran (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias

    2004-07-01

    The work is destined to diagnose and to elaborate environmental adaptation projects in agricultural properties located in the micro basins: Arroio Fundo, Corregos Curvado and Ajuricaba, selected and located in the Rio Sao Francisco Verdadeiro basin, in the west Parana State area, by means of accord between ITAIPU Binational and UNIOESTE (West Parana State University). Four hundred and forty farms properties will be visited in a eleven months period. It will be lifted up environmental problems, in what it refers the ciliary forest, law reserves, fishing, crops, production and handling of dejections by: swine, dairy cattle, as well as readaptations projects of the farms in the areas of the micro basins, seeking to the environmental adaptation, reducing, consequently, the contamination of the waters that provisions the ITAIPU reservoir. The projects will be leaded to the IAP (Parana State environmental organ), by ITAIPU, for the environmental norms adaptation of the farms. Besides the environmental preservation and sustainability, with the environmental adaptations, ITAIPU will also benefit with the reduction of the ITAIPU lake water contamination, which arrives to the turbines. (author)

  13. Economic integration and cross-border economic organizations: The case of San Diego-Tijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Mendoza Cota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic integration between the United States and Mexico has affected the economic, political and social relations in the border region. The paper seeks to relate the increasing economic integration and business cycles of the economies of San Diego and Tijuana to the development of both national and binational economic organizations in the border region. The methodology of analysis uses both statistical estimations of the economic integration of San Diego and Tijuana and semi-structured interviews of economic organizations to analyze the increasing economic integration and the role and achievements of the cross-border economic organizations. The results showed that cross-border cooperation is predominately controlled by federal and state governments on both sides of the border. However, the main achievements of cross-border economic cooperation have been accomplished by local private organizations. The perspective of further local economic development greatly depends on both the possibility of increased involvement of federal governments and the growing encouragement of regional organizations.

  14. Small-amplitude magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth in cylindrical liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Clark, R. W.; Mikitchuk, D.; Kroupp, E.; Maron, Y.; Fisher, A.; Schmit, P. F.

    2014-10-01

    Recent progress in developing the MagLIF approach to pulsed-power driven inertial confinement fusion has stimulated the interest in observation and mitigation of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRTI) of liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field. Theoretical analysis of these issues is particularly important because direct numerical simulation of the MRTI development is challenging due to intrinsically 3D helical structure of the fastest-growing modes. We review the analytical small-amplitude theory of the MRTI perturbation development and the weakly nonlinear theory of MRTI mode interaction, emphasizing basic physics, opportunity for 3D code verification against exact analytical solutions, and stabilization criteria. The theory is compared to the experimental results obtained at Weizmann Institute with gas-puff Z pinches and on the Z facility at Sandia with solid liners imploded in an axial magnetic field. Work supported by the US DOE/NNSA, and by the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Radiation Testing of a Low Voltage Silicone Nuclear Power Plant Cable.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White II, Gregory Von; Schroeder, John Lee.; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Wichhart, Derek; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; Zorrilla, Jorge; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes the results generated in FY13 for cable insulation in support of the Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, in collaboration with the US-Argentine Binational Energy Working Group (BEWG). A silicone (SiR) cable, which was stored in benign conditions for %7E30 years, was obtained from Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) in Argentina with the approval of NA-SA (Nucleoelectrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima). Physical property testing was performed on the as-received cable. This cable was artificially aged to assess behavior with additional analysis. SNL observed appreciable tensile elongation values for all cable insulations received, indicative of good mechanical performance. Of particular note, the work presented here provides correlations between measured tensile elongation and other physical properties that may be potentially leveraged as a form of condition monitoring (CM) for actual service cables. It is recognized at this point that the polymer aging community is still lacking the number and types of field returned materials that are desired, but Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) -- along with the help of others -- is continuing to work towards that goal. This work is an initial study that should be complimented with location-mapping of environmental conditions of Argentinean plant conditions (dose and temperature) as well as retrieval, analysis, and comparison with in- service cables.

  16. Infrared Extrapolations of Electromagnetic Multipole Moments and Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Daniel; Papenbrock, Thomas; Platter, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Basis truncations introduce systematic errors in observables calculated by representing the nuclear Hamiltonian in finite Hilbert spaces. Recent studies of the infrared convergence of finite basis calculations of energies and radii have led to accurate descriptions of numerical data. I will discuss how these concepts can be applied to the study of bound-state quadrupole moments and transitions as well as multipole transitions between bound-states and the continuum. I will show that good agreement is obtained between analytically derived and numerically computed convergence behavior in finite harmonic oscillator spaces for the nucleon-nucleon system. This opens the way to a more precise understanding of structure and reactions involving heavier nuclei. U.S. Dept of Energy, Office of Science under Nos. DEFG02-96ER40963, DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE-SC0008499; US-Israel Binational Science Foundation under Grant No. 2012212; National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1516077 and No. PHY-1555030.

  17. The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in retrospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1998-01-01

    For 50 years, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have conducted epidemiological and genetic studies of the survivors of the atomic bombs and of their children. This research program has provided the primary basis for radiation health standards. Both ABCC (1947–1975) and RERF (1975 to date) have been a joint enterprise of the United States (through the National Academy of Sciences) and of Japan. ABCC began in devastated, occupied Japan. Its mission had to be defined and refined. Early research revealed the urgent need for long term study. In 1946, a Directive of President Truman enjoined the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences to develop the program. By 1950, ABCC staff exceeded 1,000, and clinical and genetic studies were underway. Budgetary difficulties and other problems almost forced closure in 1953. In 1955, the Francis Report led to a unified epidemiological study. Much progress was made in the next decade, but changing times required founding of a binational nonprofit organization (RERF) with equal participation by Japan and the United States. New programs have been developed and existing ones have been extended in what is the longest continuing health survey ever undertaken. PMID:9576898

  18. Vocational Colleges Class Management Based on Psychological Perspective%基于心理学视角的高职院校班级管理工作探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦卫红

    2012-01-01

    高职生是一个特殊的群体,他们既有失落感、自卑感,又具有极强的自尊心。在高职生的班级管理中,要根据高职生的心理特征及班级管理中存在的问题,有针对性地运用心理学的一些原理进行思想工作,道德教育与情感教育相结合,构建和谐班级,引导学生对立合理的期望值,进行职业生涯规划,以达到高职教育的目标。%Vocational college students is a special group, their sense of loss, inferiority complex, but also has a strong self- esteem. Vocational students in class management, according to the existing problems in the psychological characteristics of vocational students and class management, targeted use of psychological principles to carry out ideological work, the com- bination of moral education and emotional education, building a harmonious classes guide the reasonable expectations of stu- dent opposition, career planning, in order to achieve the goals of vocational education.

  19. 补偿法求刚体定轴转动惯量的一般解%The General Solution on Fixed Axis Moment Inertia of Rigid Body by Compensation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯金地

    2016-01-01

    通过猜想加证明的方式得到了求解刚体定轴转动惯量的一个新推论,由这个推论可以将组合定理进行推广。工程力学上常常遇到的求解形状复杂的均匀刚体的转动惯量时此推论将会特别有用。本文最后通过一道例题,说明它具有简单、快捷的优点,并有独到之处。%We obtain a new conclusion about solution of moment of inertia about a fixed axis by guess and proof in this article ,from the conclusion the com bination theorem of moment of inertia is generalized .It will be specially useful when we frequently confront solving moment of inertia of some com plicated - shaped rigid body on engineering mechanics .In the end we solve a problem for example by this conclusion to show its advantage of simpleness ,convenience and speciality .

  20. Combination of Circumcision and Microwave in Treatment of Genital Warts in Uncircumcised Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊翌明; 马泽粦; 吴志华; 李顺凡; 陈秋霞

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of combina-tion of circumcision and microwave on genital warts in uncircumcised men.Methods: A randomized, prospective study of 109 uncircumcised adult men with genital warts was con-ducted in a STD clinic in Zhanjiang, Guangdong. One group (n=54) received microwave therapy only, while the other group (n=55) was taken the combination of circumcision and microwave therapy. The recurrences were observed at the end of months 3, 6 and 12, and operative complications were also recorded.Results: There were no significant differences in the mean age and duration of the disease between two groups (P>0.05). No serious operative complications were documented. The recurrence rate in circumci-sion plus microwave group was markedly lower than that in microwave group (12.7% vs 29.6%, PO.05).Conclusion: Circumcision can be safely performed under local anesthesia in an outpatient setting. Com-bination of circumcision and microwave can produce excellent effect as well as less tissue damage,therefore, it may be ideal for uncircumcised patients with extensive condvlomas.

  1. “元四家”山水画的隐逸特征%Seclusive characteristics of landscape paintings by the four renowned artists in the Yuan Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞冬仙

    2014-01-01

    元四家在长期的绘画实践中,融合笔墨的写意精神,通过对物象描绘表达画家的主观心绪,忽略物象的形似而重神似,逐渐形成了尚逸、尚意的山水画风。文人画家主张“逸笔草草,不求形似”,追求“脱俗”和“自娱”的美学思想体现了文人画家之“隐”与山水画之“逸”的结合。%The four renowned artists in the Yuan Dynasty made a spiritual fusion of hands and ink in the long-term practice of painting.They expressed the painters’subjective state of mind by depicting the images with emphasis on spiritual similarities and ignorance of the objective shapes.Such practice of painting gradually developed into a style of landscaoe paintings worshiping confort and spirit.Literati painters advocated “leisure pen in painting,not for the shape”with the aesthetic pursuit of“Free from vulgarity”and “self entertainment”,which reflects the con-bination of the literati painters’ “hidden”with the landscape painters’ “ease”.

  2. Novel approaches to HIV prevention and sexual health promotion among Guatemalan gay and bisexual men, MSM, and transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Simán, Florence M; Andrade, Mario; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H

    2014-08-01

    The burden of HIV is disproportionate for Guatemalan sexual minorities (e.g., gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men [MSM], and transgender persons). Our bi-national partnership used authentic approaches to community-based participatory research (CBPR) to identify characteristics of potentially successful programs to prevent HIV and promote sexual health among Guatemalan sexual minorities. Our partnership conducted Spanish-language focus groups with 87 participants who self-identified as male (n=64) or transgender (n=23) and individual in-depth interviews with ten formal and informal gay community leaders. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we identified 20 characteristics of potentially successful programs to reduce HIV risk, including providing guidance on accessing limited resources; offering supportive dialogue around issues of masculinity, socio-cultural expectations, love, and intimacy; using Mayan values and images; harnessing technology; increasing leadership and advocacy skills; and mobilizing social networks. More research is clearly needed, but participants reported needing and wanting programming and had innovative ideas to prevent HIV exposure and transmission.

  3. Nanometer Scale Distance Measurements for Biological Systems using Gd^3+-based Spin Probes at High Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Devin; Goldfarb, Daniella; Han, Songi; Sherwin, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Determination of nanometer-scale distances is critical for understanding structure and dynamics of proteins. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), primarily below 1 T, is used to complement other structural techniques by quantifying sparse distances up to 8 nm in biomolecules labeled with nitroxide-based radicals. EPR becomes more powerful with increasing magnetic fields and frequencies. At 95 GHz (3.5 T), Gd^3+ ions have shown clear advantages over nitroxide probes (Potapov, JACS 2010). We show that these advantages are even more dramatic at 240 GHz (8.5 T). The width of Gd^3+'s central EPR transition narrows with increasing average distance between Gd^3+ ions out to distances as long as 5 nm. This doubles the distances accessible with nitroxides in continuous wave measurements, which can be carried out above the 200K protein-glass transition and with broad distance distributions. Temperature-dependent measurements of the phase memory times at 8.5 T and low temperatures show distance dependence out to 10 nm. Measurements of Gd^3+ labeled Proteorhodopsin confirm that phase memory times remain long enough to observe distance dependence in a spin-labeled protein. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation and the Binational Science Foundation.

  4. Design and realization of the project accounting system%工程项目会计核算系统设计及实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门云会

    2014-01-01

    为了满足工程公司项目管理在业务和管理上的要求,开发了工程项目会计核算系统,设计时吸取会计科目编制规则的优势,结合项目会计的业务要求,将项目按照财务管理模式区分收入成本及损益等,创新设计了项目科目和项目摊销规则,实现了信息化管理的工程项目会计核算。%In order to meet the business and management requirements of project management in the engineering company,the project accounting system is developed in this paper. While designing the system,we absorb the advantages of the rules for the preparation of accounting subject, divide the project cost into revenue cost and profit and loss according to the financial management mode in com-bination with the requirements of project accounting business,innovatively design the project subject and the project amortization rule, and realize the information management of the project accounting system.

  5. Differential expression of microRNAs in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anjie Lu; Zufa Huang; Chaoyue Zhang; Xianfang Zhang; Jiuhong Zhao; Haiying Zhang; Quanpeng Zhang; Song Wu; Xinan Yi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the possible involvement of microRNAs in the regulation of genes that participate in peripheral neural regeneration. A microRNA microarray analysis was conducted and 23 microRNAs were identiifed whose expression was signiifcantly changed in rat dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve transection. The expression of one of the downregulated microRNAs, microRNA-214, was validated using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. MicroRNA-214 was predicted to target the 3′-untranslated region of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3. In situ hybridization veriifed that microRNA-214 was located in the cytoplasm of dorsal root ganglia primary neurons and was downregulated following sciatic nerve transection. Moreover, a com-bination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that microRNA-214 and Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 were co-localized in dorsal root ganglion primary neu-rons. Western blot analysis suggested that Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 was upregulated in dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve transection. These data demonstrate that mi-croRNA-214 is located and differentially expressed in dorsal root ganglion primary neurons and may participate in regulating the gene expression of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 after sciatic nerve transection.

  6. THE ROLE OF S-AMLODIPINE IN ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION THERAPY WITH COMBINATION OF CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS AND BETA-BLOCKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Maksimova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study efficacy and safety of calcium channel blocker, S-amlodipine, in combination with β-blocker, atenolol, in patients with arterial hypertension (HT 1-2 degree com- pared to fixed combination of racemic amlodipine and atenolol.Material and methods. Patients (n=31, 7 men and 24 women with HT 1–2 degree were included into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups by the com- binations sequence. Treatment with each combination lasted 4 weeks. Office blood pressure (BP was assessed at baseline and at the end of the treatment periods, possible side effects were registered.Results. All patients completed the study. Both combination of S-amlodipine+atenolol and fixed combination of racemic amlodipine+atenolol reduced systolic (in average, -15.9 and -12.7 mm Hg, respectively and diastolic (in average, -7.3 and -5.3 mmHg, respectively BP significantly. Heart rate also decreased during therapy (in average, -3 and -4 bt/min, respectively. The differences between combinations BP and heart rate effects were not significant. 8 and 16 adverse events were registered during S-amlodipine+atenolol and racemic amlodipine+atenolol therapies, respectively Conclusion. Combination of S-amlodipine+atenolol, as well as combination of racemic amlodipine+atenolol are effective in the treatment of patients with HT 1-2 degree, however combination with S-amlodipine has less number of adverse events.

  7. Radiation Testing of a Low Voltage Silicone Nuclear Power Plant Cable.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Robert

    2014-08-01

    This report summarizes the results generated in FY13 for cable insulation in support of DOE's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, in collaboration with the US- Argentine Binational Energy Working Group (BEWG). A silicone (SiR) cable, which was stored in benign conditions for %7E30 years, was obtained from Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) in Argentina. Physical property testing was performed on the as-received cable. This cable was artificially aged to assess behavior with additional analysis. SNL observed appreciable tensile elongation values for all cable insulations received, indicative of good mechanical performance. Of particular note, the work presented here provides correlations between measured tensile elongation and other physical properties that may be potentially leveraged as a form of condition monitoring (CM) for actual service cables. It is recognized at this point that the polymer aging community is still lacking the number and types of field returned materials that are desired, but SNL -- along with the help of others -- is continuing to work towards that goal. This work is an initial study that should be complimented with location- mapping of environmental conditions of CNEA plant conditions (dose and temperature) as well as retrieval, analysis, and comparison with in-service cables.

  8. SOME STRANGE FINDINGS: NON - INTERPRETABLE PATTERNS IN MODIFIED HODGE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Many clinically relevant species of Gram - negative bacilli are often resistant to β - lactam antibiotics even to c arbapenems. According to CLS I guideline 2013, Carbapenemase producers are screened by zone size <21mm to Meropenem or Etrapenem and phenotypically confirmed by Modified Hodge test. The test of Hodge et al was modified by substituting Escherichia coli for penicillin - susceptible Staphy lococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and 10 - μg Imipenem disk for a 10 - U Penicillin disk. While looking for the Carbapenemase producing strains, some astonishing, unexplainable facts were revealed in this study. Meropenem - resistant test strains were screened (zone d iameter in Modified Kirby - Bauer technique<21mm & for phenotypic confirmation of Carbapenemase production, modified Hodge test was performed. Thereafter the test strains were examined for production of Metallo β Lactamase using Imipenem (10μg disk and com bination of Imipenem and EDTA, followed by test for Bacteriocin production. Two Acinetobacter and one Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were found to produce a Star like outward distortion. They did not produce Metallo β lactamase. Moreover, screening test fo r bacteriocin production was also found to be negative. The strains resistant to Carbapenem antibiotics but nonproducers of metallo β lactamase and/or Bacteriocins, have left behind a head twister for us

  9. The San Pedro Basin: A Case Study of US and Mexican Strategies to Connect Science to Societal Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. L.; Goodrich, D. C.; Browning-Aiken, A.; Richter, H.; Varady, R.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

    2007-05-01

    The San Pedro River originates in northern Sonora near the town of Cananea and spans the U.S. - Mexico border into southeastern Arizona. The San Pedro Basin and perennial portions of its river support one of the most ecological diverse regions in the world. The regional groundwater aquifer which largely supports perennial flow and the associated riparian ecosystem is the primary water source for a number of communities, and for the Cananea copper mine in Sonora, which produces roughly two to three percent of the world's copper, and Ft. Huachuca, a major military installation in Arizona and the largest employer of southern Arizona. This presentation will discuss strategies and efforts over the past decade on both sides of the border to link hydrological, ecological and social sciences to aid elected officials and decision-makers in managing the basin, its growing population, and the water it so vitally depends upon. The disparate legal, cultural, economic and scientific environments, as well as the unequal degrees of decentralization and regional autonomy on the two sides of the border have resulted in distinct concerns and approaches to water resource management and varying rates of success. In the Sonoran portion of the basin water quality is the primary concern and in Arizona, water quantity is the major concern. The paper will report on sustained binational efforts and constraints encountered by researchers at the University of Arizona's NSF-funded SAHRA project and several NOAA-supported efforts in the basin region.

  10. Applications of monsoon research: Opportunities to inform decisionmaking and reduce regional vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A. J.; Garfin, G. M.; Wilder, M.; Lenart, M.; Vásquez-León, M.; Comrie, A. C.

    2007-05-01

    This presentation will describe ongoing efforts to understand interactions between the North American Monsoon and society, in order to develop applications for monsoon research in a highly complex, multicultural and binational region. The North American Monsoon is an annual precipitation regime that begins in early June in Mexico and progresses northward to the southwestern United States. The region includes stakeholders in large urban complexes, productive agricultural areas, and sparsely populated arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The political, cultural, and socioeconomic divisions between the U.S. and Mexico create a broad range of sensitivities to climate variability as well as capacities to use forecasts and other information to cope with climate. We will highlight methodologies to link climate science with society and analyze opportunities for monsoon science to benefit society in four sectors: natural hazards management, agriculture, public health, and water management. We present a synthesized list of stakeholder needs and a calendar of decisions to help scientists link user needs to potential forecasts and products. To ensure usability of forecasts and other research products, we recommend iterative scientist-stakeholder interactions, through integrated assessments. These knowledge- exchange interactions can improve the capacity for stakeholders to use forecasts thoughtfully and inform the development of research, and for the research community to obtain feedback on climate-related products and receive insights to guide research direction. We expect that integrated assessments can capitalize on the opportunities for monsoon science to inform decisionmaking, in the best instances, reduce regional climate vulnerabilities and enhance regional sustainability

  11. Identification and Mapping of the Edwards Stratigraphic Sequence in the State of Chihuahua Assisted by ten ArcMap Based Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pina, C.; Granados, A.; Goodell, P.

    2007-05-01

    Edwards Formation is a reef limestone that hosts one of the largest aquifers of the State of Texas. In 2004 the United States and Mexico signed an agreement intended to characterize and identify the shared binational underground resources. Texas Water Development Board Report 360 established for the Edwards Aquifer an area of more than 31,000 km2, half of which is in the State of Coahuila, Mexico (the agreement did not include the State of Chihuahua). This led to the idea that Chihuahua may also have hydrologic potential in the Edwards equivalent, where numerous large cavern systems are already recognized (Naica's Sword Cavern, and the Coyame, Nombre de Dios and Bocagrande Caverns). The objective of this study is to establish the existence, in the State of Chihuahua, of the stratigraphic sequence and geohydrologic properties such as faulting, sinkholes, and springs, within the Edwards equivalent. The Consejo de Recursos Minerales geologic map, INEGI's hydrologic study, petroleum, mining and hydrogeology studies of Chihuahua, and many others, constitute the database used. ArcMap is used to define the geologic framework and construct different thematic layers (structural, lithological, hydrological) that would aid in the identification of the stratigraphic sequence. The results show that all the Edwards Stratigraphic Sequence (ESS) exists in Chihuahua; that there are isolated areas of groundwater production in eastern Chihuahua possibly from ESS but this is not well established. Overall the ESS presents an unusual opportunity as a potentially productive aquifer in the State of Chihuahua.

  12. Latest progress of research on acute abdominal injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ionut Negoi; Sorin Paun; Bogdan Stoica; Ioan Tanase; Mihaela Vartic; Ruxandra Irina Negoi; Sorin Hostiuc; Mircea Beuran

    2016-01-01

    Major abdominal trauma, both blunt and penetrating, is commonly seen nowadays, being particularly difficult to manage due to the frequent altered mental status of the patients and severity of associated injuries. The review article aims to make an uptodate study of the current strategies for therapeutic approach of abdominal injuries in polytrauma setting. Review of the medical literature is up to 2015, by using the PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. We have used different com-binations of the keywords of“abdominal trauma”,“liver”,“spleen”,“renal”, to review the reference list of retrieved articles for further relevant studies. Nowadays, we are facing a major change in abdominal trauma therapeutic approach, due to the continuous extending indications and very high successful rate of selective nonoperative management, completed or not with minimally invasive techniques like angiography and angiographic embolization. New imaging methods offer a high-quality characterization of solid organ injuries, being a secure support for decision algorithm in polytrauma patients. After a continuous decrease in number of laparotomies for trauma, new techniques should be developed for maintaining and developing the trauma surgeons' skills. According to the current standards, for a low morbidity and mortality, the trauma patients may be approached by a multidisciplinary and experienced trauma team. Even if nonoperative management is continuously expanding, this may be applied only by a trained and skillful trauma surgeon, who is able to perform difficult surgical techniques at any moments.

  13. The new method of the synthesis of cefotaxime acid%新方法合成头孢噻肟酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文滨; 胡亚星

    2012-01-01

    The new method of the synthesis of Cefotaxime Acid use new and old technology cross and com- bination optimization, New method extraction points in dissolved 7--ACA, removal of impurities, Then the MAEM ester under the catalysis of catalyst in the reaction of Cefotaxime Acid. Effective Cefotaxime Acid synthesis process improvement, Get Cefotaxime Acid single impurity 〈0.8%, total impurities 〈1. 4%. The Cefotaxime Sodium which made of low impurities Cefotaxime Acid has improved a lot in 430nm wavelength's absorbance.%新方法合成头孢噻肟酸采用新旧工艺交叉组合优化,新方法对溶解后的7-ACA进行萃取分相,去除其中的杂质,然后在与AE-活性酯在催化剂的催化下反应生成头孢噻肟酸。有效地将头孢噻肟酸合成工艺进行了改进,得到的头孢噻肟酸单杂〈0.8%,总杂〈1.4%。使用杂质低的头孢噻肟酸制成头孢噻肟钠成品的吸光度(430nm波长)有了很大的改善。

  14. Branding simbólico e hibridación: una aproximación en la intersección cultural fronteriza México-Estados Unidos de América: el caso de Ciudad Juárez-El Paso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ramos Rubio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the inclusion of symbolic branding hybridization in the Mexico-United States of America border from the perspective of an open and poly significant binational region where complex processes and sometimes conflicting groups of interest and stakeholders become articulated. Using hybridization as a tool, it's possible to establish a common starting point conceiving branding within the dichotomy, as the attribute of a product that leaves a lasting impression on the minds of consumers and which turns the brand into a cultural icon directly impacting the thoughts and attitudes of people. This paper thrives to approach common knowledge of the major commercial brands that have taken root in the region of Ciudad Juarez-El Paso by contrasting the commercial culture from the per136 172 11 Vol. 21 ¿ número 41 ¿ 2012 spective of boundary and crossborder conditions. The investigation presents a quantitative methodology divided in three stages: The 1st stage is office work by reviewing the literature; stage 2, approaching the phenomenon through network theory (ARS, linking the EGR Theory Alderfer on resource dependency; and a stage 3 with the implementation, under the EGR (Existence, Value and Growth criteria, of 105 surveys, where 18 items where considered for evaluation. Instrumentation is done through the snowball method and the main results of hybridization are: Office Depot, Coca-Cola and Colgate.

  15. Illegal sales of cigarettes to minors--Ciudad Juárez, Mexico; El Paso, Texas; and Las Cruces, New Mexico, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-21

    In 1996, the United States-Mexico Binational Commission (US-MBC) Health Working Group identified prevention of tobacco use, particularly among adolescents, as a priority and subsequently recommended joint efforts toward reducing illegal sales of cigarettes to minors. A 1997 survey of 561 commercial cigarette outlets in Mexico City found that 79% of retailers sold cigarettes to minors. To assess the illegal sale of cigarettes to minors in other regions of Mexico and on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico border, during January-February 1999 the General Directorate of Epidemiology in Mexico, the Chihuahua State Department of Health Services (CDH), the Ciudad Juarez Department of Health (CJDH), the Texas Department of Health (TDH), and the New Mexico Department of Health (NMDH) surveyed cigarette outlets in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; El Paso, Texas; and Las Cruces, New Mexico. This report summarizes the results of these surveys, which indicate that almost all retailers in the surveyed outlets in Ciudad Juarez sold cigarettes to minors and that sales rates to minors were substantially lower in El Paso and Las Cruces.

  16. Epistemic Disobedience and Decolonial Healing in Norma Elía Cantú’s Canícula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poks Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the U.S.-Mexican border as the place of enunciation, Cantú’s autoethnobiographical novel insists on the materiality of the border, especially for those living on its southern side, while simultaneously deconstructing it as artificial - a line splitting families and assigning nationalities on an arbitrary basis. Being a collage of photographs from the time the writer was growing up in southern Texas and the cuentos inspired by these visuals, Cantú’s Canícula documents how border crossings and re-crossings become symptomatic of living in a liminal space and how they destabilize the concept of nationality as bi-national families must learn to live with ambiguity. On the one hand, there is the undeniable materiality of the border, with its pain, fear, deportations, and other discriminatory practices; on the other, there is a growing border community of resistance cultivating the memory that they are not immigrants, that they lived in Texas before the Guadalupe-Hidalgo treaty. The paper examines the community’s strategies of survival in the contested cultural and social space and advances the thesis that, giving her community an awareness of its homogeneity and reclaiming its place within the larger socio-political context, Cantú becomes an agent of empowerment and change. She helps decolonize knowledge and being.

  17. Hydrogen disproportionation phase diagram and magnetic properties for Nd15Fe79B6 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mateusz Szymaski; Bartosz Michalski; Elbieta Jezierska; Marcin Leonowicz; Zbigniew Miazga

    2016-01-01

    Transformation-temperature-hydrogen pressure phase diagram was constructed for a Nd15Fe79B6 alloy in order to estimate appropriate conditions for hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination reaction (the HDDR). Optimised recom-bination time (the highest coercivity) was found to be 10 min. for 5 g samples processed at 740 ºC. Several HDDR processes were carried out at 30 kPa of hydrogen pressure at various temperatures. No correlation between magnetic propertiec and a direction of measurement was observed for the samples processed at 740 ºC. Remanence anisotropy was induced along an alignment direction when the temperature of the HDDR process was increased up to 800 ºC and 850 ºC for<100μm and 100–160μm particles, respec-tively. Simultaneously, a small drop in coercivity was observed in the direction of alignment for <100 μm particles, but no for 100–160μm particles. Furthermore, probably an ordered phase was found by TEM microstructure analysis in the bulk sample dis-proportionated at 850 ºC under 150 kPa of hydrogen. Grains with antiphase domains were observed and corresponding electron dif-fraction patterns were resolved, likely indicating superlattice structures.

  18. Application of Hydrologic Tools and Monitoring to Support Managed Aquifer Recharge Decision Making in the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J. Lacher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The San Pedro River originates in Sonora, Mexico, and flows north through Arizona, USA, to its confluence with the Gila River. The 92-km Upper San Pedro River is characterized by interrupted perennial flow, and serves as a vital wildlife corridor through this semiarid to arid region. Over the past century, groundwater pumping in this bi-national basin has depleted baseflows in the river. In 2007, the United States Geological Survey published the most recent groundwater model of the basin. This model served as the basis for predictive simulations, including maps of stream flow capture due to pumping and of stream flow restoration due to managed aquifer recharge. Simulation results show that ramping up near-stream recharge, as needed, to compensate for downward pumping-related stress on the water table, could sustain baseflows in the Upper San Pedro River at or above 2003 levels until the year 2100 with less than 4.7 million cubic meters per year (MCM/yr. Wet-dry mapping of the river over a period of 15 years developed a body of empirical evidence which, when combined with the simulation tools, provided powerful technical support to decision makers struggling to manage aquifer recharge to support baseflows in the river while also accommodating the economic needs of the basin.

  19. 辅助根管冲洗器械的研究新进展%Advances in auxiliary root canal irrigation instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽更; 穆颖

    2012-01-01

    Root canal irrigation is a must in root canal therapy, however,not a irrigating solution or a com-bination of some irrigating solutions can completely remove the smear layer. Consequently, auxiliary root canal irrigation instrument arises to improve the cleaning efficiency of root canal system . This article reviews four kinds of auxiliary root canal irrigation instruments, namely, the manual irrigation system, pressure switch system, acoustic system and ul-trasonic system.%目前尚未发现一种冲洗液或多种冲洗液的联合应用能够彻底清除根管玷污层.因此,各种辅助根管冲洗器械应运而生,以提高根管系统的清洁率.本文就各种辅助根管冲洗器械如:手动冲洗系统、压力转换系统、声波系统、超声波系统作一综述.

  20. Evaluation of Catalysts and Optimization of Reaction Conditions for the Dehydration of Methyl Lactate to Acrylates%乳酸甲酯脱水制备丙烯酸酯催化剂评价及反应条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金锋; 林建平; 许晓波; 岑沛霖

    2008-01-01

    The production of acrylates from biomass-originated lactic acid is of extraordinary importance, to over- come the increasing worldwide shortage of petroleum. In this study, the catalytic dehydration of methyl lactate over a calcium sulfate catalyst, with various promoters, has been carried out to identify potential catalyst/promoter com- binations for acrylate production. The best catalyst for methyl acrylate formation in this study has been calcium sulfate, with cupric sulfate and phosphates as promoters. The optimal mass ratio of m(CaSO4) : m(CuSO4) : m(Na2HPO4) : m(KH2PO4) is 150.0 13.8 : 2.5 : 1.2. Effects of carrier gas, reaction temperature, feed concentra- tion as well as contact time on the dehydration of methyl lactate have been investigated. With nitrogen as a carrier gas, a combined yield of acrylic acid and methyl acrylate is 63.9% from 60% (by mass) methyl lactate at 400℃ with 7.7 seconds contact time.

  1. Effect of Electroacupuncture and Psychological Rehabilitation on Alpha Competitive Structure in Patients with Internet Addiction Disorder%电针和心理康复对网络成瘾者脑α波竞争图的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宇鹏; 朱天民; 金荣疆; 徐守宇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of electroacupuncture and psychological rehabilitation on internet addiction disorder (IAD). Methods 111 IAD patients were divided into electroacupuncture group, psychology group and comprehension group (both electroacupunc-ture and psychological rehabilitation). They were measured with frequency and entropy of alpha competitive structure before and after treat-ment. Results The frequency increased and the entropy decreased in the comprehension group after treatment (P0.05). Conclusion The com-bination of electroacupuncture and psychological rehabilitation may be effective on IAD.%目的:观察电针和心理康复对网络成瘾的效果。方法111例网络成瘾患者分为电针组、心理组和综合组(电针+心理)。分别于治疗前后检测脑a波竞争图主频及熵值。结果治疗后综合组主频升高,熵值减小(P0.05)。结论电针和心理康复相结合可以改善网络成瘾患者α波主频,降低α竞争图熵值。

  2. A Study on the Role of Public Library in Development of Citizen Art Schools of Chengdu%公共图书馆在成都市民艺术学校建设发展中的作用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张轶

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the development , running mechanism and social benefits of citizen art schools of Chengdu in public cultural service system , the significance and function of training citizens from public library perspective , the organic com-bination of public library training and citizen art schools that provides the feasible way of creating cultural brand and innovation serv-ice for public library.%本文详细介绍了成都市在公共文化服务体系建设中打造的市民艺术学校的发展历程、运行机制和社会效益,以公共图书馆的视角着重研究市民培训的意义和作用,以及公共图书馆培训工作与市民艺术学校的有机结合,从而为公共图书馆打造文化品牌,创新服务方式提供一条可行之路。

  3. Session 21.6: Preserving Dark Skies and Protecting Against Light Pollution in a World Heritage Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm G.

    2016-10-01

    This session opened with a crucial explanation by Michel Cotte of how astronomers first need to understand how to apply UNESCO World Heritage Criteria if they want to motivate their government(s) to make the case to UNESCO for World Heritage recognition. UNESCO World Heritage cannot be obtained just to protect dark skies. Much more detail of this and the other presentations in this session, along with many images, can be found at the session website: http://www.noao.edu/education/IAUGA2015FM21. The next speaker, John Hearnshaw, described the Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve and the work it carries out . This was followed by a wide-ranging summary (by Dan Duriscoe and Nate Ament) of the U.S. National Park Service (NPS) Night Skies Program. The abstract of Cipriano's Marin's paper, ``Developing Starlight connections with UNESCO sites through the Biosphere Smart" was shown in his absence. The final presentation (by Arkadiusz Berlicki, S. Kolomanksi and T. Mrozek) discussed the bi-national Izera Dark Sky Park.

  4. Gender Equality? Attitudes towards Equal Opportunity for Women in Higher Education among Israeli Muslim Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Soen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic assumption of the paper is that Israel is practically a bi-national State, where the Arab minority constitutes approximately 20% of the population. The Arab minority is now in an interim state – it is passing from a traditional, collective way of life to a modern, individualistic one. Israeli Arabs recognize the fact that education is the key to socio-economic status. Part of the social change is the growing dominance of women in secondary and higher education in the Arab sector. Women now constitute approximately two thirds of Arab students in the Israeli institutions of higher education. The article sets out to explore the impact of education and religiosity of Israeli Muslim males on their attitudes towards women’s right to pursue higher education. The main finding of the research is the wide support for women’s right to higher education. Religiosity and education of the interviewees have been found to impact their attitudes.

  5. Lake Ontario zooplankton in 2003 and 2008: community changes and vertical redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudstam, Lars G.; Holeck, Kristen T.; Bowen, Kelly L.; Watkins, James M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Luckey, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Lake-wide zooplankton surveys are critical for documenting and understanding food web responses to ecosystem change. Surveys in 2003 and 2008 during the binational intensive field year in Lake Ontario found that offshore epilimnetic crustacean zooplankton declined by a factor of 12 (density) and factor of 5 (biomass) in the summer with smaller declines in the fall. These declines coincided with an increase in abundance of Bythotrephes and are likely the result of direct predation by, or behavioral responses to this invasive invertebrate predator. Whole water column zooplankton density also declined from 2003 to 2008 in the summer and fall (factor of 4), but biomass only declined in the fall (factor of 2). The decline in biomass was less than the decline in density because the average size of individual zooplankton increased. This was due to changes in the zooplankton community composition from a cyclopoid/bosminid dominated community in 2003 to a calanoid dominated community in 2008. The increase in calanoid copepods was primarily due to the larger species Limnocalanus macrurus and Leptodiaptomus sicilis. These coldwater species were found in and below the thermocline associated with a deep chlorophyll layer. In 2008, most of the zooplankton biomass resided in or below the thermocline during the day. Increased importance of copepods in deeper, colder water may favor cisco and rainbow smelt over alewife because these species are better adapted to cold temperatures than Alewife.

  6. Clinical Study on Endometrial Ovarian Cyst Treated by Combined Laparoscopy and Chinese Herbal Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a new method of combined laparoscopy edici ne (CHM) in treating endometrial ovarian cyst. Methods: One hundre d and fifty-two patients with endometrial ovarian cyst three therapies: combined laparoscopy with CHM (combination group), CHM (TCM group) and To compare the clinical efficacy and side-effects shown by the three groups and to elucidate the therapeutic mechanism by ne hormone, plasma prostaglandin F 2α , prostaglandin E 2 etc. Results: The shrinking rate, ate of the cysts and markedly effective rate in the combination group were obviously higher than those in the TCM group and WM bination group was also higher than that of the WM group (P<0.05). Few side-effects constituted age for the combination g roup and TCM group. After treatment, the plasm a prostaglandin F 1α lowered remarkably, serum obviously (P<0. 01, P<0.05). Conclusion: The laparoscopy and CHM combination therapy is a new method in cyst which has signifi cant efficacy, minimal adverse effect and maximal preservation of reproductive function.

  7. Substance P combined with epidermal stem cells promotes wound healing and nerve regeneration in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-bin Zhu; Xiang-jing Fang; De-wu Liu; Ying Shao; Hong-yan Zhang; Yan Peng; Qing-ling Zhong; Yong-tie Li; De-ming Liu

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous substance P accelerates wound healing in diabetes, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we established a rat model by intraperitoneally injecting streptozotocin. Four wounds (1.8 cm diameter) were drilled using a self-made punch onto the back, bilateral to the vertebral column, and then treated using amniotic membrane with epidermal stem cells and/or substance P around and in the middle of the wounds. With the combined treatment the wound-healing rate was 100% at 14 days. With prolonged time, type I col-lagen content gradually increased, yet type III collagen content gradually diminished. Abundant protein gene product 9.5- and substance P-immunoreactive nerve ifbers regenerated. Partial nerve ifber endings extended to the epidermis. The therapeutic effects of combined substance P and epidermal stem cells were better than with amniotic membrane and either factor alone. Our results suggest that the com-bination of substance P and epidermal stem cells effectively contributes to nerve regeneration and wound healing in diabetic rats.

