WorldWideScience

Sample records for binational

  1. 78 FR 57838 - North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice... to the Decision and Order of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Binational Panel...

  2. BESTNET: Binational English & Spanish Telecommunications Network. Final FIPSE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Armando A., Jr.; Bellman, Beryl L.

    The final evaluation of BESTNET (the Binational English and Spanish Telecommunications Network) is described. Undertaken as a collaborative effort to experiment with new telecommunications media in distance education and to attract Hispanic students into the science and engineering fields, the project involved the development of a number of…

  3. Childhood Obesity Among Children of Mexican Descent: A Binational Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, Lisa G.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically in the United States over the past 30 years, especially among children of Mexican origin. Children of Mexican origin are an especially high-risk group because of their increased risk for morbidities associated with obesity in adulthood, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and uncontrolled hypertension compared to other racial and ethnic groups. This study takes a binational approach to understanding the health disparity in ...

  4. 77 FR 65864 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review...

  5. 78 FR 11627 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration,...

  6. 76 FR 56156 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes...

  7. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration,...

  8. 78 FR 5778 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration,...

  9. 78 FR 10600 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration,...

  10. 75 FR 74686 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade...

  11. 77 FR 29965 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade...

  12. 76 FR 4633 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review...

  13. 76 FR 14917 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department..., (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade...

  14. 78 FR 17639 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration,...

  15. Gore-Mbeki Binational Commission integrated housing program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This report documents the work done under Grant DE-FG36-97GO10209, Innovative Renewable Energy Technology Transfer Program. PEER Consultants, PC, and its subcontractor, PEER Africa (Pty.) Ltd., received an $88,000.00 grant to plan and build two energy efficient homes in the black township of Gugulethu in Cape Town, South Africa. These demonstration homes were given to the people of South Africa as a gesture of goodwill by the US government as part of the Gore-Mbeki Binational Commission (BNC) agreements and cooperation. The BNC is the term used to describe the agreement to work together by the US and the South African governments for economic development of South Africa in the areas of energy, commerce, agriculture, housing, and transportation. The BNC was formed in 1995. This project under the auspices of the BNC started in September 1996. The DOE-funded portion was performed between January 11, 1997 and February 28, 1997.

  16. Binational collaboration to study Gulf of Mexico's harmful algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Inia; Hu, Chuanmin; Steidinger, Karen; Muller-Karger, Frank; Cannizzaro, Jennifer; Wolny, Jennifer; Cerdeira-Estrada, Sergio; Santamaria-del-Angel, Eduardo; Tafoya-del-Angel, Fausto; Alvarez-Torres, Porfirio; Herrera Silveira, Jorge; Allen, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis cause massive fish kills and other public health and economic problems in coastal waters throughout the Gulf of Mexico [Steidinger, 2009]. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a gulf-wide problem that require a synoptic observing system for better serving decision-making needs. The major nutrient sources that initiate and maintain these HABs and the possible connectivity of blooms in different locations are important questions being addressed through new collaborations between Mexican and U.S. researchers and government institutions. These efforts were originally organized under the U.S./Mexico binational partnership for the HABs Observing System (HABSOS), led by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Gulf of Mexico Program (EPAGMP) and several agencies in Veracruz, Mexico, since 2006. In 2010 these efforts were expanded to include other Mexican states and institutions with the integrated assessment and management of the Gulf of Mexico Large Marine Ecosystem (GoMLME) program sponsored by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

  17. 75 FR 20567 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came...

  18. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review in this matter has been conducted in... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government...

  19. 76 FR 56404 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review in this matter has been conducted in accordance with these... International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of the...

  20. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists...

  1. 78 FR 51708 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade...

  2. 76 FR 62364 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the International Trade Commission's final determination of Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe from...

  3. 76 FR 23286 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the final remand determination made by the United States International Trade Commission, in the matter...

  4. 77 FR 49781 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel..., Washington, DC 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: On August 9, 2012, a Motion to...

  5. 76 FR 48145 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews... American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Termination of Panel Review of the...

  6. 75 FR 54594 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the International Trade Administration's final determination of Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from...

  7. A Comprehensive Approach to Bi-National Regional Energy Planning in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Morrison

    2007-12-31

    The Pacific NorthWest Economic Region, a statutory organization chartered by the Northwest states of Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon, and the western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and the Yukon through its Energy Working Group launched a bi-national energy planning initiative designed to create a Pacific Northwest energy planning council of regional public/private stakeholders from both Canada and the US. There is an urgent need to deal with the comprehensive energy picture now before our hoped for economic recovery results in energy price spikes which are likely to happen because the current supply will not meet predicted demand. Also recent events of August 14th have shown that our bi-national energy grid system is intricately interdependent, and additional planning for future capacity is desperately needed.

  8. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  9. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Children of Mexican Descent: Results of a Binational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, Lisa G.; Guendelman, Sylvia; Harley, Kim; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Neufeld, Lynnette; Mejia, Fabiola; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is high among young children of Mexican origin in the United States, however, the determinants are poorly understood. We conducted a binational study with a sample from California (CA) and Mexico (MX), to identify and compare the most important factors associated with overweight and obesity among children of Mexican descent. Significantly more children were classified as overweight or obese in CA compared to MX (53.3 vs. 14.9%, P 

  10. Meeting a Binational Research Challenge: Substance Abuse Among Transnational Mexican Farmworkers in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Victor

    2007-01-01

    To help in understanding the manner in which community, individual, and other factors in the United States and Mexico contribute to drug use among transnational migrants, this paper introduces a binational social ecology model of substance abuse in this population. We draw on our 2 NIH-funded ethnographic studies—1 on problem drinking and the other on drug abuse—among transnational Mexican workers in the mushroom industry of southeastern Pennsylvania. Our model demonstrates that major reasons...

  11. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Robin B; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Maria Mercedes Meza-Montenegro; Luis Enrique Gutiérrez-Millán; Mary Kay O’Rourke; Jason Roberge

    2012-01-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and...

  12. Diabetes among Latinos in the Southwestern United States: border health and binational cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan P. Casey; Mark A. Rouff; Lorena Jauregui-Covarrubias

    2014-01-01

    This analysis reviews cooperation between the four border states of the United States of America (Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas) and international partners in Mexico with regard to type 2 diabetes among Latinos. Binational cooperation, academic collaboration, preventative health initiatives, and efforts to improve health care access for the border population are highlighted. This meta-analysis of the literature points out causative factors of the increased type 2 diabetes prevale...

  13. Bi-National Same-Sex Unmarried Partners in Census 2000: A demographic portrait

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary J.

    2005-01-01

    While current United States immigration policy is based primarily on family reunification, it does not provide any rights for unmarried partners of citizens. In order to inform current legislative debates about expanding the policy of family reunification to include same-sex couples, this report provides a demographic and geographic portrait of bi-national same-sex “unmarried partners” from Census 2000.

  14. Issues in United States-Mexican Agricultural Relations: A Binational Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Grindle, Merilee

    1983-01-01

    In February, 1981, the Center for US-Mexican Studies hosted a Binational Consultation on US-Mexican Agricultural Relations. The consultation sought to define the nature, causes, and consequences of flows of labor, capital, technology, and agricultural commodities across the US-Mexican border and to identify fruitful areas for additional research. Sections of the consultation were devoted to US-Mexican agricultural trade in an era of oil wealth and “food power”; Mexico’s crisis of production...

  15. Issues in United States-Mexican Agricultural Relations: A Binational Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Grindle, Merilee

    1983-01-01

    In February, 1981, the Center for US-Mexican Studies hosted a Binational Consultation on US-Mexican Agricultural Relations. The consultation sought to define the nature, causes, and consequences of flows of labor, capital, technology, and agricultural commodities across the US-Mexican border and to identify fruitful areas for additional research. Sections of the consultation were devoted to US-Mexican agricultural trade in an era of oil wealth and “food power†; Mexico’s crisis of produc...

  16. Issues in United States-Mexican Agricultural Relations: A Binational Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Grindle, Merilee

    1983-01-01

    In February, 1981, the Center for US-Mexican Studies hosted a Binational Consultation on US-Mexican Agricultural Relations. The consultation sought to define the nature, causes, and consequences of flows of labor, capital, technology, and agricultural commodities across the US-Mexican border and to identify fruitful areas for additional research. Sections of the consultation were devoted to US-Mexican agricultural trade in an era of oil wealth and “food powerâ€; Mexico’s crisis of product...

  17. Binational management of hazardous waste: The maquiladora industry at the US-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Diane M.; Sanchez, Roberto; Glaze, William H.; Mazari, Marisa

    1990-07-01

    Foreign-owned industry in the form of assembly plants, termed maquiladora, has become very important in Mexico to the extent that it represents the second largest source of foreign exchange and is a valuable source for employment and regional development. The economic prosperity gained from the rapid growth of the maquiladora industry has been accompanied by increased environmental and human health risks associated with generation of hazardous waste. Diversification of industry has resulted in the predomination of those sectors that likely use hazardous substances. The Mexicali-Calexico border region was selected to demonstrate the potential for environmental and health risks associated with the generation of hazardous waste. Estimates for the generation of hazardous waste were obtained from 34 maquiladora plants in Mexicali, represented by the electronic and electrical equipment and parts, mechanical and transportation equipment, and toys and sporting equipment sectors. Repeated detection of volatile organic compounds in the New River at the US-Mexico border suggests that hazardous waste from the printed circuit board industry in Mexicali is not being disposed of in a proper manner. Potential adverse health effects, such as carcinogenic and mutagenic responses associated with the detected volatiles, are discussed. US and Mexico national legislation and the Binational Environmental Agreement were examined for their adequacy to ensure proper management of hazardous waste generated by the maquiladora industry. Environmental policy options are presented that focus on: (1) increased environmental accountability of US parent companies for their maquiladora assembly plants in Mexico; and (2) more integration between US Customs and border states with the US Environmental Protection Agency to improve the binational management of hazardous waste generated by the maquiladora industry.

  18. Legal Status at Entry, Economic Performance, and Self-Employment Proclivity: A Bi-National Study of Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Constant, Amelie F.; Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    2006-01-01

    There are concerns about the attachment of immigrants to the labor force, and the potential policy responses. This paper uses a bi-national survey on immigrant performance to investigate the sorting of individuals into full-time paid-employment and entrepreneurship and their economic success. Particular attention is paid to the role of legal status at entry in the host country (worker, refugee, and family reunification), ethnic networks, enclaves and other differences among ethnicities for th...

  19. The Importance of Institutional Asymmetries to the Development of Binational Aquifer Assessment Programs: The Arizona-Sonora Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Setting water policy depends fundamentally on the location of the supply and demand for water and the legal/institutional framework for water management. Within and across nations, laws and structures for water management decision making vary, often significantly. Recognizing these differences can aid in overcoming challenges inherent to the assessment and management of transboundary waters. This paper examines current binational efforts to develop the scientific information to support water management decision making along the United States-Mexico border. The particular focus is on transboundary aquifers along the border shared by the states of Arizona in the United States and Sonora in Mexico. Legislation enacted in the United States (Public Law 109–448 established a governmental-academic partnership to assess transboundary aquifers. The paper discusses the establishment of a working partnership between Mexico and the United States, which led to an official binational cooperative framework for transboundary assessment. It explains how the extensive effort to recognize and accommodate asymmetries in the underlying legal and regulatory frameworks for water management was essential to meeting the objectives of both countries. The focus of the binational investigations is briefly discussed. The paper concludes by noting the opportunities for additional cross-border scientific and water management collaboration should funding and institutional commitments continue.

  20. Cooperation on Climate Services in the Binational Rio Grande/Bravo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G. M.; Shafer, M. A.; Brown, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Rio Grande/Bravo River Basin (RGB) of the United States and México is exposed to tornadoes, severe storms, hurricanes, winter storms, wildfire, and drought. The combination of these weather and climate-related hazards has resulted in impacts, such as wildfire, crop loss, water supply reduction, and flooding, with exceedingly high economic costs ($13 billion in 2011). In order to contribute to increased binational information flow and knowledge exchange in the region, we have developed a prototype quarterly bilingual RGB Climate Outlook, in PDF, supplemented by Twitter messages and Facebook posts. The goal of the project is to improve coordination between institutions in the U.S. and Mexico, increase awareness about climate variations, their impacts and costs to society, and build capacity for enhanced hazard preparedness. The RGB Outlook features a synthesis of climate products, impact data and analysis, is expressed in user-friendly language, and relies substantially on visual communication in contrast to text. The RGB Outlook is co-produced with colleagues in the U.S. and Mexico, in conjunction with the North American Climate Services Partnership (NACSP) and NOAA's regional climate services program. NACSP is a tri-national initiative to develop and deliver drought-based climate services in order to assist water resource managers, agricultural interests, and other constituents as they prepare for future drought events and build capacity to respond to other climate extremes. The RGB Climate Outlook builds on lessons learned from the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS) Southwest Climate Outlook (PDF, html), La Niña Drought Tracker (PDF, html), the Southern Climate Impacts Policy Program (SCIPP) Managing Drought in the Southern Plains webinar series, the Border Climate Summary (PDF), and Transborder Climate newsletter (PDF) and webinar series. The latter two have been the only regularly occurring bilingual climate information products in the U

  1. The integrated North American electricity market : a bi-national model for securing a reliable supply of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 50 million people who experienced the power blackout on August 14, 2003 in southern Ontario and the U.S. Midwest and Northeast understood how vital electricity is in our day-to-day lives, but they also saw the resiliency of the North American electricity system. More than 65 per cent of the power generation was restored to service within 12 hours and no damage was caused to the generation or transmission facilities. Although the interconnected North American electricity system is among the most reliable in the world, it is threatened by an aging infrastructure, lack of new generation and transmission to meet demand, and growing regulatory pressures. This report suggests that any measures that respond to the threat of ongoing reliability should be bi-national in scope due to the interconnected nature of the system. Currently, the market, regulatory and administrative systems are different in each country. The full engagement and cooperation of both Canada and the United States is important to ensure future cross-border trade and power reliability. The Canadian Electricity Association proposes the following 7 measures: (1) support an open debate on all the supply options available to meet growing power demands, (2) promote bi-national cooperation in the construction of new transmission capacity to ensure a reliable continental electricity system, (3) examine opportunities for bi-national cooperation for investment in advanced transmission technologies and transmission research and development, (4) promote new generation technology and demand-side measures to relieve existing transmission constraints and reduce the need for new transmission facilities, (5) endorse a self-governing international organization for developing and enforcing mandatory reliability standards for the electricity industry, (6) coordinate measures to promote critical infrastructure protection, and (7) harmonize U.S. and Canadian efforts to streamline or clarify regulation of electricity

  2. Nutrition labelling: perspectives of a bi-national agency for Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Margaret A

    2002-01-01

    Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA) is a bi-national government agency forming a partnership between all of Australia's States and Territories and the New Zealand government. Australia New Zealand Food Authority employs scientific, legal policy, communication and administrative staff in our Australia and New Zealand offices. Prior to 1991 each of Australia's States and Territories had their own food standards; however, in 1991 Commonwealth legislation was introduced to consolidate responsibility for developing food standards in one specialist agency and to ensure the uniformity of Standards across all States and Territories in Australia. This was extended to New Zealand in 1995 when we became a bi-national agency following the signing of a Treaty between Australia and New Zealand to develop joint food standards for both countries. Australia New Zealand Food Authority's objectives in setting food standards are to: protect public health and safety; provide adequate information to enable consumers to make informed choices; and prevent misleading or deceptive conduct. Health Ministers have recently approved a new Joint Food Standards Code for Australia and New Zealand. This is the result of over 6 year's work and many rounds of public consultation. The new Code has had extensive input from government agencies, industry and consumers. In drafting the new code our emphasis has been on making decisions based on sound science and the most up-to-date information available. We also recognized the need for Standards to be practical in not imposing unnecessary costs on food manufacturers with an inevitable flow on effect to consumer prices. The Joint Code will replace both the existing Australian Food Standards Code and the New Zealand Food Regulations after a 2-year transition period. During the development of the Joint Code a wide range of matters were considered in relation to labelling. Amongst these were consumer needs, costs to industry, voluntary versus

  3. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  4. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B. Harris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001. Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  5. Report on the Binational Conference: In Search of a Border Pedagogy (4th, El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, January 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    This report contains a synopsis of the binational conference and features brief summaries of all the papers presented at the conference. Over 350 educators, community leaders, and researchers were brought together to discuss the educational extremes found along the border between the United States and Mexico and to investigate instructional…

  6. The US/Mexico Border: A Binational Approach to Framing Challenges and Constructing Solutions for Improving Farmworkers’ Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Aranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the US-Mexico border region face health hazards and occupational risks and are becoming commonly known in the public health literature. According to several studies, farmworkers have high levels of chronic diseases such as diabetes and respiratory problems, are at risk for infectious diseases, and experience among the highest incidences of work-related injuries of any profession. The findings from two studies are considered and presented with the objective of contributing to an overall understanding of migrant farmworkers as a workforce moving across national boundaries and affected by the work environments and health stressors both shared and unique to each context. We propose a binational approach to comprehensively address the health problems and socioeconomic challenges faced by migrant and seasonal farmworkers. In this paper we present the results of two distinct but complementary studies of farmworker health on the Arizona-Sonora border.

  7. Assessing potential impacts of climate change and variability on the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin: A binational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential impacts of climate change and variability on the Great Lakes environment are serious and complex. The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin is home to 42.5 million US and Canadian citizens and is the industrial and commercial heartland of both nations. The region is rich in human and natural resources, with diverse economic activities and substantial infrastructure which would be affected by major shifts in climate. For example, water level changes could affect wetland distribution and functioning; reductions in streamflow would alter assimilative capacities while warmer water temperatures would influence spring and fall turnover and incidence of anoxia. A binational program has been initiated to conduct interdisciplinary, integrated impact assessments for the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin. The goal of this program is to undertake interdisciplinary, integrated studies to improve the understanding of the complex interactions between climate, the environment, and socioeconomic systems in order to develop informed regional adaptation responses

  8. Unravelling long-term vegetation change patterns in a binational watershed using multitemporal land cover data and historical photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, M.L.; Norman, L.M.; Webb, R.H.; Boyer, D.E.; Turner, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of research conducted in the Sonoran Desert of North America has documented, both anecdotally and empirically, major vegetation changes over the past century due to human land use activities. However, many studies lack coincidental landscape-scale data characterizing the spatial and temporal manifestation of these changes. Vegetation changes in a binational (USA and Mexico) watershed were documented using a series of four land cover maps (1979-2009) derived from multispectral satellite imagery. Cover changes are compared to georeferenced, repeat oblique photographs dating from the late 19th century to present. Results indicate the expansion of grassland over the past 20 years following nearly a century of decline. Historical repeat photography documents early-mid 20th century mesquite invasions, but recent land cover data and rephotography demonstrate declines in xeroriparian/riparian mesquite communities in recent decades. These vegetation changes are variable over the landscape and influenced by topography and land management. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  9. Depressed Mood During Early to Middle Adolescence: A Bi-national Longitudinal Study of the Unique Impact of Family Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Adrian B; Mason, W Alex; Chmelka, Mary B; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Kim, Min Jung; Patton, George C; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2016-08-01

    Adolescent depressed mood is related to the development of subsequent mental health problems, and family problems have been linked to adolescent depression. Longitudinal research on adolescent depressed mood is needed to establish the unique impact of family problems independent of other potential drivers. This study tested the extent to which family conflict exacerbates depressed mood during adolescence, independent of changes in depressed mood over time, academic performance, bullying victimization, negative cognitive style, and gender. Students (13 years old) participated in a three-wave bi-national study (n = 961 from the State of Washington, United States, n = 981 from Victoria, Australia; 98 % retention, 51 % female in each sample). The model was cross-lagged and controlled for the autocorrelation of depressed mood, negative cognitive style, academic failure, and bullying victimization. Family conflict partially predicted changes in depressed mood independent of changes in depressed mood over time and the other controls. There was also evidence that family conflict and adolescent depressed mood are reciprocally related over time. The findings were closely replicated across the two samples. The study identifies potential points of intervention to interrupt the progression of depressed mood in early to middle adolescence. PMID:26861643

  10. One Shared Region and Two Different Change Patterns: Land Use Change in the Binational Californian Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Eaton-Gonzalez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Californian Floristic Province, ranging from Northern California, USA, to the northwestern portion of the state of Baja California, Mexico, is a region of great biological richness that has a high risk of loss of species due to the effect of human activities. The main stressor that threatens its biodiversity is the change in land use and vegetation cover, which severely impacts the environmental and socio-economic systems’ functioning, affecting the provision of environmental services including the maintenance of biodiversity. The Tijuana River Watershed (TRW is located within this floristic province. It has experienced rapid population growth during the last 50 years, demanding development of infrastructure in areas where native vegetation existed. As a binational watershed, it is an ideal area to study the processes involved in fragmentation and connectivity of natural environments, since both countries, while sharing the same environment, contrast greatly in their economic and social systems, which impose different pressures to these shared natural resources. Our research addresses change in vegetation cover and land use in the TRW, analyzing the changes and differences between Mexico and the United States. This analysis will be a basis to propose future management strategies for the conservation of ecological processes and biodiversity, according to the policies and actions for land management and conservation in both countries.

  11. A multitemporal (1979-2009) land-use/land-cover dataset of the binational Santa Cruz Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Trends derived from multitemporal land-cover data can be used to make informed land management decisions and to help managers model future change scenarios. We developed a multitemporal land-use/land-cover dataset for the binational Santa Cruz watershed of southern Arizona, United States, and northern Sonora, Mexico by creating a series of land-cover maps at decadal intervals (1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009) using Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper data and a classification and regression tree classifier. The classification model exploited phenological changes of different land-cover spectral signatures through the use of biseasonal imagery collected during the (dry) early summer and (wet) late summer following rains from the North American monsoon. Landsat images were corrected to remove atmospheric influences, and the data were converted from raw digital numbers to surface reflectance values. The 14-class land-cover classification scheme is based on the 2001 National Land Cover Database with a focus on "Developed" land-use classes and riverine "Forest" and "Wetlands" cover classes required for specific watershed models. The classification procedure included the creation of several image-derived and topographic variables, including digital elevation model derivatives, image variance, and multitemporal Kauth-Thomas transformations. The accuracy of the land-cover maps was assessed using a random-stratified sampling design, reference aerial photography, and digital imagery. This showed high accuracy results, with kappa values (the statistical measure of agreement between map and reference data) ranging from 0.80 to 0.85.

  12. Framing Scenarios of Binational Water Policy with a Tool to Visualize, Quantify and Valuate Changes in Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Labiosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Santa Cruz Watershed, located on the Arizona-Sonora portion of the U.S.-Mexico border, an international wastewater treatment plant treats wastewater from cities on both sides of the border, before discharging it into the river in Arizona. These artificial flows often subsidize important perennial surface water ecosystems in the region. An explicit understanding of the benefits of maintaining instream flow for present and future generations requires the ability to assess and understand the important trade-offs implicit in water-resource management decisions. In this paper, we outline an approach for modeling and visualizing impacts of management decisions in terms of rare terrestrial and aquatic wildlife, vegetation, surface water, groundwater recharge, real-estate values and socio-environmental vulnerable communities. We identify and quantify ecosystem services and model the potential reduction in effluent discharge to the U.S. that is under scrutiny by binational water policy makers and of concern to stakeholders. Results of service provisioning are presented, and implications for policy makers and resource managers are discussed. This paper presents a robust ecosystem services assessment of multiple scenarios of watershed management as a means to discern eco-hydrological responses and consider their potential values for future generations living in the borderlands.

  13. A Binational Overview of Reproductive Health Outcomes Among US Hispanic and Mexican Women in the Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. McDonald, PhD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The US–Mexico border region has 15 million residents and 300,000 births annually. Reproductive health concerns have been identified on both sides of the border, but comparable information about reproductive health is not available. The objective of this study was to compare reproductive health indicators among populations in this region. Methods We used 2009 US Hispanic and Mexican birth certificate data to compare births inside the border region, elsewhere within the border states, and in the United States and Mexico overall. We examined trends in total fertility and birth rates using birth data from 2000 through 2009 and intercensal population estimates. Results Among women in the border region, US women had more lifetime births than Mexican women in 2009 (2.69 births vs 2.15 births and throughout the decade. Birth rates in the group aged 15 to 19 years were high in both the US (73.8/1,000 and Mexican (86.7/1,000 border regions. Late or no prenatal care was nearly twice as prevalent in the border regions as in the nonborder regions of border states. Low birth weight and preterm and early-term birth were more prevalent in the US border than in the Mexican border region; US border rates were higher and Mexican rates were lower than their corresponding nonborder and national rates. We found some variations within border states. Conclusion These findings constitute the first population-based information on the reproductive health of the entire Hispanic US–Mexico border population. Evidence of disparities warrants exploration at state and local levels. Teen pregnancy and inadequate prenatal care are shared problems in US–Mexico border communities and suggest an area for binational cooperation.

  14. Proceedings of the Binational Conference on Libraries in California and Baja California (1st, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, January 13-14, 1984) = Memorias de la Primera Conferencia Binacional de Bibliotecas de las Californias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Marta Stiefel, Ed.; And Others

    This document includes the text of presentations given at the First Binational Conference on Libraries in California and Baja California, as well as minutes from four roundtables held at the conference. Following a prologue and a brief background on the conference, the following presentations are included: (1) "State Support for Public Libraries…

  15. Establishing an Ongoing Binational U.S.-Mexico Border Climate Diagnostic Summary: Developing a Prototype and Navigating the Institutional Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G.; Varady, R.; Morehouse, B.; Wilder, M.; Crawford, B.

    2007-05-01

    climate information or risk that the product of their efforts will end up as another seldom used box of digital information merchandise heaped on the loading dock of the Internet. This presentation describes progress to date in developing a collaborative, binational semi-operational product, obtaining funding, and taking the first steps to establish regional climate services for the U.S.-Mexico border region.

  16. Water First Aid Is Beneficial In Humans Post-Burn: Evidence from a Bi-National Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M Wood

    Full Text Available Reported first aid application, frequency and practices around the world vary greatly. Based primarily on animal and observational studies, first aid after a burn injury is considered to be integral in reducing scar and infection, and the need for surgery. The current recommendation for optimum first aid after burn is water cooling for 20 minutes within three hours. However, compliance with this guideline is reported as poor to moderate at best and evidence exists to suggest that overcooling can be detrimental. This prospective cohort study of a bi-national burn patient registry examined data collected between 2009 and 2012. The aim of the study was to quantify the magnitude of effects of water cooling first aid after burn on indicators of burn severity in a large human cohort.The data for the analysis was provided by the Burn Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ. The application of first aid cooling prior to admission to a dedicated burn service, was analysed for its influence on four outcomes related to injury severity. The patient related outcomes were whether graft surgery occurred, and death while the health system (cost outcomes included total hospital length of stay and admission to ICU. Robust regression analysis using bootstrapped estimation adjusted using a propensity score was used to control for confounding and to estimate the strength of association with first aid. Dose-response relationships were examined to determine associations with duration of first aid. The influence of covariates on the impact of first aid was assessed.Cooling was provided before Burn Centre admission for 68% of patients, with at least twenty minutes duration for 46%. The results indicated a reduction in burn injury severity associated with first aid. Patients probability for graft surgery fell by 0.070 from 0.537 (13% reduction (p = 0.014. The probability for ICU admission fell by 0.084 from 0.175 (48% reduction (p<0.001 and hospital length of stay

  17. Binational school-based monitoring of traffic-related air pollutants in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paired indoor and outdoor concentrations of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM), PM2.5 reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were determined for sixteen weeks in 2008 at four elementary schools (two in high and two in low traffic density zones) in a U.S.-Mexico border community to aid a binational health effects study. Strong spatial heterogeneity was observed for all outdoor pollutant concentrations. Concentrations of all pollutants, except coarse PM, were higher in high traffic zones than in the respective low traffic zones. Black carbon and NO2 appear to be better traffic indicators than fine PM. Indoor air pollution was found to be well associated with outdoor air pollution, although differences existed due to uncontrollable factors involving student activities and building/ventilation configurations. Results of this study indicate substantial spatial variability of pollutants in the region, suggesting that children's exposures to these pollutants vary based on the location of their school. - Highlights: → First binational investigation characterizing traffic air pollutants at four schools in El Paso, USA and Cd. Juarez, Mexico. → Paired in-outdoor sampling of PM2.5, PM10-2.5, reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and NO2 for 16 weeks in 2008 at each school. → Two schools (one in each city) were located in high traffic density areas and the other two in areas of low traffic density. Usage of spatially resolved environmental indictors of traffic pollutants in a range of exposure settings. → Substantial intra-urban spatial variability in pollutant concentrations observed between and within the two cities. - Spatial variability in traffic-mediated pollutant concentrations can exist at the intra-urban level and ambient monitoring sites may not accurately represent these concentration gradients.

  18. Binational school-based monitoring of traffic-related air pollutants in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raysoni, Amit U., E-mail: auraysoni@miners.utep.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Ph.D. Program, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt [Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Garcia, Jose Humberto [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Ciudad Juarez, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua 32470 (Mexico); Holguin, Fernando [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Flores Luevano, Silvia [Interdisciplinary Health Science Ph.D. Program, College of Health Sciences, The University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Li, Wen-Whai [Environmental Science and Engineering Ph.D. Program, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Paired indoor and outdoor concentrations of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM), PM2.5 reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) were determined for sixteen weeks in 2008 at four elementary schools (two in high and two in low traffic density zones) in a U.S.-Mexico border community to aid a binational health effects study. Strong spatial heterogeneity was observed for all outdoor pollutant concentrations. Concentrations of all pollutants, except coarse PM, were higher in high traffic zones than in the respective low traffic zones. Black carbon and NO{sub 2} appear to be better traffic indicators than fine PM. Indoor air pollution was found to be well associated with outdoor air pollution, although differences existed due to uncontrollable factors involving student activities and building/ventilation configurations. Results of this study indicate substantial spatial variability of pollutants in the region, suggesting that children's exposures to these pollutants vary based on the location of their school. - Highlights: > First binational investigation characterizing traffic air pollutants at four schools in El Paso, USA and Cd. Juarez, Mexico. > Paired in-outdoor sampling of PM{sub 2.5}, PM{sub 10-2.5}, reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and NO{sub 2} for 16 weeks in 2008 at each school. > Two schools (one in each city) were located in high traffic density areas and the other two in areas of low traffic density. > Usage of spatially resolved environmental indictors of traffic pollutants in a range of exposure settings. > Substantial intra-urban spatial variability in pollutant concentrations observed between and within the two cities. - Spatial variability in traffic-mediated pollutant concentrations can exist at the intra-urban level and ambient monitoring sites may not accurately represent these concentration gradients.

  19. Volcano-hazards Education for Emergency Officials Through Study Trip Learning—The 2013 Colombia-USA Bi-national Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedger, C. L.; Ewert, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    A central tenant of hazard communication is that colleagues with principal responsibilities for emergency planning and response sustain a 'long-term conversation' that builds trust, and increases understanding of hazards and successful protocols. This requires well maintained partnerships among a broad spectrum of officials who are knowledgeable about volcano hazards; credible within their communities; and who have personal and professional stake in their community's safety. It can require that volcano scientists facilitate learning opportunities for partners in emergency management who have little or no familiarity with eruption response. Scientists and officials from Colombia and the Cascades region of the United States recognized that although separated by geographic and cultural distance, their communities faced similar hazards from lahars. For the purpose of sharing best practices, the 2013 Colombia-USA Bi-national Exchange was organized by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Washington Emergency Management Division, with support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). Nine Colombian emergency officials and scientists visited the U.S. to observe emergency response planning and protocols and to view the scale of a potential lahar disaster at Mount Rainier. Ten U.S. delegates visited Colombia to absorb best practices developed after the catastrophic 1985 eruption and lahars at Nevado del Ruiz. They observed the devastation and spoke with survivors, first responders, and emergency managers responsible for post-disaster recovery efforts. Delegates returned to their nations energized and with improved knowledge about volcanic crises and effective mitigation and response. In the U.S., trainings, hazard signage, evacuation routes and assembly points, and community websites have gained momentum. Colombian officials gained a deeper appreciation of and a renewed commitment to response planning, education, and disaster preparedness.

  20. Don't let cacto blast us: Development of a bi-national plan to stop the spread of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    infestations; initiated a multimedia (newspaper, radio and TV) public awareness programme; conducted economic and pathway risk analyses; and begun a field survey of all cactus growing areas. Results to date confirm that the cactus moth is not yet in Mexico. Discussions are now on-going between the USA and Mexico to establish a memorandum of understanding that would provide joint funding for a bi-national programme to stop the spread of the cactus moth in North America. (author)

  1. Evaluating the impact of Mexico’s drug policy reforms on people who inject drugs in Tijuana, B.C., Mexico, and San Diego, CA, United States: a binational mixed methods research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Policymakers and researchers seek answers to how liberalized drug policies affect people who inject drugs (PWID). In response to concerns about the failing “war on drugs,” Mexico recently implemented drug policy reforms that partially decriminalized possession of small amounts of drugs for personal use while promoting drug treatment. Recognizing important epidemiologic, policy, and socioeconomic differences between the United States—where possession of any psychoactive drugs without a prescription remains illegal—and Mexico—where possession of small quantities for personal use was partially decriminalized, we sought to assess changes over time in knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and infectious disease profiles among PWID in the adjacent border cities of San Diego, CA, USA, and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Methods Based on extensive binational experience and collaboration, from 2012–2014 we initiated two parallel, prospective, mixed methods studies: Proyecto El Cuete IV in Tijuana (n = 785) and the STAHR II Study in San Diego (n = 575). Methods for sampling, recruitment, and data collection were designed to be compatible in both studies. All participants completed quantitative behavioral and geographic assessments and serological testing (HIV in both studies; hepatitis C virus and tuberculosis in STAHR II) at baseline and four semi-annual follow-up visits. Between follow-up assessment visits, subsets of participants completed qualitative interviews to explore contextual factors relating to study aims and other emergent phenomena. Planned analyses include descriptive and inferential statistics for quantitative data, content analysis and other mixed-methods approaches for qualitative data, and phylogenetic analysis of HIV-positive samples to understand cross-border transmission dynamics. Results Investigators and research staff shared preliminary findings across studies to provide feedback on instruments and insights regarding local

  2. D’une problématique locale-frontalière à un enjeu binational : le cas de la contrebande transfrontalière de carburants entre la Colombie et le Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Andrade Benitez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose d’appréhender le processus d’inscription de la question de la contrebande transfrontalière de carburants dans l’agenda d’intégration binational entre la Colombie et le Venezuela. Peu de travaux s’intéressent à ce sujet qui est habituellement abordé dans une perspective de politique intérieure et non pas extérieure. Notre étude s’inscrit dans le cadre théorique de la « mise en agenda » traitée par Cobb et Elders (1983 et des travaux de Jones et Baumgartner (2005 sur l’évolution de l’agenda politique après l’introduction de nouveaux enjeux. Elle vise à comprendre la manière dont la contrebande de carburants trouve une place dans l’agenda d’intégration énergétique bilatéral et devient un enjeu de coopération entre les deux pays. Les effets économiques de la contrebande ainsi que ses conséquences sur la sécurité de la frontière ont été des facteurs déterminants dans la signature d’un accord entre les deux pays. Les agences énergétiques de Colombie et du Venezuela ont été les acteurs privilégiés du processus d’inscription du problème dans l’agenda d’intégration entre les deux pays.This article analyzes the gradual inclusion of the illegal oil trade in the binational integration agenda between Venezuela and Colombia. Few scholars have focused on this question, which is generally examined through the prism of domestic –not foreign– policy. This study borrows from Cobb and Elders’ (1983 agenda setting theory and its development by Jones and Baumgartner (2005 on the evolution of political agendas following the incorporation of new issues. The purpose is to understand the ways in which illegal oil trade found its place in the bilateral energy integration agenda and became the subject of cooperation between Venezuela and Colombia. The economic effects of this illegal traffic along with its consequences on border security were crucial factors in the signing of a

  3. Developing a Binational Geography Curriculum in Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Alex; Araya, Fabian; Cortés, Ximena; Ullestad, Mollie

    2015-01-01

    In a world with an ever-increasing population, diminishing natural resources, and greater levels of consumption, sustainability has emerged as a critical concept and it encompasses everything from international policy to lifestyle changes to "green" technologies. While various aspects of sustainability have been adopted by schools and…

  4. Proceedings of the 24. National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services and 7. Binational seminar on energy saving [Selected Papers]; 24. Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios y 7. Seminario binacional de ahorro de energia. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document contains the technical briefings of the 24. National Seminar on the rational use of energy, and exhibition of the equipment and services and the 7. Binational seminar on energy saving, organized by the Asociacion de Profesionistas y Tecnicos en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, from November 9 to 11, 2005. This seminar dealt with subjects such as: electrical energy saving, energy distribution, solar energy, energy saving in compressed air, biomass, administration and control of the demand of the electrical energy, bioclimatic architecture, use of the compressed natural gas, renewable energy, co-generation, qualification and consultancy for the intelligent use of the energy in PyMES. [Spanish] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 24 Seminario Nacional sobre el uso racional de energia, y exposicion de los equipos y servicios y el 7 Seminario binacional de ahorro de energia, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, del 9 al 11 de noviembre del 2005. Este seminario trato temas tales como: ahorro de energia electrica, distribucion de la energia, energia solar, ahorro de energia en aire comprimido, biomasa, administracion y control de la demanda de la energia electrica, arquitectura bioclimatica, uso del gas natural comprimido, energia renovable, cogeneracion, capacitacion y consultoria para el uso inteligente de la energia en las Pymes.

  5. Salmonella contamination during production of cantaloupe: a binational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A; Mercado, I; Lucia, L M; Martínez-Ruiz, Y; Ponce de León, J; Murano, E A; Acuff, G R

    2004-04-01

    Six cantaloupe farms and packing plants in South Texas (950 cantaloupe, 140 water, and 45 environmental samples), including the Rio Grande Valley area, and three farms in Colima State, Mexico (300 cantaloupe, 45 water, and 15 environmental samples), were sampled to evaluate cantaloupe contamination with Salmonella and Escherichia coli during production and processing. Samples collected from external surfaces of cantaloupes, water, and the environments of packing sheds on cantaloupe farms were examined for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli. Of a total of 1,735 samples collected, 31 (1.8%) tested positive for Salmonella. Fifteen Salmonella serotypes were isolated from samples collected in Texas, and nine from samples collected in Colima. Two serotypes (Poona and Oranienburg) that have been associated with three large Salmonella outbreaks in the United States and Canada linked to the consumption of contaminated cantaloupe were found in water samples collected at four farms (three from the United States). Susceptibility of Salmonella isolates to 10 antimicrobials was evaluated by disk diffusion. Eighty-eight percent of the isolates from the United States and Mexico were pansusceptible to the antimicrobials tested; eight isolates from the United States demonstrated an intermediate susceptibility to streptomycin and only two isolates were resistant to the same antimicrobial. From Mexico, four isolates showed an intermediate susceptibility to streptomycin and one isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid and streptomycin. Repetitive sequence-based PCR analysis of Salmonella isolates helped to trace potential sources of Salmonella contamination in source water and in subsequent water samples obtained after the filtration systems of U.S. and Mexican cantaloupe farms. No differences could be seen between the levels of Salmonella contamination in melons from both countries. PMID:15083723

  6. [Colombian migration to the Venezuelan agrarian sector: a binational context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J; Gomez, A

    1980-01-01

    The authors attempt to determine the reasons for the chronic national labor shortage in the Venezuelan agrarian sector and for the large-scale emigration of Colombians to work in Venezuelan agriculture. The income of agricultural wage earners and the conditions of labor force reproduction in Venezuela are discussed as factors contributing to the labor shortage. With reference to Colombia, the rapid growth of international commerce and the policy of limiting wages are suggested as factors which contribute to emigration PMID:12338618

  7. Science Anxiety, Science Attitudes, and Constructivism: A Binational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry

    2013-08-01

    Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.

  8. Innovation in Sustainable Products: Cross-Cultural Analysis Of Bi-National Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Cleber José Cunha Dutra; Adriana Avelino Mazza; Leonardo Mendes Lacerda de Menezes

    2014-01-01

    Innovation has been required as a vital asset for organizational survival in many areas, especially in the sustainability organizational field of concerns. Changes in Brazilian consumers’ consumption are perceived from the growing demand for environmentally-friendly products and services which are pressuring companies to achieve environmental efficiency. Tools like Cleaner Production, Sustainable Supply-Chain Management, and Ecodesign are essential to help firms achieve this goal. However, th...

