WorldWideScience

Sample records for binary x-ray source

  1. Optical observations of binary X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boynton, P.E.

    1975-01-01

    The contribution to the recent progress in astronomy made by optical observations is pointed out. The optical properties of X-ray sources help to establish the physical nature of these objects. The current observational evidence on the binary X-ray sources HZ Her/Her X-1 and HDE 226868/Cyg X-1 is reported. (P.J.S.)

  2. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  3. X-ray Measurements of Black Hole X-ray Binary Source GRS 1915+ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    March 30th, 1997 during a quiescent phase of the source. .... The field of view ... tagged with a 25µsec resolution and transmitted to ground on a 40 Kbit PCM/FM ... only composite model fits for the soft and hard X ray band are used and the ...

  4. Optical observations of binary X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, P.

    1982-01-01

    Here I shall consider only those systems where the compact object is a neutron star (or in a few cases perhaps a black hole). Since van Paradijs (1982) has recently produced an excellent and comprehensive review of optical observations of compact galactic X-ray sources I shall summarise the basic properties of the optical counterparts and discuss a few representative systems in some detail. (orig./WL)

  5. Soft X-ray production by photon scattering in pulsating binary neutron star sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Meszaros, P.; Alexander, S.

    1985-01-01

    A new mechanism is proposed as a source of soft (less than 1 keV) radiation in binary pulsating X-ray sources, in the form of photon scattering which leaves the electron in an excited Landau level. In a plasma with parameters typical of such sources, the low-energy X-ray emissivity of this mechanism far exceeds that of bremsstrahlung. This copious source of soft photons is quite adequate to provide the seed photons needed to explain the power-law hard X-ray spectrum by inverse Comptonization on the hot electrons at the base of the accretion column. 13 references

  6. Astronomy and astrophysics of galactic X-ray binaries: from the nature of the X-ray sources to the physics of accretion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    In this HDR (Accreditation to supervise research) report, the author proposes an overview of his research works in the field of accretion of X-ray binaries. After a presentation of X-ray binaries, neutron stars and black holes, micro-quasars, and of the main issues regarding X-ray binaries, the author presents and comments his activities in X-ray astronomy and gamma-ray astronomy (the INTEGRAL observatory, the discovery of new sources of X and gamma radiation, studies of new sources at different wavelengths). The second part addresses the understanding of source accretion: phenomenological studies in astronomy, relationships between accretion and ejection. The third part presents and comments several studies of the physics of phenomena related to matter accretion and ejection. (author) [fr

  7. A discussion of the eccentric binary hypothesis for transient X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, Y.; Goldman, I.

    1979-01-01

    The eccentric binary hypothesis for transient x-ray sources in the framework of the gradual acceleration stellar wind model proposed by Barlow and Cohen is examined. It is found that a consideration of the ratio of maximum to minimum luminosities and of the ratio of the durations of the high and low states, for a typical transient x-ray source, yields a rather high eccentricity, despite the gradual acceleration of the wind. When typical physical parameters for the binary members are taken into account, we find that a consistent description is possible only for very eccentric orbits (e>=0.9), thus the model is inadequate as a general explanation of the x-ray transient phenomenon. The recurrent transient x-ray source 4U 1630-47, which was considered in ihe past to be a realization of the eccentric binary model is studied and it is demonstrated that it cannot be described consistently within the framework of the model, unless the optical primary is very peculiar. (author)

  8. X rays from radio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to the radio binary systems CC Cas, AR Lac, β Per (Algol), β Lyr, b Per and Cyg X-1. It is stated that a thermal interpretation of the radiation from Algol requires a much larger x-ray flux than the observed value of 3.8 x 10 -11 erg/cm 2 /sec/keV in the 2 to 6 keV energy range. Observations of some non-thermal flares, together with the small size of the radio source in Algol, indicate that the radio emission is non-thermal in nature. The radio emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation and it is suggested that the observed x-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the light of the primary star by the radio electrons. The x-ray emission from other radio binaries is also calculated using this model. The energy for the radio electrons can arise from annihilation of magnetic lines connecting the binary stars, twisted by the rotation of the stars. (U.K.)

  9. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masswig, I.

    1986-01-01

    The tkb market survey comparatively evaluates the X-ray sources and replacement tubes for stationary equipment currently available on the German market. It lists the equipment parameters of 235 commercially available X-ray sources and their replacement tubes and gives the criteria for purchase decisions. The survey has been completed with December 1985, and offers good information concerning medical and technical aspects as well as those of safety and maintenance. (orig.) [de

  10. Outbursts of binary X-ray sources suitable for monitoring of their

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    -, č. 125 (2010), s. 21-23 ISSN 1801-5964 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : satellites * high energy sources * X-ray transients Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  11. The Einstein objective grating spectrometer survey of galactic binary X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtilek, S. D.; Mcclintock, J. E.; Seward, F. D.; Kahn, S. M.; Wargelin, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    The results of observations of 22 bright Galactic X-ray point sources are presented, and the most reliable measurements to date of X-ray column densities to these sources are derived. The results are consistent with the idea that some of the objects have a component of column density intrinsic to the source in addition to an interstellar component. The K-edge absorption due to oxygen is clearly detected in 10 of the sources and the Fe L and Ne K edges are detected in a few. The spectra probably reflect emission originating in a collisionally excited region combined with emission from a photoionized region excited directly by the central source.

  12. X-ray binaries, part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerschlag-Hensberge, G.C.M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Optical observations of X-ray binaries and their interpretation are described. A number of early-type stars which are identified as companions of X-ray sources are photometrically and spectroscopically observed. The spectra were obtained with the coude spectrograph attached to the 1.5 m telescope of the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Registrations of the spectra were made with the Faul-Coradi microphotometer of the Observatory at Utrecht. To study radial velocity variations, the positions of the spectral lines were measured with the Grant comparator of the University of Groningen

  13. Optical and X-ray studies of Compact X-ray Binaries in NGC 5904

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalotia, Vanshree; Beck-Winchatz, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Due to their high stellar densities, globular cluster systems trigger various dynamical interactions, such as the formation of compact X-ray binaries. Stellar collisional frequencies have been correlated to the number of X-ray sources detected in various clusters and we hope to measure this correlation for NGC 5904. Optical fluxes of sources from archival HST images of NGC 5904 have been measured using a DOLPHOT PSF photometry in the UV, optical and near-infrared. We developed a data analysis pipeline to process the fluxes of tens of thousands of objects using awk, python and DOLPHOT. We plot color magnitude diagrams in different photometric bands in order to identify outliers that could be X-ray binaries, since they do not evolve the same way as singular stars. Aligning previously measured astrometric data for X-ray sources in NGC 5904 from Chandra with archival astrometric data from HST will filter out the outlier objects that are not X-ray producing, and provide a sample of compact binary systems that are responsible for X-ray emission in NGC 5904. Furthermore, previously measured X-ray fluxes of NGC 5904 from Chandra have also been used to measure the X-ray to optical flux ratio and identify the types of compact X-ray binaries responsible for the X-ray emissions in NGC 5904. We gratefully acknowledge the support from the Illinois Space Grant Consortium.

  14. Mass estimates from optical-light curves for binary X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The small amplitude variations with orbital phase of the optical light from X-ray binaries are caused by the changing geometrical aspect of the primary as seen by a fixed observer. The shape and the amplitude of the light curve depends on the stellar masses and on the orbital elements. The light curve can, therefore, be used to determine, or set limits on, the parameters of the binary system. A self-consistent procedure for the calculation of the light curve can be formulated if the primary is formulated if the primary is uniformly rotating at an angular velocity equal to the angular velocity of its orbital revolution in a circular orbit, and if the primary is in a hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium in the co-rotating frame. When the primary is further approximated to be centrally condensed, the above set of assumptions is called the standard picture. The standard picture is described, its validity discussed and its application to various systems reviewed. (C.F.)

  15. Application of a radioactive sourced semi portable X-ray spectrometer to the solution of binary mix compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    In many cases it is far more economically viable to transport individual constituents to a blending plant and produce a series of custom made products than to manufacture at site. This situation exists in many heavy chemical industries or on large building sites. In the cement industry inter-mixed or interground blends containing slag, fly ash, or limestone are produced. These mixes are designed to enhance certain physical properties and to reduce costs. This paper summarises experience of the application of portable isotope source X-ray analysers in achieving quality control of binary mixes

  16. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, U.

    1979-11-01

    The author describes several possibilities for the production of X-radiation. Especially he discusses the use of bremsstrahlung at electron impact on solid targets and the synchrotron radiation. He presents some equations for the calculation of X-ray intensities. Especially the X-radiation from the DORIS storage ring is discussed. (HSI)

  17. Miniature x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  18. X-ray bursters and the X-ray sources of the galactic bulge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, W.H.G.; Joss, P.C.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1981-01-01

    In this article we shall discuss the observed X-ray, optical, infrared and radio properties of the galactic bulge sources, with an emphasis on those that produce type I X-ray bursts. There is persuasive evidence that these burst sources and many other galactic bulge sources are neutron stars in low-mass, close-binary stellar systems. (orig./WL)

  19. Lominous binary supersoft X-ray sources: optical colors and absolute magnitudes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 406, č. 2 (2003), s. 613-621 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1048102; GA ČR GA205/00/P013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : close star binaries * circumstellar matter * cataclysmic variables Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.843, year: 2003

  20. Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Observations of the First Transient Z Source XTE J1701-462: Shedding New Light on Mass Accretion in Luminous Neutron Star X-Ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jeroen; van der Klis, Michiel; Wijnands, Rudy; Belloni, Tomaso; Fender, Rob; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Casella, Piergiorgio; Méndez, Mariano; Gallo, Elena; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Gehrels, Neil

    2007-02-01

    We report on the first 10 weeks of RXTE observations of the X-ray transient XTE J1701-462 and conclude that it had all the characteristics of the neutron star Z sources, i.e., the brightest persistent neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. These include the typical Z-shaped tracks traced out in X-ray color diagrams and the variability components detected in the power spectra, such as kHz QPOs and normal and horizontal branch oscillations. XTE J1701-462 is the first transient Z source and provides unique insights into mass accretion rate (m˙) and luminosity dependencies in neutron star X-ray binaries. As its overall luminosity decreased, we observed a switch between two types of Z source behavior, with the branches of the Z track changing their shape and/or orientation. We interpret this as an extreme case of the more moderate long-term changes seen in the persistent Z sources and suggest that they result from changes in m˙. We also suggest that the Cyg-like Z sources (Cyg X-2, GX 5-1, and GX 340+0) are substantially more luminous (>50%) than the Sco-like Z sources (Sco X-1, GX 17+2, and GX 349+2). Adopting a possible explanation for the behavior of kHz QPOs, which involves a prompt as well as a filtered response to changes in m˙, we further propose that changes in m˙ can explain both movement along the Z track and changes in the shape of the Z track. We discuss some consequences of this and consider the possibility that the branches of the Z will smoothly evolve into the branches observed in X-ray color diagrams of the less luminous atoll sources, although not in a way that was previously suggested.

  1. OSO-8 observing schedule for x-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six different instruments on OSO-8 have observed several binary x-ray sources between energies of 0.13 keV and 1 MeV at various times since June 21, 1975. The schedule for these observations is given, as well as the present plan for such future observations through July 1976. Included is the OSO-8 observing schedule for the transient x-ray source A0620-00

  2. Ultracompact X-ray binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaften, L.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Ultracompact X-ray binary stars usually consist of a neutron star and a white dwarf, two stars bound together by their strong gravity and orbiting each other very rapidly, completing one orbit in less than one hour. Neutron stars are extremely compact remnants of the collapsed cores of massive stars

  3. Some observational aspects of compact galactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis contains the following observations of compact galactic X-ray sources: i) the X-ray experiments onboard the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite ANS, ii) a rocket-borne ultra soft X-ray experiment and iii) the Objective Grating Spectrometer onboard the EINSTEIN observatory. In Chapter I the various types of compact galactic X-ray sources are reviewed and put into the perspective of earlier and following observations. In Chapter II the author presents some of the observations of high luminosity X-ray sources, made with ANS, including the detection of soft X-rays from the compact X-ray binary Hercules X-1 and the ''return to the high state'' of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1. Chapter III deals with transient X-ray phenomena. Results on low luminosity galactic X-ray sources are collected in Chapter IV. (Auth.)

  4. On the incidence of close binary stars in globular clusters and the nature of the cluster X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, V.

    1977-01-01

    Recent calculations suggest that the globular clusters could not have formed with more than 20 per cent of the normal Population I fraction of their stars in binary systems. The fact that the clusters have more than their fair share of novae and U Geminorum stars (three each out of approximately 200 of each known, while the clusters contain only about 10 -4 of the mass and 10 -3 of the luminosity of the galaxy) therefore becomes surprising. The hypothesis of binary capture within cluster cores suggested to account for the clusters' high X-ray luminosity provides a few extra systems, but neither it nor any of the similar encounter or capture mechanisms suggested can account for the novae and U Gen stars, which remain puzzling. The number of Algol-type and W UMa eclipsing binaries predicted by these hypotheses do not conflict with data presently available, but careful searches for them would constitute a critical test of the theories. (author)

  5. Stellar X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.I.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO

    1988-01-01

    I Review some of the salient accomplishments of X-rap studies of compact objects. Progress in this field has closely followed the improvement of observational methods, particularly in angular resolution and duration of exposure. Luminous compact X-ray sources are accreting neutron stars or black holes. Accreting neutron stars may have characteristic temporal signatures, but the only way to establish that an X-ray source is a black hole is to measure its mass. A rough phenomenological theory is succesful, but the transport of angular momentum in accretion flows is not onderstood. A number of interesting complications have been observed, including precessing accretion discs, X-ray bursts, and the acceleration of jets in SS433. Many puzzles remain unsolved, including the excitation of disc precession, the nature of the enigmatic A- and gamma-ray source Cyg X-3, the mechanism by which slowly spinning accreting neutron stars lose angular momentum, and the superabundance of X-ray sources in globular clusters. 41 refs.; 5 figs

  6. Catalogue of high-mass X-ray binaries in the Galaxy (4th edition)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.Z.; van Paradijs, J.; van den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new edition of the catalogue of high-mass X-ray binaries in the Galaxy. The catalogue contains source name(s), coordinates, finding chart, X-ray luminosity, system parameters, and stellar parameters of the components and other characteristic properties of 114 high-mass X-ray binaries,

  7. Formation and Evolution of X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Y.

    2017-07-01

    X-ray binaries are a class of binary systems, in which the accretor is a compact star (i.e., black hole, neutron star, or white dwarf). They are one of the most important objects in the universe, which can be used to study not only binary evolution but also accretion disks and compact stars. Statistical investigations of these binaries help to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies, and sometimes provide useful constraints on the cosmological models. The goal of this thesis is to investigate the formation and evolution processes of X-ray binaries including Be/X-ray binaries, low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), and cataclysmic variables. In Chapter 1 we give a brief review on the basic knowledge of the binary evolution. In Chapter 2 we discuss the formation of Be stars through binary interaction. In this chapter we investigate the formation of Be stars resulting from mass transfer in binaries in the Galaxy. Using binary evolution and population synthesis calculations, we find that in Be/neutron star binaries the Be stars have a lower limit of mass ˜ 8 M⊙ if they are formed by a stable (i.e., without the occurrence of common envelope evolution) and nonconservative mass transfer. We demonstrate that the isolated Be stars may originate from both mergers of two main-sequence stars and disrupted Be binaries during the supernova explosions of the primary stars, but mergers seem to play a much more important role. Finally the fraction of Be stars produced by binary interactions in all B type stars can be as high as ˜ 13%-30% , implying that most of Be stars may result from binary interaction. In Chapter 3 we show the evolution of intermediate- and low-mass X-ray binaries (I/LMXBs) and the formation of millisecond pulsars. Comparing the calculated results with the observations of binary radio pulsars, we report the following results: (1) The allowed parameter space for forming binary pulsars in the initial orbital period

  8. X-ray source array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Lanza, R.C.; Sohval, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    A circular array of cold cathode diode X-ray sources, for radiation imaging applications, such as computed tomography includes electrically conductive cathode plates each of which cooperates with at least two anodes to form at least two diode sources. In one arrangement, two annular cathodes are separated by radially extending, rod-like anodes. Field enhancement blades may be provided on the cathodes. In an alternative arrangement, the cathode plates extend radially and each pair is separated by an anode plate also extending radially. (author)

  9. Transient soft X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, S.; Murakami, T.; Nagase, F.; Tanaka, Y.; Yamashita, K.

    1976-01-01

    A rocket observation of cosmic soft X-rays suggests the existence of transient, recurrent soft X-ray sources which are found variable during the flight time of the rocket. Some of the soft X-ray sources thus far reported are considered to be of this time. These sources are listed and their positions are shown. (Auth.)

  10. Phase lags of quasi-periodic oscillations across source states in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avellar, Marcio G. B.

    2017-06-01

    The majority of attempts to explain the origin and phenomenology of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) detected in low-mass X-ray binaries invoke dynamical models, and it was just in recent years that renewed attention has been given on how radiative processes occurring in these extreme environments gives rise to the variability features observed in the X-ray light curves of these systems. The study of the dependence of the phase lags upon the energy and frequency of the QPOs is a step towards this end. The methodology we developed here allowed us to study for the first time these dependencies for all QPOs detected in the range of 1 to 1300 Hz in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53 as the source changes its state during its cycle in the colour-colour diagram. Our results suggest that within the context of models of up-scattering Comptonization, the phase lags dependencies upon frequency and energy can be used to extract size scales and physical conditions of the medium that produces the lags.

  11. Phase lags of quasi-periodic oscillations across source states in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636–53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Avellar, Marcio G B

    2017-01-01

    The majority of attempts to explain the origin and phenomenology of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) detected in low-mass X-ray binaries invoke dynamical models, and it was just in recent years that renewed attention has been given on how radiative processes occurring in these extreme environments gives rise to the variability features observed in the X-ray light curves of these systems. The study of the dependence of the phase lags upon the energy and frequency of the QPOs is a step towards this end. The methodology we developed here allowed us to study for the first time these dependencies for all QPOs detected in the range of 1 to 1300 Hz in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636–53 as the source changes its state during its cycle in the colour-colour diagram. Our results suggest that within the context of models of up-scattering Comptonization, the phase lags dependencies upon frequency and energy can be used to extract size scales and physical conditions of the medium that produces the lags. (paper)

  12. Chandra reveals a black hole X-ray binary within the ultraluminous supernova remnant MF 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T. P.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2003-06-01

    We present evidence, based on Chandra ACIS-S observations of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 6946, that the extraordinary X-ray luminosity of the MF 16 supernova remnant actually arises in a black hole X-ray binary. This conclusion is drawn from the point-like nature of the X-ray source, its X-ray spectrum closely resembling the spectrum of other ultraluminous X-ray sources thought to be black hole X-ray binary systems, and the detection of rapid hard X-ray variability from the source. We briefly discuss the nature of the hard X-ray variability, and the origin of the extreme radio and optical luminosity of MF 16 in light of this identification.