  8. How did the Supreme Court ruling on DOMA affect astronomers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Jane R.; The AAS Working Group on LGBTIQ Equality

    2014-01-01

    In June 2013, the United States Supreme Court ruled that Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) was unconstitutional. Section 3 had barred the federal government from recognizing same-sex marriages. The decision in United States v. Windsor, made headlines around the world, and particularly affected astronomers, since astronomers in the US are more likely than the general population to be foreign nationals, to have a foreign-born spouse, or to work for the federal government. In this poster, we highlight some of the real-world ways that the Windsor case has affected US astronomers and our profession. Bi-national couples can now apply for green cards granting permanent residency. Scientists who work for the federal government, including NASA and the NSF, can now obtain health insurance for a same-sex spouse. From taxes to death benefits, health insurance to daycare, immigration to ethics laws, the end of S3 of DOMA has had profoundly improved the lives of US scientists who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT). Here we, highlight several real-world examples of how DOMA's demise has improved the lives and careers of US astronomer.

  9. Vocastim吞咽语言治疗仪联合风池穴针刺治疗急性脑卒中后假性延髓麻痹的临床研究%Effect o fVocastim M aster and Acupuncture at Fengchi on Pseudobulbar Paralysis AfterAcute S troke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 徐鹏; 董军立; 陈光辉; 赵斌

    2014-01-01

    O bjective To explore the clinical therapeutic effect of Vocastim M aster and acupuncture at GB20( Fengchi) on pseudobulbar paralysis after acute stroke .M ethods O ne hundred and tw enty e ight patients w ere divided in tw o groups at random , the contro l group treated w ith Vocastim M aster,the com bination group treated w ith Vocastim M aster and acupuncture .Before and after treatm ent the clinical therapeutic effectw ere observed.Results Before trea tm ent the sw alow ing function score in bo th group w ere no t different.After treatm ent the scores were different significantly betw eencombination group and controlgroup ( P < 0.05 orP < 0.01) . C om pared w ith contro lgroup ,the clinical efficacy in com bination g roup on dysarthria and dysphagia w ere significantdifferent( P < 0.01) . C onclusion Vocastim M aster and acupuncture in treatm ent of dysarthria and dysphag ia after acute stroke is confirm ed efficacy , should be introduced.%目的:观察 Vocastim 吞咽语言治疗仪联合风池穴针刺治疗急性脑卒中后假性延髓麻痹的疗效。方法将128例急性脑卒中后假性延髓麻痹患者随机分为对照组(63例)和联合组(65例),对照组给予常规 Vocastim 吞咽治疗仪进行治疗,联合组给予Vocastim 吞咽语言治疗仪联合风池穴针刺进行治疗,观察两组的临床治疗效果。结果两组治疗1个疗程、2个疗程后吞咽 X线透视检查(VFSS)评分均较治疗前明显升高,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05或 P <0.01),且两组治疗1个疗程、2个疗程后 VFSS 评分差异有统计学意义( P <0.05)。联合组改善吞咽障碍总有效率可达92.3%,改善构音障碍有效率可达90.8%,与对照组相比差异有统计学意义( P <0.01)。结论 Vocastim 吞咽语言治疗仪联合风池穴针刺治疗急性脑卒中患者假性延髓麻痹疗效显著,能够有效改善患者吞咽、构音障碍。

  10. Ozone studies in the Paso del Norte region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Davila, Fernando

    The Paso del Norte region forms the largest contiguous bi-national conglomerate on the US-Mexico border. With a combined population of around 2 million inhabitants, the Paso del Norte region is isolated, more than 500 km away from the nearest urban area of comparable size, thus making it an ideal location for air quality studies of an isolated urban environment. The meteorological conditions leading to a high ozone episode in this region, such as the historical ozone episode of June 2006, are analyzed. It is well known that stagnation and minimal winds, high temperatures, and pressure ridges over the region are conducive to high ozone episodes. In addition, the planetary boundary height is studied to understand its impact on high ozone episodes. Several studies report that ground level ozone non-attainment regulations could be caused not only by local emissions, but also by atmospheric transport. In this work the atmospheric advection of pollutants into the region is analyzed using HYSPLIT backward trajectories. Furthermore, a novel backward trajectory clustering technique is implemented for the summer of 2006. The "ozone weekend effect" (OWE) is a phenomenon by which in some geographical regions ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends than on weekdays, despite the lower emissions of ozone precursors during those days. The observed local OWE has never previously been studied in terms of the photolysis rates of four of the main ozone precursors. In this research a novel method that allows the calculation of actinic fluxes, photolysis frequencies and photolysis rates with a high degree of accuracy and reliability has been developed. This method utilizes a combination of the experimental data available for this region in conjunction with a radiative transfer model (TUV model). Three weekend-weekday cases during summers 2006, 2009 and 2010 are studied in this work. In this research, the photolysis impact on the local OWE is studied. The results

  11. L’agriculture à Saint-Georges de l’Oyapock : Bilan et perspectives Agricultura em Saint-Georges de l’Oyapock : Resultados e Perspectivas Agriculture in Saint-Georges de l’Oyapock: Results and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koné Tchansia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available À Saint-Georges de l’Oyapock, l’ouverture du pont binational est source de questionnements quant aux répercussions que ce nouvel axe de circulation aura sur l’économie locale. La question foncière faisant partie de ces interrogations, il a été réalisé un état des lieux du fait agricole à Saint-Georges. Au-delà de la photographie quelque peu figée de l’occupation agricole actuelle du sol, nous avons tenté de suivre l’itinéraire qui va du choix de la parcelle à mettre en valeur à la destination de ses produits, en nous attachant particulièrement à la description de l’accès à la terre. Pensé dès son origine comme un outil d’aide à la décision, ce travail a mis en évidence les incohérences et les zones d’ombre de l’accès à la terre, éléments qui pourront être intégrés dans la définition d’un programme de gestion de l’espace agricole.Em Saint-Georges de Oyapock, a abertura da ponte binacional é fonte de interrogações quanto às repercussões que este novo eixo de circulação terá sobre a economia local. Para a questão fundiária, como ela faz parte destas interrogações, foi realizado o estado da arte da situação agrícola em Saint-Georges. Por trás da imagem estática da ocupação agrícola atual do solo, procuramos ir além da valorização da parcela e do destino de seus produtos, focalizando-nos particularmente na descrição do acesso à terra. Pensado a partir da sua origem como um instrumento de ajuda à decisão, este trabalho pôs em evidência as incoerências e as zonas de sombra do acesso à terra, elementos que poderão ser integrados na definição de um programa de gestão do espaço agrícola.In Saint-Georges de l’Oyapock, the opening of the binational bridge is source of questionnings as for the repercussions that this new axis of circulation will have on the local economy. The land question being part of these interrogations, it was carried out an inventory of the

  12. Hypothermic stunning of green sea turtles in a western Gulf of Mexico foraging habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, Philippe E.; Streich, Mary M.; Walker, Jennifer Shelby; Rubio, Cynthia; Amos, Anthony F.; George, Jeffrey A.; Pasawicz, Michelle R.

    2017-01-01

    Texas waters provide one of the most important developmental and foraging habitats for juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the western Gulf of Mexico, but hypothermic stunning is a significant threat and was the largest cause of green turtle strandings in Texas from 1980 through 2015; of the 8,107 green turtles found stranded, 4,529 (55.9%) were victims of hypothermic stunning. Additionally, during this time, 203 hypothermic stunned green turtles were found incidentally captured due to power plant water intake entrapment. Overall, 63.9% of 4,529 hypothermic stunned turtles were found alive, and 92.0% of those survived rehabilitation and were released. Numbers of green turtles recorded as stranded and as affected by hypothermic stunning increased over time, and were most numerous from 2007 through 2015. Large hypothermic stunning events (with more than 450 turtles documented) occurred during the winters of 2009–2010, 2010–2011, 2013–2014, and 2014–2015. Hypothermic stunning was documented between November and March, but peaked at various times depending on passage of severe weather systems. Hypothermic stunning occurred state-wide, but was most prevalent in South Texas, particularly the Laguna Madre. In the Laguna Madre, hypothermic stunning was associated with an abrupt drop in water temperatures strong northerly winds, and a threshold mean water temperature of 8.0°C predicted large turtle hypothermic stunning events. Knowledge of environmental parameters contributing to hypothermic stunning and the temporal and spatial distribution of turtles affected in the past, can aid with formulation of proactive, targeted search and rescue efforts that can ultimately save the lives of many affected individuals, and aid with recovery efforts for this bi-national stock. Such rescue efforts are required under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and respond to humanitarian concerns of the public. PMID:28306747

  13. A Study Protocol for the Australasian Oncofertility Registry: Monitoring Referral Patterns and the Uptake, Quality, and Complications of Fertility Preservation Strategies in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazodo, Antoinette C; Stern, Catharyn J; McLachlan, Robert I; Gerstl, Brigitte; Agresta, Franca; Cohn, Richard J; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Wakefield, Claire E; Daly, Genevieve; Chan, Daisy; Gilbert, Lorrae; Kemertzis, Matthew; Orme, Lisa M; Wand, Handan; Viney, Rosalie; Gillam, Lynn; Deans, Rebecca; Jetti, Murali; Wu, John; Chapman, Michael; Ledger, William; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    Improvements in cancer diagnosis and treatment in patients of a reproductive age have led to significant improvements in survival rates; however, a patient's fertility can be affected by both cancer and its treatment. As survival rates improve, there is an expectation by clinicians and patients that patient's reproductive potential should be considered and protected as much as possible. However, there is a lack of data about current fertility preservation (FP) uptake as well as accurate data on the acute or permanent reproductive risks of cancer treatment, complications of FP in cancer patients, and the use and success of assisted reproductive technology by cancer survivors. FP remains a major gap in acute cancer management with lifelong implications for cancer survivors. The FUTuRE Fertility research team has established the first binational multisite Australasian Oncofertility Registry, which is collecting a complete oncofertility data set from cancer and fertility centers in Australia and New Zealand. Outcomes from the research study will monitor referral, uptake, and complications of FP, document patient's reproductive potential after treatment, and collect data on the use of assisted reproductive technology following cancer treatment. The data will be linked to other routine health and administrative data sets to allow for other research projects to be carried out. The changes in oncofertility care will be benchmarked against the Australasian Oncofertility Charter. The data will be used to develop evidence-based guidelines and resources, including development of accurate risk projections for patients' risk of infertility, allowing clinicians to make recommendations for FP or assisted reproductive technology. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Number-12615000221550.

  14. Lead Contamination of Urban Soil in the El Paso (Texas)--Juarez (Mexico) Border Metroplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Amaya, M. A.; Clague, J.

    2005-12-01

    We present an unusually detailed map of the distribution of lead in El Paso--Juarez soils, one that is based on x-ray fluorescence analysis of 1000 composite soil samples collected in the region. Mixing equal volumes of samples taken from the public space in front of individual houses or structures around a single municipal block created a single composite sample to characterize each of the 500 blocks studied in each city. Maps based on such composites highlight the distribution of lead at the neighborhood level, and de-emphasize any anomalous elevated level associated with an individual house or structure. In both cities, levels of lead are highest in their contiguous downtown commercial districts, which date to the 19th Century and are linked by the traditional border river crossing area at the Rio Grande. Rail yards, transport hubs, light industry complexes, and the oldest residential areas lie adjacent to, and inter-tongue with, this commercial district on both sides of the border. A century-old smelter, placed on standby six years ago, abuts the western limit of the old urban core in El Paso. The continuity of this elevated-lead zone, the proximity of the smelter, the many potential lead sources associated with traditional commercial activities, and the age of its structures, make it difficult to differentiate lead sources. Lead values decrease systematically away from this urban core zone, with the lowest levels generally encountered in peripheral, lightly populated developments and communities. The binational distribution of Pb in soil is consistent with Pb measurements reported on particulate matter taken from nine air monitoring stations (covering both cities) during the 1990s. Soil data thus can complement air studies by providing an essentially infinite geographic network of sampling sites that, with varying accuracy, record and integrate air conditions over years and decades. Research supported by NIEHS Grant 1RO1-ES11367.

  15. Dynamic analysis of QTL for plant height at different developmental stages in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jianbing; TANG Hua; HUANG Yiqin; SHI Yonggang; LI Jiansheng; ZHENG Yonglian

    2003-01-01

    Plant height in maize is not only one of important agronomic traits, but also one of model traits suitablefor study of developmental biology. Using data from fieldtests in two locations (Wuhan and Xiangfan) within the sameyear and a molecular linkage map covering all of 10 chro-mosomes, QTLs affecting plant height at five different de-velopmental stages were mapped and analyzed by the com-bination of composite interval mapping and the conditionalanalysis method. Eight QTLs for plant height at differentstages were located at different regions of five chromosomes(LOD≥2.5). The results showed that there were differenteffect values of QTL on plant height at different develop-mental stages. Three QTLs were detected at all of five stages.With different stages, contributory percentage of single QTL to plant height varied between 3.8% and 17.1%. It suggestedthat the expression of each QTL controlling plant height wasdifferent at different stages. With net growth, seven condi-tional QTLs for plant height were detected. Conditional QTLs were nearly detected at each stage, and QTLs of Ph1-1, Ph1-2, Ph3, Ph5-2 and Ph9 were detected at both locations (Wuhan and Xiangfan). The contributory percentage of single conditional QTL to plant height varied between 3.8% and 12.3%, indicating that QTLs for plant height are expressed in different time-space. Therefore, QTL expressed at different stages should be considered when marker assistant selection is conducted for quantitative traits.

  16. Assessing the vulnerability of human and biological communities to changing ecosystem services using a GIS-based multi-criteria decision support tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Labiosa, William B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe an application of a GIS-based multi-criteria decision support web tool that models and evaluates relative changes in ecosystem services to policy and land management decisions. The Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio (SCWEPM) was designed to provide credible forecasts of responses to ecosystem drivers and stressors and to illustrate the role of land use decisions on spatial and temporal distributions of ecosystem services within a binational (U.S. and Mexico) watershed. We present two SCWEPM sub-models that when analyzed together address bidirectional relationships between social and ecological vulnerability and ecosystem services. The first model employs the Modified Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index (M-SEVI), which assesses community vulnerability using information from U.S. and Mexico censuses on education, access to resources, migratory status, housing situation, and number of dependents. The second, relating land cover change to biodiversity (provisioning services), models changes in the distribution of terrestrial vertebrate habitat based on multitemporal vegetation and land cover maps, wildlife habitat relationships, and changes in land use/land cover patterns. When assessed concurrently, the models exposed some unexpected relationships between vulnerable communities and ecosystem services provisioning. For instance, the most species-rich habitat type in the watershed, Desert Riparian Forest, increased over time in areas occupied by the most vulnerable populations and declined in areas with less vulnerable populations. This type of information can be used to identify ecological conservation and restoration targets that enhance the livelihoods of people in vulnerable communities and promote biodiversity and ecosystem health.

  17. Optimization of thread partitioning parameters in speculative multithreading based on artificial immune algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-xiang LI; Yin-liang ZHAO‡; Bin LIU; Shuo JI

    2015-01-01

    Thread partition plays an important role in speculative multithreading (SpMT) for automatic parallelization of ir-regular programs. Using unified values of partition parameters to partition different applications leads to the fact that every ap-plication cannot own its optimal partition scheme. In this paper, five parameters affecting thread partition are extracted from heuristic rules. They are the dependence threshold (DT), lower limit of thread size (TSL), upper limit of thread size (TSU), lower limit of spawning distance (SDL), and upper limit of spawning distance (SDU). Their ranges are determined in accordance with heuristic rules, and their step-sizes are set empirically. Under the condition of setting speedup as an objective function, all com-binations of five threshold values form the solution space, and our aim is to search for the best combination to obtain the best thread granularity, thread dependence, and spawning distance, so that every application has its best partition scheme. The issue can be attributed to a single objective optimization problem. We use the artificial immune algorithm (AIA) to search for the optimal solution. On Prophet, which is a generic SpMT processor to evaluate the performance of multithreaded programs, Olden bench-marks are used to implement the process. Experiments show that we can obtain the optimal parameter values for every benchmark, and Olden benchmarks partitioned with the optimized parameter values deliver a performance improvement of 3.00%on a 4-core platform compared with a machine learning based approach, and 8.92%compared with a heuristics-based approach.

  18. Short-term effects on substance use of the keepin' it real pilot prevention program: linguistically adapted for youth in Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Booth, Jaime M; Ayers, Stephanie L; Nuño-Gutierrez, Bertha L; Kulis, Stephen; Hoffman, Steven

    2014-10-01

    This article presents the short-term effects of a pilot study of keepin'it REAL (Manténte REAL) conducted in central Mexico by a binational team of investigators. This middle school-based model program for preventing substance use was adapted for Mexico linguistically but not culturally. Two Guadalajara public middle schools were recruited and randomly assigned to either implement the prevention program or serve as a control site. The program was implemented in the treatment site by the students' regular teachers, who were trained by the research team. Seventh graders in ten classrooms in the treatment and control schools (N = 432) completed a pretest and posttest survey in Spanish similar to the survey utilized in the original efficacy trial of keepin'it REAL in the US. T-tests and OLS regressions were conducted to determine the effects of the intervention on substance use outcomes. Differences between treatment and control groups in frequency of use of alcohol and tobacco, the two substances of choice in this sample, were significant and in the desired direction. Differences in amount of use were also in the preferred direction but were not significant for alcohol and only marginally significant for tobacco. When the sample was split by gender, statistically significant treatment effects remained for females but were not observed among males. Effects of the linguistically adapted version of keepin'it REAL appears to be driven by the change in female use; however, the difference in male and female outcomes was not statistically significant. Implications for cultural adaptation and prevention in Mexico are discussed from a communication competency perspective. The promising results of the pilot study suggest that the linguistic adaptation was effective, but that a comprehensive cultural adaptation of keepin'it REAL in partnership with Mexican investigators and communities may be warranted.

  19. Hypothermic stunning of green sea turtles in a western Gulf of Mexico foraging habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Donna J; Tissot, Philippe E; Streich, Mary M; Walker, Jennifer Shelby; Rubio, Cynthia; Amos, Anthony F; George, Jeffrey A; Pasawicz, Michelle R

    2017-01-01

    Texas waters provide one of the most important developmental and foraging habitats for juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the western Gulf of Mexico, but hypothermic stunning is a significant threat and was the largest cause of green turtle strandings in Texas from 1980 through 2015; of the 8,107 green turtles found stranded, 4,529 (55.9%) were victims of hypothermic stunning. Additionally, during this time, 203 hypothermic stunned green turtles were found incidentally captured due to power plant water intake entrapment. Overall, 63.9% of 4,529 hypothermic stunned turtles were found alive, and 92.0% of those survived rehabilitation and were released. Numbers of green turtles recorded as stranded and as affected by hypothermic stunning increased over time, and were most numerous from 2007 through 2015. Large hypothermic stunning events (with more than 450 turtles documented) occurred during the winters of 2009-2010, 2010-2011, 2013-2014, and 2014-2015. Hypothermic stunning was documented between November and March, but peaked at various times depending on passage of severe weather systems. Hypothermic stunning occurred state-wide, but was most prevalent in South Texas, particularly the Laguna Madre. In the Laguna Madre, hypothermic stunning was associated with an abrupt drop in water temperatures strong northerly winds, and a threshold mean water temperature of 8.0°C predicted large turtle hypothermic stunning events. Knowledge of environmental parameters contributing to hypothermic stunning and the temporal and spatial distribution of turtles affected in the past, can aid with formulation of proactive, targeted search and rescue efforts that can ultimately save the lives of many affected individuals, and aid with recovery efforts for this bi-national stock. Such rescue efforts are required under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and respond to humanitarian concerns of the public.

  20. Effects of gumping support and pinching on the yield of grass pea%搭架与摘心对草豌豆产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马生发

    2011-01-01

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) is easy to become creeping due to thin and soft stem, which often causes the decomposition of lower leaf and stem. An experiment was conduct to determine the effect of humping support and pinching on the yield and of grass pea in this study. This study showed that the com- bination of the humping support and pinching significantly increased the yield and "the pinching at the flow- ering stage increased the yield by 20.2%. The Spearman analysis result indicated that the branches per plant, one hundred seed weight, and pod number per plant were main factors affecting the yield. This also showed that the humping support and pinching increased the yield of grass pea by increasing the branch number of main stem and pod number per plant.%为解决草豌豆(Lathyrussativus)茎秆细软,导致匍匐生长、严重郁蔽、下层茎叶衰败的问题,进行搭架与摘心试验研究。结果表明,搭架结合摘心增产效果显著,盛花期摘心较对照增产率高达20.2%;利用Spearman法分析各处理产量构成因子之间的相互关系,探明产量影响因子主要为主茎分枝数、百粒重和单株荚数,搭架与摘心均能增加主茎分枝数和单株结荚数,是获得高产的有效措施。

  1. Adolescent births in the border region: a descriptive analysis based on US Hispanic and Mexican birth certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jill A; Mojarro, Octavio; Sutton, Paul D; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent childbearing adversely affects both mothers and infants. The birth rate for US adolescent women of Hispanic origin is higher than that for US adolescents overall. Birth rates among US Hispanic adolescents in the border region are higher than rates among other US Hispanic adolescents, and rates among Mexican border adolescents are higher than rates among other Mexican adolescents. We used binational birth certificate data for US Hispanic and Mexican adolescent women living inside the border region, elsewhere within the border states, and in the US and Mexico overall to compare birth rates and other health indicators among these groups. From 2000 to 2009, birth rates for 15-19 year-olds declined 19-28 % among US Hispanic geographic subgroups and 8-13 % among Mexican geographic subgroups; rates in the border region in 2009 were 73.8/1,000 women ages 15-19 for US Hispanics and 87.2/1,000 for Mexicans and were higher than rates in other US and Mexican subgroups, respectively. Less than one in five US Hispanic and Mexican adolescent mothers in the border region was married. About one in three delivered by cesarean. Late or no prenatal care was more prevalent among US Hispanic (17.6 %) than Mexican (14.3 %) border adolescents. Birth weight and gestational age outcomes were generally poorest in Texas border counties compared with border counties in other US states and in municipios of Mexican states bordering Texas. High birth rates and low prenatal care utilization among adolescents are problems along the US-Mexico border.

  2. Study on the Method of the Innovation of Architectural Design%建筑设计创新方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文勇

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous progress of China’s economy and the development of society, the innovation of China’s con- struction field has made great achievements, but there are also some shortcomings. The innovation of architectural design in our country has formed a comparatively perfect theoretical sy- stem, but there are stil some shortcomings in the architectural design innovation. We should continue to accelerate the com- bination of theory and practice of construction innovation, to improve the architectural design of the overall level of innov- ation, in order to survive in the fierce competition in society. The author made a detailed analysis and systematic exposition, in this paper, the key points of innovation in architectural de- sign, basic method of architectural design innovation and app- reciation of Chinese and foreign outstanding architectural des- ign innovation works.%随着我国经济的不断发展和社会的不断进步,我国的建筑创新领域取得了很大成就,但也存在某些不足。我国的建筑设计创新已经形成了较为完善的理论体系,但在建筑设计创新上还存在一定的不足。我们只有不断地加快建筑创新理论与实践的结合,提高建筑设计的整体创新水平,才能在激烈的社会竞争中生存下来。本文对新时代建筑设计创新的关键点基本方法以及中外优秀建筑设计创新作品鉴析等作了详细的分析和系统的阐述。

  3. The impact of extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ on ethanol-induced smooth muscle contraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naciye YAKTUBAY DONDAS; Mahir KAPLAN; Derya KAYA; Ergin SiNGiRiK

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the impact of extracellular and intracellular Ca~(2+) on contractions induced by ethanol in smooth muscle.Methods: Longitudinal smooth muscle strips were prepared from the gastric fundi of mice. The contractions of smooth muscle strips were recorded with an isometric force displacement transducer.Results: Ethanol (164 mmol/L) produced reproducible contractions in isolated gastric fundal strips of mice. Although lidocaine (50 and 100 μmol/L), a local anesthetic agent, and hexamethonium (100 and 500 μmol/L), a ganglionic blocking agent, failed to affect these contractions, verapamil (1-50 μmol/L) and nifedipine (1-50 μmol/L), selective blockers of L-type Ca~(2+) channels, significantly inhibited the contractile responses of ethanol. Using a Ca~(2+)-free medium nearly eliminated these contractions in the same tissue. Ryanodine (1-50 μmol/L) and ruthenium red (10-100 μmol/L), selective blockers of intracellular Ca~(2+) channels/ryanodine receptors; cyclopiazonic acid (CPA; 1-10 μmol/L), a selective inhibitor of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca~(2+)-ATPase; and caffeine (0.5-5 mmol/L), a depleting agent of intracellular Ca~(2+) stores, significantly inhibited the contractile responses induced by ethanol. In addition, the com-bination of caffeine (5 mmol/L) plus CPA (10 μmol/L), and ryanodine (10 μmol/L) plus CPA (10 μmol/L), caused further inhibition of contractions in response to ethanol. This inhibition was significantly different from those associated with caffeine, ryanodine or CPA. Furthermore the combination of caffeine (5 mmol/L), ryanodine (10 μmol/L) and CPA(10 μmol/L) eliminated the contractions induced by ethanol in isolated gastric fundal strips of mice.Conclusion: Both extracellular and intracellular Ca~(2+) may have important roles in regulating contractions induced by ethanol in the mouse gastric fundus.

  4. Anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies in free-ranging and captive capybaras from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Fortes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris are among the main hosts of Amblyomma spp. ticks, which is able to transmit Rickettsia species to human beings and animals. Since they are often infested with potential vector ticks, capybaras may be used as sentinels for rickettsiosis, such as the Brazilian Spotted Fever. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against Rickettsia spp. using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA in 21 free-ranging and 10 captive animals from the Zoological Park of the 'Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary' (BVBS, Itaipu Binational, Foz do Iguaçu, Southern Brazil. Antigens of six rickettsial species already identified in Brazil (Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. bellii, R. rhipicephali, R. amblyommii and R. felis were used for IFA. Ticks from each capybara were collected for posterior taxonomic identification. A total of 19 (61.3% samples reacted to at least one of tested species. Seropositivity was found in 14 (45.2%, 12 (38.7%, 5 (16.1%, 4 (12.9%, 3 (9.7% and 3 (9.7% animals for R. rickettsii, R. bellii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, R. felis and R. rhipicephali, respectively. Two captive capybaras presented suggestive titers of R. rickettsii infection and one sample showed homologous reaction to R. parkeri. Only one free-ranging capybara presented evidence R. bellii infection. Ticks collected on capybaras were identified as Amblyomma dubitatum e Amblyomma sp. Results evidenced the rickettsial circulation in the area, suggesting a potential role of capybaras on bacterial life cycle.

  5. Educational gradients in five Asian immigrant populations: Do country of origin, duration and generational status moderate the education-health relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie; Geronimus, Arline; Bound, John; Griffith, Derek; Gee, Gilbert

    2016-12-01

    Education usually shows a relationship with self-rated health such that those with highest education have the best health and those with lowest education have the worst health. We examine these educational gradients among Asian immigrants and whether they differ by country of origin, duration in the United States, and generational status. Migration theories suggest that recent immigrants from poorer countries should show a weaker relationship between education and health than US-born Whites. Acculturation theory further suggests that differences in gradients across country of origin should diminish for longer-term immigrants and the US-born and that these groups should display gradients similar to US-born Whites. We use the March Current Population Survey (2000 - 2010) to examine educational gradients in self-rated health among recent immigrants (≤ 15 years duration), longer-term immigrants (> 15 years duration), and second generation US-born Asians from China (n = 4473), India (n = 4,307), the Philippines (n = 5746), South Korea (n = 2760), and Japan (n = 1265). We find weak or non-significant educational gradients among recent Asian immigrants across the five countries of origin. There is no indication that longer-term immigrants display significant differences across educational status. Only second generation Chinese and Filipinos show significant differences by educational status. Overall, Asians show an attenuated relationship between education and self-rated health compared to US-Whites that persists over duration in the US and generational status. Our findings show shortcomings in migration and acculturation theories to explain these gradient patterns. Future research could use binational data or explore psychosocial factors to identify potential suppressors of educational gradients.

  6. 病态嗓音的识别与研究%study and recognition of pathological voice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈承义; 高俊芬

    2013-01-01

      通过分析嗓音的发音机理,提取正常与病态嗓音的传统声学参数:基频、共振峰、Mel 倒谱系数(MFCC),以及非线性特征参数:计盒维数与截距,作为病态嗓音识别的特征矢量集.应用高斯混合模型(GMM)对156例正常嗓音与146例病态嗓音进行建模与识别.结果表明:非线性特征参数计盒维数与截距能很好地区分正常与病态嗓音,它们与传统声学参数基频和共振峰的组合,能够取得92.60%的识别率.%By analyzing the mechanism of pronunciation, normal and pathological voice of traditional acoustic parameters:fun-damental frequency, formant, Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient(MFCC), and non-linear feature parameters:box-counting dimension and intercept, are extracted as feature vectors of recognition of pathological voice. 156 normal voice samples and 146 pathological voice samples are recognized based on Gaussian Mixture Model(GMM). The results show that the nonlinear fea-ture parameters of box-counting dimension and intercept can well distinguish between normal and pathological voice. The com-bination of box-counting dimension, intercept and the traditional acoustic parameters-fundamental frequency and formant can achieve a better recognition rate of 92.60%.

  7. The Construction and Application of Web-based Learning Community in College English Autonomous Teaching%大学英语自主教学中网络学习共同体的构建与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景成; 帅蓉

    2015-01-01

    网络学习共同体是课堂教学的有效辅助形式,拥有传统课堂教学所不具备的优势和特点,为切实实现“以学生为中心”的大学英语教学和“以学生为主体”的个性化自主学习相互结合、相得益彰提供了新的契合点,作为一种全新的网络学习模式越来越多地引起人们的关注和使用。对大学英语自主教学中的网络学习共同体进行深入研究,探索构建和应用一种全新的网络学习模式,有利于提高大学英语教学质量。%Web-based learning community,the effective auxiliary form of classroom teaching,which has the advantages and characteristics but the traditional classroom teaching doesn't have,provides a new point to the com⁃bination of the“student-centered”college English teaching and the personalized“students as the main body”au⁃tonomous learning,and as a totally new kind of web-based learning mode it has increasingly aroused people's con⁃cern and use. To have a further study on the web-based learning community in college English autonomous teach⁃ing and explore the construction and application of a whole new mode of web-based learning,certainly will help im⁃prove the quality of college English teaching.

  8. 中美情景喜剧幽默话语的语气对比研究%A Contrastive Study of Mood System of Humorous Discourse in Chinese and American TV Sitcoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁颖

    2016-01-01

    在情景喜剧中,幽默话语是创设喜剧效果的重要因素。采用定量和定性相结合的对比研究方法,从言语角色转换、话题控制和语气系统的人际隐喻三方面,分析发现中美情景喜剧幽默话语通过语气系统引发幽默实现人际功能,英汉幽默话语语气系统的不同,既有其语言学原因又有文化原因,理解这一点有助于更好的欣赏和理解影视剧中的幽默话语,也为幽默话语翻译以及人际交流中更好地运用语气系统提供借鉴。%Humorous discourse is a predominant factor to create comedic effect in TV sitcoms.With com-bination of quantitative and qualitative methods,the present paper has a contrastive analysis on humorous discourse of Chinese and American TV sitcoms in term of three types of language mechanisms in order to see how they work in mood system to trigger humorous effect and realize interpersonal function,reveal the similarities and differences in mood systems of Chinese and English humorous discourses,and explore the roots of linguistics and cultures in these two languages.This study could help people appreciate and under-stand humorous discourse in films or TV series,and provide enlightenment to the translation of humorous discourse and interpersonal communication.

  9. US - India Partnership in Science and Technology, Environment and Health: Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Satish V [Georgetown University

    2010-10-06

    Today, the US – India strategic partnership is rooted in shared values and is broad in nature and scope, with our two countries working together on global and energy security, climate change and clean environment, life sciences and public health, economic prosperity and trade, and education. A key outcome of this partnership has been the signing of the historic Indo-US Civil Nuclear Deal. Science and technology (S&T) have always been important elements of this partnership, and US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and Indian S&T Minister Kapil Sibal signed an agreement on S&T Cooperation between the two countries in October 2005. In March 2006, recognizing the expanding role of S&T, President George Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh formed a Bi-National S&T Commission and established a Joint S&T Endowment Fund focused on innovation, entrepreneurship and commercialization. In July 2009, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Indian Foreign Minister Krishna signed the Endowment Agreement with a total equivalent funding of $30M (equal contribution from US and India). While these steps take our engagement to new heights, US-India collaboration in S&T is not new and has been ongoing for several decades, principally through agencies like NSF, NIH, EPA, DOE, NASA, NOAA, the PL480 US-India Fund, and the Indian Diaspora. However, acting as a damper, especially during the cold war days, this engagement has been plagued by sanctions and the resulting tensions and mistrust which continue to linger on even today. In this context, several ongoing activities in energy, space, climate change and education will be highlighted. Also, with the S&T and the Civil Nuclear Agreements and climate change as examples, the interplay of science, policy and politics will be discussed.

  10. Migrant children and migrants’ children: Nativity differences in school enrollment in Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Jennifer E.; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The growing prevalence of migrant children in diverse contexts requires a reconsideration of the intergenerational consequences of migration. To understand how migration and duration of residence are associated with children’s schooling, we need more comparative work that can point to the similarities and differences in outcomes for children across contexts. OBJECTIVE This paper addresses the importance of nativity and duration of residence for children’s school enrollment on both sides of a binational migration system: The United States and Mexico. The analyses are designed to determine whether duration of residence has a similar association with school enrollment across these different settings. METHODS The analyses are based on nationally representative household data from the 2010 Mexican Census and the 2006–2010 American Community Survey. Logistic regression models compare school enrollment patterns of Mexican and U.S.-born children of Mexican origin in the United States and those of Mexican and U.S.-born children in Mexico. Interactions for nativity/duration of residence and age are also included. RESULTS The results demonstrate that, adjusting for household resources and household-level migration experience, Mexican-born children in the United States and U.S.-born children in Mexico, particularly those who arrived recently, lag behind in school enrollment. These differences are most pronounced at older ages. CONCLUSIONS The comparisons across migration contexts point to greater school attrition and non-enrollment among older, recent migrant youth, regardless of the context. The interactions suggest that recent migration is associated with lower schooling for youth who engage in migration at older ages in both the United States and Mexico. PMID:28077926

  11. Labor Migration, Drug Trafficking Organizations, and Drug Use: Major Challenges for Transnational Communities in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the

  12. Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico Prevalencia de factores de riesgo para la infección por VIH entre migrantes mexicanos: encuesta probabilística en la frontera norte de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gudelia Rangel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US, and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico-San Diego (California, US border region (N=1 429. RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de prácticas de riesgo para la infección por VIH en migrantes mexicanos durante su estancia en distintos contextos geográficos, incluyendo sus comunidades de origen en México, las comunidades de destino en Estados Unidos de América (EUA, y la frontera Norte de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Encuesta probabilística de migrantes mexicanos que transitan por la región fronteriza Tijuana (Baja California, México-San Diego (California, EUA (N=1 429. RESULTADOS: La encuesta reveló una alta prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual, uso compartido de agujas, y prácticas sexuales de riesgo en todos los contextos geográficos estudiados. CONCLUSIONES: Los niveles de riesgo de infección por VIH estimados para migrantes mexicanos en diferentes contextos geográficos exigen estudios e intervenciones preventivas binacionales que identifiquen y aborden los distintos factores de riesgo personales, ambientales, y estructurales que contribuyen al riesgo de infección por VIH en cada

  13. Development of a seismic design method based on response spectra for building structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiyuan; YU Ruifang

    2007-01-01

    The assumption and problem of the mode-superposition response spectrum method in seismic design code is discussed based on a brief review of the development of the seismic design method for building structures. The scope of application for the classical damping theory is ana- lyzed and the necessity of the research on mode-superposition method for non-classical damping is presented. The pro- gresses on the mode superposition response spectrum theory are discussed. This includes: 1) the complex mode superposi- tion method (in real form) for the non-classically damped linear system and the general calculation formula for the application of code; 2) the complex complete quadratic com- bination (CCQC) method for the non-classically damped linear system, which is based on the same assumptions as in deducing the complete quadratic combination (CQC) method which is popularly used in seismic design codes of many countries; 3) the complex complete quadratic combination with three components (CCQC3) method, which is a general- ization of the CCQC method to the case of multi-components and multiple-support seismic excitations and deducing cor- responding method; 4) the approach for calculation of seismic response of the non-classically damped system with over- critical damping and the calculation method of seismic response for the linear system with multiple eigenvalues; 5) the time-dependent CCQC(t) algorithm considering non- stationary earthquake ground motion; 6) an applied and effec- tive method to solve the low order complex vector basis for the large linear non-classically damped system, which can be expediently used in practice to avoid the unknown errors coming from the forced uncoupling method; 7) bringing for- ward the concept of partial quadratic combination in order to reduce the calculation amount of CQC and CCQC methods, and studying the primary estimation-criterion. The reason- ability and applicable scope of these methods are also briefly discussed in this

  14. 重复周围磁刺激治疗慢性非特异性下腰痛的临床效果%Clinical Effect of Repetitive Peripheral Magnetic Stimulation on Chronic Non-specific Low Back Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郄淑燕; 王丛笑; 宋德军; 马全胜; 汪杰; 米立新

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察重复周围磁刺激(RPMS)对慢性非特异性下腰痛(CNLBP)的临床疗效。方法43例CNLBP患者分为试验组(n=22)和对照组(n=21)。两组患者均接受常规理疗,试验组在此基础上增加核心稳定性训练(CST)和RPMS,对照组增加CST和伪刺激。两组分别在治疗前、治疗4周后采用视觉模拟评分(VAS)、Oswestry功能障碍指数(ODI)评价临床疗效,应用平衡测试仪进行改良感觉整合平衡测试(mCTSIB),观察患者在4种不同体位下的重心摆动速度,评估患者的姿势控制能力。结果两组治疗4周后VAS、ODI评分显著低于治疗前(P0.05)。治疗4周后,试验组VAS、ODI评分显著低于对照组(P0.05). The scores of VAS and ODI were sig-nificantly lower in the experiment group than in the control group after treatment (P<0.001). The COG sway velocity under eye open foam support and eye close foam support were lower in the experiment group than in the control group after treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion Com-bination of RPMS could improve the clinical symptoms and the posture control ability under complex environment.