  9. Innovation in Sustainable Products: Cross-Cultural Analysis Of Bi-National Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber José Cunha Dutra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovation has been required as a vital asset for organizational survival in many areas, especially in the sustainability organizational field of concerns. Changes in Brazilian consumers’ consumption are perceived from the growing demand for environmentally-friendly products and services which are pressuring companies to achieve environmental efficiency. Tools like Cleaner Production, Sustainable Supply-Chain Management, and Ecodesign are essential to help firms achieve this goal. However, these tools require integration between different functions in a company, demanding that members with different expertise work together as a team. Based on a long tradition of collaboration, Germany is a potential partner for Brazil, combining expertise in the development of innovations aimed at more sustainable products. In today’s global environment, transnational teams should become the most effective teams in an organization but, because of the potential for miscommunication and conflict, the management of these teams needs special attention. Cultural differences between German and Brazilian members of work teams represent risks/advantages for the management of process of innovative products development. The paper draws on previously reviewed studies to ground an analysis of cultural dimensions and national characters, within Brazilian-German teams. In essence, this study is an essay with the main aim to open perspectives for further research and to support organizations in their sustainable management practices.

  10. 78 FR 45181 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... -- 2011 New Shipper Antidumping Administrative Review of Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from Mexico... February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review in this matter was requested and terminated pursuant...

  11. 76 FR 77777 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686... Panel Review of the U.S. International Trade Commission's final determination of Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from Mexico was filed by the Government of Mexico (Secretariat File No....

  12. Federal law enforcement in bi-national perspective: the United States FBI and the Mexican PFM

    OpenAIRE

    Fuerte, Erik M.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Mexico’s Federal Ministerial Police (PFM) agency was structured similar to the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Although there have been significant reforms within the PFM, it has been ineffective at preventing criminals from orchestrating drug trafficking and organized crime. Institutional law enforcement policies drive the quality of police officers in an agency, and the policies in Mexico’s PFM agency have not be...

  13. Energy Security and Binational Cooperation : a Case Study of the Itaipu Dam

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Thauan; Santos, Luan; Oliveira, Cassia

    2013-01-01

    This article aims not only to review the literature about South-South Cooperation (SSC) on energy matters, but also to understand it mainly from the perspective of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It argues that there are many benefits and barriers to the development of physical energy integration in the subcontinent, focusing on the case study of energy cooperation between Brazil and Paraguay, concerning the Itaipu Dam. Thus its main goal is to discuss the threat of ca...

  14. Immigration and the Family Circumstances of Mexican-Origin Children: A Binational Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Landale, Nancy S.; Oropesa, R.S.; Noah, Aggie J.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the birth cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (n = 1,200) and the Mexican Family Life Survey (n = 1,013), this study investigated the living arrangements of Mexican-origin preschool children. The analysis examined children’s family circumstances in both sending and receiving countries, used longitudinal data to capture family transitions, and considered the intersection between nuclear and extended family structures. Between ages 0–1 and 4–5, Mexican children of i...

  15. Intercultural Education in Italy and in the United States: the Results of a Binational Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Manuela CONTINI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consistency and the complexity of the migration fluxes towards Italy, their degree of stabilization, as well as the increase of migration families and the presence of first and second generations in the Italian scholastic system, require new educational policies and choices on behalf of the decision makers. The characteristics and the specificity of the migration fluxes and of the different persons and families that are oriented towards Italy, involve educational strategies that are able to combine needs and cultural models that are quite articulate. The United States, throughout its history, has also experienced similar societal transformations which continue to be the driving force to the creation of new policies that can respond to a new multicultural society. The paper presents a thorough analysis on the topics of the new educational needs expressed by new generations that live and make experiences in multi-ethnic social and scholastic contexts. Such a theme is framed within the wider context of globalization processes, of the widening of the European Union, of the presence on the territory of the Union of people and citizens originally immigrated and the questions on belonging and social cohesion. In specific, the study discuss the school policies for intercultural integration adopted in Italy and with reference to educational policies implemented in other European countries and in bilingual schools in the United States: welcoming practices for immigrant students in the schools; relationship between immigrant families and schools; practices of learning/teaching Italian as second language; promoting multilinguism approach; promoting social relation between students in the classroom, to prevent discrimination; team work between teachers; school networks; network between schools and local entities; intercultural education.

  16. Occupational Channels for Mexican Migration: New Destination Formation in a Binational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew; Painter, Matthew, II

    2011-01-01

    In the 1990s, Mexican immigration dispersed spatially, leading to the emergence of many "new destinations," in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States. Previous studies constrain the scope of the analysis to the United States, limiting our understanding of how new destinations are formed. We place new destination formation into a binational…

  17. Online Physics Lab Exercises--A Binational Study on the Transfer of Teaching Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theyßen, Heike; Struzyna, Sarah; Mylott, Elliot; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and the results of a comparative study that evaluated the success of a transfer of an online-teaching resource between two universities, one in Germany and one in the USA. The teaching resource is an online physics lab that has been used in the physics education of medical students in Germany since 2003. The…

  18. Bi-national Social Networks and Assimilation: A Test of the Importance of Transnationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Mouw, Ted; Chavez, Sergio; Edelblute, Heather; Verdery, Ashton

    2014-01-01

    While the concept of transnationalism has gained widespread popularity among scholars as a way to describe immigrants’ long-term maintenance of cross-border ties to their origin communities, critics have argued that the overall proportion of immigrants who engage in transnational behavior is low and that, as a result, transnationalism has little sustained effect on the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation. In this paper, we argue that a key shortcoming in the current empirical deb...

  19. Immigration and the Family Circumstances of Mexican-Origin Children: A Binational Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landale, Nancy S; Oropesa, R S; Noah, Aggie J

    2014-02-01

    Using data from the birth cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (n = 1,200) and the Mexican Family Life Survey (n = 1,013), this study investigated the living arrangements of Mexican-origin preschool children. The analysis examined children's family circumstances in both sending and receiving countries, used longitudinal data to capture family transitions, and considered the intersection between nuclear and extended family structures. Between ages 0-1 and 4-5, Mexican children of immigrants experienced significantly more family instability than children in Mexico. They were more likely to transition from 2-parent to single-parent families and from extended family households to simple households. There were fewer differences between U.S. children with immigrant versus native parents, but the higher level of single parenthood among children of natives at ages 0-1 and the greater share making transitions from a 2-parent to a single-parent family suggest ongoing erosion of children's family support across generations in the United States. PMID:25228783

  20. Diverging Policy Approaches to Diversity in a Bi-National Country: The Case of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Armony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Canada’s policy approach to immigration- and minority-related diversity in light of its federal structure and the contrast between the predominantly French-language province of Québec and the mainly English-speaking rest of the country, with a particular focus on the province of Ontario. While the two parts of the country share many common features, some contrasts are quite significant. Canada is bilingual at the federal level, but French is Québec’s only official language and the Charter of the French Language, which regulates the use of language in many areas of social life, has constitutional status in that province. A long-standing agreement lets Québec handle the selection of its own immigrants with a similar system than the one used by the federal government for Ontario and other provinces, but with different weighing assigned to language skills. Also, religious diversity is treated differently in the two Canadian provinces, on account of diverging views on secularism, even if both share a public commitment to the protection of minorities. Likewise, there is a difference in their policy approaches regarding the promotion of cultural expressions and the arts, partly because of the French-speaking people’s nationalist outlook. In sum, Canada’s case demonstrates that a country can embrace more than a single approach to diversity. Québec has taken a different path and, in a way, showcases a “third way” between North American multiculturalism and European-like integrationism.

  1. A Binational Overview of Reproductive Health Outcomes Among US Hispanic and Mexican Women in the Border Region

    OpenAIRE

    Jill A. McDonald, PhD; Octavio Mojarro, MS; Paul D. Sutton, PhD; Stephanie J. Ventura, MA

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The US–Mexico border region has 15 million residents and 300,000 births annually. Reproductive health concerns have been identified on both sides of the border, but comparable information about reproductive health is not available. The objective of this study was to compare reproductive health indicators among populations in this region. Methods We used 2009 US Hispanic and Mexican birth certificate data to compare births inside the border region, elsewhere within the border stat...

  2. Binational Studies Leading to an Ecosystems-based Management Strategy for Common Thresher Shark in the Southern California Bight (SCB).

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Jeffrey B.; Cartamil, Daniel P.

    2010-01-01

    Survey of the Mexican SCB Sector Artisanal and Commercial Shark Fisheries Hypotheses: a) Common thresher sharks represent a substantial portion of the catch of artisanal and commercial shark fisheries in the Mexican SCB sector. b) Exploitation of common threshers and other elasmobranchs is important to the economy of northern Baja California and, by extension, is directly linked to U.S. fishery management. Mexican SCB Longlining Survey Hypotheses: a) Thresher shark nursery grounds extend sout...

  3. The US/Mexico Border: A Binational Approach to Framing Challenges and Constructing Solutions for Improving Farmworkers’ Lives

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Aranda; Maia Ingram; Antonio Zapien; Alma Delia Contreras Paniagua; Maria Isabel Ortega; Jill Guernsey De Zapien; Cecilia Rosales

    2012-01-01

    Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the US-Mexico border region face health hazards and occupational risks and are becoming commonly known in the public health literature. According to several studies, farmworkers have high levels of chronic diseases such as diabetes and respiratory problems, are at risk for infectious diseases, and experience among the highest incidences of work-related injuries of any profession. The findings from two studies are considered an...

  4. The management of stakeholder and public participation at US and binational AOCs: Overcoming challenges and looking beyond delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although stakeholder and public participation has been important throughout the history of the AOC program, the process of involving stakeholders in preparing and implementing RAPs—along with the challenges involved with this process—has varied both historically and g...

  5. Binational Dengue Outbreak Along the United States-Mexico Border - Yuma County, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson M; Lopez, Benito; Adams, Laura; Gálvez, Francisco Javier Navarro; Núñez, Alfredo Sánchez; Santillán, Nubia Astrid Hernández; Plante, Lydia; Hemme, Ryan R; Casal, Mariana; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Acevedo, Veronica; Ernst, Kacey; Hayden, Mary; Waterman, Steve; Gomez, Diana; Sharp, Tyler M; Komatsu, Kenneth K

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is an acute febrile illness caused by any of four dengue virus types (DENV-1-4). DENVs are transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes (1) and are endemic throughout the tropics (2). In 2010, an estimated 390 million DENV infections occurred worldwide (2). During 2007-2013, a total of three to 10 dengue cases were reported annually in Arizona and all were travel-associated. During September-December 2014, coincident with a dengue outbreak in Sonora, Mexico, 93 travel-associated dengue cases were reported in Arizona residents; 70 (75%) cases were among residents of Yuma County, which borders San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora, Mexico. San Luis Río Colorado reported its first case of locally acquired dengue in September 2014. To investigate the temporal relationship of the dengue outbreaks in Yuma County and San Luis Río Colorado and compare patient characteristics and signs and symptoms, passive surveillance data from both locations were analyzed. In addition, household-based cluster investigations were conducted near the residences of reported dengue cases in Yuma County to identify unreported cases and assess risk for local transmission. Surveillance data identified 52 locally acquired cases (21% hospitalized) in San Luis Río Colorado and 70 travel-associated cases (66% hospitalized) in Yuma County with illness onset during September-December 2014. Among 194 persons who participated in the cluster investigations in Yuma County, 152 (78%) traveled to Mexico at least monthly during the preceding 3 months. Four (2%) of 161 Yuma County residents who provided serum samples for diagnostic testing during cluster investigations had detectable DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM); one reported a recent febrile illness, and all four had traveled to Mexico during the preceding 3 months. Entomologic assessments among 105 households revealed 24 water containers per 100 houses colonized by Ae. aegypti. Frequent travel to Mexico and Ae. aegypti colonization indicate risk for local transmission of DENV in Yuma County. Public health officials in Sonora and Arizona should continue to collaborate on dengue surveillance and educate the public regarding mosquito abatement and avoidance practices. Clinicians evaluating patients from the U.S.-Mexico border region should consider dengue in patients with acute febrile illness and report suspected cases to public health authorities. PMID:27196619

  6. Binational air quality studies along the Arizona-Sonora border: Ambos Nogales and Douglas-Agua Prieta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy, G.J. Keene, F.E.

    1999-07-01

    A study to address Ambos (Both) Nogales' air quality concerns was conducted by the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ), in conjunction with Mexico's Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca (SEMARNAP), from 1994 to 1998. The study, which is part of the US-Mexico Border XXI Program, consisted of the following tasks: (1) air sampling/monitoring; (2) emissions inventory; (3) meteorological modeling; and, (4) health risk assessment. The following types of samples were collected: particulate matter (PM); volatile organic compounds; semi-volatile organic compounds; and aldehydes. All samples were collected for a 24-hour period; every sixth day during the warm months (April--September), and every third day during the cold months (October--March). There were a total of six sampling stations; three on each side of the border. PM samples were collected at all six sites, while samples for Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) were collected at four of those sites. Sample analyses were performed at the Desert Research Institute (DRI) in Reno, Nevada. Furthermore, four of the sites were outfitted with meteorological equipment, in order to gather data on wind speed and direction. PM and meteorological data are still being collected at two sampling sites, one in Arizona and one in Sonora. An emissions inventory of point, mobile and area sources for the Ambos Nogales area (12 x 19 km. domain), was developed following completion of the sampling effort. In order to accomplish this task, ADEQ contracted the services of RADIAN International and Powers Engineering; which in turn enlisted the services of Heuristica Ambiental of Hermosillo, Sonora. This task was completed in July, 1997. Vehicular emissions were found to be one of the main contributors of air emissions in the Ambos Nogales area. The third task of this project consisted developing meteorological models of the study area.

  7. One Shared Region and Two Different Change Patterns: Land Use Change in the Binational Californian Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Eaton-Gonzalez; Eric Mellink

    2015-01-01

    The Californian Floristic Province, ranging from Northern California, USA, to the northwestern portion of the state of Baja California, Mexico, is a region of great biological richness that has a high risk of loss of species due to the effect of human activities. The main stressor that threatens its biodiversity is the change in land use and vegetation cover, which severely impacts the environmental and socio-economic systems’ functioning, affecting the provision of environmental services inc...

  8. Incidence and Predictors of Multiple Fractures Despite High Adherence to Oral Bisphosphonates: A Binational Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Samuel; Javaid, M Kassim; Rubin, Katrine H; Judge, Andrew; Arden, Nigel K; Vestergaard, Peter; Eastell, Richard; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Cooper, Cyrus; Abrahamsen, Bo; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Oral bisphosphonates (BPs) are highly effective in preventing fractures and are recommended first-line therapies for patients with osteoporosis. We identified the incidence and predictors of oral BP treatment failure, defined as the incidence of two or more fractures while on treatment (≥2 FWOT) among users with high adherence. Fractures were considered from 6 months after treatment initiation and up to 6 months after discontinuation. Data from computerized records and pharmacy invoices were obtained from Sistema d'Informació per al Desenvolupament de l'Investigació en Atenció Primària (SIDIAP; Catalonia, Spain) and Danish Health Registries (Denmark) for all incident users of oral BPs in 2006-2007 and 2000-2001, respectively. Fine and Gray survival models using backward-stepwise selection (p-entry 0.049; p- exit 0.10) and accounting for the competing risk of therapy cessation were used to identify predictors of ≥2 FWOT among patients having persisted with treatment ≥6 months with overall medication possession ratio (MPR) ≥80%. Incidence of ≥2 FWOT was 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 3.2) and 1.7 (95% CI, 1.2 to 2.2) per 1000 patient-years (PYs) within Catalonia and Denmark, respectively. Older age was predictive of ≥2 FWOT in both Catalonian and Danish cohorts: subhazard ratio (SHR) = 2.28 (95% CI, 1.11 to 4.68) and SHR = 2.61 (95% CI, 0.98 to 6.95), respectively, for 65 to <80 years; and SHR = 3.19 (95% CI, 1.33 to 7.69) and SHR = 4.88 (95% CI, 1.74 to 13.7), respectively, for ≥80 years. Further significant predictors of ≥2 FWOT identified within only one cohort were dementia, SHR = 4.46 (95% CI, 1.02 to 19.4) (SIDIAP); and history of recent or older fracture, SHR = 3.40 (95% CI, 1.50 to 7.68) and SHR = 2.08 (95% CI: 1.04-4.15), respectively (Denmark). Even among highly adherent users of oral BP therapy, a minority sustain multiple fractures while on treatment. Older age was predictive of increased risk within both study populations, as was history of recent/old fracture and dementia within one but not both populations. Additional and/or alternative strategies should be investigated for these patients. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26174968

  9. and Disaster: A Bi-National Case Study of Ciudad Acuña, Coahuila and Del Rio, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Tiefenbacher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta la investigación, vulnerabilidad y riesgo de diluvio en dos comunidades de la zona fronteriza. El modelo para evaluar la debilidad se aplica a EE.UU. y las comunidades de Del Río y Ciudad Acuña para dar cuenta de la distribución espacial de las características de las personas, lugares, barrios y sistemas que infl uyen en los impactos de eventos de diluvio que ocurren a lo largo del Río Grande / Río Bravo. Los datos espaciales de EE.UU. y los censos en México de 2000 se combinan al grupo del bloque y Área Geográfi ca Estadística Básica (AGEB para determinar las balanzas que evalúen el descriptor demográfi co y otro de las áreas afectadas por los diluvios. Se resaltan las diferencias entre los modelos resultantes de vulnerabilidades a la distribución de riesgo de diluvio en las dos ciudades y se discuten las implicaciones de estos modelos.

  10. Validation of Neutron Calculation Codes and Models by means of benchmark cases in the frame of the Binational Commission of Nuclear Energy. Criticality Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In year 2008 the Atomic Energy National Commission (CNEA) of Argentina, and the Brazilian Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research (IPEN), under the frame of Nuclear Energy Argentine Brazilian Agreement (COBEN), among many others, included the project “Validation and Verification of Calculation Methods used for Research and Experimental Reactors. At this time, it was established that the validation was to be performed with models implemented in the deterministic codes HUEMUL and PUMA (cell and reactor codes) developed by CNEA and those ones implemented in MCNP by CNEA and IPEN. The necessary data for these validations would correspond to theoretical-experimental reference cases in the research reactor IPEN/MB-01 located in São Paulo, Brazil. The staff of the group Reactor and Nuclear Power Studies (SERC) of CNEA, from the argentine side, performed calculations with deterministic models (HUEMUL-PUMA) and probabilistic methods (MCNP) modeling a great number of physical situations of de reactor, which previously have been studied and modeled by members of the Center of Nuclear Engineering of the IPEN, whose results were extensively provided to CNEA. In this paper results for critical configurations are shown. (author)

  11. Validation of Neutron Calculation Codes and Models by means of benchmark cases in the frame of the Binational Commission of Nuclear Energy. Probabilistic Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In year 2008 the Atomic Energy National Commission (CNEA) of Argentina, and the Brazilian Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research (IPEN), under the frame of Nuclear Energy Argentine Brazilian Agreement (COBEN), among many others, included the project “Validation and Verification of Calculation Methods used for Research and Experimental Reactors. At this time, it was established that the validation was to be performed with models implemented in the deterministic codes HUEMUL and PUMA (cell and reactor codes) developed by CNEA and those ones implemented in MCNP by CNEA and IPEN. The necessary data for these validations would correspond to theoretical-experimental reference cases in the research reactor IPEN/MB-01 located in São Paulo, Brazil. The staff of the group Reactor and Nuclear Power Studies (SERC) of CNEA, from the argentine side, performed calculations with deterministic models (HUEMUL-PUMA) and probabilistic methods (MCNP) modeling a great number of physical situations of de reactor, which previously have been studied and modeled by members of the Center of Nuclear Engineering of the IPEN, whose results were extensively provided to CNEA. In this paper results of comparison of calculated and experimental results for critical configurations, temperature coefficients, kinetic parameters and fission rates evaluated with probabilistic models spatial distributions are shown. (author)

  12. Development of a Bi-National Great Lakes Coastal Wetland and Land Use Map Using Three-Season PALSAR and Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bourgeau-Chavez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods using extensive field data and three-season Landsat TM and PALSAR imagery were developed to map wetland type and identify potential wetland stressors (i.e., adjacent land use for the United States and Canadian Laurentian coastal Great Lakes. The mapped area included the coastline to 10 km inland to capture the region hydrologically connected to the Great Lakes. Maps were developed in cooperation with the overarching Great Lakes Consortium plan to provide a comprehensive regional baseline map suitable for coastal wetland assessment and management by agencies at the local, tribal, state, and federal levels. The goal was to provide not only land use and land cover (LULC baseline data at moderate spatial resolution (20–30 m, but a repeatable methodology to monitor change into the future. The prime focus was on mapping wetland ecosystem types, such as emergent wetland and forested wetland, as well as to delineate wetland monocultures (Typha, Phragmites, Schoenoplectus and differentiate peatlands (fens and bogs from other wetland types. The overall accuracy for the coastal Great Lakes map of all five lake basins was 94%, with a range of 86% to 96% by individual lake basin (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie and Superior.

  13. Social Work and Social Work Education in Times of Crises. A comparative Bi-National Study on Disability, Social Change and Social Policy in Slovenia and Luxembourg.

    OpenAIRE

    Limbach-Reich, Arthur; Zavirsek, Darja

    2015-01-01

    The current economic and social crisis in the EU has an impact on the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD, 2006), a challenge that has only just begun to emerge as a collective task within social work and has matured as an important topic in social work education and research within European social work. This paper brings together findings from two countries (Luxembourg and Slovenia), comparing the situation of persons with disabilities and foc...

  14. Utilization of a Binational Training Program to Investigate the Prevalence, Correlates, and Etiology of Anemia Among Women and Children in Rural Baja California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Moor, Molly Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a public health concern among Mexican women and children, particularly among those of low socioeconomic status and indigenous heritage. Conducting research among vulnerable populations requires a dependable, long-term relationship with community support and engagement. Thus, Viajes Interinstitucional de Integración, Docente, Asistencia y de Investigación [VIIDAI] (Inter-institutional Field Experiences for Integration, Teaching, Medical Service, and Research), a partners...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A BI-NATIONAL GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT MODEL TO PROVIDE FOR A SUSTAINABLE WATER SUPPLY WITHIN THE EL PASO / CIUDAD JUAREZ REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The El Paso/Juarez region is the largest metropolitan area along the United States /Mexico border. The area is in need of a long-term water management plan to include groundwater and surface water, due to the scarcity of fresh groundwater and because it has a population growt...

  16. A Physical Assessment of the Opportunities for Improved Management of the Water Resources of the Bi-National Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, J.; McKinney, D.; Valdes, J.; Guitron, A.; Thomas, G.

    2007-05-01

    The hydro-physical opportunities for expanding the beneficial uses of the fixed water supply in the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin to better satisfy an array of water management goals are examined. These include making agriculture more resilient to periodic conditions of drought, improving the reliability of supplies to cities and towns, and restoring lost environmental functions in the river system. This is a comprehensive, outcome-neutral, model- based planning exercise performed by some 20 technical, primarily non-governmental institutions from both countries, aimed at proposing strategies that can reduce future conflicts over water throughout the entire basin. The second track consists in generating a set of future water management scenarios that respond to the needs and objectives of the basin stakeholders in each segment and each country. An array of scenarios for improved water management has been developed for the lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin in Texas and the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. Another set under development will focus on the Rio Conchos and the El Paso/Juarez region. Eventually, scenarios will be generated such that will comprehend the entire basin on both sides of the border. These scenarios are the product of consultations with agricultural water districts, governmental organizations and environmental NGOs. They include strategies for reducing the physical losses of water in the system, conservation transfers, improvements in the operations of the Mexican and international reservoirs, improvements in environmental flow conditions, improvements in reliability of water supplies, and drought coping strategies.These scenarios will be evaluated for hydrologic feasibility by the basin-wide model and the gaming exercises. Modeling is necessary to understand how these options will affect the entire system and how they can be crafted to maximize the benefits and avoid unintended or uncompensated effects. The scenarios that have the potential to provide large mutual benefits to all stakeholders in the basin will then be subjected to an economic feasibility analysis, and, finally, a legal and political feasibility analysis. The scenario development, hydrologic modeling, economic and institutional analysis will culminate in the presentation of technical recommendations to policy-makers on both sides of the border on the potential for improved water management in the basin.

  17. A Binational Study of Patient-Initiated Changes to Antiretroviral Therapy Regimen Among HIV-positive Latinos Living in the Mexico–U.S. Border Region

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga, María Luisa; Muñoz, Fátima; Kozo, Justine; Blanco, Estela; Scolari, Rosana

    2012-01-01

    Research is lacking on factors associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) sub-optimal adherence among U.S. Latinos, who are disproportionately affected by HIV and face substantial health care barriers. We examined self-reported, patient-initiated changes to ART (i.e., made small/major changes from the antiretroviral drugs prescribed) among HIV-positive Latinos. Trained interviewers administered surveys to 230 participants currently on ART in San Diego, U.S. and Tijuana, Mexico. We identifie...

  18. Early-Age Alcohol Use and Later Alcohol Problems in Adolescents: Individual and Peer Mediators in a Bi-National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, W. Alex; Toumbourou, John W.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.; Patton, George C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether there is cross-national similarity in the longitudinal relationship between early-age alcohol use and adolescent alcohol problems. Potential mechanisms underlying this relationship also are examined, testing adolescent alcohol use, low self-regulation, and peer deviance as possible mediators. Students (N=1945) participating in the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal panel survey study, responded to questions on alcohol use and influencing factors,...

  19. The Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acids, Vitamin E and Their Com¬bination on Lipid Peroxidation in Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Aryaeian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Reactive oxygen species (ROS have important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA. We investigated the effect of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation."nMethods: In a randomized, double-blind placebo, controlled, clinical trial 87 patients with active RA were enrolled. They were divided into 4 groups, received one of the following daily supplement for 3 months; 1- group C: 2.5gr CLA, that con­tained 2 gr 50:50 mix of cis 9-trans11 and trans 10-cis 12 CLAs, 2- group E: 400mg Vitamin E, 3- group CE: CLAs  plus vita­min E, 4- group P: placebo. After supplementation Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px level increased in C, E and CE groups, CE group had  lower GSH-Px than P group(P≤ 0.05."nResults: Glutathione reductase (GR increased in CE, C and P groups. Catalase increased in all groups, but enhancement was significant in C and CE. Superoxide dismutase (SOD decreased in E and C (P≤ 0.05. Catalase and SOD did not show signifi­cant differences between groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA decreased significantly in all groups but this decrease was only significant in CE in comparison with other groups."nConclusion:  CLAs might be useful in reducing oxidative stress in RA

  20. Asociación inversa entre asma y defectos del tubo neural: estudio ecológico binacional Inverse association between asthma and neural tube defects: a binational ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario H Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Los donadores de metilo como el ácido fólico previenen defectos del tubo neural (DTN, pero estudios recientes sugieren que también favorecen el desarrollo de asma. En este trabajo exploramos una posible asociación ecológica entre DTN y asma. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se consultaron bases de datos de México y EUA para obtener información sobre distribución geográfica (por estado y tendencia temporal (por año de DTN y asma. RESULTADOS: Los estados con menor frecuencia de DTN tuvieron mayor frecuencia de asma, tanto en México (rS=-0.48, p=0.005 como en EUA (rS=-0.39, p=0.005. Las tendencias temporales también mostraron correlación inversa en México (1997-2007, rS=-0.73, p=0.01 y EUA (1979-1998, rS=-0.91, pOBJECTIVE: Dietary intake of methyl donors such as folic acid prevents neural tube defects (NTD, but recent studies showed that it might also favor the development of asthma. In this work a possible ecological association between NTD and asthma was explored. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data bases from Mexico and the United States (US were reviewed to obtain information about geographical distribution (by state and temporal trends (by year of NTD and asthma. RESULTS: Those states with the lowest frequency of NTD had the highest frequency of asthma, both in Mexico (rS=-0.48, p=0.005 and US (rS=-0.39, p=0.005. Temporal trends also showed an inverse correlation in Mexico (1997-2007, rS=-0.73, p=0.01 and US (1979-1998, rS=-0.91, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In both countries the frequency of asthma inversely correlated with the frequency of NTD, both in geographical distribution and annual trends, giving support to the possibility that methyl donors intake in diet or supplements is influencing the asthma frequency.

  1. Testimony submitted to the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary “The Uniting American Families Act: Addressing Inequality in Federal Immigration Law”

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary

    2009-01-01

    I am pleased to offer testimony for this UAFA hearing showing that, like their different-sex married counterparts, the nearly 36,000 same-sex bi-national couples living in the U.S. are in stable relationships, raising children, and making positive contributions to the economic and social life of this country. I commend Senator Leahy for advocating for inclusion of gay and lesbian bi-national families through comprehensive immigration reform.

  2. Bioacumulação de metais pesados e nutrientes no mexilhão dourado do reservatório da Usina Hidrelétrica de Itaipu Binacional Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and nutrients in the golden mussel of the reservoir of the Itaipu Binational Hydroelectric power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Garcia Marengoni; Elcio Silvério Klosowski; Katiane Pimenta de Oliveira; Ana Paula Sartorio Chambo; Affonso Celso Gonçalves Junior

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the bioaccumulation of macronutrients and heavy metals in the golden mussel according to its collection site and seasonality in the aquaculture area of the reservoir from April/2009 to March/2010. There is no difference (p > 0.05) in the concentration of metals with respect to the point of collection. The concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd and Pb were higher (p < 0.05) in spring and summer than in fall and winter. Values of the heavy-metal pollution index (MPI) f...

  3. Technology evaluation of a USA-Mexico health information system for epidemiological surveillance of Mexican migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Mondragón, H E; Martin, J; Chacón-Sosa, F

    2000-03-01

    From 1994 through 1996, federal, state, and nongovernmental organizations in Mexico and in the United States of America developed and piloted a Binational Health Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Mexican migrant workers. The system allowed data exchange for epidemiological surveillance between the state of Guanajuato in Mexico and the Commonwealth (state) of Pennsylvania in the United States, for case detection, prevention, and treatment, through shared contact investigation and case management of communicable diseases. The target population consisted of migrant workers traveling between Guanajuato and Pennsylvania to work mainly in the mushroom industry, and their sexual partners in their Mexican communities of origin. Computerized migrant health information modules were set up in Guanajuato and in Pennsylvania. Patient information and epidemiological surveillance data were encrypted and communicated electronically between the modules, using the WONDER communications system of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluation of the Guanajuato-Pennsylvania Binational Health Information System showed that major barriers to binational epidemiological surveillance and control are: a) lack of communication binationally; b) interrupted medical care due to migration; c) inconsistent diagnosis and treatment criteria between the two countries; d) lack of referral clinical records from one country to the other; and e) deficient legal regulations concerning binational clinical data transfer. To our knowledge, this is the first project that has successfully demonstrated the technological feasibility of a binational disease control system linking a state in the interior of one country with a state in the interior of another country, rather than just states in the border region. The project also advanced the understanding of health service organizational issues that facilitate or hinder communication, outreach, disease prevention, and

  4. 76 FR 58781 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... Plans; Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...- National Recovery Plan (Recovery Plan) for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii). The Recovery...: The Bi-National Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) is available...

  5. Performance improvement through quality evaluation of sterile Argentine cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  6. 76 FR 57983 - Notice of the Availability of the Draft Framework for the U.S.-Mexico Environmental Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ...The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (Mexico's Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources, SEMARNAT) is announcing the availability of the draft document, ``Border 2020: U.S.-Mexico Environmental Program''. Border 2020 is an eight-year, bi-national, results-oriented, environmental program for the U.S.-Mexico border......

  7. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which to build…

  8. The Role of Online Communication in Raising Awareness of Bilingual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Children of binational couples are often raised in the community of one of the parents and, thus, have limited exposure to the language of the other parent. This study focuses on a British/Moroccan family in the UK, where English is the dominant home language and Moroccan Arabic is the "other" language. Analysis of "live"…

  9. Mapping socio-environmentally vulnerable populations access and exposure to ecosystem services at the U.S.-Mexico borderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Lara-Valencia, Francisco; Yuan, Yongping; Nie, Wenming; Wilson, Sylvia; Amaya, Gladys; Sleeter, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Socio-environmental vulnerable populations are often unrepresented in land-use planning yet have great potential for loss when exposed to changes in ecosystem services. Administrative boundaries, cultural differences, and language barriers increase the disassociation between land-use management and marginalized populations living in the U.S.–Mexico borderlands. This paper describes the development of a Modified Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index (M-SEVI), using determinants from binational census and neighborhood data that describe levels of education, access to resources, migratory status, housing, and number of dependents, to provide a simplified snapshot of the region's populace that can be used in binational planning efforts. We apply this index at the SCW, located on the border between Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. For comparison, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool is concurrently applied to assess the provision of erosion- and flood control services over a 9-year period. We describe how this coupling of data can form the base for an ecosystem services assessment across political boundaries that can be used by land-use planners. Results reveal potential disparities in environmental risks and burdens throughout the binational watershed in residential districts surrounding and between urban centers. The M-SEVI can be used as an important first step in addressing environmental justice for binational decision-making.

  10. Hot rolling condition effect on properties and structure of sheets of high-strength stainless martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical properties and the structure of high strength VNS-2 and VNS-5 steels depending on the regimes of hot rolling are investigated. It is established that the best com. bination of strength and toughness is achieved during rolling in the temperature range of 1100-850 deg C after seven passes with a summary deformation of 87 %

  11. "Cooking Lunch, That's Swiss": Constructing Hybrid Identities Based on Socio-Cultural Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Kellie

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the discursive construction and negotiation of hybrid identities within binational couples. I analyze conversations produced by Anglophones married to German-speaking Swiss residing in central Switzerland. I employ Bucholtz & Hall's sociocultural linguistic model (2004, 2005, 2010), which views identity as emergent in…

  12. Law 18.871. It approve the Security Energetic agreement between the Republic of Uruguay and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal of this law is the agreement between Venezuela and Uruguay about the implementation of the energy security legislation . Both countries are committed to have a binational structure in this follows areas: oil, gas, refining, petrochemicals, transport, storage, electricity, alternative energy and marine transport

  13. Drug: D00062 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00062 Drug D-Mannitol (JP16); Mannitol (USP); Osmitrol (TN); Tobrex (TN) C6H14O6 182.079 182.17 ... ol (JP16); Mannitol (USP) R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB16 Mannitol D00 ...

  14. Drug: D05580 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05580 Drug Potassium guaiacolsulfonate (USP); Potassium guaiacolsulfonate hydrate (C7H7O2. SO3K ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CA Expectorants R05CA09 Guaiacolsu ...

  15. Drug: D00337 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00337 Drug Guaifenesin (JP16/USP/INN); Hustosil (TN); Robitussin (TN) C10H14O4 198.0892 198.215 ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CA Expectorants R05CA03 Guaifenesi ...

  16. Drug: D03318 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03318 Drug Wood creosote (JP16); Creosote (TN) Therapeutic category: 2619 ATC code: R05CA08 The ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CA Expectorants R05CA08 Creosote D ...

  17. Drug: D07542 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07542 Drug Bromhexine (INN); Fluibron (TN) C14H20Br2N2 373.9993 376.13 D07542.gif Expectorant A ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB02 Bromhexine D ...

  18. Drug: D00221 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00221 Drug Acetylcysteine (JP16/USP/INN); Mucomyst (TN) C5H9NO3S 163.0303 163.1949 D00221.gif M ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB01 Acetylcystei ...

  19. Drug: D08520 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08520 Drug Sobrerol; Cyclidrol; Mucoflux (TN); Sobrepin (TN) C10H18O2 170.1307 170.2487 D08520. ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB07 Sobrerol D08 ...

  20. Drug: D07383 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07383 Drug Erdosteine (INN); Mucotec (TN) C8H11NO4S2 249.0129 249.3072 D07383.gif Mucolytic ATC ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB15 Erdosteine D ...

  1. Drug: D07554 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07554 Drug Acetylcysteine sodium salt; L-Cysteine, N-acetyl-, sodium salt; Acetylcysteine Sodiu ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB01 Acetylcystei ...

  2. Drug: D06393 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06393 Drug Carbocysteine (USAN); Carbocisteine (INN); Mucofan (TN) C5H9NO4S 179.0252 179.1943 D ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB03 Carbocistein ...

  3. Drug: D01610 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01610 Drug Potassium guaiacolsulfonate (JP16); Sulfogaiacol (INN) C7H7O2. SO3K 241.9651 242.290 ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CA Expectorants R05CA09 Guaiacolsu ...

  4. Drug: D01106 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01106 Drug Eprazinone hydrochloride (JAN); Resplen (TN) C24H32N2O2. 2HCl 452.1997 453.445 D0110 ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB04 Eprazinone D ...

  5. Drug: D07618 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07618 Drug Carbocisteine sodium salt; Mucopront (TN) C5H8NO4S. Na 201.0072 201.1761 D07618.gif ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB03 Carbocistein ...

  6. Drug: D07380 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07380 Drug Letosteine (INN); Viscotiol (TN) C10H17NO4S2 279.0599 279.3763 D07380.gif Mucolytic ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB09 Letosteine D ...

  7. Drug: D00175 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00175 Drug L-Carbocisteine (JP16); Mucodyne (TN) C5H9NO4S 179.0252 179.1943 D00175.gif Expector ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB03 Carbocistein ...

  8. Drug: D01778 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01778 Drug Bromhexine hydrochloride (JP16/USAN); Bisolvon (TN) C14H20Br2N2. HCl 409.976 412.590 ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB02 Bromhexine D ...

  9. Drug: D04115 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04115 Drug Eucalyptol (USAN); Cineole C10H18O 154.1358 154.2493 D04115.gif Same as: C09844 ATC ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CA Expectorants R05CA13 Cineole D0 ...

  10. MODELING OF SPINEL SETTLING IN WASTE GLASS MELTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The topic of this multi-institutional bi-national research is the formation and settling of spinel, the most common crystalline phase that precipitates in molten high-level waste HLW) glass. For the majority of HLW streams, spinel formation in the HLW melter limits the waste fra...

  11. The Impact of Cultural and Linguistic Diversity on Scientific Joint Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Zahra

    1999-01-01

    Examines the extent to which informal orders of the host educational environment affect conducting binational scientific projects in academic environments as perceived by the participants from the parties involved. Also studied is whether executing such projects is affected by linguistic factors. Projects under investigation were carried out by…

  12. My Classroom: Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Angela Huanca Barrantes, a highly respected teacher of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the city of Ilo, has a strong impact on the lives of students at the Admirante Miguel Grau secondary school and at Centro Cultural Peruano Norteamericano, which is one of four binational centers in southern Peru. Due to Ms. Huanca's lack of understanding…

  13. Viable Global Networked Learning. JSRI Occasional Paper No. 23. Latino Studies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Armando A., Jr.

    This paper discusses an innovative paradigm for looking at computer mediated/networked teaching, learning, and research known as BESTNET (Binational English and Spanish Telecommunications Network). BESTNET is functionally defined as an international community of universities and institutions linked by common educational goals and processes,…

  14. Computer-Mediated Classrooms for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Armando, Jr.; Bellman, Beryl

    1990-01-01

    Describes a project that uses computer mediated communication in universities in the United States and Mexico to teach minority students effectively. BESTNET (Binational English and Spanish Telecommunications Network) is explained, use for distance education is discussed, computer conferencing and electronic mail are described, and problems of…

  15. Computer Communications and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellman, Beryl L.

    1992-01-01

    Computer conferencing offers many opportunities for linking college students and faculty at a distance. From the Binational English and Spanish Telecommunications Network (BESTNET) has evolved a variety of bilingual video/computer/face-to-face instructional packages to serve institutions and nontraditional students on several continents. (MSE)

  16. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  17. Characterizaton of the Zarumilla aquifer - Peru, Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1998, Peru and Ecuador signed the Brasilia Agreements on Ecuadro-Peru border issues, representing the end of historical conflicts, differences and misunderstnadings. The two countries became partners after years of armed conflicts, and move forward through cooperation and integration, both facing social and aconomic challenges. In May 2001, the Special Bi-national Project Puyango-Tumbes (Peru) and the Ecuadorian Commission PREDESUR, province of El Oro, as technical institutes in charge of projects dealing with binational development, were invited to participate in the regional project RLA/8/031. The results of the first phase of the study are presented in this document. The study will be continued under the TC project RlA/8/039 - 'Characterization of the Zarumilla aquifer and monitoring of water quality in the Puyango-Tumbes basin'. (author)

  18. Renegotiating the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement: The Process for a Sustainable Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Krantzberg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a defining moment for the Great Lakes St Lawrence region, with the opportunity to renovate the regime for ecosystem improvement, protection and sustainability. The binational Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was first signed in 1972. The outcome of a 2007 review of the Agreement by government and citizens, resulted in a broad call for and revisions to the Agreement, so that it can once again serve as a visionary document driving binational cooperation to address long-standing, new and emerging Great Lakes environmental issues in the 21st century. A prescription for renegotiating the Agreement to generate a revitalized and sustainable future mandates that science inform contemporary public policy, third Party Mediation presses for and coordinates a deliberate negotiation, and inclusive discourse and public engagement be integral through the process.

  19. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under Different Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica De Falco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows. This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  20. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission–Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United Sta...