  13. GBM Observations of Be X-Ray Binary Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Finger, M. H.; Jenke, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008 we have been monitoring accreting pulsars using the Gamma ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi. This monitoring program includes daily blind full sky searches for previously unknown or previously quiescent pulsars and source specific analysis to track the frequency evolution of all detected pulsars. To date we have detected outbursts from 23 transient accreting pulsars, including 21 confirmed or likely Be/X-ray binaries. I will describe our techniques and highlight results for selected pulsars.

  14. Stellar winds in binary X-ray systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, K. B.; Vitello, P. A. J.

    1982-01-01

    It is thought that accretion from a strong stellar wind by a compact object may be responsible for the X-ray emission from binary systems containing a massive early-type primary. To investigate the effect of X-ray heating and ionization on the mass transfer process in systems of this type, an idealized model is constructed for the flow of a radiation-driven wind in the presence of an X-ray source of specified luminosity, L sub x. It is noted that for low values of L sub x, X-ray photoionization gives rise to additional ions having spectral lines with wavelengths situated near the peak of the primary continuum flux distribution. As a consequence, the radiation force acting on the gas increases in relation to its value in the absence of X-rays, and the wind is accelerated to higher velocities. As L sub x is increased, the degree of ionization of the wind increases, and the magnitude of the radiation force is diminished in comparison with the case in which L sub x = 0. This reduction leads at first to a decrease in the wind velocity and ultimately (for L sub x sufficiently large) to the termination of radiatively driven mass loss.

  15. X-ray reflection in oxygen-rich accretion discs of ultracompact X-ray binaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madej, O. K.; Garcia, Jeronimo; Jonker, P. G.

    2014-01-01

    We present spectroscopic X-ray data of two candidate ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs): 4U 0614+091 and 4U 1543-624. We confirm the presence of a broad O viii Ly alpha reflection line (at a parts per thousand 18 angstrom) using XMM-Newton and Chandra observations obtained in 2012 and 2013. The ...

  16. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  17. Formation and Evolution of X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Anastasios

    X-ray binaries - mass-transferring binary stellar systems with compact object accretors - are unique astrophysical laboratories. They carry information about many complex physical processes such as star formation, compact object formation, and evolution of interacting binaries. My thesis work involves the study of the formation and evolution of Galactic and extra-galacticX-ray binaries using both detailed and realistic simulation tools, and population synthesis techniques. I applied an innovative analysis method that allows the reconstruction of the full evolutionary history of known black hole X-ray binaries back to the time of compact object formation. This analysis takes into account all the available observationally determined properties of a system, and models in detail four of its evolutionary evolutionary phases: mass transfer through the ongoing X-ray phase, tidal evolution before the onset of Roche-lobe overflow, motion through the Galactic potential after the formation of the black hole, and binary orbital dynamics at the time of core collapse. Motivated by deep extra-galactic Chandra survey observations, I worked on population synthesis models of low-mass X-ray binaries in the two elliptical galaxies NGC3379 and NGC4278. These simulations were targeted at understanding the origin of the shape and normalization of the observed X-ray luminosity functions. In a follow up study, I proposed a physically motivated prescription for the modeling of transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary properties, such as duty cycle, outburst duration and recurrence time. This prescription enabled the direct comparison of transient low-mass X-ray binary population synthesis models to the Chandra X-ray survey of the two ellipticals NGC3379 and NGC4278. Finally, I worked on population synthesismodels of black holeX-ray binaries in the MilkyWay. This work was motivated by recent developments in observational techniques for the measurement of black hole spin magnitudes in

  18. Accelerator-driven X-ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-09

    After an introduction which mentions x-ray tubes and storage rings and gives a brief review of special relativity, the subject is treated under the following topics and subtopics: synchrotron radiation (bending magnet radiation, wiggler radiation, undulator radiation, brightness and brilliance definition, synchrotron radiation facilities), x-ray free-electron lasers (linac-driven X-ray FEL, FEL interactions, self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), SASE self-seeding, fourth-generation light source facilities), and other X-ray sources (energy recovery linacs, Inverse Compton scattering, laser wakefield accelerator driven X-ray sources. In summary, accelerator-based light sources cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Synchrotron radiation (bending magnet, wiggler and undulator radiation) has unique properties that can be tailored to the users’ needs: bending magnet and wiggler radiation is broadband, undulator radiation has narrow spectral lines. X-ray FELs are the brightest coherent X-ray sources with high photon flux, femtosecond pulses, full transverse coherence, partial temporal coherence (SASE), and narrow spectral lines with seeding techniques. New developments in electron accelerators and radiation production can potentially lead to more compact sources of coherent X-rays.

  19. Hard X-ray balloon observations of compact galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staubert, R.; Kendziorra, E.; Pietsch, W.; Proctor, R.J.; Reppin, C.; Steinle, H.; Truemper, J.; Voges, W.

    1981-01-01

    A balloon program in hard X-ray astronomy (20-200 keV) is jointly pursued by the Astronomisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen (AIT) and the Max Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik in Garching (MPE). Since 1973 nine succussful balloon flights have been performed from Texas and Australia. Here results on Centaurus A and on several galactic binary X-ray sources are summarized. In particular the high energy photon spectrum of Hercules X-1 and the evidence for the cyclotron line feature which was discovered by us in 1976 is reviewed. (orig.)

  20. X-Ray and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Dim X-Ray Point Sources Constituting the Galactic Ridge X-Ray Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Morihana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of X-ray and Near-Infrared observations of the Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE. We extracted 2,002 X-ray point sources in the Chandra Bulge Field (l =0°.113, b = 1°.424 down to ~10-14.8 ergscm-2s-1 in 2-8 keV band with the longest observation (900 ks of the GRXE. Based on X-ray brightness and hardness, we classied the X-ray point sources into three groups: A (hard, B (soft and broad spectrum, and C (soft and peaked spectrum. In order to know populations of the X-ray point sources, we carried out NIR imaging and spectroscopy observation. We identied 11% of X-ray point sources with NIR and extracted NIR spectra for some of them. Based on X-ray and NIR properties, we concluded that non-thermal sources in the group A are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf binaries such as cataclysmic variables (CVs and Pre-CVs. We concluded that the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flare and quiescence, respectively.

  1. An X-ray and optical study of the ultracompact X-ray binary A 1246-58

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in 't Zand, J.J.M.; Bassa, C.G.; Jonker, P.G.; Keek, L.; Verbunt, F.W.M.; Méndez, M.; Markwardt, C.B.

    2008-01-01

    Results are discussed of an X-ray and optical observation campaign of the low-mass X-ray binary A 1246-58 performed with instruments on Satellite per Astronomia X ("BeppoSAX"), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the X-ray Multi-mirror Mission ("XMM-Newton"), the Swift mission, and the Very

  2. Exploring subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degenaar, N.D.

    2010-01-01

    Halfway the twentieth century, technological developments made it possible to carry detection instruments outside the absorbing layers of the Earth’s atmosphere onboard rockets and satellites. This opened up the opportunity to detect the emission from celestial objects at X-ray wavelengths, thereby

  3. Mass loss from OB supergiants in x-ray binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alme, M.L.; Wilson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the atmospheres of OB supergiants in x-ray binary systems indicates that when the stellar surface is close enough to the saddle in the gravitational potential to provide a mass transfer rate adequate to power a compact x-ray source, large-amplitude variations in the rate of mass flow occur. 9 references

  4. Accelerator X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, R.

    2006-01-01

    This is the first monograph to cover in-depth the production of brilliant x-ray beams in accelerators, with emphasis on fourth generation designs, such as energy recovery linacs (ERL), fast cycling storage rings, and free electron lasers (FEL). Going beyond existing treatments of the influence of synchroton radiation on accelerator operation, special emphasis is placed on the design of undulator-based beam lines, and the physics of undulator radiation. Starting from the unified treatment of electron and photon beams both as bunches of particles and as waves, the author proceeds to analyse the main components, from electron gun, through linac and arc lattice, to the x-ray beam line. Designs are given for both an ERL and a more conventional storage ring complex, and their anticipated properties are compared in detail. Space charge effects are analysed with emphasis on coherent synchrotron radiation and emittance dilution. Beam diagnostics using synchrotron radiation or laser wire (Compton scattering) are also analysed in detail. Written primarily for general, particle, and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers. (orig.)

  5. ON NEUTRAL ABSORPTION AND SPECTRAL EVOLUTION IN X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J. M.; Cackett, E. M.; Reis, R. C.

    2009-01-01

    Current X-ray observatories make it possible to follow the evolution of transient and variable X-ray binaries across a broad range in luminosity and source behavior. In such studies, it can be unclear whether evolution in the low-energy portion of the spectrum should be attributed to evolution in the source, or instead to evolution in neutral photoelectric absorption. Dispersive spectrometers make it possible to address this problem. We have analyzed a small but diverse set of X-ray binaries observed with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer across a range in luminosity and different spectral states. The column density in individual photoelectric absorption edges remains constant with luminosity, both within and across source spectral states. This finding suggests that absorption in the interstellar medium strongly dominates the neutral column density observed in spectra of X-ray binaries. Consequently, evolution in the low-energy spectrum of X-ray binaries should properly be attributed to evolution in the source spectrum. We discuss our results in the context of X-ray binary spectroscopy with current and future X-ray missions.

  6. Miniature x-ray point source for alignment and calibration of x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Boyle, M.J.; Glaros, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    A miniature x-ray point source of high brightness similar to that of Rovinsky, et al. is described. One version of the x-ray source is used to align the x-ray optics on the Argus and Shiva laser systems. A second version is used to determine the spatial and spectral transmission functions of the x-ray optics. The spatial and spectral characteristics of the x-ray emission from the x-ray point source are described. The physical constraints including size, intensity and thermal limitations, and useful lifetime are discussed. The alignment and calibration techniques for various x-ray optics and detector combinations are described

  7. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. II. X-Ray Point Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    persistent luminous X-ray binaries (XBs) and the likely run-away pulsar called the Cannonball. New source-detection significance maps reveal a cluster of hard (>10 keV) X-ray sources near the Sgr. A diffuse complex with no clear soft X-ray counterparts. The severe extinction observed in the Chandra spectra...

  8. Optical studies of massive X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuiderwijk, E.J.

    1979-01-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic studies of several optical counterparts of massive X-ray binaries are presented. Subjects of study were the binary systems:HD77581/4U0900-40 (Vela X-1), HD153919/4U1700-37, Wray 977/4U1223-62 and Sk160/4U0115-74 (=SMC X-1). (Auth.)

  9. On the origin of highly ionized X-ray absorbers detected in the galactic X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yang; Fang, Taotao

    2014-01-01

    X-ray observations of the Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs) revealed numerous highly ionized metal absorption lines. However, it is unclear whether such lines are produced by the hot interstellar medium (ISM) or the circumstellar medium intrinsic to the binaries. Here we present a Chandra X-ray absorption line study of 28 observations of 12 XRBs, with a focus on the Ne IX and Fe XVII lines. We report the first detections of these lines in a significant amount of observations. We do not find a significant dependence of the line equivalent width on the distance of the XRBs, but we do see a weak dependence on the source X-ray luminosity. We also find 2 out of 12 selected targets show strong temporal variation of the Ne IX absorbers. While the line ratio between the two ion species suggests a temperature consistent with the previous predictions of the ISM, comparing with two theoretical models of the ISM shows the observed column densities are significantly higher than predictions. On the other hand, photoionization by the XRBs provides a reasonably good fit to the data. Our findings suggest that a significant fraction of these X-ray absorbers may originate in the hot gas intrinsic to the XRBs, and that the ISM makes small, if not negligible, contribution. We briefly discuss the implications to the study of the Milky Way hot gas content.

  10. X-Ray Emission from Compact Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cominsky, L

    2004-03-23

    This paper presents a review of the physical parameters of neutron stars and black holes that have been derived from X-ray observations. I then explain how these physical parameters can be used to learn about the extreme conditions occurring in regions of strong gravity, and present some recent evidence for relativistic effects seen in these systems. A glossary of commonly used terms and a short tutorial on the names of X-ray sources are also included.

  11. X-ray bursters and the X-ray sources of the galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, W. H. G.; Joss, P. C.

    An attempt is made to distill from observational and theoretical information on the galactic bulge X-ray sources in general, and on the X-ray burst sources in particular, those aspects which seem to have the greatest relevance to the understanding of these sources. Galactic bulge sources appear to be collapsed objects of roughly solar mass, in most cases neutron stars, which are accreting matter from low-mass stellar companions. Type I bursts seem to result from thermonuclear flashes in the surface layers of some of these neutron stars, while the type II bursts from the Rapid Burster are almost certainly due to an instability in the accretion flow onto a neutron star. It is concluded that the studies cited offer a new and powerful observational handle on the fundamental properties of neutron stars and of the interacting binary systems in which they are often contained.

  12. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  13. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  14. Classification of X-ray sources in the direction of M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, G.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Pietsch, W.

    2012-01-01

    M31 is our nearest spiral galaxy, at a distance of 780 kpc. Identification of X-ray sources in nearby galaxies is important for interpreting the properties of more distant ones, mainly because we can classify nearby sources using both X-ray and optical data, while more distant ones via X-rays alone. The XMM-Newton Large Project for M31 has produced an abundant sample of about 1900 X-ray sources in the direction of M31. Most of them remain elusive, giving us little signs of their origin. Our goal is to classify these sources using criteria based on properties of already identified ones. In particular we construct candidate lists of high mass X-ray binaries, low mass X-ray binaries, X-ray binaries correlated with globular clusters and AGN based on their X-ray emission and the properties of their optical counterparts, if any. Our main methodology consists of identifying particular loci of X-ray sources on X-ray hardness ratio diagrams and the color magnitude diagrams of their optical counterparts. Finally, we examined the X-ray luminosity function of the X-ray binaries populations.

  15. The galactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gursky, H.; Schreier, E.

    1975-01-01

    The current observational evidence on galactic X-ray sources is presented both from an astrophysical and astronomical point of view. The distributional properties of the sources, where they appear in the Galaxy, and certain average characteristics are discussed. In this way, certain properties of the X-ray sources can be deduced which are not apparent in the study of single objects. The properties of individual X-ray sources are then described. The hope is that more can be learnt about neutron stars and black holes, their physical properties, their origin and evolution, and their influence on other galactic phenomena. Thus attention is paid to those elements of data which appear to have the most bearing on these questions. (Auth.)

  16. Characterizing X-Ray and Radio Emission in the Black Hole X-Ray Binary V404 Cygni During Quiescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Vikram; Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    We present results from multi-wavelength simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cyg in quiescence. Our coverage with NuSTAR provides the very first opportunity to study the X-ray spectrum of V404 Cyg at energies above 10 keV. The unabsorbed broadband (0...

  17. Very Luminous X-ray Point Sources in Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Heckman, T.; Ptak, A.; Weaver, K. A.; Strickland, D.

    Extranuclear X-ray point sources in external galaxies with luminosities above 1039.0 erg/s are quite common in elliptical, disk and dwarf galaxies, with an average of ~ 0.5 and dwarf galaxies, with an average of ~0.5 sources per galaxy. These objects may be a new class of object, perhaps accreting intermediate-mass black holes, or beamed stellar mass black hole binaries. Starburst galaxies tend to have a larger number of these intermediate-luminosity X-ray objects (IXOs), as well as a large number of lower-luminosity (1037 - 1039 erg/s) point sources. These point sources dominate the total hard X-ray emission in starburst galaxies. We present a review of both types of objects and discuss possible schemes for their formation.

  18. X-ray Binaries in the Central Region of M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudolyubov, Sergey P.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Cordova, F. A.

    2006-09-01

    We present the results of the systematic survey of X-ray sources in the central region of M31 using the data of XMM-Newton observations. The spectral properties and variability of 124 bright X-ray sources were studied in detail. We found that more than 80% of sources observed in two or more observations show significant variability on the time scales of days to years. At least 50% of the sources in our sample are spectrally variable. The fraction of variable sources in our survey is much higher than previously reported from Chandra survey of M31, and is remarkably close to the fraction of variable sources found in M31 globular cluster X-ray source population. We present spectral distribution of M31 X-ray sources, based on the spectral fitting with a power law model. The distribution of spectral photon index has two main peaks at 1.8 and 2.3, and shows clear evolution with source luminosity. Based on the similarity of the properties of M31 X-ray sources and their Galactic counterparts, we expect most of X-ray sources in our sample to be accreting binary systems with neutron star and black hole primaries. Combining the results of X-ray analysis (X-ray spectra, hardness-luminosity diagrams and variability) with available data at other wavelengths, we explore the possibility of distinguishing between bright neutron star and black hole binary systems, and identify 7% and 25% of sources in our sample as a probable black hole and neutron star candidates. Finally, we compare the M31 X-ray source population to the source populations of normal galaxies of different morphological type. Support for this work was provided through NASA Grant NAG5-12390. Part of this work was done during a summer workshop ``Revealing Black Holes'' at the Aspen Center for Physics, S. T. is grateful to the Center for their hospitality.

  19. Radiation-driven winds in x-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friend, D.B.; Castor, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    We discuss the properties of a radiation-driven stellar wind in an X-ray binary system. The Castor, Abbott, Klein line-driven wind model is used, but the effects of the compact companion (gravity and continuum radiation pressure) and the centrifugal force due to orbital motion are included. These forces destroy the spherical symmetry of the wind and can make the mass loss and accretion strong functions of the size of the primary relative to its critical potential lobe. We in most systems the wind alone could power the X-ray emission. It also appears that, in the evolution of these systems, there would be a continuous transition from wind accretion to critical potential lobe overflow. The model is also used to make a prediction about the nature of a suspected binary system which is not known to be an X-ray emitter

  20. Rotating anode X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittry, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    A rotating anode x-ray source is described which consists of a rotary anode disc including a target ring and a chamber within the anode disc. Liquid is evaporated into the chamber from the target ring to cool the target and a method is provided of removing the latent heat of the vapor. (U.K.)

  1. Characterizing X-Ray and Radio Emission in the Black Hole X-Ray Binary V404 Cygni During Quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Vikram; Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane; Tomsick, John A.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Walton, Dominic J.; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present results from multi-wavelength simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cyg in quiescence. Our coverage with NuSTAR provides the very first opportunity to study the X-ray spectrum of V404 Cyg at energies above 10 keV. The unabsorbed broadband (0.3-30 keV) quiescent luminosity of the source is 8.9 x 10(exp 32) erg per sec for a distance of 2.4 kpc. The source shows clear variability on short timescales (an hour to a couple of hours) in the radio, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray bands in the form of multiple flares. The broadband X-ray spectra obtained from XMM-Newton and NuSTAR can be characterized with a power-law model having a photon index of gamma = 2.12 +/- 0.07 (90% confidence errors); however, residuals at high energies indicate spectral curvature significant at a 3 sigma confidence level with the e-folding energy of the cutoff as 20(sub -7)(sup +20) keV. Such curvature can be explained using synchrotron emission from the base of a jet outflow. Radio observations using the VLA reveal that the spectral index evolves on very fast timescales (as short as 10 minutes), switching between optically thick and thin synchrotron emission, possibly due to instabilities in the compact jet or stochastic instabilities in the accretion rate. We explore different scenarios to explain this very fast variability.