  15. 论艺术与仿生学的结缘%On the combination of art and bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏梁

    2001-01-01

    建筑仿生、工艺仿生以及人工智能艺术,是艺术与仿生学结缘的三个突出的方面。对之所进行的边缘性研究,旨在用艺术与科学相结合的方法,仿照某些生物的特征、机能,制作新的建筑物、艺术品、工艺品和具有独特审美价值的工业产品。艺术与仿生学的结缘是艺术起源观中的摹仿说在新的科学技术发展时代的一个质的飞跃。在技术美学领域,对艺术与仿生学的结缘尤为重视。%The application of bionics in architecture and industrial art and artificial intelligence are mostimportant areas in which art and bionics are combined. The interdisciplinary research in these areas isaimed at producing new architectural works, art items and industrial products with unique aesthetic valuethrough a combination of art and science and modeling features and functions of animate objects. The com-bination of art and bionics presents an essential step forward of the imitation theory in the study of the ori-gin of art in the new era of highly developed technology and science. This combination is particularly sig-nificant for technological aesthetics.

  16. Cultural impacts on public perceptions of agricultural biotechnology: A comparison of South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Richard Harrison

    According to Millar (1996), the gulf between science and society is growing. Technologies are tools cultures develop to solve society's problems. The rapid dispersion of science and technology across cultural borders through trade, technology transfer and exchange, increasingly requires people in different cultures to make choices about accepting or rejecting artifacts of science and technology such as genetically modified (GM) foods, which originate primarily from the United States. These issues challenge policy makers and scientists to account for the affects of different cultural perspectives on controversial scientific issues. Given the controversy across cultures over acceptance or rejection of genetically modified (GM) foods, GM foods are an excellent example with which to begin to reveal how culture impacts public perceptions of the risk and benefits of science and technology in different societies. This research will: (1) Define public awareness and understanding of science, specifically GM foods; (2) Examine culture's impact on knowledge, including different cultural approaches to research; and (3) Compare recent findings of a bi-national public opinion survey on GM comparing in South Korea and the United States. The proposed research outlines two research questions: (1) How and in what ways do South Koreans and Americans differ in their opinions about GMOs? This question is important for gathering current points of contrast about how the two cultures may differ; and (2) What role does culture play on opinion formation about GM foods? Through grounded theory, the researcher will investigate how cultural differences help explain opinion on public perceptions of GM foods. Is it possible to identify common cultural factors that impact public perceptions of GM foods between South Koreans and Americans? The study will utilize both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Higher education is a major producer of new science and technology. The study is

  17. New GATEWAY vectors for High Throughput Analyses of Protein-Protein Interactions by Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian Gehl; Rainer Waadt; J(o)rg Kudla; Ralf-R. Mendel; Robert Hansch

    2009-01-01

    Complex protein interaction networks constitute plant metabolic and signaling systems. Bimolecular fluores-cence complementation (BiFC) is a suitable technique to investigate the formation of protein complexes and the locali-zation of protein-protein interactions in planta. However, the generation of large plasmid collections to facilitate the exploration of complex interaction networks is often limited by the need for conventional cloning techniques. Here, we report the implementation of a GATEWAY vector system enabling large-scale combination and investigation of can-didate proteins in BiFC studies. We describe a set of 12 GATEWAY-compatible BiFC vectors that efficiently permit the com-bination of candidate protein pairs with every possible N-or C-terminal sub-fragment of S(CFP)3A or Venus, respectively, and enable the performance of multicolor BiFC (mcBiFC). We used proteins of the plant molybdenum metabolism, in that more than 20 potentially interacting proteins are assumed to form the cellular molybdenum network, as a case study to establish the functionality of the new vectors. Using these vectors, we report the formation of the molybdopterin synthase complex by interaction of Arabidopsis proteins Cnx6 and Cnx7 detected by BiFC as well as the simultaneous formation of Cn×6/Cn×6 and Cn×6/Cn×7 complexes revealed by mcBiFC. Consequently, these GATEWAY-based BiFC vector systems should significantly facilitate the large-scale investigation of complex regulatory networks in plant cells.

  18. PHENIX Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta'ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bing, X.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Castera, P.; Chang, B. S.; Chang, W. C.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; DeBlasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Guragain, H.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Harper, C.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; Hayashi, S.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Hoshino, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isinhue, A.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanishchev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Javani, M.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kaneta, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K.-B.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klatsky, J.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Kofarago, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Krizek, F.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Layton, D.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, B.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Ma, M.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We thank the staff of the Collider-Accelerator and Physics Departments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the staff of the other PHENIX participating institutions for their vital contributions. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, a sponsored research grant from Renaissance Technologies LLC, Abilene Christian University Research Council, Research Foundation of SUNY, and Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University (USA), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Brazil), Natural Science Foundation of China, (People's Republic of China), Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (Croatia), Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (Czech Republic), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, and Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (France), Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst, and Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung (Germany), OTKA NK 101 428 grant and the Ch. Simonyi Fund (Hungary), Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Science and Technology (India), Israel Science Foundation (Israel), National Research Foundation and WCU program of the Ministry Education Science and Technology (Republic of Korea), Physics Department, Lahore University of Management Sciences (Pakistan), Ministry of Education and Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Agency of Atomic Energy (Russia), VR and Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), the US Civilian Research and Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, and the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

  19. Canaries in a coalmine: Immigration and overweight among Mexican-origin children in the US and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Baker, Elizabeth; Altman, Claire E; Frisco, Michelle L

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight is higher for Hispanic children of immigrants than children of natives. This does not fit the pattern of the epidemiological paradox, the widely supported finding that immigrants tend to be healthier than their U.S.-born peers, and it suggests that exposure to the U.S. increases immigrant children's risk of overweight. This study's primary contribution is to better assess how exposure to the U.S. environment affects childhood overweight among a homogamous ethnic group, Mexican-Americans. We do so by using an innovative binational study design to compare the weight of Mexican-American children of immigrants, Mexican-American children of natives, and Mexican children in Mexico with different propensities of having immigrant parents. Cross-sectional data are derived from a pooled sample of 9982 6-19 year old children living in either Mexico or the United States in the early 2000s. Mexican-resident children with a very high propensity to have immigrant parents have significantly lower percentile BMIs and lower odds of overweight than Mexican children with lower propensities of emigration and U.S.-resident Mexican-American children. This suggests that selection into immigration streams does not account for the high prevalence of overweight among children of Mexican immigrants. Rather, U.S. exposure significantly raises children of Mexican immigrants' risk of being overweight. Moreover, second generation children have the highest percentile BMIs and greatest odds of overweight of all comparison groups, including children of natives. This suggests that they experience risks above and beyond the effects of exposure to American society.

  20. Preliminary United States-Mexico border watershed analysis, twin cities area of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Laura Margaret; Gray, Floyd; Castaneda, Mario; Bultman, Mark; Bolm, Karen Sue

    2002-01-01

    The United States - Mexico border area faces the challenge of integrating aspects of its binational physical boundaries to form a unified or, at least, compatible natural resource management plan. Specified geospatial components such as stream drainages, mineral occurrences, vegetation, wildlife, and land-use can be analyzed in terms of their overlapping impacts upon one another. Watersheds have been utilized as a basic unit in resource analysis because they contain components that are interrelated and can be viewed as a single interactive ecological system. In developing and analyzing critical regional natural resource databases, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal and non-governmental agencies have adopted a ?watershed by watershed? approach to dealing with such complicated issues as ecosystem health, natural resource use, urban growth, and pollutant transport within hydrologic systems. These watersheds can facilitate the delineation of both large scale and locally important hydrologic systems and urban management parameters necessary for sustainable, diversified land-use. The twin border cities area of Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona, provide the ideal setting to demonstrate the utility and application of a complete, cross-border, geographic information systems (GIS) based, watershed analysis in the characterization of a wide range of natural resource as well as urban features and their interactions. In addition to the delineation of a unified, cross-border watershed, the database contains sewer/water line locations and status, well locations, geology, hydrology, topography, soils, geomorphology, and vegetation data, as well as remotely sensed imagery. This report is preliminary and part of an ongoing project to develop a GIS database that will be widely accessible to the general public, researchers, and the local land management community with a broad range of application and utility.

  1. Air Pollution and Acute Respiratory Response in a Panel of Asthmatic Children along the U.S.–Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raysoni, Amit U.; Li, Wen-Whai; Holguin, Fernando; Johnson, Brent A.; Luevano, Silvia Flores; Garcia, Jose Humberto

    2011-01-01

    Background: Concerns regarding the health impact of urban air pollution on asthmatic children are pronounced along the U.S.–Mexico border because of rapid population growth near busy border highways and roads. Objectives: We conducted the first binational study of the impacts of air pollution on asthmatic children in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, USA, and compared different exposure metrics to assess acute respiratory response. Methods: We recruited 58 asthmatic children from two schools in Ciudad Juarez and two schools in El Paso. A marker of airway inflammation [exhaled nitric oxide (eNO)], respiratory symptom surveys, and pollutant measurements (indoor and outdoor 48-hr size-fractionated particulate matter, 48-hr black carbon, and 96-hr nitrogen dioxide) were collected at each school for 16 weeks. We examined associations between the pollutants and respiratory response using generalized linear mixed models. Results: We observed small but consistent associations between eNO and numerous pollutant metrics, with estimated increases in eNO ranging from 1% to 3% per interquartile range increase in pollutant concentrations. Effect estimates from models using school-based concentrations were generally stronger than corresponding estimates based on concentrations from ambient air monitors. Both traffic-related and non–traffic-related particles were typically more robust predictors of eNO than was nitrogen dioxide, for which associations were highly sensitive to model specification. Associations differed significantly across the four school-based cohorts, consistent with heterogeneity in pollutant concentrations and cohort characteristics. Models examining respiratory symptoms were consistent with the null. Conclusions: The results indicate adverse effects of air pollution on the subclinical respiratory health of asthmatic children in this region and provide preliminary support for the use of air pollution monitors close to schools to track exposure and

  2. La política exterior norteamericana desde la óptica educativa del vecino del sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, Rene A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este estudio los investigadores analizan las percepciones de profesoras, profesores, personal administrativo y estudiantes en una ciudad norteña de México, en relación con la política exterior de los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica. Esta investigación tiene lugar en un momento en que las relaciones entre ambos países son tensas a raíz de la autorización de la construcción del muro fronterizo entre las dos naciones. El objetivo del estudio es generar una mayor comprensión acerca de las recientes políticas estadounidenses, y su impacto en el extranjero. Además, compara y contrasta la perspectiva de profesores y estudiantes mexicanos sobre los mensajes trasmitidos por los medios de comunicación norteamericanos. Finalmente, se presenta una serie de recomendaciones en las que se enfatiza en la construcción de puentes de entendimiento en un tiempo en el que al parecer los muros van ganando la batalla.Abstract: Researchers analyze the perceptions and pedagogies of educators and students in northern Mexico with regard to United States foreign policies. The key objective of the research is to provide additional insight to the impact abroad of recent actions taken by the United States government. Furthermore, this study compares and contrasts the viewpoints of Mexican educators and students with coverage provided by the mainstream United States media and United States educational systems. Educators and future teachers in both the United States and Mexico benefit from broader understandings of educators’ roles and students’ perceptions in a bi-national community.

  3. 旅游市场营销模块化教学改革探析%The Exploration of Modular Teaching on the Course of Tourism Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东; 由亚男

    2014-01-01

    旅游市场营销是一门实践性很强的专业课,如何确定教学内容,以发挥市场营销理论对旅游业发展的指导作用是本课程需要深入思考的重要问题。本课程的模块化教学内容由旅游企业营销环境、旅游企业市场定位和旅游企业营销组合三部分组成,教学过程中应注重教学实践活动、教学与科研的有机结合、综合性知识的学习以及对教学内容和方法适度调整的原则。%Tourism marketing is a practical course. How to determine the teaching content, which plays the guide role of ma-rketing theory to the tourism development, is one of the important problems that we need to think deeply. The modular tea-ching content of this course is composed of marketing environment of tourism enterprise, market positioning and tourism en-terprise marketing mix. In the teaching process, there are some teaching experiences as follow:paying attention to the com-bination of teaching and practice, teaching and scientific research, the comprehensive knowledge to learn and the principle of moderation to the teaching content and method accordingly.

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ce-doped ZnO nanopowders synthesized by combustion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪樟连

    2015-01-01

    Facile and fast combustion method was used to synthesize ZnO and Ce-doped ZnO (CZO) nanocrystalline powders photo-catalysts with different cerium concentrations (0.5 wt.%–10.0 wt.%) followed by calcination at 700 ºC for 3 h. The prepared samples were characterized by a variety of characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible spectroscopy, BET surface area analyser and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), to study the crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical compo-sition and optical properties. It was observed from XRD results that synthesized powders had hexagonal wurtzite structure with the smallest crystallite size about 13 nm. Absorption spectra showed that cerium doping enhanced the light absorption properties towards the visible light region. Photoluminescence spectra for Ce-doped ZnO samples exhibited relatively weak near band edge (NBE) emis-sion peaks as compared to that of pristine ZnO. The photocatalytic activities of the prepared samples were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under UV light and visible light (λ≥420 nm) irradiation. The textile mill effluent containing or-ganic matters was also treated under sunlight using photocatalysis and the reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the treated effluent revealed a complete destruction of the organic molecules along with colour removal. The results showed that the CZO photocatalyst doped with 3.0 wt.% cerium exhibited four times enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to pure ZnO. The en-hanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to extended visible light absorption and inhibition of the electron-hole pair’s recom-bination.

  5. Research for applying genetic algorithm thought to self-learning of knowledge base%应用遗传算法思想进行知识库自学习的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄林林; 赵祎; 姚青

    2009-01-01

    For the problem of knowledge acquisition, manual method which has low efficiency can no longer meet the needs of the people. Therefore, the machine learning is provided to deal with this problem. On the basis of a virtual travel agent platform, by using theories and methods of genetic algorithms and machine learning, the problem of goal acquisition is transformed into the problem of com-bination optimization and a self-learning algorithm of goal knowledge base is provided which can optimize the new travel goals and update goal base. The experimental results show that the method is effective.%对于知识获取问题,常用的手工方法效率较低,已经不能满足人们的需求,因此提出使用机器学习这种自动知识获取方法来解决该问题.以虚拟旅行代理平台为背景,采用遗传算法和机器学习相结合的理论和方法,将目标知识库的目标荻取问题转化为组合优化问题,并提出了一个目标知识库自学习算法.通过该算法优化出新的旅行目标,实现目标库的更新.实验结果表明,该方法是有效的.

  6. Advances in the Knowledge of Transboundary Aquifers Shared by Canada and the USA, through the UNESCO's IHP ISARM Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.

    2015-12-01

    Canada's involvement in the UNESCO IHP ISARM initiative prompted an accrued analysis on the knowledge and state of transboundary aquifers located along the Canada-USA border. As a result, 10 Transboundary Aquifer Systems (TAS) were identified and some have been assessed in cooperation with the United States. This study is a review of the current state of the 10 TAS. Documentation of scientifically-based knowledge on TAS is an important step in identifying potential issues in policies that might be adopted to address shared water-resource issues. The newly acquired hydrological insights for this very long international border emphasizes the need for more scientific data, widespread communication and information sharing between Canadian and American organizations, and a more clearly defined governments' role to manage groundwater at the international level. The study reviews the legal frameworks and summarises the current scientific knowledge for the TAS with respect to the hydrologic and geologic framework as well as some of the major drivers for supply and demand. It also describes the links, approach and relevance of studies on the TAS to the UN Law of Transboundary Aquifers and on how these might fit in the ISARM's regional strategy for the assessment and management of the TAS. Clear communication, shared knowledge and common objectives in the management of TAS will prepare the countries for future negotiations and cooperative binational programs. Encouraged by the ISARM approach of the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO, Canada is now looking forward to playing a key regional role in improving water management, facilitating transboundary water sharing, and enhancing water research and data sharing in future relations between these two nations.

  7. On Teachers' Morality Construction from the Perspective of Scientific Outlook on Development in Transition Peri-od:Problems and Countermeasures%科学发展观视域下转型期师德师风建设的问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明

    2015-01-01

    During the period of social transformation, because of the impact of economic diversification and the value pluralism, the teachers' ethics appeared some tendency and problems that can not be ignored. In order to form a good teachers' ethics in colleges, we must understand the social, economic, and cultural characteristics in transformation period, and with the scientific development concept as a guide, strengthen the people-oriented and teacher-oriented humane education mode, and take teachers' morality construction as a long-term and basic task of college construction and development. Only when we realize"five com-binations" of teachers' morality construction, and promote the formation of good school spirit and style of study with good pro-fessional ethics, can we realize the comprehensive and sustain-able development of colleges.%社会转型期,由于经济多样化以及价值多元化的影响,高校师德师风出现了一些不容忽视的倾向和问题。高校要形成良好的师德师风,就必须认清转型时期社会经济、文化特点,以科学发展观为指导,强化以人为本、以师为本的人性化办学模式,注重把师德师风建设作为学校建设和发展的一项长期和基本的工作来抓,实现师德师风建设的“五大结合”,以良好师德师风来促成良好校风学风的形成,从而实现学校全面和可持续发展。

  8. 高职院校学生创业教育对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲芳

    2013-01-01

    A t present higher vocational colleges pay attention to entrepreneurship education w ith the orientation of em ploym ent, giving entrepreneurship education the im portant educational teaching content. B ut because of the affection of m any factors, entrepreneurship education still exist the m ain problem s needed to be solved. C om bing the reality of higher vocational colleges, this paper puts forw ard the corresponding solving counterm easures. It should create the good atm osphere of entrepreneurship education. It should establish the new curriculum system of entrepreneurship education, and create condition to provide students w ith the effective carrier of entrepreneurship education. It should strengthen the construction of teaching team for entrepreneurship education w ith part-tim e and full-tim e com bination, and establish com plete entrepreneurship talents' training system .%目前,以就业为导向的高等职业院校高度重视创业教育,将创业教育纳入重要的教育教学内容,但由于受多种因素的影响,创业教育工作还存在着亟待解决的主要问题。结合高等职业院校实际,提出相应的解决对策:营造良好的创业教育氛围。构建新的创业教育课程体系,创造条件为学生提供创业教育的有效载体,加强专兼结合的创业教育师资队伍建设,建立健全创业型人才培养制度。

  9. U.S.-Mexico cross-border workforce training needs: survey implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Guernsey de Zapien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the tragic events experienced on September 11, 2001, and other recent events such as the hurricane devastation in the southeastern parts of the country and the emergent H1N1season, the need for a competent public health workforce has become vitally important for securing and protecting the greater population. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to assess the training needs of the U.S. Mexico border states public health workforce. METHODS: The Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness of the Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health at The University of Arizona implemented a border-wide needs assessment. The online survey was designed to assess and prioritize core public health competencies as well as bioterrorism, infectious disease, and border/binational training needs. RESULTS: Approximately 80% of the respondents were employed by agencies that serve both rural and urban communities. Respondents listed 23 different functional roles that best describe their positions. Approximately 35% of the respondents were primarily employed by state health departments, twenty-seven percent (30% of the survey participants reported working at the local level, and 19% indicated they worked in other government settings (e.g. community health centers and other non-governmental organizations. Of the 163 survey participants, a minority reported that they felt they were well prepared in the Core Bioterrorism competencies. The sections on Border Competency, Surveillance/Epidemiology, Communications/Media Relations and Cultural Responsiveness, did not generate a rating of 70% or greater on the importance level of survey participants. CONCLUSIONS: The study provided the opportunity to examine the issues of public health emergency preparedness within the framework of the border as a region addressing both unique needs and context. The most salient findings highlight the need to enhance the border competency skills of individuals

  10. TRANSNATIONAL MOBILITY IN A BORDER TERRITORY: ASIAN COMMUNITIES IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Beltrán Antolín

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain, an European Union country, has become a new location for Asian transnationalism, a new territory to explore, an horizon to discover, a border to cross over. The Spanish economy is an attractive sector for Asian investment and business initiatives, that receives projects and initiatives already tested in other places, or new ones, particularly adapted to the local factors. The diasporas that have taken place, can be categorised, in general terms, into three typologies: the commercial diaspora, the elite and “bottom-up transnationalism”; three models of transnationalism which –in Spain– have demonstrated great adaptability and a high level of integration into the social and economic life of the welcoming country. However, at the same time, inevitable processes of economic competition have been unleashed and have sometimes given rise to violent outbreaks of racism and xenophobia. The Asian disembarkation of its diasporas in a boundary territory of Europe such as Spain, together with the accompanying economic and entrepreneurial dynamism, foster both the increase of wealth and the internationalisation of the national economy. Asian transnationalism –in the context of Spain– should be considered as multinodal and not exclusively binational (origin and destination, as the links actively maintained by the actors-agents of transnationalism include different Asian immigrant communities scattered throughout the world, as well as the countrie of origin. Spain is just another location, one step more in the cross-over that Asian transnationalism involves; in short, a boundary territory that is still filled with opportunities to explore.

  11. Thinking about Sports Psychology Load Concept and Its Evaluation%关于体育心理负荷概念及其测评的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦雪梅; 刘震

    2016-01-01

    把近年来对体育心理负荷的研究进行梳理,将体育心理负荷的概念及其测评方法进行概括和总结。研究认为:体育心理负荷是有机体在运动负荷或外部环境刺激的作用下,人的心理结构、神经系统的单位时间工作量。通过人的情绪、意志、注意等模糊指标表现出来;在心理负荷测评中,将量表法和模糊评判法相结合更能准确的进行体育心理负荷的测评。从而为把握体育心理负荷的概念以及测评方法的运用提供借鉴与参考。%In recent years ,researchers have to study sports psychology load to sort out ,the concept of sports psychology load and evaluation methods summed up and summarized .Studies suggest that :sport psychological load is an organism under exercise stress or external environmental stimuli role ,in the psy‐chological workload per unit time structure of the nervous system .Through people's emotions ,will ,at‐tention and other vague indicators manifested ;mental load evaluation ,the scaling method and Fuzzy Com‐bination more accurate evaluation for physical mental load .To provide reference for the application of sports psychology load grasp concepts and assessment methods .

  12. Strengthening Adaptation to Extreme Climate Events in Southwestern Amazonia: an Example from the Trinational Acre River Basin in the Madre de Dios/Peru - Acre/Brazil - Pando/Bolivia (MAP) Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. F.

    2015-12-01

    Southwestern Amazonia, where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet, faces numerous challenges to the sustainable utilization of land and water resources as the region experiences rapid population and economic growth, expanding agriculture, transportation and energy sectors, along with frequent flooding and droughts. It is also predicted to be one of the most susceptible areas for climate change in the coming decade. The Acre River Basin, one of the few trinational basins in Amazonia, lies at the center of the Madre de Dios Region (Peru), Acre State (Brazil) and Pando Department (Bolivia) or MAP Region. It covers approximately 7,500 km2 and its inhabitants range from indigenous groups avoiding contact with industrial society to more than 60,000 dwellers of a binational urban center. The basin incorporates most the challenges facing the region and this paper discusses steps underway to address the basin's vulnerability to climate-related threats. A trinational group of professionals used GIS databases and local knowledge to classify these threats and possible societal responses. To prioritize threats and to propose responses, this group adapted a method proposed by the Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence of Australia to develop climate risk matrices for assessing impacts, adaptation, risk and vulnerability. The three priority climate variables were prolonged and more frequent droughts, more intense flooding, and more days with temperatures > 35oC. The final matrix proposed two areas of concentration - 1) Reduce the vulnerability of communities to hydro-meteorological extreme events and 2) Protect and restore ecosystems that maintain critical water-related resources with actions in public policy, capacity-building, and immediate activities. These results are being incorporated into the Amazon Project of the Global Environment Fund of the United Nations Environment Program, administered by the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO).

  13. From the twenty - sixth Shenzhen Universiade Research on U- niversities Athletics Sports Present Situation%从第26届深圳大运会探究我国高校竞技体育现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金黄斌; 白银龙

    2012-01-01

    Using the methods of mathematical statistics, for the twenty - sixth Shenzhen games on our analysis of the results, aimed at the university athletics sports development to provide advice. Studies show that: China 's competitive sports in universities has reached the world leading level; China in Shenzhen Universiade gold medal project focus; full basket of row whole competitive strength is weaker, yinshengyangshuai; gold in regional difference; the project is divided into advantage, latent advantage, inferior po- sition three. Key recommendations: face the achievement, the com- bination of sports and education, physical education; broaden the coverage of the three ball gold medal ; strengthen the development of college competitive sports Midwest ; attention ; advantage, potential advantages and disadvantages of project coordination development.%运用数理统计等方法,对第26届深圳大运会上我国的成绩进行分析,旨在为高校竞技体育发展提供咨询。研究表明:我国高校竞技体育达到了世界领先水平;我国在深圳大运会夺金项目集中;篮、足、排整体较弱,竞技实力呈阴盛阳衰;夺金高校地域差异显著;将项目分为优势、潜优势、劣势三类。建议:正视成绩,体教结合,体育回归教育;拓宽金牌覆盖面;加强三大球发展;重视中西部高校竞技体育;优势、潜优势及劣势项目协调发展。

  14. Toxicity of waters from the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern to the plankton species Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Duffy, Brian T.; Smith, Alexander J; George, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    The lower Genesee River and Rochester Embayment of Lake Ontario are a designated Area of Concern (AOC) under the binational Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The “degradation of phytoplankton and zooplankton populations” or plankton Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) was classified as unknown and in need of further assessment in this AOC because water quality data suggested plankton communities could be effected and community data were either unavailable or indicated impacts. The plankton BUI may now be obsolete because local contaminant sources have been largely eliminated. The present study was conducted between July 2013 and August 2014 to assess the BUI-removal criteria: “AOC plankton bioassays confirm that toxicity in ambient waters (i.e., no growth inhibition) is not significantly higher than comparable non-AOC controls”. Acute and chronic toxicity of waters from 13 sites were quantified seasonally using standardized bioassays with the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and water flea Ceriodaphnia dubia to test the hypothesis that toxicity of waters from AOC sites was not higher than that of waters from comparable non-AOC reference sites. Survival and reproduction of C. dubia did not differ significantly between site types, systems, or months. The growth of P. subcapitata did not differ between site types, but differed among systems and months. All results indicate that waters from AOC sites were no more toxic to both plankton species than waters from reference sites. Assuming test species represent natural plankton assemblages, water quality should not negatively affect survival and growth of resident plankton populations in the Rochester Embayment AOC.

  15. A watershed-based adaptive knowledge system for developing ecosystem stakeholder partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hebin; Thornton, Jeffrey A.; Shadrin, Nickolai

    2015-11-01

    This study proposes a Watershed-based Adaptive Knowledge System (WAKES) to consistently coordinate multiple stakeholders in developing sustainable partnerships for ecosystem management. WAKES is extended from the institutional mechanism of Payments for Improving Ecosystem Services at the Watershed-scale (PIES-W). PIES-W is designed relating to the governance of ecosystem services fl ows focused on a lake as a resource stock connecting its infl owing and outfl owing rivers within its watershed. It explicitly realizes the values of conservation services provided by private land managers and incorporates their activities into the public organizing framework for ecosystem management. It implicitly extends the "upstream-to-downstream" organizing perspective to a broader vision of viewing the ecosystems as comprised of both "watershed landscapes" and "marine landscapes". Extended from PIES-W, WAKES specifies two corresponding feedback: Framework I and II. Framework I is a relationship matrix comprised of three input-output structures of primary governance factors intersecting three subsystems of a watershed with regard to ecosystem services and human stakeholders. Framework II is the Stakeholder-and-Information structure channeling five types of information among four stakeholder groups in order to enable the feedbacks mechanism of Framework I. WAKES identifies the rationales behind three fundamental information transformations, illustrated with the Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis and the Strategic Action Program of the Bermejo River Binational Basin. These include (1) translating scientific knowledge into public information within the Function-and-Service structure corresponding to the ecological subsystem, (2) incorporating public perceptions into political will within the Service- and- Value structure corresponding to the economic subsystem, and (3) integrating scientific knowledge, public perceptions and political will into management options within the Value

  16. Design and optimization of hybrid structure robot%混联机器人结构设计及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德成; 刁燕; 陈章平

    2011-01-01

    针对传统开放手术病人创伤大、微创手术医生易疲劳等现状,设计出一种基于混联结构的微创手术机器人.为满足微创手术的各种复杂动作,该机器人采用冗余8自由度结构提高其灵活性;结合球关节结构紧凑特点,所设计机器人采用串并联相结合的混联结构提高自身刚度,满足微创手术机器人高精度、小尺寸要求.依据所设计结构,在Matlab软件中对机器人的运动学、灵活工作空间等求解及仿真,论证了结构设计的合理性.%Specific to big trauma of patients in traditional open surgery and easy fatigue of doctors inMinimally Invasive Surgery(MIS),a MIS robot based on hybrid structure Was designed,which could meetvarious complex movements in MIS by applying redundancy 8 DOF to improve itsflexibility;Combined withthe compact structure of globe joint,the robot designed adopts hybrid structure with series and parallel corn-bination to improve its free stiffness and meet the requirement of MIS robot for high precision and smallsize.According to the structure design,simulation and solving for the kinematics andflexible space of robotis carried out with MATLAB software,which rationality of the structure design is demorhstrated.

  17. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edwards Matthews III

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hundreds of departments and organizations working on border health issues in the California/Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. As a result, there is a need to effectively improve the health in the border region by coordinating these organizations to work together and benefit from each other’s best practices. The newly developed California Border Health Collaborative (CBHC can provide the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region. This article aims to describe the development process of this collaborative to include key ingredients to success, the roles of mulit-level jurisdictions, and policy implications.This article describes the methods used to develop key aspects of collaborative leadership, strategic alignment and a common vision toward the building of this collective impact approach to border health. In addition, we describe the role of key local County (County of San Diego Live Well San Diego initiative, State, (California Department of Public Health- Office of Binational Border Health, Federal (US-Mexico Border Health Commission’s Leaders across Borders, Academia (e.g., University of California San Diego and San Diego State University and non-profit entities (e.g., Project Concern International, San Ysidro Health Center in forming the BHCC. Evaluating the consortium development process included a literature review of similar processes, a review of internal documents and an analysis of developmental events. To this point the CBHC has built a strong, cohesive collaborative on the U.S. side of the border. It is sharing and leveraging local expertise to address many border health issues. Even more importantly, the BHCC has reached a key stage in which it can effectively engage its Baja California, Mexico counterparts in a manner that will prove extremely powerful

  18. ABACC - Brazil-Argentina Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, a model of integration and transparence; ABACC - Agencia Brasileno-Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares, un ejemplo de integracion y transparencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio A.; Do Canto, Odilon Marcusso, E-mail: oliveira@abacc.org.br, E-mail: odilon@abacc.org.br [Agencia Brasileno Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares (ABACC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Argentina and Brazil began its activities in the nuclear area about the same time, in the 50 century past. The existence of an international nuclear nonproliferation treaty-TNP-seen by Brazil and Argentina as discriminatory and prejudicial to the interests of the countries without nuclear weapons, led to the need for a common system of control of nuclear material between the two countries to somehow provide assurances to the international community of the exclusively peaceful purpose of its nuclear programs. The creation of a common system, assured the establishment of uniform procedures to implement safeguards in Argentina and Brazil, so the same requirements and safeguards procedures took effect in both countries, and the operators of nuclear facilities began to follow the same rules of control of nuclear materials and subjected to the same type of verification and control. On July 18, 1991, the Bilateral Agreement for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy created a binational body, the Argentina-Brazil Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials-ABACC-to implement the so-called Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear materials - SCCC. The deal provided, permanently, a clear commitment to use exclusively for peaceful purposes all material and nuclear facilities under the jurisdiction or control of the two countries. The Quadripartite Agreement, signed in December of that year, between the two countries, ABACC and IAEA completed the legal framework for the implementation of comprehensive safeguards system. The 'model ABACC' now represents a paradigmatic framework in the long process of economic, political, technological and cultural integration of the two countries. Argentina and Brazil were able to establish a guarantee system that is unique in the world today and that consolidated and matured over more than twenty years, has earned the respect of the international community.

  19. Salvar la patria judía. Hannah Arendt y la cuestión palestina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo López Chaves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hannah Arendt se ha convertido en una figura consagrada en el campo de la reflexión filosófica y política contemporánea, siendo hoy objeto de un renovado interés. El presente artículo trata de exponer sintéticamente las claves de su análisis sobre la creación de un estado en Palestina. Su lectura de las consecuencias de la historia contemporánea europea y la “cuestión judía”, su posición con respecto al sionismo y sus alternativas y la evolución de sus críticas se entretejen en una rica y singular visión, que ofrece perspectivas útiles aún hoy para comprender el conflicto. Basados en una parte de su producción aparentemente secundaria, los “escritos judíos” permiten asimismo apreciar mejor el significado y las implicaciones personales de algunos conceptos capitales en la obra de esta pensadora.Palabras Clave: Hannah Arendt, escritos judíos, cuestión judía, conflicto Palestina, estado de Israel, sionismo, binacionalismo.___________________________Abstract:Recent interest on Hannah Arendt’s writings on philosophy and political theory places her among the most remarkable intellectuals on XXth century scholarship. This paper exposes her analysis of the foundation of a state in Palestine in a synthetic approach. It intends to show the relevance of her apparently secondary “Jewish writings” not to merely cast a singular view on the conflict, but also to provide new insights on how personal experience and contemporary issues intertwine with her broader historical, philosophical and political thought.Keywords: Hannah Arendt, Jewish writings, Jewish question, Palestine conflict, State of Israel, Zionism, binationalism.

  20. Obstetric emergencies at the United States–Mexico border crossings in El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jill A.; Rishel, Karen; Escobedo, Miguel A.; Arellano, Danielle E.; Cunningham, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the frequency, characteristics, and patient outcomes for women who accessed Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for obstetric emergencies at the ports of entry (POE) between El Paso, Texas, United States of America, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Methods A descriptive study of women 12–49 years of age for whom an EMS ambulance was called to an El Paso POE location from December 2008–April 2011 was conducted. Women were identified through surveillance of EMS records. EMS and emergency department (ED) records were abstracted for all women through December 2009 and for women with an obstetric emergency through April 2011. For obstetric patients admitted to the hospital, additional prenatal and birth characteristics were collected. Frequencies and proportions were estimated for each variable; differences between residents of the United States and Mexico were tested. Results During December 2008–December 2009, 47.6% (68/143) of women receiving EMS assistance at an El Paso POE had an obstetric emergency, nearly 20 times the proportion for Texas overall. During December 2008–April 2011, 60.1% (66/109) of obstetric patients with ED records were admitted to hospital and 52 gave birth before discharge. Preterm birth (23.1%; No. = 12), low birth weight (9.6%; No. = 5), birth in transit (7.7%; No. = 4), and postpartum hemorrhage (5.8%; No. = 3) were common; fewer than one-half the women (46.2%; No. = 24) had evidence of prenatal care. Conclusions The high proportion of obstetric EMS transports and high prevalence of complications in this population suggest a need for binational risk reduction efforts. PMID:25915011

  1. The antioxidant status in human population based on the concept of prakruthi in Ayurveda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhukar Mallya H; Revathi P Shenoy; Sreejith Ramakrishnan; Linta Thampi; Rashmi Ste-vens; MSethukumar Kamath; Anupama Nayak; Anjali Rao

    2008-01-01

    Objective:In the Ayurvedic system of medicine,body constitution (prakruthi)is said to play a vital role in the disease process as well as in its progression.Free radical toxicity is also involved in the etiopathogenesis of many disorders.Hence,in the present study an attempt has been made to correlate the body constitution type and the antioxidant status of that prakruthi.Methods:Healthy volunteers from Manipal University Campus, South Karnataka,India were classified into three main human constitutions (prakruthi)and their possible com-binations and their serum total antioxidant activity was determined.Results:There was a significant negative correlation of the total antioxidant status with the pitta prakruthi whereas vata and kapha constitutions showed no significant correlation with the total antioxidant status.Conclusion:Ayurveda classifies each individual based on his/her prakruthi into three categories of Doshas:Vata,Pitta and Kapha (collectively known as Tri-doshas).The three Doshas are fundamental regulatory principles responsible for maintaining organism functio-ning and manifesting those characteristics typifying each individual,that is,in equilibrium Tridoshas signify health and an imbalance leads to disease.Thus,in this study a significantly decreased antioxidant status in the Pitta group would render them more susceptible to damage by oxidative stress.Hence,we suggest that supple-mentation with antioxidants of herbal (Ayurvedic)origin to such a group would prove to be beneficial -opening up the arena for pharmacogenomics and customized antioxidant drug administration based on the prakruthi of an individual.

  2. The Development of a Novice Teacher's Autonomy in the Context of EFL in Colombia El desarrollo de la autonomía de una profesora principiante en el contexto de la enseñanza de inglés como lengua extranjera en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Frodden

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the experience of a novice English teacher taking part in a collaborative action research project with a group of children in a bi-national language center in Colombia, where a theme-based approach to teaching had been recently introduced. The purpose of the study was to learn how to solve problems encountered with the approach and to develop learner and teacher autonomy. The findings show how reflection, collaborative work and critical thinking were promoted and enabled the teacher to find alternatives in her teaching, to gain a new understanding of this approach, and to develop teacher autonomy.Este artículo informa acerca de la experiencia de una profesora principiante de inglés que formó parte de un proyecto de investigación acción colaborativa con un grupo de niños en un centro binacional en Colombia, en el cual se había introducido recientemente un enfoque basado en temas. El propósito del estudio fue aprender a resolver los problemas encontrados con el enfoque y desarrollar la autonomía de los estudiantes y de la profesora. Los hallazgos muestran cómo se promovieron la reflexión, el trabajo colaborativo y el pensamiento crítico de manera que hicieron posible que la profesora encontrara vías alternativas en su enseñanza, comprendiera mejor el enfoque y desarrollara su autonomía como profesora.