  1. Establishment of a One Health Surveillance Initiative in the CA/Baja CA Border Region

    OpenAIRE

    Marikos, Sarah C.; Ferran, Karen L.; Iniguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; NAVARRO, FRANCISCO JAVIER MONGE

    2013-01-01

    Objective To showcase One Border One Health, a binational, multidiscipli-nary initiative in the California/Baja California (CA/BC) border region whose aim is to reconfigure traditional species-specific approaches to surveillance for emerging and re-emerging pathogens. Introduction The CA/BC border region encompasses a wide range of ecosystems, topography, dense urban areas, and agricultural developments that coexist in a limited geographic area and create numerous human-animal-environmental i...

  2. A new species of Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopidae, Cyclopinae) from the Chihuahuan desert, northern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Mercado-Salas; Eduardo Suarez-Morales; Alejandro Maeda-Martínez; Marcelo Silva-Briano

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the freshwater cyclopoid copepod genus Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is described from a single pond in northern Mexico, within the binational area known as the Chihuahuan Desert. This species belongs to a group of Metacyclops species with a 3443 spine formula of swimming legs. It is morphologically similar to Metacyclops lusitanus Lindberg, 1961 but differs from this and other congeners by having a unique combination of characters, including a caudal rami length/width pr...

  3. The Development of a Novice Teacher's Autonomy in the Context of EFL in Colombia El desarrollo de la autonomía de una profesora principiante en el contexto de la enseñanza de inglés como lengua extranjera en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Frodden; Diana Pineda

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the experience of a novice English teacher taking part in a collaborative action research project with a group of children in a bi-national language center in Colombia, where a theme-based approach to teaching had been recently introduced. The purpose of the study was to learn how to solve problems encountered with the approach and to develop learner and teacher autonomy. The findings show how reflection, collaborative work and critical thinking were promoted and enabled ...

  4. The development of a novice teacher’s autonomy in the context of efl in colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda, Diana; Frodden, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the experience of a novice English teacher taking part in a collaborative action research project with a group of children in a bi-national language center in Colombia, where a theme-based approach to teaching had been recently introduced. The purpose of the study was to learn how to solve problems encountered with the approach and to develop learner and teacher autonomy. The findings show how reflection, collaborative work and critical thinking were promoted and enabled ...

  5. Public Policy Issues - Land-Use / Environment

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Steven E. Daniels: Resources for Land – Use Programming in the West and Northeast. Gregory Davis: Identifying Program Priorities Using a Statewide Food, Agriculture and Environmental Issues Survey. Mike Kroenke: Bi-National Program Poster to Protect Lake Superior. Mike Kroenke: Special Designation of Lake Superior-Four Years of Consensus Building by a Wisconsin DNR Multi-Interest Task Force Lead by UW-Extension. Shannon Williams: Range Stewardship Rides Build Ground in Lemhi County, Idaho.

  6. Expected Improvement in Efficient Global Optimization Through Bootstrapped Kriging - Replaces CentER DP 2010-62

    OpenAIRE

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C.; van Beers, W.C.M.; Nieuwenhuyse, I. van

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a sequentialized experimental design to select simulation input com- binations for global optimization, based on Kriging (also called Gaussian process or spatial correlation modeling); this Kriging is used to analyze the input/output data of the simulation model (computer code). This design and analysis adapt the clas- sic "expected improvement" (EI) in "efficient global optimization" (EGO) through the introduction of an unbiased estimator of the Kriging predictor variance; ...

  7. Computer-based business simulations as revealers of cultural and learning differences. The case of Business Administration and Business Informatics Students in Egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    Antheaume, Nicolas; Catalo, Marie; Ismail, Howayda

    2012-01-01

    In this article we demonstrate, through the case of Egypt, how the emphasis on one specific learning mode from primary through to secondary school, and to a lesser extent, culture, impact learning abilities. We describe how Egyptian students are impaired when confronted to learning modes they have not encountered prior to University, when they join a businessadministration, bi-national, double-degree programme. We explain how a "globalized" method (computer based business simulation) was blen...

  8. Identifying and Measuring the Lifelong Human Capital of “Unskilled” Migrants in the Mexico-US Migratory Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Hagan; Jean Luc Demonsant; Sergio Chávez

    2014-01-01

    Most human capital and migration studies classify migrants with limited formal education as “unskilled,” despite substantial skills developed through job and life experiences.  Drawing on a binational multi-stage research project that involved interviews with 320 Mexican migrants and return migrants in North Carolina and Guanajuato, Mexico, we identify the lifelong human capital they acquired and transferred throughout their careers and discover that these include not only basic education and...

  9. Technology evaluation of a USA-Mexico health information system for epidemiological surveillance of Mexican migrant workers

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Mondragón Héctor Eduardo; Martin Johnson; Chacón-Sosa Fernando

    2000-01-01

    From 1994 through 1996, federal, state, and nongovernmental organizations in Mexico and in the United States of America developed and piloted a Binational Health Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Mexican migrant workers. The system allowed data exchange for epidemiological surveillance between the state of Guanajuato in Mexico and the Commonwealth (state) of Pennsylvania in the United States, for case detection, prevention, and treatment, through shared contact investigat...

  10. Drug: D07902 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07902 Drug Eprazinone (INN) C24H32N2O2 380.2464 380.5231 D07902.gif Mucolytic ATC code: R05CB04 ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB04 Eprazinone D ...

  11. Drug: D07381 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07381 Drug Stepronin (INN) C10H11NO4S2 273.0129 273.3286 D07381.gif ATC code: R05CB11 Anatomica ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB11 Stepronin D0 ...

  12. Drug: D07382 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07382 Drug Neltenexine (INN) C18H20Br2N2O2S 485.9612 488.2366 D07382.gif Mucolytic ATC code: R0 ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB14 Neltenexine ...

  13. Drug: D01430 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01430 Drug Tiopronin (JAN/INN); Thiola (TN) C5H9NO3S 163.0303 163.1949 D01430.gif Antidote [DS: ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB12 Tiopronin D0 ...

  14. Drug: D03888 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03888 Drug Domiodol (USAN) C5H9IO3 243.9596 244.0276 D03888.gif Mucolytic ATC code: R05CB08 Ana ... assification [BR:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH ... AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05C EXPECTORANTS, EXCL. COM ... BINATIONS WITH COUGH ... SUPPRESSANTS R05CB Mucolytics R05CB08 Domiodol D03 ...

  15. 76 FR 61696 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Receipt of Petition and Tentative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... the U.S. Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1268). The Lake Ontario LaMP is a binational....00 Tuscarora SP Marina. 3 Tuscarora Yacht Tuscarora Bay.. 716-434-4475 9 a.m.-5 p.m... 7' $5.00 Club...' $5.00 Monroe--Irondeq 7 p.m.. uoit Bay NYS Marine. 7 Four C'S Marina Oak Orchard 585-682-4224 6...

  16. Developing a Community Tradition of Migration: A Field Study in rural Zacatecas, Mexico, and California Settlement Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mines, Richard

    1981-01-01

    This study sought to take a close-up look at cross-border Mexican migration by collecting detailed information about one binational migratory village-based community. five major findings have resulted from this investigation: 1. Migrants are generally poor rural or urban dwellers who depend on reciprocity networks of mutual exchange with their friends and relatives and not on public institutions for their survival. 2. Migratory networks undergo a maturation process over time. 3. Job and so...

  17. The Minimax Estimator of Stochastic Regression Coefficients and Parameters in the Class of All Estimators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wen XU; Song Gui WANG

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors address the problem of the minimax estimator of linear com-binations of stochastic regression coefficients and parameters in the general normal linear model with random effects. Under a quadratic loss function, the minimax property of linear estimators is inves- tigated. In the class of all estimators, the minimax estimator of estimable functions, which is unique with probability 1, is obtained under a multivariate normal distribution.

  18. Characteristics of Young Women Who Gave Birth in the US-Mexico Border Region, 2005: The Brownsville-Matamoros Sister City Project for Women’s Health

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Jill A.; Galván González, Francisco Gerardo; Mirchandani, Gita G; Castrucci, Brian C.; Gossman, Ginger L; Lewis, Kayan L; Ruiz, Mauro; Echegollen Guzmán, Alonso

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Childbearing during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with adverse effects on health and quality of life. Lowering birth rates among young women is a binational priority in the US-Mexico border region, yet baseline information about birth rates and pregnancy risk is lacking. Increased understanding of the characteristics of young women who give birth in the region will help target high-risk groups for sexual and reproductive health services. Methods We examined data o...

  19. Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystalline powder catalyzed one-pot synthesis of fully substituted new indeno[1,2-b]pyridines at room temperature by a multi-component reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heshmatollah Alinezhad; Sahar Mohseni Tavakkoli; Pourya Biparva

    2014-01-01

    Cu doped ZnO nanocrystalline powder (10 mol%) has been found to be an efficient catalyst for the one-pot multi-component synthesis of fully substituted new indeno[1,2-b]pyridines through a com-bination of 1,3-indandione, propiophenone or acetophenone derivatives, aromatic aldehydes, and ammonium acetate in ethanol/H2O at room temperature. The methodology is mild, efficient and high to excellent yielding.

  20. Regularization and error assignment to unfolded distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zech, Gunter

    2011-01-01

    The commonly used approach to present unfolded data only in graphical formwith the diagonal error depending on the regularization strength is unsatisfac-tory. It does not permit the adjustment of parameters of theories, the exclusionof theories that are admitted by the observed data and does not allow the com-bination of data from different experiments. We propose fixing the regulariza-tion strength by a p-value criterion, indicating the experimental uncertaintiesindependent of the regularization and publishing the unfolded data in additionwithout regularization. These considerations are illustrated with three differentunfolding and smoothing approaches applied to a toy example.

  1. Drug: D07802 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hate D DERMATOLOGICALS D07 CORTICOSTEROIDS, DERMATOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS D07A CORTICOSTEROIDS, PLAIN D07AB Co...rticosteroids, moderately potent (group II) D07AB19 Dexamethasone D07802 Dexamethasone phosphate D07X CORTICOSTEROIDS...7802 Dexamethasone phosphate H SYSTEMIC HORMONAL PREPARATIONS, EXCL. SEX HORMONES AND INSULINS H02 CORTICOSTEROIDS... FOR SYSTEMIC USE H02A CORTICOSTEROIDS FOR SYSTEMIC USE, PLAIN H02AB Glucoc...bination S01CB01 Dexamethasone D07802 Dexamethasone phosphate S02 OTOLOGICALS S02B CORTICOSTEROIDS S02BA Cor

  2. The Argentine-Brazilian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the Argentine-Brazilian Fast Reactor Programme and gives reasons for the decision of a binational venture. The work carried out by both countries is described, showing how they complement each other, with the corresponding saving of resources. The main objectives of the Programme and tentative schedules in three progressing integrating stages are given and the present nuclear know-how in each country is identified as a good starting point. The paper also gives some details regarding the economical and human resources involved. (author). 1 graph

  3. ''As you like it'': What is the advantage of environmental added value in the market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demand determines supply, or to put it differently, buyers determine the market. This holds true also of the product energy. The share of renewable energies - especially hydro-power - in the German power market is 5 per cent (in Switzerland it is 60 per cent). Will these energies fall victim to a sellout in a deregulated energy market, or is a green renaissance imminent? On account of their site, the bi-national hydro power stations on the upper Rhine will be among the first to join the deregulated European power market. (orig.)

  4. Foreword

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Mary Aizawa; Peres, João Andrade

    2005-01-01

    The papers published in this issue of the Journal of Portuguese Linguistics resulted from a binational project – Português Europeu e Português Brasileiro: Unidade e Diversidade na Passagem do Milénio (European and Brazilian Portuguese: Unity and Diversity at the Turn of the Century) –, launched in the year 2000, and coordinated by the guest editors and authors of this foreword, with the sponsorship of CNPq, in Brazil, and ICCTI, in Portugal. This comparative project has focused on the two bes...

  5. Immigrant advantage? Substance use among Latin American immigrant and native-born youth in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen; Luengo, Maria Ángeles; Nieri, Tanya; Villar, Paula

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the results of a descriptive study conducted with middle school and high school age youth residing in northwestern Spain. The main outcome of the study is to advance knowledge about the drug use attitudes and behaviors of immigrants versus native youth in a social context where Latin American immigrants share a common language and a set of core cultural norms with the host society. The research was conducted by a bi-national Spain–US research team as a preliminary study l...

  6. Punctuated Entropy as Culture-Induced Change:The Case of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher LDyer(Author); ZHANG Yongchun(Translators); LIU Yuan(Translators); YANG Gongwei(Translators)

    2013-01-01

    This article grew out of the obser-vation that as disaster events increase in frequency and severity , recovery from certain kinds , or com-binations of , disasters becomes increasingly diffi-cult, if not impossible.This phenomenon is not new.Throughout history , civilizations have faced ecological and cultural collapse resulting from drought , disease , or earthquake .It is made more cogent, however, by the rapidity of modern culture change , and the increased risk associated with hu-man-induced catastrophes , also known as techno-logical disasters .

  7. What can Iran gain by having a nuclear weapons program that threatens to destabilize security in the Middle East?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz

    lot of neigh- bouring countries fear such a development for security reasons. But why is Iran following a nuclear path that may further destabilise the fragile security situation in the Middle East? It is to do with Iran’s own perception of security risks, its desire for greatness in the region, and......- bination with its important strategic location by the Strait of Hormuz, and supports various political groupings in and around Syria and Iraq to attract the attention of the United States of American in an attempt to become recognised as the most important player in the Middle East. Should Iran succeed in...

  8. Systematic Approach for the Bonding in Ferrocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibanananda Jana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the systematic LCAO com binations of each of same symmetric 5 group MO’s on upper and lower C 5 H 5 rings, LGO’s are formed. Then considering the symmetries of the lobes below the upper ring and that of the lobes above the lower ring, when both the rings are either partitioned by th e nodal planes in possible geographical regions or not, and simultaneously taking the co - ordinate system, it is clear that which orbital on Fe(II will be suitable for which LGO one for chemical combination.

  9. Systematic Approach for the Bonding in Ferrocene.

    OpenAIRE

    Jibanananda Jana

    2014-01-01

    Through the systematic LCAO com binations of each of same symmetric 5 group MO’s on upper and lower C 5 H 5 rings, LGO’s are formed. Then considering the symmetries of the lobes below the upper ring and that of the lobes above the lower ring, when both the rings are either partitioned by th e nodal planes in possible geographical regions or not, and simultaneously taking the co - ordinate system, it is clear that which orbital on Fe(II) will be suitable for which LGO one for chemical combi...

  10. Chapter 7: Spills - AMOCO CADIZ (France), Bhopal (India), Chernobyl (U.S.S.R.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMOCO CADIZ, Bhopal and Chernobyl represent different levels of spill assessment and response. The impact sequence progresses from slow, barely lethal aquatic impact, through a sudden locally killing impact (Bhopal), to a massive potentially global disaster with long-term consequences (Chernobyl). The response sequence documented progresses from a planned binational emergency program to a completely overwhelmed virtually non-existing capability (Bhobal). At Chernobyl the response team had to scope with an unprecedented, globally threatening emergency requiring novel initiatives quickly, and with an international need-to-know. There are benefits for risk prediction and response planning in comparing spills. (DG)

  11. A LATINO ORAL HEALTH PARADOX? USING ETHNOGRAPHY TO SPECIFY THE BIO-CULTURAL FACTORS BEHIND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah B; Barker, Judith C

    2010-11-24

    This article presents evidence of a "Latino oral health paradox," in which Mexican immigrant parents in California's Central Valley report having had better oral health status as children in Mexico than their U.S.-born children. Yet little research has explored the specific environmental, social, and cultural factors that mediate the much-discussed "Latino health paradox," in which foreign-born Latinos paradoxically enjoy better health status than their children, U.S.-born Latinos, and whites. Through ethnography, we explore the dietary and environmental factors that ameliorated immigrant parents' oral health status in rural Mexico, while ill-preparing them for the more cariogenic diets and environments their children face in the U.S. We argue that studies on the "Latino health paradox" neglect a binational analysis, ignoring the different health status of Latino populations in their sending countries. We use the issue of immigrant children's high incidence of oral disease to initiate a fuller dialogue between U.S.-based studies of the "health paradox" and non-U.S. based studies of the "epidemiological transition." We show that both models rely upon a static opposition between "traditional" and "modern" health practices, and argue that a binational analysis of the processes that affect immigrant children's health can help redress the shortcomings of epidemiological generalizations. PMID:21132097

  12. Challenge theme 7: information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  13. Technology evaluation of a USA-Mexico health information system for epidemiological surveillance of Mexican migrant workers Evaluación tecnológica de un sistema de información de salud mexicano-estadounidense para la vigilancia epidemiológica de los trabajadores itinerantes mexicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Eduardo Velasco-Mondragón

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available From 1994 through 1996, federal, state, and nongovernmental organizations in Mexico and in the United States of America developed and piloted a Binational Health Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Mexican migrant workers. The system allowed data exchange for epidemiological surveillance between the state of Guanajuato in Mexico and the Commonwealth (state of Pennsylvania in the United States, for case detection, prevention, and treatment, through shared contact investigation and case management of communicable diseases. The target population consisted of migrant workers traveling between Guanajuato and Pennsylvania to work mainly in the mushroom industry, and their sexual partners in their Mexican communities of origin. Computerized migrant health information modules were set up in Guanajuato and in Pennsylvania. Patient information and epidemiological surveillance data were encrypted and communicated electronically between the modules, using the WONDER communications system of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluation of the Guanajuato-Pennsylvania Binational Health Information System showed that major barriers to binational epidemiological surveillance and control are: a lack of communication binationally; b interrupted medical care due to migration; c inconsistent diagnosis and treatment criteria between the two countries; d lack of referral clinical records from one country to the other; and e deficient legal regulations concerning binational clinical data transfer. To our knowledge, this is the first project that has successfully demonstrated the technological feasibility of a binational disease control system linking a state in the interior of one country with a state in the interior of another country, rather than just states in the border region. The project also advanced the understanding of health service organizational issues that facilitate or hinder communication, outreach, disease

  14. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck Høg, B; Sommer, H M; Larsen, L S; Sørensen, A I V; David, B; Hofshagen, M; Rosenquist, H

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacteriosis has become the leading bacterial zoonosis in humans in the European Union and other developed countries. There are many sources of human Campylobacter infections, but broilers and broiler meat have been shown to be the most important. In order to implement effective interventions that reduce the probability of Campylobacter colonisation of broiler flocks, it is essential to fully understand the risk factors involved. We present a bi-national risk factor survey comprising Campylobacter data from more than 5200 Danish and Norwegian indoor, conventional broiler flocks and the responses to a standardised questionnaire, with more than 40 explanatory variables from 277 Danish and Norwegian farms. We explored several models by using different combinations of the Danish and Norwegian data, including models with single-country datasets. All models were analysed using a generalized linear model using backwards elimination and forward selection. The results show that Norwegian broiler flocks had a lower risk of being colonised than Danish flocks. Farm specific variables that increased the risk of flocks becoming colonised with Campylobacter in both countries were: broiler houses older than five years; longer downtime (no. of days between flocks), probably a consequence of longer downtimes being associated with less focus on maintaining a high biosecurity level; broiler houses without a separate ante-room or barrier; and the use of the drinker nipples with cups or bells compared with nipples without cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having boot dips or low stocking density increased the risk of a flock becoming Campylobacter positive. The different model approaches allowed us to explore the effect of having a large

  15. Clinical use of Plasma and Plasma Fractions in Bleeding Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆钺

    2008-01-01

    Internal and/or external bleeding is a common and sometimes very severe clinical manifestations of disorders of hemostasis. It may follow minor trauma or may arise apparently spontaneously. Disorders of hemostasis are generally divided into those caused by abnormalities of platelets, abnormalities of blood vessels, abnormalities of plasma coagulation factors, and hyperfibrinolysis, or com-binations of these. The use of plasma and plasma fractions dependents on the causing diseases and their severity. Several plasma products and plasma fractions are availa-ble in China and other plasma components and deriva-tives are commercially obtained. There have been the guidelines for their clinical use, and the revised ones will soon be published by Chinese Medical Association.

  16. Cross-Validation of Numerical and Experimental Studies of Transitional Airfoil Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frere, Ariane; Hillewaert, Koen; Sarlak, Hamid;

    2015-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance characteristic of airfoils are the main input for estimating wind turbine blade loading as well as annual energy production of wind farms. For transitional flow regimes these data are difficult to obtain, both experimentally as well as numerically, due to the very high...... part of the span, as well as walls effects for Re = 1:105. Considering the sensitivity of the measurements to the tunnel environment, the strong similarity of the LES results inspires confidence in the validity of the computations....... CFD methodologies, in com- bination with wind tunnel experiments. Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) performed with a novel high order code based on the Discontinuous Galerkin Method are compared to LES from the well established wind turbine CFD code EllipSys3D. Both codes are considering natural transition...

  17. Explore and Analyse of Development Model of Eco-Agricultural Tourism Based on Circular Economy Theory%基于循环经济理论的生态农业旅游发展模式探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱智

    2013-01-01

    对循环经济理论进行了简要阐述,以河源连平县大湖镇九里鱼生态旅游度假区发展生态农业旅游的实践,提出了“生态农业链、生态能源链、生态景观链三结合”的生态农业旅游发展新模式。%This paper raised the Circular Economy Theory briefly ,and proposed a new model of eco-agricultural tourism of three com-binations in eco-agriculture chain ,eco-energy chain and eco-landscape chain based on the developmental practice of eco-agricultural tourism of the Jiuliyu eco-tourism resort of Heyuan .

  18. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonisation in Danish and Norwegian broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Larsen, Lars Stehr;

    2016-01-01

    that reduce the probability of Campylobacter colonisation of broiler flocks, it is essential to fully understand the risk factors involved. We present a bi-national risk factor survey comprising Campylobacter data from more than 5200 Danish and Norwegian indoor, conventional broiler flocks and the...... linear model using backwards elimination and forward selection. The results show that Norwegian broiler flocks had a lower risk of being colonised than Danish flocks. Farm specific variables that increased the risk of flocks becoming colonised with Campylobacter in both countries were: broiler houses...... with nipples without cups. Additional country specific risk factors were also identified. For Norway, the risk of colonisation increased with increasing numbers of houses on a farm and when the water used for the broilers originated from surface water or bore holes instead of mains. For Denmark, having...

  19. Environmental Assessments in the Riparian Corridor of the Colorado River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    We will develop remote sensing methods to conduct environmental assessments in the riparian corridor of the Colorado River delta, shared by the United States and Mexico. This important regional ecosystem is dependent upon US water flows, yet the most important wildlife habitats are in Mexico. The delta region is poorly known and difficult to monitor on the ground. We will use ground-validated, aerial and satellite methods to develop accurate vegetation and habitat maps and predictive hydrological and vegetation models of this ecosystem in response to US flood releases. The work products will advance our understanding of water resource issues in dryland climates and provide a specific application tool for a critical binational natural resource area.

  20. Balancing Energy, Food, Natural Resources and Environment in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dilli Bahadur

    2010-09-15

    Nepal could harness less than 1% of its 83000 MW hydropower potential. Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project (6720 MW) is a bi-national project on Mahakali River bordering between Nepal and India. The earnings from: electricity (NRs. 34.55 billion/year); irrigation (NRs. 5.55 billion/year), fish farming (NRs. 8.65 billion/year), carbon trading (NRs. 4.42 billion/year) and many billions from other sources e.g. eco-tourism, industry, horticulture, herbiculture, floriculture, sericulture, rafting and water sports, educational and vocational training and other industrial/commercial activities can catapult the socioeconomic horizon of Nepal. Hence, PMP should be jointly developed in the earliest and build confidence for the further hydropower development.

  1. Papers of the EECO 2003 Environment and Energy Conference : preserving the environment and promoting U.S. and Canada trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environment and Energy Conference is a bi-national cross-border forum on trade and environmental issues pertaining to the Great Lakes Economy in both Canada and the United States. Delegates from business, government and non-government organizations attended the conference to gain insight on how to ensure economic and environmental health of the Great Lakes region in order to contribute to sustainable growth. The presentations addressed environmental issues such as energy security; restructuring; urban transit; threats to clean air; cities; water demands in the Great Lakes ecosystems; new cars and new fuels; and, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The conference featured 32 presentations, of which 4 were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  2. Coal-fired boilers for electric power generation : a Canadian perspective on mercury emission management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers was discussed with particular focus on the technical issues facing utilities and their attempts to manage mercury emissions. There are several uncertainties about the variability of coal mercury content, the chemical form of the emitted mercury (speciation), the atmospheric transformation and fate of emitted mercury. The effectiveness and cost of mercury control technologies under commercial application to new and existing coal-fired units is also uncertain. This paper also presented some linkages between different national and bi-national regulatory initiatives with emphasis on the state of stack measurement methodologies. The efforts by the Canadian utilities to develop a Canada-side standard for mercury emissions from electric power generation were also described

  3. Self-Translation, Literary Creativity, and Trans-Lingual Aesthetics: A Québec Writer’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagnon Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-translation and bilingual writing are drawing increasing critical attention in literary and translation studies. Bilingual writing can cover a wide range of phenomena involving varying degrees of bilingualism. Scholarly focus has been on emigrant, expatriate or exiled writers and more recently, on bilingual writers writing in a post-colonial context, using the acquired language of the colonizer. The emphasis has been on the cultural and political power inequalities between languages. Self-translation has also been seen from the broader, ontological point of view as a form of double representation of the writing self. My own experience in the particular cultural geography of a bi-national, multicultural country such as Canada offers a different context for reflecting on self-translation and bilingual writing, or what I prefer to call “cross-writing,” based on the fundamental cross-cultural communicative aesthetics underlying my specific writing and self-translation process.

  4. Franco-German relationships in the energy domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the respective energy situation in Germany and in France, as well as the place of nuclear energy and the comparison of electric power flows, prices, power transmission and distribution in both countries, this document presents the role and priorities of the French Presidency of the European Commission in 2008 (Energy and Sustainable Development) and the actions and policies developed against climate change. The French and German positions concerning gas supply coming from Russia are discussed, together with the possibility of creation of a bi-national power and gas market with the reciprocal introduction of new actors in these markets. Finally, the role of the Franco-German couple in the organization of a European energy space is examined

  5. High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project Advanced Space-Rated Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) has an agreement with China National Offshore Oil Corporation New Energy Investment Company, Ltd. (CNOOC), under the United States-China EcoPartnerships Framework, to create a bi-national entity seeking to develop technically feasible and economically viable solutions to energy and environmental issues. Advanced batteries have been identified as one of the initial areas targeted for collaborations. CWRU invited NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) personnel from the Electrochemistry Branch to CWRU to discuss various aspects of advanced battery development as they might apply to this partnership. Topics discussed included: the process for the selection of a battery chemistry; the establishment of an integrated development program; project management/technical interactions; new technology developments; and synergies between batteries for automotive and space operations. Additional collaborations between CWRU and NASA GRC's Electrochemistry Branch were also discussed.

  6. The Analysis of the Path on the Unified Legislation of Collective Consultation on Enterprise Wages in Our Country-Based on the Analysis of the Local Legislative Text%我国企业工资集体协商统一立法的路径检视--以地方立法文本为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭世强

    2014-01-01

    based on the comparative analysis of the text of the new local legislation on collective consultation on wages in the past two years , in com-bination with the practice, analyze the typical problems in the collective consultation ,explore the practice base、the guiding principles and the mode selection on the unified legislation ,provide reference for being published of the unified legislation .%通过对近两年来新出台的工资集体协商地方立法文本的比较分析,结合实践,解析工资集体协商中的典型问题,探索工资集体协商全国统一立法的实践基础、指导原则、模式选择,为统一立法的出台提供借鉴与参考。

  7. Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudelia Rangel M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US, and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico-San Diego (California, US border region (N=1 429. RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.

  8. A Preliminary Study on the Relationship Between the Indica-Japonica RAPD Differentiation of Parents and Heterosis in Dian Type Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Wen-hong; XU Ming-hui; ZHANG Shu-hua

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between the indica-japonica differentiation of parents and heterosis of hybridin rice was studied with 10 sterile lines, 10 maintainer lines of the sterile lines, 38 restorer lines of Dian typehybrid rice and 40 hybrids derived from the sterile lines and restorer lines. The results indicated that there wasa parabolic correlation between the indica-japonica differentiation of parents detected by RAPD markers andheterosis of hybrid rice. When certain indica-japonica differentiation of parents exists, the percentage of com-binations with positve heterosis and the mean heterosis of hybrids were high. But that didn't mean too muchdifference of parents could lead to stronger hetesosis, that meant overdiffernt parents seldom bring positve het-erotic hybrids. Suitable difference of percent of indica alleles of parents of stronger heterotic hybrid was 12 -16%.

  9. Developing an Ecosystem Services Online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed: Where We Live, Work, and Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura; Tallent-Halsell, Nita; Labiosa, William; Weber, Matt; McCoy, Amy; Hirschboeck, Katie; Callegary, James; van Riper, Charles, III; Gray, Floyd

    2010-01-01

    Using respective strengths of the biological, physical, and social sciences, we are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), to help promote the use of information relevant to water allocation and land management in a binational watershed along the U.S.-Mexico border. The SCWEPM will include an ES valuation system within a suite of linked regional driver-response models and will use a multicriteria scenario-evaluation framework that builds on GIS analysis and spatially-explicit models that characterize important ecological, economic, and societal endpoints and consequences that are sensitive to climate patterns, regional water budgets, and regional LULC change in the SCW.

  10. High-resolution gene mapping using admixture linkage disequilibrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This note reports simulation study on the rate of decay in linkage dis equilibrium (LD) in mixed populations over multiple discrete generations and explores the usefulness of the LD analysis in high-resolution gene mapping. The results indicate that the smaller the recombination fraction and the fewer generati ons since admixtureevent, the higher power of the approach in gene mapping. The expected estimate of recombination fraction would give an estimate that is slig htly biased upwards, if relevant genes are in tight linkage. The estimated recom bination fraction is usually larger than the true value within 2-5 generations. From generations 10-20, the mean estimates are in good agreement with the true value. The method presented here enables estimation of means and corresponding confidence intervals of the recombination fraction at any number of generations.

  11. Hebrew-Arabic bilingual schooling in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    . The “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel” is a grass-root movement of bilingual, bi-national primary schools in which Jewish and Arab children study together. The first school was open in Jerusalem in 1998. Currently there are 4 schools throughout the country The schools’ rational is...... was perceived as a bi-product that would come about as a result of the equal amount of time and resources allocated to both Arabic and Hebrew in the curriculum. However, there are a number of challenges such as the hegemony and dominance of Hebrew, the imbalance in knowledge of the two languages among...... the teaching stuff and the parents population (the Jewish teachers and parents have little or no knowledge of Arabic while the Arab teachers and parents are virtually bilinguals), the absence of bilingual teacher-training programs and lack of bilingual teaching materials production, that have to be addressed...

  12. Psychodynamic groups as used to work through collective trauma memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomba, Jacek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Israeli-Polish Mental Health Association is a bi-national society of mental health professionals. Presentation of its twelve years’ experience in working through memories of traumatic past was rationale of the text. The traumatic past had been extermination of Jews, by Germans on Polish territory with witnessing Poles. Dynamic group technique had been employed in debate stimulated by theoretical lectures and research results presentations concerning background of anti-Semitism, hatred, Shoah, collective trauma consequences and intergenerational transmission of trauma. Obstacles in the process and suggested measures aiming to overcome these difficulties as described by participants were discussed. Author’s assessment of results of using therapeutic methods to solve mass trauma consequences in next generation of victims and witnesses conclude the essay.

  13. Economic and Financial Interactions between Brazil and Mexico: ¿Which Degree of Integration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Esther Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes trade and financial transactions between Brazil and Mexico in order to evaluate the magnitude of their reciprocal integration. Our results suggest that both countries have successfully got inserted into the international economy, which can be observed in their high volumes of trade, in their receiving foreign direct investment and in the size of their capital markets, as well as in the magnitude of their association with the most important countries and financial centers throughout the world. However, even if their bi-na-tional trade and financial integration has notably increased, especially after the Economic Complementation Agreements came into force in 2003 and due to the "translatinization" of Brazilian and Mexican firms, the magnitude of their reciprocal trade and financial transactions remains at very low relative levels, a situation that may significantly change in the framework of a possible strategic agreement of economic integration between these two countries.

  14. The Need Of Laboratory Experiments In Parallel To Astrobiological Space Fligth Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    For laboratory studies on the responses of resistant life forms to simulated interplane- tary space conditions, test beds are available that simulate the parameters of space, such as vacuum, solar electromagnetic and cosmic ionizing radiation, temperature extremes and reduced gravity, which can be applied separately or in selected com- binations. Appropriate biological test systems are extremophiles, i.e. microorganisms that are adapted to grow or survive in extreme conditions of our biosphere. Examples are airborne microbes, endolithic or endoevaporitic microbial communities, or isolated biomolecules. The studies contribute to answer several questions of astrobiology, such as (i) the role of solar UV radiation in genetic stability, (ii) the role of gravity in basic biological functions, (iii) the chances and limits for interplanetary transfer of life, (iv) strategies of adaptation to environmental extremes, and (v) the needs for planetary protection. As an example, the ground controls that were performed in parallel with 3 BIOPAN flight experiments will be presented.

  15. Antiangiogenic agents combined with chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanshan Chen; Shun Lu 

    2015-01-01

    As a targeted therapy, antiangiogenic treatment has been increasingly studied for advanced non-smal cel lung cancer (NSCLC) and has proven ef ective for the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting angiogenesis, is the only antiangiogenic agent approved for use in com-bination with first-line chemotherapy for non-squamous NSCLC. Smal-molecule inhibitors targeting the tyrosine kinase receptor have also shown promise when combined with standard chemotherapeutic agents in patients with advanced NSCLC. However, unlike bevacizumab, not al other antiangiogenic agents show significant benefits when combined with chemotherapy. As for the failures of most other combinations, the combination schedule may be an important reason that has so far been overlooked in clinical trials. This article reviews the combination of angiogenic agents with chemotherapy in the treatment of NSCLC.

  16. Measuring and Comparing Energy Flexibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach;

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility in energy supply and demand becomes more and more important with increasing Renewable Energy Sources (RES) production and the emergence of the Smart Grid. So-called prosumers, i.e., entities that produce and/or consume energy, can offer their inherent flexibilities through so......-called demand response and thus help stabilize the energy markets. Thus, prosumer flexibility becomes valuable and the ongoing Danish project TotalFlex [1] explores the use of prosumer flexibility in the energy market using the concept of a flex-offer [2], which captures energy flexibilities in time and...... induced by time and amount individually, and by their com- bination. To this end, we introduce several flexibility measures that take into account the combined effect of time and energy on flex-offer flexibility and discuss their respective pros and cons through a number of realistic examples....

  17. Video-Based Self-Observation as a Component of Developmental Teacher Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Mercado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the benefits to teacher evaluation when video-based self-observation is done by teachers as a vehicle for individual, reflective practice. We explore how it was applied systematically at the Instituto Cultural Peruano Norteamericano (ICPNA bi-national center in Lima, Peru among hundreds of English as a foreign language (EFL teachers in two institution-wide initiatives that have relied on self-observation through video professional development. In these cases, we provide a descriptive framework for each initiative as well as information on what was ultimately achieved by teachers, supervisors and the institution as a whole. We conclude with recommendations for implementing video-based self-evaluation.

  18. John’s use of Scripture in Revelation 1:7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J.J Menken

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Four questions are asked in this paper: (1 Which are the Old Testament passages from which John quotes in Revelation 1:7? (2 To what extent do the separate quotations and their combination belong to the early Christian tradition used by John? (3 How and where did this combination of quotations come into being? (4 What does John aim at with this com- bination of quotations in this context? John makes use of the combination of God’s eschatological agent as depicted in Daniel 7 and the “pierced one” from Zechariah 12 into one figure, to present the traditional early Christian eschatology, phrased in Old Testament terms, as the basis and the starting point of his book.

  19. Papers of the EECO 2003 Environment and Energy Conference : preserving the environment and promoting U.S. and Canada trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environment and Energy Conference is a bi-national cross-border forum on trade and environmental issues pertaining to the Great Lakes Economy in both Canada and the United States. Delegates from business, government and non-government organizations attended the conference to gain insight on how to ensure economic and environmental health of the Great Lakes region in order to contribute to sustainable growth. The presentations addressed environmental issues such as energy security; restructuring; urban transit; threats to clean air; cities; water demands in the Great Lakes ecosystems; new cars and new fuels; and, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The conference featured 32 presentations, of which 4 were indexed separately for inclusion in this database

  20. Urban-environmental study from the Juarez municipality brick factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Romo Aguilar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to evaluate the current situation of the traditional and ecological brick kilns in Juarez. The evaluation is addressed in both the environmental and socio-economic context. The brick production belongs to the informal economic sector without any regulatory scheme and without taxation. Its very low technology has serious impacts on the binational environment of the Paso del Norte region, through the highly polluted emissions to the atmosphere. However, the social and economic context of people working in this industry does not allow important changes, thus, making difficult any initiative for the brick kilns improvements and relocation. The main information source was a very concise survey applied to whole universe of brick makers. Data survey was registered in a Geographic Information System (GIS environment allowing us the analysis of the brick kilns in a spatial context. Finally, this document presents a descriptive profile of the brick kilns production and for the brickmakers.

  1. Different hydrogen-bonded structures in three 2-thienyl-substituted tetra­hydro-1,4-ep­oxy-1-benzazepines

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Maria C.; Palma, Alirio; Bahsas, Ali; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The mol­ecules of (2RS,4SR)-2-exo-(5-bromo-2-thienyl)-7-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-1,4-ep­oxy-1-benzazepine, C14H11BrClNOS, (I), are linked into cyclic centrosymmetric dimers by C—H⋯π(thienyl) hydrogen bonds. Each such dimer makes rather short Br⋯Br contacts with two other dimers. In (2RS,4SR)-2-exo-(5-methyl-2-thienyl)-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-1,4-ep­oxy-1-benzazepine, C15H15NOS, (II), a com­bination of C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π(thienyl) hydrogen bonds links the mol­ecules into chains of rings. A mor...

  2. Drug treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    China Medical Abstracts(Intenal Medicine) 930428 In vitro antibacterial activity and clini-cal significance of domestic fluroqinolones com-binations with other antimicrobial agenls.LI Li-jin(李立津),et al.Instit Infect Dis,2nd TeachHosp,Tianjin Med Coll,Tianjin,300211.Chin JIntern Med 1993;32(2):148—151.The minimal inhibitory concentration of nor-floxacia,pefloxacin,ciprofloxacin and other tenantimicrobial agents for 143 strains of Gram-positive cocci and 267 strains of Gram-negativebacilli of recent clinical isolates from June 1990to March 1991 was analyzed.The results showedthat ciprofloxacin and norvancomycin were moreactive than other antimicrobial agents against

  3. Mercury contamination in the Laurentian Great Lakes region: Introduction and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America contains substantial aquatic resources and mercury-contaminated landscapes, fish, and wildlife. This special issue emanated from a bi-national synthesis of data from monitoring programs and case studies of mercury in the region, here defined as including the Great Lakes, the eight U.S. states bordering the Great Lakes, the province of Ontario, and Lake Champlain. We provide a retrospective overview of the regional mercury problem and summarize new findings from the synthesis papers and case studies that follow. Papers in this issue examine the chronology of mercury accumulation in lakes, the importance of wet and dry atmospheric deposition and evasion to regional mercury budgets, the influence of land–water linkages on mercury contamination of surface waters, the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in aquatic foods webs; and ecological and health risks associated with methylmercury in a regionally important prey fish. - Highlights: ► We describe a bi-national synthesis of Hg data from the Great Lakes region. ► Emission controls have reduced Hg inputs to inland lakes about 20% since the 1980s. ► Wet and dry deposition and evasion are regionally important atmospheric Hg fluxes. ► Land use affects Hg inputs to surface waters and bioaccumulation of methylmercury. ► In some waters, Hg levels in yellow perch pose risks to fish, wildlife, and humans. - A synthesis of Hg data from the Great Lakes region reveals the chronology of contamination; the importance of wet and dry deposition and evasion to Hg budgets; the influence of land–water linkages; bioaccumulation in aquatic foods webs; and risks associated with Hg in an important prey fish.