  2. Observational studies of X-ray binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klis, M. van der.

    1983-01-01

    The subject of Chapter 1 is theoretical. The other chapters, Ch. 2 to 6, contain original observational data and efforts towards their interpretation. Of these, Ch. 3, 4 and 5 deal with massive X-ray binaries, Ch. 6 with low-mass systems and Ch. 2 with Cygnus X-3, which we have not yet been able to assign to any of these two classes. The X-ray observations described were made with the COS-B satellite. Work based on UV and optical observations is described in Ch. 5. The UV observations were made with the IUE satellite, the optical observations at several ground-based observatories. (Auth.)

  3. WORKSHOP: Accreting X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-09-15

    Earlier this year a workshop on 'High Energy/Ultra High Energy Behaviour of Accreting X-Ray Sources' was held in Vulcano, a small island near Sicily, jointly organized by the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. About 60 astrophysicists and particle physicists attended the meeting which covered the study of galactic cosmic sources emitting in the wide energy range from the optical region to some 10{sup 15} eV.

  4. THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SHOCKED STELLAR WIND OF PULSAR GAMMA-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabalza, V.; Paredes, J. M. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bosch-Ramon, V., E-mail: vzabalza@am.ub.es [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2011-12-10

    Gamma-ray-loud X-ray binaries are binary systems that show non-thermal broadband emission from radio to gamma rays. If the system comprises a massive star and a young non-accreting pulsar, their winds will collide producing broadband non-thermal emission, most likely originated in the shocked pulsar wind. Thermal X-ray emission is expected from the shocked stellar wind, but until now it has neither been detected nor studied in the context of gamma-ray binaries. We present a semi-analytic model of the thermal X-ray emission from the shocked stellar wind in pulsar gamma-ray binaries, and find that the thermal X-ray emission increases monotonically with the pulsar spin-down luminosity, reaching luminosities of the order of 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}. The lack of thermal features in the X-ray spectrum of gamma-ray binaries can then be used to constrain the properties of the pulsar and stellar winds. By fitting the observed X-ray spectra of gamma-ray binaries with a source model composed of an absorbed non-thermal power law and the computed thermal X-ray emission, we are able to derive upper limits on the spin-down luminosity of the putative pulsar. We applied this method to LS 5039, the only gamma-ray binary with a radial, powerful wind, and obtain an upper limit on the pulsar spin-down luminosity of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. Given the energetic constraints from its high-energy gamma-ray emission, a non-thermal to spin-down luminosity ratio very close to unity may be required.

  5. CLASSIFYING X-RAY BINARIES: A PROBABILISTIC APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, Giri; Bornn, Luke; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil

    2015-01-01

    In X-ray binary star systems consisting of a compact object that accretes material from an orbiting secondary star, there is no straightforward means to decide whether the compact object is a black hole or a neutron star. To assist in this process, we develop a Bayesian statistical model that makes use of the fact that X-ray binary systems appear to cluster based on their compact object type when viewed from a three-dimensional coordinate system derived from X-ray spectral data where the first coordinate is the ratio of counts in the mid- to low-energy band (color 1), the second coordinate is the ratio of counts in the high- to low-energy band (color 2), and the third coordinate is the sum of counts in all three bands. We use this model to estimate the probabilities of an X-ray binary system containing a black hole, non-pulsing neutron star, or pulsing neutron star. In particular, we utilize a latent variable model in which the latent variables follow a Gaussian process prior distribution, and hence we are able to induce the spatial correlation which we believe exists between systems of the same type. The utility of this approach is demonstrated by the accurate prediction of system types using Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer All Sky Monitor data, but it is not flawless. In particular, non-pulsing neutron systems containing “bursters” that are close to the boundary demarcating systems containing black holes tend to be classified as black hole systems. As a byproduct of our analyses, we provide the astronomer with the public R code which can be used to predict the compact object type of XRBs given training data

  6. Observation of extragalactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui-Van, Andre.

    1973-01-01

    A narrow angular resolution detection apparatus using a high performance collimator has proved particularly well suited for the programs of observation of X ray sources. The experimental set-up and its performance are described. One chapter deals with the particular problems involved in the observation of X ray sources with the aid of sounding balloons. The absorption of extraterrestrial photons by the earth atmosphere is taken into account in the procesing of the observation data using two methods of calculation: digital and with simulation techniques. The results of three balloon flights are then presented with the interpretation of the observations carried out using both thermal and non thermal emission models. This analysis leads to some possible characteristics of structure of the Perseus galaxy cluster [fr

  7. CHANDRA ACIS SURVEY OF X-RAY POINT SOURCES IN NEARBY GALAXIES. II. X-RAY LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Song; Qiu, Yanli; Liu, Jifeng [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Bregman, Joel N., E-mail: songw@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: jfliu@bao.ac.cn [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Based on the recently completed Chandra /ACIS survey of X-ray point sources in nearby galaxies, we study the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for X-ray point sources in different types of galaxies and the statistical properties of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Uniform procedures are developed to compute the detection threshold, to estimate the foreground/background contamination, and to calculate the XLFs for individual galaxies and groups of galaxies, resulting in an XLF library of 343 galaxies of different types. With the large number of surveyed galaxies, we have studied the XLFs and ULX properties across different host galaxy types, and confirm with good statistics that the XLF slope flattens from lenticular ( α ∼ 1.50 ± 0.07) to elliptical (∼1.21 ± 0.02), to spirals (∼0.80 ± 0.02), to peculiars (∼0.55 ± 0.30), and to irregulars (∼0.26 ± 0.10). The XLF break dividing the neutron star and black hole binaries is also confirmed, albeit at quite different break luminosities for different types of galaxies. A radial dependency is found for ellipticals, with a flatter XLF slope for sources located between D {sub 25} and 2 D {sub 25}, suggesting the XLF slopes in the outer region of early-type galaxies are dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters. This study shows that the ULX rate in early-type galaxies is 0.24 ± 0.05 ULXs per surveyed galaxy, on a 5 σ confidence level. The XLF for ULXs in late-type galaxies extends smoothly until it drops abruptly around 4 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup −1}, and this break may suggest a mild boundary between the stellar black hole population possibly including 30 M {sub ⊙} black holes with super-Eddington radiation and intermediate mass black holes.

  8. The peculiar galactic center neutron star X-ray binary XMM J174457-2850.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenaar, N.; Reynolds, M. T.; Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wijnands, R. [Anton Pannekoek Institute of Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Altamirano, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Kennea, J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gehrels, N. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Haggard, D. [CIERA, Physics and Astronomy Department, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Ponti, G., E-mail: degenaar@umich.edu [Max Planck Institute fur Extraterrestriche Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    The recent discovery of a millisecond radio pulsar experiencing an accretion outburst similar to those seen in low mass X-ray binaries, has opened up a new opportunity to investigate the evolutionary link between these two different neutron star manifestations. The remarkable X-ray variability and hard X-ray spectrum of this object can potentially serve as a template to search for other X-ray binary/radio pulsar transitional objects. Here we demonstrate that the transient X-ray source XMM J174457-2850.3 near the Galactic center displays similar X-ray properties. We report on the detection of an energetic thermonuclear burst with an estimated duration of ≅2 hr and a radiated energy output of ≅ 5 × 10{sup 40} erg, which unambiguously demonstrates that the source harbors an accreting neutron star. It has a quiescent X-ray luminosity of L {sub X} ≅ 5 × 10{sup 32}(D/6.5 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup –1} and exhibits occasional accretion outbursts during which it brightens to L {sub X} ≅ 10{sup 35}-10{sup 36}(D/6.5 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup –1} for a few weeks (2-10 keV). However, the source often lingers in between outburst and quiescence at L {sub X} ≅ 10{sup 33}-10{sup 34}(D/6.5 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup –1}. This peculiar X-ray flux behavior and its relatively hard X-ray spectrum, a power law with an index of Γ ≅ 1.4, could possibly be explained in terms of the interaction between the accretion flow and the magnetic field of the neutron star.

  9. Laser-produced X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, L.T.; Seely, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A formidable array of advanced laser systems are emerging that produce extreme states of light and matter. By irradiating solid and gaseous targets with lasers of increasing energy densities, new physical regimes of radiation effects are being explored for the first time in controlled laboratory settings. One result that is being accomplished or pursued using a variety of techniques, is the realization of novel sources of X-rays with unprecedented characteristics and light-matter interactions, the mechanisms of which are in many cases still being elucidated. Examples include the megajoule class of laser-produced plasmas designed in pursuit of alternative-energy and security applications and the petawatt class of lasers used for fast ignition and X-ray radiographic applications such as medical imaging and real-time imaging of plasma hydrodynamics. As these technologies mature, increased emphasis will need to be placed on advanced instrumentation and diagnostic metrology to characterize the spectra, time structure, and absolute brightness of X-rays emitted by these unconventional sources. Such customized and absolutely calibrated measurement tools will serve as an enabling technology that can help in assessing the overall system performance and progress, as well as identification of the underlying interaction mechanisms of interest to basic and applied strong-field and high-energy-density science.

  10. DISC ATMOSPHERES AND WINDS IN X-RAY BINARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Díaz Trigo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of disc atmospheres and winds in low mass X-ray binaries. We discuss the possible wind launching mechanisms and compare the predictions of the models with the existent observations. We conclude that a combination of thermal and radiative pressure (the latter being relevant at high luminosities can explain the current observations of atmospheres and winds in both neutron star and black hole binaries. Moreover, these winds and atmospheres could contribute significantly to the broad iron emission line observed in these systems.

  11. A Comparison Between Spectral Properties of ULXs and Luminous X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghea, C. T.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Roberts, T. P.

    2004-05-01

    What is special about the 1039 erg s-1 limit that is used to define the ULX class? We investigate this question by analyzing Chandra X-ray spectra of 71 X-ray bright point sources from nearby galaxies. Fifty-one of these sources are ULXs (LX(0.3-8.0 keV) ≥ 1039 erg s-1), and 20 sources (our comparison sample) are less-luminous X-ray binaries with LX(0.3-8.0 keV) = 1038-39 erg s-1. Our sample objects were selected from the Chandra archive to have ≥1000 counts and thus represent the highest quality spectra in the Chandra archives for extragalactic X-ray binaries and ULXs. We fit the spectra with one-component models (e.g., cold absorption with power-law, or cold absorption with multi-colored disk blackbody) and two-component models (e.g. absorption with both a power-law and a multi colored disk blackbody). A crude measure of the spectral states of the sources are determined observationally by calibrating the strength of the disk (blackbody) and coronal (power-law) components. These results are then use to determine if spectral properties of the ULXs are statistically distinct from those of the comparison objects, which are assumed to be ``normal'' black-hole X-ray binaries.

  12. Low Mass X-ray Binary 4U1705-44 Exiting an Extended High X-ray State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Rebecca; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.

    2017-09-01

    The neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U1705-44, which exhibited high amplitude long-term X-ray variability on the order of hundreds of days during the 16-year continuous monitoring by the RXTE ASM (1995-2012), entered an anomalously long high state in July 2012 as observed by MAXI (2009-present).

  13. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Miaja-Avila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  14. Plasma x-ray radiation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, N F; Kargin, V I; Ryaslov, E A; Pikar', A S

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives the results of studies on a plasma x-ray source, which enables one to obtain a 2.5-krad radiation dose per pulse over an area of 100 cm2 in the quantum energy range from 20 to 500 keV. Pulse duration is 100 ns. Spectral radiation distributions from a diode under various operation conditions of a plasma are obtained. A Marx generator served as an initial energy source of 120 kJ with a discharge time of T/4 = 10-6 s. A short electromagnetic pulse (10-7 s) was shaped using plasma erosion opening switches.

  15. FORMATION OF BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, N.; Heinke, C. O.; Woods, T. E.; Chaichenets, S.; Fregeau, J.; Lombardi, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the recent identification in extragalactic globular clusters of the first candidate black hole-white dwarf (BH-WD) X-ray binaries, where the compact accretors may be stellar-mass black holes (BHs), we explore how such binaries could be formed in a dynamical environment. We provide analyses of the formation rates via well-known formation channels like binary exchange and physical collisions and propose that the only possibility of forming BH-WD binaries is via coupling these usual formation channels with subsequent hardening and/or triple formation. In particular, we find that the most important mechanism for the creation of a BH-WD X-ray binary from an initially dynamically formed BH-WD binary is mass transfer induced in a triple system via the Kozai mechanism. Furthermore, we find that BH-WD binaries that evolve into X-ray sources can be formed by exchanges of a BH into a WD-WD binary or possibly by collisions of a BH and a giant star. If BHs undergo significant evaporation from the cluster or form a completely detached subcluster of BHs, then we cannot match the observationally inferred production rates even using the most optimistic estimates of formation rates. To explain the observations with stellar-mass BH-WD binaries, at least 1% of all formed BHs, or presumably 10% of the BHs present in the core now, must be involved in interactions with the rest of the core stellar population.

  16. Spectral and Timing Nature of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 4U 1954+319: The Slowest Rotating Neutron Star in AN X-Ray Binary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'Ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jorn

    2014-01-01

    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its approx. 5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (is approx. 7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-K alpha line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (approx. 60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (approx. greater than 10(exp12) G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (10(exp33)-10(exp35) erg s(exp-1)), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a approx. 10(exp13) G NS, this scheme can explain the approx. 5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (approx. 10(exp16) G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (approx. 50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfv´en shell for a approx. 10(exp13) G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  17. IGR J17329-2731: The birth of a symbiotic X-ray binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, E.; Bahramian, A.; Ferrigno, C.; Sanna, A.; Strader, J.; Lewis, F.; Russell, D. M.; di Salvo, T.; Burderi, L.; Riggio, A.; Papitto, A.; Gandhi, P.; Romano, P.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the results of the multiwavelength campaign carried out after the discovery of the INTEGRAL transient IGR J17329-2731. The optical data collected with the SOAR telescope allowed us to identify the donor star in this system as a late M giant at a distance of 2.7-1.2+3.4 kpc. The data collected quasi-simultaneously with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR showed the presence of a modulation with a period of 6680 ± 3 s in the X-ray light curves of the source. This unveils that the compact object hosted in this system is a slowly rotating neutron star. The broadband X-ray spectrum showed the presence of a strong absorption (≫1023 cm-2) and prominent emission lines at 6.4 keV, and 7.1 keV. These features are usually found in wind-fed systems, in which the emission lines result from the fluorescence of the X-rays from the accreting compact object on the surrounding stellar wind. The presence of a strong absorption line around 21 keV in the spectrum suggests a cyclotron origin, thus allowing us to estimate the neutron star magnetic field as 2.4 × 1012 G. All evidencethus suggests IGR J17329-2731 is a symbiotic X-ray binary. As no X-ray emission was ever observed from the location of IGR J17329-2731 by INTEGRAL (or other X-ray facilities) during the past 15 yr in orbit and considering that symbiotic X-ray binaries are known to be variable but persistent X-ray sources, we concluded that INTEGRAL caught the first detectable X-ray emission from IGR J17329-2731 when the source shined as a symbiotic X-ray binary. The Swift XRT monitoring performed up to 3 months after the discovery of the source, showed that it maintained a relatively stable X-ray flux and spectral properties.

  18. Ultraluminous supersoft X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jifeng; Bai, Yu; Wang, Song; Justham, Stephen; Lu, You-Jun; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Qing-Zhong; di Stefano, Rosanne; Guo, Jin-Cheng; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Álvarez, Pedro; Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, Shri

    2017-06-01

    While ultraluminous supersoft X-ray sources (ULSs) bear features for intermediate mass black holes or very massive white dwarfs possibly close to Chandrasekhar mass limit, our recent discovery of processing relativistic baryonic jets from a prototype ULS in M81 demonstrate that they are not IMBHs or WDs, but black holes accreting at super-Eddington rates. This discovery strengthens the recent ideas that ULXs are stellar black holes with supercritical accretion, and provides a vivid manifestation of what happens when a black hole devours too much, that is, it will generate thick disk winds and fire out sub-relativistic baryonic jets along the funnel as predicted by recent numerical simulations.

  19. Cold cathode diode X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Lanza, R.C.; Sohval, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    A cold cathode diode X-ray source for radiation imaging, especially computed tomography, comprises a rod-like anode and a generally cylindrical cathode, concentric with the anode. The spacing between anode and cathode is so chosen that the diode has an impedance in excess of 100 ohms. The anode may be of tungsten, or of carbon with a tungsten and carbon coating. An array of such diodes may be used with a closely packed array of detectors to produce images of rapidly moving body organs, such as the beating heart. (author)

  20. Compact X-ray sources: X-rays from self-reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangles, Stuart P. D.

    2012-05-01

    Laser-based particle acceleration offers a way to reduce the size of hard-X-ray sources. Scientists have now developed a simple scheme that produces a bright flash of hard X-rays by using a single laser pulse both to generate and to scatter an electron beam.

  1. Nanomaterial-based x-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew T.; Parmee, R. J.; Milne, William I.

    2016-02-01

    Following the recent global excitement and investment in the emerging, and rapidly growing, classes of one and two-dimensional nanomaterials, we here present a perspective on one of the viable applications of such materials: field electron emission based x-ray sources. These devices, which have a notable history in medicine, security, industry and research, to date have almost exclusively incorporated thermionic electron sources. Since the middle of the last century, field emission based cathodes were demonstrated, but it is only recently that they have become practicable. We outline some of the technological achievements of the past two decades, and describe a number of the seminal contributions. We explore the foremost market hurdles hindering their roll-out and broader industrial adoption and summarise the recent progress in miniaturised, pulsed and multi-source devices.