  3. U.S.Mexico cross-border workforce training needs:survey implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Cecilia B.; Nuno, Tomas; Dieke, Ada; Galvez, Francisco Navarro; Dutton, Ronald J.; Guerrero, Robert; Dulin, Paul; Jiménez, Elisa Aguilar; Granillo, Brenda; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Since the tragic events experienced on September 11, 2001, and other recent events such as the hurricane devastation in the southeastern parts of the country and the emergent H1N1season, the need for a competent public health workforce has become vitally important for securing and protecting the greater population. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to assess the training needs of the U.S. Mexico border states public health workforce. Methods: The Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness of the Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health at The University of Arizona implemented a border-wide needs assessment. The online survey was designed to assess and prioritize core public health competencies as well as bioterrorism, infectious disease, and border/binational training needs. Results: Approximately 80% of the respondents were employed by agencies that serve both rural and urban communities. Respondents listed 23 different functional roles that best describe their positions. Approximately 35% of the respondents were primarily employed by state health departments, twenty-seven percent (30%) of the survey participants reported working at the local level, and 19% indicated they worked in other government settings (e.g. community health centers and other non-governmental organizations). Of the 163 survey participants, a minority reported that they felt they were well prepared in the Core Bioterrorism competencies. The sections on Border Competency, Surveillance/Epidemiology, Communications/Media Relations and Cultural Responsiveness, did not generate a rating of 70% or greater on the importance level of survey participants. Conclusions: The study provided the opportunity to examine the issues of public health emergency preparedness within the framework of the border as a region addressing both unique needs and context. The most salient findings highlight the need to enhance the border competency skills of individuals whose

  4. A coupled model approach to reduce nonpoint-source pollution resulting from predicted urban growth: A case study in the Ambos Nogales watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Guertin, D.P.; Feller, M.

    2008-01-01

    The development of new approaches for understanding processes of urban development and their environmental effects, as well as strategies for sustainable management, is essential in expanding metropolitan areas. This study illustrates the potential of linking urban growth and watershed models to identify problem areas and support long-term watershed planning. Sediment is a primary source of nonpoint-source pollution in surface waters. In urban areas, sediment is intermingled with other surface debris in transport. In an effort to forecast the effects of development on surface-water quality, changes predicted in urban areas by the SLEUTH urban growth model were applied in the context of erosion-sedimentation models (Universal Soil Loss Equation and Spatially Explicit Delivery Models). The models are used to simulate the effect of excluding hot-spot areas of erosion and sedimentation from future urban growth and to predict the impacts of alternative erosion-control scenarios. Ambos Nogales, meaning 'both Nogaleses,' is a name commonly used for the twin border cities of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The Ambos Nogales watershed has experienced a decrease in water quality as a result of urban development in the twin-city area. Population growth rates in Ambos Nogales are high and the resources set in place to accommodate the rapid population influx will soon become overburdened. Because of its remote location and binational governance, monitoring and planning across the border is compromised. One scenario described in this research portrays an improvement in water quality through the identification of high-risk areas using models that simulate their protection from development and replanting with native grasses, while permitting the predicted and inevitable growth elsewhere. This is meant to add to the body of knowledge about forecasting the impact potential of urbanization on sediment delivery to streams for sustainable development, which can be

  5. Translating Volcano Hazards Research in the Cascades Into Community Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.

  6. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Sediments from Prevalent Dust Sources in the Central Chihuahuan Desert, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez Acosta, M.; Gill, T. E.; Peinado, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Chihuahuan Desert has been recognized as an important contributor of mineral aerosols emplaced into the atmosphere in the Western Hemisphere. Along with the production of these aerosols, growing concern has been stated relating the downwind transport of atmospheric dust particles to increases in human health related impacts such as asthma and bronchitis in the Binational Paso Del Norte, the largest urban area in the region. Efforts have been made to describe the source types (land use/cover) and frequency of emission from the "dust hotspots" or prevalent sources within the region. These studies have outlined specific areas and their related sedimentological environments responsible for the regular dust production. Ephemeral lakes, fluvial and alluvial related environments form the main natural dust producing landforms in the region, modulated by short-term climatic variability and anthropogenic disturbance. Analysis of remote sensing imagery shows that the margins between natural areas and agricultural lands form the main anthropogenic related source areas. Most of the previously published studies focus on these remotely sensed descriptions of the dust sources, while only a few deal with in situ or field characteristics of these sources. A formal and detailed description of the physicochemical properties of many of these areas is presented, providing key data on this component of the overall dust production cycle. Elemental and mineralogical compositions of dust source sediments, soil textural compositions (grain size distributions) and field sedimentological descriptions are presented as an effort to attain a detailed in situ description of the prevalent dust sources in the central part of the Chihuahuan Desert.

  7. The nuclear safeguards system and the process of global governance accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Roberto Salles, E-mail: xavier@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Planejamento e Avaliacao

    2011-07-01

    Due to rising energy costs and climate concerns, nuclear energy is again being seriously considered as an energy source for several countries. Along with the resurgence of nuclear energy comes the concern of the world if these countries will develop their programs for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. If on one hand the growth potential of nuclear energy should not be stifled, on the other hand it is imperative that a climate of mutual trust is developed, respecting the right of each country to develop its nuclear program without taking a climate of mistrust to a possible 'intention' behind the pursuit of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Therefore, it is essential that appropriate mechanisms of accountability of global governance are institutionalized at the institutional architecture of the international process of nuclear safeguards, more specifically to the nuclear fuel cycle, so that abuses of power in this sphere does not happen, both by countries that aspire to develop projects nuclear, and by the suppliers of technology. In this context, the case study of Brazil and Argentina gained importance, because these two countries have a single binational organization of nuclear safeguards in the world: Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials - ABACC. In the theoretical question, the paper tries to understand what happens with the process of legitimacy and authority of the organizations of global governance by analyzing the degree of publicness and constrictiveness. This work intends to focus on the role of ABACC as an interstate institution of accountability, which has a key role to control the nation States of Brazil and Argentina regarding the appropriate use of nuclear material used in their programs, and analyze how this Agency behaves within of tension legitimacy-authority, taking into account existing studies on accountability in global governance. (author)

  8. Interpretation of Digital Means and Virtual Reality Technology in the Interior Design%室内设计中的数字手段与虚拟现实技术解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李银斌

    2012-01-01

    现代数字化手段和虚拟现实技术对设计创意的表达起到了越来越重要的作用,它几乎颠覆了全部传统设计概念。短短二十来年,数字化手段与虚拟现实技术的创新发展几乎涉猎了室内设计的整个领域,数字艺术设计既表现了数字化技术对传统方式的冲击,也是科技与艺术完美结合的体现。科学的发展为艺术创作提供了新的载体,同时也带来了全新的艺术创作手法和艺术语言。%Modern digital tools and virtual reality technology played an increasingly important role in design creative ex-pression,it almost subvert traditional design concept.Merely twenty years,the development of digital means of virtual reality technology innovation almost forays into the whole field of interior design,digital art and design is manifested not only the impact of digital technology on the traditional way,but also a manifestation of science and technology with the perfect com-bination of art.The scientific development of artistic creation,a new carrier,it also brings a new artistic creative techniques and artistic language.

  9. 呼叫中心CRM系统服务端的研究与设计%Research and Design of Call Center CRM System Server

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立文; 詹舒波

    2016-01-01

    This paper mainly presents the design idea of call center CRM system from the function level and system level. Nowadays, with the rapid development of call center services, It can help enterprises manage the external cus-tomer relations, and achieves internal management more efficiently. The call center CRM business system software adopts B/S architecture, work provide Web based interface, support the browser login access. It uses Java language de-velopment, the background uses the J2EE enterprise edition Tomcat platform, cross-platform characteristics. The com-bination of call center and CRM system is of great significance to improve customer service quality and improve enterprise competitive ability.%论文主要从功能层面和系统层面介绍呼叫中心 CRM 系统的设计思路。近年来,随着呼叫中心业务的迅速发展,一个完善的客户关系管理系统不但可以帮助企业更好的管理外部客户关系,同时可以帮助企业实现更高效的内部管理。呼叫中心 CRM业务系统软件采用 B/S架构,提供基于 Web的工作界面,支持浏览器登录访问。系统采用Java 语言开发,后台采用 J2EE 企业版 Tomcat 平台,具有跨平台特性。呼叫中心与 CRM系统的结合对于改善客户服务质量和提高企业竞争能力具有重要意义。

  10. Deep Geothermal:The‘Moon Landing’ Mission in the Unconventional Energy and Minerals Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus Regenauer-Lieb; Jie Liu; Vladimir Lyakhovsky; Elena Pasternak; Robert Podgorney1; Thomas Poulet; Sheik Rahman; Christoph Schrank; Mike Trefry; Manolis Veveakis; Bisheng Wu; Andrew Bunger; David A. Yuen; Florian Wellmann; Xi Zhang; Hui Tong Chua; Arcady Dyskin; Florian Fusseis; Oliver Gaede; Rob Jeffrey; Ali Karrech; Thomas Kohl

    2015-01-01

    Deep geothermal from the hot crystalline basement has remained an unsolved frontier for the geothermal industry for the past 30 years. This poses the challenge for developing a new un-conventional geomechanics approach to stimulate such reservoirs. While a number of new uncon-ventional brittle techniques are still available to improve stimulation on short time scales, the aston-ishing richness of failure modes of longer time scales in hot rocks has so far been overlooked. These failure modes represent a series of microscopic processes: brittle microfracturing prevails at low temperatures and fairly high deviatoric stresses, while upon increasing temperature and decreasing applied stress or longer time scales, the failure modes switch to transgranular and intergranular creep fractures. Accordingly, fluids play an active role and create their own pathways through fa-cilitating shear localization by a process of time-dependent dissolution and precipitation creep, rather than being a passive constituent by simply following brittle fractures that are generated in-side a shear zone caused by other localization mechanisms. We lay out a new theoretical approach for the design of new strategies to utilize, enhance and maintain the natural permeability in the deeper and hotter domain of geothermal reservoirs. The advantage of the approach is that, rather than engineering an entirely new EGS reservoir, we acknowledge a suite of creep-assisted geological processes that are driven by the current tectonic stress field. Such processes are particularly sup-ported by higher temperatures potentially allowing in the future to target commercially viable com-binations of temperatures and flow rates.

  11. Cloning, expression and characterization of human tissue-specific DNA polymerase λ2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    DNA polymerase (POL) λ plays an important role during DNA repair and DNA nonhomologous recom-bination processes. A novel POL λ variant was cloned from a human liver cDNA library and named POL λ2 (GenBank Accession No. AY302442). POL λ2 has 2206 base pairs in length with an open reading frame of 1452 base pairs encoding a 482-amino-acids protein. Bioinformatics analysis reveals that POL λ2 spans 7.9 kb on human chromosome 10q24 and is composed of 8 exons and 7 introns. It has the specific domain of DNA polymerase X family-POL Xc at the C-terminus and BRCT domain at the N-terminus. POL λ2 was localized predominantly in nucleus in transfected L0-2 cells. It was expressed abundantly in liver and testis, weakly in ovary, and undetectably in other tested human tissues. In comparison with the expression ratio between POL λ and POL λ2 in normal liver tissues and hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC) adjacent tissues, the ratio was aberrant in 80% of those 15 HCC specimens examined due to the up-regulated expression of POL λ. This abnormality might be involved in hepato-carcinogenesis. The recombinant POL λ2 with His-tag was expressed as a soluble active protein in E. coli BL21 (DE3)CONDON Plus and purified by Ni-NTA resin and then desalted by Superdex-75 chro-matography in an FPLC system. The analysis using isotope α-32P-dCTP incorporation in vitro showed that the purified recombinant POL λ2 exhibited DNA polymerase activity.

  12. A Voice of the US Southwestern Border: The 2012 “We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future” Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah McC. Heyman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 2012, a diverse group of US residents living near the US-Mexico border met in El Paso, Texas for a conference entitled, We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future.  This paper describes a vision for the US-Mexico border by diverse border residents that is at odds with the widespread view of the border as a threat to the United States. These border residents viewed their region as a set of human communities with rights, capacities, and valuable insights and knowledge. They embraced an alternative vision of border enforcement that would focus on “quality” (dangerous entrants and contraband over “quantity” (mass migration enforcement.  They called for investments in the functionality and security of ports of entry, rather than in between ports of entry.  They noted the low crime rate in US border cities, and examined how policies of not mixing local law enforcement with federal immigration enforcement contributed to this achievement. They saw the border region as the key transportation and brokerage zone of the emerging, integrated North American economy. In their view, the bilingual, bicultural, and binational skills that characterize border residents form part of a wider border culture that embraces diversity and engenders creativity. Under this vision the border region is not an empty enforcement zone, but is part of the national community and its residents should enjoy the same constitutional and human rights as other US residents. The conference participants emphasized the necessity and value of accountability and oversight of central government enforcement operations, and the need for border communities to participate in federal decision-making that affects their lives. 

  13. A COMBINED FUZZY MCDM APPROACH FOR IDENTIFYING THE SUITABLE LANDS FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT: AN EXAMPLE FROM BANDAR ABBS, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dadras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the suitable lands for urban dev elopment in Bandar Abbas city based on its real world use regarding specific crite ria and sub-criteria. The city of Bandar Abbas is considered as the most important commer cial and economic city of Iran. It is also considered as one of the major cities of Iran which has played a pivotal role in the country's development and progress in recen t years especially after the end of Iran-Iraq war owing to its embracing the country's m ain commercial ports. This process has caused the immigration rate into the city to rise significantly over the past 20 years. Thus, the development of the city is meanwhile c onsidered as a high priority. Bandar Abbas city does not have a rich capacity for g rowth and development due to its special geographical situation being located in coastal border. Among the limitations placed in the city's development way, natural limit ations (heights and sea shore in the northern and southern parts of the city and struc tural limitations (military centers in the east and west sides of the city may be referred . Therefore, identifying the suitable lands for urban development within Bandar Abbas city l imits is becoming an essential priority. Therefore, d ifferent quantitative and quali tative criteria have been studied in order to select and identify these lands. The struct ures of qualitative criteria for most parts involve ambiguities and vagueness. This leads us to use Fuzzy logic in this study as a natural method for determining the solutions fo r problems of Multi- criteria decision making (MCDM. In the current research, a com bination of MCDM methods has been presented for analysis. To assignee weights of the criteria Fuzzy AHP (analytic hierarchy process is used for land selection and Fuzzy TOPSIS (method for order priority by similarity to ideal solution is utilized to choose the alternative that is the most appropriate through these criteria weights. The

  14. Key technologies and development of formation control of mobile robots%移动机器人队形控制关键技术及其进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任立敏; 王伟东; 杜志江

    2013-01-01

    在明确了多机器人队形控制国内外发展现状的基础上,以地面移动机器人为研究对象,从系统结构、机器人模型、队形形状表示方法、参考框架及编队控制策略等方面,对多机器人编队控制的研究成果进行了概述。同时,对队形形状生成、编队跟踪与协调、队形变换与重组以及编队避障等队形控制子问题的国内外研究近况进行了总结和分析。最终指出:研究统一有效的编队控制框架、障碍环境下的队形优化变换、降低系统对通讯能力的要求以及编队控制在实际物理环境下的应用是移动机器人队形控制领域未来可能的研究主题。%On the basis of defining the present development of multi-robot formation control at home and abroad , with ground mobile robots as the research object , the research achievements on the multi-robot formation control are described in aspects of system structure , robot model , the formation shape representation method , reference frame and formation control strategy .In addition, the present domestic and foreign researches on such sub-problems of for-mation control as the generation of formation shape , formation tracking and coordination , formation change , recom-bination and formation , obstacle avoidance are also summarized and analyzed .It is pointed out finally that the uni-form and effective formation control frame , formation optimization and change in the obstacle environment , reducing system requirements on communication and the application of formation control in the actual physical environment are the future possible research topics .

  15. Residential Exposure to Nighttime Retained Heat in the El Paso, Texas, USA Desert Metroplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, M. A.; Mohammed, M.; Pingitore, N. E.; Aldouri, R. K.; Benedict, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    The urban heat island is a well recognized and extensively studied phenomenon that has accelerating importance resulting from two trends associated with world-wide population growth: increasing urbanization and global warming. Urbanization, particularly when unplanned and haphazard, changes such thermal parameters as albedo, surface roughness, and heat capacities of surface materials. Rapid urbanization in the contiguous El Paso, Texas, USA - Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico bi-national metroplex has produced an urban heat island that is warmer than the surrounding Chihuahuan desert (temperature: 35-40 C summer; high elevation: 600-1675 m; rainfall: less than 250 mm annual). Despite the extensive literature on the urban heat island, little is known about urban nighttime land surface temperatures. We employed infrared satellite imaging to establish the variation of nighttime neighborhood surface temperatures across the city of El Paso, as well as all of El Paso County. The underlying purpose of our continuing investigation is to evaluate the geography of morbidity risk: are different neighborhoods at different risk of high nighttime temperatures. Those risks can include heat stress, and irritability and sleep deprivation, with possible resultant violence. Heat exposure at night is significant because residents are at home and 90% of El Pasoans do not have 'refrigerated' air conditioning, but instead have evaporative coolers, which are less expensive to own and operate, but are less effective since they raise the humidity of the partially cooled air. Our geographically weighted regression model showed that both day and nighttime land surface temperatures correlated with the normalized difference vegetation index, population density, and albedo. The association with the index and albedo was stronger during the daytime and with population density during the nighttime. Vegetation (negative) and population density (positive) were the dominant temperature drivers, with

  16. Developing fish trophic interaction indicators of climate change for the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Richard T.; Knight, Carey T.; Gorman, Ann Marie; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Rogers, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    stakeholder activities, most notably in Lake Erie. The results were instrumental in the development of an interim decision rule for dealing with data collected during hypoxic events to improve stock assessment of Yellow Perch. In addition, novel findings from this study regarding spatial and temporal variability in hypoxia have aided US-Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a modified sampling protocol to more accurately quantify the central basin hypoxic zone, and this directly addressed a goal of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 2012 to reduce the extent and severity of hypoxia. Finally, the study areas developed in this project formed the basis for food web sampling in the 2014 bi-national Coordinated Science and Monitoring Initiative work in Lake Erie.

  17. Application of Joint Drought Index in Drought Monitoring-A Case Study in Shaoguan of Guangdong Province%联合干旱指数在干旱监测中的应用--以广东韶关地区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄强; 陈子遷; 孔兰; 蒋任飞

    2014-01-01

    It is accepted that climate change has a great impact on water cycle and regional water balance,and thus it would change the formation and evolution of drought conditions in some degree.In this context,the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI),which has also taken another important factor evapotranspiration in the process of regional water balance into consideration, would be more suitable for drought monitoring than the standardized precipitation index (SPI).The different time scales SPEI can re-flect the duration informations of drought,so the single SPEI of a certain time scale can only indicate a fraction of drought information. In order to form an overall judgement in drought monitoring,a new index called joint drought index (JDI)was established by the com-bination with different SPEIs.The accuracy and effectiveness of JDI in drought monitoring were then verified by the forecast evaluation system and comparison with the actual drought.In conclusion,JDI can be used as a new ideal index for future drought monitoring.%气候变化影响了水循环与地区的水量平衡过程,一定程度上改变了干旱的形成与演变条件。以标准化降水量与蒸散发量差值表征水分偏离正常程度的标准化降水蒸散发指数(SPEI)为基础,从多时间尺度联合的视角建立联合干旱指数(JDI),并以广东韶关为例分析修正的新指数JDI在干旱监测中的准确性和有效性。结果表明,综合了不同时间尺度干旱特征信息的JDI能够较全面地反映干旱的形成与演进过程。通过对干旱监测的评价以及与实际旱情的对比分析,验证了联合干旱指数JDI在实际干旱监测中的准确性和有效性,其可作为未来干旱监测的新理想指标。

  18. Impact of grape cluster defoliation on TDN potential in cool climate Riesling wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttler Armin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cool climate grape vine growing regions are and will be affected by the global climate change. It is likely that increasing temperatures, as well as changing precipitation pattern will impact the wines’ composition and wine styles. In the last decades the sensory concept of German Riesling wines was considered to represent fresh and fruity notes. However, aged wines of this variety are characterized by petrol like aroma, which is not appreciated in modern Riesling wines. The C13-norisoprenoid 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN is considered to be the marker compound for this undesired sensory impression. The biogenesis of this compound is impacted by grape vine growth conditions. Wines made from Riesling grapes grown in warmer climates have higher concentrations of TDN. Therefore “TDN management” will be one of the most challenging tasks in viticulture in Riesling growing regions in general and particularly in cool climate regions. Two approaches considered are the canopy management of the grape vines as well as an appropriate selection of yeast strain for alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, the aim of this project was to study the impact of grape zone defoliation on potential TDN concentrations in grapes, must and finished wines under cool climate conditions, in example of regional conditions of the landmark Hessische Bergstraße, in com- bination with the usage of two commercially available yeast strains during alcoholic fermentation. The experiment consisted of four treatments in a balanced incomplete block design, grape zone defoliation at berry set on the eastern side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at berry set on eastern and western side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at veraison on eastern and western side of the canopy, and a non-defoliated treatment. The treatments and repetitions were harvested separately, pressed, and then fermented with two different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Grape

  19. The anti-cancer effect of Huaier aqueous extract with rh-Endostatin and DDP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxuan Che; Meixiang Zhou; Peng Zhan; Tiantian Zou; Xiuhua Sun

    2014-01-01

    The-aim-of-our-study-was-to-explore-the-inhibition-and-apoptosis-inducing-ef-ect-of-the-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-with-recombinant-human-Endostatin-and-DDP-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-A549-cel-s.-We-also-investigated-the-reversal-ef-ect-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-in-reversing-cisplatin-resistance-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-A549/DDP-cel-s.-Methods:We-treated-A549-cel-s-with-Huaier-aqueous-extract-and-the-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-ex-tract-and-DDP-or-rh-Endostatin-for-24-h,-36-h-and-48-h.-And-then-we-calculated-the-inhibition-rate-through-MTT-approach-and-detected-the-apoptosis-rate-by-flow-cytometry.-We-also-treated-A549-and-A549/DDP-cel-s-with-DDP,-Huaier-aqueous-extract,-DDP-and-Huaier-aqueous-extract-for-72-h,-respectively.-Results:Huaier-aqueous-extract-can-inhibit-the-growth-of-A549-cel-s-and-the-inhibition-rate-improved-with-the-increase-of-the-concentration.-The-inhibition-rate-of-the-combination-of-rh-Endostatin-and-4-mg/mL-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-in-three-time-points-and-the-combination-of-rh-Endostatin-and-2-mg/mL-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-in-the-time-point-of-48-h-on-the-growth-of-A549-cel-s-al-improved-(P<0.005).-The-inhibition-rate-of-the-com-bination-of-DDP-and-Huaier-aqueous-extract-with-the-concentration-of-2-mg/mL-or-4-mg/mL-on-the-growth-of-A549-cel-s-al-improved-(P<0.005).-The-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-and-DDP-and-the-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-with-rh-Endostatin-and-DDP-can-improve-the-inhibition-on-the-growth-of-A549-cel-s-(P<0.005).-Conclusion:Huaier-aqueous-extract-has-the-inhibition-and-apoptosis-inducing-ef-ects-on-the-A549-cel-s.-And-the-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-and-rh-Endostatin-or-DDP-has-the-synergistic-ef-ects-on-the-inhibition-of-A549-cel-s.-The-combination-of-Huaier-aqueous-extract-with-rh-Endostatin-and-DDP-has-the-synergistic-ef-ects-on-the-inhibition-of-A549-cel-s.-Huaier-aqueous-extract-can-reverse-the-cisplatin-resistance-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-A549/DDP-cel-s.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among active duty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Mittal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Police officers are at an elevated risk for needle-stick injuries (NSI, which pose a serious and costly occupational health risk for HIV and viral hepatitis. However, research on NSIs among police officers is limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the legality of syringe possession in Mexico, half of people who inject drugs (PWID in Tijuana report extrajudicial syringe-related arrests and confiscation by police, which has been associated with needle-sharing and HIV infection. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of NSIs among Tijuana police officers to inform efforts to improve occupational safety and simultaneously reduce HIV risks among police and PWID. Methods: Tijuana's Department of Municipal Public Safety (SSPM is among Mexico's largest. Our binational, multi-sectoral team analyzed de-identified data from SSPM's 2014 anonymous self-administered occupational health survey. The prevalence of NSI and syringe disposal practices was determined. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation via generalized estimating equations identified factors associated with ever having an occupational NSI. Results: Approximately one-quarter of the Tijuana police force was given the occupational health survey (N=503. Respondents were predominantly male (86.5% and ≤35 years old (42.6%. Nearly one in six officers reported ever having a NSI while working at SSPM (15.3%, of whom 14.3% reported a NSI within the past year. Most participants reported encountering needles/syringes while on duty (n=473, 94%; factors independently associated with elevated odds of NSIs included frequently finding syringes that contain drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.56–5.67 and breaking used needles (AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.29–3.91, while protective factors included being willing to contact emergency services in case of NSIs (AOR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22–0.69, and wearing needle-stick resistant

  1. Some parameters of innate immunity in senile group patients with eye injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Namazova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Investigation of the parameters of innate immunity in senile group patients with eye injury.Methods: Standard ophthalmologic and immunologic study of 12 patients aged 63±11 with eye injury complicated by inflamma- tion. Immunological study of peripheral blood, tear and conjunctival scraping from the injured eye and the binate eye was carried out on 1-3 days after the injury. the parameters of innate local immunity was determined in the result of immune-cytological study of the conjunctival scraping by assessing phagocytosis of neutrophils and index of neutrophils/lymphocytes (INL, immunofluorescent counting of NK-cells CD56+ (panel of monoclonal antibodies of company «Sorbent» Ltd., Russia. the concentration of transferrin (a set of «Human» Company, Germany in the blood and lacrimal fluid was assayed by the biochemical analyzer (Bioscreen MS-500. the results obtained were processed by the method of variational statistics.Results: As a result of the conducted studies there has been detected a decrease in the amount of transferrin both in blood and lacrimal fluid by almost 2 times (p <0,001. there was recorded the rise in the INL index at the systemic (3,8±0,1 and local (4.9±0.4 level, reflecting a compensatory, more pronounced activity of nonspecific protection factors of general and local immunity in the acute stage of inflammation. the level of phagocytosis in the blood of the examined patients was reduced relative to the control (p<0.001. In the scraping material of the injured eye the phagocytosis percentage was 16.4±0.9%. the results of a comparative study of the content of NK-cells (СD56+, revealed reduction in the average value of this parameter in the blood of the patients with eye injury relative to the control (p<0.001, and in the conjunctival scraping the level of СD56+-lymphocytes increased, amounting to 2-3 in the field of vision.Conclusion: In the senile group patients with an eye injury there is an activation of

  2. Promoting US-China Critical Zone Science Collaboration and Coordination Through Established Subnational Bilateral Science Partnerships: The US-China EcoPartnership for Economic and Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, T. R.; Guo, D.; Plante, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of critical zone (CZ) science has gained wide recognition with actively funded and emerging CZ observatory programs across the globe. There is much to be gained through international collaboration that links field, laboratory, and modeling efforts from across the emerging global CZ networks, but building international ties is difficult, especially when peer-to-peer connections are nascent, separated by great distances, and span different cultural and political environments. The U.S. and China share many climatic and geological similarities but differ greatly in the magnitude and timescale of human alteration of their landscapes making the comparative study of their respective pasts, current state, and future co-evolution an outstanding scientific opportunity to better understand, predict, and respond to human influence on the CZ. Leveraging the infrastructure and trust capital of longstanding sub-national volunteer scientific networks to bring together people and organizations is a resource-efficient mechanism to build cross-network CZ programs. The U.S.-China EcoPartnership for Environmental Sustainability (USCEES) is one of 30 current EcoPartnerships established beginning in May 2008 by a joint agreement between the U.S. Department of State and China's National Development and Reform Commission with the overarching goal of addressing the interconnected challenges of environmental, social, and economic sustainability through bi-national research innovation, communication, and entrepreneurship. The 2015 USCEES annual conference on "Critical Zone Science, Sustainability, and Services in a Changing World" was co-sponsored by the U.S. Cross-CZO Working Group on Organic Matter Dynamics and hosted three NSF-funded workshops on organic matter dynamics:1) methods for large and complex data analysis, 2) erosion and deposition processes, and 3) mineralogical and microbial controls on reactivity and persistence. This paper highlights outcomes from the workshops

  3. QTL Analysis for Plant Height with Molecular Markers in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jian-bing; TANG Hua; HUANG Yi-qin; SHI Yong-gang; ZHENG Yong-lian; LI Jian-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Plant height has become one of important agronomic traits with the increase of planting densityrecently and the rapid developments of molecular markers have provided powerful tools to localize importantagronomic QTL at the genomic level. The purposes of this investigation are to map plant height QTL with mo-lecular markers and to analyze their genetic effects in maize. An F2:3 population from an elite combination(Zong3 × 87-1) was utilized for evaluating plant height in two locations, Wuhan and Xiangfan, with a ran-domized complete block design. The mapping population included 266 F2:3 family lines. A genetic linkagemap, containing 150 SSR and 24 RFLP markers, was constructed, spanning a total of 2 531.6 cm with an av-erage interval of 14.5 cm. Totally 10 QTL affecting plant height were mapped on six different chromosomeswith the composite interval mapping. Seven of 10 QTL were detected in two locations. The contributions tophenotypic variations for the single QTL varied between 5.3 and 17.1%. Additive, partial dominance, domi-nance, and overdominance actions existed among all detected QTL affecting plant heights. A large number ofdigenic interactions for plant height were detected by two-way analyses of variance. 107 and 98 two-locus com-binations were found to be significant at a 0.01 probability level in two locations respectively. 23 of them weresimultaneously detected in both locations. They accounted for phenotypic variations of 4.5 -11%. It was no-ticed that a locus, umc1122, had digenic interactive effects with other four different loci for plant height,which distributed on three chromosomes. A few of plant height QTL was involved in significant digenic inter-actions, but most significant interactions occurred between markers that are not adjacent to mapped QTL.These results demonstrated that epistatic interactions might play an equal importance role as the single-locuseffects in determining plant height of maize.

  4. An Analysis of the Competitiveness of Chaozhou Ceramic Industry Cluster%潮州陶瓷产业集群竞争力探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑銮娟

    2014-01-01

    产业集群是产业组织结构的重要形式,是提高区域产业经济竞争力的有效途径。陶瓷产业作为潮州首要支柱产业,产业总体规模、集聚规模及出口贸易规模都较为强大,且产业链完整和区域品牌厚实,产业集群竞争力比较优势明显。但受宏观环境影响,产业出口贸易增长率放缓,企业产品品牌建设滞后,自主创新能力弱,产业劣势显现。通过对潮州陶瓷产业比较优势的发挥,产业结构的优化升级,企业品牌的建设,产品科技含量的增加,出口增长方式的转变,多元市场的开拓等多种途径的综合运用,可以进一步提升集群竞争力。%Industrial cluster is an important form of industrial organization and construction.It is an effec⁃tive way to upgrade economic competitiveness in regional industrial development. As the pillar industry in Cha⁃ozhou, ceramics industry is strong in general, clustering and exporting scales, having an integrated industrial chain with rich brands, with outstanding advantages in clusterization competitiveness. Impacted by macro envi⁃ronment, however, the industry suffers from a slowdown in export business growth, and is delayed in its brands establishment, and also weakened in creativity. Its competitive strengths can be further exalted by overall com⁃bination of various approaches including advantages exertion, upgrading of industrial construction, brand estab⁃lishment, increasing applications of scientific technology, changes in export increase mode, and strategy imple⁃mentation of market diversification, etc.

  5. Product color design based on reuse of color scheme%基于色彩方案重用的产品配色感性设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 吕健; 潘伟杰

    2015-01-01

    In the field of industrial design ,product coloring activity is mainly colored and modified manually and the users' emotional involvement is low .In order to reduce the dependence on the knowledge in the design activities ,a color design method based on reuse of color configuration was proposed .It used obfuscation and dominant color extraction technology to obtain color com‐binations from the source image ,then created the sample database of color combinations ,the 3D model library of products and the emotional evaluations collection of color combinations .The im‐agery contribution of single color was obtained from the color combination by using factor analy‐sis .Then it completed the mapping from independent color space to the imagery space .Finally , based on user's evaluation scores and color harmony ,fitness function was built and the optimiza‐tion of program groups was promoted through IGA .An example of cultural souvenir color design demonstrates the effectiveness of this method .%在工业设计界,产品配色活动主要依靠人工赋色和修改,并且用户感性知识参与性较低。为了有效降低设计活动对领域知识的依赖以及增强用户感性需求的满意度,提出了基于色彩配置方案重用的产品配色感性设计方法。运用模糊处理与主色提取等技术从源图像中获取色彩组合方案,建立色彩组合样本库、产品三维模型库及色彩组合感性评价语义集,利用因子分析方法从色彩组合方案中提取单个色彩的意象贡献值,进而完成从独立色彩空间向意象词汇空间的映射,依据用户评价分值与色彩调和度构建适应度评价函数并以交互式遗传算法为工具推进方案群的优化。以文化旅游纪念品配色设计为例对设计方法进行验证,表明该方法的有效性。

  6. "Hospital utilization by Mexican migrants returning to Mexico due to health needs"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Sierra-de la Vega Luz A

    2011-04-01

    services. The most common diagnostic categories mentioned across hospitals were traumatisms, complications of diabetes and elective surgery, in that order. Private hospitals mention elective surgeries as the main diagnostic category followed by complications of diabetes. Conclusions Hospitals in communities of origin in Mexico are devoting few resources to respond to hospitalization needs of migrants in the US. Currently no hospital programs exist to stimulate migrant demand or to cater to their specific needs. Registering migratory history in clinical and administrative records can be readily implemented. Developing bi-national referral networks and insuring migrants in the US within current Mexican federal programs could greatly increase migrant access to hospitals.

  7. Historic distribution and challenges to bison recovery in the northern Chihuahuan Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Rurik; Ceballos, Gerardo; Curtin, Charles; Gogan, Peter J.; Pacheco, Jesus; Truett, Joe

    2007-01-01

    international boundaries, have acted as barriers in shaping comprehensive approaches to conservation. Bison recovery in the region depends on binational cooperation.

  8. Recent progress in pedicle screw placement in the subaxial cervical spine and clinical applications%下颈椎椎弓根螺钉的置钉技术及临床应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长宝; 张晓林; 马信龙

    2015-01-01

    下颈椎椎弓根螺钉是颈椎生物力学上最稳定的内固定,能有效恢复颈椎矢状序列、提供坚强内固定及更高融合率。由于下颈椎椎弓根、椎动脉及神经根等结构存在较大的个体差异,术前评估应个体化。下颈椎椎弓根螺钉的置钉技术包括徒手置钉和近年来发展的计算机导航辅助置钉技术。尽管与椎弓根螺钉相关的神经血管并发症不能完全避免,但只要进行充分的术前个性化评估和术中精准的置钉技术,就可将神经血管并发症降至最低。下颈椎椎弓根螺钉内固定技术已经应用于治疗各种颈椎疾患,并发症少,临床疗效良好,具有广泛的临床应用价值。%Pedicle screw fixation is biomechanically most reliable for reconstruction of the cervical spine, which can ef⁃fectively restore cervical sagittal profiles, provide rigid fixation and higher fusion rate. Because of the large individual differ⁃ences in cervical pedicle, vertebral artery and nerve root, preoperative evaluation should be individualized. Cervical pedicle screw techniques include freehand technique and the computer-assisted navigation technology developed recently. Although complications associated with cervical pedicle screw fixation cannot be completely obviated, they can be minimized by com⁃bination of sufficient preoperative imaging studies of the pedicles and meticulous surgical techniques of screw placement. Cervical pedicle screw fixation techniques have been used in the treatment of various cervical disorders, with fewer complica⁃tions and good clinical efficacy, and a wide range of clinical applications.

  9. El registro arqueológico de las antiguas poblaciones de los valles orientales de la Provincia Arce, Tarija, Bolivia The Archaeological Record Of The Early Populations Of The Eastern Valleys Of Arce Province, Tarija, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ventura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2001 iniciamos un Proyecto binacional de relevamiento del registro arqueológico de las antiguas poblaciones que habitaron los valles orientales del sur tarijeño y el norte salteño durante los últimos mil años. En este trabajo se presentan los datos de la primera parte del proyecto, en la cual hemos prospectado sectores de ocho valles en el Departamento Arce (Tarija detectando 32 sitios arqueológicos de diversas características. Entre los sitios hay un conglomerado con presencia de arquitectura y materiales incaicos y sectores de caminos empedrados. Hay sitios semi-conglomerados de unas 30 estructuras de paredes dobles de piedra y otros con unas pocas estructuras dispersas. Se hallaron entierros humanos en el interior de una cueva, a partir de los cuales se obtuvo una muestra que fue datada. Otras inhumaciones fueron relevadas tanto en aleros como en cementerios con estructuras de piedra en superficie. Se detectaron sitios con arte rupestre, tanto con motivos grabados como con pinturas. Se ubicaron también sitios posiblemente más antiguos. En todos los casos se verificó un alto grado de destrucción de los sitios y se plantea entonces la necesidad urgente de su preservación y estudio.In 2001, a bi-national project was initiated to study the archaeological record of the early populations that inhabited the eastern valleys of Southern Tarija and Northern Salta during the last thousand years. During stage one of the project, sectors of eight valleys in Arce County, Tarija, were explored, resulting in the detection of 32 archaeological sites. The sites include a conglomerate with presence of Inca materials and architecture, and sectors of stone-paved roads. In addition, there are semi-conglomerated sites approximately 30 structures of double-width stonewalls, and other sites a few dispersed structures. Human burials have been found in the interior of a cave, in rock shelters, and in cemeteries with superficial stone structures

  10. Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process in Evaluation of Bath Method in Space%层次分析法在空间洗浴方法评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭飞马; 党磊; 王小雪; 张美姿

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of bath in the international space station including easy to operate, time saving, water saving and energy saving as well as the commonly used bath methods such as shower and free washing method were introduced in this paper. Analytic hierarchy process is a com⁃bination of qualitative and quantitative, systematic and hierarchical analysis method. The concept and application of analytic hierarchy process were analyzed. Based on the evaluation model of bath methods in the space station, the bath methods in space were estimated by analytic hierarchy process. The results showed that the comprehensive weight of free washing system was higher. The result from trade study indicated that the free washing system was the best choice at the present stage of the space station in three aspects including the occupied space resources, technology maturity and washing effect.%介绍了国际空间站洗浴具有操作简单、省时、节水和节能的特点,以及空间站常用的淋浴和免冲洗两种洗浴方法,简述了一种定性定量相结合、系统化、层次化的分析方法和它的应用范围,并在建立空间站洗浴方法评价指标体系的基础上,运用层次分析法对空间站洗浴方法进行评估。评估结果显示免冲洗方法的综合权重高于淋浴的综合权重,表明从空间资源占用、技术成熟度和洗浴效果三个方面来看,现阶段空间站洗浴的最佳选择是免冲洗系统。

  11. Design of Vehicle Attitude Measuring Instrument%车辆姿态测量仪表的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金亮; 江学焕; 李胜杰

    2014-01-01

    设计了车辆姿态测量仪表系统,系统使用多传感器组合的方法测量车辆的姿态信息。主要包括倾角测试模块、方位夹角测试模块、海拔气压测试模块、时钟显示模块。所设计的姿态仪表能够直接测量当地的气压、海拔、车辆行走方位、汽车行走过程中的前后左右的倾角、系统实时时间等。该测量仪表能直接接在汽车的电源和点火开关上即可使用,安装十分方便,经过实际的装车试验,该测量仪表针对外界环境的变化,传感器能迅速的采集信号,液晶能实时的刷新显示,系统运行稳定,并具有很高的测量精度。%The vehicle attitude measuring instrument system was designed, in which a multi-sensor com⁃bination method was used to measure the vehicle attitude information. The system consists of the dip an⁃gle measurement module, azimuth measurement module, altitude pressure measurement module and clock display module. The local barometric pressure, altitude, travel azimuth, system real time, angle around the vehicle at different directions and other information can be directly measured by the de⁃signed vehicle attitude instrument, which can be simply connected to the vehicle power supply or the ig⁃nition switch for the system installation. By the actual vehicle test, the measuring instrument can quick⁃ly acquire the sensor signals for the external environment changes, the LCD can refresh displayed infor⁃mation in real time, and the system is stable with high measurement accuracy.