  4. Institutions and Societal Impacts of Climate in the Lower Colorado and San Pedro Basins of the U.S.-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, R. G.; Wilder, M.; Morehouse, B. J.; Garfin, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Southwest and Mexico border region feature two prominent river basins, the Colorado and Rio Grande, and ecologically important sub-basins such as the San Pedro. The area within which these transboundary basins lie is characterized by overall aridity and high climatic variability over seasonal to decadal and longer time scales. Throughout human occupation, numerous and diverse strategies for buffering climate impacts have emerged. The most notable response has been an increasingly complex system of institutions and structures designed to buffer water scarcity. The Colorado River Compact, and the laws governing allocation of waters from the Rio Grande River, together with the dams, hydropower generators, canals and other engineered features, represent two of the most complex systems. Drought nevertheless remains a looming specter across much of the binational border region. Institutional mechanisms for responding to drought range from awareness-raising and capacity-building efforts, to implementation of formal drought plans, to storing water to make up for deficits, and water conservation rules that become increasingly stringent as drought intensifies. A number of formal and informal binational institutions operate in the region. Some are venerable, like the century-old International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) and its Mexican counterpart the Comision Internacional de Limites y Agua (CILA). Others, like the Border Environment Cooperation Commission and the North American Development Bank, were created in the mid-1990s with the North American Free Trade Agreement. These institutions, both domestic and transnational, operate in a complex binational, bicultural environment with contrasting legal and administrative traditions. Under such constraints, they manage water resources and ecosystems and attempt to improve water and sanitation infrastructure in the context of deep and extended drought. But in spite of their efforts, society and natural habitat

  5. Apoyo a la integración urbana y regional de la zona fronteriza del Eje Vial N° 1 Piura – Guayaquil: una aproximación desde una perspectiva binacional y sostenible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Castillo García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Support for urban and regional integration of the frontier zone of the Axis Road N° 1 Piura – Guayaquil: an aproach from a binational and sustainable perspectiveThe objective of this paper is to show a concrete experience of territorial management of the frontier zone of the Axis Road N° 1 Piura–Guayaquil formed by Zarumilla Province (Perú and Huaquillas and Arenillas Cantons (Ecuador, from a binational and sustainable perspective, having as regional framework the Region of Tumbes (Perú and El Oro Province (Ecuador. In this study area there are social inequities, such as scarce educational opportunities, insufficient youngsters’ training and health access. Thus, the university education supply is short, which gives way to youngsters’ emigration to Tumbes, Machala and other cities when they want to get a university education. Health services are also insufficient in terms of infrastructure, equipment, human resources, and quality of the services offered, which justifies a territorial management.El objetivo del presente artículo es presentar una experiencia concreta de ordenamiento territorialde la zona fronteriza del Eje Vial N° 1 Piura – Guayaquil, conformada por la provincia de Zarumilla (Perú y los cantones de Huaquillas y Arenillas (Ecuador, desde una perspectiva binacional y sostenible; considerando como marco regional a la región Tumbes (Perú, y a la provincia de El Oro (Ecuador. En esta área de estudio se presentan situaciones de inequidad social como escasas  oportunidades de educación, de formación de jóvenes y de acceso a la salud. Así, la oferta de oportunidades de educación universitaria es restringida, lo que motiva que los jóvenes con aspiraciones de lograr una formación universitaria se trasladen a las ciudades de Tumbes, Machala y otras para satisfacer sus anhelos. Los servicios de salud se ofrecen de manera insuficiente, en términos de infraestructura, equipamiento, recursos humanos y calidad en la

  6. Evolving impact of environmental laws on cross-border power between Mexico and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a growing concern among some United States (US) residents that the increasing number of merchant power plants planned for the Mexican side of the US/Mexican border could contribute to increased air pollution and the misuse of finite water resources in the border region. The case of Border Power Plant Working Group v. DOE, et al. is examined in this paper, providing a focus for a discussion of the border region's future as US merchant power producers continue to position themselves to provide electricity in California. One of the factors in the push to develop power generation on the Mexican side of the border was California's electricity crisis of 2000-2001, and plans have been drawn up to build 22 plants between Mexicali and Ciudad Juarez. A history of the Border Power Plant Working Group (BPPWG) was presented, along with details of the government's granting of permits for the power plants after environmental assessments. By suing the government BPPWG hoped to set a standard for future power plant development in the area. The lawsuit addressed the following 4 primary concerns: air emissions; emission offsets; water cooling; and wastewater discharge. BPPWG aimed to achieve the 3 following results: protective legislation in the 4 U.S. border states that would preclude the use of massive amounts of water in border power plant cooling systems; a critical area designation with pollution limits set low enough to require catalytic control systems; and an overarching annex to the La Paz Agreement that would create a formal bi-national agreement governing the above actions for both countries. A review of environmental law in both countries was presented, along with a description of the proposed plants. A complete review of the lawsuit was provided, along with eventual rulings against the BPPWG. It was concluded that the case showed that power developers had proved that although the plants would contribute to the environmental degradation of the region, the

  7. Water Transfers, Air Quality, Ecosystems and Population Growth at the US-Mexico Border: An Integrated Model of the Mexicali and Imperial Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, C. B.; Gonzalez, T.; Peach, J.; Kjelland, M.; Collins, K.; Grant, W. E.

    2006-12-01

    Borderland communities in the Imperial-Mexicali Valleys (IMVs) of California (U.S.A.) and Mexicali (Mexico) are experiencing socioeconomic and environmental changes driven by policy makers and environmental conditions both within and outside the IMVs. The Colorado River Quantification Settlement Agreement (QSA) of 2003 will transfer 30 million acre-feet of Colorado River water from Imperial Valley (IV) agricultural users to Southern California urban users over a 75-year period. Because the water level of the Salton Sea is supported by agricultural runoff, reduced water flows to the sea raise concerns that: 1) air quality will be degraded as dust is generated by the drying Sea-bed, and 2) declining fish populations due to increasing salinity will no longer support birds migrating along a key avian flyway. Rapid population growth in the Mexican border-city of Mexicali, combined with new power plants and plans for water reuse, raises concerns that: 1) the quantity and quality of water supplied to the Salton Sea will decline, and 2) increased vehicle use and electrical power generation will lead to declining air quality in the binational air basin. Each concern may be affected by climate change. As environmental factors change, so too may the agricultural economy of the Imperial Valley that, in turn, depends on the availability of both water and manual labor. The economy of Mexicali is dominated by the maquiladora (manufacturing) industry that depends upon the availability of power, labor and water. A system dynamics model, with annual time step, simulates this complex binational system. The model was developed by an academic team with input from local experts/decision-makers from both Mexico and the US. We are preparing to engage community stakeholders and decision-makers in exploring the model. Insights gained from model results yield better understanding of the consequences of alternative future scenarios that include: QSA water transfers and land fallowing plans

  8. Lake Ontario zooplankton in 2003 and 2008: community changes and vertical redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudstam, Lars G.; Holeck, Kristen T.; Bowen, Kelly L.; Watkins, James M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Luckey, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Lake-wide zooplankton surveys are critical for documenting and understanding food web responses to ecosystem change. Surveys in 2003 and 2008 during the binational intensive field year in Lake Ontario found that offshore epilimnetic crustacean zooplankton declined by a factor of 12 (density) and factor of 5 (biomass) in the summer with smaller declines in the fall. These declines coincided with an increase in abundance of Bythotrephes and are likely the result of direct predation by, or behavioral responses to this invasive invertebrate predator. Whole water column zooplankton density also declined from 2003 to 2008 in the summer and fall (factor of 4), but biomass only declined in the fall (factor of 2). The decline in biomass was less than the decline in density because the average size of individual zooplankton increased. This was due to changes in the zooplankton community composition from a cyclopoid/bosminid dominated community in 2003 to a calanoid dominated community in 2008. The increase in calanoid copepods was primarily due to the larger species Limnocalanus macrurus and Leptodiaptomus sicilis. These coldwater species were found in and below the thermocline associated with a deep chlorophyll layer. In 2008, most of the zooplankton biomass resided in or below the thermocline during the day. Increased importance of copepods in deeper, colder water may favor cisco and rainbow smelt over alewife because these species are better adapted to cold temperatures than Alewife.

  9. Geological and geophysical remote sensing of Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. S., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A binational, multidisciplinary research effort in Iceland is directed at an analysis of MSS imagery from ERTS-1 to study a variety of geologic, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural phenomena. Initial findings are: (1) recent lava flows can be delineated from older ones; (2) ERTS-1 and NOAA-2 recorded volcanic eruptions on Heimaey, Vestmann Islands; (3) coastline changes are mappable; (4) areas covered with new or residual snow can be mapped, and dark appearance of newly fallen snow on band 7 appears to be related to melting; (5) sediment plumes from discharge of glacial rivers can be delineated; (6) the area encompassed by glacial ice can be mapped, including the new position of a surging glacier, Eyjabakkajokull, and related phenomena of nunataks and moraines; (7) changes in position of rivers, lake sizes, and new lakes can be mapped; (8) low sun angle imagery enhances the morphologic expression of constructional glacial and volcanic landforms; (9) MSS color composites permit regional mapping of distribution of vegetation; and (10) at least at 1:250, 000 map scale and smaller, ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of updating various types of maps of Iceland and will permit the compilation of maps specifically aimed at those dynamic environmental phenomena which impact on the Icelandic economy.

  10. Building a sustainable clinical academic workforce to meet the future healthcare needs of Australia and New Zealand: report from the first summit meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, J; Searle, J; Hanney, R; Chapman, A; Grigg, M; Choong, P; Mackay, A; Smithers, B M; Churchill, J A; Carney, S; Smith, J A; Wainer, Z; Talley, N J; Gladman, M A

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of healthcare that meets the requirements for quality, safety and cost-effectiveness relies on a well-trained medical workforce, including clinical academics whose career includes a specific commitment to research, education and/or leadership. In 2011, the Medical Deans of Australia and New Zealand published a review on the clinical academic workforce and recommended the development of an integrated training pathway for clinical academics. A bi-national Summit on Clinical Academic Training was recently convened to bring together all relevant stakeholders to determine how best to do this. An important part understood the lessons learnt from the UK experience after 10 years since the introduction of an integrated training pathway. The outcome of the summit was to endorse strongly the recommendations of the medical deans. A steering committee has been established to identify further stakeholders, solicit more information from stakeholder organisations, convene a follow-up summit meeting in late 2015, recruit pilot host institutions and engage the government and future funders. PMID:26332622

  11. Concentration and distribution of contaminants in lake trout and walleye from the Laurentian Great Lakes (2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, Daryl J; Murphy, Elizabeth W

    2016-10-01

    Biomonitoring programs for persistent, bioaccumulative, and/or toxic chemicals of concern in fish tissues have been operated by the governments of Canada and the United States in the Great Lakes since the 1970's. The objectives of these programs are to assess concentrations of harmful chemicals in whole body top predator fish as an indicator of ecosystem health and to infer potential harm to fish and fish consuming wildlife in the Great Lakes Basin. Chemicals of interest are selected based upon national and binational commitments, risk assessment, and regulation, and include a wide range of compounds. This review summarizes all available data generated by Environment Canada and the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemicals measured in whole body homogenates of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Walleye (Sander vitreus) for the time period spanning 2008 to 2012 from each of the five Great Lakes. The summary shows that concentrations of legacy compounds, such as, POPs listed in the Stockholm Convention and mercury continue to dominate the chemical burden of Great Lakes fish. This assessment, and others like it, can guide the creation of environmental quality targets where they are lacking, optimize chemical lists for monitoring, and prioritize chemicals of concern under agreements such as the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Stockholm Convention. PMID:26740246

  12. Experiment and simulation study on construction of a three-dimensional network model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The construction of a network model is one of the key techniques in organic com-bination of microscopic flow experiment and simulation. The construction method of a three-dimensional network model is presented on the basis of CT scanning images in this paper. A series of CT slice images describing microscopic pore structure and fluid distribution of actual rock is obtained with the help of the in-dustrial microfocus CT system. Based on the extraction of pore space skeleton, pore and throat information, the corresponding network model is established, and the conversion from three-dimensional CT image information to pore-throat size distribution and topological information is also achieved. The feature of this me-thod lies in the fact that complicated pore space of rock may be characterized by pores and throats with a simple shape while keeping the geometry and flow char-acteristics. It is indicated that the calculated results of porosity, permeability, rela-tive permeability curve and microscopic remaining oil distribution match very well the experimental results of water flooding and polymer flooding. This network model may fairly well characterize the rock microscopic pore-throat size and topo-logical characteristics.

  13. Biodiversity losses and conservation trade-offs: Assessing future urban growth scenarios for a North American trade corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Boykin, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The Sonoran Desert and Apache Highlands ecoregions of North America are areas of exceptionally high plant and vertebrate biodiversity. However, much of the vertebrate biodiversity is supported by only a few vegetation types with limited distributions, some of which are increasingly threatened by changing land uses. We assessed the impacts of two future urban growth scenarios on biodiversity in a binational watershed in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. We quantified and mapped terrestrial vertebrate species richness using Wildlife Habitat Relation models and validated the results with data from National Park Service biological inventories. Future urban growth, based on historical trends, was projected to the year 2050 for 1) a “Current Trends” scenario and, 2) a “Megalopolis” scenario that represented a transnational growth corridor with open-space conservation attributes. Based on Current Trends, 45% of existing riparian woodland (267 of 451species), and 34% of semi-desert grasslands (215 of 451 species) will be lost, whereas, in the Megalopolis scenario, these types would decline by 44% and 24% respectively. Outcomes of the two models suggest a trade-off at the taxonomic class level: Current Trends would reduce and fragment mammal and herpetofauna habitat, while Megalopolis would result in loss of avian-rich riparian habitat.

  14. Environmental re-adaptations of farms seeking to the water contamination reduction (Itaipu/UNIOESTE integrated project); Readequacao ambiental de propriedades rurais visando a reducao de contaminacao das aguas (Projeto integrado Itaipu/UNIOESTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daga, Jacir; Campos, Alessandro Torres; Navarini, Franciele; Matsuo, Melissa [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia; Feiden, Armin [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paran (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias

    2004-07-01

    The work is destined to diagnose and to elaborate environmental adaptation projects in agricultural properties located in the micro basins: Arroio Fundo, Corregos Curvado and Ajuricaba, selected and located in the Rio Sao Francisco Verdadeiro basin, in the west Parana State area, by means of accord between ITAIPU Binational and UNIOESTE (West Parana State University). Four hundred and forty farms properties will be visited in a eleven months period. It will be lifted up environmental problems, in what it refers the ciliary forest, law reserves, fishing, crops, production and handling of dejections by: swine, dairy cattle, as well as readaptations projects of the farms in the areas of the micro basins, seeking to the environmental adaptation, reducing, consequently, the contamination of the waters that provisions the ITAIPU reservoir. The projects will be leaded to the IAP (Parana State environmental organ), by ITAIPU, for the environmental norms adaptation of the farms. Besides the environmental preservation and sustainability, with the environmental adaptations, ITAIPU will also benefit with the reduction of the ITAIPU lake water contamination, which arrives to the turbines. (author)

  15. Physical aging in Zr46.75Ti8.25Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 typical bulk metallic glass manifested as enthalpy relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Enthalpy recovery is not only an important characteristic of physical aging of glass,but also a good tool to investigate the physical aging. Using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC),the enthalpy recovery of Zr46.75Ti8.25Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 bulk metallic glass (BMG) was studied. The typical characteristics of enthalpy recovery of glass including the sub-Tg peak and ‘overshot’ were found in BMG. The evolution of the sub-Tg peak and ‘overshot’ were described by the free volume theory and Hodge’s model,respectively. It was found that the former failed to describe the enthalpy recovery in the BMG,while the latter could give a qualitative explanation. In com-bination with the dynamics in the BMG,the origin of the enthalpy recovery in the BMG was discussed. The results show that BMGs are an ideal material to investi-gate the physical aging. The further understanding of physical aging of BMGs is useful to clarify the nature of glass and improve the application and device of new types of BMGs.

  16. Physical aging in Zr46.75Ti8.25Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 typical bulk metallic glass manifested as enthalpy relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Ping; ZHAO ZuoFeng; WANG WeiHua

    2008-01-01

    Enthalpy recovery is not only an important characteristic of physical aging of glass, but also a good tool to investigate the physical aging. Using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), the enthalpy recovery of Zr46.75Ti8.25Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 bulk metallic glass (BMG) was studied. The typical characteristics of enthalpy recovery of glass including the sub-Tg peak and 'overshot' were found in BMG. The evolution of the sub-Tg peak and 'overshot' were described by the free volume theory and Hodge's model, respectively. It was found that the former failed to describe the enthalpy recovery in the BeG, while the latter could give a qualitative explanation. In com-bination with the dynamics in the BMG, the origin of the enthalpy recovery in the BMG was discussed. The results show that BMGs are an ideal material to investi-gate the physical aging. The further understanding of physical aging of BMGs is useful to clarify the nature of glass and improve the application and device of new types of BMGs.

  17. The EMEFS model evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binational Eulerian Model Evaluation Field Study (EMEFS) consisted of several coordinated data gathering and model evaluation activities. In the EMEFS, data were collected by five air and precipitation monitoring networks between June 1988 and June 1990. Model evaluation is continuing. This interim report summarizes the progress made in the evaluation of the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM) and the Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model (ADOM) through the December 1990 completion of a State of Science and Technology report on model evaluation for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Because various assessment applications of RADM had to be evaluated for NAPAP, the report emphasizes the RADM component of the evaluation. A protocol for the evaluation was developed by the model evaluation team and defined the observed and predicted values to be used and the methods by which the observed and predicted values were to be compared. Scatter plots and time series of predicted and observed values were used to present the comparisons graphically. Difference statistics and correlations were used to quantify model performance. 64 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs

  18. How did the Supreme Court ruling on DOMA affect astronomers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Jane R.; The AAS Working Group on LGBTIQ Equality

    2014-01-01

    In June 2013, the United States Supreme Court ruled that Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) was unconstitutional. Section 3 had barred the federal government from recognizing same-sex marriages. The decision in United States v. Windsor, made headlines around the world, and particularly affected astronomers, since astronomers in the US are more likely than the general population to be foreign nationals, to have a foreign-born spouse, or to work for the federal government. In this poster, we highlight some of the real-world ways that the Windsor case has affected US astronomers and our profession. Bi-national couples can now apply for green cards granting permanent residency. Scientists who work for the federal government, including NASA and the NSF, can now obtain health insurance for a same-sex spouse. From taxes to death benefits, health insurance to daycare, immigration to ethics laws, the end of S3 of DOMA has had profoundly improved the lives of US scientists who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT). Here we, highlight several real-world examples of how DOMA's demise has improved the lives and careers of US astronomer.

  19. Influence of Cultivation Measures on Anthocyan Accumulation in Potato%栽培技术对马铃薯花青素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许婷; 吴秋云; 李倩; 刘明月; 宋勇; 何长征; 熊兴耀; 黄科

    2015-01-01

    O rthogonalexperim entaldesign w as used to investigate the effectofdifferentcultivation m easures on anthocyan accum ulation in stolonsand tubersofpotato.The resultsshow ed thatthe optim alcom bination foranthocyan accum ulation in potato stolon and tuberw as:a potato variety Ziyang,w ith the fertilization rate of2 700 kg/hm 2,the density of83 325 plants/hm 2,and no cover.%采用正交试验设计,研究了不同栽培技术措施对马铃薯匍匐茎和块茎的花青素积累的影响。结果表明,最有利于花青素在马铃薯匍匐茎和块茎中积累的组合为:品种选用紫洋,施肥水平180 kg/667m2,密度为5555株/667m2,采取不覆盖方式,成熟期匍匐茎和块茎中花青素含量分别达19.203和33.127 mg/kg。

  20. Dual Targeting of a Mitochondrial Protein: The Case Study of Cytochrome C1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anja R(o)diger; Bianca Baudisch; Uwe Langner; Ralf Bernd Kl(o)sgen

    2011-01-01

    As a result of the endosymbiotic gene transfer, the majority of proteins of mitochondria and chloroplasts is encoded in the nucleus and synthesized in the cytosol as precursor molecules carrying N-terminal transit peptides for the transport into the respective target organelle. In most instances, transport takes place into either mitochondria or chlor-oplasts, although a few examples of dual targeting into both organelles have been described. Here, we show by a com-bination of three different experimental strategies that also cytochrome c of potato, a component of the respiratory electron transport chain, is imported not only into mitochondria, but also into plastids. In organello import experiments with isolated mitochondria and chloroplasts, which were analyzed in both single and mixed organelle assays, demonstrate that the processing products accumulating after import within the two endosymbiotic organelles are different in size. Dual targeting of cytochrome c is observed also in vivo, after biolistic transformation of leaf epidermal cells with suitable reporter constructions. Finally, Western analyses employing cytochrome c-specific antiserum provide evidence that the protein accumulates in significant amounts in mitochondria and chloroplasts of both pea and spinach. The possible consequences of our findings on the relevance of the dual targeting phenomenon are discussed.

  1. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, I

    1998-05-12

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United States. Thanks to the cooperation of the survivors and the contributions of a multitude of scientists, these studies flourish to this day in what must be the most successful long-term research collaboration between the two countries. Although these studies are necessarily limited to the effects of acute, whole-body, mixed gamma-neutron radiation from the atom bombs, their comprehensiveness and duration make them the most definitive descriptions of the late effects of radiation in humans. For this reason, the entire world relies heavily on these data to set radiation standards. As vital as the study results are, they still represent primarily the effects of radiation on older survivors. Another decade or two should correct this deficiency and allow us to measure definitively the human risk of heritable mutation from radiation. We look to the worldwide radiation and risk community as well as to the survivors who have contributed so much to what has been done already to accomplish this goal. PMID:9576897

  2. CHIPS: Monitoring Colonias along the United States-Mexico border in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. The expansion of colonias in the United States-Mexico border region can be traced to the rapid growth associated with the Mexican Border Industrial Program during the 1960s. This rapid population growth created a lack of affordable housing, causing new migrants in the United States to purchase rural homestead lots through a contract-for-deed program from land developers. Because of the need to keep prices affordable and the absence of effective land-use controls, these homesteads expanded into rural subdivisions, commonly called colonias, without proper infrastructure. Colonias have been identified in the four U.S. border states, with Texas having designated the majority, which numbered over 1,400 colonias in 2001. Because the region is binationally interconnected economically, politically, and socially, the phenomenon of colonias in the United States is a transborder issue.

  3. Epistemic Disobedience and Decolonial Healing in Norma Elía Cantú’s Canícula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poks Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the U.S.-Mexican border as the place of enunciation, Cantú’s autoethnobiographical novel insists on the materiality of the border, especially for those living on its southern side, while simultaneously deconstructing it as artificial - a line splitting families and assigning nationalities on an arbitrary basis. Being a collage of photographs from the time the writer was growing up in southern Texas and the cuentos inspired by these visuals, Cantú’s Canícula documents how border crossings and re-crossings become symptomatic of living in a liminal space and how they destabilize the concept of nationality as bi-national families must learn to live with ambiguity. On the one hand, there is the undeniable materiality of the border, with its pain, fear, deportations, and other discriminatory practices; on the other, there is a growing border community of resistance cultivating the memory that they are not immigrants, that they lived in Texas before the Guadalupe-Hidalgo treaty. The paper examines the community’s strategies of survival in the contested cultural and social space and advances the thesis that, giving her community an awareness of its homogeneity and reclaiming its place within the larger socio-political context, Cantú becomes an agent of empowerment and change. She helps decolonize knowledge and being.

  4. Evaluation of Catalysts and Optimization of Reaction Conditions for the Dehydration of Methyl Lactate to Acrylates%乳酸甲酯脱水制备丙烯酸酯催化剂评价及反应条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金锋; 林建平; 许晓波; 岑沛霖

    2008-01-01

    The production of acrylates from biomass-originated lactic acid is of extraordinary importance, to over- come the increasing worldwide shortage of petroleum. In this study, the catalytic dehydration of methyl lactate over a calcium sulfate catalyst, with various promoters, has been carried out to identify potential catalyst/promoter com- binations for acrylate production. The best catalyst for methyl acrylate formation in this study has been calcium sulfate, with cupric sulfate and phosphates as promoters. The optimal mass ratio of m(CaSO4) : m(CuSO4) : m(Na2HPO4) : m(KH2PO4) is 150.0 13.8 : 2.5 : 1.2. Effects of carrier gas, reaction temperature, feed concentra- tion as well as contact time on the dehydration of methyl lactate have been investigated. With nitrogen as a carrier gas, a combined yield of acrylic acid and methyl acrylate is 63.9% from 60% (by mass) methyl lactate at 400℃ with 7.7 seconds contact time.

  5. On the influences of micro-blogging on the management of higher vocational college students and countermeasures%浅论微博对高职院校学生管理的影响及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏舒

    2014-01-01

    探讨新媒体视域下高职院校学生管理的新特点及微博对学生管理的影响,积极探索改进和转换学生教育管理的方式,提出适应新媒体时代的应对策略和工作思路,引导大学生树立正确的微博观,有机结合情感教育和理性教育,利用好微博群,有的放矢地开展教育。%This thesis discusses the new features of student management and the influences of micro-blogging on the management of higher vocational college students under the new media era and actively explores ways to improve and transform the student education management.It puts forward the coping strategies and working methods to adapt to the new media era for the purpose of guiding students to set up the correct view on micro-blogging.Organic com-bination of emotional education and rational education is needed in leading students to take advantages of micro-blogging group for specific education.

  6. A new species of Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopidae, Cyclopinae) from the Chihuahuan desert, northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Salas, Nancy F.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Maeda-Martínez, Alejandro M.; Silva-Briano, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the freshwater cyclopoid copepod genus Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is described from a single pond in northern Mexico, within the binational area known as the Chihuahuan Desert. This species belongs to a group of Metacyclops species with a 3443 spine formula of swimming legs. It is morphologically similar to Metacyclops lusitanus Lindberg, 1961 but differs from this and other congeners by having a unique combination of characters, including a caudal rami length/width proportion of 3.5–3.8, a innermost terminal seta slightly longer than the outermost terminal seta, intercoxal sclerites of legs 1-4 naked, a strong apical spine of the second endopodal segment of leg 1 and one row of 6-8 small spinules at the insertion of this spine. The finding of this species represents also the first record of the genus in Mexico and the third in North America, where only two other species, Metacyclops gracilis (Lilljeborg, 1853)and Metacyclops cushae Reid, 1991 have been hitherto reported. This is also the first continental record of a species of Metacyclops from an arid environment in the Americas. This species appears to be endemic to the Chihuahuan Desert, thus emphasizing the high endemicity of this area. PMID:23794845

  7. Branding simbólico e hibridación: una aproximación en la intersección cultural fronteriza México-Estados Unidos de América: el caso de Ciudad Juárez-El Paso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ramos Rubio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the inclusion of symbolic branding hybridization in the Mexico-United States of America border from the perspective of an open and poly significant binational region where complex processes and sometimes conflicting groups of interest and stakeholders become articulated. Using hybridization as a tool, it's possible to establish a common starting point conceiving branding within the dichotomy, as the attribute of a product that leaves a lasting impression on the minds of consumers and which turns the brand into a cultural icon directly impacting the thoughts and attitudes of people. This paper thrives to approach common knowledge of the major commercial brands that have taken root in the region of Ciudad Juarez-El Paso by contrasting the commercial culture from the per136 172 11 Vol. 21 ¿ número 41 ¿ 2012 spective of boundary and crossborder conditions. The investigation presents a quantitative methodology divided in three stages: The 1st stage is office work by reviewing the literature; stage 2, approaching the phenomenon through network theory (ARS, linking the EGR Theory Alderfer on resource dependency; and a stage 3 with the implementation, under the EGR (Existence, Value and Growth criteria, of 105 surveys, where 18 items where considered for evaluation. Instrumentation is done through the snowball method and the main results of hybridization are: Office Depot, Coca-Cola and Colgate.

  8. The Influence of Photolysis Rate Constants in Ozone Production for the Paso del Norte Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Fernando; Fitzgerald, Rosa

    2012-03-01

    In this research work we are focusing on understanding the relationship between photolysis rates and the photochemical ozone changes observed in the Paso del Norte region. The city of El Paso, Texas together with Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, forms the largest contiguous bi-national metropolitan area. This region suffers year-round ozone pollution events, and a better understanding is needed to mitigate them. Previous studies have found that ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends rather than on weekdays, this phenomenon being referred to, as the ``weekend effect.'' If the ozone standard is exceeded more frequently on weekends, then this phenomenon must be considered in the design of ozone control strategies. In this work we investigate some of the most representative weekend ozone episodes at El Paso, TX, during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 using the ozone photolysis rates. In this research the TUV radiative-transfer model is used to calculate the local photolysis rates and a UV MFRSR instrument is used to obtain experimental parameters. Seasonal variations and the weekday-weekend effect is studied. The results of this research will help to understand the underlying behavior of the photolysis rate constants when different atmospheric conditions are present.

  9. Die keuse van ’n model vir inhoudsanalise van preke oor armoede en aan armes as hoorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J.C. Pieterse

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A model for content analysis of sermons on poverty and to the poor as listeners The argument in this article is that the leading research question for content analysis of sermons has an influence on the choice of a model for research analysis. The author is searching for a suitable model for sermon analysis in order to analyse sermons on poverty and those directed to the poor. Different authors worked in this field of research, e.g. Cilliers (1982, Pieterse (1986; 1995a; 1995b, Moehn (1996, Vaessen (1997, Stark (2005, De Klerk et al. (2009 and Immink & Verweij (2007. The following models of content analysis for sermons are discussed: the Heidelberg model, the Heidelberg model with the use of the Kwalitan computer programme, the hermeneutical model developed by Vaessen, the model for researching the sermon as a Word of God by Stark, this com-bination of the Heidelberg model and Stark’s model by De Klerk, De Wet and Letšosa, and the grounded theory model for inductive analsysis of sermons in order to develop a theory from the data. The research question of the author’s project, namely on how preachers deal with sermons on poverty and those directed to the poor, has lead him to the choice for a grounded theory model developed by colleagues in Utrecht, the Nether-lands.

  10. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Charles Edwards; Wooten, Wilma; Gomez, María Gudelia Rangel; Kozo, Justine; Fernandez, April; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-01-01

    There are hundreds of people and organizations working on border health issues in the California-Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health. These efforts are being conducted without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. Thus, there is a need to coordinate these organizations to work together and benefit from their collective effort and each other's best practices. The outcome of such an effort could effectively improve the health in the border region. The newly developed "California Border Health Collaborative" unites organizations and provides the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region; it is referred to as the "Collaborative." This article describes the developmental process of this Collaborative, including partner engagement, governance, strategic planning, key elements for success, the roles of multi-level jurisdictions, and policy implications. This paper focuses on describing the preparation and processes that created the U.S./California side of this binational collaborative effort and is a strong reflection of the theory of border collaboration as described by Denman and De Sonora (1) in "Working beyond Borders: A Handbook for Transborder Projects in Health." PMID:26075195

  11. Radiation-associated lung cancer: A comparison of the histology of lung cancers in uranium miners and survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A binational panel of Japanese and American pulmonary pathologists reviewed tissue slides of lung cancer cases diagnosed among Japanese A-bomb survivors and American uranium miners and classified the cases according to histological subtype. Blind reviews were completed on slides from 92 uranium miners and 108 A-bomb survivors, without knowledge of population, sex, age, smoking history, or level of radiation exposure. Consensus diagnoses were obtained with respect to principal subtype, including squamous-cell cancer, small-cell cancer, adenocarcinoma, and less frequent subtypes. The results were analyzed in terms of population, radiation dose, and smoking history. As expected, the proportion of squamous-cell cancer was positively related to smoking history in both populations. The relative frequencies of small-cell cancer and adenocarcinoma were very different in the two populations, but this difference was accounted for adequately by differences in radiation dose or, more specifically, dose-based relative risk estimates based on published data. Radiation-induced cancers appeared more likely to be of the small-cell subtype, and less likely to be adenocarcinomas, in both populations. The data appeared to require no additional explanation in terms of radiation quality (alpha particles vs gamma rays), uniform or local irradiation, inhaled vs external radiation source, or other population difference

  12. Synthesis of Geological and Geophysical Data on the Delta of the Colorado River with Relevance to the Evolution of the Grand canyon of Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Espinosa-Cardena, J. M.; Martin-Barajas, A.; Hunt, A. G.

    2001-12-01

    The origin and details of the history of Grand Canyon of Arizona is a classical but still controversial problem in geology. The Delta of Colorado River, which extends from the Imperial Valley of California to the Gulf of California of Mexico, is formed of the detritus eroded from the Grand Canyon. A great deal has been written about the Grand Canyon, however to date no one has attempted to correlate the history of the development of Canyon with the history and development of the Delta. This is mainly because information on the Delta and Northern Gulf of California is sparser and is disseminated among various governmental, educational and industrial organizations. We have therefore begun a binational effort to synthesize available geological and geophysical data from both sides of the international border and use this information to estimate the volume of sediment deposited by the Colorado River. A comparison of this volume with the volume of rocks eroded from the Grand Canyon is a first and necessary step in developing the history of the growth of the Delta as a record of the erosion of the Canyon. This progress report of our on-going project of compiling the available geological and geophysical data from the Mexicali and Imperial Valleys presents a preliminary estimation of the volume of sediments, based on deep wells, seismic reflection/refraction data, and 3D modeling of gravity data, along the crest of the modern Colorado delta.

  13. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States–Mexico border region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Burgos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons. By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. Activities and outcomes: This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP, a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US–Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. Discussion: The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US–Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students’ desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings.

  14. SOME STRANGE FINDINGS: NON - INTERPRETABLE PATTERNS IN MODIFIED HODGE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Many clinically relevant species of Gram - negative bacilli are often resistant to β - lactam antibiotics even to c arbapenems. According to CLS I guideline 2013, Carbapenemase producers are screened by zone size <21mm to Meropenem or Etrapenem and phenotypically confirmed by Modified Hodge test. The test of Hodge et al was modified by substituting Escherichia coli for penicillin - susceptible Staphy lococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and 10 - μg Imipenem disk for a 10 - U Penicillin disk. While looking for the Carbapenemase producing strains, some astonishing, unexplainable facts were revealed in this study. Meropenem - resistant test strains were screened (zone d iameter in Modified Kirby - Bauer technique<21mm & for phenotypic confirmation of Carbapenemase production, modified Hodge test was performed. Thereafter the test strains were examined for production of Metallo β Lactamase using Imipenem (10μg disk and com bination of Imipenem and EDTA, followed by test for Bacteriocin production. Two Acinetobacter and one Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were found to produce a Star like outward distortion. They did not produce Metallo β lactamase. Moreover, screening test fo r bacteriocin production was also found to be negative. The strains resistant to Carbapenem antibiotics but nonproducers of metallo β lactamase and/or Bacteriocins, have left behind a head twister for us

  15. 辅助根管冲洗器械的研究新进展%Advances in auxiliary root canal irrigation instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽更; 穆颖

    2012-01-01

    Root canal irrigation is a must in root canal therapy, however,not a irrigating solution or a com-bination of some irrigating solutions can completely remove the smear layer. Consequently, auxiliary root canal irrigation instrument arises to improve the cleaning efficiency of root canal system . This article reviews four kinds of auxiliary root canal irrigation instruments, namely, the manual irrigation system, pressure switch system, acoustic system and ul-trasonic system.%目前尚未发现一种冲洗液或多种冲洗液的联合应用能够彻底清除根管玷污层.因此,各种辅助根管冲洗器械应运而生,以提高根管系统的清洁率.本文就各种辅助根管冲洗器械如:手动冲洗系统、压力转换系统、声波系统、超声波系统作一综述.

  16. Fertility in the context of Mexican migration to the United States: A case for incorporating the pre-migration fertility of immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Choi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mexican-American fertility is poorly understood because data limitations prevent researchers from accurately estimating the fertility levels of members of this group and from determining how their fertility changes within and across generations. Objective: Using binational data and an innovative methodological addressing key methodological limitations, I (1 estimate the fertility of Mexican Americans, (2 describe how selective Mexican migration to the United States is in terms of fertility, (3 document how Mexican-American fertility changes within and across generations, and (4 assess how educational selectivity and assimilation contribute to levels of fertility and fertility changes within and across generations. Results: My findings show that migration from Mexico to the United States is positively selective with respect to fertility. Among the migrants studied, there was a disruption in fertility in anticipation of migration, but a resumption of pre-migration fertility patterns and partial compensation for the earlier fertility loss after migration. Fertility levels among Mexican-Americans appear to be decreasing within and across generations, as immigrants deviate from their pre-migration fertility patterns and increasingly adopt those of whites. Nonetheless, Mexican-American fertility has not yet fully converged with white fertility. Educational assimilation explains a considerable portion of this fertility decline within and across generations. Comments: These findings highlight the importance of empirically observing the pre-migration fertility of immigrants.

  17. The San Pedro Basin: A Case Study of US and Mexican Strategies to Connect Science to Societal Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. L.; Goodrich, D. C.; Browning-Aiken, A.; Richter, H.; Varady, R.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

    2007-05-01

    The San Pedro River originates in northern Sonora near the town of Cananea and spans the U.S. - Mexico border into southeastern Arizona. The San Pedro Basin and perennial portions of its river support one of the most ecological diverse regions in the world. The regional groundwater aquifer which largely supports perennial flow and the associated riparian ecosystem is the primary water source for a number of communities, and for the Cananea copper mine in Sonora, which produces roughly two to three percent of the world's copper, and Ft. Huachuca, a major military installation in Arizona and the largest employer of southern Arizona. This presentation will discuss strategies and efforts over the past decade on both sides of the border to link hydrological, ecological and social sciences to aid elected officials and decision-makers in managing the basin, its growing population, and the water it so vitally depends upon. The disparate legal, cultural, economic and scientific environments, as well as the unequal degrees of decentralization and regional autonomy on the two sides of the border have resulted in distinct concerns and approaches to water resource management and varying rates of success. In the Sonoran portion of the basin water quality is the primary concern and in Arizona, water quantity is the major concern. The paper will report on sustained binational efforts and constraints encountered by researchers at the University of Arizona's NSF-funded SAHRA project and several NOAA-supported efforts in the basin region.

  18. Vocational Colleges Class Management Based on Psychological Perspective%基于心理学视角的高职院校班级管理工作探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦卫红

    2012-01-01

    高职生是一个特殊的群体,他们既有失落感、自卑感,又具有极强的自尊心。在高职生的班级管理中,要根据高职生的心理特征及班级管理中存在的问题,有针对性地运用心理学的一些原理进行思想工作,道德教育与情感教育相结合,构建和谐班级,引导学生对立合理的期望值,进行职业生涯规划,以达到高职教育的目标。%Vocational college students is a special group, their sense of loss, inferiority complex, but also has a strong self- esteem. Vocational students in class management, according to the existing problems in the psychological characteristics of vocational students and class management, targeted use of psychological principles to carry out ideological work, the com- bination of moral education and emotional education, building a harmonious classes guide the reasonable expectations of stu- dent opposition, career planning, in order to achieve the goals of vocational education.

  19. Development of a shared vision for groundwater management to protect and sustain baseflows of the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Holly E.; Gungle, Bruce; Lacher, Laurel J.; Turner, Dale S.; Bushman, Brooke M.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping along portions of the binational San Pedro River has depleted aquifer storage that supports baseflow in the San Pedro River. A consortium of 23 agencies, business interests, and non-governmental organizations pooled their collective resources to develop the scientific understanding and technical tools required to optimize the management of this complex, interconnected groundwater-surface water system. A paradigm shift occurred as stakeholders first collaboratively developed, and then later applied, several key hydrologic simulation and monitoring tools. Water resources planning and management transitioned from a traditional water budget-based approach to a more strategic and spatially-explicit optimization process. After groundwater modeling results suggested that strategic near-stream recharge could reasonably sustain baseflows at or above 2003 levels until the year 2100, even in the presence of continued groundwater development, a group of collaborators worked for four years to acquire 2250 hectares of land in key locations along 34 kilometers of the river specifically for this purpose. These actions reflect an evolved common vision that considers the multiple water demands of both humans and the riparian ecosystem associated with the San Pedro River.

  20. Latest progress of research on acute abdominal injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ionut Negoi; Sorin Paun; Bogdan Stoica; Ioan Tanase; Mihaela Vartic; Ruxandra Irina Negoi; Sorin Hostiuc; Mircea Beuran

    2016-01-01

    Major abdominal trauma, both blunt and penetrating, is commonly seen nowadays, being particularly difficult to manage due to the frequent altered mental status of the patients and severity of associated injuries. The review article aims to make an uptodate study of the current strategies for therapeutic approach of abdominal injuries in polytrauma setting. Review of the medical literature is up to 2015, by using the PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. We have used different com-binations of the keywords of“abdominal trauma”,“liver”,“spleen”,“renal”, to review the reference list of retrieved articles for further relevant studies. Nowadays, we are facing a major change in abdominal trauma therapeutic approach, due to the continuous extending indications and very high successful rate of selective nonoperative management, completed or not with minimally invasive techniques like angiography and angiographic embolization. New imaging methods offer a high-quality characterization of solid organ injuries, being a secure support for decision algorithm in polytrauma patients. After a continuous decrease in number of laparotomies for trauma, new techniques should be developed for maintaining and developing the trauma surgeons' skills. According to the current standards, for a low morbidity and mortality, the trauma patients may be approached by a multidisciplinary and experienced trauma team. Even if nonoperative management is continuously expanding, this may be applied only by a trained and skillful trauma surgeon, who is able to perform difficult surgical techniques at any moments.