  2. Different X-ray spectral evolution for black hole X-ray binaries in dual tracks of radio-X-ray correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Qingwen; Dong, Ai-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an 'outlier' track of radio-X-ray correlation was found, which is much steeper than the former universal correlation, where dual tracks were speculated to be triggered by different accretion processes. In this work, we test this issue by exploring hard X-ray spectral evolution in four black-hole X-ray binaries with multiple, quasi-simultaneous radio and X-ray observations. First, we find that hard X-ray photon indices, Γ, are negatively and positively correlated with X-ray fluxes when the X-ray flux, F 3-9 keV , is below and above a critical flux, F X, crit , which are consistent with predictions of the advection-dominated accretion flow and the disk-corona model, respectively. Second, and most importantly, we find that the radio-X-ray correlations are also clearly different when the X-ray fluxes are higher and lower than the critical flux as defined by X-ray spectral evolution. The data points with F 3-9 keV ≳ F X, crit have a steeper radio-X-ray correlation (F X ∝F R b and b ∼ 1.1-1.4), which roughly forms the ''outlier'' track. However, the data points with anti-correlation of Γ – F 3-9 keV either stay in the universal track with b ∼ 0.61 or stay in the transition track (from the universal to 'outlier' tracks or vice versa). Therefore, our results support that the universal and ''outlier'' tracks of radio-X-ray correlations are regulated by radiatively inefficient and radiatively efficient accretion model, respectively.

  3. Mass transfer in stellar X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbunt, F.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with mass transfer in the binary stars that emit X-rays. Optical observations on two sources are presented: 2A0311-227 and Cen X-4. The transferred matter will often enter a gaseous disk around the compact star, and spiral inwards slowly through this disk. The conditions for the formation of such a disk are investigated and the equations governing its structure are presented. Different models are discussed and it is concluded that different models lead to very similar results for those regions of the disk where gas pressure is more important than radiative pressure, and that these results agree fairly well with observations. No consistent model has been constructed as yet for the region where radiative pressure is dominant. Theoretically one predicts that the optical light emitted by a disk around a neutron star is mainly caused by X-ray photons from the immediate surroundings of the neutron star that hit the outer disk surface, are absorbed, thermalised, and re-emitted in the optical and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum. This expectation is verified by comparison with the collected observational data of low-mass X-ray binaries. Finally the author investigates which mechanism is responsible for the mass transfer in systems where the mass-losing star is less massive than the sun. (Auth.)

  4. Clumpy wind accretion in Supergiant X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mellah, I.; Sundqvist, J. O.; Keppens, R.

    2017-12-01

    Supergiant X-ray binaries (\\sgx) contain a neutron star (NS) orbiting a Supergiant O/B star. The fraction of the dense and fast line-driven wind from the stellar companion which is accreted by the NS is responsible for most of the X-ray emission from those system. Classic \\sgx display photometric variability of their hard X-ray emission, typically from a few 10^{35} to a few 10^{37}erg\\cdots^{-1}. Inhomogeneities (\\aka clumps) in the wind from the star are expected to play a role in this time variability. We run 3D hydrodynamical (HD) finite volume simulations to follow the accretion of the inhomogeneous stellar wind by the NS over almost 3 orders of magnitude. To model the unperturbed wind far upstream the NS, we use recent simulations which managed to resolve its micro-structure. We observe the formation of a Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton (BHL) like bow shock around the accretor and follow the clumps as they cross it, down to the NS magnetosphere. Compared to previous estimations discarding the HD effects, we measure lower time variability due to both the damping effect of the shock and the necessity to evacuate angular momentum to enable accretion. We also compute the associated time-variable column density and compare it to recent observations in Vela X-1.

  5. Perspectives of the lobster-eye telescope: The promising types of cosmic X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, V.

    2017-07-01

    We show the astrophysical aspects of observing the X-ray sky with the planned lobster-eye telescope. This instrument is important because it is able to provide wide-field X-ray imaging. For the testing observations, we propose to include also X-ray binaries in which matter transfers onto the compact object (mostly the neutron star). We show the typical features of the long-term X-ray activity of such objects. Observing in the soft X-ray band is the most promising because their X-ray intensity is the highest in this band. Since these X-ray sources tend to concentrate toward the center of our Galaxy, several of them can be present in the field of view of the tested instrument.

  6. X1908+075: An X-Ray Binary with a 4.4 Day Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Linqing; Remillard, Ronald A.; Bradt, Hale V.

    2000-04-01

    X1908+075 is an optically unidentified and highly absorbed X-ray source that appeared in early surveys such as Uhuru, OSO 7, Ariel 5, HEAO-1, and the EXOSAT Galactic Plane Survey. These surveys measured a source intensity in the range 2-12 mcrab at 2-10 keV, and the position was localized to ~0.5d. We use the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) All-Sky Monitor (ASM) to confirm our expectation that a particular Einstein/IPC detection (1E 1908.4+0730) provides the correct position for X1908+075. The analysis of the coded mask shadows from the ASM for the position of 1E 1908.4+0730 yields a persistent intensity ~8 mcrab (1.5-12 keV) over a 3 yr interval beginning in 1996 February. Furthermore, we detect a period of 4.400+/-0.001 days with a false-alarm probability less than 10-7. The folded light curve is roughly sinusoidal, with an amplitude that is 26% of the mean flux. The X-ray period may be attributed to the scattering and absorption of X-rays through a stellar wind combined with the orbital motion in a binary system. We suggest that X1908+075 is an X-ray binary with a high-mass companion star.

  7. X-Ray Scattering Applications Using Pulsed X-Ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, B.C.

    1999-05-23

    Pulsed x-ray sources have been used in transient structural phenomena investigations for over fifty years; however, until the advent of synchrotrons sources and the development of table-top picosecond lasers, general access to ligh temporal resolution x-ray diffraction was relatively limited. Advances in diffraction techniques, sample excitation schemes, and detector systems, in addition to IncEased access to pulsed sources, have ld tO what is now a diverse and growing array of pulsed-source measurement applications. A survey of time-resolved investigations using pulsed x-ray sources is presented and research opportunities using both present and planned pulsed x-ray sources are discussed.

  8. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  9. Distortion of absorption-line velocity curves due to x-ray heating in x-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgrom, M.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of X-ray heating on the measured absorption line velocities, in X-ray binaries with low X-rays to optical luminosities ratio are considered. These effects may be appreciable even for such binaries where the effect of X-ray heating on the light-curve is negligible. The effects are studied qualitatively and suggest possible ways to partially eliminate the systematic errors introduced by them. The individual systems Cyg x-1 and SMC x-1 are treated and the results of numerical calculations are presented for them. For Cyg x-1 it is found that the effect is detectable during the X-ray 'high' state in all regions of the spectrum. During the 'low' state it may be important in the red region of the spectrum. The results for the case in which soft X-ray fluxes (E < or approximately .4 keV, suggested by theoretical models) are present are also given. For SMC x-1 a strong effect for Hα, Hβ, Hγ had been found. This effect may be responsible for the observed variable velocity curve. We also find for SMC x-1 that the average X-ray intensity falling on the primary must be considerably smaller than what is derived from the detected flux, or else the effect is too large. (author)

  10. Young and Old X-ray Binary and IXO Populations in Spiral and Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Heckman, T.; Ptak, A.; Strickland, D.; Weaver, K.

    2003-03-01

    We have analyzed Chandra ACIS observations of 32 nearby spiral and elliptical galaxies and present the results of 1441 X-ray point sources, which are presumed to be mostly X-ray binaries (XRBs) and Intermediate-luminosity X-ray Objects (IXOs, a.k.a. ULXs). The X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) of the point sources show that the slope of the elliptical galaxy XLFs are significantly steeper than the spiral galaxy XLFs, indicating grossly different types of point sources, or different stages in their evolution. Since the spiral galaxy XLF is so shallow, the most luminous points sources (usually the IXOs) dominate the total X-ray point source luminosity LXP. We show that the galaxy total B-band and K-band light (proxies for the stellar mass) are well correlated with LXP for both spirals and ellipticals, but the FIR and UV emission is only correlated for the spirals. We deconvolve LXP into two components, one that is proportional to the galaxy stellar mass (pop II), and another that is proportional to the galaxy SFR (pop I). We also note that IXOs (and nearly all of the other point sources) in both spirals and ellipticals have X-ray colors that are most consistent with power-law slopes of Gamma ˜ 1.5--3.0, which is inconsistent with high-mass XRBS (HMXBs). Thus, HMXBs are not important contributors to LXP. We have also found that IXOs in spiral galaxies may have a slightly harder X-ray spectrum than those in elliptical galaxies. The implications of these findings will be discussed.

  11. The Correlation between Hard X-Ray Peak Flux and Soft X-Ray Peak Flux in the Outburst Rise of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, W.; van der Klis, M.; Fender, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    We have analyzed Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer pointed observations of the outbursts of black hole and neutron star soft X-ray transients in which an initial low/hard state, or ``island'' state, followed by a transition to a softer state was observed. In three sources-the black hole transient XTE

  12. A density cusp of quiescent X-ray binaries in the central parsec of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Bauer, Franz E.; Berkowitz, Michael E.; Hong, Jaesub; Hord, Benjamin J.

    2018-04-01

    The existence of a ‘density cusp’—a localized increase in number—of stellar-mass black holes near a supermassive black hole is a fundamental prediction of galactic stellar dynamics. The best place to detect such a cusp is in the Galactic Centre, where the nearest supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*, resides. As many as 20,000 black holes are predicted to settle into the central parsec of the Galaxy as a result of dynamical friction; however, so far no density cusp of black holes has been detected. Low-mass X-ray binary systems that contain a stellar-mass black hole are natural tracers of isolated black holes. Here we report observations of a dozen quiescent X-ray binaries in a density cusp within one parsec of Sagittarius A*. The lower-energy emission spectra that we observed in these binaries is distinct from the higher-energy spectra associated with the population of accreting white dwarfs that dominates the central eight parsecs of the Galaxy. The properties of these X-ray binaries, in particular their spatial distribution and luminosity function, suggest the existence of hundreds of binary systems in the central parsec of the Galaxy and many more isolated black holes. We cannot rule out a contribution to the observed emission from a population (of up to about one-half the number of X-ray binaries) of rotationally powered, millisecond pulsars. The spatial distribution of the binary systems is a relic of their formation history, either in the stellar disk around Sagittarius A* (ref. 7) or through in-fall from globular clusters, and constrains the number density of sources in the modelling of gravitational waves from massive stellar remnants, such as neutron stars and black holes.

  13. TRACING THE REVERBERATION LAG IN THE HARD STATE OF BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, B.; Ponti, G.; Nandra, K.; Muñoz-Darias, T.

    2015-01-01

    We report results obtained from a systematic analysis of X-ray lags in a sample of black hole X-ray binaries, with the aim of assessing the presence of reverberation lags and studying their evolution during outburst. We used XMM-Newton and simultaneous Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations to obtain broadband energy coverage of both the disk and the hard X-ray Comptonization components. In most cases the detection of reverberation lags is hampered by low levels of variability-power signal-to-noise ratio (typically when the source is in a soft state) and/or short exposure times. The most detailed study was possible for GX 339-4 in the hard state, which allowed us to characterize the evolution of X-ray lags as a function of luminosity in a single source. Over all the sampled frequencies (∼0.05–9 Hz), we observe the hard lags intrinsic to the power-law component, already well known from previous RXTE studies. The XMM-Newton soft X-ray response allows us to detail the disk variability. At low frequencies (long timescales) the disk component always leads the power-law component. On the other hand, a soft reverberation lag (ascribable to thermal reprocessing) is always detected at high frequencies (short timescales). The intrinsic amplitude of the reverberation lag decreases as the source luminosity and the disk fraction increase. This suggests that the distance between the X-ray source and the region of the optically thick disk where reprocessing occurs gradually decreases as GX 339-4 rises in luminosity through the hard state, possibly as a consequence of reduced disk truncation

  14. Time variability of X-ray binaries: observations with INTEGRAL. Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanac, Clement

    2007-01-01

    The exact origin of the observed X and Gamma ray variability in X-ray binaries is still an open debate in high energy astrophysics. Among others, these objects are showing aperiodic and quasi-periodic luminosity variations on timescales as small as the millisecond. This erratic behavior must put constraints on the proposed emission processes occurring in the vicinity of the neutrons star or the stellar mass black-hole held by these objects. We propose here to study their behavior following 3 different ways: first we examine the evolution of a particular X-ray source discovered by INTEGRAL, IGR J19140+0951. Using timing and spectral data given by different instruments, we show that the source type is plausibly consistent with a High Mass X-ray Binary hosting a neutrons star. Subsequently, we propose a new method dedicated to the study of timing data coming from coded mask aperture instruments. Using it on INTEGRAL/ISGRI real data, we detect the presence of periodic and quasi-periodic features in some pulsars and micro-quasars at energies as high as a hundred keV. Finally, we suggest a model designed to describe the low frequency variability of X-ray binaries in their hardest state. This model is based on thermal comptonization of soft photons by a warm corona in which a pressure wave is propagating in cylindrical geometry. By computing both numerical simulations and analytical solution, we show that this model should be suitable to describe some of the typical features observed in X-ray binaries power spectra in their hard state and their evolution such as aperiodic noise and low frequency quasi-periodic oscillations. (author) [fr

  15. Three Bright X-ray Sources in NGC 1313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Petre, R.; Schlegel, E.

    1992-12-01

    Three bright X-ray sources were detected in a recent (April/May 1991) ROSAT PSPC observation of the nearby (D ~ 4.5 Mpc) face--on barred spiral galaxy NGC 1313. Two of the sources were at positions coincident with X-ray sources detected by Fabbiano & Trinchieri (ApJ 315, 1987) in a previous (Jan 1980) Einstein IPC observation. The position of the brightest Einstein source is near the center of NGC 1313, and the second Einstein source is ~ 7' south of the ``nuclear'' source, in the outskirts of the spiral arms. A third bright X-ray source was detected in the ROSAT observation ~ 7' southwest of the ``nuclear'' source. We present X-ray spectra and X-ray images for the three bright sources found in the ROSAT observation of NGC 1313, and compare with previous Einstein results. Spectral analysis of these sources require them to have very large soft X-ray luminosities ( ~ 10(40) erg s(-1) ) when compared with typical X-ray sources in our Galaxy. Feasible explanations for the X-ray emission are presented. The third X-ray source is positively identified with the recently discovered (Ryder et. al., ApJ 1992) peculiar type-II supernova 1978K.

  16. A portable x-ray source and method for radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanivsky, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    A portable x-ray source that produces a sufficient x-ray flux to produce high quality x-ray images on x-ray films. The source includes a vacuum chamber filled with a heavy atomic weight gas at low pressure and an x-ray emitter. The chamber is in a magnetic field and an oscillating electric field and generates electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma having a ring of energetic electrons inside the chamber. The electrons bombard the x-ray emitter which in turn produces x-ray. A pair of magnetic members generate an axisymmetric magnetic mirror trap inside the chamber. The chamber may be nested within a microwave resonant cavity and between the magnets or the chamber and the microwave cavity may be a single composite structure. (author)

  17. Discovery of two eclipsing X-ray binaries in M 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Soria, Roberto; Urquhart, Ryan; Liu, Jifeng

    2018-04-01

    We discovered eclipses and dips in two luminous (and highly variable) X-ray sources in M 51. One (CXOM51 J132943.3+471135) is an ultraluminous supersoft source, with a thermal spectrum at a temperature of about 0.1 keV and characteristic blackbody radius of about 104 km. The other (CXOM51 J132946.1+471042) has a two-component spectrum with additional thermal-plasma emission; it approached an X-ray luminosity of 1039erg s-1 during outbursts in 2005 and 2012. From the timing of three eclipses in a series of Chandra observations, we determine the binary period (52.75 ± 0.63 hr) and eclipse fraction (22% ± 0.1%) of CXOM51 J132946.1+471042. We also identify a blue optical counterpart in archival Hubble Space Telescope images, consistent with a massive donor star (mass of ˜20-35M⊙). By combining the X-ray lightcurve parameters with the optical constraints on the donor star, we show that the mass ratio in the system must be M_2/M_1 ≳ 18, and therefore the compact object is most likely a neutron star (exceeding its Eddington limit in outburst). The general significance of our result is that we illustrate one method (applicable to high-inclination sources) of identifying luminous neutron star X-ray binaries, in the absence of X-ray pulsations or phase-resolved optical spectroscopy. Finally, we discuss the different X-ray spectral appearance expected from super-Eddington neutron stars and black holes at high viewing angles.

  18. The X-Ray Luminosity Functions of Field Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries in Early-Type Galaxies: Evidence for a Stellar Age Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Berkeley, M.; Zezas, A.; Alexander, D. M.; Basu-Zych, A.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Kalogera, V.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present direct constraints on how the formation of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations in galactic fields depends on stellar age. In this pilot study, we utilize Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to detect and characterize the X-ray point source populations of three nearby early-type galaxies: NGC 3115, 3379, and 3384. The luminosity-weighted stellar ages of our sample span approximately equal to 3-10 Gyr. X-ray binary population synthesis models predict that the field LMXBs associated with younger stellar populations should be more numerous and luminous per unit stellar mass than older populations due to the evolution of LMXB donor star masses. Crucially, the combination of deep Chandra and HST observations allows us to test directly this prediction by identifying and removing counterparts to X-ray point sources that are unrelated to the field LMXB populations, including LMXBs that are formed dynamically in globular clusters, Galactic stars, and background AGN/galaxies. We find that the "young" early-type galaxy NGC 3384 (approximately equals 2-5 Gyr) has an excess of luminous field LMXBs (L(sub x) approximately greater than (5-10) × 10(exp 37) erg s(exp -1)) per unit K-band luminosity (L(sub K); a proxy for stellar mass) than the "old" early-type galaxies NGC 3115 and 3379 (approximately equals 8-10 Gyr), which results in a factor of 2-3 excess of L(sub X)/L(sub K) for NGC 3384. This result is consistent with the X-ray binary population synthesis model predictions; however, our small galaxy sample size does not allow us to draw definitive conclusions on the evolution field LMXBs in general. We discuss how future surveys of larger galaxy samples that combine deep Chandra and HST data could provide a powerful new benchmark for calibrating X-ray binary population synthesis models.