  12. As empresas binacionais e sua efetividade na liberdade de estabelecimento no MERCOSUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena de Almeida Portugal

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration process, begun in the context of MERCOSUL it is also shown through the dynamism of the private section and of the imperatividade of the commercial flows. As foundations of the integration are the freedoms of circulation of goods, services, people and capitals, and, in the specific case, the establishment freedom. Such freedoms are reached through the coordination of politics macroeconomicals and sectorial, as it sets down the Agreement of Assumption, not being this an easy task. In this vein, already in seara of political-economical approach between Brazil and Argentina, in 1990, Binational Enterprises’s Statute was firm, that come as sectorial and bilateral associative form facilitative of the managerial establishment and viabilizadora of the growth of the commercial flow. The juridical structure created by the Statute he/she reveals effective and smoothing roads of the impact of the integration reducing the legislative antinomias that need harmonization. The companies’ binacionais can be used as instruments of the applicability and effectiveness of the establishment freedom in MERCOSUL.O processo de integração, encetado no contexto do MERCOSUL mostra-se também através do dinamismo do setor privado e da imperatividade dos fluxos comerciais. Como fundamentos da integração encontram-se as liberdades de circulação de bens, serviços, pessoas e capitais, e, no caso específico, a liberdade de estabelecimento. Tais liberdades são alcançadas através da coordenação de políticas macroeconômicas e setoriais, como preceitua o Tratado de Assunção, não sendo esta uma tarefa fácil. Neste veio, já em seara de aproximação político-econômica entre Brasil e Argentina, em 1990, firmou-se o Estatuto das Empresas Binacionais, que se apresenta como forma associativa setorial e bilateral facilitadora do estabelecimento empresarial e viabilizadora do crescimento do fluxo comercial. A estrutura jurídica criada pelo Estatuto

  13. 高职程序设计类课程基础理论教学模式探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建斌

    2013-01-01

    近年来,随着高职院校教学改革的发展,也出现了一些新的问题。以高职院校程序设计类课程为例,出现了重实践、轻基础理论的问题,理论基础教学薄弱,导致学生无法举一反三,教学效果不理想。针对这一现象,为了提高基础理论教学效果,采用“对立”到“统一”的互动教学模式,从“被动”到“主动”的启发教学模式,化“枯燥”为“有趣”的实例教学模式,从“基础”到“高层”的项目实践的驱动教学模式,校外软件公司的培训与学校教学相结合的教学模式等几种教学模式,能够有效消除厌学情绪,使学生学习由被动变主动。改进教学效果,提高课堂效率。%In recent years, with the developm ent of the teaching reform in higher vocational colleges, there are also some new problems. Taking the program design course in higher vocational colleges as an exam ple, the problems of valuing practice but ignoring basic theory em erge. The theoretical basis teaching is weak, the students can not infer other things from one fact, the teaching effect is not ideal. In view of this phenom enon, in order to im prove the teaching effect of basic theories, it is im portant to adopt the follow ing teaching mode : the interactive teaching mode from "opposite" to "unified", the heuristic teaching mode from "passive" to "active" , the exam ple teaching mode changing "boring" into "interesting", the project practice driving teaching mode from "basic" to "advanced", the teaching mode of the com bination of external softw are com pany training and school teaching, which can effectively eliminate the weariness emotion, change passive learning into active learning, im prove the teaching effect and the efficiency of the classroom .

  14. 机器人SLAM算法失真模糊性消除优化方法研究%Research and Simulation of Robot SLAM Algorithm Distortion Ambiguity Elimination Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽丽; 宋志章

    2014-01-01

    为准确有效实现对移动机器人的同时定位和环境创建,提出将传统的粒子滤波SLAM技术和模糊神经网络算法相结合,对粒子滤波SLAM算法进行改进。提出在训练过程中设置频率计数器的方法,使测量的机器人位姿信息参数失真达到最小。实际场地实验和数据仿真结果表明通过本算法的SLAM定位信息轨迹能正确反映机器人的原始行踪轨迹,其行踪轨迹偏差的误差率仅为4.03%。与传统的粒子滤波算法相比,表现为轨迹跟踪的机器人SLAM同时定位性能比传统的粒子滤波算法提高一倍以上,仿真结果展示了新的机器人SLAM算法良好的快速收敛性能和高精度定位性能。%In order to realize the SLAM of robot effectively and efficiently, an improved SLAM method based on the com-bination of partial filter SLAM algorithm and the fuzzy neural network was proposed. The frequency counter method was proposed in the process of the training. Then the parameters of the location information distortion of the robot were de-creased to the minimum. The simulation and experiment were taken in the field with the real robot and the simulation re-sult shows that the new SLAM method can generally reflect the real original trajectory effectively, and the error range rate is just 4.03%. Comparing to the traditional partial filter SLAM method, the performance of location that showed as the trajectory tracking is improved more than one time. The result shows the nice performance of convergence and accuracy of SLAM location for the robot.

  15. A Brief Analysis of Feminist Translation Theory%浅析女性主义翻译理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄菲飞

    2013-01-01

      The combination of translation studies and feminist is derived from their common knowledge and system contexts. Feminist influences on translation are varied and decisive. In the past several years, criticisms on gender discrimination in lan-guage has transformed from corrective and action-based concern to the inquiry into the symbolic power of feminist language. With the development process of feminist as the breakthrough point, this paper analyzes the characteristics and concerns of the com-bination of translation theory and feminist, aiming to analyze and interpret the viewpoints, translation strategies and translation practice of feminist translation theory and reveal its rheology, in-novative and expansion.%  翻译研究和女性主义的结合是源自共同的知识和体制语境。两者都关注“次等性”是如何被定义和典律化的。二者都是对语言再现的差异进行批评性理解的工具。女性主义对翻译的影响是多种多样和决定性的。在过去的几年中,对语言中的性别歧视的批评已经从词汇的纠正式和行动式的关注转为从更为宏大的层面上探究阴性语言的象征力量。关注点已从对单一的语言符码的批评性分析转到规范言语和写作中个体和集体干预的概念性术语。此篇论文以女权主义发展的过程为切入点,并分析了翻译理论与女性主义结合的特点和关注点,旨在分析和阐述女性主义翻译理论的主张、翻译策略和翻译实践,并揭示其流变、创新与拓展。

  16. New Water Management Institutions in Mexico’s ‘New Culture of Water’: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges for Effective Use of Climate Knowledge and Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, M.; Varady, R. G.; Pineda Pablos, N.; Browning-Aiken, A.; Diaz Caravantes, R.; Garfin, G.

    2007-05-01

    Since 1992, Mexico has developed a new set of water management institutions to usher in a ‘new culture of water’ that focuses on decentralized governance and formalized participation of local water users. Reforms to the national water legislation in April 2004 regionalized the governance of water and highlighted the importance of river basin councils as a mechanism for integrated management of major watersheds across Mexico. As a result of the dramatic national water policy reforms, water service delivery in Mexico has been decentralized to the state and municipal level, resulting in a critical new role for municipal governments charged with this important function. A network of river basin councils accompanied and sub-basin councils has been developed to undertake watershed planning. Decentralization and local participation policies embody numerous significant goals and promises, including greater efficiency, more financial accountability, fostering the beginnings of a sense of local stewardship of precious resources, and enhanced environmental sustainability. This paper examines the implications of municipalized water services and emerging river basin councils for utilization of climate knowledge and climate science. We analyze whether these changes open new windows of opportunity for meaningful use of climate science (e.g., forecasts; models). How effectively are municipal water managers and river basin councils utilizing climate knowledge and climate science, and for what purposes? Are there ways to improve the fit between the needs of water managers and river basin councils and the science that is currently available? What is the role of local participation in water policy making in urban settings and river basin councils? The study found overall that the promises and potential for effective utilization of climate science/knowledge to enhance sustainability exists, but is not yet being adequately realized. Binational efforts to develop climate science and

  17. 界面改性剂对木橡塑混合物料流变特性的影响%Effects of interfacial modifier on rheological properties of wood/rubber/HDPE mixed materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲; 孙妍; 刘秀娟; 周秉亮; 程明娟; 徐信武

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of coupling agents on the flow performance of wood/rubber/HDPE mixed raw ma⁃terials in manufacture of composites, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene ( MAPE) and silane coupling agents ( Si69) were applied to modify the interface of the wood/rubber/HDPE composites. The adding amount of MAPE were 3%, 5%and 8%, and Si69 was 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5%. The results showed significant influences of the two coupling agents on the rheological properties of the mixed raw materials and significant interactive effects between the two kinds of coupling agents. With 5% MAPE used alone, the mixed materials showed minimum shear stress and apparent viscosity, which means an optimal processing performance. When used together, 3% MAPE and 3% Si69 were proved to be the best com⁃bination.%为研究偶联剂对木粉、废旧橡胶和塑料组成的木橡塑三元混合物料流动性能的影响,分别采用3%、5%、8%的马来酸酐接枝聚乙烯( MAPE)和0.5%、1%、3%、5%的橡胶专用硅烷偶联剂( Si69)对三元混合物料进行表面处理。结果表明:两种偶联剂对复合物料体系的流变特性均具有显著影响,且二者之间存在显著的交互作用;单独使用MAPE,其质量分数在5%时混合物料的剪切应力和表观黏度值最小,加工性能最优;MAPE和Si69同时使用时,混合体系的流变性以MAPE质量分数和Si69质量分数均为3%的配合为最佳。

  18. Alien invasive species and biological pollution of the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem[Great Lakes Water Quality Board : Report to the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    all levels (federal, provincial, state) in the Great Lakes Basin. The recommendations made represent the opinions of the binational effort and not necessarily the views of the Commission. 6 refs. figs.

  19. Effects of plant growth regulators, carbon sources and pH values on callus induction in Aquilaria malaccensis leaf explants and characteris-tics of the resultant calli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shashita JAYARAMAN; Nurul Hazwani DAUD; Rasmina HALIS; Rozi MOHAMED

    2014-01-01

    The endangered tropical tree, Aquilaria malaccensis, produces agarwood for use in fragrance and medicines. Efforts are currently un-derway to produce valuable agarwood compoundsn tissue culture. The purpose of this study was to develop an optimal growth medium, specif-ically, the best hormone combination for callus suspension culture. Using nursery-grown A. malaccensis, sterilized leaf explants were first incu-bated on basic Murashige and Skoog (MS) gel medium containing 15g/L sucrose and at pH 5.7. Different auxin types including 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), were tested at various concentrations (0.55, 1.1 and 1.65 µM) using the basic medium. Leaf explants were incubated for 30 days in the dark. Callus induced by 1.1 µM NAA had the highest biomass dry weight (DW) of 17.3 mg;however the callus was of a compact type. This auxin concentration was then combined with either 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) or kinetin at 0.55, 1.1, 2.2 or 3.3 µM to induce growth of friable callus. The 1.1µM NAA+2.2µM BAP com-bination produced friable callus with the highest biomass (93.3mg DW). When testing the different carbon sources and pHs, sucrose at 15g/L and pH at 5.7 yielded highest biomasses at 87.7mg and 83mg DW, respec-tively. Microscopic observations revealed the arrangement of the friable cells as loosely packed with relatively large cells, while for the compact callus, the cells were small and densely packed. We concluded that MS medium containing 15 g/L sucrose, 1.1 µM NAA + 2.2 µM BAP hor-mone combination, and a pH of 5.7 was highly effective for inducing friable callus from leaf explants of A. malaccensis for the purpose of establishing cell suspension culture.

  20. Diagnostic value of double balloon enteroscopy for intestinal diseases%双气囊内镜在小肠疾病诊断中的应用价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付雪琼; 晏霞; 丁一娟; 赵炳超; 于皆平; 于红刚

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价双气囊内镜对小肠疾病的诊断价值.方法 2007年7月至2009年11月,对141例拟诊或需排除小肠疾病的患者在静脉麻醉下进行小肠镜检查,59例单纯经口进镜,46例单纯经肛门进镜,36例经口和肛门两次进镜.结果 141例患者中发现小肠疾病105例,检出率为74.5%.其中良恶性肿瘤32例,克罗恩病14例,小肠非特异性炎症17例,小肠息肉15例,小肠憩室16例,小肠血管病变9例,肠结核3例,小肠钩虫病1例.检查过程中有1例并发胰腺炎,余未发生明显并发症.结论 双气囊内镜能安全快速地检查全小肠,并能准确地诊断各种小肠疾病.%Objective To assess the diagnostic value of double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) for sus-pected intestinal diseases. Methods The data of 141 patients with suspected intestinal diseases, who un-derwent DBE with intravenous sedation from July 2007 to November 2009, were retrospectively analyzed. Oral and anal routes DBE were performed in 59 and 46 patients, respectively, while 36 patients underwent a com-bination of both approaches. Results The overall diagnostic yield of DBE was 74.5% (105/141), with benign and malignant tumors in 32, Crohn's disease in 14, non-specific enteric inflammation in 17, polyp in 15, diverticulosis in 16, vascular lesions in 9, intestinal tuberculosis in 3 and intestinal ancylostomiasis in 1. Acute pancreatitis was complicated in 1 patient. Conclusion DBE is a safe and effective method in di-agnosis of suspected intestinal diseases.

  1. 公共危机中政府公信力的内部影响因素和提升策略%Internal Factors and Enhancement of Government's Public Trust in Public Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闰丙金

    2012-01-01

    Our society is in a special historical period of profound transformation;All aspects of the crises revealed such as people's lives and property is threatened and the further development is restricted.The public trust of government will be shaped in the process of public crisis management though government plays the main role of management in the proceeding.Too many factors influence the public trust of government. The present research explore the impact factor of pre-control mechanisms ;information disclosure mechanism and legal system building;and bureaucratic workforces and discuss the theory of modern government's public trust. Com- bination the factors discussed above;we argue that public trust of government can be enhanced in public crisis by establishing the mechanism of alert;sound basement of laws system;as well as improving the transparence of official information and the capacities of civil servants.%我国社会正处在深刻转型的特殊历史时期,方方面面的危机事件时有发生,人民的生命、财产受到了威胁,社会的进一步发展受到了制约。政府作为公共危机管理的主体,在危机管理过程中其公信力也会有所变化。公共危机中影响政府公信力的因素很多,本文主要从危机预控机制、信息公开机制、法制建设等方面探究政府公信力的影响因素,阐释政府公信力的现代理论基础。结合上述影响因素,从建立危机预控机制、建全相关法律法规和加强信息公开等方面入手,寻求提升政府公信力的相关对策。

  2. Implementation of an efficacious intervention for high risk women in Mexico: protocol for a multi-site randomized trial with a parallel study of organizational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Thomas L

    2012-10-01

    intervention will be analyzed, and across CBOs, correlations will be examined between individual and organizational provider characteristics and intervention efficacy. Discussion This cooperative, bi-national research study will provide critical insights into barriers and facilitating factors associated with implementing interventions in CBOs using the ‘train the trainer’ model. Our work builds on similar scale-up strategies that have been effective in the United States. This study has the potential to increase our knowledge of the generalizability of such strategies across health issues, national contexts, and organizational contexts. Trial registration NCT01465607

  3. 面向工程的气动带挡板节流孔音速流导计算方法%Engineering Calculation Method of Sonic Conductance for Pneumatic Orifice with Baffle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文丰; 李刚炎; 杨凡

    2016-01-01

    目前,节流孔的音速流导计算一般只考虑与节流孔直径和长度的关系,没考虑节流孔挡板间隙.该文面向工程需要,针对气动带挡板节流孔音速流导计算问题,建立理论解析的数学模型,在Simulink中构建模型对音速流导进行计算,将计算得到的临界压力比数据,通过拟合的方式得到临界压力比计算式,进而得到带挡板节流孔的音速流导计算式.结合实验,确定音速流导计算式中的参数,将计算式简化成能在工程中使用的简易计算式;利用Fluent对带挡板节流孔模型进行仿真,通过仿真数据确定计算式的有效性与使用范围.%When sonic conductance of orifices is calculated, the diameter and length of the orifice are generally taken into accountbut the gap between the orifice and baffle at present. In this paper, based on the engineering needs, the mathematical model of the theoretical analy-sis and calculation model in Simulink is established for the calculation of the sonic conductance of pneumatic orifice with baffle.Based on the data of critical pressure ratio obtained by Simulink,a formula for calculating the critical pressure ratio is proposed. Then a formula for calculating the sonic conductance of orifice with baffle is proposed.The parameters in the calculation formula can be determined by the com-bination of experiment data. Therefor the formula can be simplified. The effectiveness and scope of the formula is verified by Fluent simula-tion data.

  4. Study protocol for the recruitment of female sex workers and their non-commercial partners into couple-based HIV research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syvertsen Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers are increasingly recognizing the importance of addressing sexual and drug-related HIV risk within the context of intimate relationships rather than solely focusing on individual behaviors. Practical and effective methods are needed to recruit, screen, and enroll the high risk and hard-to-reach couples who would most benefit from HIV interventions, such as drug-using female sex workers (FSWs and their intimate, non-commercial partners. This paper outlines a bi-national, multidisciplinary effort to develop and implement a study protocol for research on the social context and epidemiology of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI, and high risk behaviors among FSWs and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. We provide an overview of our study and specifically focus on the sampling, recruitment, screening, and successful enrollment of high risk couples into a public health study in this context. Methods/Design We used targeted and snowball sampling to recruit couples through the female partner first and administered a primary screener to check her initial eligibility. Willing and eligible females then invited their primary male partners for couple-based screening using a couple verification screening (CVS instrument adapted from previous studies. The CVS rechecked eligibility and separately asked each partner the same questions about their relationship to "test" if the couple was legitimate. We adapted the original protocol to consider issues of gender and power within the local cultural and socioeconomic context and expanded the question pool to create multiple versions of the CVS that were randomly administered to potential couples to determine eligibility and facilitate study enrollment. Discussion The protocol successfully enrolled 214 high risk couples into a multi-site public health study. This work suggests the importance of collaborating to construct a study protocol

  5. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Upper Santa Cruz Basin (Arizona and Sonora) using Well Logs, Geologic Mapping, Gravity, Magnetics, and Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegary, J. B.; Page, W. R.; Megdal, S.; Gray, F.; Scott, C. A.; Berry, M.; Rangel, M.; Oroz Ramos, L.; Menges, C. M.; Jones, A.

    2011-12-01

    In 2006, the U.S. Congress passed the U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act which provides a framework for study of aquifers shared by the United States and Mexico. The aquifer of the Upper Santa Cruz Basin was chosen as one of four priority aquifers for several reasons, including water scarcity, a population greater than 300,000, groundwater as the sole source of water for human use, and a riparian corridor that is of regional significance for migratory birds and other animals. Several new mines are also being proposed for this area which may affect water quality and availability. To date, a number of studies have been carried out by a binational team composed of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mexican National Water Commission, and the Universities of Arizona and Sonora. Construction of a cross-border hydrogeologic framework model of the basin between Amado, Arizona and its southern boundary in Sonora is currently a high priority. The relatively narrow Santa Cruz valley is a structural basin that did not experience the same degree of late Cenozoic lateral extension and consequent deepening as found in other basin-and-range alluvial basins, such as the Tucson basin, where basin depth exceeds 3000 meters. This implies that storage may be much less than that found in other basin-and-range aquifers. To investigate the geometry of the basin and facies changes within the alluvium, a database of over one thousand well logs has been developed, geologic mapping and transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveys have been carried out, and information from previous electromagnetic, magnetic, and gravity studies is being incorporated into the hydrogeologic framework. Initial geophysical surveys and analyses have focused on the portion of the basin west of Nogales, Arizona, because it supplies approximately 50% of that city's water. Previous gravity and magnetic modeling indicate that this area is a narrow, fault-controlled half graben. Preliminary modeling of airborne

  6. M ethod for WebKit kernel embedded brow ser disk cache%WebKi t内核的嵌入式浏览器磁盘缓存方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段虎才; 倪宏; 邓峰; 胡琳琳

    2015-01-01

    To improve the page loading speed of embedded browser ,the WebKit resource download process was studied and the cache control principle of HTTP protocol stack was analyzed .Based on these ,an method for WebKit kernel embedded browser disk cache was proposed .In the method ,a disk cache fast mapping algorithm was designed to establish the mapping between the Web resource URL and data .To prevent the disk cache memory overload ,a disk cache replacement algorithm based on the com‐bination of the LRU‐K algorithm and cache resources priority was given ,the disk cache system architecture and implementation scheme were presented and the performance evaluation was done in the home network environment .Experimental results show that the method proposed makes the browser loading speed increase by 3•19 times ,enhancing the user experience .%为提高嵌入式浏览器的页面加载速度,研究WebKit网络资源下载的流程,分析 HTTP协议栈中缓存控制原理,提出一种WebKit内核的嵌入式浏览器磁盘缓存方法。设计磁盘缓存快速映射算法,在网络资源的URL与数据之间建立映射关系。为防止磁盘缓存存储空间过载,结合LRU‐K算法和缓存资源的优先级给出磁盘缓存置换算法,提出了磁盘缓存系统架构及其实现方案,在家庭网络环境中进行性能评估。实验结果表明,浏览器加载速度提升了3•19倍,增强了用户体验。

  7. Survivin在鼻息肉组织中的表达及意义%The Expression and Significance of Survivin in Nasal Polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍毅; 肖旭平; 冯晓辉

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨凋亡抑制蛋白survivin在鼻息肉组织中的表达及意义.[方法]用免疫组化染色法检测鼻息肉组(40例)、钩突炎症黏膜组(20例)和正常下甲黏膜组(20例)中survivin的表达.[结果]①survivin在几乎所有的炎症细胞中均呈阳性表达,三组间无明显差异.②观察survivin在黏膜上皮和腺上皮中的表达,显示鼻息肉组的阳性表达明显高于其他两组,差异有显著性(P<0.01),而其他两组之间的阳性表达差异无显著性(P>0.05).[结论]survivin在正常鼻黏膜表达可能对维持鼻腔的结构功能具有一定的生物学意义,并且它介导的凋亡抑制现象对鼻息肉的发生发展可能也具有一定的作用.%[Objcctive]To investigate the expression of apoptosis inhibitor protein survivin in nasal polyps and explore its role in the pathogencsis of nasal polyps.[Methods]The expression of survivin was determined in nasal polyps group( n =40) , uncinate process mucous inflammation group( n =20) and normal inferior tur binate mucous group( n =20) by immunohistochemical staining.[Results]The positive expression of survivin was found in almost all inflammatory cells, and there was no obvious difference among 3 groups.The positive expression in epithelium mucosae and glandular epithelium in nasal polyps group were stronger than that in other two groups, and there was significant difference between nasal polyps group and other two groups( P < 0.01) , but there was no significant difference between other two groups( P >0.05).[Conclusion]The expression of survivin in normal nasal mucosa may have biological significance for maintaining the structure and function of nasal cavity.Survivin-mediated apoptosis inhibition may play an important role in the pathogencsis and development of nasal polyps.

  8. 云南秋海棠属植物有性杂交特性%Property of sexual hybridization plants of Begonia in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景秀; 管开云; 孔繁才; 神戸敏成

    2013-01-01

    通过云南秋海棠属植物属下5个系统分类组的种类及外来园艺品种共109个组合的有性杂交试验,以系统分类组合、园艺分类组合(不同茎的形态类型组合)分别进行方差分析。结果表明:云南秋海棠属植物属下等级的系统分类组内、组间的有性杂交,以及不同茎的形态类型的有性杂交均无显著差异,亲和力较强而可育性高,可在云南秋海棠属植物属内进行广泛地远缘杂交;云南产秋海棠属植物原种与外来园艺品种间的有性杂交亲和性弱而可育性低,需选择花粉粒和胚囊正常发育的外来园艺品种大量杂交,并采用切实可行的技术措施克服远缘杂交不育,以期培育新颖奇特的秋海棠属植物新品种。%We conducted cross-breeding experiments of 109 combinations,five sections of phylogenetic classification species of Begonia in Yunnan and overseas cultivar Begonia.Variance analysis of sexual hybridization of all the com-binations was conducted.The results showed that sexual hybridization of in section,among section and different mor-photypes of Yunnan Begonia stems did not show significant deviation.However,avidity and fertility of these Begon-ias were high and sexual hybridization between Yunnan Begonia and cultivars from overseas avidity and fertility was lower.This meaned that when trying to create new hybrid species between Yunnan Begonia and overseas cultivars,it was suggested to choose cultivars whose pollen grain and embryonic sac were normally developed,to conduct hybrid work.The results also highlighted the necessity of introducing feasible technology on distant hybridization.Thus,it is well expected to create new cultivars for Begonia.

  9. 引导组织再生术联合骨移植治疗下颌磨牙Ⅱ度根分叉病变的疗效分析%Effect of bone graft combined with guided tissue regeneration in the treatment for grade Ⅱ molar furcation defects in humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓炳涛; 李业荣; 郭庆平

    2012-01-01

    目的 采用Bio-Oss骨移植联合Bio-Guide胶原膜的方法治疗下颌磨牙Ⅱ度根分叉病变,评价临床疗效.方法 选取了31例双侧下颌磨牙患有Ⅱ度根分叉的患者,采用分口对照实验的方法,一侧采用Bio-Oss骨移植联合Bio-Guide胶原膜,另一侧采用单纯翻瓣术.结果 双侧经牙周手术治疗后6个月及1年的牙龈指数、附着水平及根分叉探诊深度都有明显改善且差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),疗效与单纯翻瓣术组比较各指标差异也有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 Bio-Oss骨移植联合Bio-Guide胶原膜治疗下颌磨牙Ⅱ度根分叉比单纯翻瓣术具有更好的临床效果.%Objective To evaluate the effect of bone graft and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) used in com-bination as regenerative treatment for grade II molar furcation defects in humans. Methods Using a split-mouth de-sign, a total of 31 patients with grade Ⅱ mandibular molar furcation defects were treated with bone graft combined with GTR (the study group) on one side and open flap debridement (the control group) on the other side. Results Six months and one year after treatment, the gingival index, attachment level, pocket depth were significantly improved than those before treatment And the improvements in the study group were significantly greater than those in the con-trol group. Conclusion Bone graft/GTR combined technique is an more effective modality of regenerative treatment for mandibular grade Ⅱ furcation defects than flap surgery.

  10. Preparation and properties of C-doped TiO2 photocatalyst%碳掺杂 TiO 2光催化剂的制备与性能研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健梅; 段萍; 肖斌; 朱忠其; 张瑾; 柳清菊

    2014-01-01

    Carbon doped TiO 2 photocatalysts were synthesized by sol-gel process using glucose and tetrabutyl ti-tanate as precursors and characterized by XRD,XPS,Raman,PL and UV-Vis methods and so on.The influ-ences of different preparation condition on properties were studied.The photocatalytic activity of C-TiO 2 was in-vestigated by measuring the degradation rate of methylene-blue (MB)under the irradiation of fluorescent lamp. The results show that carbon ion was incorporated into the lattice of TiO 2 ,which can not only promote the phase transition of anatase to rutile but also broaden the absorption region to visible light and inhibit the recom-bination of the photo-generated electrons and holes.The photocatalytic activity of the sample with molar ratio of n (C)∶n (Ti)=0.30 and sintered at 400 ℃ for 4 h was the best under the irradiation of fluorescent light,it was 90.17% within 3 h and significantly higher than that of Degussa P25(49.71%)under the same experimental con-ditions.%以葡萄糖和钛酸四丁酯为原料,采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了 C-TiO 2光催化剂粉体.利用 XRD、XPS、Raman、PL、UV-Vis 等对样品进行表征分析,研究了不同制备条件对样品性能的影响,并以亚甲基蓝(MB)作为目标降解物,研究了其光催化性能.结果表明,碳掺入到 TiO 2晶格中,促进了样品由锐钛矿相向金红石相的转变,拓展了 TiO 2在可见光区的光谱响应范围,降低了光生电子和空穴的复合几率.当n (C)∶n (Ti)=0.30,400℃条件下焙烧4 h 制备的样品催化性能最好,在普通日光灯下3 h 内对 MB 的降解率达90.17%,显著高于同等实验条件下的 Degussa P25(49.71%).

  11. Development of cell lines from the cactophagous insect: Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their susceptibility to three baculoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasela, James J; McIntosh, Arthur H; Ringbauer, Joseph; Goodman, Cynthia L; Carpenter, James E; Popham, Holly J R

    2012-05-01

    The unintentional introduction of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, a successful biological control agent formerly employed in the control of invasive prickly pear cactus species (Opuntia spp.) in Australia, Hawaii, South Africa, and various Caribbean islands, has posed great concern as to the possible threat to native, endangered species of cactus in the southeastern USA as well as with the potential to cause a major infestation of commercial and agricultural cactus crops in Mexico. A number of control measures have been investigated with varying degrees of success including, field exploration for cactus moth-specific parasitoids, insecticides, fungal, bacterial, and nematode agents. Current tactics used by the USA-Mexico binational program to eradicate cactus moth from Mexico and mitigate its westward movement in the USA include host plant removal, the manual removal and destruction of egg sticks and infected cacti stems, and the Sterile Insect Technique. One other approach not taken until now is the development of a cactus moth cell line as a tool to facilitate the investigation of baculoviruses as an alternative biocontrol method for the cactus moth. Consequently, we established C. cactorum cell lines derived from adult ovarian tissue designated as BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG. The mean cell population doubling time was 204.3 and 112 h for BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG, respectively, with weekly medium change, while the doubling time was 176.6 and 192.6 h for BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG, respectively, with a daily change of medium. In addition, the daily versus weekly change in medium was reflected in the percentage viability with both cell lines showing higher levels with a daily medium change. Of the three baculoviruses tested, only the recombinant AcMNPV-hsp70Red and GmMNPV at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.0 were able to demonstrate significant production of extracellular virus (ECV) in each of the cell lines, whereas both cell lines were

  12. Monitoring Colonias Development along the United States-Mexico Border: A Process Application using GIS and Remote Sensing in Douglas, Arizona, and Agua Prieta, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Donelson, Angela J.; Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Lam, Alven H.; Osborn, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    colonias. The USGS worked with local organizations in developing the Web-based GIS database. Community involvement ensured that the database and map server would meet the current and long-term needs of the communities and end users. Partners include Federal agencies, State agencies, county officials, town representatives, universities, and youth organizations, as well as interested local advocacy groups and individuals. A significant component of this project was development of relationships and partnerships in the border towns for facilitating binational approaches to land management.

  13. Combination of Vlbi, GPS and Slr Observations At The Observation Level For The Realization of Terrestrial and Celestial Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, P. H.

    Forsvarets forskningsinstitutt (FFI, the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment) has during the last 17 years developed a software system called GEOSAT, for the analysis of any type of high precision space geodetic observations. A unique feature of GEOSAT is the possibility of combining any combination of different space geode- tic data at the observation level with one consistent model and one consistent strategy. This is a much better strategy than the strategy in use today where different types of observations are processed separately using analysis software developed specifically for each technique. The results from each technique are finally combined a posteriori. In practice the models implemented in the software packages differ at the 1-cm level which is almost one order of magnitude larger than the internal precision of the most precise techniques. Another advantage of the new proposed combination method is that for example VLBI and GPS can use the same tropospheric model with common parameterization. The same is the case for the Earth orientation parameters, the geo- center coordinates and other geodetic or geophysical parameters where VLBI, GPS and SLR can have a common estimate for each of the parameters. The analysis with GEOSAT is automated for the combination of VLBI, SLR and GPS observations. The data are analyzed in batches of one day where the result from each daily arc is a SRIF array (Square Root Information Filter). A large number of SRIF arrays can be combined into a multi-year solution using the CSRIFS program (Com- bination Square Root Information Filter and Smoother). Four parameter levels are available and any parameter can, at each level, either be represented as a constant or a stochastic parameter (white noise, colored noise, or random walk). The batch length (i.e. the time interval between the addition of noise to the SRIF array) can be made time- and parameter dependent. GEOSAT and CSRIFS have been applied in the analysis of selected

  14. «Haciendo amigos»: intercambios educativos hispano-estadounidenses en clave política, 1959-1968

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco RODRÍGUEZ JIMÉNEZ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La dimensión cultural de la relación hispano-estadounidense durante el franquismo ha sido poco estudiada. Sin embargo, tuvo un papel importante e influyó notablemente en los aspectos políticos, militares, económicos, etc., de aquella conexión. Dentro de aquel ámbito, un episodio destacado fue el establecimiento del programa de cooperación e intercambio educativo y científico de becas Fulbright. Para gestionarlo se creó una comisión binacional. Pese a determinadas declaraciones iniciales de supuesta sintonía entre las partes, los agentes diplomáticos de Washington tenían unas expectativas y prioridades bastante diferentes de las que albergaban sus homólogos de Madrid. Las estadounidenses se centraron en potenciar la enseñanza del inglés y de los Estudios Norteamericanos, American Studies, en las universidades de nuestro país. Las españolas, en poder beber de los prestigiosos centros de conocimiento técnico y científico existentes en los Estados Unidos. Hemos analizado, tomando como ejemplo el caso de la Universidad de Salamanca, cuáles fueron los avatares sobre el terreno y en qué grado se cumplieron los objetivos específicos estadounidenses de que sus producciones humanísticas fueran entendidas y estudiadas en España.ABSTRACT: Cultural aspects of the Spanish-Northamerican relations during the Franco’s regime have been scarcely studied. Nevertheless, they played an important role and influenced notably the political, military and economic aspects of that connection. Inside that context, an outstanding episode was the establishment of the Fulbright grants, a program of cooperation and of educational and scientific scholarship exchange. A binational commission was created in order to manage this project. Despite certain initial declarations of a supposed perfect understanding between the two parts, the diplomatic agents of Washington had quite different expectations and priorities from those that their

  15. GPS轨迹测量系统在导弹飞行试验中的应用%Application of GPS trajectory measurement system in missile flight test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东; 黄信安

    2014-01-01

    In the process of air-to-air missile development,a serial of tethered flight test must be done to improve the capa-bility of capturing and tracking the real goal of missile guidance system. The traditional tethered flight test results in great uncer-tainty for the flight test results because the test personnel on ground can not grasp the dynamic status of the drone aircraft in real time. With GPS widely used in the system,the target aircraft′s position and speed relative to fighter plane are calculated in com-bination the GPS information received from the airborne missile and target GPS pod,and displayed in the data processing soft-ware,so that the test personnel on ground obtain the relevant information of fighter plane and drone aircraft in real time and pro-vide reliable data for the test command. The practical application result shows that this system can greatly improve the success rate and the missile interception probability,and save the time and fund of the test.%空空导弹研制需要一系列空中系留飞行试验,以解决导弹制导系统对真实目标的截获跟踪能力。传统的系留试验由于地面试验人员无法实时掌握靶机和目标机的动态,给飞行试验结果造成了很大的不确定性;本系统利用日益广泛使用的GPS全球定位技术,从载机的导弹产品和目标机GPS吊舱接收下传的GPS信息,实时解算出目标机相对于载机位置、速度等信息,显示在数据处理软件上,从而使地面试验人员实时获取载机和目标机的相关信息,为试验指挥提供了可靠数据;实际应用结果表明,该系统大大提高了系留试验的成功率和导弹截获概率,为飞行试验节约了试验经费和时间,创造了良好的经济效益。

  16. Socio-environmental health analysis in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Caldeira, Felipe; Callegary, James; Gray, Floyd; O’ Rourke, Mary Kay; Meranza, Veronica; Van Rijn, Saskia

    2012-01-01

    was found to be significantly greater in Colosio (median 29.2 mg/L) although still below the US EPA’s maximum contaminant levels of 250 mg/L. Ongoing binational collaboration can promote mechanisms to improve water quality in cities located in the US–Mexico border.