  1. Creating experimental color harmony map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamaret, Christel; Urban, Fabrice; Lepinel, Josselin

    2014-02-01

    Starting in the 17th century with Newton, color harmony is a topic that did not reach a consensus on definition, representation or modeling so far. Previous work highlighted specific characteristics for color harmony on com- bination of color doublets or triplets by means of a human rating on a harmony scale. However, there were no investigation involving complex stimuli or pointing out how harmony is spatially located within a picture. The modeling of such concept as well as a reliable ground-truth would be of high value for the community, since the applications are wide and concern several communities: from psychology to computer graphics. We propose a protocol for creating color harmony maps from a controlled experiment. Through an eye-tracking protocol, we focus on the identification of disharmonious colors in pictures. The experiment was composed of a free viewing pass in order to let the observer be familiar with the content before a second pass where we asked "to search for the most disharmonious areas in the picture". Twenty-seven observers participated to the experiments that was composed of a total of 30 different stimuli. The high inter-observer agreement as well as a cross-validation confirm the validity of the proposed ground-truth.

  2. THE LARGE MILLIMETER TELESCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Hughes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, presented on behalf of the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT project team, describes the status and near-term plans for the telescope and its initial instrumentation. The LMT is a bi-national collaboration between M xico and the USA, led by the Instituto Nacional de Astrof sica, ptica y Electr nica (INAOE and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, to construct, commission and operate a 50 m diameter millimeterwave radio telescope. Construction activities are nearly complete at the LMT site, at an altitude of 4600 m on the summit of Sierra Negra, an extinct volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla. Full movement of the telescope, under computer control in both azimuth and elevation, has been achieved. First-light at centimeter wavelengths on astronomical sources was obtained in November 2006. Installation of precision surface segments for millimeter-wave operation is underway, with the inner 32 m diameter of the surface now complete and ready to be used to obtain rst-light at millimeter wavelengths in 2008. Installation of the remainder of the re ector will continue during the next year and be completed in 2009 for nal commissioning of the antenna. The full LMT antenna, out ted with its initial complement of scienti c instruments, will be a world-leading scienti c research facility for millimeter-wave astronomy.

  3. Can't buy my love: a typology of female sex workers' commercial relationships in the Mexico-U.S. Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Amaro, Hortensia; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) experience elevated risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) through unprotected sex with male clients, yet the complexity of these commercial relationships remains understudied. From 2010 to 2011, we explored FSWs' conceptualizations of various client types and related risk behavior patterns using semistructured interviews with 46 FSWs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, where FSWs' HIV/STI prevalence is increasing. Our grounded theory analysis identified four types of commercial relationships: nonregular clients, regular clients and friends, clients who "fell in love" with FSWs, and long-term financial providers who often originated from the United States. As commercial relationships developed, clients' social and emotional connections to FSWs increased, rendering condom negotiation and maintaining professional boundaries more difficult. Drug abuse and poverty also influenced behaviors, particularly in Ciudad Juárez, where lucrative U.S. clients were increasingly scarce. While struggling to cultivate dependable relationships in a setting marked by historical sex tourism from a wealthier country, some FSWs ceased negotiating condom use. We discuss the need for HIV/STI research and prevention interventions to recognize the complexity within FSWs' commercial relationships and how behaviors (e.g., condom use) evolve as relationships develop through processes that are influenced by local sociopolitical contexts and binational income inequality. PMID:23659340

  4. Current approaches to the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia in women with uterine leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov V.A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 155 women, of which 30 healthy women were in the control group. 125 women with uterine leiomyomas and endometrial hyperplasia constituted the main groups. In all women with uterine leiomyoma myomectomy was performed. Further treatment included randomized study of a new regimen of GnRH agonists together with COCs after myomectomy using comparison techniques: monotherapy with a-GnRH, progestins (dydrogesterone or COCs. The treatment using different medication regimens of endometrial hyperplasia after myomectomy convincingly demonstrated significantly greater efficacy of GnRH-a and COCs com¬bination in reducing frequency of symptoms of these diseases, volume of menstrual blood loss and improvement quality of life through the entire observation period. Greater efficacy of COCs and a-GnRH combination, to our opinion, is associated with a greater degree of suppression of cell proliferation and angiogenesis as a result of local (COCs, and systemic effects (a-GnRH.Thus, the proposed method of adjuvant therapy after myomectomy for women with associated endometrial hyperplasia has significant clinical benefits with minimal impact on bone mineral density and other menopausal signs caused by a-GnRH monotherapy.

  5. Development of a Shared Vision for Groundwater Management to Protect and Sustain Baseflows of the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly E. Richter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pumping along portions of the binational San Pedro River has depleted aquifer storage that supports baseflow in the San Pedro River. A consortium of 23 agencies, business interests, and non-governmental organizations pooled their collective resources to develop the scientific understanding and technical tools required to optimize the management of this complex, interconnected groundwater-surface water system. A paradigm shift occurred as stakeholders first collaboratively developed, and then later applied, several key hydrologic simulation and monitoring tools. Water resources planning and management transitioned from a traditional water budget-based approach to a more strategic and spatially-explicit optimization process. After groundwater modeling results suggested that strategic near-stream recharge could reasonably sustain baseflows at or above 2003 levels until the year 2100, even in the presence of continued groundwater development, a group of collaborators worked for four years to acquire 2250 hectares of land in key locations along 34 kilometers of the river specifically for this purpose. These actions reflect an evolved common vision that considers the multiple water demands of both humans and the riparian ecosystem associated with the San Pedro River.

  6. Treatment of 336 cases of chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To summarize the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of chest trauma. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted among 336 cases of chest trauma admitted to our hospital from January 2009 to May 2011. Results: Out of all cases, 325 were cured, accounting for 96.7%; 11 died, accounting for 3.3%. Among the dead cases, one died of hemorrhagic shock, three of acute respi-ratory distress syndrome, three of multiple organ failure, and four of severe multiple traumas. Conclusions: (1 For patients with severe chest trauma, early emergency treatment is crucial to save life. (2 Open thoracic surgery is needed for acute cardiac tamponade, intrapulmonary vascular injuries, progressive intrathoracic bleeding, lung laceration, tracheal breakage, and diaphrag-matic injury. In addition, operative timing and method should be well chosen. (3 Pulmonary contusion is one of common complications in chest trauma, for which the com-bination of strong anti-infection therapy and mechanical ventilation is an effective treatment strategy. Key words: Thoracic injuries; Thoracotomy; Emer-gency treatment

  7. The Gradience of Multilingualism in Typical and Impaired Language Development: Positioning Bilectalism within Comparative Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Kleanthes K; Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of factors characterizes bi- and multilingual compared to monolingual language acquisition. Two of the most prominent viewpoints have recently been put in perspective and enriched by a third (Tsimpli, 2014): age of onset of children's exposure to their native languages, the role of the input they receive, and the timing in monolingual first language development of the phenomena examined in bi- and multilingual children's performance. This article picks up a fourth potential factor (Grohmann, 2014b): language proximity, that is, the closeness between the two or more grammars a multilingual child acquires. It is a first attempt to flesh out the proposed gradient scale of multilingualism within the approach dubbed "comparative bilingualism." The empirical part of this project comes from three types of research: (i) the acquisition and subsequent development of pronominal object clitic placement in two closely related varieties of Greek by bilectal, binational, bilingual, and multilingual children; (ii) the performance on executive control tasks by monolingual, bilectal, and bi- or multilingual children; and (iii) the role of comparative bilingualism in children with a developmental language impairment for both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment as well as the possible avoidance or weakening of how language impairment presents. PMID:26903890

  8. Application of Hydrologic Tools and Monitoring to Support Managed Aquifer Recharge Decision Making in the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J. Lacher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The San Pedro River originates in Sonora, Mexico, and flows north through Arizona, USA, to its confluence with the Gila River. The 92-km Upper San Pedro River is characterized by interrupted perennial flow, and serves as a vital wildlife corridor through this semiarid to arid region. Over the past century, groundwater pumping in this bi-national basin has depleted baseflows in the river. In 2007, the United States Geological Survey published the most recent groundwater model of the basin. This model served as the basis for predictive simulations, including maps of stream flow capture due to pumping and of stream flow restoration due to managed aquifer recharge. Simulation results show that ramping up near-stream recharge, as needed, to compensate for downward pumping-related stress on the water table, could sustain baseflows in the Upper San Pedro River at or above 2003 levels until the year 2100 with less than 4.7 million cubic meters per year (MCM/yr. Wet-dry mapping of the river over a period of 15 years developed a body of empirical evidence which, when combined with the simulation tools, provided powerful technical support to decision makers struggling to manage aquifer recharge to support baseflows in the river while also accommodating the economic needs of the basin.

  9. Psicología política de la integración fronteriza / Political psychology of border integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro González Riesle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Con el fin de contribuir a instaurar una Cultura de Paz en la zona fronteriza peruano-chilena de Tacna-Arica, se propone la aplicación de una estrategia psicopolítica binacional de educación para la paz que contribuya a la consolidación de las relaciones de cooperación entre ambos países con miras a la construcción de una agenda de futuro dentro del marco de los desafíos que plantea la integración regional en la Alianza del Pacífico. ABSTRACT In order to help establish a Peace Culture in the Peruvian – Chilean border of Tacna - Arica, we propose the implementation of a psychopolitical binational education strategy for peace that will contribute to strengthen the relationship of cooperation between both countries with a view of constructing a future agenda within the framework of the regional integration challenges in the Pacific Alliance.

  10. Radiation Testing of a Low Voltage Silicone Nuclear Power Plant Cable.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White II, Gregory Von; Schroeder, John Lee.; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Wichhart, Derek; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; Zorrilla, Jorge; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes the results generated in FY13 for cable insulation in support of the Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, in collaboration with the US-Argentine Binational Energy Working Group (BEWG). A silicone (SiR) cable, which was stored in benign conditions for ~30 years, was obtained from Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) in Argentina with the approval of NA-SA (Nucleoelectrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima). Physical property testing was performed on the as-received cable. This cable was artificially aged to assess behavior with additional analysis. SNL observed appreciable tensile elongation values for all cable insulations received, indicative of good mechanical performance. Of particular note, the work presented here provides correlations between measured tensile elongation and other physical properties that may be potentially leveraged as a form of condition monitoring (CM) for actual service cables. It is recognized at this point that the polymer aging community is still lacking the number and types of field returned materials that are desired, but Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) -- along with the help of others -- is continuing to work towards that goal. This work is an initial study that should be complimented with location-mapping of environmental conditions of Argentinean plant conditions (dose and temperature) as well as retrieval, analysis, and comparison with in- service cables.

  11. Radiation Testing of a Low Voltage Silicone Nuclear Power Plant Cable.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Robert

    2014-08-01

    This report summarizes the results generated in FY13 for cable insulation in support of DOE's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, in collaboration with the US- Argentine Binational Energy Working Group (BEWG). A silicone (SiR) cable, which was stored in benign conditions for ~30 years, was obtained from Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) in Argentina. Physical property testing was performed on the as-received cable. This cable was artificially aged to assess behavior with additional analysis. SNL observed appreciable tensile elongation values for all cable insulations received, indicative of good mechanical performance. Of particular note, the work presented here provides correlations between measured tensile elongation and other physical properties that may be potentially leveraged as a form of condition monitoring (CM) for actual service cables. It is recognized at this point that the polymer aging community is still lacking the number and types of field returned materials that are desired, but SNL -- along with the help of others -- is continuing to work towards that goal. This work is an initial study that should be complimented with location- mapping of environmental conditions of CNEA plant conditions (dose and temperature) as well as retrieval, analysis, and comparison with in-service cables.

  12. Effects of follistatin on testosterone secretion of rat Leydig cell in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江源; 邵迎红; 窦京涛; 李明

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of follistatin(rhFS-288) on biosynthesis andsecretion of testosterone in rat Leydig cell in vitro.Methods: Leydig cells were isolated from Wistar rat testes by a discontinuous Per-coll gradient procedure. Purified cells were incubated in 24-well plate(105 cell/ml/well)and maintained for 24 h in a CO2 incubator. rhFS-288 and Ca2+ were added to the wellsindependently or jointly in both baseline (without hCG) and stimulation condition (1.0IU/ml of hCG) to observe the change of testosterone concentration in the media.Results: rhFS-288 showed a dose-dependent inhibiting effect on testosterone releasein baseline and stimulating condition. Ca2+ presented inhibitory effect either. Whereas,escape phenomenon emerged while Ca2+ concentration reached to 100 mmol/L. A com-bination of rhFS-288 with Ca2+ displayed a dose-dependent inhibition on testosterone se-cretion.Conclusion: rhFS-288 inhibits testosterone secretion in a dose-dependent manner.Calcium is thought to be the second messenger of FS action. The mechanism of escapephenomenon during high dose of Ca2+ along is unknown.

  13. Differential expression of microRNAs in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anjie Lu; Zufa Huang; Chaoyue Zhang; Xianfang Zhang; Jiuhong Zhao; Haiying Zhang; Quanpeng Zhang; Song Wu; Xinan Yi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the possible involvement of microRNAs in the regulation of genes that participate in peripheral neural regeneration. A microRNA microarray analysis was conducted and 23 microRNAs were identiifed whose expression was signiifcantly changed in rat dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve transection. The expression of one of the downregulated microRNAs, microRNA-214, was validated using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. MicroRNA-214 was predicted to target the 3′-untranslated region of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3. In situ hybridization veriifed that microRNA-214 was located in the cytoplasm of dorsal root ganglia primary neurons and was downregulated following sciatic nerve transection. Moreover, a com-bination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that microRNA-214 and Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 were co-localized in dorsal root ganglion primary neu-rons. Western blot analysis suggested that Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 was upregulated in dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve transection. These data demonstrate that mi-croRNA-214 is located and differentially expressed in dorsal root ganglion primary neurons and may participate in regulating the gene expression of Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 3 after sciatic nerve transection.

  14. Knot Insertion Algorithms for ECT B-spline Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Huan-huan; TANG Yue-hong; LI Yu-juan

    2013-01-01

    Knot insertion algorithm is one of the most important technologies of B-spline method. By inserting a knot the local prop-erties of B-spline curve and the control flexibility of its shape can be further improved, also the segmentation of the curve can be re-alized. ECT spline curve is drew by the multi-knots spline curve with associated matrix in ECT spline space;Muehlbach G and Tang Y and many others have deduced the existence and uniqueness of the ECT spline function and developed many of its important properties .This paper mainly focuses on the knot insertion algorithm of ECT B-spline curve.It is the widest popularization of B-spline Behm algorithm and theory. Inspired by the Behm algorithm, in the ECT spline space, structure of generalized Pólya poly-nomials and generalized de Boor Fix dual functional, expressing new control points which are inserted after the knot by linear com-bination of original control vertex the single knot, and there are two cases, one is the single knot, the other is the double knot. Then finally comes the insertion algorithm of ECT spline curve knot. By application of the knot insertion algorithm, this paper also gives out the knot insertion algorithm of four order geometric continuous piecewise polynomial B-spline and algebraic trigonometric spline B-spline, which is consistent with previous results.

  15. Novel approaches to HIV prevention and sexual health promotion among Guatemalan gay and bisexual men, MSM, and transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Simán, Florence M; Andrade, Mario; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H

    2014-08-01

    The burden of HIV is disproportionate for Guatemalan sexual minorities (e.g., gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men [MSM], and transgender persons). Our bi-national partnership used authentic approaches to community-based participatory research (CBPR) to identify characteristics of potentially successful programs to prevent HIV and promote sexual health among Guatemalan sexual minorities. Our partnership conducted Spanish-language focus groups with 87 participants who self-identified as male (n=64) or transgender (n=23) and individual in-depth interviews with ten formal and informal gay community leaders. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we identified 20 characteristics of potentially successful programs to reduce HIV risk, including providing guidance on accessing limited resources; offering supportive dialogue around issues of masculinity, socio-cultural expectations, love, and intimacy; using Mayan values and images; harnessing technology; increasing leadership and advocacy skills; and mobilizing social networks. More research is clearly needed, but participants reported needing and wanting programming and had innovative ideas to prevent HIV exposure and transmission. PMID:25068181

  16. 论艺术与仿生学的结缘%On the combination of art and bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏梁

    2001-01-01

    建筑仿生、工艺仿生以及人工智能艺术,是艺术与仿生学结缘的三个突出的方面。对之所进行的边缘性研究,旨在用艺术与科学相结合的方法,仿照某些生物的特征、机能,制作新的建筑物、艺术品、工艺品和具有独特审美价值的工业产品。艺术与仿生学的结缘是艺术起源观中的摹仿说在新的科学技术发展时代的一个质的飞跃。在技术美学领域,对艺术与仿生学的结缘尤为重视。%The application of bionics in architecture and industrial art and artificial intelligence are mostimportant areas in which art and bionics are combined. The interdisciplinary research in these areas isaimed at producing new architectural works, art items and industrial products with unique aesthetic valuethrough a combination of art and science and modeling features and functions of animate objects. The com-bination of art and bionics presents an essential step forward of the imitation theory in the study of the ori-gin of art in the new era of highly developed technology and science. This combination is particularly sig-nificant for technological aesthetics.

  17. Adolescent births in the border region: a descriptive analysis based on US Hispanic and Mexican birth certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jill A; Mojarro, Octavio; Sutton, Paul D; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent childbearing adversely affects both mothers and infants. The birth rate for US adolescent women of Hispanic origin is higher than that for US adolescents overall. Birth rates among US Hispanic adolescents in the border region are higher than rates among other US Hispanic adolescents, and rates among Mexican border adolescents are higher than rates among other Mexican adolescents. We used binational birth certificate data for US Hispanic and Mexican adolescent women living inside the border region, elsewhere within the border states, and in the US and Mexico overall to compare birth rates and other health indicators among these groups. From 2000 to 2009, birth rates for 15-19 year-olds declined 19-28 % among US Hispanic geographic subgroups and 8-13 % among Mexican geographic subgroups; rates in the border region in 2009 were 73.8/1,000 women ages 15-19 for US Hispanics and 87.2/1,000 for Mexicans and were higher than rates in other US and Mexican subgroups, respectively. Less than one in five US Hispanic and Mexican adolescent mothers in the border region was married. About one in three delivered by cesarean. Late or no prenatal care was more prevalent among US Hispanic (17.6 %) than Mexican (14.3 %) border adolescents. Birth weight and gestational age outcomes were generally poorest in Texas border counties compared with border counties in other US states and in municipios of Mexican states bordering Texas. High birth rates and low prenatal care utilization among adolescents are problems along the US-Mexico border. PMID:24820518

  18. Educational gradients in five Asian immigrant populations: Do country of origin, duration and generational status moderate the education-health relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie; Geronimus, Arline; Bound, John; Griffith, Derek; Gee, Gilbert

    2016-12-01

    Education usually shows a relationship with self-rated health such that those with highest education have the best health and those with lowest education have the worst health. We examine these educational gradients among Asian immigrants and whether they differ by country of origin, duration in the United States, and generational status. Migration theories suggest that recent immigrants from poorer countries should show a weaker relationship between education and health than US-born Whites. Acculturation theory further suggests that differences in gradients across country of origin should diminish for longer-term immigrants and the US-born and that these groups should display gradients similar to US-born Whites. We use the March Current Population Survey (2000 - 2010) to examine educational gradients in self-rated health among recent immigrants (≤ 15 years duration), longer-term immigrants (> 15 years duration), and second generation US-born Asians from China (n = 4473), India (n = 4,307), the Philippines (n = 5746), South Korea (n = 2760), and Japan (n = 1265). We find weak or non-significant educational gradients among recent Asian immigrants across the five countries of origin. There is no indication that longer-term immigrants display significant differences across educational status. Only second generation Chinese and Filipinos show significant differences by educational status. Overall, Asians show an attenuated relationship between education and self-rated health compared to US-Whites that persists over duration in the US and generational status. Our findings show shortcomings in migration and acculturation theories to explain these gradient patterns. Future research could use binational data or explore psychosocial factors to identify potential suppressors of educational gradients. PMID:27486564

  19. Advances in the Knowledge of Transboundary Aquifers Shared by Canada and the USA, through the UNESCO's IHP ISARM Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.

    2015-12-01

    Canada's involvement in the UNESCO IHP ISARM initiative prompted an accrued analysis on the knowledge and state of transboundary aquifers located along the Canada-USA border. As a result, 10 Transboundary Aquifer Systems (TAS) were identified and some have been assessed in cooperation with the United States. This study is a review of the current state of the 10 TAS. Documentation of scientifically-based knowledge on TAS is an important step in identifying potential issues in policies that might be adopted to address shared water-resource issues. The newly acquired hydrological insights for this very long international border emphasizes the need for more scientific data, widespread communication and information sharing between Canadian and American organizations, and a more clearly defined governments' role to manage groundwater at the international level. The study reviews the legal frameworks and summarises the current scientific knowledge for the TAS with respect to the hydrologic and geologic framework as well as some of the major drivers for supply and demand. It also describes the links, approach and relevance of studies on the TAS to the UN Law of Transboundary Aquifers and on how these might fit in the ISARM's regional strategy for the assessment and management of the TAS. Clear communication, shared knowledge and common objectives in the management of TAS will prepare the countries for future negotiations and cooperative binational programs. Encouraged by the ISARM approach of the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO, Canada is now looking forward to playing a key regional role in improving water management, facilitating transboundary water sharing, and enhancing water research and data sharing in future relations between these two nations.

  20. The impact of the reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the anticipated impact of the adoption by RERF of a new atomic bomb radiation dosimetry system to replace the revised tentative 1965 dosimetry system (T65DR). The current binational effort to reassess A-bomb dosimetry will eventually produce information about air doses and attenuation due to shielding by structures and body tissue. A method for computing individual survivors' total body surface exposure doses and organ doses from such data was developed, and a set of interim 1985 dosimetry (I85D) estimates was computed by this method using the data available to RERF in late 1984. Estimates of I85D total body surface exposure doses could be computed for 64,804 of 91,231 exposed survivors with T65DR dose estimates; following present plans, revised dose estimates may become available for an additional group of 10,000 to 12,000 exposed survivors. Mortality from leukemia and from all cancers except leukemia was examined in relation to I85D total body surface exposure doses (gamma plus neutron); parallel analyses using T65DR exposure doses were also conducted for the same set of survivors. Overall estimates of radiogenic excess risk based on I85D total body surface doses were about 50 % greater than those based on T65DR doses. Nonsignificant differences of only 3 % or less between the radiogenic excess risks for Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors were observed in relation to I85D doses. Modification of the radiation dose response by sex, age at the time of the bombing, or time since exposure was qualitatively similar for I85D and T65DR. For both leukemia and nonleukemic cancer mortality, the radiogenic excess risk was found to increase as a linear function of I85D total body surface dose; significantly poorer fits were obtained with pure quadratic dose-response functions, while linear-quadratic dose responses did not provide significantly better fits. (J.P.N.)

  1. TRANSNATIONAL MOBILITY IN A BORDER TERRITORY: ASIAN COMMUNITIES IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Beltrán Antolín

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain, an European Union country, has become a new location for Asian transnationalism, a new territory to explore, an horizon to discover, a border to cross over. The Spanish economy is an attractive sector for Asian investment and business initiatives, that receives projects and initiatives already tested in other places, or new ones, particularly adapted to the local factors. The diasporas that have taken place, can be categorised, in general terms, into three typologies: the commercial diaspora, the elite and “bottom-up transnationalism”; three models of transnationalism which –in Spain– have demonstrated great adaptability and a high level of integration into the social and economic life of the welcoming country. However, at the same time, inevitable processes of economic competition have been unleashed and have sometimes given rise to violent outbreaks of racism and xenophobia. The Asian disembarkation of its diasporas in a boundary territory of Europe such as Spain, together with the accompanying economic and entrepreneurial dynamism, foster both the increase of wealth and the internationalisation of the national economy. Asian transnationalism –in the context of Spain– should be considered as multinodal and not exclusively binational (origin and destination, as the links actively maintained by the actors-agents of transnationalism include different Asian immigrant communities scattered throughout the world, as well as the countrie of origin. Spain is just another location, one step more in the cross-over that Asian transnationalism involves; in short, a boundary territory that is still filled with opportunities to explore.

  2. Fishes and aquatic habitats of the Orinoco River Basin: diversity and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasso, C A; Machado-Allison, A; Taphorn, D C

    2016-07-01

    About 1000 freshwater fishes have been found so far in the Orinoco River Basin of Venezuela and Colombia. This high ichthyological diversity reflects the wide range of landscapes and aquatic ecosystems included in the basin. Mountain streams descend from the high Andes to become rapid-flowing foothill rivers that burst out upon vast savannah flatlands where they slowly make their way to the sea. These white-water rivers are heavily laden with sediments from the geologically young Andes. Because their sediment deposits have formed the richest soils of the basin, they have attracted the highest density of human populations, along with the greatest levels of deforestation, wildfires, agricultural biocides and fertilizers, sewage and all the other impacts associated with urban centres, agriculture and cattle ranching. In the southern portion of the basin, human populations are much smaller, where often the only inhabitants are indigenous peoples. The ancient rocks and sands of the Guiana Shield yield clear and black water streams of very different quality. Here, sediment loads are miniscule, pH is very acid and fish biomass is only a fraction of that observed in the rich Andean tributaries to the north. For each region of the basin, the current state of knowledge about fish diversity is assessed, fish sampling density evaluated, the presence of endemic species and economically important species (for human consumption or ornamental purposes) described and gaps in knowledge are pointed out. Current trends in the fishery for human consumption are analysed, noting that stocks of many species are in steep decline, and that current fishing practices are not sustainable. Finally, the major impacts and threats faced by the fishes and aquatic ecosystems of the Orinoco River Basin are summarized, and the creation of bi-national commissions to promote standardized fishing laws in both countries is recommended. PMID:27250805

  3. U.S.Mexico cross-border workforce training needs:survey implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Cecilia B.; Nuno, Tomas; Dieke, Ada; Galvez, Francisco Navarro; Dutton, Ronald J.; Guerrero, Robert; Dulin, Paul; Jiménez, Elisa Aguilar; Granillo, Brenda; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Since the tragic events experienced on September 11, 2001, and other recent events such as the hurricane devastation in the southeastern parts of the country and the emergent H1N1season, the need for a competent public health workforce has become vitally important for securing and protecting the greater population. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to assess the training needs of the U.S. Mexico border states public health workforce. Methods: The Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness of the Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health at The University of Arizona implemented a border-wide needs assessment. The online survey was designed to assess and prioritize core public health competencies as well as bioterrorism, infectious disease, and border/binational training needs. Results: Approximately 80% of the respondents were employed by agencies that serve both rural and urban communities. Respondents listed 23 different functional roles that best describe their positions. Approximately 35% of the respondents were primarily employed by state health departments, twenty-seven percent (30%) of the survey participants reported working at the local level, and 19% indicated they worked in other government settings (e.g. community health centers and other non-governmental organizations). Of the 163 survey participants, a minority reported that they felt they were well prepared in the Core Bioterrorism competencies. The sections on Border Competency, Surveillance/Epidemiology, Communications/Media Relations and Cultural Responsiveness, did not generate a rating of 70% or greater on the importance level of survey participants. Conclusions: The study provided the opportunity to examine the issues of public health emergency preparedness within the framework of the border as a region addressing both unique needs and context. The most salient findings highlight the need to enhance the border competency skills of individuals whose

  4. Cultural impacts on public perceptions of agricultural biotechnology: A comparison of South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Richard Harrison

    According to Millar (1996), the gulf between science and society is growing. Technologies are tools cultures develop to solve society's problems. The rapid dispersion of science and technology across cultural borders through trade, technology transfer and exchange, increasingly requires people in different cultures to make choices about accepting or rejecting artifacts of science and technology such as genetically modified (GM) foods, which originate primarily from the United States. These issues challenge policy makers and scientists to account for the affects of different cultural perspectives on controversial scientific issues. Given the controversy across cultures over acceptance or rejection of genetically modified (GM) foods, GM foods are an excellent example with which to begin to reveal how culture impacts public perceptions of the risk and benefits of science and technology in different societies. This research will: (1) Define public awareness and understanding of science, specifically GM foods; (2) Examine culture's impact on knowledge, including different cultural approaches to research; and (3) Compare recent findings of a bi-national public opinion survey on GM comparing in South Korea and the United States. The proposed research outlines two research questions: (1) How and in what ways do South Koreans and Americans differ in their opinions about GMOs? This question is important for gathering current points of contrast about how the two cultures may differ; and (2) What role does culture play on opinion formation about GM foods? Through grounded theory, the researcher will investigate how cultural differences help explain opinion on public perceptions of GM foods. Is it possible to identify common cultural factors that impact public perceptions of GM foods between South Koreans and Americans? The study will utilize both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Higher education is a major producer of new science and technology. The study is

  5. ABACC - Brazil-Argentina Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, a model of integration and transparence; ABACC - Agencia Brasileno-Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares, un ejemplo de integracion y transparencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio A.; Do Canto, Odilon Marcusso, E-mail: oliveira@abacc.org.br, E-mail: odilon@abacc.org.br [Agencia Brasileno Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares (ABACC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Argentina and Brazil began its activities in the nuclear area about the same time, in the 50 century past. The existence of an international nuclear nonproliferation treaty-TNP-seen by Brazil and Argentina as discriminatory and prejudicial to the interests of the countries without nuclear weapons, led to the need for a common system of control of nuclear material between the two countries to somehow provide assurances to the international community of the exclusively peaceful purpose of its nuclear programs. The creation of a common system, assured the establishment of uniform procedures to implement safeguards in Argentina and Brazil, so the same requirements and safeguards procedures took effect in both countries, and the operators of nuclear facilities began to follow the same rules of control of nuclear materials and subjected to the same type of verification and control. On July 18, 1991, the Bilateral Agreement for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy created a binational body, the Argentina-Brazil Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials-ABACC-to implement the so-called Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear materials - SCCC. The deal provided, permanently, a clear commitment to use exclusively for peaceful purposes all material and nuclear facilities under the jurisdiction or control of the two countries. The Quadripartite Agreement, signed in December of that year, between the two countries, ABACC and IAEA completed the legal framework for the implementation of comprehensive safeguards system. The 'model ABACC' now represents a paradigmatic framework in the long process of economic, political, technological and cultural integration of the two countries. Argentina and Brazil were able to establish a guarantee system that is unique in the world today and that consolidated and matured over more than twenty years, has earned the respect of the international community.

  6. The Development of a Novice Teacher's Autonomy in the Context of EFL in Colombia El desarrollo de la autonomía de una profesora principiante en el contexto de la enseñanza de inglés como lengua extranjera en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Frodden

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the experience of a novice English teacher taking part in a collaborative action research project with a group of children in a bi-national language center in Colombia, where a theme-based approach to teaching had been recently introduced. The purpose of the study was to learn how to solve problems encountered with the approach and to develop learner and teacher autonomy. The findings show how reflection, collaborative work and critical thinking were promoted and enabled the teacher to find alternatives in her teaching, to gain a new understanding of this approach, and to develop teacher autonomy.Este artículo informa acerca de la experiencia de una profesora principiante de inglés que formó parte de un proyecto de investigación acción colaborativa con un grupo de niños en un centro binacional en Colombia, en el cual se había introducido recientemente un enfoque basado en temas. El propósito del estudio fue aprender a resolver los problemas encontrados con el enfoque y desarrollar la autonomía de los estudiantes y de la profesora. Los hallazgos muestran cómo se promovieron la reflexión, el trabajo colaborativo y el pensamiento crítico de manera que hicieron posible que la profesora encontrara vías alternativas en su enseñanza, comprendiera mejor el enfoque y desarrollara su autonomía como profesora.

  7. The impact of extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ on ethanol-induced smooth muscle contraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naciye YAKTUBAY DONDAS; Mahir KAPLAN; Derya KAYA; Ergin SiNGiRiK

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the impact of extracellular and intracellular Ca~(2+) on contractions induced by ethanol in smooth muscle.Methods: Longitudinal smooth muscle strips were prepared from the gastric fundi of mice. The contractions of smooth muscle strips were recorded with an isometric force displacement transducer.Results: Ethanol (164 mmol/L) produced reproducible contractions in isolated gastric fundal strips of mice. Although lidocaine (50 and 100 μmol/L), a local anesthetic agent, and hexamethonium (100 and 500 μmol/L), a ganglionic blocking agent, failed to affect these contractions, verapamil (1-50 μmol/L) and nifedipine (1-50 μmol/L), selective blockers of L-type Ca~(2+) channels, significantly inhibited the contractile responses of ethanol. Using a Ca~(2+)-free medium nearly eliminated these contractions in the same tissue. Ryanodine (1-50 μmol/L) and ruthenium red (10-100 μmol/L), selective blockers of intracellular Ca~(2+) channels/ryanodine receptors; cyclopiazonic acid (CPA; 1-10 μmol/L), a selective inhibitor of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca~(2+)-ATPase; and caffeine (0.5-5 mmol/L), a depleting agent of intracellular Ca~(2+) stores, significantly inhibited the contractile responses induced by ethanol. In addition, the com-bination of caffeine (5 mmol/L) plus CPA (10 μmol/L), and ryanodine (10 μmol/L) plus CPA (10 μmol/L), caused further inhibition of contractions in response to ethanol. This inhibition was significantly different from those associated with caffeine, ryanodine or CPA. Furthermore the combination of caffeine (5 mmol/L), ryanodine (10 μmol/L) and CPA(10 μmol/L) eliminated the contractions induced by ethanol in isolated gastric fundal strips of mice.Conclusion: Both extracellular and intracellular Ca~(2+) may have important roles in regulating contractions induced by ethanol in the mouse gastric fundus.

  8. U.S.-Mexico cross-border workforce training needs: survey implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Guernsey de Zapien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the tragic events experienced on September 11, 2001, and other recent events such as the hurricane devastation in the southeastern parts of the country and the emergent H1N1season, the need for a competent public health workforce has become vitally important for securing and protecting the greater population. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to assess the training needs of the U.S. Mexico border states public health workforce. METHODS: The Arizona Center for Public Health Preparedness of the Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health at The University of Arizona implemented a border-wide needs assessment. The online survey was designed to assess and prioritize core public health competencies as well as bioterrorism, infectious disease, and border/binational training needs. RESULTS: Approximately 80% of the respondents were employed by agencies that serve both rural and urban communities. Respondents listed 23 different functional roles that best describe their positions. Approximately 35% of the respondents were primarily employed by state health departments, twenty-seven percent (30% of the survey participants reported working at the local level, and 19% indicated they worked in other government settings (e.g. community health centers and other non-governmental organizations. Of the 163 survey participants, a minority reported that they felt they were well prepared in the Core Bioterrorism competencies. The sections on Border Competency, Surveillance/Epidemiology, Communications/Media Relations and Cultural Responsiveness, did not generate a rating of 70% or greater on the importance level of survey participants. CONCLUSIONS: The study provided the opportunity to examine the issues of public health emergency preparedness within the framework of the border as a region addressing both unique needs and context. The most salient findings highlight the need to enhance the border competency skills of individuals

  9. Translating Volcano Hazards Research in the Cascades Into Community Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.

  10. Labor Migration, Drug Trafficking Organizations, and Drug Use: Major Challenges for Transnational Communities in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Víctor; González, Laura

    2009-06-01

    In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the

  11. The antioxidant status in human population based on the concept of prakruthi in Ayurveda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhukar Mallya H; Revathi P Shenoy; Sreejith Ramakrishnan; Linta Thampi; Rashmi Ste-vens; MSethukumar Kamath; Anupama Nayak; Anjali Rao

    2008-01-01

    Objective:In the Ayurvedic system of medicine,body constitution (prakruthi)is said to play a vital role in the disease process as well as in its progression.Free radical toxicity is also involved in the etiopathogenesis of many disorders.Hence,in the present study an attempt has been made to correlate the body constitution type and the antioxidant status of that prakruthi.Methods:Healthy volunteers from Manipal University Campus, South Karnataka,India were classified into three main human constitutions (prakruthi)and their possible com-binations and their serum total antioxidant activity was determined.Results:There was a significant negative correlation of the total antioxidant status with the pitta prakruthi whereas vata and kapha constitutions showed no significant correlation with the total antioxidant status.Conclusion:Ayurveda classifies each individual based on his/her prakruthi into three categories of Doshas:Vata,Pitta and Kapha (collectively known as Tri-doshas).The three Doshas are fundamental regulatory principles responsible for maintaining organism functio-ning and manifesting those characteristics typifying each individual,that is,in equilibrium Tridoshas signify health and an imbalance leads to disease.Thus,in this study a significantly decreased antioxidant status in the Pitta group would render them more susceptible to damage by oxidative stress.Hence,we suggest that supple-mentation with antioxidants of herbal (Ayurvedic)origin to such a group would prove to be beneficial -opening up the arena for pharmacogenomics and customized antioxidant drug administration based on the prakruthi of an individual.

  12. US - India Partnership in Science and Technology, Environment and Health: Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Satish V [Georgetown University

    2010-10-06

    Today, the US – India strategic partnership is rooted in shared values and is broad in nature and scope, with our two countries working together on global and energy security, climate change and clean environment, life sciences and public health, economic prosperity and trade, and education. A key outcome of this partnership has been the signing of the historic Indo-US Civil Nuclear Deal. Science and technology (S&T) have always been important elements of this partnership, and US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and Indian S&T Minister Kapil Sibal signed an agreement on S&T Cooperation between the two countries in October 2005. In March 2006, recognizing the expanding role of S&T, President George Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh formed a Bi-National S&T Commission and established a Joint S&T Endowment Fund focused on innovation, entrepreneurship and commercialization. In July 2009, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Indian Foreign Minister Krishna signed the Endowment Agreement with a total equivalent funding of $30M (equal contribution from US and India). While these steps take our engagement to new heights, US-India collaboration in S&T is not new and has been ongoing for several decades, principally through agencies like NSF, NIH, EPA, DOE, NASA, NOAA, the PL480 US-India Fund, and the Indian Diaspora. However, acting as a damper, especially during the cold war days, this engagement has been plagued by sanctions and the resulting tensions and mistrust which continue to linger on even today. In this context, several ongoing activities in energy, space, climate change and education will be highlighted. Also, with the S&T and the Civil Nuclear Agreements and climate change as examples, the interplay of science, policy and politics will be discussed.

  13. La política exterior norteamericana desde la óptica educativa del vecino del sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, Rene A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este estudio los investigadores analizan las percepciones de profesoras, profesores, personal administrativo y estudiantes en una ciudad norteña de México, en relación con la política exterior de los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica. Esta investigación tiene lugar en un momento en que las relaciones entre ambos países son tensas a raíz de la autorización de la construcción del muro fronterizo entre las dos naciones. El objetivo del estudio es generar una mayor comprensión acerca de las recientes políticas estadounidenses, y su impacto en el extranjero. Además, compara y contrasta la perspectiva de profesores y estudiantes mexicanos sobre los mensajes trasmitidos por los medios de comunicación norteamericanos. Finalmente, se presenta una serie de recomendaciones en las que se enfatiza en la construcción de puentes de entendimiento en un tiempo en el que al parecer los muros van ganando la batalla.Abstract: Researchers analyze the perceptions and pedagogies of educators and students in northern Mexico with regard to United States foreign policies. The key objective of the research is to provide additional insight to the impact abroad of recent actions taken by the United States government. Furthermore, this study compares and contrasts the viewpoints of Mexican educators and students with coverage provided by the mainstream United States media and United States educational systems. Educators and future teachers in both the United States and Mexico benefit from broader understandings of educators’ roles and students’ perceptions in a bi-national community.