  19. Sources of linear polarized x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiginger, H.; Wobrauschek, P.

    1989-01-01

    Linear polarized X-rays are used in X-ray fluorescence analysis to decrease the background caused by scattered photons. Various experiments, calculations and constructions have demonstrated the possibility to produce polarized radiation in an analytical laboratory with an X-ray tube and polarizer-analyzer facilities as auxiliary equipment. The results obtained with Bragg-polarizers of flat and curved focussing geometry and of Barkla-polarizers are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed and compared with the respective quality of synchrotron radiation. Polarization by scattering reduces the intensity of the primary radiation. Recently much effort is devoted to the construction of integrated high power X-ray tube polarizer-analyzer arrangements. The detailed design, geometry and performance of such a facility is described. (author)

  20. X pinch a point x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.B.; Rout, R.K.; Shyam, A.; Srinivasan, M.

    1993-01-01

    X ray emission from an X pinch, a point x-ray source has been studied using a pin-hole camera by a 30 kV, 7.2 μ F capacitor bank. The wires of different material like W, Mo, Cu, S.S.(stainless steel) and Ti were used. Molybdenum pinch gives the most intense x-rays and stainless steel gives the minimum intensity x-rays for same bank energy (∼ 3.2 kJ). Point x-ray source of size (≤ 0.5 mm) was observed using pin hole camera. The size of the source is limited by the size of the pin hole camera. The peak current in the load is approximately 150 kA. The point x-ray source could be useful in many fields like micro lithography, medicine and to study the basic physics of high Z plasmas. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  1. Optical spectroscopy of the Be/X-ray binary V850 Centauri/GX 304-1 during faint X-ray periodical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacaria, C.; Kollatschny, W.; Whelan, E.; Santangelo, A.; Klochkov, D.; McBride, V.; Ducci, L.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Be/X-ray binaries (BeXRBs) are the most populous class of high-mass X-ray binaries. Their X-ray duty cycle is tightly related to the optical companion wind activity, which in turn can be studied through dedicated optical spectroscopic observations. Aims: We study optical spectral features of the Be circumstellar disk to test their long-term variability and their relation with the X-ray activity. Special attention has been given to the Hα emission line, one of the best tracers of the disk conditions. Methods: We obtained optical broadband medium resolution spectra from a dedicated campaign with the Anglo-Australian Telescope and the Southern African Large Telescope in 2014-2015. Data span over one entire binary orbit, and cover both X-ray quiescent and moderately active periods. We used Balmer emission lines to follow the evolution of the circumstellar disk. Results: We observe prominent spectral features, like double-peaked Hα and Hβ emission lines. The HαV/R ratio significantly changes over a timescale of about one year. Our observations are consistent with a system observed at a large inclination angle (I ≳ 60°). The derived circumstellar disk size shows that the disk evolves from a configuration that prevents accretion onto the neutron star, to one that allows only moderate accretion. This is in agreement with the contemporary observed X-ray activity. Our results are interpreted within the context of inefficient tidal truncation of the circumstellar disk, as expected for this source's binary configuration. We derived the Hβ-emitting region size, which is equal to about half of the corresponding Hα-emitting disk, and constrain the luminosity class of V850 Cen as III-V, consistent with the previously proposed class.

  2. Multiple station beamline at an undulator x-ray source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, J.; Freund, A.K.; Grübel, G.

    1994-01-01

    The undulator X-ray source is an ideal source for many applications: the beam is brilliant, highly collimated in all directions, quasi-monochromatic, pulsed and linearly polarized. Such a precious source can feed several independently operated instruments by utilizing a downstream series of X......-ray transparent monochromator crystals. Diamond in particular is an attractive monochromator as it is rather X-ray transparent and can be fabricated to a high degree of crystal perfection. Moreover, it has a very high heat conductivity and a rather small thermal expansion so the beam X-ray heat load problem...

  3. EVOLUTION OF INTERMEDIATE-MASS X-RAY BINARIES DRIVEN BY THE MAGNETIC BRAKING OF AP/BP STARS. I. ULTRACOMPACT X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen-Cong [School of Physics and Electrical Information, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu 476000 (China); Podsiadlowski, Philipp, E-mail: chenwc@pku.edu.cn [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-20

    It is generally believed that ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs) evolved from binaries consisting of a neutron star accreting from a low-mass white dwarf (WD) or helium star where mass transfer is driven by gravitational radiation. However, the standard WD evolutionary channel cannot produce the relatively long-period (40–60 minutes) UCXBs with a high time-averaged mass-transfer rate. In this work, we explore an alternative evolutionary route toward UCXBs, where the companions evolve from intermediate-mass Ap/Bp stars with an anomalously strong magnetic field (100–10,000 G). Including the magnetic braking caused by the coupling between the magnetic field and an irradiation-driven wind induced by the X-ray flux from the accreting component, we show that intermediate-mass X-ray binaries (IMXBs) can evolve into UCXBs. Using the MESA code, we have calculated evolutionary sequences for a large number of IMXBs. The simulated results indicate that, for a small wind-driving efficiency f = 10{sup −5}, the anomalous magnetic braking can drive IMXBs to an ultra-short period of 11 minutes. Comparing our simulated results with the observed parameters of 15 identified UCXBs, the anomalous magnetic braking evolutionary channel can account for the formation of seven and eight sources with f = 10{sup −3}, and 10{sup −5}, respectively. In particular, a relatively large value of f can fit three of the long-period, persistent sources with a high mass-transfer rate. Though the proportion of Ap/Bp stars in intermediate-mass stars is only 5%, the lifetime of the UCXB phase is ≳2 Gyr, producing a relatively high number of observable systems, making this an alternative evolutionary channel for the formation of UCXBs.

  4. Radiation Backgrounds at Cosmic Dawn: X-Rays from Compact Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madau, Piero; Fragos, Tassos

    2017-05-01

    We compute the expected X-ray diffuse background and radiative feedback on the intergalactic medium (IGM) from X-ray binaries prior to and during the epoch of reionization. The cosmic evolution of compact binaries is followed using a population synthesis technique that treats separately neutron stars and black hole binaries in different spectral states and is calibrated to reproduce the observed X-ray properties of galaxies at z ≲ 4. Together with an updated empirical determination of the cosmic history of star formation, recent modeling of the stellar mass-metallicity relation, and a scheme for absorption by the IGM that accounts for the presence of ionized H II bubbles during the epoch of reionization, our detailed calculations provide refined predictions of the X-ray volume emissivity and filtered radiation background from “normal” galaxies at z ≳ 6. Radiative transfer effects modulate the background spectrum, which shows a characteristic peak between 1 and 2 keV. Because of the energy dependence of photoabsorption, soft X-ray photons are produced by local sources, while more energetic radiation arrives unattenuated from larger cosmological volumes. While the filtering of X-ray radiation through the IGM slightly increases the mean excess energy per photoionization, it also weakens the radiation intensity below 1 keV, lowering the mean photoionization and heating rates. Numerical integration of the rate and energy equations shows that the contribution of X-ray binaries to the ionization of the bulk IGM is negligible, with the electron fraction never exceeding 1%. Direct He I photoionizations are the main source of IGM heating, and the temperature of the largely neutral medium in between H II cavities increases above the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) only at z ≲ 10, when the volume filling factor of H II bubbles is already ≳0.1. Therefore, in this scenario, it is only at relatively late epochs that neutral intergalactic hydrogen

  5. Radiation Backgrounds at Cosmic Dawn: X-Rays from Compact Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madau, Piero [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Fragos, Tassos [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland)

    2017-05-01

    We compute the expected X-ray diffuse background and radiative feedback on the intergalactic medium (IGM) from X-ray binaries prior to and during the epoch of reionization. The cosmic evolution of compact binaries is followed using a population synthesis technique that treats separately neutron stars and black hole binaries in different spectral states and is calibrated to reproduce the observed X-ray properties of galaxies at z ≲ 4. Together with an updated empirical determination of the cosmic history of star formation, recent modeling of the stellar mass–metallicity relation, and a scheme for absorption by the IGM that accounts for the presence of ionized H ii bubbles during the epoch of reionization, our detailed calculations provide refined predictions of the X-ray volume emissivity and filtered radiation background from “normal” galaxies at z ≳ 6. Radiative transfer effects modulate the background spectrum, which shows a characteristic peak between 1 and 2 keV. Because of the energy dependence of photoabsorption, soft X-ray photons are produced by local sources, while more energetic radiation arrives unattenuated from larger cosmological volumes. While the filtering of X-ray radiation through the IGM slightly increases the mean excess energy per photoionization, it also weakens the radiation intensity below 1 keV, lowering the mean photoionization and heating rates. Numerical integration of the rate and energy equations shows that the contribution of X-ray binaries to the ionization of the bulk IGM is negligible, with the electron fraction never exceeding 1%. Direct He i photoionizations are the main source of IGM heating, and the temperature of the largely neutral medium in between H ii cavities increases above the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) only at z ≲ 10, when the volume filling factor of H ii bubbles is already ≳0.1. Therefore, in this scenario, it is only at relatively late epochs that neutral intergalactic

  6. AN X-RAY AND OPTICAL LIGHT CURVE MODEL OF THE ECLIPSING SYMBIOTIC BINARY SMC3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Mariko; Hachisu, Izumi; Mikołajewska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Some binary evolution scenarios for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) include long-period binaries that evolve to symbiotic supersoft X-ray sources in their late stage of evolution. However, symbiotic stars with steady hydrogen burning on the white dwarf's (WD) surface are very rare, and the X-ray characteristics are not well known. SMC3 is one such rare example and a key object for understanding the evolution of symbiotic stars to SNe Ia. SMC3 is an eclipsing symbiotic binary, consisting of a massive WD and red giant (RG), with an orbital period of 4.5 years in the Small Magellanic Cloud. The long-term V light curve variations are reproduced as orbital variations in the irradiated RG, whose atmosphere fills its Roche lobe, thus supporting the idea that the RG supplies matter to the WD at rates high enough to maintain steady hydrogen burning on the WD. We also present an eclipse model in which an X-ray-emitting region around the WD is almost totally occulted by the RG swelling over the Roche lobe on the trailing side, although it is always partly obscured by a long spiral tail of neutral hydrogen surrounding the binary in the orbital plane.

  7. Energy Feedback from X-ray Binaries in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragos, T.; Lehmer, B..; Naoz, S.; Zezas, A.; Basu-Zych, A.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray photons, because of their long mean-free paths, can easily escape the galactic environments where they are produced, and interact at long distances with the intergalactic medium, potentially having a significant contribution to the heating and reionization of the early universe. The two most important sources of X-ray photons in the universe are active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and X-ray binaries (XRBs). In this Letter we use results from detailed, large scale population synthesis simulations to study the energy feedback of XRBs, from the first galaxies (z (redshift) approximately equal to 20) until today.We estimate that X-ray emission from XRBs dominates over AGN at z (redshift) greater than or approximately equal to 6-8. The shape of the spectral energy distribution of the emission from XRBs shows little change with redshift, in contrast to its normalization which evolves by approximately 4 orders of magnitude, primarily due to the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate. However, the metallicity and the mean stellar age of a given XRB population affect significantly its X-ray output. Specifically, the X-ray luminosity from high-mass XRBs per unit of star-formation rate varies an order of magnitude going from solar metallicity to less than 10% solar, and the X-ray luminosity from low-mass XRBs per unit of stellar mass peaks at an age of approximately 300 Myr (million years) and then decreases gradually at later times, showing little variation for mean stellar ages 3 Gyr (Giga years, or billion years). Finally, we provide analytical and tabulated prescriptions for the energy output of XRBs, that can be directly incorporated in cosmological simulations.

  8. X-ray time and spectral variability as probes of ultraluminous x-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj Ranga Reddy

    A long-standing debate in the field of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs: luminosities > 3x1039 ergs s-1) is whether these objects are powered by stellar-mass black holes (mass range of 3-25 solar masses) undergoing hyper-accretion/emission or if they host the long-sought after class of intermediate-mass black holes (mass range of a few 100-1000 solar masses) accreting material at sub-Eddington rates. We present X-ray time and energy spectral variability studies of ULXs in order to understand their physical environments and accurately weigh their compact objects. A sample of ULXs exhibit quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with centroid frequencies in the range of 10-200 mHz. The nature of the power density spectra (PDS) of these sources is qualitatively similar to stellar-mass black holes when they exhibit the so-called type-C low-frequency QPOs (frequency range of 0.2-15 Hz). However, the crucial difference is that the characteristic frequencies within the PDS of ULXs, viz., the break frequencies and the centroid frequencies of the QPOs, are scaled down by a factor of approximately 10-100 compared to stellar-mass black holes. It has thus been argued that the ULX mHz QPOs are the type-C low-frequency QPO analogs of stellar-mass black holes and that the observed difference in the frequencies (a fewx0.01 Hz compared with a few Hz) is due to the presence of intermediate-mass black holes ( MULX = (QPOstellar-mass black hole }/QPOULX)xM stellar-mass black hole, where M and QPO are the mass and the QPO frequency, respectively) within these ULXs. We analyzed all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray data of ULXs NGC 5408 X-1 and M82 X-1 in order to test the hypothesis that the ULX mHz QPOs are the type-C analogs by searching for a correlation between the mHz QPO frequency and the energy spectral power-law index as type-C QPOs show such a dependence. From our multi-epoch timing and spectral analysis of ULXs NGC 5408 X-1 and M82 X-1, we found that the mHz QPOs of these sources vary

  9. Hard state neutron star and black hole X-ray binaries in the radio:X-ray luminosity plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Elena; Degenaar, Nathalie; van den Eijnden, Jakob

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the large body of literature around the phenomenological properties of accreting black hole (BH) and neutron star (NS) X-ray binaries in the radio:X-ray luminosity plane, we carry out a comparative regression analysis on 36 BHs and 41 NSs in hard X-ray states, with data over 7 dex in X-ray luminosity for both. The BHs follow a radio to X-ray (logarithmic) luminosity relation with slope β = 0.59 ± 0.02, consistent with the NSs' slope (β =0.44^{+0.05}_{-0.04}) within 2.5σ. The best-fitting intercept for the BHs significantly exceeds that for the NSs, cementing BHs as more radio loud, by a factor ˜22. This discrepancy can not be fully accounted for by the mass or bolometric correction gap, nor by the NS boundary layer contribution to the X-rays, and is likely to reflect physical differences in the accretion flow efficiency, or the jet powering mechanism. Once importance sampling is implemented to account for the different luminosity distributions, the slopes of the non-pulsating and pulsating NS subsamples are formally inconsistent (>3σ), unless the transitional millisecond pulsars (whose incoherent radio emission mechanism is not firmly established) are excluded from the analysis. We confirm the lack of a robust partitioning of the BH data set into separate luminosity tracks.

  10. Medical X-ray sources now and for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    This paper focuses on the use of X-rays in their largest field of application: medical diagnostic imaging and image-guided therapy. For this purpose, vacuum electronics in the form of X-ray tubes as the source of bremsstrahlung (braking radiation) have been the number one choice for X-ray production in the range of photon energies between about 16 keV for mammography and 150 keV for general radiography. Soft tissue on one end and bony structures on the other are sufficiently transparent and the contrast delivered by difference of absorption is sufficiently high for this spectral range. The dominance of X-ray tubes holds even more than 120 years after Conrad Roentgen's discovery of the bremsstrahlung mechanism. What are the specifics of current X-ray tubes and their medical diagnostic applications? How may the next available technology at or beyond the horizon look like? Can we hope for substantial game changers? Will flat panel sources, less expensive X-ray "LED's", compact X-ray Lasers, compact synchrotrons or equivalent X-ray sources appear in medical diagnostic imaging soon? After discussing the various modalities of imaging systems and their sources of radiation, this overview will briefly touch on the physics of bremsstrahlung generation, key characteristics of X-ray tubes, and material boundary conditions, which restrict performance. It will discuss the deficits of the bremsstrahlung technology and try to sketch future alternatives and their prospects of implementation in medical diagnostics.

  11. Study of characteristic X-ray source and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fuquan

    1994-11-01

    The law of characteristic X-rays emitted by target element under the radiation of isotope source in a range of low energy is discussed. Both the way of improving the rate of γ-X conversion and the method to eliminate the influence of scatter rays are introduced. The influence of the variation of isotopes source, targets and the relative position of source-target to the output of X-rays is also discussed and then the conditions of improving signal-to-noise radio is presented. The X-ray source based on these results can produce different energy X-rays, and so can be broadly used on nuclear instruments and other fields as a low energy source. The thickness gauge, as one of the applications, has succeeded in thickness measuring of the different materials in large range, and it presents a new application field for characteristic X-ray source. (11 figs., 10 tabs.)

  12. DEM L241, A SUPERNOVA REMNANT CONTAINING A HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, F. D.; Charles, P. A.; Foster, D. L.; Dickel, J. R.; Romero, P. S.; Edwards, Z. I.; Perry, M.; Williams, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    A Chandra observation of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant DEM L241 reveals an interior unresolved source which is probably an accretion-powered binary. The optical counterpart is an O5III(f) star making this a high-mass X-ray binary with an orbital period likely to be of the order of tens of days. Emission from the remnant interior is thermal and spectral information is used to derive density and mass of the hot material. Elongation of the remnant is unusual and possible causes of this are discussed. The precursor star probably had mass >25 M ☉

  13. DEM L241, A SUPERNOVA REMNANT CONTAINING A HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seward, F. D. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Charles, P. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Foster, D. L. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Dickel, J. R.; Romero, P. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, 1919 Lomas Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Edwards, Z. I.; Perry, M.; Williams, R. M. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Columbus State University, Coca Cola Space Science Center, 701 Front Avenue, Columbus, GA 31901 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    A Chandra observation of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant DEM L241 reveals an interior unresolved source which is probably an accretion-powered binary. The optical counterpart is an O5III(f) star making this a high-mass X-ray binary with an orbital period likely to be of the order of tens of days. Emission from the remnant interior is thermal and spectral information is used to derive density and mass of the hot material. Elongation of the remnant is unusual and possible causes of this are discussed. The precursor star probably had mass >25 M {sub Sun}.

  14. Compact stellar X-ray sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewin, W.H.G.; van der Klis, M.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray astronomy is the prime available window on astrophysical compact objects: black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs. In the last ten years new observational opportunities have led to an explosion of knowledge in this field. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the astrophysics of

  15. Mass accretion rate fluctuations in black hole X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapisarda, S.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is about the first systematic and quantitative application of propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations models to black hole X-ray binaries. Black hole X-ray binaries are systems consisting of a solar mass star orbiting around a stellar mass black hole. Eventually, the black hole

  16. Diagnostic X-ray sources-present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Rolf; Grüner, Florian

    2018-01-01

    This paper compares very different physical principles of X-ray production to spur ideation. Since more than 120 years, bremsstrahlung from X-ray tubes has been the workhorse of medical diagnostics. Generated by X-ray segments comprised of X-ray tubes and high-voltage generators in the various medical systems, X-ray photons in the spectral range between about 16 keV and 150 keV deliver information about anatomy and function of human patients and in pre-clinical animal studies. Despite of strides to employ the wave nature of X-rays as phase sensitive means, commercial diagnostic X-ray systems available until the time of writing still rely exclusively on measuring the attenuation and scattering of X-rays by matter. Significant activities in research aim at building highly brilliant short pulse X-ray sources, based on e.g. synchrotron radiation, free electron lasers and/or laser wake-field acceleration of electrons followed by wiggling with magnetic structures or Thomson scattering in bunches of light. While both approaches, non-brilliant and brilliant sources, have different scope of application, we speculate that a combination may expand the efficacy in medical application. At this point, however, severe technical and commercial difficulties hinder closing this gap. This article may inspire further development and spark innovation in this important field.