  17. 新能源科学与工程专业“传热学”课程教学研究%Teaching Research on "Heat Transfer" Course for New Energy Science and Engineering Major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈登宇

    2016-01-01

    Heat Transfer is an important foundation course for new energy and engineering major, as well as a difficult course for students. Therefore, to teach the course well has always been an objective of teachers. The Heat Transfer course system con-struction for new energy major should be based on the integra-tion of theory teaching and experiment teaching, and the com-bination of autonomous learning and scientific research. Theory teaching and experiment teaching complement each other, so both of them are indispensable; the combination of autonomous learning and scientific research can not only enhance students' basic theory knowledge on Heat Transfer, but also cultivate their ability to analyze and solve problems, thus promoting their thinking and helping them discover the differences between practice and theory.%传热学是新能源科学与工程专业重要的基础课程,也是学生学习的难点课程之一。如何教好传热学一直以来是广大教师工作者所追求的目标。新能源专业传热学课程体系建设应该将理论教学与实验教学、自主学习与科研活动相结合。理论教学指导实验开展,实验中出现的问题又反馈于教学,两者相互相成,缺一不可;而自主学习与科研活动相结合的模式不仅可以加深学生们的传热学基础理论知识,而且还可以培养学生分析问题和解决问题的能力,促使他们善于思考,发现实际与理论不同之处。

  18. The Optimum Design of Rolled Compaction Concrete Gravity Dam of Fangjiagou Reservoir%方家沟水库碾压混凝土重力坝优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈松林

    2015-01-01

    Fang-Jiagou reservoir dam is rolled compaction gravity concrete dam with 41.1 m high, crest length 113.83 m, and crest elevation 1747.10 m.The head pivot is consisted with C 15 concrete dam, crest open spillway , right bank water intake , sediment discharge bottom outlet and energy dis-sipation facilities.Combining the project characters and dam architecture shape , the optimum and adjustment design has been proposed , and the dam stability and stress analyzing are carried out .The results show that the dam anti -sliding stability with fundamental combination K′>3.0 , special com-bination K′>2.5 , the dam internal stress and foundation bearing capacity can meet the specification requirements.The optimum design scheme which approved in this paper has high technical feasibility and economic rationality .%方家沟水库是一座采用C15碾压混凝土作为筑坝材料的重力坝,最大坝高41.10 m,坝顶长113.83 m,坝顶高程1747.10 m。首部枢纽由C15混凝土大坝、坝顶开敞式溢洪道、右岸取水、冲沙底孔及消能设施组成。结合工程特性,对大坝设计方案进行适当优化调整,对其稳定性和应力进行了详细计算。分析结果表明,坝体基本组合情况K′>3.0,特殊组合情况K′>2.5,坝体抗滑稳定满足规范要求,应力计算成果和地基承载力满足规范要求,获得技术上可行、经济上合理的优化设计方案。

  19. Identifying and Measuring the Lifelong Human Capital of “Unskilled” Migrants in the Mexico-US Migratory Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Hagan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most human capital and migration studies classify migrants with limited formal education as “unskilled,” despite substantial skills developed through job and life experiences.  Drawing on a binational multi-stage research project that involved interviews with 320 Mexican migrants and return migrants in North Carolina and Guanajuato, Mexico, we identify the lifelong human capital they acquired and transferred throughout their careers and discover that these include not only basic education and English, but also technical and social skills and competences acquired informally on and off the job throughout the course of one’s life.  We further find that the learning and transfer of skills is a lifelong, gendered process, reflecting the different social contexts and jobs in which men and women learn. In this paper we document several mobility pathways associated with the acquisition and transfer of skills across the migratory circuit, including reskilling, occupational mobility, job jumping, and entrepreneurship.Our study has broad implications for the migration policies of both the US and Mexico.  US immigration policy confers preference to “skilled” immigrants who rank high on traditional human capital characteristics, such as education levels and other formal credentials, but limits the entry of “unskilled” migrants, a categorization that ignores the substantial informal skills they bring to US labor markets.  Instead of focusing only on the continued expansion of immigration policy preferences for narrowly defined skilled migrants, the US government needs to consider more carefully what we mean by skilled workers and design fairer and more effective immigration policies that match their abilities to the specific needs of US industry and thereby recognize the economic contributions of all migrants within a lifelong human capital framework. Mexico can also learn from our findings. Between 2005 and 2010 an estimated 1.4 million

  20. Selection of Cd2+ Binding Peptides and Yeast Adsorption of Heavy Metals by Display Technology%基于展示技术的 Cd2+结合肽筛选与酵母重金属吸附研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯侠; 江年; 陈颖; 张薇薇; 李学如; 茆灿泉

    2013-01-01

    Cd2+ binding peptides were effective enriched from the commercially phage 12 random peptide library ,and six different Cd2+ binding peptides were obtained ,two which had strong affi-nity were selected and connected together in series and displayed on yeast surface by gene recom-bination .The recombinant yeasts showed significant higher adsorption rate for Cd2+ and Ni2+ as compared with the control .The recombinant yeasts adsorption rate for Cd2+ increased with the in-crease of the induction time ,when the induction time was 24 h ,the adsorption rate for Cd2+reached the maximum (30 .4% ) ,and the adsorption rate for Ni2+ reached 32 .9% .%利用C d2+螯合树脂,对噬菌体随机十二肽库进行C d2+结合肽筛选,并将亲和力较强的结合肽展示在酵母EB Y 100表面,以期得到耐受和吸附能力具佳的工程菌,为重金属的生物修复提供新的思路。通过筛选共得到6条不同的C d2+结合肽,其中有2条对C d2+亲和力较强,将其串联展示于酵母细胞表面。与对照菌相比,酵母工程菌对C d2+、N i2+的吸附率显著提高。酵母工程菌对C d2+的吸附率随诱导时间的增加而增加,诱导24 h时最高,达30.4%,此时酵母工程菌对N i2+的吸附率达到32.9%。

  1. Analysis of the Heterobeltiosis and Competitive Advantage of Glyphosate -Resistant Hybrid Cotton%抗草甘膦杂交棉超亲和竞争优势的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚平; 杨兆光; 肖远龙; 曾小林

    2015-01-01

    以2个抗草甘膦棉材料分别与2个常规棉材料进行正反杂交 ,将得到的4个正反交组合后代与它们各自的亲本在农艺性状、产量性状、纤维品质、抗性等方面进行比较,并以江西棉花生产上主栽的杂交棉品种赣棉杂1号作对照 ,研究其抗虫、抗草甘膦性状以及杂种优势的表现.结果表明:果枝数、结铃进度、成铃数、籽皮棉产量均表现为显著的正向竞争优势和正向超亲优势 ,纤维品质多数指标表现为正向竞争优势 ,始果枝着生节位、果枝夹角表现为负向竞争优势 ,亲本独立抗性能够在F1 代比较充分地表达 ,正反交组合后代都同时具有抗虫、抗草甘膦性状.%Four hybrid combinations were obtained through two Glyphosate-Resistant Cotton and two conventional cotton materials in reciprocal cross ,compared with their respective parents in agronomic traits ,yield traits ,fiber quality ,and resis-tance ,etc. Furthermore it taked the main cultivated hybrid cotton variety Gangmianza No.1 in Jiangxi as control check (CK ) studying on the characteristics of the insect resistance ,glyphosate resistance and Heterosis performance. The results indicated that the number of fruit branches ,boll progress ,the number of bolls ,seed cotton yield and lint yield of four combinations showed significant positive competitive advantage and positive transgressive parent advantage ,most of the fiber quality indica-tors showed positive competitive advantage , the height of first fruiting branch and branch angle showed negative competitiveadvantage. Independent resistance of the parents could be relatively stable heredity , and all posterity of reciprocal cross com-binations had the characteristics of insect resistance and glyphosate resistance simultaneously.

  2. Impacto ambiental de modificações ecológicas realizadas em uma área subtropical Environmental impact of ecological changes in a subtropical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gorodner

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available No período de 1994 a 2000, durante a construção e enchimento da represa Yacyretá, foram estudadas em Ituzaingó e Posadas variáveis infecciosas (diarréias e infecções respiratórias, clínico-cirúrgicas (doenças cardiovasculares e politraumatismos e ambientais (pluviais, temperatura e umidade. As diarréias, em Ituzaingó, tiveram um aumento 6,5%, 78,3% e 13%, respectivamente em 1995, 1996 e 1997 e nos anos seguintes os valores foram similares aos de 1994 e em Posadas mostraram uma tendência ascendente. As infecções respiratórias, em Ituzaingó em 1995, aumentaram 143% e nos períodos subseqüentes voltaram aos limites de 1994 e, em Posadas tiveram valores ascendentes. No Hospital de Ituzaingó, em 1995, as doenças incrementaram 97,6%, mostraram decréscimo em 1996 e atingiram 127% em 2000; os politraumatismos aumentaram 107% em 1995, declinaram 38% em 1996 nos anos seguintes apresentaram tendência ascendente atingindo 33% em 2000. O impacto das variáveis ambientais foi maior em Ituzaingó do que em Posadas. O aumento das doenças relacionou-se com a temperatura máxima, mas não com a umidade.Infectious, clinical-surgical and environmental variables were studied in Ituzaingó and Posadas (Argentina and differences were analyzed from 1994 to 2000, which corresponds to the building of the binational dam Yacyretá (Argentina-Paraguay and to the resulting reservoir. The chosen infectious variables were diarrhea and respiratory infections and the clinical-surgical variables were cardiovascular diseases and polytraumas. Environmental variables were also investigated. Taking as a baseline the values corresponding to the year 1994, diarrhea in Ituzaingó, increased 6.5% during 1995 and 78.3% in 1996 returned to 1994 values. Posadas showed a rising tendency throughout the period investigated. In Ituzaingó, respiratory infectious rose 143% in 1995, and later returned to 1994 values. In Posadas they increased each year. Cardiovascular

  3. Perú-Chile: imágenes mutuas (Perú-Chile: mutual images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro González Riesle

    2014-06-01

    of the approach of The Images on the Mirror as an instrument for the analysis of content of blogs which carriers’ messages of hostility and integration between the two countries. A Psychosocial binational strategy is proposed to: 1 deactivate the Expansionism-Revanchism dynamics that can contribute to produce catastrophic consequences for present and future generations of both countries and (2 promote border integration between Tacna (Peru and Arica (Chile

  4. Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among active duty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, María Luisa; Beletsky, Leo; Patiño, Efraín; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rocha, Teresita; Arredondo, Jaime; Bañuelos, Arnulfo; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Police officers are at an elevated risk for needle-stick injuries (NSI), which pose a serious and costly occupational health risk for HIV and viral hepatitis. However, research on NSIs among police officers is limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the legality of syringe possession in Mexico, half of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana report extrajudicial syringe-related arrests and confiscation by police, which has been associated with needle-sharing and HIV infection. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of NSIs among Tijuana police officers to inform efforts to improve occupational safety and simultaneously reduce HIV risks among police and PWID. Methods Tijuana's Department of Municipal Public Safety (SSPM) is among Mexico's largest. Our binational, multi-sectoral team analyzed de-identified data from SSPM's 2014 anonymous self-administered occupational health survey. The prevalence of NSI and syringe disposal practices was determined. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation via generalized estimating equations identified factors associated with ever having an occupational NSI. Results Approximately one-quarter of the Tijuana police force was given the occupational health survey (N=503). Respondents were predominantly male (86.5%) and ≤35 years old (42.6%). Nearly one in six officers reported ever having a NSI while working at SSPM (15.3%), of whom 14.3% reported a NSI within the past year. Most participants reported encountering needles/syringes while on duty (n=473, 94%); factors independently associated with elevated odds of NSIs included frequently finding syringes that contain drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56–5.67) and breaking used needles (AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.29–3.91), while protective factors included being willing to contact emergency services in case of NSIs (AOR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22–0.69), and wearing needle-stick resistant gloves (AOR: 0

  5. Use by small mammals of short-rotation plantations in relation to their structure and isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Giordano

    2010-06-01

    . Dal nostro studio è emerso che le SRF sono largamente sfruttate dai micromammiferi, soprattutto in autunno e che il successo di cattura è massimo negli impianti a file binate. L’abbondanza dei micromammiferi è risultata inversamente correlata alla distanza dagli ambienti che offrono copertura, come boschi o altri impianti di arboricoltura. I risultati hanno mostrato che le SRF possono considerarsi un ambiente idoneo per i micromammiferi, ed esse potrebbero funzionare da habitat di collegamento tra i frammenti di altri habitat utilizzati dai micromammiferi.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4443

  6. Socio-Environmental Health Analysis in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M; Caldeira, Felipe; Callegary, James; Gray, Floyd; O' Rourke, Mary Kay; Meranza, Veronica; Van Rijn, Saskia

    2012-06-01

    to be significantly greater in Colosio (median 29.2 mg/L) although still below the US EPA's maximum contaminant levels of 250 mg/L. Ongoing binational collaboration can promote mechanisms to improve water quality in cities located in the US-Mexico border.

  7. 面向海量数据的推荐系统的研究%Research on recommendation system for mass data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进; 胡大权; 陈家佳

    2016-01-01

    When dealing with large data,the traditional recommendation system,such as conventional collaborative filtering, is limited in its recommendation performance. The combination recommendation algorithm formed by K means clustering algo⁃rithm and collaborative filtering algorithm has better recommendation performance. The genetic algorithm is used in this paper to optimize the combination recommendation algorithm to simplify the algorithm so as to reduce the complexity and cost of the com⁃bination algorithm. At the same time,the genetic algorithm is ameliorated to improve the optimization ability of the genetic algo⁃rithm and the performance of the recommendation system. The performance test of the recommendation algorithm was carried out by means of the MovieLens film scoring data set. The test results show that the optimization ability of the genetic algosithm and the performance of recommendation system have been improved.%在处理大数据时,传统的推荐系统,如常规协同过滤的推荐性能受到了限制。使用操作简便的K均值聚类算法与协同过滤构成组合推荐算法具有较好的推荐性能,该文使用遗传算法对组合推荐算法进行优化,简化组合推荐算法,降低组合算法的复杂度和成本。同时,通过对遗传算法进行改进,以提高遗传算法的优化能力,提高推荐系统性能。最后,通过MovieLens电影打分数据集对该文研究的推荐算法进行性能测试。结果表明,遗传算法的优化能力得到提升,推荐系统的性能有所提高。

  8. Implications of multipurpose tree leaf application on wheat productivity in dry tropics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajani Srivastava; K. P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Leaves of multipurpose tree species (those providing more than one function or product of human use) can serve as sources of fer-tilizer for nutrient supply, especially nitrogen (N). In this study chopped leaves of tropical tree species (5 N-fixing species, 5 non-N-fixing species and combinations of 5 N-fixing with a non-N-fixing species) were in-corporated in soil to evaluate its effects on wheat biological productivity (including grain yield, GYIELD) under dryland conditions. High quality leaves of N-fixing tree species (e.g. Dalbergia sissoo, Cassia fistula and Prosopis cineraria) had lower carbon/nitrogen (C/N), lignin/nitrogen (LIG/N), polyphenol/nitrogen (PPL/N) and lignin+polyphenol /nitrogen (LIG+PPL/N) ratios than low quality leaves of non-N-fixing species. Com-bination treatments had intermediate values of different parameters. Application of high quality leaves caused greater increases in wheat productivity and yield than other species. By the application of leaves of N-fixing trees, on average, wheat yield increased 160% relative to the control (no addition of leaves), and when combined with non-N-fixing Terminalia chebula leaves the yield increased 108%. Mean total net productivity (TNP) with N-fixing species treatments, exceeded mean TNP with non-N-fixing species and combination treatments by 50%and 28%, respectively. Multivariate regressions indicated that nitrogen (N) concen-tration in leaves (main nutrient), interacting with lignin (LIG) and poly-phenol (PPL) concentrations, explained 79%−86% of variability in pro-ductivity parameters and yield. Strong correlation between LIG+PPL/N ratio of leaves with GYIELD of wheat crop suggests that the ratio can be used as a reliable index for mass screening of multipurpose tree species for use as soil amendments especially in dryland agriculture. Direct ap-plication of high quality N-fixing tree species leaves (especially D. sissoo, C fistula and P. cineraria), an uncommon practice in dry tropics in India

  9. 翻转课堂结合OSCE教学方法在口腔本科生教学中的应用%Application of the Flipped Class-room and objective structured clinical examination in teaching and training for stomatology undergraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范雅儒; 刘海霞; 骆慧; 赵浩然

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨翻转课堂结合客观结构化临床考试(OSCE)培训及考核系统运用于口腔医学教学的可行性。方法选择新疆医科大学口腔医学院2012级本科生,随机分为2组,试验组(28人)进行翻转课堂教学结合OSCE培训及考核,对照组(25人)进行传统教学,比较2组的教学效果。结果从OSCE考核实践成绩来看:试验组(85.39±7.60)分,对照组(80.60±11.64)分,试验组成绩优于对照组,P0.05)。结论口腔专业教学中通过翻转课堂结合OSCE系统有益于提高学生学习的自主性,显示良好的教学效果,值得进一步推广。%objectiveTo explore the feasibility of applying the Flipped Class-room and objective struc-tured clinical examination(OSCE) in teaching and training for stomatology undergraduates.MethodsWe in-troduced the Flipped Class-room and OSCE into 2012 level of stomatology undergraduates in Xinjiang Medical University, and them were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group(n=28)was trained by the flipped class-room combined with the OSCE system, compared with the traditional teaching group(n=25).Re-sults The OSCE test scores from the experimental group were better than the control group(P0.05).ConclusionThe com-bination of the OSCE with theflipped class-room into oral professional teaching system is beneficial to improve the learning autonomy of medical students, suggesting a good teaching effect, and it is worthy of further promotion.

  10. Effect of Clay Content and Soil-water Potential On Mobilization and Leaching of Colloids In Unsaturated Macroporous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaergaard, C.; de Jonge, L. W.; Moldrup, P.

    The transport of strongly sorbed environmental contaminants may be enhanced due to sorption to mobile soil colloids. The most common source of mobile colloids in soil is the in-situ release of water-dispersible colloids (WDC), however experimental investigations of colloid mobilization in unsaturated macroporous soil are scarce. An understanding of the arrangement of colloids in aggregates, and the influence of clay on the development of the soil fabric and pore-size distributions is essential for the in- terpretation of colloid mobilization in soils. This emphasizes the important role of clay content, when evaluating the susceptibility of soils to release colloids and associated contaminants. This study was conducted to determine the effect of clay content and initial soil- water potential on colloid mobilization and leaching. Intact soil cores were sampled from an arable field at six locations along a naturally occurring texture gradient. Soil dispersibility was investigated using capillary saturation and drainage of field-moist packed aggregates. The amount of WDC in the soil was measured for each com- bination of clay content and initial soil-water potential (-2.5, -98 and -15530 hPa). Mobilization and leaching of colloids was investigated from unsaturated intact soil cores. The soils were irrigated at low intensity (1 mm/h), and effluent sampling was conducted at 5 cm tension. The results showed that colloid dispersion was significantly affected by both clay con- tent and initial soil-water potential. With a soil-water potential of -15530 hPa the col- loid release was generally low and no variation occurred between the soils. With in- creasing soil-water potential there was an increase in the amount of WDC for all soils. The increase in WDC was negatively correlated with clay content. The leaching of colloids from intact soil cores also decreased with increasing clay content at an ini- tial soil-water potential of -98 and -2.5 hPa, and no difference between

  11. International labor migration and external debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, J A

    1987-01-01

    program by which the US would import the production of these agroindustrial units in Mexico would retain previously migratory workers in Mexico; 5) a feasibility study would precede implementing an accord on the amount of financing and the terms of operation; and 6) the time during the binational study would be a grace period, during which payment of a portion of the interest of Mexico's foreign debt would be temporarily suspended.

  12. Microbial contamination and chemical toxicity of the Rio Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valles Adrian

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rio Grande River is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX to Brownsville, TX. and is one of the major water resources of the area. Agriculture, farming, maquiladora industry, domestic activities, as well as differences in disposal regulations and enforcement increase the contamination potential of water supplies along the border region. Therefore, continuous and accurate assessment of the quality of water supplies is of paramount importance. The objectives of this study were to monitor water quality of the Rio Grande and to determine if any correlations exist between fecal coliforms, E. coli, chemical toxicity as determined by Botsford's assay, H. pylori presence, and environmental parameters. Seven sites along a 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX were sampled on a monthly basis between January 2000 and December 2002. Results The results showed great variability in the number of fecal coliforms, and E. coli on a month-to-month basis. Fecal coliforms ranged between 0–106 CFU/100 ml while E. coli ranged between 6 to > 2419 MPN. H. pylori showed positive detection for all the sites at different times. Toxicity ranged between 0 to 94% of inhibition capacity (IC. Since values above 50% are considered to be toxic, most of the sites displayed significant chemical toxicity at different times of the year. No significant correlations were observed between microbial indicators and chemical toxicity. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande river from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX exceeds the standards for contact recreation water on a continuous basis. In addition, the presence of chemical toxicity in most sites along the 112-Km segment indicates that water quality is an area of concern for the bi-national region. The presence of H. pylori adds to the potential health hazards of the Rio Grande. Since no

  13. Optimizing Financial Ecological Environment, Boosting Development of Circular Economy%优化金融生态环境,助推循环经济发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付乐

    2012-01-01

    积极推进循环经济的发展是提高资源利用率,缓解资源短缺,减轻环境污染的有效途径,更是实现我国经济可持续发展的本质要求。优化的金融生态环境可以通过资金流向变化和信贷结构调整推动我国产业结构的调整和经济增长方式的转变,为循环经济科学技术支撑提供强有力的资金支持和重要的决策依据。为此,可以通过采取一些有效措施助推循环经济的发展,如加强财政与货币政策的协调性,寻求其支持科技进步和技术创新的最佳组合;倡导金融创新,为企业研发输送资金,推动循环经济发展;利用“歧视性”金融政策对高耗能、高污染企业进行长期约束等。%Actively promoting the development of circular economy is the effective way to improve resources' utilization, to ease the shortage of resources, to reduce environmental pollution. It is also the essential requirement of sustainable economic development. Optimal financial ecological environment can promote China's industrial structure adjustment and economic growth pattern through changing credit structure and adjustment of capital flows to. It also provides strong financial support and an important basis for decision making to scientific and technical support for the recycling economy. This can be done by taking some effective measures to boost the development of circular economy, such as strengthening the coordination of fiscal and monetary policy, to seek their support for the best com- bination of scientific and technological progress and technical innovation ; advocating financial innovation, channeling of financial resources for enterprise development, and promoting cycle of economic development ; making use of fi- nancial policies "discriminatory" to constraint high energy, high -polluting enterprises for long term.

  14. The Border Environmental Health Initiative: Investigation of the Transboundary Santa Cruz Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L. M.; Callegary, J. B.; van Riper, C.; Gray, F.; Paretti, N.; Villarreal, M.

    2009-12-01

    In the borderland region of the desert southwest, human health and the ecosystems upon which humans rely largely depend on the quality, quantity, and distribution of water resources. In the Santa Cruz River Watershed (SCW), located in the Arizona and Sonora, Mexico border region, surface water is scarce and unreliable, and, during much of the year, is composed of effluent from the local wastewater treatment plant. This makes groundwater the preferred and, consequently, primary source for industrial, agricultural, and domestic use. USGS scientists are using an integrative approach, incorporating the expertise of the Geography, Water, Biology, and Geology disciplines to identify risks to water resources in the SCW, and the potential for impacts to riparian ecosystems and ultimately, human health. This includes tracking organic and inorganic contaminants and their effects from sources to sinks in sediment, water, plants, and animals. Existing ground- and surface-water models will be used and modified to assess contaminant and sediment transport. Water quality, sediment, aquatic macro invertebrates, aquatic plants (macrophytes), algae, riparian grasses, fish, and birds will be sampled at five locations along the Santa Cruz River. Field sampling data will be obtained at sites that coincide with historical sampling programs. Site locations include (i.) the Santa Cruz River headwaters (which should be unaffected by downstream contaminant sources), (ii.) a tributary routed through an abandoned mining district, (iii.) a binational tributary that flows though highly urbanized areas, (iv.) effluent from the local wastewater treatment plant, and (v.) the downstream confluence of the first four sources. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model will be used in combination with field data to identify key sources of contaminants, contributing areas, and transport modes to track their movement to surface waters. These data will be used together to test relationships between

  15. Research on Variable Selection of Protein in Wheat Near Infrared Spectroscopy Based on Latent Projective Graph%基于变量组合集群分析法的小麦蛋白质近红外光谱变量选择方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵环; 宦克为; 郑峰; 石晓光

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the near infrared spectra of wheat protein complex information, collinearity serious and full spectrum of modeling prediction ability is insufficient,a new method of variable selection is adopted what variable com-bination population analysis (VCPA) on the near infrared spectrum characteristics of wheat protein wavelength selec-tion. Based on the features of the binary matrix sampling (BMS) and uninformative variable elimination strategy of index decreasing function (EDF), VCPA explored optimally the efficient wavelength from the NIR spectroscopy the wheat to develop models for prediction the protein of the wheat. The results showed that the performance of VCPA model was superior to the performances from others selection variables method with the least variable. Good prediction performance was obtained for protein of wheat. the BMS variable sampling strategy made up for the deficiency of the Monte Carlo sampling method. The study demonstrated that VCPA could effectively select the characteristic wave-lengths of NIR spectral to improve the model robustness and applicability.%为了解决小麦蛋白质的近红外光谱信息复杂、共线性严重及全光谱建模的预测能力不足等问题,采用一种新的变量选择方法——变量组合集群分析法(VCPA)对小麦蛋白质的近红外光谱进行特征波长选取.首先利用二进制矩阵采样策略(BMS)和指数衰减函数(EDF)删除无信息变量,优选小麦中蛋白质近红外特征波长,然后结合偏最小二乘法(PLS)建立预测模型.与其他变量选择方法相比,VCPA所选用的波长点最少,模型的预测能力最强,VCPA算法所采用的BMS变量采样策略弥补了蒙特卡洛采样方法的不足.研究结果表明,VCPA算法可以有效选择小麦蛋白质近红外光谱特征波长,提高预测模型的可靠性和适用性.

  16. 微波消融联合消融灶周边注射CpG ODN诱导抗小鼠肝癌免疫效应1%Microwave ablation combined with peritumoral injection of CpG ODN induced antitumor immunity in a murine liver cancer model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向邦德; 刘星; 蒋文超; 赵荫农; 黎乐群

    2011-01-01

    产生抗肿瘤的免疫效应,抑制肿瘤生长.%0bjective:To investigate the efficacy of m icrowave ablation combined wilh peritum oral irpcted CpG ODN in inducing in- m unity response against mouse liver cancer .M eyhods:Bilateial Brer cancer modelwas established by subcutaneous inaction Hepat-6 eels on bo1h sides of 1heC57BL/6Jm ouse abdomen .A cooiding 1he Iheiapy m eihod to 1he right side 1unor,1he mice were divided into tour groups; combination Iherapy group (m icrowave ablation combined with peritiinoial injscted CpG ODN ) ,abhtion Iherapy group ,CpG ODN Iherapy group, and control group .B ilateral turn or volm e and survive tin e w ere observed .H eat shock protein 70 (H SP70 ) in right frm or tissue and CD 4 / CD 8 T ]ym phocytes in left frm or tissue w ere m easured by in m unohistochan istry .Concenttatfan of LH.2 and LH.0 in senm w ere detected by ELBA m eihod .Splenic cytotoxic T fymphocytes (CTL) was assayed by LDH meihodJI oreover,unilateral subcutaneous liver cancer mice were given con bination Iheiapy or abhtfan Iherapy ,H epa 1-6 cells w ere rechaUenged at the opposite flank after 30 days later ,1he turn or em eiging rate and tin or volume at 1he opposite flank were observed .Results; In the bilateral turn ormodel,the right tum or volm es in combination Iherapy group and ablation Iherapy group were an allerihan those in CpG ODN Iherapy group and oon1rolgroup,]eftiLinorvo]umes in combination Iherapy group were an aller 1han 1hose in oiher group .The m edian suivire tin e in conbinatfan therapy group,ablation Iherapy group ,CpG ODN Iherapy group,and control group were 73 days ,60 days ,55 days ,38 days respectively .In the left frm or tissue ,1he number of CD 8 T lymphocytes in combination Iherapy group were(25 .17+5 .46),which were sjgnificantiy higher 1han 1hose in oiher groups. In 1he right turn or tissue,the labeling index of HSP70 in combination therapy group and ablation Iheiapy group were (39 .95+9 .03 )% and (33 .90+7 .98 )% respectively

  17. Camparison of Two Kinds of Turbinate Operations on Therapy Chronic Hypertrophic Rhinitis%慢性肥厚性鼻炎鼻内镜下2种不同手术方式临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓芳; 刘海; 黄燕莉

    2014-01-01

    目的分析慢性肥厚性鼻炎鼻内镜下不同手术方式的临床疗效。方法2012年1至12月期间诊断为慢性肥厚性鼻炎的89例手术患者作为研究对象,随机分成2组,其中双下鼻甲等离子消融术47例,双下鼻甲粘骨膜下部分切除术42例,分析2种不同手术方法的临床优缺点。结果经双下鼻甲等离子消融术的47例患者中,双侧下鼻甲粘膜肥厚为主的25例患者中22例治愈,3例好转,以下鼻甲骨质增生明显的22例中12例好转,10例无效;双下鼻甲粘骨膜下部分切除的42例中,双侧下鼻甲粘膜肥厚为主的20例中8例治愈,11例好转,1例无效,骨质增生为主的22例中20例治愈,2例好转。结论对于以下鼻甲粘膜肥厚为主的慢性肥厚性鼻炎,等离子消融术治疗效果更佳,而以骨质增生为主的慢性肥厚性鼻炎,则选择行下鼻甲粘骨膜下部分切除。%Objective To Analysis the clinical curative effect of chronic hypertrophic rhinitis with nasal endoscopic by different ways of operations.Methods During January to December of 2012, 89 cases of chronic hypertrophic rhinitis patients which were treated with surgery were selected as the research object, then divided into 2 groups randomly, plasma radiofrequency of double inferior turbinate 47 cases, partial resection of double inferior turbinate sticky periosteal 42 cases, analysis of the clinical advantages and disadvantages of these two different surgical methods.Results In plasma radiofrequency of double inferior turbi-nate 47 cases, the mucosa hypertrophy inferior turbinate were 25 cases, and 22 cases were cured, 3 cases were improved,the tur-binate bone hyperplasia significantly were 22 cases, 12 cases were improved,10 cases were invalided;In partial resection of doub-le inferior turbinate sticky periosteal 42 cases, the mucosa hypertrophy inferior turbinate were 20 cases, and 8 cases were cured, 11 cases were improved, 1 case was ineffective, the turbinate bone

  18. Effects of ethanol on the hypnosis induced by propofol%乙醇对丙泊酚催眠效应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙林浩; 袁玲; 张露露; 陆悦; 刘烨; 陈铁胜; 周成华; 武玉清

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of ethanol on the hypnosis induced by propofol.Methods Based on stratified randomization, 32 mice were divided into four groups (n =8), according to their different treatments of 30%ethanol (Group E30), 40% ethanol (Group E40), 50% ethanol( Group E50) and 60% ethanol (Group E60).Then, the righting reflex test was performed to observe the rate of LOR in order to determine the optimum concentration of etha-nol.Based on stratified randomization, anther 40 mice were divided into five groups (n =8), according to their different treatments of normal saline (Group NS), fat emulsion (Group F), ethanol (Group E), propofol (Group P) and a com-bination of ethanol +propofol (Group U).Then, the righting reflex test was performed to observe the rate, latency and duration of LOR.Results Compared with Groups E and P, Group U produced a remarkably higher rate of LOR (P <0.01), obviously shorter latency (P <0.01), and markedly extended duration (P <0.01).Conclusion Ethanol can strengthen the hypnotic effect of propofol, and enhance the inhabitation of the central nervous system.%目的:研究乙醇对丙泊酚催眠效应的影响。方法①按分层随机区组设计将32只小鼠分为4组(n=8):30%乙醇组(E30组)、40%乙醇组(E40组)、50%乙醇组(E50组)、60%乙醇组(E60组)。观察小鼠翻正反射消失的比率,确定合适的乙醇浓度。②按分层随机区组设计将40只小鼠分为5组(n =8):生理盐水组(NS组)、脂肪乳组(F 组)、乙醇组(E 组)、丙泊酚组(P 组)及联合组(乙醇+丙泊酚,U 组)。观察小鼠翻正反射消失率、潜伏期以及翻正反射消失持续时间。结果与 E 组及 P 组相比,U 组翻正反射消失率明显升高(P <0.01),潜伏期明显缩短(P <0.01),翻正反射消失持续时间明显延长(P <0.01)。结论乙醇可显著增强丙泊酚的催眠效应,加强中枢抑制作用。

  19. Multilocus Sequence Typing & Recombination Analyses of Nucleus Genes, Mating Type Locus & Mitochondria Genes of Cryptococcus gattii%格特隐球菌核基因、交配型位点和线粒体基因的多位点序列分型及重组分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓博; 凌波; 付小花; 王磊; 廖万清; 姚志荣

    2013-01-01

    研究格特隐球菌VGI和VGII基因型菌株间线粒体基因重组与核基因、交配型位点重组间的关系。采用分子鉴定区分受试格特隐球菌的血清型、基因型和交配型;选取包含核基因和线粒体基因10个位点的多位点序列分型( MLST)进行基因型和系统发育分析;采用同质性检验评价基因系谱间的一致性。多位点的序列和系统发育分析结合同质性检验表明,受试位点中,仅ATP6位点发现VGI和VGII菌株间基因的杂交和重组,该基因系谱与其余位点的基因系谱呈现不一致性。结果显示,受试的部分VGI菌株中的ATP6位点含有VGII菌株的基因序列,表明VGI和VGII菌株间线粒体基因的重组;没有发现核基因及交配型位点中两者间的重组,提示VGI和VGII菌株间线粒体基因的重组现象与交配行为无关。%Relationship among recombination of mitochondria genes, nucleus genes and mating type locus among Cryptococcus gattii VGI and VGII genotypic strains was studied. Molecular methods were adopted to identify and dis-tinguish serotype, genotype and mating types of the tested C. gattii, ten loci were selected from nucleus and mitochon-dria genes for multilocus sequence typing ( MLST) and phylogenetic analysis. Homogeneity test was conducted for the evaluation of the congruence among various gene genealogies. The multilocus sequences and phylogenetic analyses, combined with homogeneity test, indicated that among the tested loci, only at ATP6 locus VGI and VGII inter-strain genes hybridation and recombination was found, and the genealogy of the gene was incongruent with genealogies of oth-er genes. The results indicate that partial tested VGI strains in this study were found to have gene sequence from VGII strains at ATP6 locus, indicating it was an inter-strain recombination of VGI and VGII mitochondria genes;no recom-bination between both loci of nucleus genes and mating type was found, prompting that

  20. 培养基成分和培养时间对匍匐翦股颖植株再生的影响%Effects of medium components and subculture period on plantlet regeneration of creeping bentgrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓一飞; 张露娜; 吴宜成; 陈沁; 邓志瑞

    2013-01-01

    Mature seeds of creeping bentgrass were used as explants to study the effects of 2,4-D concentration,com-bination of 2,4-D and 6-BA,and sucrose concentration on callus induction and the effects of subculture time,6-BA concentration,sucrose concentration on plantlet regeneration.The results showed that combination of 2 mg·L-1 2,4-D and 0.1 mg·L-1 6-BA produced the best result with 94% callus induction rate,and 30 g·L-1 sucrose gave the best result,callus induction rate being 82%.During regeneration process,1 mg·L-1 6-BA could bring the best differentia-tion frequency (62%)and 40 g·L-1 sucrose resulted in the highest plantlet regeneration frequency (52%).The callus after the second time subculture (40 d after explants were laid on medium)gave the highest differentiation frequency (71%)which began to decline as subculture prolonged.After the fifth time subculture (100 d),only 18%differentia-tion frequency was obtained.%以匍匐翦股颖成熟种子为外植体,研究了培养基2,4-D浓度、2,4-D和6-BA组合配比、蔗糖浓度对匍匐翦股颖愈伤组织诱导的影响以及愈伤组织再生过程中继代时间、6-BA浓度、蔗糖浓度对愈伤组织分化的影响.结果表明:在MS培养基上,2 mg·L-12,4-D和0.1 mg·L-16-BA的组合最利于愈伤组织的诱导,诱导率高达94%.蔗糖浓度为30 g·L-1时愈伤组织诱导率最高,为82%;在再生过程中,当6-BA浓度为1 mg·L-1时分化率最高(62%),蔗糖浓度为40 g·L-1时,愈伤组织分化率最高(52%).经过2次继代培养的愈伤组织(外植体放到培养基后40天)的分化率为最高(71%),随着继代次数增多,分化率逐渐降低,在经过5次继代后(培养100 d)分化率仅有18%.