  14. The nuclear safeguards system and the process of global governance accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Roberto Salles, E-mail: xavier@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Planejamento e Avaliacao

    2011-07-01

    Due to rising energy costs and climate concerns, nuclear energy is again being seriously considered as an energy source for several countries. Along with the resurgence of nuclear energy comes the concern of the world if these countries will develop their programs for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. If on one hand the growth potential of nuclear energy should not be stifled, on the other hand it is imperative that a climate of mutual trust is developed, respecting the right of each country to develop its nuclear program without taking a climate of mistrust to a possible 'intention' behind the pursuit of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Therefore, it is essential that appropriate mechanisms of accountability of global governance are institutionalized at the institutional architecture of the international process of nuclear safeguards, more specifically to the nuclear fuel cycle, so that abuses of power in this sphere does not happen, both by countries that aspire to develop projects nuclear, and by the suppliers of technology. In this context, the case study of Brazil and Argentina gained importance, because these two countries have a single binational organization of nuclear safeguards in the world: Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials - ABACC. In the theoretical question, the paper tries to understand what happens with the process of legitimacy and authority of the organizations of global governance by analyzing the degree of publicness and constrictiveness. This work intends to focus on the role of ABACC as an interstate institution of accountability, which has a key role to control the nation States of Brazil and Argentina regarding the appropriate use of nuclear material used in their programs, and analyze how this Agency behaves within of tension legitimacy-authority, taking into account existing studies on accountability in global governance. (author)

  15. Dynamic analysis of QTL for plant height at different developmental stages in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jianbing; TANG Hua; HUANG Yiqin; SHI Yonggang; LI Jiansheng; ZHENG Yonglian

    2003-01-01

    Plant height in maize is not only one of important agronomic traits, but also one of model traits suitablefor study of developmental biology. Using data from fieldtests in two locations (Wuhan and Xiangfan) within the sameyear and a molecular linkage map covering all of 10 chro-mosomes, QTLs affecting plant height at five different de-velopmental stages were mapped and analyzed by the com-bination of composite interval mapping and the conditionalanalysis method. Eight QTLs for plant height at differentstages were located at different regions of five chromosomes(LOD≥2.5). The results showed that there were differenteffect values of QTL on plant height at different develop-mental stages. Three QTLs were detected at all of five stages.With different stages, contributory percentage of single QTL to plant height varied between 3.8% and 17.1%. It suggestedthat the expression of each QTL controlling plant height wasdifferent at different stages. With net growth, seven condi-tional QTLs for plant height were detected. Conditional QTLs were nearly detected at each stage, and QTLs of Ph1-1, Ph1-2, Ph3, Ph5-2 and Ph9 were detected at both locations (Wuhan and Xiangfan). The contributory percentage of single conditional QTL to plant height varied between 3.8% and 12.3%, indicating that QTLs for plant height are expressed in different time-space. Therefore, QTL expressed at different stages should be considered when marker assistant selection is conducted for quantitative traits.

  16. Handheld XRF analysis of a 16th century Mexican Feather Headdress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 16th century feather headdress in the Weltmuseum Wien (WMW), an affiliated institution of the Kunsthistorisches Museum (KHM) in Vienna, is the most renowned of the few remaining pre-Columbian “Arte Plumaria” artefacts, which were made by feather artisans (Amantecas) using traditional techniques in the territory of present day Mexico. The recorded history of the headdress begins in 1596, when it is first mentioned in the estate inventory of the art collection of Archduke Ferdinand II of Tyrol at Ambras Castle. Due to its age, the variety of materials used, its history and former restoration treatments, the artefact is today one of the most sensitive and demanding care objects of the museum. Despite the object’s long history, very little documentation on past interventions exists. From 2010-2012, a binational research project between Mexico (Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia) and Austria (Weltmuseum Wien) performed a systematic investigation focused on the identification of manufacturing techniques and the various materials, the old restoration measures and its conservation. Handheld x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers are extremely useful for the study of art works in museum collections. The possibility of bringing the instrument to inspect the objects on-site facilitates the study of artefacts that cannot be moved either due to their extreme fragility or due to their large size and/or weight. In addition, non-destructive analysis constitutes a preferred alternative to invasive sampling techniques, which are usually not allowed in the study of unique or extremely valuable objects. The aim of the XRF analysis was twofold: to investigate the possible presence of inorganic toxic elements that could be associated to the use of pesticides in past conservation interventions and; to characterize the chemical composition of the authentic gold and the gilded brass ornaments, which were added in the 19th century. The results of the XRF analytical

  17. Redshift Survey Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. W.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Kaiser, N.

    1994-12-01

    In the first half of 1995, the Anglo-Australian Observatory is due to commission a wide field (2.1(deg) ), 400-fiber, double spectrograph system (2dF) at the f/3.3 prime focus of the AAT 3.9m bi-national facility. The instrument should be able to measure ~ 4000 galaxy redshifts (assuming a magnitude limit of b_J ~\\ 20) in a single dark night and is therefore ideally suited to studies of large-scale structure. We have carried out simple 3D numerical simulations to judge the relative merits of sparse surveys and contiguous surveys. We generate a survey volume and fill it randomly with particles according to a selection function which mimics a magnitude-limited survey at b_J = 19.7. Each of the particles is perturbed by a gaussian random field according to the dimensionless power spectrum k(3) P(k) / 2pi (2) determined by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (1994) from the IRAS QDOT survey. We introduce some redshift-space distortion as described by Kaiser (1987), a `thermal' component measured from pairwise velocities (Davis & Peebles 1983), and `fingers of god' due to rich clusters at random density enhancements. Our particular concern is to understand how the window function W(2(k)) of the survey geometry compromises the accuracy of statistical measures [e.g., P(k), xi (r), xi (r_sigma ,r_pi )] commonly used in the study of large-scale structure. We also examine the reliability of various tools (e.g. genus) for describing the topological structure within a contiguous region of the survey.

  18. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a 60Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release

  19. Cloning, expression and characterization of human tissue-specific DNA polymerase λ2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    DNA polymerase (POL) λ plays an important role during DNA repair and DNA nonhomologous recom-bination processes. A novel POL λ variant was cloned from a human liver cDNA library and named POL λ2 (GenBank Accession No. AY302442). POL λ2 has 2206 base pairs in length with an open reading frame of 1452 base pairs encoding a 482-amino-acids protein. Bioinformatics analysis reveals that POL λ2 spans 7.9 kb on human chromosome 10q24 and is composed of 8 exons and 7 introns. It has the specific domain of DNA polymerase X family-POL Xc at the C-terminus and BRCT domain at the N-terminus. POL λ2 was localized predominantly in nucleus in transfected L0-2 cells. It was expressed abundantly in liver and testis, weakly in ovary, and undetectably in other tested human tissues. In comparison with the expression ratio between POL λ and POL λ2 in normal liver tissues and hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC) adjacent tissues, the ratio was aberrant in 80% of those 15 HCC specimens examined due to the up-regulated expression of POL λ. This abnormality might be involved in hepato-carcinogenesis. The recombinant POL λ2 with His-tag was expressed as a soluble active protein in E. coli BL21 (DE3)CONDON Plus and purified by Ni-NTA resin and then desalted by Superdex-75 chro-matography in an FPLC system. The analysis using isotope α-32P-dCTP incorporation in vitro showed that the purified recombinant POL λ2 exhibited DNA polymerase activity.

  20. Ruptura e continuidade com o passado: bens patrimoniais e turismo em duas cidades relocalizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Reis

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto analisa comparativamente as experiências vivenciadas pelas populações urbanas de Federación (Provincia de Entre-Ríos, Argentina e de Itá (Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, que foram relocalizadas para a instalação, respectivamente, da represa binacional argentina-uruguaia de Salto Grande e da represa brasileira de Itá. Seu foco central é o modo como diferentes atores sociais representam e lidam, nestas cidades relocadas, com parte de seu patrimônio tangível e intangível relativos aos antigos assentamentos e tradições urbanas, anteriores à inundação decorrente da instalação das referidas represas, sobretudo a partir de projetos de exploração turística em elaboração ou em execução em ambas as cidades.This paper comparatively analyses the experiences of urban populations of Federación (Entre Ríos Province, Argentina and Itá (state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, which were relocated because of the constructions, respectively, of the bi-national Argentine and Uruguayan dam Salto Grande and the Brazilian dam Itá. Its main focus is the manner in which different social agents in these relocated cities represent and deal with part of their tangible and intangible patrimony related to the former settlements and urban traditions, which existed before the flood resulting from the construction of the aforementioned dams. This analysis focuses primaly on the tourist venture projects currently being planned or implemented in both cities.

  1. Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico Prevalencia de factores de riesgo para la infección por VIH entre migrantes mexicanos: encuesta probabilística en la frontera norte de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gudelia Rangel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US, and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico-San Diego (California, US border region (N=1 429. RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de prácticas de riesgo para la infección por VIH en migrantes mexicanos durante su estancia en distintos contextos geográficos, incluyendo sus comunidades de origen en México, las comunidades de destino en Estados Unidos de América (EUA, y la frontera Norte de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Encuesta probabilística de migrantes mexicanos que transitan por la región fronteriza Tijuana (Baja California, México-San Diego (California, EUA (N=1 429. RESULTADOS: La encuesta reveló una alta prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual, uso compartido de agujas, y prácticas sexuales de riesgo en todos los contextos geográficos estudiados. CONCLUSIONES: Los niveles de riesgo de infección por VIH estimados para migrantes mexicanos en diferentes contextos geográficos exigen estudios e intervenciones preventivas binacionales que identifiquen y aborden los distintos factores de riesgo personales, ambientales, y estructurales que contribuyen al riesgo de infección por VIH en cada

  2. Optimization of thread partitioning parameters in speculative multithreading based on artificial immune algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-xiang LI; Yin-liang ZHAO‡; Bin LIU; Shuo JI

    2015-01-01

    Thread partition plays an important role in speculative multithreading (SpMT) for automatic parallelization of ir-regular programs. Using unified values of partition parameters to partition different applications leads to the fact that every ap-plication cannot own its optimal partition scheme. In this paper, five parameters affecting thread partition are extracted from heuristic rules. They are the dependence threshold (DT), lower limit of thread size (TSL), upper limit of thread size (TSU), lower limit of spawning distance (SDL), and upper limit of spawning distance (SDU). Their ranges are determined in accordance with heuristic rules, and their step-sizes are set empirically. Under the condition of setting speedup as an objective function, all com-binations of five threshold values form the solution space, and our aim is to search for the best combination to obtain the best thread granularity, thread dependence, and spawning distance, so that every application has its best partition scheme. The issue can be attributed to a single objective optimization problem. We use the artificial immune algorithm (AIA) to search for the optimal solution. On Prophet, which is a generic SpMT processor to evaluate the performance of multithreaded programs, Olden bench-marks are used to implement the process. Experiments show that we can obtain the optimal parameter values for every benchmark, and Olden benchmarks partitioned with the optimized parameter values deliver a performance improvement of 3.00%on a 4-core platform compared with a machine learning based approach, and 8.92%compared with a heuristics-based approach.

  3. PHENIX Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta'ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bing, X.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Castera, P.; Chang, B. S.; Chang, W. C.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; DeBlasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Guragain, H.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Harper, C.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; Hayashi, S.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Hoshino, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isinhue, A.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanishchev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Javani, M.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kaneta, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K.-B.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klatsky, J.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Kofarago, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Krizek, F.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Layton, D.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, B.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Ma, M.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Mašek, L.; Masui, H.; Masumoto, S.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Midori, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, A. J.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D. K.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Miyachi, Y.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, H. J.; Moon, T.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Nattrass, C.; Nederlof, A.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nukariya, A.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; Obayashi, H.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Oide, H.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Savastio, M.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shim, H. H.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Skutnik, S.; Slunečka, M.; Sodre, T.; Solano, S.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Soumya, M.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tomášek, L.; Tomášek, M.; Tomita, Y.; Torii, H.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Utsunomiya, K.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Voas, B.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; Whitaker, S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wolin, S.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xie, W.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. S.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zimányi, J.; Zolin, L.

    2014-12-01

    We thank the staff of the Collider-Accelerator and Physics Departments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the staff of the other PHENIX participating institutions for their vital contributions. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, a sponsored research grant from Renaissance Technologies LLC, Abilene Christian University Research Council, Research Foundation of SUNY, and Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University (USA), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Brazil), Natural Science Foundation of China, (People's Republic of China), Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (Croatia), Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (Czech Republic), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, and Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (France), Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst, and Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung (Germany), OTKA NK 101 428 grant and the Ch. Simonyi Fund (Hungary), Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Science and Technology (India), Israel Science Foundation (Israel), National Research Foundation and WCU program of the Ministry Education Science and Technology (Republic of Korea), Physics Department, Lahore University of Management Sciences (Pakistan), Ministry of Education and Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Agency of Atomic Energy (Russia), VR and Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), the US Civilian Research and Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, and the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

  4. Toxicity of waters from the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern to the plankton species Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Duffy, Brian T.; Smith, Alexander J; George, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    The lower Genesee River and Rochester Embayment of Lake Ontario are a designated Area of Concern (AOC) under the binational Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The “degradation of phytoplankton and zooplankton populations” or plankton Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) was classified as unknown and in need of further assessment in this AOC because water quality data suggested plankton communities could be effected and community data were either unavailable or indicated impacts. The plankton BUI may now be obsolete because local contaminant sources have been largely eliminated. The present study was conducted between July 2013 and August 2014 to assess the BUI-removal criteria: “AOC plankton bioassays confirm that toxicity in ambient waters (i.e., no growth inhibition) is not significantly higher than comparable non-AOC controls”. Acute and chronic toxicity of waters from 13 sites were quantified seasonally using standardized bioassays with the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and water flea Ceriodaphnia dubia to test the hypothesis that toxicity of waters from AOC sites was not higher than that of waters from comparable non-AOC reference sites. Survival and reproduction of C. dubia did not differ significantly between site types, systems, or months. The growth of P. subcapitata did not differ between site types, but differed among systems and months. All results indicate that waters from AOC sites were no more toxic to both plankton species than waters from reference sites. Assuming test species represent natural plankton assemblages, water quality should not negatively affect survival and growth of resident plankton populations in the Rochester Embayment AOC.

  5. 旅游移动支付风险评价指标体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳震青; 彭润华

    2012-01-01

    Along with increasing development of mobile communication terminals, the mobile e-commerce has entered a period of rapid development. The security of the mobile payment which acts as an important constituent of the mobile e-commerce has become a determinant for the healthy development of the mobile business. According to the general definitions of risks, and in com- bination of the special demand for security of the tourism mobile payment system, this paper adopts the data of the expert surveys and the principal component analysis to generalize a risk evaluation index system in the tourism mobile payments, covering 5 first-class indexes like credit risk, economic risk, market transaction risk, mobile risk and technical risk, and 17 second-class indexes like buyer faith breaking and so on.%随着手机等移动通信终端的不断发展,移动电子商务进入了高速发展期。作为移动电子商务重要组成部分的移动支付的安全性成为移动商务能否健康发展的决定因素。根据风险的一般定义,本文结合旅游移动支付系统对安全的特殊需求,通过专家调查与主成分分析方法归纳出评价旅游移动支付风险的指标体系,包括信用风险、经济风险、市场交易风险、移动风险和技术风险5个一级指标和买方失信等17个二级指标。

  6. Towards an Informed Mexican and Mexican-American Citizenry: Bridging the Gap to Increase Human Capacity and Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, M. D.; Ramirez, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    The research translation and community outreach goal of The University of Arizona's (UA) Superfund Basic Research Program and U.S.-Mexico Binational Center for Environmental Sciences and Toxicology is to increase human capacity and information dissemination to diverse stakeholders, including federal, state, and local government agencies as well as northern Mexican and border community stakeholders. Due to Arizona's demographic characteristics and the UA's proximity to the U.S. - Mexico border, activities target primarily Mexican and Mexican-American populations. With this in mind, a model has been established that pulls from human capital, community-based participatory research and public participation theories. The theories applied to our target population have resulted in the creation of a successful model that is used in both research translation and community outreach work. The model contains four components: community needs (participation), science translation (information), engagement (outreach), and training (education). Examples of how this model operates for various stakeholders involved in environmental science and health issues will be discussed. A case in point of how this model has been applied effectively is the partnership with promotoras (community health advocates) to do environmental science and health trainings to increase the knowledge base of specific populations disproportionately exposed to contaminants of concern. Additional case studies and methodologies used to develop innovative communicative tools (that takes into consideration cultural idiosyncrasies) for stakeholders at all levels in Arizona, the border, and Mexico will be highlighted, such as: 1) information sheets regarding local environmental issues for communities neighboring contaminated sites, 2) SciTransfer Bulletins targeting professional level stakeholders such as Project Managers, Community Involvement Coordinators and the general public, 3) coordinating technical and

  7. ICP-OES与ICP-MS测定人体汗液的5种微量重金属元素%Determination of five heavy trace metal elements in human sweat by ICP-OES and ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤盛翔; 孟达; 吴次南

    2015-01-01

    In this study, different digestion methods were used to prepare samples for determination of five heavy trace metal elements ( Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in human sweat by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry ( ICP -OES ) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ( ICP -MS ) . We found that the HNO3 -HClO4 wet digestion method combining with ICP-MS is more accurate to determine these five heavy trace metal elements because their relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 0. 3% ~9. 4%and the recovery rates of ICP-MS were 92. 8% ~118. 6%. It is concluded that, comparing with other com-binations, HNO3 -HClO4 wet digestion-ICP-MS is the fast and accurate method for determining the heavy metal elements in human sweat.%采用不同的样品消化方法和电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法(ICP-OES)与质谱法(ICP-MS),尝试建立适合的测定汗液中铬( Cr)、铜( Cu)、锌( Zn)、镉( Cd)和铅( Pb)五种微量重金属元素的方法。结果显示,湿法消解-ICP-MS法检测汗液中这五种微量金属元素的相对偏差( RSD)为0.3%~9.4%,ICP-MS的加标回收率为92.8%~118.6%。相较其他方法,该法能快速精确地同时检测出汗液中多种微量重金属元素。

  8. A coupled model approach to reduce nonpoint-source pollution resulting from predicted urban growth: A case study in the Ambos Nogales watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Guertin, D.P.; Feller, M.

    2008-01-01

    The development of new approaches for understanding processes of urban development and their environmental effects, as well as strategies for sustainable management, is essential in expanding metropolitan areas. This study illustrates the potential of linking urban growth and watershed models to identify problem areas and support long-term watershed planning. Sediment is a primary source of nonpoint-source pollution in surface waters. In urban areas, sediment is intermingled with other surface debris in transport. In an effort to forecast the effects of development on surface-water quality, changes predicted in urban areas by the SLEUTH urban growth model were applied in the context of erosion-sedimentation models (Universal Soil Loss Equation and Spatially Explicit Delivery Models). The models are used to simulate the effect of excluding hot-spot areas of erosion and sedimentation from future urban growth and to predict the impacts of alternative erosion-control scenarios. Ambos Nogales, meaning 'both Nogaleses,' is a name commonly used for the twin border cities of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The Ambos Nogales watershed has experienced a decrease in water quality as a result of urban development in the twin-city area. Population growth rates in Ambos Nogales are high and the resources set in place to accommodate the rapid population influx will soon become overburdened. Because of its remote location and binational governance, monitoring and planning across the border is compromised. One scenario described in this research portrays an improvement in water quality through the identification of high-risk areas using models that simulate their protection from development and replanting with native grasses, while permitting the predicted and inevitable growth elsewhere. This is meant to add to the body of knowledge about forecasting the impact potential of urbanization on sediment delivery to streams for sustainable development, which can be

  9. Immigrant advantage? Substance use among Latin American immigrant and native-born youth in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen; Luengo, Maria Angeles; Nieri, Tanya; Villar, Paula

    2008-04-01

    This article reports the results of a descriptive study conducted with middle school and high school age youth residing in northwestern Spain. The main outcome of the study is to advance knowledge about the drug use attitudes and behaviors of immigrants versus native youth in a social context where Latin American immigrants share a common language and a set of core cultural norms with the host society. The research was conducted by a bi-national Spain-US research team as a preliminary study leading to the development of joint culturally appropriate prevention interventions for youth in the northern region of Galicia, Spain. Surveys were administered in Spring 2005 to 817 students in 7th to 10th grades in 10 urban, secondary schools with high immigrant enrollment. The sample included Spanish natives (two-thirds) and Latin American immigrants (one-third), mainly from Colombia, Argentina, and Venezuela. Multiple regression analyses predicted substance use intentions, and a composite variable measuring lifetime and last 30-day frequency and amount of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use. Controlling for the fact that the immigrant students were generally older and performing less well academically than natives, and for other predictors, Latin American immigrant youth were less at risk than native youth on their intentions to use substances and on their reported actual substance use. In a mediational analysis, most of the key explanatory variables in youth substance use etiology failed to account for the immigrant versus native differences, including a range of risk and protective factors for substance use, substance use norms, strength of ethnic identity, and degree of social integration within native-born social networks. Differential access to drugs mediated the immigrant-native gap in substance use intentions but did not mediate differences in actual substance use. PMID:18425712

  10. Salvar la patria judía. Hannah Arendt y la cuestión palestina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo López Chaves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hannah Arendt se ha convertido en una figura consagrada en el campo de la reflexión filosófica y política contemporánea, siendo hoy objeto de un renovado interés. El presente artículo trata de exponer sintéticamente las claves de su análisis sobre la creación de un estado en Palestina. Su lectura de las consecuencias de la historia contemporánea europea y la “cuestión judía”, su posición con respecto al sionismo y sus alternativas y la evolución de sus críticas se entretejen en una rica y singular visión, que ofrece perspectivas útiles aún hoy para comprender el conflicto. Basados en una parte de su producción aparentemente secundaria, los “escritos judíos” permiten asimismo apreciar mejor el significado y las implicaciones personales de algunos conceptos capitales en la obra de esta pensadora.Palabras Clave: Hannah Arendt, escritos judíos, cuestión judía, conflicto Palestina, estado de Israel, sionismo, binacionalismo.___________________________Abstract:Recent interest on Hannah Arendt’s writings on philosophy and political theory places her among the most remarkable intellectuals on XXth century scholarship. This paper exposes her analysis of the foundation of a state in Palestine in a synthetic approach. It intends to show the relevance of her apparently secondary “Jewish writings” not to merely cast a singular view on the conflict, but also to provide new insights on how personal experience and contemporary issues intertwine with her broader historical, philosophical and political thought.Keywords: Hannah Arendt, Jewish writings, Jewish question, Palestine conflict, State of Israel, Zionism, binationalism.

  11. Strengthening Adaptation to Extreme Climate Events in Southwestern Amazonia: an Example from the Trinational Acre River Basin in the Madre de Dios/Peru - Acre/Brazil - Pando/Bolivia (MAP) Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. F.

    2015-12-01

    Southwestern Amazonia, where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet, faces numerous challenges to the sustainable utilization of land and water resources as the region experiences rapid population and economic growth, expanding agriculture, transportation and energy sectors, along with frequent flooding and droughts. It is also predicted to be one of the most susceptible areas for climate change in the coming decade. The Acre River Basin, one of the few trinational basins in Amazonia, lies at the center of the Madre de Dios Region (Peru), Acre State (Brazil) and Pando Department (Bolivia) or MAP Region. It covers approximately 7,500 km2 and its inhabitants range from indigenous groups avoiding contact with industrial society to more than 60,000 dwellers of a binational urban center. The basin incorporates most the challenges facing the region and this paper discusses steps underway to address the basin's vulnerability to climate-related threats. A trinational group of professionals used GIS databases and local knowledge to classify these threats and possible societal responses. To prioritize threats and to propose responses, this group adapted a method proposed by the Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence of Australia to develop climate risk matrices for assessing impacts, adaptation, risk and vulnerability. The three priority climate variables were prolonged and more frequent droughts, more intense flooding, and more days with temperatures > 35oC. The final matrix proposed two areas of concentration - 1) Reduce the vulnerability of communities to hydro-meteorological extreme events and 2) Protect and restore ecosystems that maintain critical water-related resources with actions in public policy, capacity-building, and immediate activities. These results are being incorporated into the Amazon Project of the Global Environment Fund of the United Nations Environment Program, administered by the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO).

  12. A Voice of the US Southwestern Border: The 2012 “We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future” Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah McC. Heyman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 2012, a diverse group of US residents living near the US-Mexico border met in El Paso, Texas for a conference entitled, We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future.  This paper describes a vision for the US-Mexico border by diverse border residents that is at odds with the widespread view of the border as a threat to the United States. These border residents viewed their region as a set of human communities with rights, capacities, and valuable insights and knowledge. They embraced an alternative vision of border enforcement that would focus on “quality” (dangerous entrants and contraband over “quantity” (mass migration enforcement.  They called for investments in the functionality and security of ports of entry, rather than in between ports of entry.  They noted the low crime rate in US border cities, and examined how policies of not mixing local law enforcement with federal immigration enforcement contributed to this achievement. They saw the border region as the key transportation and brokerage zone of the emerging, integrated North American economy. In their view, the bilingual, bicultural, and binational skills that characterize border residents form part of a wider border culture that embraces diversity and engenders creativity. Under this vision the border region is not an empty enforcement zone, but is part of the national community and its residents should enjoy the same constitutional and human rights as other US residents. The conference participants emphasized the necessity and value of accountability and oversight of central government enforcement operations, and the need for border communities to participate in federal decision-making that affects their lives. 

  13. JNC-DOE collaborative program on Mass Transport. Characterization and Predictive Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the sixth year of a continuing collaborative program which started in April, 1993 under an Annex pursuant to the Agreement of November 20, 1986 between the Nuclear Power and Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), Japan and United States Department of Energy (DOE) on Cooperation in the Area of Radioactive Waste Management. The Annex was originally signed on March 26, 1993 to be effective for four years, and was subsequently renewed on September 15, 1997 for three additional years based on the renewed PNC-DOE Binational Agreement. The subject of research covered under this Annex is Mass Transport: Characterization and Predictive Technologies. In 1998, PNC was renamed Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). The DOE Office overseeing this annex agreement is the Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (EM-50). The work is performed at the Earth Sciences Division of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with funding support from JNC. The primary objective of this Collaborative Program is to (a) improve the understanding of the fundamental physics and chemistry that govern the processes which play a significant role in radio-active waste isolation/disposal in geologic systems and (b) develop characterization and predictive technologies of release and transport of radio-nuclides in heterogeneous geologic media. The Collaborative Program focuses on the definition and investigation of the processes of primary importance to the release and transport of radionuclides, and the development and application of theories and models to predict the phenomena accurately. Available laboratory and field experiments within and outside of the Collaborative Program provide the basic phenomenological data to test the validity of the theories and the modeling approach itself. (J.P.N.)

  14. Exploring the link between urban form and work related transportation using combined satellite image and census information: Case of the Great lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Guindon, Bert; Sun, Krista

    2016-05-01

    Aspects of urban transportation have significant implications for resource consumption and environmental quality. The level of travel activity, the viability of various modes of transportation and hence the level of transportation-related emissions are influenced by the structure of cities, i.e., their urban forms. While it is widely recognized that satellite remote sensing can provide spatial information on urban land cover and land use, its effective use for understanding impacts of urban form on issues such as transportation requires that this information be integrated with relevant demographic information. A comprehensive bi-national urban database, the Great Lakes Urban Survey (GLUS), comprising all cities with populations in excess of 200,000 has been created from Landsat imagery and national census and transportation survey information from Canada and the United States. A suite of analysis tools are proposed to utilize information sets such as GLUS to investigate the link between urban form and work-related travel. A new indicator, the Employment Deficit Measure (EDM), is proposed to quantify the balance between employment and worker availability at different transit horizons and hence to assess the viability of alternate modes of transportation. It is argued that the high degree of residential and commercial/industrial land uses greatly impact travel to work mode options as well as commute distance. A spatial interaction model is developed and found to accurately predict travel distance aggregated at the census tract level. We argue that this model could also be used to explore the relative levels of travel activity associated with different urban forms.

  15. A watershed-based adaptive knowledge system for developing ecosystem stakeholder partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hebin; Thornton, Jeffrey A.; Shadrin, Nickolai

    2015-11-01

    This study proposes a Watershed-based Adaptive Knowledge System (WAKES) to consistently coordinate multiple stakeholders in developing sustainable partnerships for ecosystem management. WAKES is extended from the institutional mechanism of Payments for Improving Ecosystem Services at the Watershed-scale (PIES-W). PIES-W is designed relating to the governance of ecosystem services fl ows focused on a lake as a resource stock connecting its infl owing and outfl owing rivers within its watershed. It explicitly realizes the values of conservation services provided by private land managers and incorporates their activities into the public organizing framework for ecosystem management. It implicitly extends the "upstream-to-downstream" organizing perspective to a broader vision of viewing the ecosystems as comprised of both "watershed landscapes" and "marine landscapes". Extended from PIES-W, WAKES specifies two corresponding feedback: Framework I and II. Framework I is a relationship matrix comprised of three input-output structures of primary governance factors intersecting three subsystems of a watershed with regard to ecosystem services and human stakeholders. Framework II is the Stakeholder-and-Information structure channeling five types of information among four stakeholder groups in order to enable the feedbacks mechanism of Framework I. WAKES identifies the rationales behind three fundamental information transformations, illustrated with the Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis and the Strategic Action Program of the Bermejo River Binational Basin. These include (1) translating scientific knowledge into public information within the Function-and-Service structure corresponding to the ecological subsystem, (2) incorporating public perceptions into political will within the Service- and- Value structure corresponding to the economic subsystem, and (3) integrating scientific knowledge, public perceptions and political will into management options within the Value

  16. Study on the Model of Whole Course of Prevention and Treatment of Liver Disease Based on the Chronic Disease Management Platform of a Third Grade A Hospital%基于某三级甲等医院慢性病管理平台的全程肝病防治模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣梅; 李雪梅; 孟雯; 刘梦佳; 罗娜; 林伟; 李宁

    2016-01-01

    This article introduced the different models of prevention and treatment of liver disease,and proposed the characteristics and advantages of the whole course of prevention and treatment model of liver disease based on the chronic disease management platform.This article proposed that the model could ensure the long-term and the continuity of patient care,and could effectively carry out liver health education and health promotion work.But im-proving the follow-up technique and management measures was still an important issue the hospital facing.The com-bination of prevention and treatment was a powerful measure to reduce the health care costs for patients with liver disease,and the financing of liver disease follow-up activities should be supported by policies and environment.%介绍慢性肝病的防治模式,提出基于慢性病管理平台的全程肝病防治模式的改善措施。通过文献研究,进行了不同肝病防治模式的对比分析。基于慢病管理平台的全程肝病管理模式,确保了患者服务的长期性、连续性,能有效开展肝病健康教育和健康促进工作;目前提高肝病患者随访的技术与管理措施仍是医院面对的重要问题。防治结合是降低肝病患者医疗费用的有力措施,专科医院开展肝病随访管理筹资需要政策和环境的支持。

  17. The role of the Therapeutic Goods Administration and the Medicine and Medical Devices Safety Authority in evaluating complementary and alternative medicines in Australia and New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the regulation of complementary and alternative medicines and related health claims in Australia and New Zealand is managed in a number of ways. Complementary medicines, including herbal, minerals, nutritional/dietary supplements, aromatherapy oils and homeopathic medicines are regulated under therapeutic goods/products legislation. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), a division of the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing is responsible for administering the provisions of the legislation in Australia. The New Zealand Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority (Medsafe) administers the provision of legislation in New Zealand. In December 2003 the Australian and New Zealand governments signed a Treaty to establish a single, bi-national agency to regulate therapeutic products, including medical devices prescription, over-the-counter and complementary medicines. A single agency will replace the Australian TGA and the New Zealand Medsafe. The role of the new agency will be to safeguard public health through regulation of the quality, safety and efficacy or performance of therapeutic products in both Australia and New Zealand. The major activities of the new joint Australia New Zealand therapeutic products agency are in product licensing, specifying labelling standards and setting the advertising scheme, together with determining the risk classes of medicines and creating an expanded list of ingredients permitted in Class I medicines. A new, expanded definition of complementary medicines is proposed and this definition is currently under consultation. Related Australian and New Zealand legislation is being developed to implement the joint scheme. Once this legislation is passed, the Treaty will come into force and the new joint regulatory scheme will begin. The agency is expected to commence operation no later than 1 July 2006 and will result in a single agency to regulate complementary and alternative medicines

  18. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edwards Matthews III

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hundreds of departments and organizations working on border health issues in the California/Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. As a result, there is a need to effectively improve the health in the border region by coordinating these organizations to work together and benefit from each other’s best practices. The newly developed California Border Health Collaborative (CBHC can provide the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region. This article aims to describe the development process of this collaborative to include key ingredients to success, the roles of mulit-level jurisdictions, and policy implications.This article describes the methods used to develop key aspects of collaborative leadership, strategic alignment and a common vision toward the building of this collective impact approach to border health. In addition, we describe the role of key local County (County of San Diego Live Well San Diego initiative, State, (California Department of Public Health- Office of Binational Border Health, Federal (US-Mexico Border Health Commission’s Leaders across Borders, Academia (e.g., University of California San Diego and San Diego State University and non-profit entities (e.g., Project Concern International, San Ysidro Health Center in forming the BHCC. Evaluating the consortium development process included a literature review of similar processes, a review of internal documents and an analysis of developmental events. To this point the CBHC has built a strong, cohesive collaborative on the U.S. side of the border. It is sharing and leveraging local expertise to address many border health issues. Even more importantly, the BHCC has reached a key stage in which it can effectively engage its Baja California, Mexico counterparts in a manner that will prove extremely powerful

  19. The nuclear safeguards system and the process of global governance accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to rising energy costs and climate concerns, nuclear energy is again being seriously considered as an energy source for several countries. Along with the resurgence of nuclear energy comes the concern of the world if these countries will develop their programs for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. If on one hand the growth potential of nuclear energy should not be stifled, on the other hand it is imperative that a climate of mutual trust is developed, respecting the right of each country to develop its nuclear program without taking a climate of mistrust to a possible 'intention' behind the pursuit of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Therefore, it is essential that appropriate mechanisms of accountability of global governance are institutionalized at the institutional architecture of the international process of nuclear safeguards, more specifically to the nuclear fuel cycle, so that abuses of power in this sphere does not happen, both by countries that aspire to develop projects nuclear, and by the suppliers of technology. In this context, the case study of Brazil and Argentina gained importance, because these two countries have a single binational organization of nuclear safeguards in the world: Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials - ABACC. In the theoretical question, the paper tries to understand what happens with the process of legitimacy and authority of the organizations of global governance by analyzing the degree of publicness and constrictiveness. This work intends to focus on the role of ABACC as an interstate institution of accountability, which has a key role to control the nation States of Brazil and Argentina regarding the appropriate use of nuclear material used in their programs, and analyze how this Agency behaves within of tension legitimacy-authority, taking into account existing studies on accountability in global governance. (author)

  20. Trade-linked Canada–United States household environmental impact analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with total household expenditures and activities in Canada and US in 1997, the first detailed estimate of environmental burdens for Canadian households. We estimate direct burdens from published government data and indirect burdens using an industry-by-commodity, bi-national economic input–output life cycle assessment model developed in this study. Comparing 30 expenditure and two activity categories, per capita US household expenditures were 70% higher, while per capita household energy use and GHG emissions were only 10% and 44% higher, respectively. Energy use/dollar of expenditure was higher in most Canadian categories, while the average ratio of GHG emissions/energy use was higher in the US (65 vs 50 kg Eq. CO2/GJ) due largely to a higher proportion of electricity from nonrenewable sources. Indirect environmental burdens represented 63–69% of total burdens and 62–70% of total burdens were associated with household operation and transportation. Key drivers of differences between energy profiles were: higher per capita electricity use by Canadian households, and higher US household private health care expenditures and motor fuel use. Energy-intensive production for export represented a higher proportion of Canadian production, resulting in less agreement between consumption and production-based analyses for Canada than US. - Highlights: ► The study documents the first detailed household environmental impact study of Canada. ► Household operation/transportation represented >60% of energy use/greenhouse gas emissions. ► For the year studied (1997), US per capita expenditures were 70% higher than Canada's. ► US household energy use and greenhouse gas emissions/capita were 10% and 44% higher than Canada's.

  1. The Exploration of Modular Teaching on the Course of Tourism Marketing%旅游市场营销模块化教学改革探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东; 由亚男

    2014-01-01

    旅游市场营销是一门实践性很强的专业课,如何确定教学内容,以发挥市场营销理论对旅游业发展的指导作用是本课程需要深入思考的重要问题。本课程的模块化教学内容由旅游企业营销环境、旅游企业市场定位和旅游企业营销组合三部分组成,教学过程中应注重教学实践活动、教学与科研的有机结合、综合性知识的学习以及对教学内容和方法适度调整的原则。%Tourism marketing is a practical course. How to determine the teaching content, which plays the guide role of ma-rketing theory to the tourism development, is one of the important problems that we need to think deeply. The modular tea-ching content of this course is composed of marketing environment of tourism enterprise, market positioning and tourism en-terprise marketing mix. In the teaching process, there are some teaching experiences as follow:paying attention to the com-bination of teaching and practice, teaching and scientific research, the comprehensive knowledge to learn and the principle of moderation to the teaching content and method accordingly.

  2. Assessing the vulnerability of human and biological communities to changing ecosystem services using a GIS-based multi-criteria decision support tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel; Norman, Laura M.; Labiosa, William B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe an application of a GIS-based multi-criteria decision support web tool that models and evaluates relative changes in ecosystem services to policy and land management decisions. The Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio (SCWEPM) was designed to provide credible forecasts of responses to ecosystem drivers and stressors and to illustrate the role of land use decisions on spatial and temporal distributions of ecosystem services within a binational (U.S. and Mexico) watershed. We present two SCWEPM sub-models that when analyzed together address bidirectional relationships between social and ecological vulnerability and ecosystem services. The first model employs the Modified Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index (M-SEVI), which assesses community vulnerability using information from U.S. and Mexico censuses on education, access to resources, migratory status, housing situation, and number of dependents. The second, relating land cover change to biodiversity (provisioning services), models changes in the distribution of terrestrial vertebrate habitat based on multitemporal vegetation and land cover maps, wildlife habitat relationships, and changes in land use/land cover patterns. When assessed concurrently, the models exposed some unexpected relationships between vulnerable communities and ecosystem services provisioning. For instance, the most species-rich habitat type in the watershed, Desert Riparian Forest, increased over time in areas occupied by the most vulnerable populations and declined in areas with less vulnerable populations. This type of information can be used to identify ecological conservation and restoration targets that enhance the livelihoods of people in vulnerable communities and promote biodiversity and ecosystem health.

  3. 思维导图在热力学与统计物理教学中应用的实践研究%Practice Research on Application about Mind Map in Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴玉梅; 马凤才; 张会; 丁勇; 曾涛; 陈思

    2015-01-01

    使用思维导图制作软件NovaM ind对热力学与统计物理课程教学案例的教学过程进行改进研究。实践证明,在热力学与统计物理教学中,将思维导图和实际教学课程内容相结合,把知识点的讲解进行树状可视化教学,有利于师生知识结构的构建和教学内容全景的呈现,有利于学生巩固知识与查缺补漏,有利于学生全脑的开发。该教学模式可以推广到不同专业、不同课程的教学方法改革实践中去,一定能优化相应课程的教学效果。%The investigations are improved on the teaching process of “thermodynamics and statistical Physics”teaching case , as implemented in mind mapping software , NovaMind . The practice has proved that , in thermodynamics and statistical physics teaching ,com bination of mind mapping and teaching courses ,and tree -like visualization of teaching knowledge ,facilitate the construction of the knowledge structure for both teachers and students , the representation of panoramic teaching content , students consolidating knowledge and finding shortness ,students developing entire brains .This teaching model can be generalized to the revolution practice of teaching methods in different majors and courses .The model will be able to optimize the teaching efficiency of the course .

  4. Inflorescences of Cliffortia L. (Rosaceae and related vegetative branch­ing patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Fellingham

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The inflorescence construction of eight species, representative of the types found in the 119 species of the rosaceous genus Cliffortia L. is described, based on stereo microscopic examination of fresh and dried specimens, combined with extensive field observations. In its simplest form the inflorescence is a reduced short shoot, bearing a lateral ebracteate flower and a potentially viable apical bud. Variations in the basic structure can be in the number of flowers, the mix of the sexes of the flowers and the number and type of short shoots as primary, secondary and tertiary axes. A high incidence of structural plasticity of the inflorescence occurs. This can be either throughout the development of the inflorescence or only at the onset of the vegetative stage. These changes occur in the short shoot(s constituting the axes of the inflorescence, causing either an increase in the length of the intemodes. apical proliferation of the axes or a combination of these two effects. A specific com­bination of changes is linked to a specific inflorescence type. The vegetative elements of the inflorescence thus modified, are retained as an integral part of the vegetative branching system, with extensive influence on the branching pattern. This can also result in the predominance of one sex over the other over time, so that an individual, initially of the one sex. can become one of the opposite sex by the end of the season. Erroneous interpretation of a single point in the process of sex change as if it is a permanent state of sexuality, led to the prev alent acceptance of dioecy as the norm for the genus. Monoecy with dichogamy (or herkogamy at inflorescence level was observed in this genus, as in many other wind-pollinated taxa.