  17. Simple, compact, high brightness source for x-ray lithography and x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, compact, high brightness x-ray source has recently been built. This source utilizes a commercially available, cylindrical geometry electron beam evaporator, which has been modified to enhance the thermal cooling to the anode. Cooling is accomplished by using standard, low-conductivity laboratory water, with an inlet pressure of less than 50 psi, and a flow rate of approx.0.3 gal/min. The anode is an inverted cone geometry for efficient cooling. The x-ray source has a measured sub-millimeter spot size (FWHM). The anode has been operated at 1 KW e-beam power (10 KV, 100 ma). Higher operating levels will be investigated. A variety of different x-ray lines can be obtained by the simple interchange of anodes of different materials. Typical anodes are made from easily machined metals, or materials which are vacuum deposited onto a copper anode. Typically, a few microns of material is sufficient to stop 10 KV electrons without significantly decreasing the thermal conductivity through the anode. The small size and high brightness of this source make it useful for step and repeat exposures over several square centimeter areas, especially in a research laboratory environment. For an aluminum anode, the estimated Al-K x-ray flux at 10 cms from the source is 70 μW/cm 2

  18. On the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary Nature of the Star CGCS 5926

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masetti N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on multiwavelength (from X-ray to optical follow up observations of a carbon star CGCS 5926, motivated by the fact that it is positionally coincident with a faint X-ray source of the ROSAT catalog, thus suggesting its possible symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB nature. Our optical spectroscopy confirms that this is a carbon star of type C(6,2. This allows us to infer for CGCS 5926 a distance of ~5 kpc. BVRCIC photometry of the star shows variability of ~0.3 mag with a periodicity of 151 days, which we interpret as due to radial pulsations. the source is not detected with the Swift satellite in X-rays down to a 0.3-10 keV luminosity of ~3 × 1032 erg s−1. This nondetection is apparently in contrast with the ROSAT data; however, the present information does not rule out that CGCS 5926 can be a SyXB. This will be settled by more sensitive observations at high energies.

  19. Parameters estimation for X-ray sources: positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, Y.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the sizes of the positional error boxes for x-ray sources can be determined by using an estimation method which we have previously formulated generally and applied in spectral analyses. It is explained how this method can be used by scanning x-ray telescopes, by rotating modulation collimators, and by HEAO-A (author)

  20. Secondary-source energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Tisue, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    A secondary-source energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer has been built and tested. In this instrument the primary source of x rays is a tungsten-target tube powered by a high-voltage (75 kV), a high-power (3.7 kW) generator from a wavelength spectrometer (G.E. XRD-6). The primary polychromatic x rays irradiate an elemental foil, the secondary source. Its characteristic essentially monochromatic x rays are used to irradiate the sample. Fluorescent x rays from the sample are detected and resolved by a lithium-drifted silicon detector, multichannel-analyzer system. The design of the instrument provides a convenient means for changing the secondary, and hence, the energy of the excitation radiation

  1. On the rarity of X-ray binaries with Wolf-Rayet donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, T. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Valsecchi, F. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Kalogera, V. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2012-03-14

    The paucity of High mass X-Ray binaries (HMXB) consisting of a neutron star (NS) accretor and Wolf-Rayet (WR) donor has long been at odds with expectations from population synthesis studies indicating that these systems should survive as the evolved offspring of the observed HMXB population. This tension is particularly troubling in light of recent observations uncovering a preponderance of HMXBs containing loosely bound Be donors which would be expected to naturally evolve into WR-HMXBs. Reconciling the unexpectedly large population of Be-HMXBs with the lack of observed WR-HMXB sources thus serves to isolate the dynamics of CE physics from other binary evolution parameters. We find that binary mergers during CE events must be common in order to resolve tension between these observed populations. Furthermore, future observations which better constrain the background population of loosely bound O/B-NS binaries are likely to place significant constraints on the efficiency of CE removal.

  2. Quasi-periodic oscillations and noise in low-mass X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Klis, M.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenology of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) and noise in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) is discussed. Signal analysis aspects of QPO and noise are addressed along with the relationship between LMXBs and millisecond radio pulsars. The history and prehistory of QPOs and noise in LMXBs are examined. Universal noise components and normal and flaring branch QPOs in Z sources are described and the phenomenology of Z sources is discussed. Bright LMXBs known as atoll sources are considered, as are nonpersistently bright LMXBs accreting pulsars and black hole candidates. 162 refs

  3. Simulation of a dense plasma focus x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The authors are performing simulations of the magnetohydrodynamics of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) x-ray source located at Science Research Laboratory (SRL), Alameda, CA, in order to optimize its performance. The SRL DPF, which was developed as a compact source for x-ray lithography, operates at 20 Hz, giving x-ray power (9--14 Angstroms) of 500 W using neon gas. The simulations are performed with the two dimensional MHD code MACH2, developed by Mission Research Corporation, with a steady state corona model as the equation of state. The results of studies of the sensitivity of x-ray output to charging voltage and current, and to initial gas density will be presented. These studies should indicate ways to optimize x-ray production efficiency. Simulations of various inner electrode configurations will also be presented

  4. A ROTSE-I/ROSAT Survey of X-ray Emission from Contact Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, M.; McKay, T.

    2005-05-01

    Using public data from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) and the ROTSE-I Sky Patrols, the incidence of strong x-ray emissions from contact binary systems was examined. The RASS data was matched to an expanded catalog of contact binary systems from the ROTSE-I data, using a 35 arc second radius. X-ray luminosities for matching objects were then determined. This information was then used to evaluate the total x-ray emissions from all such objects, in order to determine their contribution to the galactic x-ray background.

  5. A SEARCH FOR X-RAY EMISSION FROM COLLIDING MAGNETOSPHERES IN YOUNG ECCENTRIC STELLAR BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Broos, Patrick S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kóspál, Ágnes [Konkoly Observatory, Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Salter, Demerese M. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Garmire, Gordon P. [Huntingdon Institute for X-ray Astronomy, LLC, 10677 Franks Road, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Among young binary stars whose magnetospheres are expected to collide, only two systems have been observed near periastron in the X-ray band: the low-mass DQ Tau and the older and more massive HD 152404. Both exhibit elevated levels of X-ray emission at periastron. Our goal is to determine whether colliding magnetospheres in young high-eccentricity binaries commonly produce elevated average levels of X-ray activity. This work is based on Chandra snapshots of multiple periastron and non-periastron passages in four nearby young eccentric binaries (Parenago 523, RX J1622.7-2325 Nw, UZ Tau E, and HD 152404). We find that for the merged sample of all four binaries the current X-ray data show an increasing average X-ray flux near periastron (at a ∼2.5-sigma level). Further comparison of these data with the X-ray properties of hundreds of young stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster, produced by the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP), indicates that the X-ray emission from the merged sample of our binaries cannot be explained within the framework of the COUP-like X-ray activity. However, due to the inhomogeneities of the merged binary sample and the relatively low statistical significance of the detected flux increase, these findings are regarded as tentative only. More data are needed to prove that the flux increase is real and is related to the processes of colliding magnetospheres.

  6. A SEARCH FOR HYPERLUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN THE XMM-NEWTON SOURCE CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotukhin, I.; Webb, N. A.; Godet, O.; Barret, D. [CNRS, IRAP, 9 av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Bachetti, M., E-mail: ivan.zolotukhin@irap.omp.eu [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, via della Scienza 5, I-09047 Selargius (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    We present a new method to identify luminous off-nuclear X-ray sources in the outskirts of galaxies from large public redshift surveys, distinguishing them from foreground and background interlopers. Using the 3XMM-DR5 catalog of X-ray sources and the SDSS DR12 spectroscopic sample of galaxies, with the help of this off-nuclear cross-matching technique, we selected 98 sources with inferred X-ray luminosities in the range 10{sup 41} < L{sub X} < 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}, compatible with hyperluminous X-ray objects (HLX). To validate the method, we verify that it allowed us to recover known HLX candidates such as ESO 243–49 HLX–1 and M82 X–1. From a statistical study, we conservatively estimate that up to 71 ± 11 of these sources may be foreground- or background sources, statistically leaving at least 16 that are likely to be HLXs, thus providing support for the existence of the HLX population. We identify two good HLX candidates and using other publicly available data sets, in particular the VLA FIRST in radio, UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey in the near-infrared, GALEX in the ultraviolet and Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Megacam archive in the optical, we present evidence that these objects are unlikely to be foreground or background X-ray objects of conventional types, e.g., active galactic nuclei, BL Lac objects, Galactic X-ray binaries, or nearby stars. However, additional dedicated X-ray and optical observations are needed to confirm their association with the assumed host galaxies and thus secure their HLX classification.

  7. Balloon observation of the binary X-ray source Her X-1 1.24 sec pulsation and cyclotron line emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, W.; Reppin, C.; Truemper, J.; Voges, W.; Kendziorra, E.; Staubert, R.; Tuebingen Univ.

    1978-01-01

    During a balloon observation from Palestine, Texas, the authors detected for the first time the 1.24 sec pulsation of Hercules X-1 in the hard X-ray range up to 70 keV and discovered strong line emission in its spectrum at 58 keV. They estimated a line flux of 3x10 -3 photons cm -2 sec -1 and a line width of less than 12 keV. The phenomenon is interpreted as electron cyclotron emission at the basic frequency emitted by the hot polar plasma of the rotating neutron star. The line measured leads to a magnetic field strength of 5.3x10 12 gauss. In further observations during a balloon campaign in Sept./Oct. 1977 the authors confirmed the existence of the line emission and for the first time found pulsed X-ray emission above 15 keV during the 'short on' - and 'off'-state of the Her X-1 35 day cycle. The pulse to interpulse ratio seems to vary with the 35 day phase

  8. Total-reflection x-ray fluorescence with a brillant undulator x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, K.; Eba, H.; Numako, C.; Suzuki, M.; Inoue, K.; Yagi, N.

    2000-01-01

    Total-reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a highly sensitive technique for analyzing trace elements, because of the very low background from the sample support. Use of third-generation synchrotron x-ray source could further enhance the detection power. However, while such high sensitivity permits the detection of signals from trace elements of interest, it also means that one can observe weak parasitic x-rays as well. If the sample surface becomes even slightly contaminated, owing to air particulates near the beamline, x-ray fluorescence lines of iron, zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, and titanium can be observed even for a blank sample. Another critical problem is the low-energy-side tail of the scattering x-rays, which ultimately restricts the detection capability of the technique using a TXRF spectrometer based on a Si(Li) detector. The present paper describes our experiments with brilliant undulator x-ray beams at BL39XU and BL40XU, at the SPring-8, Harima, Japan. The emphasis is on the development of instruments to analyze a droplet of 0.1 μl containing trace elements of ppb level. Although the beamline is not a clean room, we have employed equipment for preparing a clean sample and also for avoiding contamination during transferring the sample into the spectrometer. We will report on the successful detection of the peak from 0.8 ppb selenium in a droplet (absolute amount 80 fg). We will also present the results of recent experiments obtained from a Johansson spectrometer rather than a Si(Li) detector. (author)

  9. Identification of Hard X-ray Sources in Galactic Globular Clusters: Simbol-X Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillat, M.

    2009-05-01

    Globular clusters harbour an excess of X-ray sources compared to the number of X-ray sources in the Galactic plane. It has been proposed that many of these X-ray sources are cataclysmic variables that have an intermediate magnetic field, i.e. intermediate polars, which remains to be confirmed and understood. We present here several methods to identify intermediate polars in globular clusters from multiwavelength analysis. First, we report on XMM-Newton, Chandra and HST observations of the very dense Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808. By comparing UV and X-ray properties of the cataclysmic variable candidates, the fraction of intermediate polars in this cluster can be estimated. We also present the optical spectra of two cataclysmic variables in the globular cluster M 22. The HeII (4868 Å) emission line in these spectra could be related to the presence of a magnetic field in these objects. Simulations of Simbol-X observations indicate that the angular resolution is sufficient to study X-ray sources in the core of close, less dense globular clusters, such as M 22. The sensitivity of Simbol-X in an extended energy band up to 80 keV will allow us to discriminate between hard X-ray sources (such as magnetic cataclysmic variables) and soft X-ray sources (such as chromospherically active binaries).

  10. Simulating the X-ray luminosity of Be X-ray binaries: the case for black holes versus neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. O.; Ho, W. C. G.; Coe, M. J.; Okazaki, A. T.

    2018-04-01

    There are over 100 Be stars that are known to have neutron star companions but only one such system with a black hole. Previous theoretical work suggests this is not due to their formation but due to differences in X-ray luminosity. It has also been proposed that the truncation of the Be star's circumstellar disc is dependent on the mass of the compact object. Hence, Be star discs in black hole binaries are smaller. Since accretion onto the compact object from the Be star's disc is what powers the X-ray luminosity, a smaller disc in black hole systems leads to a lower luminosity. In this paper, simulations are performed with a range of eccentricities and compact object mass. The disc's size and density are shown to be dependent on both quantities. Mass capture and, in turn, X-ray luminosity are heavily dependent on the size and density of the disc. Be/black hole binaries are expected to be up to ˜10 times fainter than Be/neutron star binaries when both systems have the same eccentricity and can be 100 times fainter when comparing systems with different eccentricity.

  11. Soft x-ray source by laser produced Xe plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Sho; Masuda, Kazuya; Miyamoto, Shuji; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    2010-01-01

    The laser plasma soft X-ray source in the wavelength rage of 5-17 nm was developed, which consisted of the rotating drum system supplying cryogenic Xe target and the high repetition rate pulse Nd:YAG slab laser. We found the maximum conversion efficiency of 30% and it demonstrated the soft X-ray generation with the high repetition rate pulse of 320 pps and the high average power of 20 W. The soft X-ray cylindrical mirror was developed and successfully focused the soft X-ray with an energy intensity of 1.3 mJ/cm 2 . We also succeeded in the plasma debris mitigation with Ar gas. This will allow a long lifetime of the mirror and a focusing power intensity of 400 mW/cm 2 with 320 pps. The high power soft X-ray is useful for various applications. (author)

  12. Miniaturized High-Speed Modulated X-Ray Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith C. (Inventor); Arzoumanian, Zaven (Inventor); Kenyon, Steven J. (Inventor); Spartana, Nick Salvatore (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A miniaturized high-speed modulated X-ray source (MXS) device and a method for rapidly and arbitrarily varying with time the output X-ray photon intensities and energies. The MXS device includes an ultraviolet emitter that emits ultraviolet light, a photocathode operably coupled to the ultraviolet light-emitting diode that emits electrons, an electron multiplier operably coupled to the photocathode that multiplies incident electrons, and an anode operably coupled to the electron multiplier that is configured to produce X-rays. The method for modulating MXS includes modulating an intensity of an ultraviolet emitter to emit ultraviolet light, generating electrons in response to the ultraviolet light, multiplying the electrons to become more electrons, and producing X-rays by an anode that includes a target material configured to produce X-rays in response to impact of the more electrons.

  13. Polarimetric observations of the innermost regions of relativistic jets in X-ray binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell D.M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron emission from the relativistic jets launched close to black holes and neutron stars can be highly linearly polarized, depending on the configuration of the magnetic field. In X-ray binaries, optically thin synchrotron emission from the compact jets resides at infrared–optical wavelengths. The polarimetric signature of the jets is detected in the infrared and is highly variable in some X-ray binaries. This reveals the magnetic geometry in the compact jet, in a region close enough to the black hole that it is influenced by its strong gravity. In some cases the magnetic field is turbulent and variable near the jet base. In Cyg X–1, the origin of the γ-ray, X-ray and some of the infrared polarization is likely the optically thin synchrotron power law from the inner regions of the jet. In order to reproduce the polarization properties, the magnetic field in this region must be highly ordered, in contrast to other sources.

  14. Sources of the X-rays Based on Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.; Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Mytsykov, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.

    2007-01-01

    The principles of the intense X-rays generation by laser beam scattering on a relativistic electron beam are described and description of facilities assigned to produce the X-rays based on Compton scattering is presented. The possibilities of various types of such facilities are estimated and discussed. The source of the X-rays based on a storage ring with low beam energy is described in details and advantages of the sources of such type are discussed.The results of calculation and numerical simulation carried out for laser electron storage ring NESTOR that is under development in NSC KIPT show wide prospects of the accelerator facility of such type

  15. Physics of accretion and ejection processes: a multi-wavelengths study of galactic X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prat, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript is dedicated to the study of the accretion and ejection processes in X-ray Binaries, using radio and X-ray observations as well as numerical simulations. The links and interplay between the accretion disc, the corona and the compact jet. In an introductory part, I first describe the main observational and theoretical properties of the X-ray binaries. I especially emphasize the aspects required to understand the work reported in this manuscript. I also describe the main X-ray and radio observatories used during this work. Then, the first part of this manuscript is dedicated to the accretion processes in X-ray Binaries. I use high energy observations to study one High Mass X-ray Binary (IGR J19140+0951) and two Low-Mass X-ray Binaries (XTE J1818-245 and H1743-322). In the case of IGR Jl9140+0951, observations show that the luminosity generated by the accretion processes can deeply alter the stellar wind. In the case of the two Low Mass X-ray Binaries, I estimate several important parameters of the Systems using the behavior of their accretion discs. The second part is dedicated to the interplay between the accretion disc and the other components of the Systems, namely the corona and the compact jet. Using simultaneous X-ray and radio observations, I show that the corona undergo a strong evolution prior to a discrete ejection of matter, in the case of several binary Systems. In the case of GRS 1915+105, evolution of the corona and detection of a discrete ejection appear within a few seconds, while for other sources it takes a few hours. I study also the link between the accretion disc and the compact jet using a correlation between radio and X-ray flux: depending on the System, the link between the accretion energy brought by the accretion disc and the luminosity of the jet is different, indicating that different physical processes are at work. Finally, the third part is dedicated to numerical simulations of the accretion disc, in the case where an

  16. ROSAT observations of the x ray binary HD 154791

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.

    1994-01-01

    We have been surveying the Taurus dark cloud for young stars using a variety of techniques. Two optical proper motion surveys identified 8 new pre-main sequence stars; an IRAS-based program discovered 6 new embedded sources and 4-6 new T Tauri stars. Finally, an optical objective prism survey found 12 new T Tauri stars. Our goal in this project is to examine and compare star formation in the dark clouds: Heiles cloud 2 (HCL2), L1537, L1538, and L1544. HCL2 is a very dense region actively forming young stars and contains 5-6 very young, deeply embedded sources; L1537 and L1538 have no known pre-main sequence stars; L1544 contains 7 optically visible T Tauri stars. These clouds appear roughly similar on optical sky survey plates. We would like to know why some of the clouds are active and why some are not. The first goal of the project is to survey the regions using IR photometry to identify very red pre-main sequence stars and X-ray imaging to identify solar-type young stars missed in the near-IR survey. We will follow up these observations with molecular line surveys to compare the conditions in various clouds with their star formation efficiencies.