  1. 应用SSR分子标记分析小麦品种(系)的遗传重组%Genetic Recombination in Wheat Using SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小军; 冯素伟; 李淦; 董娜; 陈向东; 宋杰; 茹振钢

    2013-01-01

    To understand the characteristics of inheritance and recombination of parental chromosome fragments in wheat proge-nies, we screened the genomes of 23 genotypes derived from Zhoumai 18 and Bainong AK58 with 340 SSR markers covering the whole wheat genome, together with the parents. The average recombination frequency in cultivars from single-cross was 12.3, which was smaller than that in cultivars from single backcross (13.9). Recombination mostly occurred on chromosomes 4A, 5A, 7A, 1B, 3B, 4B, 7B, 1D, 2D, 3D, 5D, 6D, and 7D. The distal and central chromosomal regions had similar frequencies of recom-bination which were 6.1, and 6.0, respectively. Some chromosomal regions were hot in recombination, such as marker intervals gwm358–wmc357 on chromosome 5D, cfd49–barc196 on chromosome 6D, wmc158–barc23 on chromosome 7A, and gwm274–gwm146 on chromosome 7B, with 35, 19, 15, and 14 recombination events, respectively. The analysis for inheritance of large linkage blocks indicated that large chromosome fragments inherited from one parent varied from 14 to 29 in each derivative, with 2–8 consecutive and informative SSR loci in a fragment. These large fragments were mainly distributed on chromosomes 4A, 5A, 5B, 5D, and 7D, which might harbor genes controlling important agronomic traits.%  为了解小麦品种形成中亲本基因组的遗传重组和遗传保留区段的分布特点,对周麦18和百农AK58及其衍生品系共23个材料进行了全基因组SSR扫描分析.遗传重组分析表明,单交组合的平均重组数(12.3)低于回交组合(13.9);染色体4A、5A、7A、1B、3B、4B、7B、1D、2D、3D、5D、6D和7D重组发生较多,其余染色体重组相对较少,染色体的中间区段与远端区段重组数相当,分别为6.1和6.0.子代间基因组比较发现,一些染色体区段成为重组的多发区,如5D的gwm358–wmc357、6D的cfd49–barc196、7A的wmc158–barc23和7B的gwm274–gwm146区段,分别有35、19

  2. Study on fluid-solid coupling mechanism for water resistance effect of coal floor based on different combination of rock strata%基于不同岩层组合对底板阻水效应的流固耦合机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟晓荣; 张红梅; 窦仲四; 吴基文; 沈书豪; 周盛全

    2016-01-01

    为了探究不同岩层组合底板对承压水的阻隔效果,以淮北矿区下组煤底板为研究对象,建立了三种不同组合特征底板模型.基于FISH语言对FLAC3D软件进行二次开发,对流固耦合条件下不同组合特征底板采动应力及围岩渗透性进行了综合分析.结果表明:流固耦合条件下,底板采后应力转换点深度较不考虑底板水压条件下加深,且底板深部出现了明显的卸压现象;硬软型底板采后卸荷程度及应力转换点降幅最大,而软硬相间型底板受最小;硬软型底板采后渗透性提高4.5倍,而软硬相间型底板仅提高1.4倍,研究结果揭示出软硬相间岩层组合底板阻水效果最好,而硬软型底板最差.%To investigate the resistance effect of coal floor with different combination of rock strata on confined water , taking the coal floor of lower coal group in Huaibei mining area as research object , three coal floor models with different combination characteristics were established .The secondary development was conducted on FLAC 3D software based on FISH language , then the comprehensive analysis on the mining stress of coal floor and the permeability of surrounding rock with different com -bination characteristics under the condition of fluid-solid coupling was carried out .The results showed that under the condi-tion of fluid-solid coupling , the depth of stress transition point for coal floor after mining was larger than that without consid -ering the condition of floor water pressure , and the obvious pressure relief phenomenon appeared in the deep floor .The de-creasing amplitude of unloading degree and stress transition point for hard -soft type coal floor after mining were the largest , while those for alternated soft-hard type coal floor were the smallest .The permeability of hard-soft type coal floor after mining increased by 4.5 times, while that of alternated soft-hard type coal floor increased by 1.5 times only.It revealed that

  3. 肺炎嗜衣原体CPAF诱导THP-1细胞产生前炎症细胞因子和凋亡%Chlamydial protease-like activity factor from Chlamydophila pneumoniae induced THP-1 cells produced proinflammtory cytokines and apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡旃; 吴移谋; 陈虹亮; 郑江花; 周洲; 唐国芳

    2010-01-01

    Objective To express and purify Chlamydial protease-like activity factor(CPAF)from Chlamydophila pneumoniae,for investigating the effect of its recombinant protein GST-CPAF in inducing human monocytic cells to secrete proinflammatory cytokines and cell apoptosis.Methods The recom-bination expression plasmid pGEX6p-2/CPAF from Chlamydophila pneumoniae was transformed into E.coli.The recombination GST-CPAF was expressed after induction by IPTG,and purified by a agarose gel FF.Human monocytic cells were stimulated by the GST-CPAF to test the production of tumor necrosis factor a(TNF-α)and interleukin-6(IL- 6)by ELISA.Inhibition of cells proliferation with GST-CPAF was assessed by MTT.The THP-1 cell apoptosis stimulated by GST-CPAF was detected by Hoechst33258 fluorescence staining,DNA fragmentation analysis and cell apeptosis was detested bv Annexin V-FITC-propidiuum iodide (PI)staining.Results The recombination protein GST-CPAF was successfully expressed with high level in E.coli,and stimulated human monocytic cells to produce proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6 in a dose-and time-dependent manner.Otherwise,the GST-CPAF inhibited the growth of human monocytic cell in a dose-dependent manner.Apoptosis with nuclear chromatin fragmentation as well as cell shrinkage was observed by fluorescent staining and microscopy,DNA ladders in apoptosis cells were detected after 24 h with the GST-CPAF.Conclusion The GST-CPAF from Chlamydophila pneumoniae can induce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 by human monocytic cells,and inhibited the proliferation of THP-1 cell and apoptosis in vitro.%目的 研究肺炎嗜衣原体(Chlamydophila pneumoniae,Cpn)衣原体蛋白酶样活性因子(Chlamydial protease-like activity factor,CPAF)能否在体外诱导人单核细胞THP-1产生前炎症细胞因子和凋亡,为进一步探索Cpn感染宿主致病的分子机制提供实验依据.方法 将Cpn CPAF全基因克隆于pGEX6p-2

  4. Analysis of the allergic cough variant asthma in children%小儿过敏性咳嗽分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎艳梅; 托合提布

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To analysis the clinical features and treatment of the allergic cough variant asthma in children.METHODS:All of 56 cases of allergic cough variant asthma were treated in our hospital from May 2012 to August 2013,and these clinical data were analyzed retrospectively.The children were treated by com-bination of salbutamol and ketotifen.In addition,taking the vita-min A as the adjunctive therapy.The clinical efficacy and side effects were observed after treatment.RESULTS:The clinical symptoms of the allergic cough variant asthma in children is not typical,and the misdiagnosis rate is high.The results showed that there were 43 children cured after treatment,10 children im-proved and other 3 children had no change.The total effective rate was 94.64%. Besides, there were six cases with side effects,such as the heart rate increasing,facial flushing,head-ache.But these have no effect on clinical efficacy,and these dis-comfort disappeared after drug withdrawal.CONCLUSION:The clinical efficacy of salbutamol and ketotifen in the treatment of the allergic cough variant asthma in children is remarkable,and it is worthy of the clinical using.%目的:探讨分析小儿过敏性咳嗽的临床特点和治疗方法.方法:对我院2012-05/2013-08收治的56例过敏性患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析.患儿均给予舒喘灵和酮替芬联合治疗,并采用维生素A辅助治疗,观察治疗后患儿的临床疗效及不良反应.结果:小儿过敏性咳嗽患儿的临床症状不典型,误诊率较高.本组经治疗后治愈43例,有效10例,无效3例,总有效率为94.64%,且有6例患儿发生不良反应,主要表现为心率增快,面部潮红,头疼.但不影响疗效,停药后不适症均消失.结论:舒喘灵和酮替芬联合治疗小儿过敏性咳嗽的临床疗效显著,值得临床推广使用.

  5. 惰性淋巴瘤非化疗药物的治疗现状及进展%Advances and the current status in chemotherapy-free management for indolent lym-phomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋腾(综述); 王华庆(审校)

    2016-01-01

    Indolent B-cell lymphomas constitute a slow growing cancer of the lymphatic system. These lymphomas mainly include fol-licular lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, Waldenstom macroglobulinemia, marginal zone lym-phoma, and low malignant mantle cell lymphoma. These lymphomas are sensitive to chemotherapy and/or immunochemotherapy, but they cannot be cured. Furthermore, patient age at diagnosis, patient age at time of first onset or subsequent relapses, and compli-cations often influence the chemotherapy curative effect. At present, recent progress has been achieved in our understanding of dys-regulated pathways and immunologic anti-tumor responses in indolent lymphoma. In particular, the breakthrough of non-cytotoxic drugs renders"chemo-free"treatment a near-future reality. In this review, we highlight these promising approaches, such as the com-bination of anti-CD20 antibodies with immunomodulatory drugs, mAbs directed against other surface antigens, and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor inhibitor or B-cell receptor signaling pathway inhibitors. Future phase III studies will evaluate the efficacy of these drugs in the context of non-chemotherapy and further clarify treatment status.%惰性B细胞淋巴瘤是一类生长缓慢的淋巴系统肿瘤,主要包括滤泡性淋巴瘤(follicular lymphoma,FL)、慢性淋巴细胞白血病(chronic lymphocytic leukemia,CLL)/小淋巴细胞淋巴瘤(small lymphocytic lymphoma,SLL)、华氏巨球蛋白血症(waldenstom mac⁃roglobulinemia,WM)、边缘区淋巴瘤(marginal zone lymphoma,MZL)以及低度恶性的套细胞淋巴瘤(low malignant mantle cell lym⁃phoma,MCL)等,对化疗及免疫治疗敏感,但无法治愈。患者发病年龄、首次发病及再次复发时间、并发症等均可影响化疗疗效。当前,在惰性淋巴瘤信号转导通路及抗肿瘤免疫反应等方面,尤其是非细胞毒药物研究的突破,支持了

  6. PREFACE: XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteneodo, Celia; da Luz, Marcos G. E.

    2010-09-01

    phenomena in nature, addressing: classical and quantum chaos; instability and bifurcation; cooperative behavior; self-organization; pattern formation and synchronization; far-from-equilibrium and fluctuation dynamics; nonlinearity in fluid, plasmas, granular media, optics, and wave propagation; turbulence onset; and complexity in natural and social systems. The success of the conference was possible thanks to the financial support from many agencies, especially the Brazilian agencies Capes and CNPq, and the international agencies, Binational Itaupú, ICTP-Trieste, and CAIS-Albuquerque. Equally very important was the support by the organizer's institutions PUC-Rio de Janeiro and UFPR-Curitiba. We also must thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series, for believing in the success and scientific quality of the conference, and to the journal staff, specially Anete Ashton, for the kind and prompt help during the whole production process of this publication. Finally, and most important, we acknowledge all the participants of the LAWNP'09, whose interest and enthusiasm in advancing the science of nonlinearity constitutes the true moto making the present Proceedings a very valuable scientific contribution. Celia Anteneodo (PUC-Rio, Brazil) and Marcos G E da Luz (UFPR-Curitiba, Brazil) Conference Chairs Conference photograph Some of the conference participants. CAPES logo This issue was supported by CAPES (Agency for Evaluation and Support of Graduate Studies Programs), Brazilian govern entity devoted to the formation of human resources. CA would like to thank CAPES for financial support.

  7. 络合剂和交联剂对凝胶法制备TbMnO3纳米颗粒的影响%Influence of Chelating Agents and Crosslinking on TbMnO3 Nanoparticles Prepared by a Gel Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 林贯军; 县涛; 魏智强; 冯旺军

    2012-01-01

    采用改进的聚丙烯酰胺凝胶法制备了TbMnO3纳米颗粒.以Tb和Mn的无机盐水溶液为原料,通过加入丙烯酰胺使溶液成胶,在溶液成胶过程中,丙烯酰胺聚合形成高分子网络骨架,为粒子提供生长的空间.利用热重(TG)分析、差示扫描量热(DSC)分析、傅里叶变换红外光谱仪(FTIR)及X射线衍射(XRD)等多种手段研究了干凝胶的热分解及TbMnO3的形成.实验表明,分别以柠檬酸和EDTA作为络合剂,在800℃煅烧温度下均可制备出高纯TbMnO3纳米颗粒,但产物的颗粒尺寸和形貌与络合剂的选取有关.扫描电子显微镜(SEM)观察显示,以柠檬酸为络合剂制得的样品,颗粒形貌规整,呈球形,颗粒尺寸分布较窄,平均粒径约为67 nm;以EDTA为络合剂制得的样品,颗粒形态主要以长球形和近球形为主,兼有少量的杆状,平均颗粒尺寸约为115 nm.此外,实验还发现,在前驱体溶液中加入适量的双丙烯酰胺,可以使产物颗粒的尺寸适度减小,形貌变得更为规整.磁滞回线测量结果表明,TbMnO3纳米颗粒在室温下表现为顺磁性.%A modified polyacrylamide gel route was used to fabricate TbMnO3 nanoparticles. In this route, the aqueous solution of inorganic Tb and Mn salts was gelled by using acrylamide and during the gelation process, acrylamide was polymerized to form a polymer network, which provided a structural framework for the growth of particles. Thermogravimetric ( TG) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer( FT1R) and X-ray diffraction ( XRD) were com-binatively used to investigate the thermal decomposition process of xerogel and the formation of TbMnO3 phase. It is demonstrated that high-phase-purity TbMnO3 nanoparticles can be prepared separately by using citric acid and ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid ( EDTA) at a sintering temperature of 800 °C. However, the particle size and morphology of the products are

  8. 不同功能矫治器早期矫治Ⅱ类骨性错(牙合)的系统研究%Early treatment of skeletal class Ⅱ malocclusion: A systematic review speciality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛亦睿; 周洪

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of different functional appliances in the treatment of skeletal class H malocclusion. Methods: A literature survey was performed by applying die database of MEDLINE and CNK1. The Data of clinical randomized con-trolle trials(RCTs) and controlled clinical trials( CCTs) were selected, Meta analysis was conducted with the software Review 4. 2. Results: The search strategy resulted in 111 English articles and43 Chinese articles. 19 articles were qualified for the final analysis. In the qualified articles the treatment effects of 5 kinds of functional appliance were reported. The decrease of SNA was not significantly different between the groups of Activatoer and Binator, SNA decreased more in Twin-block group than in Herbst. The increase of SNB in group Twin-block = in Activator > in Herbst > in Bionator. The decrese of ANB in group of Twin-block > in Activator > in Bionator > in Herbst > in Frankel- II. The decrease of overjet in group of Twin-block > in Herbst > in Frankel- II. The decrease of Ul-NA in group of Frankel- II > in Activator > Herbst. The decrease of Ul-PP in group Twin-block >in Frankel- II > in Bionator. The increase of IMPA in group Herbst > in Bionator > in Twin-block. IMPA was not significantly different between the groups of Activator and Frankel- II ■ Conclusion; Frankel- II is not effective in the treatment of sever skeletal Class II malocclusions while Twin-block and Activor are. Patients with low IMPA or with poor treatment compliance should be treated with Herbst. Activator is more effective than Bionator in correction of skeletal sagital problem and lingual inclination of upper anterior teeth.%目的:对不同功能矫治器早期矫治骨性Ⅱ类错(牙合)的疗效进行比较,了解其临床矫治特点.方法:用循证学方法,网络检索数据库MEDLINE和中国学术期刊全文数据库(CNKI),搜集治疗Ⅱ类错(牙合)的临床试验以及随机对照临床试验的文献,采用Review 4.2

  9. Universality Assessment of matK Primer Pairs in Seed Plants%种子植物引物通用性分析研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    matK is one of the core DNA barcode markers for plant DNA barcode identification and its universality using single makers has been in controversy. However, the universalities of different matK primer pairs in same seed plant group (order) and same matK primer pairs in different seed plant groups (order) are lack of systematic research. In this study, we collected 14563 full-length matK sequences of 11429 species of 3292 genera in 239 families belonging to 36 orders in seed plants. The universalities of 13 matK primer pairs and its 78 primer com-binations have been assessed using bioinformatics methods. The results indicated that xf/5r, 1F/8R, 390F/1326R and 3F_KIM/1R_KIM were the four most universality primer pairs. The four markers' universalities were 91.18%, 84.65%, 79.81% and 80.94% respectively in all 11429 seed plants. The most universality primer pairs in different orders were different. For each order, the primer pair with maximum universality was different. the xf/5r was the basal primer pair for primer combination and 1F/8R, 1F/1R, M3/M4 and 3F_KIM/1R_KIM could be the complementary primer pairs. This study could be a valuable resource for the primer selection of the research DNA barcoding identification in seed plants.%  matK 是植物DNA条形码鉴定的核心序列之一,其引物通用性一直存在争议。然而,matK不同引物通用性的差异及其在不同植物类群中通用性的差异尚缺乏系统研究。本研究收集种子植物36个目,239个科,3292个属11429个种的14563条全长matK 序列。利用生物信息学方法,分析13对 matK 引物及其78种两两引物组合的通用性。结果表明引物 xf/5r、1F/8R、390F/1326R 和3F_KIM/1R_KIM 是通用性最高的4对引物,在所有种子植物中分别为91.18%、84.65%、79.81%和80.94%;不同种子植物类群(目),通用性最高的引物存在差异;xf/5r是引物组合的基础序列,1F/8R、1F/1R、M3/M4和3F_KIM/1R_KIM可作为引物组

  10. Program for Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas: Translation of Science into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Margaret; Pierson, Thomas; Wilkinson, Stuart; Westby, Elizabeth; Driedger, Carolyn; Ewert, John

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Agency for International Development/Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) inaugurated Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas, a program that brings together binational delegations of scientists, civil authorities, and emergency response managers to discuss the challenges of integrating volcano science into crisis response and risk reduction practices. During reciprocal visits, delegations tour areas impacted by volcanic unrest and/or eruption, meet with affected communities, and exchange insights and best practices. The 2013 exchange focused on hazards at Mount Rainier (Washington, USA) and Nevado del Ruiz (Caldas/Tolima, Colombia). Both of these volcanoes are highly susceptible to large volcanic mudflows (lahars). The Colombia-USA exchange allowed participants to share insights on lahar warning systems, self-evacuation planning, and effective education programs for at-risk communities. [See Driedger and Ewert (2015) Abstract 76171 presented at 2015 Fall AGU, San Francisco, Calif., Dec 14-18]. The second exchange, in 2015, took place between the USA and Chile, focusing on the Long Valley volcanic region (California, USA) and Chaitén volcano (Lagos, Chile) - both are centers of rhyolite volcanism. The high viscosity of rhyolite magma can cause explosive eruptions with widespread destruction. The rare but catastrophic "super eruptions" of the world have largely been the result of rhyolite volcanism. Chaitén produced the world's first explosive rhyolite eruption in the age of modern volcano monitoring in 2008-2009. Rhyolite eruptions of similar scale and style have occurred frequently in the Long Valley volcanic region, most recently about 600 years ago. The explosivity and relative rarity of rhyolite eruptions create unique challenges to risk reduction efforts. The recent Chaitén eruption was unexpected - little was known of Chaitén's eruptive history, and because of this, monitoring

  11. The State of Harmony Constituted by Four Hearts on Feng Zikai's Aesthetic Ideal%“四心”圆融之境:丰子恺审美理想论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋霞; 杨晓河

    2014-01-01

    If we want to understand Feng Zikai's aesthetic view,we need understand the metaphor of the “three-story building”about reality,art and religion.The layer of reality is the foundation and the ultimate purport;the layer of art has double identities of ontological significance and pivotal role;and the layer of religion is the highest state and has spiritual leading meaning to the below layers.Feng Zi-kai considers only religion can reveal the most profound meaning of “the true”.“The good”is a com-bination of compassion of Buddhism and Confucian benevolence.“The beautiful”contains the beauty of the form which has nothing to do with the content and the beauty of the spirit which is based on “the true“and “the good”.The latter is higher than the former.The beauty of spirit has the implication of Buddhism.The heart of art is associated with the heart of religion.At the same time the heart of art is associated with the heart of benevolence and the heart of childlike innocence.The four hearts are inter-linked with each other to the state of harmony,which constitutes Feng Zikai's unique aesthetic ideal.%对丰子恺的审美观的认识,需要放在现实∕艺术∕宗教的“三层楼”的比喻中。现实层是基础,亦是最终旨归,艺术层兼有本体意义与枢纽作用双重身份,宗教层是至高境界,对下具有精神引领的作用。丰子恺认为,对“真”的最深刻的揭示惟有宗教能够担当;“善”是佛教之慈悲与儒家之仁的结合;“美”包含与内容无涉的形式之美以及以真善为底子的精神之美,后者高于前者,精神之美具有佛教的蕴涵。艺术心与宗教心相沟通,同时还与仁心、童心相沟通,“四心”相通达至圆融之境,构成了丰子恺独特的审美理想。

  12. Effects of management measures on control of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria nosocomial infections in two general hospitals in Japan%日本两所综合性医院对多重耐药革兰阴性菌医院感染的管理方法及效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽萍; 邬巧玲; 赵霞; 魏栋; 刘聪; 丁晶宏; 曹彬; 徐潜; 郎琳娜; 王颖; 王卫华; 赵学军; 郝秀萍; 张璟

    2016-01-01

    and implementa‐tion of infection control measures could not continuously reduce the positive rate of detection of ESBLs in the hos‐pitalized patients .Both the exposure burden and infection burden of the ESBLs‐producing Escherichia were heavier than those of the ESBLs‐producing K lebsiella pneumoniae .CONCLUSION It is necessary to further stress the com‐bination of reasonable use of antibiotics with standard infection control measures ,adjust the infection risk coeffi‐cient when evaluating the effect on the control of multidrug‐resistant gram‐negative bacteria nosocomial infections , and further strengthen the conversion application and research of molecular epidemiology in the nosocomial infec‐tion control field .

  13. 反思学习法和微格技术在教学中的应用--以高职基础护理学课程为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅玲; 程晓琳; 高凤久

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore the result of reflective learning m ethod and m icro technology in the com prehensive application of fundam ental nursing experim ental teaching, 108 students in four classes in grade 2009 nursing m ajor of Shenyang M edical C ollege are chosen at random , am ong w hich 2 classes are experim ental group and 2 classes are control group. E xperim ental group is applied w ith the teaching m ethod of reflective learning m ethod and m icro technology, and the control group adopts traditional teaching m ethod. Finally it m akes statistic analysis on students' theory, experim ental exam scores, and self-learning ability betw een these tw o groups. T he result show s that m ore than 80% students approve of this kind of teaching m ethod, and think it can increase their learning ability and reflective ability, as w ell as students' theory, experim ent and reading scores in experim ental group are higher than those in control group. It show s that the teaching m ethod w ith the com bination of reflective learning m ethod and m icro technology can increase students' theory score and practical operating level, and prom ote students' com prehensive quality.%为探索反思学习法和微格技术在基础护理学实验教学中的综合应用的效果,随机选取沈阳医学院2009级护理专业4个班级共108人,其中2个班为实验组,另外2个班为对照组。实验组采用反思学习法与微格技术相结合的教学方法,对照组采用传统教学方法,最后对两组学生的理论、实验考核成绩、自学能力等方面进行统计分析。结果:超过80%的学生赞成这种教学方法,认为提高了自己的学习能力和反思能力等;实验组学生的理论、实验和阅读成绩均高于对照组。说明反思学习法和微格技术相结合的教学方法能提高学生的理论成绩和实践操作水平,并能促进学生综合素质的提高。

  14. 氧化锌材料p型掺杂研究进展%Recent Research on p-type Doping of ZnO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭蜜; 张红; 李万俊; 秦国平; 阮海波; 孔春阳

    2016-01-01

    氧化锌(ZnO)是 II-VI 族直接带隙化合物半导体材料,室温下禁带宽度为3.37 eV,激子束缚能高达60 meV,是制造蓝紫外发光、探测以及激光器件的理想材料。高质量 n 型和 p 型 ZnO 以及同质 p-n 结的制备是实现器件化的关键。目前,n 型 ZnO 的制备技术已趋于成熟,但高质量稳定的 p 型 ZnO 的缺乏已成为制约其器件化的瓶颈。在过去的十余年里,通过国内外科研工作者的不懈努力,在理论和实验上都取得了显著的成果。本文主要概述了 ZnO 材料的 p 型掺杂、p 型导电机制以及 p-ZnO 基光电器件的研究进展,同时初步探索了 ZnO 材料 p 型导电稳定性问题。%Zinc oxide (ZnO),a typical direct wide bandgap (3.37 eV)semiconductor,has attracted an increasing interest tothe optoelectronics field.Its large exciton binding energy of 60 meV endows it with high radiative recom-bination efficiency,a unique advantage in light emitting and lasing devices.The fabrications of high quality n-and p-type ZnO as well as p-n junction are the key steps to realize these applications.although the techniques of fabri-cated n-type ZnO has been well developed,the reliable p type doping of the material remains a major challenge to optoelectronic applications,despitethe fact that p-doping of ZnO has been improved and that marked results in ex-periment and theory have been achieved during the past ten years.In this review,we examined the recent research progress in p-type doping of ZnO,including the p-type performance,the mechanism of p-type conduction,and p-ZnO based photoelectric devices,and so on.Moreover,based on the challenges of the current researches,we sum-marized the factors that may affect the p-type doping,especially the stability of p-type ZnO materials.

  15. Preliminary estimates of residence times and apparent ages of ground water in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, and water-quality data from a survey of springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Plummer, L. Neil; Bohlke, John K.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Bachman, L. Joseph; Powars, David S.

    1998-01-01

    discharging from 30 of the 46 springs sampled were less than 20 years, including 5 that were 'modern' (0-4 years). Four samples had apparent ages of 22 to 34 years, and two others from thermal springs were 40 years or greater. The remaining ten samples were contaminated with local sources of CFC and could not be dated. Nitrate concentrations and nitrate delta 15 nitrogen (15N) values in water from many springs are similar to those in shallow ground water beneath fertilized fields, and some values are high enough to indicate a probable source from animal-waste components. The nitrogen data reported here highlight the significance of the springs sampled during this study as pathways for nutrient transport in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Ground-water samples were collected from springs during an unusually high flow period and thus may not be representative of low base-flow conditions. Residence times estimated from plausible ranges of aquifer properties and results of previous age-dating analyses generally corroborate the apparent-age analysis made in the current study and suggests that some residence times could be much longer. The shortest residence times tend to be in the Blue Ridge and northern carbonate areas; however, the data are preliminary and not appropriate for statistical tests of significance or variance. Because the age distributions in the aquifer discharging to the springs are not known, and because the apparent ages of water from the springs are based on various com-binations of CFC criteria, the apparent ages and calculated residence times are compared for illustrative purposes but are considered preliminary until further work is accomplished.

  16. Analysis of antibacterial activity and mechanism of polypyridyl ruthenium complex%多吡啶钌配合物[(Phen)2 Ru(dppz)](PF6)2的抗菌活性及机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉杰; 付彬; 付爱玲; 付琛

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究多吡啶钌配合物[(Phen)2Ru(dppz)]( PF6)2的抗菌活性,并进一步探讨其作用机制。方法采用最小抑菌浓度( MIC)以及最小杀菌浓度( MBC),测定无机配合物[( Phen)2 Ru( dppz)]( PF6)2的抗菌活性。为了阐明其抗菌机制,首先利用配合物自身荧光特性和核酸染料对DNA的竞争性结合所导致的荧光强度变化,以确定配合物与DNA的结合能力;然后通过DNA凝胶电泳,检测配合物与细菌基因组DNA结合后产生的效果以检测抗菌活性的机制。结果多吡啶钌配合物[(Phen)2Ru(dppz)](PF6)2对大肠杆菌以及金黄色葡萄球菌具有较强的抗菌活性,最小抑菌浓度达0.2~0.4 g·L-1。荧光检测显示,配合物能够与细菌DNA发生结合,以此为基础,配合物能够干扰细菌的转录过程,抑制细菌生长。结论本研究证明了多吡啶钌配合物[( Phen)2 Ru( dppz)]( PF6)2的抗菌活性及作用机制,为其进一步开发奠定了基础。%Aim To analyze the antibiotic activity and mechanism of a polypyridyl ruthenium complex. Meth-ods The antibacterial activity of [ ( Phen ) 2 Ru ( dp-pz) ] ( PF6 ) 2 was determined by MIC and MBC value. Based on a fluorescent activity of this complex, the flu-orescent emission spectra was used to analyze the com-bination of complex to DNA. Then the competition combination was analyzed between complex and Gold View to DNA. Lastly, gel electrophoresis of DNA was applied to detect the combination situation between complex and DNA. Results This kind of polypyridyl ruthenium complex showed a significant antibacterial activity with a minimum antibacterial conentration of 0. 2~0. 4 g · L-1 . That was caused by the combina-tion and distortion of DNA due to the activity of this complex. Conclusion The antibacterial activity and the mechanism of antibacterial activity about [ ( Phen) 2 Ru( dppz) ] ( PF6 ) 2 are confirmed in this re-search, which provides a good foundation for the

  17. The application of nucleic acid sequence?based amplification,real?time PCR and GM test in invasive aspergillosis diagnosis%核酸序列依赖性扩增、Real?time PCR及GM试验诊断侵袭性曲霉菌感染的临床应用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立朋; 鲍翠霞; 于丽梅; 张晓录; 于威娟; 张霞; 李玮; 黄葆华; 李杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the diagnostic performance of nucleic acid sequence?based amplification ( NASBA) assay,real?time PCR and GM test in detecting invasive aspergillosis for clinical diagnosis.Methods Blood samples from 80 patients at a high risk for IA were collected during from November 2013 to June 2014.These patients were categorized as 8 proven IA,26 probable IA, and 46 non?IA according to the 2008 revised definitions of EORTC/MSG.Blood samples were tested by NASBA,real?time PCR and GM test and their diagnostic parameters were calculated,respectively.Result The sensitivity of NASBA,real?time PCR and GM test was 76.47%,67.65% and 52.94%,while their specificity was 80.43%,89.13%,80.43%,respectively.The efficiency of various com?binations of tests was also evaluated.Perfect specificity (100%) and positive predictive value (100%) were achieved by combining NASBA and real?time PCR as a serial testing.A combination of NASBA and real?time PCR as a parallel testing was the most sensitive (94.12%).Conclusion The sensitivity and specificity of NASBA and real?time PCR were superior to GM test.Combination of these assays could be particularly useful in specific clinical situations.%目的 核酸序列依赖性扩增 ( nucleic acid sequence?based amplification,NASBA)、Real?time PCR及GM试验在侵袭性曲霉菌感染中的诊断价值. 方法 收集2013年11月~2014年6月临床上曲霉菌感染高危病患的血液标本80例,并根据EORTC/MSG诊断标准分为确诊组8例,拟诊组26例,非感染组46例,分别利用NASBA、real?time PCR及GM试验进行检测,计算3种方法的诊断指标并分析评价. 结果 NASBA、real?time PCR及GM试验3种方法的灵敏度分别为76.47%、67.65%、52.94%,特异度分别为80.43%、89.13%、80.43%. 联合诊断结果显示,NASBA与real?time PCR串联方案有最好的特异度 (100%)及阳性预测值(100%);NASBA与real?time PCR并联方案则最为灵敏(94.12%). 结论 NASBA用于诊断IA最为敏感,而real?time PCR

  18. Socio-Ecohydrologic Agents And Services: Integrating Human And Natural Components To Address Coupled System Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao-zuckerman, M.; Pope, A.; Chan, D.; Curl, K.; Gimblett, H. R.; Hough, M.; House-Peters, L.; Lee, R.; Scott, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Riparian corridors in arid regions are highly valued for their relative scarcity, and because healthy riparian systems support high levels of biodiversity, can meet human demand for water and water-related resources and functions. Our team is taking a transdiciplinary social-ecological systems approach to assessing riparian corridor resilience in two watersheds (the San Pedro River in USA and Mexico, and the Rio San Miguel in Mexico) through a project funded by the NSF CNH program ("Strengthening Resilience of Arid Region Riparian Corridors"). Multiple perspectives are integrated in the project, including hydrology, ecology, institutional dynamics, and decision making (at the level of both policy and individual choice), as well as the perspectives of various stakeholder groups and individuals in the watersheds. Here we discuss initial findings that center around linking changes in ecohydrology and livelihoods related to decisions in response to climatic, ecological, and social change. The research team is implementing two approaches to integrate the disparate disciplines participating in the research (and the varied perspectives among the stakeholders in this binational riparian context): (1) ecosystem service assessment, and (2) agent based model simulation. We are developing an ecosystem service perspective that provides a bridge between ecological dynamics in the landscape and varied stakeholder perspectives on the implications of ecohydrology for well-being (economic, cultural, ecological). Services are linked on one hand to the spatial patterns of traits of individuals within species (allowing a more predictive application of ecosystem services as they vary with community change in time), and to stakeholder perspectives (facilitating integration of ecosystem services into our understanding of decision making processes) in a case study in the San Pedro River National Conservation Area. The agent- based model (ABM) approach incorporates the influence of human

  19. 县级多部门基本公共卫生服务项目合作现状调查%Study on Situation of Sectoral Cooperation in Basic Public Health Service Project at County Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹雄; 马才辉; 周东华; 冯占春

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解县级基本公共卫生服务项目实施中多部门合作的现状、问题及其原因,探索有效促进多部门合作的对策建议.方法:定性定量研究相结合,通过文献查阅、问卷调查、关键人物访谈等方法,对相关部门合作现状及问题进行调查.结果:为了更好实施基本公共卫生服务项目,样本地区的卫生部门都曾与当地妇联、财政、教育局以及计生等部门开展过不同程度的合作,卫生部门合作意愿较强烈,其他部门相对缺乏合作意愿,实际合作效果差强人意,主要存在规章制度不规范、缺乏激励机制以及经费投入不足等问题.结论:为有效促进各部门间的合作,应当强化政府公共服务职能,激发多部门间的合作需求;加快区域卫生信息平台建设,建立健全信息共享机制;提高合作制度的规范性,推动多部门合作常态化;建立健全筹资与投入机制,严格规范资金的监督管理.%Objective: To analyze the main reasons and to explore effective countermeasures of promoting sectoral cooperation by in-vestigating the present situation and problems of sectoralcooperation of basic public health service in 8 Chinese counties. Methods: A com-bination of qualitative and quantitative studies was applied. Reference reviews questionnaires, key individual interviews and focus group discussions(FGD)were taken to investigate the present situation and problems of sectoral cooperation. Results: Healthy sectorscooperative willingness were stronger than other sectors in sampling regions, for they did cooperation in different degree with localWomen's Federation, Finance, Education Bureau, Family Plan Fertility Committee and so on. The problem of dissatisfactory cooperative effect lies in nonstan-dard rules and regulations, lack of motivation system, inadequate funding and so on. Conclusions: In order to promote sector's cooperation, we should strengthen the government's public service function to

  20. Enhancing Surveillance for Arboviral Infections in the Arizona Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCotter, Orion; Vanskike, Frank; Ernst, Kacey; Komatsu, Ken; Margolis, Harold; Waterman, Stephen; Tippit, Laura; Tomashek, Kay; Wertheimer, Anne; Montiel, Sonia; Golenko, Catherine; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    that present to medical services for WNV testing and reported to public health officials are the most severe nueroinvasive cases. Much less is understood about the non-neuroinvasive cases with often present with non-descript symptoms. Results Vector mapping: Comparative densities of Ae. aegypti with academic partners of the Entomology and Public Health conducting a study capturing Ae. aegypti may help to enhance environmental programs. Laboratory Capacity: The laboratory training will cover conventional serological methods as well as recently FDA cleared molecular RT-PCR. Participants will include public health laboratory personnel working in molecular and serology diagnostics and other binational partners. Surveillance: A convenient seroprevalence study at sentinel-hospital site of symptomatic patients presenting in Arizona border hospital sites will be performed to better understand circulating levels of arboviral infections. Conclusions Appropriate and timely response to surveillance data is the key to identification human and animal disease associated with WNV, DENV, and other arboviruses. The mosquito vector Ae. aegypti is well established widespread and thriving in Arizona yet there is no autochthonous transmission of DENV identified to date. The results from this study will identify gaps and potential prevention and control measures for emerging infectious diseases including WNV and DENV in Arizona.

  1. Evaluate the value of anti-CCP antibody and RF in diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis%抗CCP抗体和RF对类风湿关节炎诊断价值的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱继文; 章小军; 朱华; 戴宝平; 王涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of using anti‐cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti‐CCP) antibody or rheumatoid factor(RF) as the single laboratory parameter for rheumatoid arthritis(RA) diagnosis ,versus to using the two parameters in com‐bination .Methods A total of 56 cases of patients with RA were enrolled into RA group ,other 34 cases of patients with out RA were enrolled into non‐RA group .Levels of anti‐CCP antibody and RF were detected by using electro‐chemiluminescence immunoas‐say(ECLIA)and compared between the two groups .And the diagnostic efficacy of single and combined detection of anti‐CCP anti‐body and RF were evaluated .Results The levels of anti‐CCP antibody and RF in the RA group were higher than those in the non‐RA group ,had statistically significant differences(P<0 .05) .In diagnosis of RA ,the areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC)curve of anti‐CCP antibody and RF were 0 .925 and 0 .822 respectively .The sensitivity and specificity of anti‐CCP antibody were both higher than those of RF .Compared with single detection of anti‐CCP antibody ,there was no significant increase of sensi‐tivity in using anti‐CCP antibody/RF ,whereas the specificity dropped significantly .Combined detection of anti‐CCP antibody and RF ,compared with single detection of anti‐CCP antibody ,had significantly lower sensitivity ,but no significant changes were found in specificity .Conclusion Single detection of anti‐CCP antibody is more effective than RF for diagnosing RA ,while combined detec‐tion of anti‐CCP antibody and RF could not significantly improve the specificity and sensitivity .It is suggested to only use anti‐CCP antibody for diagnosis of RA .%目的:评价单项检测抗环瓜氨酸肽抗体(抗CCP抗体)或类风湿因子(RF)及两者联合检测诊断类风湿关节炎(RA )的作用。方法选取56例RA患者纳入RA组,34例非RA患者纳入非RA组,采用电化学发光免

  2. Method of bridge vibration monitoring based on GPS and accelerometer%基于 GPS/加速度计组合的桥梁振动监测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于先文; 薛红琳

    2013-01-01

    为了提高桥梁振动监测的测量频率及精度,将加速度计固定在GPS天线基座上,形成GPS/加速度计组合监测系统。通过对基座的转动及整平,实现加速度计与桥梁的垂直或平行。根据桥梁振动特点构造出卡尔曼滤波运动状态方程,利用被监测桥梁的概略振幅和频率以及GPS和加速度计初始历元测量值得到卡尔曼滤波变量的初始值,利用后续GPS点位测量值和加速度计测量值进行卡尔曼逐历元滤波,并实时利用滤波残差抑制滤波发散。仿真数据表明,GPS/加速度计组合监测方法较单纯的GPS监测,其位置监测结果输出频率可提高10倍以上,位置精度可提高3倍左右。同时,该组合监测系统还可以根据需要,实时给出监测点的速度、加速度、加加速度等物理量的估值及相应方差。%In order to improve the measuring frequency and accuracy of bridge vibration, the accel-erometers are fixed on the GPS ( global positioning system) antenna pedestal, which forms the com-bination monitoring system based on GPS and accelerometers.By rotating and leveling the antenna pedestal, the accelerometers are made to be parallel or perpendicular to the bridge.The motion state equations are constructed based on the vibration characteristics of the bridge, and the initial value of the variable of Kalman filtering is obtained based on the estimated value of amplitude and frequency of the bridge and the initial epoch's observed value of GPS and accelerometers.Using the subsequent observations of GPS and accelerometers, the displacement of the monitoring point is solved by the Kalman filter method, and filtering divergence can be suppressed in real time by filtering residuals. Simulation results show that compared with simple GPS monitoring, position data output frequency can increase by ten times and position accuracy can increase by three times.Meanwhile, the combi-nation monitoring method can

  3. Explosion Source Location Study Using Collocated Acoustic and Seismic Networks in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, V.; Gitterman, Y.; Arrowsmith, S.; Ben-Horin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We explore a joined analysis of seismic and infrasonic signals for improvement in automatic monitoring of small local/regional events, such as construction and quarry blasts, military chemical explosions, sonic booms, etc. using collocated seismic and infrasonic networks recently build in Israel (ISIN) in the frame of the project sponsored by the Bi-national USA-Israel Science Foundation (BSF). The general target is to create an automatic system, which will provide detection, location and identification of explosions in real-time or close-to-real time manner. At the moment the network comprises 15 stations hosting a microphone and seismometer (or accelerometer), operated by the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII), plus two infrasonic arrays, operated by the National Data Center, Soreq: IOB in the South (Negev desert) and IMA in the North of Israel (Upper Galilee),collocated with the IMS seismic array MMAI. The study utilizes a ground-truth data-base of numerous Rotem phosphate quarry blasts, a number of controlled explosions for demolition of outdated ammunitions and experimental surface explosions for a structure protection research, at the Sayarim Military Range. A special event, comprising four military explosions in a neighboring country, that provided both strong seismic (up to 400 km) and infrasound waves (up to 300 km), is also analyzed. For all of these events the ground-truth coordinates and/or the results of seismic location by the Israel Seismic Network (ISN) have been provided. For automatic event detection and phase picking we tested the new recursive picker, based on Statistically optimal detector. The results were compared to the manual picks. Several location techniques have been tested using the ground-truth event recordings and the preliminary results obtained have been compared to the ground-truth locations: 1) a number of events have been located as intersection of azimuths estimated using the wide-band F-K analysis technique applied to the

  4. R环的形成及对基因组稳定性的影响%R-loop structure:the formation and the effects on genomic stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘学峰; 姜楠; 陈细芳; 周晓宏; 丁良; 段斐

    2014-01-01

    formation. Many studies show that cells can manage R loop formation with efficiency, and can also process the R-loops already formed in the cell, and by which, the bad effects of R-loops on DNA replication, gene mutation and homologous recombination can be regulated. In this review,we summarize the formation and the impacts of R-loops on DNA replication, mutation rates and the frequencies of homologous recom-bination, and also discusse the possible role of the R-loop induced DNA replication in mediating trinucleotide repeat expansions as seen with those frequently associated with human neuromuscular degenerative diseases.