  5. ABACC - Brazil-Argentina Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, a model of integration and transparence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina and Brazil began its activities in the nuclear area about the same time, in the 50 century past. The existence of an international nuclear nonproliferation treaty-TNP-seen by Brazil and Argentina as discriminatory and prejudicial to the interests of the countries without nuclear weapons, led to the need for a common system of control of nuclear material between the two countries to somehow provide assurances to the international community of the exclusively peaceful purpose of its nuclear programs. The creation of a common system, assured the establishment of uniform procedures to implement safeguards in Argentina and Brazil, so the same requirements and safeguards procedures took effect in both countries, and the operators of nuclear facilities began to follow the same rules of control of nuclear materials and subjected to the same type of verification and control. On July 18, 1991, the Bilateral Agreement for the Exclusively Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy created a binational body, the Argentina-Brazil Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials-ABACC-to implement the so-called Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear materials - SCCC. The deal provided, permanently, a clear commitment to use exclusively for peaceful purposes all material and nuclear facilities under the jurisdiction or control of the two countries. The Quadripartite Agreement, signed in December of that year, between the two countries, ABACC and IAEA completed the legal framework for the implementation of comprehensive safeguards system. The 'model ABACC' now represents a paradigmatic framework in the long process of economic, political, technological and cultural integration of the two countries. Argentina and Brazil were able to establish a guarantee system that is unique in the world today and that consolidated and matured over more than twenty years, has earned the respect of the international community

  6. Development of cell lines from the cactophagous insect: Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their susceptibility to three baculoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasela, James J; McIntosh, Arthur H; Ringbauer, Joseph; Goodman, Cynthia L; Carpenter, James E; Popham, Holly J R

    2012-05-01

    The unintentional introduction of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, a successful biological control agent formerly employed in the control of invasive prickly pear cactus species (Opuntia spp.) in Australia, Hawaii, South Africa, and various Caribbean islands, has posed great concern as to the possible threat to native, endangered species of cactus in the southeastern USA as well as with the potential to cause a major infestation of commercial and agricultural cactus crops in Mexico. A number of control measures have been investigated with varying degrees of success including, field exploration for cactus moth-specific parasitoids, insecticides, fungal, bacterial, and nematode agents. Current tactics used by the USA-Mexico binational program to eradicate cactus moth from Mexico and mitigate its westward movement in the USA include host plant removal, the manual removal and destruction of egg sticks and infected cacti stems, and the Sterile Insect Technique. One other approach not taken until now is the development of a cactus moth cell line as a tool to facilitate the investigation of baculoviruses as an alternative biocontrol method for the cactus moth. Consequently, we established C. cactorum cell lines derived from adult ovarian tissue designated as BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG. The mean cell population doubling time was 204.3 and 112 h for BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG, respectively, with weekly medium change, while the doubling time was 176.6 and 192.6 h for BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG, respectively, with a daily change of medium. In addition, the daily versus weekly change in medium was reflected in the percentage viability with both cell lines showing higher levels with a daily medium change. Of the three baculoviruses tested, only the recombinant AcMNPV-hsp70Red and GmMNPV at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.0 were able to demonstrate significant production of extracellular virus (ECV) in each of the cell lines, whereas both cell lines were

  7. "Hospital utilization by Mexican migrants returning to Mexico due to health needs"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Sierra-de la Vega Luz A

    2011-04-01

    services. The most common diagnostic categories mentioned across hospitals were traumatisms, complications of diabetes and elective surgery, in that order. Private hospitals mention elective surgeries as the main diagnostic category followed by complications of diabetes. Conclusions Hospitals in communities of origin in Mexico are devoting few resources to respond to hospitalization needs of migrants in the US. Currently no hospital programs exist to stimulate migrant demand or to cater to their specific needs. Registering migratory history in clinical and administrative records can be readily implemented. Developing bi-national referral networks and insuring migrants in the US within current Mexican federal programs could greatly increase migrant access to hospitals.

  8. Use by small mammals of short-rotation plantations in relation to their structure and isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Giordano

    2010-06-01

    . Dal nostro studio è emerso che le SRF sono largamente sfruttate dai micromammiferi, soprattutto in autunno e che il successo di cattura è massimo negli impianti a file binate. L’abbondanza dei micromammiferi è risultata inversamente correlata alla distanza dagli ambienti che offrono copertura, come boschi o altri impianti di arboricoltura. I risultati hanno mostrato che le SRF possono considerarsi un ambiente idoneo per i micromammiferi, ed esse potrebbero funzionare da habitat di collegamento tra i frammenti di altri habitat utilizzati dai micromammiferi.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4443

  9. Product color design based on reuse of color scheme%基于色彩方案重用的产品配色感性设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 吕健; 潘伟杰

    2015-01-01

    In the field of industrial design ,product coloring activity is mainly colored and modified manually and the users' emotional involvement is low .In order to reduce the dependence on the knowledge in the design activities ,a color design method based on reuse of color configuration was proposed .It used obfuscation and dominant color extraction technology to obtain color com‐binations from the source image ,then created the sample database of color combinations ,the 3D model library of products and the emotional evaluations collection of color combinations .The im‐agery contribution of single color was obtained from the color combination by using factor analy‐sis .Then it completed the mapping from independent color space to the imagery space .Finally , based on user's evaluation scores and color harmony ,fitness function was built and the optimiza‐tion of program groups was promoted through IGA .An example of cultural souvenir color design demonstrates the effectiveness of this method .%在工业设计界,产品配色活动主要依靠人工赋色和修改,并且用户感性知识参与性较低。为了有效降低设计活动对领域知识的依赖以及增强用户感性需求的满意度,提出了基于色彩配置方案重用的产品配色感性设计方法。运用模糊处理与主色提取等技术从源图像中获取色彩组合方案,建立色彩组合样本库、产品三维模型库及色彩组合感性评价语义集,利用因子分析方法从色彩组合方案中提取单个色彩的意象贡献值,进而完成从独立色彩空间向意象词汇空间的映射,依据用户评价分值与色彩调和度构建适应度评价函数并以交互式遗传算法为工具推进方案群的优化。以文化旅游纪念品配色设计为例对设计方法进行验证,表明该方法的有效性。

  10. El registro arqueológico de las antiguas poblaciones de los valles orientales de la Provincia Arce, Tarija, Bolivia The Archaeological Record Of The Early Populations Of The Eastern Valleys Of Arce Province, Tarija, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ventura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2001 iniciamos un Proyecto binacional de relevamiento del registro arqueológico de las antiguas poblaciones que habitaron los valles orientales del sur tarijeño y el norte salteño durante los últimos mil años. En este trabajo se presentan los datos de la primera parte del proyecto, en la cual hemos prospectado sectores de ocho valles en el Departamento Arce (Tarija detectando 32 sitios arqueológicos de diversas características. Entre los sitios hay un conglomerado con presencia de arquitectura y materiales incaicos y sectores de caminos empedrados. Hay sitios semi-conglomerados de unas 30 estructuras de paredes dobles de piedra y otros con unas pocas estructuras dispersas. Se hallaron entierros humanos en el interior de una cueva, a partir de los cuales se obtuvo una muestra que fue datada. Otras inhumaciones fueron relevadas tanto en aleros como en cementerios con estructuras de piedra en superficie. Se detectaron sitios con arte rupestre, tanto con motivos grabados como con pinturas. Se ubicaron también sitios posiblemente más antiguos. En todos los casos se verificó un alto grado de destrucción de los sitios y se plantea entonces la necesidad urgente de su preservación y estudio.In 2001, a bi-national project was initiated to study the archaeological record of the early populations that inhabited the eastern valleys of Southern Tarija and Northern Salta during the last thousand years. During stage one of the project, sectors of eight valleys in Arce County, Tarija, were explored, resulting in the detection of 32 archaeological sites. The sites include a conglomerate with presence of Inca materials and architecture, and sectors of stone-paved roads. In addition, there are semi-conglomerated sites approximately 30 structures of double-width stonewalls, and other sites a few dispersed structures. Human burials have been found in the interior of a cave, in rock shelters, and in cemeteries with superficial stone structures

  11. Breeding Techniques of Xanthoceras sorbifolia on Sandy Wasteland%沙荒地文冠果播种育苗技术试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国生

    2014-01-01

    Aiming the problems (low seedling emergence,irregular emergence,and poor quality of seedlings)of Xan-thoceras sorbifolia on sandy wasteland,the four factors (the sowing period,covering methods,seed treatment,and sowing methods)were selected to analyze the different treatment combinations.Result shows that:the optimal com-bination mode for breeding by seeds of Xanthoceras sorbifolia in spring is :sowing in April 25th +using film &sand covering mode+ seed germination with high-temperature,spot sowing with film mulching;the emergence rate&growth are significantly higher than that of spring sowing;it is an ideal combination for spring sowing of Xantho-cerassorbifolia;the emergence rate in autumn are averagely 22.8% higher than that of treatment for spring sowing;DBH of seedlings are averagely 3 1 .6% higher than that of spring sowing,that is,the optimal selection is sowing in October 28th+ soil covering + seed without treatment + drill seedling with ditching.%针对沙荒地文冠果种子育苗存在的出苗率低、出苗不整齐、苗木质量差等问题,选择播种时期、覆盖方式、种子处理方法、播种方式4个影响因素作不同处理组合对比试验分析,结果表明:春季文冠果种子育苗以4月25日播种,采用覆膜+沙覆盖方式,种子高温催芽,覆膜点播的组合方式最佳,其出苗率和生长量明显高于春播的其他处理组合,是沙荒地文冠果春季播种比较理想的组合方式;秋季育苗其出苗率比春播处理组合平均高22.8%,苗木地径比春播平均高31.6%,即10月28日播种,采用土覆盖,种子不处理,开沟条播的处理组合是秋季文冠果沙荒地育苗的最佳选择。

  12. Public attitudes towards marine aquaculture: A comparative analysis of Germany and Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on bi-national (Germany–Israel) research on relationships between public attitudes, behaviours and preferences related to marine aquaculture. Aquaculture's world-wide market share accounts for over half of all aquatic products. In many places, the sector's explosive growth has outstripped scientific knowledge and governance provisions. Small producers such as Israel and Germany seeking to expand domestic production must address environmental challenges posed by fish farming, stakeholder competition in crowded coastal zones and public/consumer receptiveness. Based on survey data obtained from both the countries, correlation analysis (Pearson's r-statistic) was used to test four hypotheses. Of these, one (positive relationship between coastal tourism and aquaculture attitudes) was supported in both countries. The hypothesis of positive relationships between lifestyle (environment/health) behaviours and aquaculture attitudes was supported only in Germany and the hypothesis of negative relationships between concern for the environment and aquaculture attitudes was supported only in Israel. These results are significant for policy, business, NGO and other stakeholders. Moreover, they point to the importance of this type of comparative research in improving our understanding of local factors influencing attitude-formation and inter-relationships. First, the tourism–aquaculture relationship found indicates potential synergies between two sectors reliant on the coastal zone that should be taken into account by planning authorities. The divergent environment–aquaculture results were especially interesting since in both countries, the primary concern regarding aquaculture expansion was environmental impacts. Closer inspection of the survey results revealed that this relationship may have been influenced by the orientation of environmental concerns in each population. Germans focus on depletion of wildstocks and Israelis on cage effluent and marine pollution

  13. New Water Management Institutions in Mexico’s ‘New Culture of Water’: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges for Effective Use of Climate Knowledge and Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, M.; Varady, R. G.; Pineda Pablos, N.; Browning-Aiken, A.; Diaz Caravantes, R.; Garfin, G.

    2007-05-01

    Since 1992, Mexico has developed a new set of water management institutions to usher in a ‘new culture of water’ that focuses on decentralized governance and formalized participation of local water users. Reforms to the national water legislation in April 2004 regionalized the governance of water and highlighted the importance of river basin councils as a mechanism for integrated management of major watersheds across Mexico. As a result of the dramatic national water policy reforms, water service delivery in Mexico has been decentralized to the state and municipal level, resulting in a critical new role for municipal governments charged with this important function. A network of river basin councils accompanied and sub-basin councils has been developed to undertake watershed planning. Decentralization and local participation policies embody numerous significant goals and promises, including greater efficiency, more financial accountability, fostering the beginnings of a sense of local stewardship of precious resources, and enhanced environmental sustainability. This paper examines the implications of municipalized water services and emerging river basin councils for utilization of climate knowledge and climate science. We analyze whether these changes open new windows of opportunity for meaningful use of climate science (e.g., forecasts; models). How effectively are municipal water managers and river basin councils utilizing climate knowledge and climate science, and for what purposes? Are there ways to improve the fit between the needs of water managers and river basin councils and the science that is currently available? What is the role of local participation in water policy making in urban settings and river basin councils? The study found overall that the promises and potential for effective utilization of climate science/knowledge to enhance sustainability exists, but is not yet being adequately realized. Binational efforts to develop climate science and

  14. Study protocol for the recruitment of female sex workers and their non-commercial partners into couple-based HIV research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syvertsen Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers are increasingly recognizing the importance of addressing sexual and drug-related HIV risk within the context of intimate relationships rather than solely focusing on individual behaviors. Practical and effective methods are needed to recruit, screen, and enroll the high risk and hard-to-reach couples who would most benefit from HIV interventions, such as drug-using female sex workers (FSWs and their intimate, non-commercial partners. This paper outlines a bi-national, multidisciplinary effort to develop and implement a study protocol for research on the social context and epidemiology of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI, and high risk behaviors among FSWs and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. We provide an overview of our study and specifically focus on the sampling, recruitment, screening, and successful enrollment of high risk couples into a public health study in this context. Methods/Design We used targeted and snowball sampling to recruit couples through the female partner first and administered a primary screener to check her initial eligibility. Willing and eligible females then invited their primary male partners for couple-based screening using a couple verification screening (CVS instrument adapted from previous studies. The CVS rechecked eligibility and separately asked each partner the same questions about their relationship to "test" if the couple was legitimate. We adapted the original protocol to consider issues of gender and power within the local cultural and socioeconomic context and expanded the question pool to create multiple versions of the CVS that were randomly administered to potential couples to determine eligibility and facilitate study enrollment. Discussion The protocol successfully enrolled 214 high risk couples into a multi-site public health study. This work suggests the importance of collaborating to construct a study protocol

  15. Residential Exposure to Nighttime Retained Heat in the El Paso, Texas, USA Desert Metroplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, M. A.; Mohammed, M.; Pingitore, N. E.; Aldouri, R. K.; Benedict, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    The urban heat island is a well recognized and extensively studied phenomenon that has accelerating importance resulting from two trends associated with world-wide population growth: increasing urbanization and global warming. Urbanization, particularly when unplanned and haphazard, changes such thermal parameters as albedo, surface roughness, and heat capacities of surface materials. Rapid urbanization in the contiguous El Paso, Texas, USA - Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico bi-national metroplex has produced an urban heat island that is warmer than the surrounding Chihuahuan desert (temperature: 35-40 C summer; high elevation: 600-1675 m; rainfall: less than 250 mm annual). Despite the extensive literature on the urban heat island, little is known about urban nighttime land surface temperatures. We employed infrared satellite imaging to establish the variation of nighttime neighborhood surface temperatures across the city of El Paso, as well as all of El Paso County. The underlying purpose of our continuing investigation is to evaluate the geography of morbidity risk: are different neighborhoods at different risk of high nighttime temperatures. Those risks can include heat stress, and irritability and sleep deprivation, with possible resultant violence. Heat exposure at night is significant because residents are at home and 90% of El Pasoans do not have 'refrigerated' air conditioning, but instead have evaporative coolers, which are less expensive to own and operate, but are less effective since they raise the humidity of the partially cooled air. Our geographically weighted regression model showed that both day and nighttime land surface temperatures correlated with the normalized difference vegetation index, population density, and albedo. The association with the index and albedo was stronger during the daytime and with population density during the nighttime. Vegetation (negative) and population density (positive) were the dominant temperature drivers, with

  16. Monitoring Colonias Development along the United States-Mexico Border: A Process Application using GIS and Remote Sensing in Douglas, Arizona, and Agua Prieta, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Donelson, Angela J.; Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Lam, Alven H.; Osborn, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    colonias. The USGS worked with local organizations in developing the Web-based GIS database. Community involvement ensured that the database and map server would meet the current and long-term needs of the communities and end users. Partners include Federal agencies, State agencies, county officials, town representatives, universities, and youth organizations, as well as interested local advocacy groups and individuals. A significant component of this project was development of relationships and partnerships in the border towns for facilitating binational approaches to land management.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among active duty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Mittal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Police officers are at an elevated risk for needle-stick injuries (NSI, which pose a serious and costly occupational health risk for HIV and viral hepatitis. However, research on NSIs among police officers is limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the legality of syringe possession in Mexico, half of people who inject drugs (PWID in Tijuana report extrajudicial syringe-related arrests and confiscation by police, which has been associated with needle-sharing and HIV infection. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of NSIs among Tijuana police officers to inform efforts to improve occupational safety and simultaneously reduce HIV risks among police and PWID. Methods: Tijuana's Department of Municipal Public Safety (SSPM is among Mexico's largest. Our binational, multi-sectoral team analyzed de-identified data from SSPM's 2014 anonymous self-administered occupational health survey. The prevalence of NSI and syringe disposal practices was determined. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation via generalized estimating equations identified factors associated with ever having an occupational NSI. Results: Approximately one-quarter of the Tijuana police force was given the occupational health survey (N=503. Respondents were predominantly male (86.5% and ≤35 years old (42.6%. Nearly one in six officers reported ever having a NSI while working at SSPM (15.3%, of whom 14.3% reported a NSI within the past year. Most participants reported encountering needles/syringes while on duty (n=473, 94%; factors independently associated with elevated odds of NSIs included frequently finding syringes that contain drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.56–5.67 and breaking used needles (AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.29–3.91, while protective factors included being willing to contact emergency services in case of NSIs (AOR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22–0.69, and wearing needle-stick resistant

  18. A Research Strategy Case Study of Alcohol and Drug Prevention by Non-Governmental Organizations in Sweden 2003-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Madelene

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and drug prevention is high on the public health agenda in many countries. An increasing trend is the call for evidence-based practice. In Sweden in 2002 an innovative project portfolio including an integrated research and competence-building strategy for non-governmental organisations (NGOs was designed by the National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW. This research strategy case study is based on this initiative. Methods The embedded case study includes 135 projects in 69 organisations and 14 in-depth process or effect studies. The data in the case study has been compiled using multiple methods - administrative data; interviews and questionnaires to project leaders; focus group discussions and seminars; direct and participatory observations, interviews, and documentation of implementation; consultations with the NBHW and the NGOs; and a literature review. Annual reports have been submitted each year and three bi-national conferences Reflections on preventions have been held. Results A broad range of organisations have been included in the NBHW project portfolio. A minority of the project were run by Alcohol or drug organisations, while a majority has children or adolescents as target groups. In order to develop a trustful partnership between practitioners, national agencies and researchers a series of measures were developed and implemented: meeting with project leaders, project dialogues and consultations, competence strengthening, support to documentation, in-depth studies and national conferences. A common element was that the projects were program-driven and not research-driven interventions. The role of researchers-as-technical advisors was suitable for the fostering of a trustful partnership for research and development. The independence of the NGOs was regarded as important for the momentum in the project implementation. The research strategy also includes elements of participatory research. Conclusions This

  19. Microbial contamination and chemical toxicity of the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jose; Botsford, James; Hernandez, Jose; Montoya, Anna; Saenz, Roswitha; Valles, Adrian; Vazquez, Alejandro; Alvarez, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Background The Rio Grande River is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX to Brownsville, TX. and is one of the major water resources of the area. Agriculture, farming, maquiladora industry, domestic activities, as well as differences in disposal regulations and enforcement increase the contamination potential of water supplies along the border region. Therefore, continuous and accurate assessment of the quality of water supplies is of paramount importance. The objectives of this study were to monitor water quality of the Rio Grande and to determine if any correlations exist between fecal coliforms, E. coli, chemical toxicity as determined by Botsford's assay, H. pylori presence, and environmental parameters. Seven sites along a 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX were sampled on a monthly basis between January 2000 and December 2002. Results The results showed great variability in the number of fecal coliforms, and E. coli on a month-to-month basis. Fecal coliforms ranged between 0–106 CFU/100 ml while E. coli ranged between 6 to > 2419 MPN. H. pylori showed positive detection for all the sites at different times. Toxicity ranged between 0 to 94% of inhibition capacity (IC). Since values above 50% are considered to be toxic, most of the sites displayed significant chemical toxicity at different times of the year. No significant correlations were observed between microbial indicators and chemical toxicity. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande river from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX exceeds the standards for contact recreation water on a continuous basis. In addition, the presence of chemical toxicity in most sites along the 112-Km segment indicates that water quality is an area of concern for the bi-national region. The presence of H. pylori adds to the potential health hazards of the Rio Grande. Since no significant correlation was

  20. «Haciendo amigos»: intercambios educativos hispano-estadounidenses en clave política, 1959-1968

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco RODRÍGUEZ JIMÉNEZ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La dimensión cultural de la relación hispano-estadounidense durante el franquismo ha sido poco estudiada. Sin embargo, tuvo un papel importante e influyó notablemente en los aspectos políticos, militares, económicos, etc., de aquella conexión. Dentro de aquel ámbito, un episodio destacado fue el establecimiento del programa de cooperación e intercambio educativo y científico de becas Fulbright. Para gestionarlo se creó una comisión binacional. Pese a determinadas declaraciones iniciales de supuesta sintonía entre las partes, los agentes diplomáticos de Washington tenían unas expectativas y prioridades bastante diferentes de las que albergaban sus homólogos de Madrid. Las estadounidenses se centraron en potenciar la enseñanza del inglés y de los Estudios Norteamericanos, American Studies, en las universidades de nuestro país. Las españolas, en poder beber de los prestigiosos centros de conocimiento técnico y científico existentes en los Estados Unidos. Hemos analizado, tomando como ejemplo el caso de la Universidad de Salamanca, cuáles fueron los avatares sobre el terreno y en qué grado se cumplieron los objetivos específicos estadounidenses de que sus producciones humanísticas fueran entendidas y estudiadas en España.ABSTRACT: Cultural aspects of the Spanish-Northamerican relations during the Franco’s regime have been scarcely studied. Nevertheless, they played an important role and influenced notably the political, military and economic aspects of that connection. Inside that context, an outstanding episode was the establishment of the Fulbright grants, a program of cooperation and of educational and scientific scholarship exchange. A binational commission was created in order to manage this project. Despite certain initial declarations of a supposed perfect understanding between the two parts, the diplomatic agents of Washington had quite different expectations and priorities from those that their

  1. Implementation of an efficacious intervention for high risk women in Mexico: protocol for a multi-site randomized trial with a parallel study of organizational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Thomas L

    2012-10-01

    intervention will be analyzed, and across CBOs, correlations will be examined between individual and organizational provider characteristics and intervention efficacy. Discussion This cooperative, bi-national research study will provide critical insights into barriers and facilitating factors associated with implementing interventions in CBOs using the ‘train the trainer’ model. Our work builds on similar scale-up strategies that have been effective in the United States. This study has the potential to increase our knowledge of the generalizability of such strategies across health issues, national contexts, and organizational contexts. Trial registration NCT01465607

  2. As empresas binacionais e sua efetividade na liberdade de estabelecimento no MERCOSUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena de Almeida Portugal

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration process, begun in the context of MERCOSUL it is also shown through the dynamism of the private section and of the imperatividade of the commercial flows. As foundations of the integration are the freedoms of circulation of goods, services, people and capitals, and, in the specific case, the establishment freedom. Such freedoms are reached through the coordination of politics macroeconomicals and sectorial, as it sets down the Agreement of Assumption, not being this an easy task. In this vein, already in seara of political-economical approach between Brazil and Argentina, in 1990, Binational Enterprises’s Statute was firm, that come as sectorial and bilateral associative form facilitative of the managerial establishment and viabilizadora of the growth of the commercial flow. The juridical structure created by the Statute he/she reveals effective and smoothing roads of the impact of the integration reducing the legislative antinomias that need harmonization. The companies’ binacionais can be used as instruments of the applicability and effectiveness of the establishment freedom in MERCOSUL.O processo de integração, encetado no contexto do MERCOSUL mostra-se também através do dinamismo do setor privado e da imperatividade dos fluxos comerciais. Como fundamentos da integração encontram-se as liberdades de circulação de bens, serviços, pessoas e capitais, e, no caso específico, a liberdade de estabelecimento. Tais liberdades são alcançadas através da coordenação de políticas macroeconômicas e setoriais, como preceitua o Tratado de Assunção, não sendo esta uma tarefa fácil. Neste veio, já em seara de aproximação político-econômica entre Brasil e Argentina, em 1990, firmou-se o Estatuto das Empresas Binacionais, que se apresenta como forma associativa setorial e bilateral facilitadora do estabelecimento empresarial e viabilizadora do crescimento do fluxo comercial. A estrutura jurídica criada pelo Estatuto

  3. 不同砧木嫁接对西瓜叶片生理效应及产量影响%Effects of Different Kinds of Stocks on Leaf Physiological Changes and Yield of Grafted Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫星; 徐小利; 刘喜存; 董彦琪; 常高正; 李晓慧; 梁慎

    2014-01-01

    Using the seedlings of seedless watermelon variety “Heidi” as scion, we studied the effects of different kinds of stocks on the leaf physiological indexes and yield of grafted watermelon through field experiment&physiological and biochemical de -termination.The results showed that there were differences in leaf chlorophyll and MDA contents as well as PPO and NR activities a -mong different grafted combinations at different growth stages .The seedlings of grafted combinations from pumpkin stocks “Xi-jiaqiangsheng” and “Zhengkangzhen No .1” had more prominent comprehensive performance .The yields of these two grafted com-binations were not significantly different from that of the grafted combination from the stock “Chaofengkangshengwang”, but they were significantly higher than those of other 2 grafted combinations .There was no significant difference in soluble solid content a-mong 5 grafted combinations .So“Xijiaqiangsheng” and“Zhengkangzhen No .1” are the good stocks for the grafting of seedless wa-termelon variety “Heidi”.%以无籽西瓜黑帝为接穗材料,采用田间试验、生理生化测定等方法,研究了不同砧木嫁接对西瓜生长过程中叶片生理指标及产量的影响,结果表明:不同砧木嫁接组合西瓜叶片叶绿素、MDA含量和PPO、NR活性在不同生育期表现有差异,其中以南瓜类型砧木西嫁强生和郑抗砧1号嫁接苗综合表现较为突出,其产量除与超丰抗生王嫁接组合差异不显著外,显著高于其他2个嫁接组合,且其可溶性固形物含量与其他嫁接组合间差异不显著。因此,西嫁强生和郑抗砧1号是无籽西瓜黑帝嫁接的优良砧木。

  4. Design of Virtual Simulation Experiment Platform Based on Web%基于Web的虚拟仿真实验课程平台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周成纲

    2013-01-01

    A tpresentin the university experim entcurriculum system m any courses need to be done by experi-m ents, a lot of experim ental learning content need to learn in the field of concrete intuitive, but the real environ-m entcan help the students to understand the principle ofexperim entdeeply,butdue to various lim itations thatin-cludes inadequate laboratory hardw are investm ent, long m aintenance period, low instrum ent update rate, superfi-cialexperim entcontentand other reasons,m akes the ideallearning conditions to be difficultto achieve.A nd w ith a com bination of the virtual sim ulation experim ent platform based on W eb.N E T technology and the three-dim en-sionalm ultim edia technology,itcan provide a m ore intuitive learning experience for them ,to help students under-stand the course contentbetter to achieve good learning effects.%  目前在大学实验课程体系中在很多课程需要通过技能实验来完成,很多实验学习内容需要在具体直观的现场进行学习,真实的实验环境固然更能加深学生对实验原理的理解,但是由于各种条件的限制,包括实验室硬件投入不足、维修周期长、仪器更新率低、实验内容深度不够等原因,使得理想化的学习条件往往很难实现。而基于W eb的虚拟仿真实验课程平台通过.NET技术结合三维多媒体技术,能够为学生提供更加直观的学习环境体验,帮助他们更好地理解课程内容达到良好的学习效果。

  5. 冷战以来柬埔寨地缘政治变动研究%Research on Geopolitical Changes in Cambodia Since the Cold War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方天建; 何跃

    2014-01-01

    冷战以来,柬埔寨地缘政治经历了从碎片化到重组的变动。其既是冷战期间美苏两大阵营进行冷战与热战博弈的最前沿阵地之一,也是冷战后各域外政治力量在地缘战略上积极争取的东南亚国家之一。在导致柬埔寨地缘政治变动的诸多因素中,外部因素是决定其地缘政治变动的主导性因素,国内政治派别斗争的分化与组合是导致其地缘政治变动的重要因素。因此,在双重因素作用下,冷战以来的柬埔寨地缘政治具有地缘政治棋盘和地缘战略楔子的显著特点。而对冷战以来柬埔寨地缘政治变动的趋势、成因和特征的探讨,对我国的柬埔寨地缘政治研究和我国对柬埔寨地缘政治的战略定位具有十分重要的学术意义和现实意义。%Since the cold war, the geopolitical of Cambodia has experienced the changes from fragmentation to restructuring. It is not only one of the forefront to the United States and the Soviet union camps for cold and hot war games during the cold war , and one of the southeast Asian countries has been actively strive for the outside political forces on the geopolitical strategy after the cold war. In cause changes in the Cambodian geopolitical factors, external factors are dominant factors. Moreover, the differentiation and com-bination of domestic political parties to conflict that are the important fac-tors. Therefore, since the cold war, the geopolitical of Cambodia has geopo-litical chessboard and geostrategic wedge characteristics significantly. And to discuss the trend , the causes and characteristics of Cambodia geopolitical changes since the cold war to our country's geopolitical research in Cambodia and China's geopolitical strategic positioning in Cambodia has very important academic significance and practical significance.

  6. Identifying and Measuring the Lifelong Human Capital of “Unskilled” Migrants in the Mexico-US Migratory Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Hagan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most human capital and migration studies classify migrants with limited formal education as “unskilled,” despite substantial skills developed through job and life experiences.  Drawing on a binational multi-stage research project that involved interviews with 320 Mexican migrants and return migrants in North Carolina and Guanajuato, Mexico, we identify the lifelong human capital they acquired and transferred throughout their careers and discover that these include not only basic education and English, but also technical and social skills and competences acquired informally on and off the job throughout the course of one’s life.  We further find that the learning and transfer of skills is a lifelong, gendered process, reflecting the different social contexts and jobs in which men and women learn. In this paper we document several mobility pathways associated with the acquisition and transfer of skills across the migratory circuit, including reskilling, occupational mobility, job jumping, and entrepreneurship.Our study has broad implications for the migration policies of both the US and Mexico.  US immigration policy confers preference to “skilled” immigrants who rank high on traditional human capital characteristics, such as education levels and other formal credentials, but limits the entry of “unskilled” migrants, a categorization that ignores the substantial informal skills they bring to US labor markets.  Instead of focusing only on the continued expansion of immigration policy preferences for narrowly defined skilled migrants, the US government needs to consider more carefully what we mean by skilled workers and design fairer and more effective immigration policies that match their abilities to the specific needs of US industry and thereby recognize the economic contributions of all migrants within a lifelong human capital framework. Mexico can also learn from our findings. Between 2005 and 2010 an estimated 1.4 million

  7. Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among active duty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, María Luisa; Beletsky, Leo; Patiño, Efraín; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rocha, Teresita; Arredondo, Jaime; Bañuelos, Arnulfo; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Police officers are at an elevated risk for needle-stick injuries (NSI), which pose a serious and costly occupational health risk for HIV and viral hepatitis. However, research on NSIs among police officers is limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the legality of syringe possession in Mexico, half of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana report extrajudicial syringe-related arrests and confiscation by police, which has been associated with needle-sharing and HIV infection. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of NSIs among Tijuana police officers to inform efforts to improve occupational safety and simultaneously reduce HIV risks among police and PWID. Methods Tijuana's Department of Municipal Public Safety (SSPM) is among Mexico's largest. Our binational, multi-sectoral team analyzed de-identified data from SSPM's 2014 anonymous self-administered occupational health survey. The prevalence of NSI and syringe disposal practices was determined. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation via generalized estimating equations identified factors associated with ever having an occupational NSI. Results Approximately one-quarter of the Tijuana police force was given the occupational health survey (N=503). Respondents were predominantly male (86.5%) and ≤35 years old (42.6%). Nearly one in six officers reported ever having a NSI while working at SSPM (15.3%), of whom 14.3% reported a NSI within the past year. Most participants reported encountering needles/syringes while on duty (n=473, 94%); factors independently associated with elevated odds of NSIs included frequently finding syringes that contain drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56–5.67) and breaking used needles (AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.29–3.91), while protective factors included being willing to contact emergency services in case of NSIs (AOR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22–0.69), and wearing needle-stick resistant gloves (AOR: 0

  8. 环氧化酶-2及其抑制剂与肿瘤耐药的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩惠; 张卿

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,the m alignant tum or m ortality rate has increased year by year,w hich is closely related to the subsequent m ultidrug resistance caused by the long-term effect of anti-cancer drugs.T he em ergence of tum or drug resistance is an im portant cause resulting in failure of chem otherapy and the progress of the disease.C yclooxygenase-2 (C O X-2 )is a key enzym e catalyzing arachidonic acid to generate a variety of prostaglandins,w hich expresses in a w ide variety of tum ors and participate in the occurrence of tum or drug resistance,thus reduces the efficacy of chem otherapy. C O X-2 inhibitors can inhibit the grow th of tum or cells,and reduce the expression of drug resistance proteins.T here-fore,to reverse drug resistance of tum or cells,enhance the sensitivity of antitum or drugs in tum or patients,and to im-prove the treatm ent effect,the research on anti-tum or effect of C O X-2 inhibitors in com bination w ith chem otherapeutic drugs has becom e a focus.%近年来,恶性肿瘤的死亡率逐年增加,这与抗癌药物长期作用所继发的多药耐药( MDR )密切相关,肿瘤耐药性的产生是导致化疗失败、疾病进展的重要原因。环氧化酶-2( COX-2)是催化花生四烯酸生成各种前列腺素的关键酶,在多种肿瘤中表达并参与肿瘤耐药性的发生,从而降低化疗疗效。COX-2抑制剂有抑制肿瘤细胞生长,降低耐药蛋白表达等抗肿瘤作用,因此,为逆转肿瘤细胞耐药性、增强肿瘤患者对抗肿瘤药物的敏感性,进而提高治疗效果,对COX-2抑制剂与化疗药物联合抗肿瘤作用的研究成为了热点。

  9. 门冬氨酸钾镁及其联合普罗帕酮对家兔心室肌电生理的影响%Effects of Magnesium Potassium Aspartate a nd Its Combination With Propafenone on Ventricular Electrophysiology in Rabbits.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭保静; 李小梅

    2001-01-01

    探讨门冬氨酸钾镁(KMA)及其与普罗帕酮(Pr)联合应用对心脏电生理 的影响。将动物随机分组,分别静脉注射KMA、Pr以及KMA+Pr,采用心外膜单相动作电位( MAP)记录技术于家兔左心室记录MAP。结果:KMA、Pr、KMA+Pr各组均延长窦性心动周期( SCL)、MAP复极达50%时程并增加心室有效不应期(VERP);Pr、KMA+Pr 还增加MAP复极达90%时程(MAPD90)及VERP/MAPD90。较大剂量Pr 有致心律失常 作用,KMA与Pr联合使用 心律失常发生率增加。结论:KMA具有抗心律失常药物的电生理特性,单独应用推荐剂量的K MA是安全的; KMA与Pr联合应用的心脏电生理效应是两药各自作用程度的叠加。为避免致心 律失常风险,KMA与Pr联合应用时应相应减小Pr剂量。%To investigate the effects of potassium magnesium aspartate (KMA) and I ts combination with propafenone (Pr) on heart eletrophysiology,Epicardium contac t monophasic action potential (MAP) probe was used to record MAP on rabbit's lef t ventricle after thoracotomy.The rabbits were randomized into several groups:KM A,Prand KMA+Pr.The drugs were administered by intravenous injection.Results:KMA ,Pr and KMA+Pr prolonged SCL,MAPD50 and increased ventricular effective re fractory period (VERP).Pr and KMA+Pr prolonged MAPD90 and increased VERP/M APD90.There was proarrhythmic effects in group Pr of higher dose.After com bination of KMA with Pr of higher dose,the incidence of proarrhythmia was increa sed.Conclusion:KMA has electrophysiologic characters of antiarrhythmic agents and the administration of KMA in recommended dose is safe.KMA and Pr increased the effects each other after their combination.The dose of Pr should be decreas ed when Pr combine KMA for decreasing the risk of proarrhythmia.

  10. International labor migration and external debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, J A

    1987-01-01

    program by which the US would import the production of these agroindustrial units in Mexico would retain previously migratory workers in Mexico; 5) a feasibility study would precede implementing an accord on the amount of financing and the terms of operation; and 6) the time during the binational study would be a grace period, during which payment of a portion of the interest of Mexico's foreign debt would be temporarily suspended. PMID:12281043

  11. GPS轨迹测量系统在导弹飞行试验中的应用%Application of GPS trajectory measurement system in missile flight test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东; 黄信安

    2014-01-01

    In the process of air-to-air missile development,a serial of tethered flight test must be done to improve the capa-bility of capturing and tracking the real goal of missile guidance system. The traditional tethered flight test results in great uncer-tainty for the flight test results because the test personnel on ground can not grasp the dynamic status of the drone aircraft in real time. With GPS widely used in the system,the target aircraft′s position and speed relative to fighter plane are calculated in com-bination the GPS information received from the airborne missile and target GPS pod,and displayed in the data processing soft-ware,so that the test personnel on ground obtain the relevant information of fighter plane and drone aircraft in real time and pro-vide reliable data for the test command. The practical application result shows that this system can greatly improve the success rate and the missile interception probability,and save the time and fund of the test.%空空导弹研制需要一系列空中系留飞行试验,以解决导弹制导系统对真实目标的截获跟踪能力。传统的系留试验由于地面试验人员无法实时掌握靶机和目标机的动态,给飞行试验结果造成了很大的不确定性;本系统利用日益广泛使用的GPS全球定位技术,从载机的导弹产品和目标机GPS吊舱接收下传的GPS信息,实时解算出目标机相对于载机位置、速度等信息,显示在数据处理软件上,从而使地面试验人员实时获取载机和目标机的相关信息,为试验指挥提供了可靠数据;实际应用结果表明,该系统大大提高了系留试验的成功率和导弹截获概率,为飞行试验节约了试验经费和时间,创造了良好的经济效益。

  12. Promoting US-China Critical Zone Science Collaboration and Coordination Through Established Subnational Bilateral Science Partnerships: The US-China EcoPartnership for Economic and Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, T. R.; Guo, D.; Plante, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of critical zone (CZ) science has gained wide recognition with actively funded and emerging CZ observatory programs across the globe. There is much to be gained through international collaboration that links field, laboratory, and modeling efforts from across the emerging global CZ networks, but building international ties is difficult, especially when peer-to-peer connections are nascent, separated by great distances, and span different cultural and political environments. The U.S. and China share many climatic and geological similarities but differ greatly in the magnitude and timescale of human alteration of their landscapes making the comparative study of their respective pasts, current state, and future co-evolution an outstanding scientific opportunity to better understand, predict, and respond to human influence on the CZ. Leveraging the infrastructure and trust capital of longstanding sub-national volunteer scientific networks to bring together people and organizations is a resource-efficient mechanism to build cross-network CZ programs. The U.S.-China EcoPartnership for Environmental Sustainability (USCEES) is one of 30 current EcoPartnerships established beginning in May 2008 by a joint agreement between the U.S. Department of State and China's National Development and Reform Commission with the overarching goal of addressing the interconnected challenges of environmental, social, and economic sustainability through bi-national research innovation, communication, and entrepreneurship. The 2015 USCEES annual conference on "Critical Zone Science, Sustainability, and Services in a Changing World" was co-sponsored by the U.S. Cross-CZO Working Group on Organic Matter Dynamics and hosted three NSF-funded workshops on organic matter dynamics:1) methods for large and complex data analysis, 2) erosion and deposition processes, and 3) mineralogical and microbial controls on reactivity and persistence. This paper highlights outcomes from the workshops

  13. Impact of grape cluster defoliation on TDN potential in cool climate Riesling wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttler Armin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cool climate grape vine growing regions are and will be affected by the global climate change. It is likely that increasing temperatures, as well as changing precipitation pattern will impact the wines’ composition and wine styles. In the last decades the sensory concept of German Riesling wines was considered to represent fresh and fruity notes. However, aged wines of this variety are characterized by petrol like aroma, which is not appreciated in modern Riesling wines. The C13-norisoprenoid 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN is considered to be the marker compound for this undesired sensory impression. The biogenesis of this compound is impacted by grape vine growth conditions. Wines made from Riesling grapes grown in warmer climates have higher concentrations of TDN. Therefore “TDN management” will be one of the most challenging tasks in viticulture in Riesling growing regions in general and particularly in cool climate regions. Two approaches considered are the canopy management of the grape vines as well as an appropriate selection of yeast strain for alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, the aim of this project was to study the impact of grape zone defoliation on potential TDN concentrations in grapes, must and finished wines under cool climate conditions, in example of regional conditions of the landmark Hessische Bergstraße, in com- bination with the usage of two commercially available yeast strains during alcoholic fermentation. The experiment consisted of four treatments in a balanced incomplete block design, grape zone defoliation at berry set on the eastern side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at berry set on eastern and western side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at veraison on eastern and western side of the canopy, and a non-defoliated treatment. The treatments and repetitions were harvested separately, pressed, and then fermented with two different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Grape

  14. Detection activity of chimeric immune receptor in vitro%嵌合免疫受体活性的体外检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆耐香; 刘菁

    2011-01-01

    目的:体外检测嵌合免疫受体3(CIR3)的活性,为肿瘤的过继免疫治疗提供可靠依据.方法:将已经构建好的CIR3通过电穿孔法转染人T淋巴细胞,检测其在T淋巴细胞的表达及与CEA阳性胃癌细胞株MKN-45的结合情况和IL-2产生情况.结果:CIR3成功转染并表达在T细胞的表面,转染CIR3的T细胞体外能够识别胃癌细胞株MKN-45并与之结合形成典型的花环结构,受CEA刺激后能产生细胞因子IL-2.结论:表达在T淋巴细胞表面的CIR3能够有效结合肿瘤细胞并不受MHC的限制,受CEA刺激后能产生细胞因子IL-2,为下一步的体内实验提供可靠依据.%0bjective:To provide reliable evidence for tumor adoptive inmunotherapy ,1he activity of chineric inmune receptor 3 (CIR 3 ) was detected in vitro .Methods :CIR3 with anti-CEA-scFv gene was transfected into human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM C s) obtained from healthy adults by electroporation .The expression of CIR3 was detected by flow cytometry and RT—PCR after 16-hour transfection . And the can bination of transfected T cells with CEA positive MKN-45 cells and L-2 concentration were tested using Rosetting testand ELISA , respectively .Results :Flow cytometry showed that CIR3 gene was efficiently expressed on cells surface after transfection .The transfected T cells could recognize and combine with MKN-45 cells and fomed rosette .ELISA showed IL-2 produced by transfectante .Conclusion :CIR3 gene can successfully express on human Tlym phocytes surface .And CIR 3 transfectants combine with tumor cells by non-MHC restriction and can produce L-2 .It can provide Ihe reliable evidence for further study in vivo .