  17. Optical and X-ray luminosities of expanding nebulae around ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwek, Magdalena; Sądowski, Aleksander; Narayan, Ramesh; Roberts, Timothy P.; Soria, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    We have performed a set of simulations of expanding, spherically symmetric nebulae inflated by winds from accreting black holes in ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). We implemented a realistic cooling function to account for free-free and bound-free cooling. For all model parameters we considered, the forward shock in the interstellar medium becomes radiative at a radius ˜100 pc. The emission is primarily in optical and UV, and the radiative luminosity is about 50 per cent of the total kinetic luminosity of the wind. In contrast, the reverse shock in the wind is adiabatic so long as the terminal outflow velocity of the wind vw ≳ 0.003c. The shocked wind in these models radiates in X-rays, but with a luminosity of only ˜1035 erg s-1. For wind velocities vw ≲ 0.001c, the shocked wind becomes radiative, but it is no longer hot enough to produce X-rays. Instead it emits in optical and UV, and the radiative luminosity is comparable to 100 per cent of the wind kinetic luminosity. We suggest that measuring the optical luminosities and putting limits on the X-ray and radio emission from shock-ionized ULX bubbles may help in estimating the mass outflow rate of the central accretion disc and the velocity of the outflow.

  18. Discovery of Psr J1227-4853: A Transition from a Low-mass X-Ray Binary to a Redback Millisecond Pulsar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, J.; Ray, P.S.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Stappers, B.; Chengalur, J.N.; Deneva, J.; Camilo, F.; Johnson, T.J.; Wolff, M.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Bassa, C.G.; Keane, E.F.; Ferrara, E.C.; Harding, A.K.; Wood, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    XSS J12270−4859 is an X-ray binary associated with the Fermi Large Area Telescope gamma-ray source 1FGL J1227.9−4852. In 2012 December, this source underwent a transition where the X-ray and optical luminosity dropped and the spectral signatures of an accretion disk disappeared. We report the

  19. Diagnostic Spectrometers for High Energy Density X-Ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A.; Seely, J. F.; Holland, G. E.

    2007-01-01

    A new generation of advanced laser, accelerator, and plasma confinement devices are emerging that are producing extreme states of light and matter that are unprecedented for laboratory study. Examples of such sources that will produce laboratory x-ray emissions with unprecedented characteristics include megajoule-class and ultrafast, ultraintense petawatt laser-produced plasmas; tabletop high-harmonic-generation x-ray sources; high-brightness zeta-pinch and magnetically confined plasma sources; and coherent x-ray free electron lasers and compact inverse-Compton x-ray sources. Characterizing the spectra, time structure, and intensity of x rays emitted by these and other novel sources is critical to assessing system performance and progress as well as pursuing the new and unpredictable physical interactions of interest to basic and applied high-energy-density (HED) science. As these technologies mature, increased emphasis will need to be placed on advanced diagnostic instrumentation and metrology, standard reference data, absolute calibrations and traceability of results.We are actively designing, fabricating, and fielding wavelength-calibrated x-ray spectrometers that have been employed to register spectra from a variety of exotic x-ray sources (electron beam ion trap, electron cyclotron resonance ion source, terawatt pulsed-power-driven accelerator, laser-produced plasmas). These instruments employ a variety of curved-crystal optics, detector technologies, and data acquisition strategies. In anticipation of the trends mentioned above, this paper will focus primarily on optical designs that can accommodate the high background signals produced in HED experiments while also registering their high-energy spectral emissions. In particular, we review the results of recent laboratory testing that explores off-Rowland circle imaging in an effort to reclaim the instrumental resolving power that is increasingly elusive at higher energies when using wavelength

  20. Si K EDGE STRUCTURE AND VARIABILITY IN GALACTIC X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Norbert S.; Corrales, Lia; Canizares, Claude R. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    We survey the Si K edge structure in various absorbed Galactic low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) to study states of silicon in the inter- and circum-stellar medium. The bulk of these LMXBs lie toward the Galactic bulge region and all have column densities above 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}. The observations were performed using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. The Si K edge in all sources appears at an energy value of 1844 ± 0.001 eV. The edge exhibits significant substructure that can be described by a near edge absorption feature at 1849 ± 0.002 eV and a far edge absorption feature at 1865 ± 0.002 eV. Both of these absorption features appear variable with equivalent widths up to several mÅ. We can describe the edge structure using several components: multiple edge functions, near edge absorption excesses from silicates in dust form, signatures from X-ray scattering optical depths, and a variable warm absorber from ionized atomic silicon. The measured optical depths of the edges indicate much higher values than expected from atomic silicon cross sections and interstellar medium abundances, and they appear consistent with predictions from silicate X-ray absorption and scattering. A comparison with models also indicates a preference for larger dust grain sizes. In many cases, we identify Si xiii resonance absorption and determine ionization parameters between log ξ = 1.8 and 2.8 and turbulent velocities between 300 and 1000 km s{sup −1}. This places the warm absorber in close vicinity of the X-ray binaries. In some data, we observe a weak edge at 1.840 keV, potentially from a lesser contribution of neutral atomic silicon.

  1. High-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1995-10-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high-brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the Laser Synchrotron Light Source (LSLS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high-brightness electron beam and the high-power C0 2 laser may be used as prototype LSLS brick stones. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10-GW, 100-ps C0 2 laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10-ps, 0.5-nC, 70 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of well-collimated, up to 9.36-keV (∼ Angstrom) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of ∼10 19 photons/sec will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectrum is tunable proportionally to a variable e-beam energy. A natural short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to a 10 21 -10 22 photons/sec level, after the ongoing ATF CO 2 laser upgrade to 1 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps. The ATF LSLS x-ray beamline, exceeding by orders of magnitude the peak fluxes attained at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray storage ring, may become attractive for certain users, e.g., for biological x-ray microscopy. In addition, a terawatt CO 2 laser will enable harmonic multiplication of the x-ray spectrum via nonlinear Compton scattering

  2. EVIDENCE FOR SIMULTANEOUS JETS AND DISK WINDS IN LUMINOUS LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Jeroen; Neilsen, Joseph; Allen, Jessamyn L.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Remillard, Ronald A.; Schulz, Norbert [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue 37-582D, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fender, Rob [Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Fridriksson, Joel K., E-mail: jeroen@space.mit.edu [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-10-10

    Recent work on jets and disk winds in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) suggests that they are to a large extent mutually exclusive, with jets observed in spectrally hard states and disk winds observed in spectrally soft states. In this paper we use existing literature on jets and disk winds in the luminous neutron star (NS) LMXB GX 13+1, in combination with archival Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data, to show that this source is likely able to produce jets and disk winds simultaneously. We find that jets and disk winds occur in the same location on the source’s track in its X-ray color–color diagram. A further study of literature on other luminous LMXBs reveals that this behavior is more common, with indications for simultaneous jets and disk winds in the black hole LMXBs V404 Cyg and GRS 1915+105 and the NS LMXBs Sco X-1 and Cir X-1. For the three sources for which we have the necessary spectral information, we find that simultaneous jets/winds all occur in their spectrally hardest states. Our findings indicate that in LMXBs with luminosities above a few tens of percent of the Eddington luminosity, jets and disk winds are not mutually exclusive, and the presence of disk winds does not necessarily result in jet suppression.

  3. A model of two-stream non-radial accretion for binary X-ray pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipunov, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The general case of non-radial accretion is assumed to occur in real binary systems containing X-ray pulsars. The structure and the stability of the magnetosphere, the interaction between the magnetosphere and accreted matter, as well as evolution of neutron star in close binary system are examined within the framework of the two-stream model of nonradial accretion onto a magnetized neutron star. Observable parameters of X-ray pulsars are explained in terms of the model considered. (orig.)

  4. Contrasting Behaviour from Two Be/X-ray Binary Pulsars: Insights into Differing Neutron Star Accretion Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. J.; Drave, S. P.; Hill, A. B.; Coe, M. J.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Bird, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the identification of two periodic X-ray signals coming from the direction of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). On detection with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the 175.4 s and 85.4 s pulsations were considered to originate from new Be/X-ray binary (BeXRB) pulsars with unknown locations. Using rapid follow-up INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations, we show the first pulsar (designated SXP175) to be coincident with a candidate high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) in the northern bar region of the SMC undergoing a small Type II outburst. The orbital period (87d) and spectral class (B0-B0.5IIIe) of this system are determined and presented here for the first time. The second pulsar is shown not to be new at all, but is consistent with being SXP91.1 - a pulsar discovered at the very beginning of the 13 year long RXTE key monitoring programme of the SMC. Whilst it is theoretically possible for accreting neutron stars to change spin period so dramatically over such a short time, the X-ray and optical data available for this source suggest this spin-up is continuous during long phases of X-ray quiescence, where accretion driven spin-up of the neutron star should be minimal.

  5. Assembling x-ray sources by carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, V.; Lucci, M.; Toschi, F.; Orlanducci, S.; Tamburri, E.; Terranova, M. L.; Ciorba, A.; Rossi, M.; Hampai, D.; Cappuccio, G.

    2007-05-01

    By the use of a chemical vapour deposition technique a series of metal wires (W, Ta, Steel ) with differently shaped tips have been coated by arrays of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The field emission properties of the SWNT deposits have been measured by a home made apparatus working in medium vacuum (10 -6- 10 -7 mbar) and the SWNT-coated wires have been used to fabricate tiny electron sources for X-ray tubes. To check the efficiency of the nanotube coated wires for X-ray generation has, a prototype X-ray tube has been designed and fabricated. The X-ray tube works at pressures about 10 -6 mbar. The target ( Al film) is disposed on a hole in the stainless steel sheath: this configuration makes unnecessary the usual Be window and moreover allows us to use low accelerating potentials (< 6 kV).

  6. Neutron Stars in X-ray Binaries and their Environments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswajit Paul

    2017-09-07

    Sep 7, 2017 ... Various recent studies of reprocessing of X-rays in the accretion disk surface .... accretion rate is considered to be the only variable fac- tor that determines ... stellar wind, and any intervening interstellar mate- rial. Reprocessed ...

  7. Spectroscopic Studies of X-Ray Binary Pulsars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    spectra with photon indices 1–2 with high-energy turnover at relatively low energies of 10–30 keV. This spectral turnover is considered to be related to the strong magnetic field of the neutron star in XBPs. Since most XBPs are located in the Galactic plane, their spectra are usually subjected to strong soft X-ray absorption.

  8. Monitoring variable X-ray sources in nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A. K. H.

    2010-12-01

    In the last decade, it has been possible to monitor variable X-ray sources in nearby galaxies. In particular, since the launch of Chandra, M31 has been regularly observed. It is perhaps the only nearby galaxy which is observed by an X-ray telescope regularly throughout operation. With 10 years of observations, the center of M31 has been observed with Chandra for nearly 1 Msec and the X-ray skies of M31 consist of many transients and variables. Furthermore, the X-ray Telescope of Swift has been monitoring several ultraluminous X-ray sources in nearby galaxies regularly. Not only can we detect long-term X-ray variability, we can also find spectral variation as well as possible orbital period. In this talk, I will review some of the important Chandra and Swift monitoring observations of nearby galaxies in the past 10 years. I will also present a "high-definition" movie of M31 and discuss the possibility of detecting luminous transients in M31 with MAXI.

  9. Modelling the effect of absorption from the interstellar medium on transient black hole X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckersall, A. J.; Vaughan, S.; Wynn, G. A.

    2017-10-01

    All observations of Galactic X-ray binaries are affected by absorption from gas and dust in the interstellar medium (ISM) which imprints narrow (line) and broad (photoelectric edges) features on the continuum emission spectrum of the binary. Any spectral model used to fit data from a Galactic X-ray binary must therefore take account of these features; when the absorption is strong (as for most Galactic sources) it becomes important to accurately model the ISM absorption in order to obtain unbiased estimates of the parameters of the (emission) spectrum of the binary system. In this paper, we present analysis of some of the best spectroscopic data from the XMM-Newton RGS instrument using the most up-to-date photoabsorption model of the gaseous ISM ISMabs. We calculate column densities for H, O, Ne and Fe for seven transient black hole X-ray binary systems. We find that the hydrogen column densities in particular can vary greatly from those presented elsewhere in the literature. We assess the impact of using inaccurate column densities and older X-ray absorption models on spectral analysis using simulated data. We find that poor treatment of absorption can lead to large biases in inferred disc properties and that an independent analysis of absorption parameters can be used to alleviate such issues.

  10. Advanced imaging technology using carbon nanotube x ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hae Young; Seol, Seung Kown; Kim, Jaehoon; Yoo, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jong Uk

    2008-01-01

    Recently, X ray imaging technology is a useful and leading medical diagnostic tool for healthcare professionals to diagnose disease in human body. CNTs(i.e. carbon nanotubes)are used in many applications like FED, Micro wave amplifier, X ray source, etc. because of its suitable electrical, chemical and physical properties. Specially, CNTs are well used electron emitters for x ray source. Conventionally, thermionic type of tungsten filament x ray tube is widely employed in the field of bio medical and industrial application fields. However, intrinsic problems such as, poor emission efficiency and low imaging resolution cause the limitation of use of the x ray tube. To fulfill the current market requirement specifically for medical diagnostic field, we have developed rather a portable and compact CNT based x ray source in which high imaging resolution is provided. Electron sources used in X ray tubes should be well focused to the anode target for generation of high quality x ray. In this study, Pierce type x ray generation module was tested based its simulation results using by OPERA 3D code. Pierce type module is composed of cone type electrical lens with its number of them and inner angles of them that shows different results with these parameters. And some preliminary images obtained using the CNT x ray source were obtained. The represented images are the finger bone and teeth in human body. It is clear that the trabeculation shape is observed in finger bone. To obtain the finger bone image, tube currents of 250A at 42kV tube voltage was applied. The human tooth image, however, is somewhat unclear because the supplied voltage to the tube was limited to max. 50kV in the system developed. It should be noted that normally 60∼70kV of tube voltage is supplied in dental imaging. Considering these it should be emphasized that if the tube voltage is over 60kV then clearer image is possible. In this paper, we are discussed comparing between these experiment results and

  11. Unusual Black Hole Binary LMC X-3: A Transient High-Mass X-Ray Binary That Is Almost Always On?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpin, Trevor J.; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.; Valencic, Lynne A.

    2017-01-01

    We have analyzed a rich, multimission, multiwavelength data set from the black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) LMC X-3, covering a new anomalous low state (ALS), during which the source flux falls to an unprecedentedly low and barely detectable level, and a more normal low state. Simultaneous X-ray and UV/optical monitoring data from Swift are combined with pointed observations from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and X-ray Multi- Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton) and light curves from the Monitor of All-Sky X-ray Image (MAXI) instrument to compare the source characteristics during the ALS with those seen during the normal low state. An XMM-Newton spectrum obtained during the ALS can be modeled using an absorbed power law with Gamma = 1.41‚+/- 0.65 and a luminosity of 7.97 x 10(exp 33) erg/s (0.6-5 keV). The Swift X-ray and UV light curves indicate an X-ray lag of approx. 8 days as LMC X-3 abruptly exits the ALS, suggesting that changes in the mass accretion rate from the donor drive the X-ray lag. The normal low state displays an asymmetric profile in which the exit occurs more quickly than the entry, with minimum X-ray flux a factor of approx. 4300 brighter than during the ALS. The UV brightness of LMC X-3 in the ALS is also fainter and less variable than during normal low states. The existence of repeated ALSs in LMC X-3, as well as a comparison with other BHXBs, implies that it is very close to the transient/persistent X-ray source dividing line. We conclude that LMC X-3 is a transient source that is almost always "on."

  12. X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Dennis [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Padmore, Howard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lessner, Eliane [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science

    2013-03-27

    Each new generation of synchrotron radiation sources has delivered an increase in average brightness 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over the previous generation. The next evolution toward diffraction-limited storage rings will deliver another 3 orders of magnitude increase. For ultrafast experiments, free electron lasers (FELs) deliver 10 orders of magnitude higher peak brightness than storage rings. Our ability to utilize these ultrabright sources, however, is limited by our ability to focus, monochromate, and manipulate these beams with X-ray optics. X-ray optics technology unfortunately lags behind source technology and limits our ability to maximally utilize even today’s X-ray sources. With ever more powerful X-ray sources on the horizon, a new generation of X-ray optics must be developed that will allow us to fully utilize these beams of unprecedented brightness. The increasing brightness of X-ray sources will enable a new generation of measurements that could have revolutionary impact across a broad area of science, if optical systems necessary for transporting and analyzing X-rays can be perfected. The high coherent flux will facilitate new science utilizing techniques in imaging, dynamics, and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. For example, zone-plate-based hard X-ray microscopes are presently used to look deeply into materials, but today’s resolution and contrast are restricted by limitations of the current lithography used to manufacture nanodiffractive optics. The large penetration length, combined in principle with very high spatial resolution, is an ideal probe of hierarchically ordered mesoscale materials, if zone-plate focusing systems can be improved. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) probes a wide range of excitations in materials, from charge-transfer processes to the very soft excitations that cause the collective phenomena in correlated electronic systems. However, although RIXS can probe high-energy excitations, the most exciting and

  13. X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Dennis; Padmore, Howard; Lessner, Eliane

    2013-01-01

    Each new generation of synchrotron radiation sources has delivered an increase in average brightness 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over the previous generation. The next evolution toward diffraction-limited storage rings will deliver another 3 orders of magnitude increase. For ultrafast experiments, free electron lasers (FELs) deliver 10 orders of magnitude higher peak brightness than storage rings. Our ability to utilize these ultrabright sources, however, is limited by our ability to focus, monochromate, and manipulate these beams with X-ray optics. X-ray optics technology unfortunately lags behind source technology and limits our ability to maximally utilize even today's X-ray sources. With ever more powerful X-ray sources on the horizon, a new generation of X-ray optics must be developed that will allow us to fully utilize these beams of unprecedented brightness. The increasing brightness of X-ray sources will enable a new generation of measurements that could have revolutionary impact across a broad area of science, if optical systems necessary for transporting and analyzing X-rays can be perfected. The high coherent flux will facilitate new science utilizing techniques in imaging, dynamics, and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. For example, zone-plate-based hard X-ray microscopes are presently used to look deeply into materials, but today's resolution and contrast are restricted by limitations of the current lithography used to manufacture nanodiffractive optics. The large penetration length, combined in principle with very high spatial resolution, is an ideal probe of hierarchically ordered mesoscale materials, if zone-plate focusing systems can be improved. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) probes a wide range of excitations in materials, from charge-transfer processes to the very soft excitations that cause the collective phenomena in correlated electronic systems. However, although RIXS can probe high-energy excitations, the most exciting

  14. Phase shifts and nonellipsoidal light curves: Challenges from mass determinations in x-ray binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Andrew Glenn

    We consider two types of anomalous observations which have arisen from efforts to measure dynamical masses of X-ray binary stars: (1) Radial velocity curves which seemingly show the primary and the secondary out of antiphase in most systems, and (2) The observation of double-waved light curves which deviate significantly from the ellipsoidal modulations expected for a Roche lobe filling star. We consider both problems with the joint goals of understanding the physical origins of the anomalous observations, and using this understanding to allow robust dynamical determinations of mass in X-ray binary systems. In our analysis of phase-shifted radial velocity curves, we discuss a comprehensive sample of X-ray binaries with published phase-shifted radial velocity curves. We show that the most commonly adopted explanation for phase shifts is contradicted by many observations, and consider instead a generalized form of a model proposed by Smak in 1970. We show that this model is well supported by a range of observations, including some systems which had previously been considered anomalous. We lay the groundwork for the derivation of mass ratios based on our explanation for phase shifts, and we discuss the work necessary to produce more detailed physical models of the phase shift. In our analysis of non-ellipsoidal light curves, we focus on the very well-studied system A0620-00. We present new VIH SMARTS photometry spanning 1999-2007, and supplement this with a comprehensive collection of archival data obtained since 1981. We show that A0620-00 undergoes optical state changes within X-ray quiescence and argue that not all quiescent data should be used for determinations of the inclination. We identify twelve light curves which may reliably be used for determining the inclination. We show that the accretion disk contributes significantly to all twelve curves and is the dominant source of nonellipsoidal variations. We derive the disk fraction for each of the twelve curves

  15. Low-mass X-ray binary evolution and the origin of millisecond pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Juhan; King, Andrew R.; Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) is considered. It is shown that X-ray irradiation of the companion stars causes these systems to undergo episodes of rapid mass transfer followed by detached phases. The systems are visible as bright X-ray binaries only for a short part of each cycle, so that their space density must be considerably larger than previously estimated. This removes the difficulty in regarding LMXBs as the progenitors of low-mass binary pulsars. The low-accretion-rate phase of the cycle with the soft X-ray transients is identified. It is shown that 3 hr is likely to be the minimum orbital period for LMXBs with main-sequence companions and it is suggested that the evolutionary endpoint for many LMXBs may be systems which are the sites of gamma-ray bursts.