  5. Analysis of Spiking Defense Formation of High Level Women's Volleyball%高水平女子排球接扣球防守站位阵型探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝霖霖; 葛春林; 古松; 水祎舟; 傅鸿浩

    2015-01-01

    Objective :Combined with the spiking defensive data of high level women’s volleyball match ,from defenders'position ,spike landing ,spiking effect ,defense areas ,etc ,this paper deeply analyzes the characteristics of defensive positioning formation under different offensive tactics of opponent ,the main purpose is to provide the reference for teaching and training prac‐tice ,and enriching volleyball technical and tactical theory .Methods :By using Kinovea software to collect defenders'position coordinates ,spike landing coordinates ,defending effect and other data in 34 international women volleyball matches ;and using Photoshop software to visualise coordinate data ,and finally visually and detailedly analysis the characteristics combined with defensive formation graphics .The result shows that there are three kinds of attack tactic com‐bination at receiving time of opponent ,the blockers should choose corresponding station accord‐ing to different combination ,so as to create favorable conditions for blocking .There are eight offensive patterns at passing time of opponent ,and the eight patterns have big differences in passing time ,spike landing ,spiking rate ,spiking strength and defensive difficulty ,the defenders should choose reasonable station so as to improve the defensive success rate .%结合高水平女排比赛中接扣球防守数据,从防守队员站位、扣球落点、扣球效果、防守区域等方面,探讨在对方不同进攻战术情形下的接扣球防守站位阵型特点,为丰富排球技、战术理论,并为技、战术教学及训练实践工作提供参考。运用 Kinovea软件采集2014年34场国际女排大赛中接扣球防守队员站位坐标、扣球落点坐标、防守效果等数据,利用 Pho‐toshop软件对坐标数据进行可视化处理,进而结合图示,直观、深入的分析各类接扣球防守站位阵型特点,研究显示,在对方一传时段存在3种常用的进攻战术组

  6. Soul and Body Value of Medieval Christianity and its influence on Sports%中世纪基督教的灵肉观及其对体育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昆

    2015-01-01

    从历史与哲学的视角,对中世纪基督教灵肉观的演变及其对体育的影响进行了探讨。中世纪属于基督教,基督教神学影响和形塑了中世纪人们的生活方式,基督教的灵肉观对中世纪体育产生了深刻的影响。主要表现为:(1)中世纪早期和中期,奥古斯丁主义坚持“身体是灵魂的监狱”的灵肉对立观,导致竞技体育的沉寂和体育被排除在教育之外;(2)中世纪晚期,托马斯·阿奎那代表的经院哲学重新阐释灵肉关系,提出“人是由灵魂和肉体构成的一个完整的存在”的灵肉结合观。思想解放带来人们对身体及其健康的重视,在教会学校也开展了课余体育活动,城乡社会也兴起了形式多样的体育活动,它们成为近现代多种运动项目的前身。%From the perspective of history and philosophy, the evolution of soul and body value of medieval Christian-ity and its influence on physical education are discussed. Medieval Christianity belongs to Christianity and Christian theology influenced and shaped the medieval peopleˊs lifestyle. The soul and body value of medieval Christianity has a profound influence on medieval sports, which is mainly indicated in the following aspects:(1) In the early and Middle Ages, the Augustin doctrine adhered to the oppositional idea of spirit and body that"body is the soul of prison", which led to the silence of competitive sports and the exclusion of sports from edu-cation;(2) In the late Middle Ages, Thomas Aquinas reinterpreted of the relation of soul and body on behalf of the scholastic philosophy, put forwarding the view that Man is a complete existence of soul and body of the com-bination of spirit and body. Ideological emancipation aroused people’ s attention to their body and its health. In churches`and schools, extracurricular sports activities were carried out while in the urban and rural society, va-rious forms of sports activities arose

  7. Clinical Effect of Dialectical Acupuncture Combined with Reconstructive Massage Therapy on Treatment of Cervicogenic Pharyngitis%辨证针刺配合推拿整复治疗颈源性咽炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嘉士健

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation com-bined with reconstructive massage therapy in treating cervicogenic pharyngitis. Methods:The 62 patients diagnosed as cervicogenic pharyngitis were divided into 2 groups of 31 cases according to the random number table method. The conventional acupuncture and routine massage were conducted for patients of control group, while the combina-tion of acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation with reconstructive massage therapy were implemented on the cases of treatment group. Results:In the treatment group, 15 cases were cured, accounting for 48.4%;14 cases were improved, accounting for 45.2%;2 cases were invalid, accounting for 6.4%;the total effective rate was 93.6%. In the control group, 10 cases were cured, accounting for 32.2%;14 cases were improved, accounting for 45.2%;7 cases were invalid, accounting for 22.6%;the total effective rate was 77.4%. The effective rate of treatment group was su-perior to that of control group and the difference had statistical meaning (P<0.05). Conclusion:Clinically, the com-bination of acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation with reconstructive massage therapy can effectively im-prove symptoms of patients suffering from cervicogenic pharyngitis.%目的:观察辨证针刺配合推拿整复治疗颈源性咽炎的临床疗效。方法:将颈源性咽炎患者62例按照随机数字表法分为治疗组和对照组各31例。对照组采用常规普通针刺配合推拿治疗;治疗组采用辨证针刺配合推拿整复治疗。结果:治疗组痊愈15例,占48.4%;好转14例,占45.2%;无效2例,占6.4%;总有效率为93.6%。对照组痊愈10例,占32.2%;好转14例,占45.2%;无效7例,占22.6%;总有效率为77.4%。治疗组有效率优于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:采用辩证针刺配合推拿整复治疗颈源性咽炎能有效改善患者症状。

  8. In vitro induction and detection of human B cells producing HLA antibodies%体外诱导和检测人类B细胞产生抗HLA抗体的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖爱华; 刘丽平; 黄伟; 陈栋; 王燕; 张玲

    2009-01-01

    Objective To induce and detect human B cells producing HLA antibodies in vitro and by an ELISPOT assay. Methods Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 7 healthy vol-unteers were isolated by density gradient centrifugation, and cultured with the stimulation of PWM alone or PWM + SAC for 5 d. The lg levels in culture supernatants and the number of Ig producing B cells were de-termined by ELISA and ELISPOT assay, respectively. The optimal stimulation protocol for PBMC to produce optimal Ig in vitro was anticipated to be obtained. Using the optimal pre-cuhure and ELISPOT conditions, PBMC from 9 alloimmunized subjects were analyzed for the presence of B cells secreting HLA antibodies. Results There was a tendency towards more viable cells following the activation with PWM and SAC vs PWM alone in a 5-day culture (P =0. 052). The IgG levels in the supernatants were found to be comparable for the two culture conditions whereas the lgM levels were increased ( P = 0.03 ) in the presence of the com-bination of PWM and SAC. In 6 subjects a specific signal was obtained with our ELISPOT assay. The presence of HLA antibodies in the respective pre-cuhure supernatants supported the specificity. Conclusion The activation of PBMC with the combination of PWM and SAC, and the application of HLA-specifie ELIS-POT assay can succeed in the induction and detection of human B cells producing HLA antibodies.%目的 体外诱导和采用酶联免疫斑点法(ELISPOT)检测人类B细胞产生的抗HLA抗体.方法 对7名健康志愿者采用密度梯度离心法分离外周血单个核细胞(PBMC)并体外培养5 d,以B细胞多克隆刺激原美洲商陆丝裂原(PWM)、葡萄球菌A蛋白菌体(SAC)体外刺激PBMC,采用EHSA和ELISPOT方法分别测定培养上清中Ig浓度和抗体分泌B细胞数,探索体外诱导PBMC产生Ig的适宜方法.采用该刺激方法和HLA特异的ELISPOT法,诱导和检测9例拟行肾移植预致敏对象PBMC产生的抗HLA抗体.结果

  9. 火棘果黄酮提取物与VC的协同抗氧化活性%Cooperative antioxidation activity of Pyracantha fortuneana flavonoids extracts and VC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓静; 张丽; 陈莉华; 刘敏

    2015-01-01

    超声波辅助乙醇提取火棘果中的黄酮类化合物并用D-101 大孔树脂纯化. 比较了黄酮提取物、VC、黄酮提取物 +VC 等比复配的3 种溶液对油脂氧化的抑制效果,以及对羟基自由基( ·OH)、超氧阴离子自由基( O2-·)的清除作用和对Fe3+的还原作用. 结果表明,当质量浓度均为0. 25 g/L时,黄酮提取物、VC、黄酮提取物+VC 等比复配液对植物油的保护率分别为93. 20%、75 . 55%、93 . 62%,对动物油的保护率分别为70 . 20%、60 . 14%、75 . 28%. 统计学分析表明,复配液在抑制油脂氧化时具有协同抗氧化作用,较单独的VC 或黄酮提取物具有更优越的抗氧化活性.当质量浓度均为0 . 65 g/L 时,黄酮提取物对羟基自由基、超氧阴离子自由基的清除率分别为22 . 25%、26 . 20%,复配液对羟基自由基、超氧阴离子自由基的清除率分别为27 . 61%、31 . 02%,均高于单独VC溶液;3种溶液中,VC还原Fe3+的能力最强.%The flavonoids compounds were extracted from Pyracantha fortuneana by ultrasound-assisted ethanol method and purified by D-101 macroporous resin. The inhibitory effects of three kinds of solu-tions (flavonoids extracts,VC,flavonoids extracts-VC(1:1) combination solution) on oil oxidation and their scavenging effects on ·OH and O2-·and Fe3+reducing effect were compared. The results showed that when the mass concentrations were all 0. 25 g/L,the protection rates of flavonoids extracts,VC and flavonoids extracts - VC (1:1) on vegetable oil and animal fat were 93. 20%,75. 55%,93. 62% and 70. 20%,60. 14%,75. 28% respectively. The statistics analysis results indicated that combination solu-tion had cooperatively antioxidant effect on inhibitory of oil oxidation,and its antioxidant activity was su-perior to that of VC and flavonoids extracts. When the mass concentrations were all 0. 65 g/L,the scaven-ging rates of flavonoids extracts on·OH and O2-· were 22. 25% and 26. 20% respectively,for the com-bination

  10. U.S.-MEXICO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; BILATERAL TECHNICAL EXCHANGES FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE BORDER REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Richard, D., Dr.

    2007-10-01

    s challenging environmental issues. The results also brought focus to the potential contributions that DOE’s science and technology could make for solving the many difficult, multi-generational problems faced by hundreds of bi-national communities along the 2,000-mile shared border of the United States and Mexico. Efforts to address these U.S.-Mexico border issues were initially sponsored by the DOE’s Albuquerque and Carlsbad offices. In subsequent years, the U.S. Congress directed appropriations to DOE’s Carlsbad office to address public health, safety and security issues prevalent within U.S.-Mexico border communities. With ASL’s assistance, DOE’s Albuquerque office developed contacts and formed partnerships with interested U.S and Mexican government, academic, and commercial organizations. Border industries, industrial effluents, and public health conditions were evaluated and documented. Relevant technologies were then matched to environmental problem sets along the border. Several technologies that were identified and subsequently supported by this effort are now operational in a number of U.S.-Mexico border communities, several communities within Mexico’s interior states, and in other parts of Latin America. As a result, some serious public health threats within these communities caused by exposure to toxic airborne pollutants have been reduced. During this time, DOE’s Carlsbad office hosted a bilateral conference to establish a cross-border consensus on what should be done on the basis of these earlier investigative efforts. Participating border region stakeholders set an agenda for technical collaborations. This agenda was supported by several Members of Congress who provided appropriations and directed DOE’s Carlsbad office to initiate technology demonstration projects. During the following two years, more than 12 private-sector and DOE-sponsored technologies were demonstrated in partnership with numerous border community stakeholders. All technologies

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of splenic aneurysm:a report of one case and review of literature%脾动脉瘤的诊断与治疗(附一例报告及文献复习)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡鹏; 余佳; 王鹏; 李晨; 王卫星

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解脾动脉瘤(splenic artery aneurysms,SAA)的临床特点、影像学表现及鉴别诊断,探讨SAA的诊断和治疗经验.方法 回顾性分析2015年4月收治的1例因上腹部腹痛不适1周而入院的脾动脉瘤病人,行腹部CT平扫+增强提示脾动脉破裂并周围包裹,后行介入治疗,并结合其临床资料进行文献复习.结果 随访病人1个月内未出现动脉瘤复发及上消化道出血等严重并发症,现已恢复正常生活.结论 脾动脉瘤是一种起病隐匿且发病率较低的血管疾病,多数无特异性表现,CT平扫+增强对诊断脾动脉瘤具有重要意义,而CT血管造影能可靠、无创、立体地显示脾动脉瘤以及与载瘤动脉等的相互关系,能显著提高脾动脉瘤的诊断.目前手术(包括介入手术)是治疗脾动脉瘤行之有效的方法,对于有症状的脾动脉瘤应及时进行手术治疗.%Objective To summarize the clinical characteristics of splenic artery aneurysms (SAA),imaging findings and differential diagnosis,and to discuss the diagnosis and treatment of SAA.Methods One case of SAA complained of pain in upper abdomen for about one week admitted in April,2015 was retrospectively analyzed.CT scan+enhanced prompted the splenic artery rupture and surrounding wrapping.The patient was given interventional therapy,and the literature review in com-bination with clinical data was done.Results This patient did not show any complication such upper gastrointestinal bleeding or recurrence of the SAA,and the patient has been in normal life.Conclusions The splenic aneurysm is a hidden and lower incidence of vascular disease.It has no specific perform-ance.The CT scan+enhancement have an important meaning for the diagnosis of SAA.CT angiogra-phy can be a reliable,noninvasive,three-dimensional way for revealing the correlation of splenic aneu-rysm and its parent artery,and it can significantly improve the diagnosis of SAA.The effective treat-ment for SAA is

  12. Pharmacotherapy,cognitive-behavioral therapy alone or in combination for insomnia patients with protracted withdrawal symptoms%药物及认知-行为疗法联合治疗稽延性失眠症状的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石志斌; 王思远

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the clinical efficacy of Pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy alone or in combination on insomnia patients with protracted withdrawal symptoms. Methods:105 patients were randomized into 3 groups for analysis. In cogni-tive- behavior therapy group(n ﹦ 35),patients were treated with sleep hygiene program,cognitive therapy and relaxation therapy. In pharmacotherapy group(n ﹦ 35),patients received a 0. 8mg alprazolam each night. In combination group(n ﹦ 35),patients were trea-ted with both cognitive-behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy. All patients were treated by 4 weeks. The changes in results of subjec-tive(sleep diaries)measures were obtained at the end of the therapy and 16-week follow-up. Results:Sleep diary showed that,com-pared to the time before treatment,patients in all groups experienced extension in total sleep time,shortening in sleep latency and in-crease in sleep efficiency at the end of experiment(P < 0. 05). When the experiment ended,patients in combination group showed the greatest improvement rate on each item of outcome. At the end of 16-week follow-up,patients in cognitive-behavior therapy group were found to have the greatest improvement rate on shortening of sleep latency and increase of sleep efficiency,being equal to those in com-bination group. Conclusion:Pharmacotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy alone may achieve short-term efficacy in insomnia pa-tients with protracted withdrawal symptoms and the latter therapy may lead to a greater long-term improvement. The combined use of pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy may give efficacy faster,and the sustained efficacy may be equal to that of cognitive-behavioral therapy.%目的:比较药物疗法、认知-行为疗法及联合应用对稽延性失眠症状的治疗效果。方法:采集稽延性失眠症状患者105例,随机分为3组:心理治疗(认知-行为疗法)组(n ﹦35),接受睡眠卫生指导、认知疗法和

  13. 群落空间结构对豆禾混播草地种间竞争关系的影响%Effects of Spatial Structure on the Relationship of Interspecific Competition in Legume-grass Mixtures Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于辉; 郑伟; 张鲜花; 唐高溶; 王祥; 朱进忠

    2015-01-01

    The six indexes including plant height,plant density,grass relative density,legume relative density,relative yield total and competitive ratios were selected which could reflect the legume and grass relationship of interspecific competition in 2012-2013.The mixed patterns included two legume-grass com-binations:5,2 species mixture at three sowing ratios of legume∶grass (6 ∶4,5 ∶5,4∶6),mixed crop-ping and intercropping respectively.The mixed plants were Onobrychis viciaefolia ,Trifolium pratense , Dactylis glomerata ,Bromus inermis ,Phleum pratense .The results showed that the competitive ability of O .viciaefolia ,D .glomerata and B .inermis did not change from mixed cropping to intercropping.And the competitive ability of Ph .pretense was suppressed,the competitive ability of T .pretense was improved on vertical direction .From mixed cropping to intercropping ,the competitive intensities of legume and grass decreased,the coexistence probability of legume and grass increased on horizontal direction.As compared with intercropping,the use efficiency of resources from mixed cropping to intercropping were both im-proved;As compared with mixed cropping,intercropping improved legume-grass resource invironment and decreased predominance of grass invasion ability.Increasing the ratio of legame-grass mixtrues also im-proved the increasing competitive ability.Therefore,transfering from mixed cropping to intercropping can adjust the competitive interspecific intersity of mixed legume-grass and improved coexistence of grass and legume.%以红豆草、红三叶、鸭茅、无芒雀麦和猫尾草5种豆科和禾本科牧草,在豆科牧草与禾本科牧草比例6∶4、5∶5和4∶6条件下,分别以2种和5种牧草混播,建立同行及1∶1行、2∶2行和3∶3行异行混播草地。依据2012-2013年各混播组合的株高、植株密度、相对密度、相对产量总和及竞争力,分析了异行混播与同行混播豆禾牧草种间竞争关系的变

  14. Enhancing the Heterosis of Spring Rapeseed Varieties (Brassica napus L.) by Using Semi-Winter Rapeseed Varieties as Parents%以半冬性甘蓝型油菜为亲本增强春性甘蓝型油菜杂种优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚艳梅; 柳海东; 徐亮; 杜德志

    2013-01-01

    Several B. napus varieties (lines) including two semi-winter rapeseed varieties, two spring restorer lines, two spring male-sterile lines and 16 spring restorer lines (derived from the spring restorer lines and semi-winter rapeseed varieties) were ana-lyzed using SSR, SRAP, and AFLP. Twenty-six combinations were produced according to the North Carolina mating design (NCII) by hand-pollinating 12 new restorer lines and one parental restorer line (Ag-5) with two spring male-sterile lines. The hy-brid performance values were also determined. Among the 16 restorer lines, except for 931 and Zhang 23, the genetic distances were greater between the new restorer lines and two male-sterile lines than between the corresponding parental restorer line (Ag-5) and the two male-sterile lines, showing that introgressing semi-winter varieties into spring restorer lines could increase the genetic distance between spring restorer lines and spring male-sterile lines. The yield per plant for the maintainer lines of 15 combinations, which corresponded to the sterile lines showed high-parent values in 26 combinations, and 13 combinations showed stronger high-parent heterosis of yield per plant compared to combinations produced by the corresponding male-sterile and parental re-storer lines (CMSL×Ag-5), suggesting that introgressing semi-winter varieties into spring restorer lines could enhance the hetero-sis of spring B. napus varieties. Eighteen hybrids among the 24 combinations showed higher yield per plant compared to the com-binations of CMSL×Ag-5, indicating introgressing semi-winter varieties into spring restorer lines might improve the spring B. napus hybrids yield. The results also showed that introgressing semi-winter varieties into spring restorer lines could improve the resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum of spring B. napus hybrids. This study indicates that semi-winter B. napus rapeseed may be a%  以春性恢复系与半冬性品种(系)杂交后选育的16

  15. Different CT Reconstruction Techniques for Optical Canal Fractures:Analysis of Diagnostic Efficiency and Causes for Missed Diagnosis and Misdiagnosis%CT不同重建技术对视神经管骨折诊断效能及漏误诊原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵举薇; 向述天; 杨亚英; 苏伟

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze CT signs of optic canal ( OC) fractures and causes of missed diagnosis and misdi-agnosis so as to improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective study was conducted for 60 cases with OC frac-tures and 5 cases misdiagnosed as OC fractures during April 2012 and March 2014. Results The direct CT signs of OC frac-tures included continuous interruption of bone cortex, OC collapse, narrowed canal cavity, and displacement of fragments. The indirect signs included herniation of the orbital fat involving sphenoidal and ethmoidal sinus, thickening mucous membrane of sphenoidal and ethmoidal sinus, and localized hematoma of mucous membrane. Out of 60 cases, 17 cases showed linear fractures;12 cases showed depressed fractures;8 cases showed embedded fractures;20 cases showed smashing fractures;3 cases showed mixed fractures. In 60 cases, HRCT pure axial view resulted in missed diagnosis of 19 cases, axial view in com-bination with CPR resulted in missed diagnosis of 14 cases, axial view in combination with VRT resulted in missed diagnosis of 16 cases. HRCT axial view resulted in misdiagnosis of 5 cases as OC fractures, wherein 4 cases misdiagnosed as fragments ac-tually had calcification of internal carotid and 1 misdiagnosed as canal fragment actually had ridge protruding of anterior clinoid process. The diagnostic efficiency showed that the axial view+MPR provided sensitivity of 0, the pure axial view provided specificity of 0, while the other three methods provided specificity of 100%. The AUC of receiver operating characteristic ( ROC) curve showed that HRCT axial view in combination with MPR had the best diagnostic accuracy of OC fractures. Con-clusion OC fracture should be diagnosed by HRCT axial view in combination with post-processing techniques such as MPR, CPR and VRT. HRCT axial view in combination with MPR has the best diagnostic accuracy. Application of multiple tech-niques can further reduce the rate of missed diagnosis and

  16. U.S.-MEXICO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; BILATERAL TECHNICAL EXCHANGES FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE BORDER REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Richard, D., Dr.

    2007-10-01

    s challenging environmental issues. The results also brought focus to the potential contributions that DOE’s science and technology could make for solving the many difficult, multi-generational problems faced by hundreds of bi-national communities along the 2,000-mile shared border of the United States and Mexico. Efforts to address these U.S.-Mexico border issues were initially sponsored by the DOE’s Albuquerque and Carlsbad offices. In subsequent years, the U.S. Congress directed appropriations to DOE’s Carlsbad office to address public health, safety and security issues prevalent within U.S.-Mexico border communities. With ASL’s assistance, DOE’s Albuquerque office developed contacts and formed partnerships with interested U.S and Mexican government, academic, and commercial organizations. Border industries, industrial effluents, and public health conditions were evaluated and documented. Relevant technologies were then matched to environmental problem sets along the border. Several technologies that were identified and subsequently supported by this effort are now operational in a number of U.S.-Mexico border communities, several communities within Mexico’s interior states, and in other parts of Latin America. As a result, some serious public health threats within these communities caused by exposure to toxic airborne pollutants have been reduced. During this time, DOE’s Carlsbad office hosted a bilateral conference to establish a cross-border consensus on what should be done on the basis of these earlier investigative efforts. Participating border region stakeholders set an agenda for technical collaborations. This agenda was supported by several Members of Congress who provided appropriations and directed DOE’s Carlsbad office to initiate technology demonstration projects. During the following two years, more than 12 private-sector and DOE-sponsored technologies were demonstrated in partnership with numerous border community stakeholders. All technologies

  17. 骨缝牵引中联合应用骨形态发生蛋白-2和骨保护素的实验研究%The effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteoprotegerin in trans-sutural distraction osteogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚玉胜; 黄华; 常世民; 王程越; 王桂君

    2012-01-01

    maxillary bone sutura after distraction for 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Results New bone formation observed in distracted zone showed a significant increase in group A and C, Transmission electron microscope showed the osteoblast and osteocyte were active with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and a large number of chondriosomes and Golgi complex. After distraction for 6 weeks, indexes of osteoblast of group A, B, and C were 38.5+7.7, 35.7±6.5, and 41.7±11.0, indexes of osteoclast (Ioc) were 5.9±1.0, 1.2±0.3, and 2.8±0.4, bone trabecula thicknesses were (38.36±13.28), (66.20±9.16), and (51.85±9.92) μm respectively- Increased bone density and decreased Ioc were found in group B and C. Conclusion The new elastic distractor is effective in inducing new bone formation. BMP-2 and OPG com-bination acts synergistically, and leads to significant enhancement of bone formation and remodeling.

  18. α-促黑素对银屑病患者外周血单一核细胞产生TNF-α和IL-10的影响%Effects of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone on the production of TNF-α and IL-10 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with psoriasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕新岭; 顾军; 张莉; 齐晓虹

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨α-促黑素(α-MSH)对银屑病患者外周血单一核细胞(PBMC)产生TNF-α、IL-10的影响.方法 标本取自20例寻常性银屑病患者和10例健康献血者,用不同浓度α-MSH处理经过植物血凝素(PHA)刺激的PBMC,用ELISA法检测PBMC培养上清中TNF-α、IL-10水平,应用荧光实时定量PCR分析PBMC中TNF-α mRNA、IL-10 mRNA的表达.结果 银屑病患者PBMC培养上清中TNF-α水平高于正常对照(P<0.01),IL-10水平低于正常对照(P<0.01);各浓度α-MSH均可抑制TNF-α的分泌(P<0.01),浓度为10-13mol/L时作用最强(P<0.01);各浓度α-MSH均可诱导IL-10的分泌(P<0.01,P<0.05),浓度为10-13mol/L时作用最强(P<0.01).浓度为10-13 mol/L的α-MSH下调TNF-α mRNA的表达(P<0.01)、上调IL-10 mRNA的表达(P<0.01).结论 α-MSH可调节银屑病患者TNF-α和IL-10产生.%Objective To investigate the effects of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) on the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and intedeukin-10 (IL-10) by peri-pheral blood monohuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with psoriasis vulgaris. Methods Heparinized peri-pheral blood was obtained from 20 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 10 healthy human controls. PBMCs were isolated, cultured in complete medium, and stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) alone, the com-bination of PHA and various concentrations of alpha-MSH, or nothing. After another 48-hour culture, ELISA and real-time PCR were performed to measure the secretion levels of TNF-alpha and IL-10 in the super-natants of cultured PBMCs as well as the mRNA expression levels of TNF-alpha and IL-10 in PBMCs. Results The secretion level of TNF-alpha in the supematants of patient-derived PBMCs stimulated by nothing or PHA alone was significantly higher than that from normal control-derived PBMCs (329.87 ± 99.33 ng/L vs 116.95 ± 37.15 ng/L, 1756.01 ± 183.60 ng/L vs 1287.30 ± 152.36 ng/L, both P<0.01). alpha-MSH of all tested concentrations (10

  19. Effects of propofol on learning and memorizing ability and hippocampus TLR4 in epileptic rats%丙泊酚对癫痫大鼠学习记忆及海马 TLR4表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋炜; 蔡鹏; 杜雷; 王志达; 许志强; 张咏梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨丙泊酚对癫痫大鼠学习记忆的影响,以及与苯巴比妥钠联合用药对癫痫大鼠学习记忆的影响。方法36只大鼠均制备癫痫模型,随机分为癫痫模型组(EP)、生理盐水+癫痫组(NS)、脂肪乳+癫痫组(LE)、苯巴比妥钠+癫痫组(PB)组、丙泊酚+癫痫组(Prof)以及苯巴比妥钠与丙泊酚联合用药+癫痫组,每组6只。对每只大鼠进行 Morris 水迷宫行为测试,评价其学习记忆能力;用酶联免疫吸附方法测定海马 TLR4蛋白表达量。结果与癫痫模型组相比,给予生理盐水或脂肪乳对癫痫大鼠学习记忆能力及海马 TLR4蛋白表达量均无明显影响(P >0.05)。给予丙泊酚后可使癫痫大鼠潜伏期明显延长,平台停留期缩短,TLR4蛋白表达明显增高(P <0.05)。给予苯巴比妥钠后可使癫痫大鼠平台停留期缩短,TLR4蛋白表达明显增高(P <0.05),但潜伏期无明显差异(P >0.05)。联合用药组与苯巴比妥钠组对比,潜伏期明显延长,平台停留期缩短,TLR4蛋白表达明显升高(P <0.05)。联合用药组与丙泊酚组对比,平台停留期缩短,TLR4蛋白表达明显增高(P <0.05),潜伏期无明显差异(P >0.05)。结论丙泊酚对癫痫大鼠学习和记忆功能均有损害;苯巴比妥钠对癫痫大鼠的学习能力没有明显影响,对其记忆功能有损害;丙泊酚与苯巴比妥钠联合用药对癫痫大鼠的学习和记忆功能均有损害。海马TLR4可能参与了丙泊酚与苯巴比妥钠对癫痫大鼠学习和记忆的影响过程。%Aim To explore the effects of propofol on learning and memorizing ability and the effects of com-bination of propofol and phenobarbital sodium on epi-leptic rats.Methods Thirty-six epileptic rats were di-vided into epileptic model group (EP),normal saline group (NS),lipid emulsion +epileptic group (LE), phenobarbital sodium

  20. Evaluation and Screening on Animal Models of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome of Etiology and Pathogenesis in Traditional Chinese Medicine%体现中医病因病机的多囊卵巢综合征动物模型评价及筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚莉娟; 徐晓娟; 王婧婧; 王张; 邓琳雯

    2014-01-01

    etiology and pathogenesis in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Through the collection of 77 Chinese literatures published since 1979, the database on PCOS of modeling factors (i.e., animal species, age, modeling reagent and dose, etc.) and evaluation indicators (i.e., ovarian morphology and hormone levels) were established, analyzed and summarized. The results showed that the experimental PCOS models established by researchers both at home and abroad included androgen method, combination method of androgen with HCG, combi-nation method of progestrone with HCG, estrogen method, aromatic cyclase inhibitor method, combination method of HCG with insulin, combination method of androgen with insulin, insulin method, and etc. The SD and Wistar rats at the age of 3-50 days were commonly used. Chemicals, such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone propi-onate, sodium prasterone sulfate, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), levonorgestrel, estradiol valerate, letrozole, insulin and HCG were chosen to build the animal models. The evaluation indicators included ovarian morphology, the total num-ber of follicles at different levels, sex hormones (E2, P, T, FSH, LH) and insulin resistance (IR) index (FINS, FPG, HOMA). It was concluded that each modeling method described above had its own advantages and disadvantages, which cannot completely simulate clinical onset process of PCOS patients. Researchers should choose appropriate reagent and evaluation index according to different purpose. DHEA, DHT slow-release, progesterone combined with HCG modeling methods are more suitable for the study of the role of IR in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Kidney-defi-ciency and dampness-phlegm is fundamental etiology and pathogenesis of obese type of PCOS. DHEA method, com-bination method of levonorgestrel with HCG, aromatic cyclase inhibitor method conformed obese type of PCOS. The evaluation indicators included body weight, sex hormones, IR index and ovarian morphology. The method of kidney-tonifying and

  1. Analysis on cost predicament of citizenization of rural migrant labors and its countermeasures%农业转移人口市民化成本困境及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓红; 王吉恒

    2015-01-01

    T o im prove the quality of urbanization, enlarge dom estic dem ands, and advance the developm ent in agriculture, C hina is vigorously prom oting the citizenization of rural m igrant labors. H ow ever, various kinds of cost predicam ents in the process of citizenization slow dow n the progress of citizenization of rural m igrant labors. C onsequently, how to elim inate these predicam ents becom es the key to solving the problem s. B ased on the analysis of the current situation of citizenization of rural m igrant labors, this paper identifies and analyzes the cost predicam ents in the process of citizenization, including the loss of the opportunity costs, the exorbitant housing costs, the insufficient social insurance coverage, the distribution contradiction of the training cost for rural labors and the educational cost for their children betw een outflow and inflow regions, and the insufficient policy and financial support from the local governm ents.To achieve the citizenization ofruralm igrantlaborssm oothly,to raise the capitalforcitizenization,and to solve the above m entioned contradiction,a serious ofpracticalcounterm easures are proposed in this paper,including 1) the inflow regions m ainly assum e the costs of job training and education;2) the central G overnm ent should increase the transfer paym ent to support the inflow regions;3) the local G overnm ents focus on m ulti-channel fund raising, im plem entation of the integrated housing system of the com bination of m arket supply and governm ent subsidy;supervision of the insurance fees paid by enterprises for the rural m igrant labors;and 4) rural m igrant labors should be encouraged to com e to cities w ith their“m obile assets”.%为提高城镇化质量,扩大国内需求,促进农业农村发展,我国大力推进农业转移人口市民化,然而在市民化过程中面临的各种成本困境,导致市民化进展缓慢,因此,如何消除这些困境就成为解决农业转

  2. 山东夏津黄河故道古桑树群生态系统服务功能分析及其对区域生态系统的影响%The Ecosystem Service Function of Shandong Xiajin Yellow River Ancient Mulberry Trees System and Its Effect on Regional Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪萍; 王斌; 刘某承; 刘伟玮

    2016-01-01

    The Shandong Xiajin Yelow River Ancient Mulberry Trees System is a model of desertification control in the floor area in the Luxibei Plain, and of sustainable development. The current study about ancient mulberry trees in Xiajin county is mainly qualitative representation, lack of quantitative research. In addition, the relevant important ecological functional assessment should not only confine to quantitative assessment which ilustrate the current condition, but also analyze the eco-service changes, derived from ecosystem structure develop, from the time di-mension. Based on quantitative eco-service assessment of the ancient mulberry tree group, this paper intend to conduct a comprehensive analysis of ecological functions of ancient mulberry group focuses on the perspective of system structure and function evolution. Quantitative evaluation results show that the system has significant eco-efficiency in water conservation, reducing sediment loss, adjust atmosphere, etc. On timescale, thanks to mulberry cultivation, ecosystem structure and services have also undergone a corresponding change. In ecosys-tem structure: Planting pioneer trees such as mulberries and other species which can tolerate hostile site conditions, improves the micro-environment. This makes it possible for other crops to grow. The mixed forests and the com-bination of forestry and agriculture protect biodiversity. What’s more, they make the structure of the ecosystems more robust, giving ful play to their functions. In terms of ecosystem services: ecosystem services of Xiajin Yelow River Ancient Mulberry Trees have shown diversified development. And its main function has transferred from supply products to leisure and entertainment functions.%夏津黄河故道古桑树群是中国鲁西北平原黄泛区防沙治沙和可持续农业发展的重要典范。当前关于夏津黄河故道古桑树的研究多为定性表述,缺少定量研究;且黄河故道古桑树群的重要生态功能

  3. L’imagier franco-allemand du Monde et de la Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Une rhétorique du Vivre-Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Charbonneaux

    2014-04-01

    représentation d’une indéfectible unité binationale. Tout comme le fait l’actualisation continue d’un motif européen donné à voir à leurs côtés. Media images depicting French and German leadership as a “fellowship” (omnipresent and abundant as they are tend to convey the impression that this portrayal has always existed, and are readily available as an endorsement in the rendering of news. And yet, it hardly seems likely that this would have been the case at the close of the Second World War. This article aims to deconstruct this presupposition by examining the function and importance of media images in the construction and implementation of Franco-German “fellowship” by way of a socio-semiotic analysis of both the images (photos and political cartoons and their legends, page location, and conditions of production. The analysis is two-pronged: the first aspect, diachronic, spans a relatively long period (1949-2012; the second, synchronic, is based on the confrontation between two notable national dailies in France and Germany: Le Monde and the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ. An analysis of the conditions enabling the presence of the depiction in these two periodicals demonstrates how this Franco-German image is not self-evident, but rather the result of a long and drawn-out process. And despite challenges and obstacles, both technical and ideological, the Franco-German image still manages to impose itself through the stabilizing effect of representational models which render it natural and unavoidable. Thus, entrenched editorial frameworks encourage its establishment and recognition on a daily basis. Within these frameworks, on the image surface, the depiction of similarity and harmony between French and German leaders helps forge the appearance of an unwavering binational unity, aided by the inevitable presence of the European logo at their side. A onipresença e a abundância de imagens que associam dirigentes franceses e alemães nos

  4. 基于引物“随机组合”构建观赏桃SSR指纹图谱%Construction of SSR fingerprint for ornamental peach based on primers “random combination”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清明; 程怡; 马建伟; 张云婷; 张勇

    2016-01-01

    random combination” could furtherly select the few compound modes which possessed the strongest complementarity;to filter core primer combination according to numbers of the bands in total of primers among groups could finally select the unique group which possessed the largest expandable sex. Therefore,“3 steps” for candidate primers-candidate com-bination-core primer combination was advocated as a scientific method to fitter the core primers of SSR fingerprint. It did constructed the SSR fingerprint for the 22 ornamental peach germplasms tested, and would provide a new approach to construct SSR fingerprints for other crops.