  15. Integración y desarrollo de la región fronteriza peruano ecuatoriana: entre el discurso y la realidad, una visión local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available INTÉGRATION ET DÉVELOPPEMENT DE LA RÉGION FRONTALIÈRE PÉRUANO-ÉQUATORIENNE: ENTRE LE DISCOURS ET LA RÉALITÉ, UNE VISION LOCALE Dans la première partie de cet article nous analyserons les textes des accords de paix, signés entre le Pérou et l’Équateur en 1998, pour indiquer comment ces documents tendent, en reconnaissant la frontière, à la rendre perméable pour qu’elle ne constitue pas un obstacle à l’actuel processus de globalisation. Dans la seconde partie, dans une perspective historique de quelques trente cinq ans, nous indiquerons les fractures, les différences et les complémentarités, naturelles et sociales, qui rendent compte d’une complexité régionale que ces documents ne reconnaissent pas. Dans la troisième partie nous décrirons la situation qui peut être observée aux trois nouveaux passages frontaliers, en prêtant attention à l’environnement, à la production, aux voies de communication et aux échanges, dans le but de mettre en évidence, à l’échelle locale, les impacts du Plan Binational de Développement de la Région Frontalière. Finalement dans la quatrième partie, sur la base d’entrevues avec des maires et leurs administrés, nous essayerons de comparer le discours officiel avec la réalité qui se perçoit et se vit localement, à fin de formuler quelques questions en rapport avec les problèmes et les possibilités d’intégration et de développement régional. En la primera parte de este artículo analizaremos los textos de los acuerdos de paz firmados entre Perú y Ecuador en 1998, para indicar de qué manera estos documentos tienden, reconociendo la frontera, a volverla permeable para que no constituya un obstáculo al actual proceso de globalización. En la segunda parte, con una perspectiva histórica de unos treinta y cinco años, indicaremos las fracturas, diferencias y complementariedades, naturales y sociales, que rinden cuenta de una complejidad regional que desconocen estos

  16. Program for Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas: Translation of Science into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Margaret; Pierson, Thomas; Wilkinson, Stuart; Westby, Elizabeth; Driedger, Carolyn; Ewert, John

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Agency for International Development/Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) inaugurated Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas, a program that brings together binational delegations of scientists, civil authorities, and emergency response managers to discuss the challenges of integrating volcano science into crisis response and risk reduction practices. During reciprocal visits, delegations tour areas impacted by volcanic unrest and/or eruption, meet with affected communities, and exchange insights and best practices. The 2013 exchange focused on hazards at Mount Rainier (Washington, USA) and Nevado del Ruiz (Caldas/Tolima, Colombia). Both of these volcanoes are highly susceptible to large volcanic mudflows (lahars). The Colombia-USA exchange allowed participants to share insights on lahar warning systems, self-evacuation planning, and effective education programs for at-risk communities. [See Driedger and Ewert (2015) Abstract 76171 presented at 2015 Fall AGU, San Francisco, Calif., Dec 14-18]. The second exchange, in 2015, took place between the USA and Chile, focusing on the Long Valley volcanic region (California, USA) and Chaitén volcano (Lagos, Chile) - both are centers of rhyolite volcanism. The high viscosity of rhyolite magma can cause explosive eruptions with widespread destruction. The rare but catastrophic "super eruptions" of the world have largely been the result of rhyolite volcanism. Chaitén produced the world's first explosive rhyolite eruption in the age of modern volcano monitoring in 2008-2009. Rhyolite eruptions of similar scale and style have occurred frequently in the Long Valley volcanic region, most recently about 600 years ago. The explosivity and relative rarity of rhyolite eruptions create unique challenges to risk reduction efforts. The recent Chaitén eruption was unexpected - little was known of Chaitén's eruptive history, and because of this, monitoring

  17. Socio-Ecohydrologic Agents And Services: Integrating Human And Natural Components To Address Coupled System Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao-zuckerman, M.; Pope, A.; Chan, D.; Curl, K.; Gimblett, H. R.; Hough, M.; House-Peters, L.; Lee, R.; Scott, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Riparian corridors in arid regions are highly valued for their relative scarcity, and because healthy riparian systems support high levels of biodiversity, can meet human demand for water and water-related resources and functions. Our team is taking a transdiciplinary social-ecological systems approach to assessing riparian corridor resilience in two watersheds (the San Pedro River in USA and Mexico, and the Rio San Miguel in Mexico) through a project funded by the NSF CNH program ("Strengthening Resilience of Arid Region Riparian Corridors"). Multiple perspectives are integrated in the project, including hydrology, ecology, institutional dynamics, and decision making (at the level of both policy and individual choice), as well as the perspectives of various stakeholder groups and individuals in the watersheds. Here we discuss initial findings that center around linking changes in ecohydrology and livelihoods related to decisions in response to climatic, ecological, and social change. The research team is implementing two approaches to integrate the disparate disciplines participating in the research (and the varied perspectives among the stakeholders in this binational riparian context): (1) ecosystem service assessment, and (2) agent based model simulation. We are developing an ecosystem service perspective that provides a bridge between ecological dynamics in the landscape and varied stakeholder perspectives on the implications of ecohydrology for well-being (economic, cultural, ecological). Services are linked on one hand to the spatial patterns of traits of individuals within species (allowing a more predictive application of ecosystem services as they vary with community change in time), and to stakeholder perspectives (facilitating integration of ecosystem services into our understanding of decision making processes) in a case study in the San Pedro River National Conservation Area. The agent- based model (ABM) approach incorporates the influence of human

  18. 不同功能矫治器早期矫治Ⅱ类骨性错(牙合)的系统研究%Early treatment of skeletal class Ⅱ malocclusion: A systematic review speciality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛亦睿; 周洪

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of different functional appliances in the treatment of skeletal class H malocclusion. Methods: A literature survey was performed by applying die database of MEDLINE and CNK1. The Data of clinical randomized con-trolle trials(RCTs) and controlled clinical trials( CCTs) were selected, Meta analysis was conducted with the software Review 4. 2. Results: The search strategy resulted in 111 English articles and43 Chinese articles. 19 articles were qualified for the final analysis. In the qualified articles the treatment effects of 5 kinds of functional appliance were reported. The decrease of SNA was not significantly different between the groups of Activatoer and Binator, SNA decreased more in Twin-block group than in Herbst. The increase of SNB in group Twin-block = in Activator > in Herbst > in Bionator. The decrese of ANB in group of Twin-block > in Activator > in Bionator > in Herbst > in Frankel- II. The decrease of overjet in group of Twin-block > in Herbst > in Frankel- II. The decrease of Ul-NA in group of Frankel- II > in Activator > Herbst. The decrease of Ul-PP in group Twin-block >in Frankel- II > in Bionator. The increase of IMPA in group Herbst > in Bionator > in Twin-block. IMPA was not significantly different between the groups of Activator and Frankel- II ■ Conclusion; Frankel- II is not effective in the treatment of sever skeletal Class II malocclusions while Twin-block and Activor are. Patients with low IMPA or with poor treatment compliance should be treated with Herbst. Activator is more effective than Bionator in correction of skeletal sagital problem and lingual inclination of upper anterior teeth.%目的:对不同功能矫治器早期矫治骨性Ⅱ类错(牙合)的疗效进行比较,了解其临床矫治特点.方法:用循证学方法,网络检索数据库MEDLINE和中国学术期刊全文数据库(CNKI),搜集治疗Ⅱ类错(牙合)的临床试验以及随机对照临床试验的文献,采用Review 4.2

  19. U.S.-MEXICO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; BILATERAL TECHNICAL EXCHANGES FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE BORDER REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Richard, D., Dr.

    2007-10-01

    s challenging environmental issues. The results also brought focus to the potential contributions that DOE’s science and technology could make for solving the many difficult, multi-generational problems faced by hundreds of bi-national communities along the 2,000-mile shared border of the United States and Mexico. Efforts to address these U.S.-Mexico border issues were initially sponsored by the DOE’s Albuquerque and Carlsbad offices. In subsequent years, the U.S. Congress directed appropriations to DOE’s Carlsbad office to address public health, safety and security issues prevalent within U.S.-Mexico border communities. With ASL’s assistance, DOE’s Albuquerque office developed contacts and formed partnerships with interested U.S and Mexican government, academic, and commercial organizations. Border industries, industrial effluents, and public health conditions were evaluated and documented. Relevant technologies were then matched to environmental problem sets along the border. Several technologies that were identified and subsequently supported by this effort are now operational in a number of U.S.-Mexico border communities, several communities within Mexico’s interior states, and in other parts of Latin America. As a result, some serious public health threats within these communities caused by exposure to toxic airborne pollutants have been reduced. During this time, DOE’s Carlsbad office hosted a bilateral conference to establish a cross-border consensus on what should be done on the basis of these earlier investigative efforts. Participating border region stakeholders set an agenda for technical collaborations. This agenda was supported by several Members of Congress who provided appropriations and directed DOE’s Carlsbad office to initiate technology demonstration projects. During the following two years, more than 12 private-sector and DOE-sponsored technologies were demonstrated in partnership with numerous border community stakeholders. All technologies

  20. Synergistic effect of exemestane and low-dose methotrexate on exemestane-resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and reversal mechanism of drug-resistance%依西美坦与低剂量甲氨蝶呤对依西美坦耐药人乳腺癌细胞的协同效应及逆转耐药机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    居伶俐; 袁媛; 潘跃银

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the combined effect of exemestane and low-dose methotrexate on exemestane-resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer cells( MCF-7/EXE). Methods Antiproliferative effects of exemestane and low-dose of methotrexate, alone and in combination on growth of MCF-7/EXE cells were assessed by using the MTT assay. Synergistic interaction between the two drugs was evaluated in vitro by using the combination index ( CI) method. The cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry in a half inhibitory concentration of exemestane and low-dose of methotrexate . The changes of apoptosis on MCF-7/EXE cells exposed to two drugs alone or in com-bination were observed by fluorescence microscope. The expression of Bcl-2,AKT,P-AKT and cyclooxygenase-2 was investigated by Western blot. Results MTT assays indicated that the combination treatment apparently decreased the viability of MCF-7/EXE cells compared to single drug treatment (CI<0. 9). In addition, the combination of exemestane and low-dose methotrexate exhibited a synergistic inhibition of cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle in the S phase significantly and produced a stronger inhibitory effects on P-AKT, Bcl-2 and cyclooxygenase-2 ex-pression than control or individual drug treatment. Conclusion The combination of the two inhibitors significantly increases the response as compared to single agent treatment, suggesting that combination treatment which can re-verse the resistance of exemestane could be a more effective approach to breast cancer.%目的研究依西美坦( EXE )与低剂量甲氨蝶呤( MTX)对依西美坦耐药人乳腺癌 MCF-7细胞( MCF-7/EXE)的增殖抑制作用及意义。方法使用 MTT 法检测EXE与低剂量MTX单药和联合给药对MCF-7/EXE细胞的增殖抑制作用,计算依西美坦与低剂量甲氨蝶呤联合给药时的联合指数(CI),评价两药间的相互作用。流式细胞术检测IC50浓度药物EXE组(120μmol/L)、低剂量MTX组(60 nmol

  1. Research on the Optimizing Design and Hydraulic Characteristics of New Agricultural Products Pipeline Car%新型农产品管道车优化设计及运移特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 李飞; 李永业; 孙西欢

    2015-01-01

    With the development of modern green agriculture and the transformation of the logistics industry chain,the new mode of transpor-tation has drawn more and more attention of agricultural products from scholars. Aimed at the defect of traditional mode of transportation,we designed a matched with pressure pipe with a new type of agricultural products pipeline car. In order to study the new pipeline car movement character of agricultural products,with Reynolds number respectively,car load for the study of the control factors in the test section of the new agricultural products pipeline car speed change,contrast each test section head analysis the pressure variety in the test section. With the orthogonal experiment data analysis,in order to faster the pipeline car speed relative to the flow,small pressure loss and the heavier load as the goal,the integrated assessment model was established by using the multiple attribute test design analysis method. Research results show that the pipeline car movement in the pipe is uniform,as a result,liquid motions are stationary. Synthetically score model car structure pa-rameters on the transmission performance of the pipeline change rule and the comprehensive performance of the highest index parameter com-bination,for the new type of agricultural products pipeline car research plan of design and optimization of structure parameters to provide the reference.%随着现代绿色农业的发展和物流产业链的变革,新型农产品运输方式受到学者越来越多的关注。针对传统运输方式的缺陷,设计了一种与有压管道配套使用的新型农产品管道车。为了研究该新型农产品管道车的运动性状,分别以雷诺数、车荷重为控制因子研究试验段内该新型农产品管道车的速度变化,对比各测试断面压力水头分析试验段内的压力变化。运用正交试验数据分析,以相对于流速较快的管道车运行速度、较小的压力损失和较重

  2. 高压氧联合针刺运动疗法治疗急性脑梗死的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆芳; 陈庆华; 孔胜建; 王晨; 王丹

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨高压氧( HBO )联合针刺运动疗法治疗急性脑梗死的疗效。方法129例急性脑梗死患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,两组均按急性脑梗死常规药物治疗并配合针刺运动疗法,治疗组同时加用高压氧,治疗开始及治疗30 d后对两组患者进行神经功能缺损程度评分和临床疗效评定。肢体运动功能( FMA )及日常生活活动能力采用改良Barthel Index ( MBI )评定。结果两组患者治疗前各项评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),高压氧治疗30 d后,联合疗法治疗急性脑梗死有效率95.4%,疗效明显优于对照组。结论高压氧联合针刺运动疗法可提高急性脑梗死的疗效,有利于肢体功能的改善,对减轻脑痉挛,预防挛缩畸形及提高患者日常生活能力有促进作用。%Objective T o discuss the curative effect of hyperbaric oxygen (H B O ) com bined w ith acupuncture exercise therapy in treatm ent of acute cerebral infarction .Methods 129 cases of patients w ith acute cerebral infarction w ere random ly divided into treatm ent group and control group,both groups w ere given conventional drug treatm ent for acute cerebral infarction and acupuncture exercise therapy,w hile the treatm ent group at the sam e tim e w ere given hyperbaric oxygen .T he degree score of neural function defect and clinical curative effect of the tw o groups w ere assessed at the beginning of treatm ent and 30 days after treatm ent.Lim b m ovem ent function (FM A ) and activities of dai-ly living w ere assessed by m odified B arthel Index (M B I).Results T he differences of each item score of the tw o groups before treatm ent w ere not of statistical significance (P>0 .05 ),after 30 days of hyperbaric oxygen therapy ,the effective rate of com bination thera-py reached 95.4% ,whosecurativeeffectwasbetterthanthecontrolgroup.Conclusion Hyperbaricoxygen(HBO)withacupunctureexercise therapy can increase the curative effect of acute

  3. Effects of ethanol on the hypnosis induced by propofol%乙醇对丙泊酚催眠效应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙林浩; 袁玲; 张露露; 陆悦; 刘烨; 陈铁胜; 周成华; 武玉清

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of ethanol on the hypnosis induced by propofol.Methods Based on stratified randomization, 32 mice were divided into four groups (n =8), according to their different treatments of 30%ethanol (Group E30), 40% ethanol (Group E40), 50% ethanol( Group E50) and 60% ethanol (Group E60).Then, the righting reflex test was performed to observe the rate of LOR in order to determine the optimum concentration of etha-nol.Based on stratified randomization, anther 40 mice were divided into five groups (n =8), according to their different treatments of normal saline (Group NS), fat emulsion (Group F), ethanol (Group E), propofol (Group P) and a com-bination of ethanol +propofol (Group U).Then, the righting reflex test was performed to observe the rate, latency and duration of LOR.Results Compared with Groups E and P, Group U produced a remarkably higher rate of LOR (P <0.01), obviously shorter latency (P <0.01), and markedly extended duration (P <0.01).Conclusion Ethanol can strengthen the hypnotic effect of propofol, and enhance the inhabitation of the central nervous system.%目的:研究乙醇对丙泊酚催眠效应的影响。方法①按分层随机区组设计将32只小鼠分为4组(n=8):30%乙醇组(E30组)、40%乙醇组(E40组)、50%乙醇组(E50组)、60%乙醇组(E60组)。观察小鼠翻正反射消失的比率,确定合适的乙醇浓度。②按分层随机区组设计将40只小鼠分为5组(n =8):生理盐水组(NS组)、脂肪乳组(F 组)、乙醇组(E 组)、丙泊酚组(P 组)及联合组(乙醇+丙泊酚,U 组)。观察小鼠翻正反射消失率、潜伏期以及翻正反射消失持续时间。结果与 E 组及 P 组相比,U 组翻正反射消失率明显升高(P <0.01),潜伏期明显缩短(P <0.01),翻正反射消失持续时间明显延长(P <0.01)。结论乙醇可显著增强丙泊酚的催眠效应,加强中枢抑制作用。

  4. PREFACE: XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteneodo, Celia; da Luz, Marcos G. E.

    2010-09-01

    phenomena in nature, addressing: classical and quantum chaos; instability and bifurcation; cooperative behavior; self-organization; pattern formation and synchronization; far-from-equilibrium and fluctuation dynamics; nonlinearity in fluid, plasmas, granular media, optics, and wave propagation; turbulence onset; and complexity in natural and social systems. The success of the conference was possible thanks to the financial support from many agencies, especially the Brazilian agencies Capes and CNPq, and the international agencies, Binational Itaupú, ICTP-Trieste, and CAIS-Albuquerque. Equally very important was the support by the organizer's institutions PUC-Rio de Janeiro and UFPR-Curitiba. We also must thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series, for believing in the success and scientific quality of the conference, and to the journal staff, specially Anete Ashton, for the kind and prompt help during the whole production process of this publication. Finally, and most important, we acknowledge all the participants of the LAWNP'09, whose interest and enthusiasm in advancing the science of nonlinearity constitutes the true moto making the present Proceedings a very valuable scientific contribution. Celia Anteneodo (PUC-Rio, Brazil) and Marcos G E da Luz (UFPR-Curitiba, Brazil) Conference Chairs Conference photograph Some of the conference participants. CAPES logo This issue was supported by CAPES (Agency for Evaluation and Support of Graduate Studies Programs), Brazilian govern entity devoted to the formation of human resources. CA would like to thank CAPES for financial support.

  5. Experimental Study of the Shapes of Fractal Number Sets with Composite Function Iteration%双函复合迭代下分形数集成形试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冠平

    2012-01-01

    Some fractal number sets take some animal shape and 3D self-similar structures, as the result of the single function operation. This paper makes tests of a composite function iteration to determine a number set. These double-function number sets take shapes of neither a union or an intersection of two single-function sets, nor a form of geometry synthesis, but resemble a hybridization of number sets as in biological phenomena. The double-function number sets keep some characteristics of related single-function number sets, but with differences and take their own unique shapes. It is revealed that not only the functions but also the composite order of two iteration functions determine the shape of double-function number sets, which bring about the appearance of binate fractal number sets. And the iteration functions satisfy matching conditions for advanced double-function number sets. The symmetric double-function number set requires symmetric single-function number sets and the self-similar double-function number set requires self-similar single-function number sets. This paper presents 5 iteration functions and 31 pictures which show 3D images of 11 number sets and their self-similar sub-sets. Comparing the double-function number sets with the phenomena of animal hybridization, it is discovered that they are similar. It may be inferred that in the combination of animal genes, we have the order principle and the information of biological genes may be recorded not only in genes but also in orders of genes.%此前分形数集已经出现了动物形模样和三维自相似形态,那还只是单个函数的运算结果.这里进行的是两个函数复合迭代运算共同确定一个数集的试验.这种双函数集的形体模样既不是两单函数集的集合交并,也不是它们形体的几何合成,更像是与生物现象类似的数集杂交.双函数集的形态会传承其两单函数集的某些特征,又不同其单函数集而有自己的独特性.发

  6. The Effects of Realistic Geological Heterogeneity on Seismic Modeling: Applications in Shear Wave Generation and Near-Surface Tunnel Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Christopher Scott

    compressional wave energy may be generated within the shear radiation node of the source. Interestingly, in some cases this shear wave may arise as a coherent pulse, which may be used to improve seismic imaging efforts. In the third and fourth chapters, I discuss the results of a numerical analysis and field study of seismic near-surface tunnel detection methods. Detecting unknown tunnels and voids, such as old mine workings or solution cavities in karst terrain, is a challenging prob- lem in geophysics and has implications for geotechnical design, public safety, and domestic security. Over the years, a number of different geophysical methods have been developed to locate these objects (microgravity, resistivity, seismic diffraction, etc.), each with varying results. One of the major challenges facing these methods is understanding the influence of geologic heterogeneity on their results, which makes this problem a natural extension of the modeling work discussed in previous chapters. In the third chapter, I present the results of a numerical study of surface-wave based tunnel detection methods. The results of this analysis show that these methods are capable of detecting a void buried within one wavelength of the surface, with size potentially much less than one wavelength. In addition, seismic surface- wave based detection methods are effective in media with moderate heterogeneity (epsilon Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve, near Antioch California. I use a com- bination of surface wave backscattering, 1D surface wave attenuation, and 2D attenuation tomography to locate and determine the condition of two tunnels at this site. These results compliment the numerical study in chapter 3 and highlight their usefulness for detecting tunnels at other sites.

  7. Activities and future plans of the radiation effects research foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) was established in 1975 as a binational research foundation supported by Japan and the United States. It continues the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) which was established in 1974. ABCC-RERF studies focus on several fixed cohorts of survivors and their children: the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort (120,000 survivors); the In-Utero cohort (3,300 people born within 9 months of the bombings); the F{sub 1} cohort (88,000 people born between mid-1946 and 1984), and the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort (an ongoing clinical study of 17,000 LSS survivors and 1,100 people exposed in-utero). Epidemiological data have shown increased risks of leukemia and solid cancers by radiation exposure among the survivors. Excess leukemia risks, especially for children, were markedly elevated 5 to 10 years after exposure and have continued at reduced levels. Excess solid cancer rates became apparent within 10 years after exposure, increasing throughout life in rough proportion to background rates. For doses of interest in radiation protection excess leukemia risks exhibit an upward curving dose response pattern while the solid cancer excess appears to be linear by dose with no apparent threshold. In addition to malignancy, AHS data has shown dose-related increased risk for various non-malignant diseases; radiation cataracts, benign tumors of uterus, thyroid and parathyroid (hyperparathyroidism), and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Persons exposed in-utero exhibit a broad range of dose-related effects including delayed growth and development and higher rates of microcephaly. Studies of birth defects, chromosome aberrations, childhood mortality, and genetic variants of serum or erythrocyte proteins have provided no indication of heritable mutations in the F{sub 1} cohort. Continued follow-up of survivors exposed as children (90% are still alive) is essential to understanding the temporal pattern of excess risks and lifetime

  8. Effects of Hedgerow Patterns on Soil Shear Strength and Anti-scouribility on Slope Farmland in Purple Soil Area%紫色土区植物篱模式对坡耕地土壤抗剪强度与抗冲性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲玉琳; 谢德体; 倪九派; 魏朝富; 林超文

    2014-01-01

    .7%and 50.6%, respectively;the mean ASI of 0-10cm and 10-20 cm soil layers under Eulaliopsis pattern increased by 175%and 26.9%, respectively. The average increment of soil SS and ASI under hedgerow patterns in 20° slope was 85.5% and 48.4%, respectively; that in 13° slope increased by 63.6% and 112%, respectively. Soil ASI increased by power function with increasing of scouring time. However, the added value of soil ASI with increasing of scouring time for hedgerows was higher than conventional contour farming pattern. From low to top slope, soil SS and ASI of conventional contour farming pattern decreased by nearly line or sharply in low or middle slope;those of hedgerow patterns decreased by wave, and they increased in hedgerow belt and decreased in crop belt. [Conclusion]Hedgerow patterns enhanced obviously soil SS and AS. In terms of surface soil (0-10 cm soil layer), in 20° slope farmland, the effect of amorpha pattern on improvement of soil SS and AS was higher than those of vetiver;in 13° slope farmland, the effect of alfalfa on improvement of soil SS was lower than that of Eulaliopsis binat, however the effect of alfalfa pattern on improvement of soil ASI was higher than that of Eulaliopsis binat. The effect of hedgerow patterns on improvement of soil SS in 20° slope farmland was higher than that of 13° slope. The effect of hedgerow patters on improvement of soil AS in 20° slope farmland was lower than that of 13° slope farmland. Hedgerow patterns improved excessive slope heterogeneity of soil SS and AS.%【目的】土壤抗剪强度和抗冲性是反映土壤综合对抗水力侵蚀性能和评价复合农林业模式生态效益的指标。研究植物篱模式对土壤抗剪强度、抗冲性及其坡面分布的影响,为探讨植物篱模式控制水土流失及农业非点源污染机理研究提供参考。【方法】利用植物篱控制水土流失的长期定位试验,采用原位监测法测定土壤抗剪强度,原状土冲刷法测

  9. Efficacy and safety of combination of Capecitabine, Docetaxel and Chinese medicine treatment on patients with breast cancer Paclitaxel resistance%乳腺癌紫杉醇耐药患者应用卡培他滨与多西他赛联合中医治疗的疗效及安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揣淑杰; 孙兴华; 周东光; 于淼

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy and safety of combination of Capecitabine, Docetaxel and Chinese medicine treatment on patients with breast cancer Paclitaxel resistance.Methods 78 patients with breast cancer Paclitaxel resistance were randomly divided into two groups.33 cases in control group mainly adopt capecit-abine and Docetaxel for the conventional western medicine treatment,45 cases in the treatment group received the combined application of Chinese medicine treatment on the basis of the control group treatment.The near future cura-tive effect,the median survival time ( MST) ,2 years of survival rate and all kinds of the occurrence of adverse reac-tions were compared in the two groups after 4 times chemotherapy.Results There was no significant difference be-tween two groups on the near future curative effect (P>0.05).The incidence of adverse reactions such as diarrhea, fatigue,hair loss,paralysis,mucositis,nausea,vomiting,thrombocytopenia,liver function damage,muscle joint pain in control group was higher than that in treatment group (P0.05).Conclusion Com-bination of Capecitabine,Docetaxel and Chinese medicine treatment on patients with breast cancer Paclitaxel resist-ance although not able to significantly improve the patient's recent curative effect and survival,but can significantly re-duce some of the adverse reactions during chemotherapy.%目的:观察乳腺癌紫杉醇耐药患者在使用卡培他滨与多西他赛治疗的基础上联合中医治疗的临床疗效及安全性。方法将78例乳腺癌紫杉醇耐药患者随机分为2组。对照组33例主要采用卡培他滨与多西他赛为主的西医常规方案进行治疗,治疗组45例在对照组治疗基础上联合中医疗法进行治疗。比较2组进行4次化疗后的近期疗效、中位生存期( MST)及2组各种不良反应的发生情况。结果2组近期疗效比较差异无统计学意义( P>0.05);对2组的不良反应腹泻、乏力、脱发、麻痹

  10. Pharmacotherapy,cognitive-behavioral therapy alone or in combination for insomnia patients with protracted withdrawal symptoms%药物及认知-行为疗法联合治疗稽延性失眠症状的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石志斌; 王思远

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the clinical efficacy of Pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy alone or in combination on insomnia patients with protracted withdrawal symptoms. Methods:105 patients were randomized into 3 groups for analysis. In cogni-tive- behavior therapy group(n ﹦ 35),patients were treated with sleep hygiene program,cognitive therapy and relaxation therapy. In pharmacotherapy group(n ﹦ 35),patients received a 0. 8mg alprazolam each night. In combination group(n ﹦ 35),patients were trea-ted with both cognitive-behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy. All patients were treated by 4 weeks. The changes in results of subjec-tive(sleep diaries)measures were obtained at the end of the therapy and 16-week follow-up. Results:Sleep diary showed that,com-pared to the time before treatment,patients in all groups experienced extension in total sleep time,shortening in sleep latency and in-crease in sleep efficiency at the end of experiment(P < 0. 05). When the experiment ended,patients in combination group showed the greatest improvement rate on each item of outcome. At the end of 16-week follow-up,patients in cognitive-behavior therapy group were found to have the greatest improvement rate on shortening of sleep latency and increase of sleep efficiency,being equal to those in com-bination group. Conclusion:Pharmacotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy alone may achieve short-term efficacy in insomnia pa-tients with protracted withdrawal symptoms and the latter therapy may lead to a greater long-term improvement. The combined use of pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy may give efficacy faster,and the sustained efficacy may be equal to that of cognitive-behavioral therapy.%目的:比较药物疗法、认知-行为疗法及联合应用对稽延性失眠症状的治疗效果。方法:采集稽延性失眠症状患者105例,随机分为3组:心理治疗(认知-行为疗法)组(n ﹦35),接受睡眠卫生指导、认知疗法和

  11. THE EXPERIMENTAL ON EFFECT OF BRUCEA JAVANICA OIL EMULSION COMBINED WITH CON-VENTIONAL RADIOTHERAPY ON C6 GLIOMA CELLS%鸦胆子油乳注射液联合普通放疗对C6胶质瘤细胞作用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹绍成; 董德宏; 王艳军; 王建宁; 冯娜; 石文建

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨鸦胆子油乳注射液联合常规放疗对C6胶质瘤细胞增殖的影响。方法体外培养大鼠C6胶质瘤细胞,用MTT比色法检测抑制作用。实验分成对照组,单纯放疗组,单纯用药组,用药联合放疗组。药物与放疗联合组分先放疗后给药和先用药后放疗二种。单纯用药组及药物与放疗联合组设药物浓度设为1.25、2.5、5、10g/L四个亚组。结果MTT比色法显示常规放疗联合鸦胆子油乳注射液与单纯常规放疗相比,早期(24h)药物浓度≥2.5g/L时药物联合放疗抑制率高于单纯放疗;随作用时间延长(48h)药物联合放疗抑制率均大于普通放疗。常规放疗联合鸦胆子油乳注射液与单纯应用鸦胆子油乳注射液相比,早期(24h)药物浓度≥2.5g/L时联合放疗对C6胶质瘤细胞抑制率高于单纯用药,但随作用时间延长(48h)抑制率差异不明显。结论体外鸦胆子油乳注射液能抑制C6胶质瘤细胞增殖,并呈时间-剂量依赖性。随时间延长(48h)放疗联合鸦胆子油乳抑制作用高于常规放疗;放疗联合药物与单独用药对C6胶质瘤细胞作用无明显差异。放疗后用药好于放疗前用药。%Objective To explore the effect of brucea javanica oil emulsion combined with conventional ra-diotherapy on proliferation of C6 glioma cells .Methods Rat C6 glioma cells were cultured in vitro .MTT colorimetric assay was used to measure the inhibitory effect .All cells were divided into control group ,sin-gle radiotherapy group ,single drug group and combination group ,while combination group classified drugs before radiotherapy subgroup and drugs after radiotherapy subgroup .Drugs concentration was set at 1 .25 g/L ,2 .5g/L ,5g/L and 10g/L respectively .Results MTT demonstrated that the inhibition rates of com-bination group on C6 glioma cells were higher than them of once radiotherapy alone when drug concentra-tion was equal or

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of the acellular pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus,inactivated poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccine (DTaP-IPV/Hib combined vaccine):a meta-analysis%吸附无细胞百白破灭活脊髓灰质炎和b型流感嗜血杆菌(结合)联合疫苗的安全性和免疫原性的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任思思; 王栋芳; 钟朝晖

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of DTaP-IPV/Hib combined vaccine in comparison with commercially available DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), tetanus conjugate and IPV monovalent vaccine. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on DTaP-IPV/Hib were retrieved by searching interna-tional and national databases. The pooled mean difference and relative risk and 95% CI were assessed by meta analysis with RevMan 5.0 software. Results Totally 6 studies were included for the final analysis. The seroprotection/seroconversion level of the Anti-PT (RR=0.26, 95%CI: 0.14, 0.48) in combination vaccine was higher. The antibody titer levels of Anti-PT (WMD=21.11, 95%CI:9.36, 32.86), Anti-polio type1 (WMD=59.15, 95%CI:2.81, 115.48), Anti-polio type 3 (WMD=169.82, 95%CI:75.33, 264.30) were higher respectively. But the antibody titer level of Anti-PRP (WMD=-3.58, 95%CI:-5.52,-1.64) in the com-bination vaccine group was lower. Redness (RR=0.82, 95%CI:0.72, 0.93) and Tenderness (RR=0.45, 95%CI:0.30, 0.65) were lower in the combination vaccine. Swelling (RR=2.03, 95%CI:1.02, 4.01) was more common in the patients given the combina-tion vaccine. Conclusions This study supports the conclusion that the DTaP-IPV/Hib combination vaccine is equivalent to the separate injections based on similar antibody responses to the vaccine antigens, effectiveness and safety after primary doses.%目的:评价吸附无细胞百白破灭活脊髓灰质炎和b型流感嗜血杆菌(结合()DTaP-IPV/Hib)五联疫苗与吸附无细胞百白破联合(DTaP)疫苗、b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗(Hib)疫苗、灭活脊髓灰质炎(IPV)疫苗的免疫原性和安全性。方法检索国内外发表的有关DTaP-IPV/Hib联合疫苗与DTaP、Hib、IPV疫苗的随机对照试验(RCTs)文献,采用meta分析方法,利用RevMan 5.0软件评价DTaP-IPV/Hib联合疫苗的安全性和免疫原性。结果最终纳入6篇英

  13. 奇异变形菌ppk1基因缺失株的构建与鉴定%Construction and identification of Proteus mirabilis strain with ppk1 gene deletion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭亮; 潘嘉韵; 罗苏; 吴晓蔓

    2015-01-01

    fused to a recombinant fragment and connected to the suicide vector pCVD442 .After the recombinant suicide plasmid was electransformed into the PMI gene ,the homologous recom‐bination events occurred ,the homologous fragments were replaced ,the p pk1 gene was deleted ,and the PCR and DNA sequencing proved the deletion of the target gene of genome .The in vitro determination of the growing curve of MOPS in culture medium revealed that as compared with the wild strain ,the survival ability of the ppk1 gene deletion strains under the poor nutrition condition was remarkably reduced .CONCLUSION The suicide plasmid ho‐mologous recombination can be applied in the construction of the ppk1 gene deletion P .mirabilis strain and plays an important role in the study of the gene function of the P .mirabilis ,and the p pk1 gene is associated with sur‐vival ability of the P .mirabilis strain under the poor nutrition condition .

  14. U.S.-MEXICO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; BILATERAL TECHNICAL EXCHANGES FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE BORDER REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Richard, D., Dr.

    2007-10-01

    s challenging environmental issues. The results also brought focus to the potential contributions that DOE’s science and technology could make for solving the many difficult, multi-generational problems faced by hundreds of bi-national communities along the 2,000-mile shared border of the United States and Mexico. Efforts to address these U.S.-Mexico border issues were initially sponsored by the DOE’s Albuquerque and Carlsbad offices. In subsequent years, the U.S. Congress directed appropriations to DOE’s Carlsbad office to address public health, safety and security issues prevalent within U.S.-Mexico border communities. With ASL’s assistance, DOE’s Albuquerque office developed contacts and formed partnerships with interested U.S and Mexican government, academic, and commercial organizations. Border industries, industrial effluents, and public health conditions were evaluated and documented. Relevant technologies were then matched to environmental problem sets along the border. Several technologies that were identified and subsequently supported by this effort are now operational in a number of U.S.-Mexico border communities, several communities within Mexico’s interior states, and in other parts of Latin America. As a result, some serious public health threats within these communities caused by exposure to toxic airborne pollutants have been reduced. During this time, DOE’s Carlsbad office hosted a bilateral conference to establish a cross-border consensus on what should be done on the basis of these earlier investigative efforts. Participating border region stakeholders set an agenda for technical collaborations. This agenda was supported by several Members of Congress who provided appropriations and directed DOE’s Carlsbad office to initiate technology demonstration projects. During the following two years, more than 12 private-sector and DOE-sponsored technologies were demonstrated in partnership with numerous border community stakeholders. All technologies

  15. Research on modeling germination response to salinity of barley seeds%大麦种子对盐的发芽响应模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红香; 田雨; 周道玮; 郑伟; 王敏玲

    2012-01-01

    salinities. Methods Two varieties of barley {Hordeum vulgare) seeds ('Cask' and 'County') were cultured in five binate iso-osmotic polyethylene glycol (PEG) and NaCl solutions (-0.45, -0.88, -1.32, -1.76 and -2.20 MPa, distilled water as the control) at four constant temperatures of 5, 12, 20 and 27 ℃. Germination time courses were recorded and germination rates (the reciprocal of germination time) were calculated. The hydrotime model and the new salinity model were used to calculate the parameters and test which was the better fit. Important findings Results indicated that not only were seeds in saline conditions able to germinate at lower osmotic potentials than seeds germinating in an isotonic PEG-6000 solution, but that they were also able to do so faster. The hydrotime parameters of the NaCl treatments had great differences with the isotonic PEG treatments, which indicated the hydrotime model cannot describe salt effects on seed germination well. Barley seed germination rates in salt solutions were negatively linear with salinity. We proposed a salinity model to quantify germination response to salt. The germination time calculated from the salinity model approached the real data, compared to that calculated from the hydrotime model. Differences of germination rates in NaCl and the isotonic PEG treatments increased and then decreased with decreasing water potential. We suggest three situations of function mode by the osmotic and ion effects of salt. First, at low salinities the osmotic effect acts as the main negative role. Second, at medium salinities the two effects act together, with the positive ion effect stronger than the negative osmotic effect. Third, at high salinities the ion effect begins to harm the germination process.

  16. The fruit fly programme in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: country. In fact, no species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha, Dacus and Toxotrypana exist in the country. This programme uses the Fruit fly National Detection System, which includes detection of the pest by trapping and fruit sampling in different areas located between the I and XI Regions of the country. This system is approved by the Chilean trade partners on the basis of the fruit fly-free recognition. For the Chilean fresh fruit exports, this is an important advantage, because there is no need to apply quarantine treatments or any other restriction measure. Chile has also a huge fruit industry, whose export revenues last season reached USD 1,900 million. This fact has permitted to undertake continuously a big effort to maintain that phytosanitary condition. Since Chile is the only fruit-fly free Latin American country, it has to face a continuous biological pressure of fruit flies, mainly C. capitata, to invade its territory. But the country has also some important advantages to prevent flies migrating due to its natural isolation. These natural barriers are the Los Andes ranges in the east, thousands of kilometers of desert in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west and finally an extremely cold, sub polar climate in the south. This isolation has led to the NPPO officials to believe that the passive spread, through smuggling and hidden fruit in passenger's baggage, to be the most likely source of fruit fly entries. Because of that, Chile has a very strict quarantine system with border control stations at every point of entry. The only exception to the mentioned isolation is Arica Province on the border with Peru. There, SAG applies an area-wide preventative approach through the rearing and release of sterile insects, as well as bait spraying in the border area, which is mainly desert, but has some 'green spots' that allow the fly to alight for resting and feeding. Additionally, through bi-national agreements, common activities are