  16. IGR J19294+1816: a new Be-X-ray binary revealed through infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodes-Roca, J. J.; Bernabeu, G.; Magazzù, A.; Torrejón, J. M.; Solano, E.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the counterpart to the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory high-mass X-ray binary candidate IGR J19294+1816 so as to establish its true nature. We obtained H-band spectra of the selected counterpart acquired with the Near Infrared Camera and Spectrograph instrument mounted on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo 3.5-m telescope which represents the first infrared spectrum ever taken of this source. We complement the spectral analysis with infrared photometry from UKIDSS, 2MASS, WISE, and NEOWISE data bases. We classify the mass donor as a Be star. Subsequently, we compute its distance by properly taking into account the contamination produced by the circumstellar envelope. The findings indicate that IGR J19294+1816 is a transient source with a B1Ve donor at a distance of d = 11 ± 1 kpc, and luminosities of the order of 1036-37 erg s-1, displaying the typical behaviour of a Be-X-ray binary.

  17. Temporal characteristic analysis of laser-modulated pulsed X-ray source for space X-ray communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Shuang; Liu, Yunpeng; Li, Huan; Tang, Xiaobin; Chen, Da

    2018-04-01

    X-ray communication (XCOM) is a new communication type and is expected to realize high-speed data transmission in some special communication scenarios, such as deep space communication and blackout communication. This study proposes a high-speed modulated X-ray source scheme based on the laser-to-X-ray conversion. The temporal characteristics of the essential components of the proposed laser-modulated pulsed X-ray source (LMPXS) were analyzed to evaluate its pulse emission performance. Results show that the LMPXS can provide a maximum modulation rate up to 100 Mbps which is expected to significantly improve the data rate of XCOM.

  18. High intensity line source for x-ray spectrometer calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoe, R.S.

    1986-06-01

    A high intensity electron-impact x-ray source using a one-dimensional Pierce lens has been built for the purpose of calibrating a bent crystal x-ray spectrometer. This source focuses up to 100 mA of 20-keV electrons to a line on a liquid-cooled anode. The line (which can serve as a virtual slit for the spectrometer) measures approximately 800 μ x 2 cm. The source is portable and therefore adaptable to numerous types of spectrometer applications. One particular application, the calibration of a high resolution (r = 10 4 ) time-resolved cyrstal spectrometer, will be discussed in detail

  19. X-ray source safety shutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinet, M.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for controlling the activation of a high energy radiation source having a shutter. The apparatus includes magnets and magnetically responsive switches appropriately placed and interconnected so that only with the shutter and other parts of the source in proper position can safe emission of radiation out an open shutter occur

  20. A CENSUS OF THE SUPERSOFT X-RAY SOURCES IN M31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orio, Marina; Nelson, Thomas; Bianchini, Antonio; Di Mille, Francesco; Harbeck, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We examined X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical archival data of 89 supersoft X-ray sources (SSS) in M31. We studied the timescales of X-ray variability and searched UV and optical counterparts. Almost a third of the SSS are known classical or recurrent novae, and at least half of the others exhibit the same temporal behavior as post-outburst novae. Non-stellar objects among SSS seem to be rare: less than 10% of the classified SSS turned out to be supernova remnants, and only one source has been identified with an active galactic nucleus in the background. Not more than 20% of the SSS that are not coincident with observed novae are persistent or recurrent X-ray sources. A few of these long-lasting sources show characteristics in common with other SSS identified as white dwarf (WD) close binaries in the Magellanic Clouds and in the Galaxy, including variability on timescales of minutes, possibly indicating the spin period of a WD. Such objects are likely to be low-mass X-ray binaries with a massive WD. A third of the non-nova SSS are in regions of recent star formation, often at the position of an O or B star, and we suggest that they may be high-mass X-ray binaries. If these sources host a massive hydrogen-burning WD, as it seems likely, they may become Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), constituting the star formation dependent component of the SNe Ia rate.

  1. TRACING THE LOWEST PROPELLER LINE IN MAGELLANIC HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Laycock, Silas G. T.; Yang, Jun; Fingerman, Samuel, E-mail: dimitris_christodoulou@uml.edu, E-mail: silas_laycock@uml.edu, E-mail: jun_yang@uml.edu, E-mail: fingerman.samuel@gmail.com [Lowell Center for Space Science and Technology, 600 Suffolk Street, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    We have combined the published observations of high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) pulsars in the Magellanic Clouds with a new processing of the complete archival data sets from the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories in an attempt to trace the lowest propeller line below which accretion to polar caps is inhibited by the centrifugal force and the pulsations from the most weakly magnetized pulsars cease. Previously published data reveal that some of the faster-spinning pulsars with spin periods of P {sub S} < 12 s, detected at relatively low X-ray luminosities L {sub X} , appear to define such a line in the P {sub S} – L {sub X} diagram, characterized by a magnetic moment of μ = 3 × 10{sup 29} G cm{sup 3}. This value implies the presence of surface magnetic fields of B ≥ 3 × 10{sup 11} G in the compact objects of this class. Only a few quiescent HMXBs are found below the propeller line: LXP4.40 and SXP4.78, for which XMM-Newton and Chandra null detections respectively placed firm upper limits on their X-ray fluxes in deep quiescence; and A0538-66, for which many sub-Eddington detections have never measured any pulsations. On the other hand, the data from the XMM-Newton and Chandra archives show clearly that, during routine observation cycles, several sources have been detected below the propeller line in extremely faint, nonpulsating states that can be understood as the result of weak magnetospheric emission when accretion to the poles is centrifugally stalled or severely diminished. We also pay attention to the anomalous X-ray pulsar CXOU J010043.1-721134 that was reported in HMXB surveys. Its pulsations and locations near and above the propeller line indicate that this pulsar could be accreting from a fossil disk.

  2. The Ultracompact Nature of the Black Hole Candidate X-Ray Binary 47 Tuc X9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramian, Arash; Heinke, Craig O.; Tudor, Vlad; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Bogdanov, Slavko; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Knigge, Christian; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Chomiuk, Laura; Strader, J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    47 Tuc X9 is a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, and was previously thought to be a cataclysmic variable. However, Miller-Jones et al. recently identified a radio counterpart to X9 (inferring a radio X-ray luminosity ratio consistent with black hole LMXBs), and suggested that the donor star might be a white dwarf. We report simultaneous observations of X9 performed by Chandra, NuSTAR and Australia Telescope Compact Array. We find a clear 28.18+/- 0.02-min periodic modulation in the Chandra data, which we identify as the orbital period, confirming this system as an ultracompact X-ray binary. Our X-ray spectral fitting provides evidence for photoionized gas having a high oxygen abundance in this system, which indicates a CO white dwarf donor. We also identify reflection features in the hard X-ray spectrum, making X9 the faintest LMXB to show X-ray reflection. We detect an approx. 6.8-d modulation in the X-ray brightness by a factor of 10, in archival Chandra, Swift and ROSAT data. The simultaneous radio X-ray flux ratio is consistent with either a black hole primary or a neutron star primary, if the neutron star is a transitional millisecond pulsar. Considering the measured orbital period (with other evidence of a white dwarf donor), and the lack of transitional millisecond pulsar features in the X-ray light curve, we suggest that this could be the first ultracompact black hole X-ray binary identified in our Galaxy.

  3. Chandra-SDSS Normal and Star-Forming Galaxies. I. X-Ray Source Properties of Galaxies Detected by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory in SDSS DR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, A. E.; Heckman, T. M.; Ptak, A. F.; Tremonti, C. A.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2005-01-01

    We have cross-correlated X-ray catalogs derived from archival Chandra X-Ray Observatory ACIS observations with a Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2 (DR2) galaxy catalog to form a sample of 42 serendipitously X-ray-detected galaxies over the redshift interval 0.03X-ray-studied samples of normal galaxies and those in the deepest X-ray surveys. Our chief purpose is to compare optical spectroscopic diagnostics of activity (both star formation and accretion) with X-ray properties of galaxies. Our work supports a normalization value of the X-ray-star formation rate correlation consistent with the lower values published in the literature. The difference is in the allocation of X-ray emission to high-mass X-ray binaries relative to other components, such as hot gas, low-mass X-ray binaries, and/or active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We are able to quantify a few pitfalls in the use of lower resolution, lower signal-to-noise ratio optical spectroscopy to identify X-ray sources (as has necessarily been employed for many X-ray surveys). Notably, we find a few AGNs that likely would have been misidentified as non-AGN sources in higher redshift studies. However, we do not find any X-ray-hard, highly X-ray-luminous galaxies lacking optical spectroscopic diagnostics of AGN activity. Such sources are members of the ``X-ray-bright, optically normal galaxy'' (XBONG) class of AGNs.

  4. Close binary star type x-ray star and its mechanism of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, R [Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1975-09-01

    Recent progress of the study of an X-ray star is described. In 1970, the periodical emission of pulsed X-rays from Cen X-3 and Her X-1 was observed. An optically corresponding celestial object for the Cen X-3 was reported in 1973, and the mass of Cen X-3 was revised. The optical object was named after Krzeminsky. From the observed variation of luminosity, it is said that the Krzeminsky's star is deformed. This fact gave new data on the mass of the Cen X-3, and the mass is several times as large as the previously estimated value. The behavior of the Her X-1 shows four kinds of clear time variation, and indicates the characteristics of an X-ray star. The Her X-1 is an X-ray pulser the same as Cen X-3, and is a close binary star. The opposite star is known as HZ-Her, and shows weaker luminosity than the intensity of X-ray from the Her X-1. Thirty-five day period was seen in the intensity variation of X-ray. The mechanism of X-ray pulsing can be explained by material flow into a neutron star. The energy spectrum from Her X-1 is different from that from the Cen X-3. Another X-ray star, Cyg X-1, is considered to be a black hole from its X-ray spectrum.

  5. A JEM-X catalog of X-ray sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Chenevez, Jerome; Lund, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The JEM-X catalog of X-ray sources presented here is based on detections in individual science windows with a sensitivity limit of about 10 mCrab (5-15 keV). It contains 127 sources and only those that can be identified from the existing reference catalog. The input data are taken from the, up...

  6. ON THE APPARENT LACK OF Be X-RAY BINARIES WITH BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Ziolkowski, Janusz

    2009-01-01

    In our Galaxy there are 64 Be X-ray binaries known to date. Out of these, 42 host a neutron star (NS), and for the remainder the nature of the companion is unknown. None, so far, are known to host a black hole (BH). There seems to be no apparent mechanism that would prevent formation or detection of Be stars with BHs. This disparity is referred to as a missing Be-BH X-ray binary problem. We point out that current evolutionary scenarios that lead to the formation of Be X-ray binaries predict that the ratio of binaries with NSs to the ones with BHs is rather high, F NStoBH ∼ 10-50, with the more likely formation models providing the values at the high end. The ratio is a natural outcome of (1) the stellar initial mass function that produces more NSs than BHs and (2) common envelope evolution (i.e., a major mechanism involved in the formation of interacting binaries) that naturally selects progenitors of Be X-ray binaries with NSs (binaries with comparable mass components have more likely survival probabilities) over ones with BHs (which are much more likely to be common envelope mergers). A comparison of this ratio (i.e., F NStoBH ∼ 30) with the number of confirmed Be-NS X-ray binaries (42) indicates that the expected number of Be-BH X-ray binaries is of the order of only ∼0-2. This is entirely consistent with the observed Galactic sample.

  7. Tire inspection system with shielded x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisner, D.N.; Palermo, A. Jr.; Loyer, P.K.

    1976-01-01

    An automated tire inspection system is described which employs a penetrative radiation, such as x-radiation, to inspect the integrity of portions of tires fed sequentially along a feed path through a centering station and into a shielded enclosure where an inspection station is defined. Features of the system include a continuously operating x-ray source movable between inspection and retracted positions, and an x-ray shield for covering the source when it is retracted to permit the doors of the shielded enclosure to be opened without danger from escaping radiation. 19 Claims, 38 Drawing Figures

  8. X-ray Counterparts of Infrared Faint Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Infrared Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are radio sources with extremely faint or even absent infrared emission in deep Spitzer Surveys. Models of their spectral energy distributions, the ratios of radio to infrared flux densities and their steep radio spectra strongly suggest that IFRS are AGN at high redshifts (2IFRS, but if confirmed, the increased AGN numbers at these redshifts will account for the unresolved part of the X-ray background. The identification of X-ray counterparts of IFRS is considered to be the smoking gun for this hypothesis. We propose to observe 8 IFRS using 30ks pointed observations. X-ray detections of IFRS with different ratios of radio-to-infrared fluxes, will constrain the class-specific SED.

  9. Rockets for Extended Source Soft X-ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntaffer, Randall

    The soft X-ray background surrounds our local galactic environment yet very little is known about the physical characteristics of this plasma. A high-resolution spectrum could unlock the properties of this million degree gas but the diffuse, low intensity nature of the background have made it difficult to observe, especially with a dispersive spectrograph. Previous observations have relied on X-ray detector energy resolution which produces poorly defined spectra that are poorly fit by complex plasma models. Here we propose a series of suborbital rocket flights that will begin the characterization of this elusive source through high-resolution X-ray grating spectroscopy. The rocket-based spectrograph can resolve individual emission lines over the soft X-ray band and place tight constraints on the temperature, density, abundance, ionization state and age of the plasma. These payloads will draw heavily from the heritage gained from previous rocket missions, while also benefiting from related NASA technology development programs. The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) team has a history of designing and flying spectrometer components onboard rockets while also being scientific leaders in the field of diffuse soft X-ray astronomy. The PSU program will provide hands-on training of young scientists in the techniques of instrumental and observational X-ray astronomy. The proposed rocket program will also expose these researchers to a full experiment cycle: design, fabrication, tolerance analysis, assembly, flight-qualification, calibration, integration, launch, and data analysis; using a combination of technologies suitable for adaptation to NASA's major missions. The PSU program in suborbital X-ray astronomy represents an exciting mix of compelling science, heritage, cutting-edge technology development, and training of future scientists.

  10. X-RAY PROPERTIES OF YOUNG EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES. I. X-RAY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    2010-01-01

    We have compared the combined X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) detected in Chandra observations of young, post-merger elliptical galaxies with that of typical old elliptical galaxies. We find that the XLF of the 'young' sample does not present the prominent high-luminosity break at L X > 5 x 10 38 erg s -1 found in the old elliptical galaxy XLF. The 'young' and 'old' XLFs differ with a 3σ statistical significance (with a probability less than 0.2% that they derive from the same underlying parent distribution). Young elliptical galaxies host a larger fraction of luminous LMXBs (L X > 5 x 10 38 erg s -1 ) than old elliptical galaxies and the XLF of the young galaxy sample is intermediate between that of typical old elliptical galaxies and that of star-forming galaxies. This observational evidence may be related to the last major/minor mergers and the associated star formation.

  11. Toward a fourth-generation X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monction, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    The field of synchrotron radiation research has grown rapidly over the last 25 years due to both the push of the accelerator and magnet technology that produces the x-ray beams and the pull of the extraordinary scientific research that is possible with them. Three successive generations of synchrotrons radiation facilities have resulted in beam brilliances 11 to 12 orders of magnitude greater than the standard laboratory x-ray tube. However, greater advances can be easily imagined given the fact that x-ray beams from present-day facilities do not exhibit the coherence or time structure so familiar with the optical laser. Theoretical work over the last ten years or so has pointed to the possibility of generating hard x-ray beams with laser-like characteristics. The concept is based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) in flee-electron lasers. A major facility of this type based upon a superconducting linac could produce a cost-effective facility that spans wave-lengths from the ultraviolet to the hard x-ray regime, simultaneously servicing large numbers experimenters from a wide range of disciplines. As with each past generation of synchrotrons facilities, immense new scientific opportunities would result from fourth-generation sources.

  12. Environments of High Luminosity X-Ray Sources in the Antennae Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Brandl, B. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Carson, J. C.; Henderson, C. P.; Hayward, T. P.; Barry, D. J.; Houck, J. R.; Ptak, A.; Colbert, E.

    2003-12-01

    We use deep J (1.25 μ m) and Ks (2.15 μ m) images of the Antennae (NGC 4038/9) obtained with the Wide-field InfraRed Camera on the Palomar 200-inch telescope, together with the Chandra X-ray source list of Zezas et al. (2001), to establish an X-ray/IR astrometric frame tie with ˜ 0.5 ″ RMS residuals over a ˜ 5 ‧ field. We find 13 ``strong" IR counterparts 99.9% confidence), and that the X-ray/IR matches are concentrated in the spiral arms and ``bridge" regions of the Antennae. This implies that these X-ray sources lie in the most ``super" of the Antennae's Super Star Clusters, and thus trace the recent massive star formation history here. Based on the NH inferred from the X-ray sources without IR counterparts, we determine that the absence of most of the ``missing" IR counterparts is not due to extinction, but that these sources are intrinsically less luminous in the IR, implying that they trace a different (older?) stellar population. We find no clear correlation between X-ray luminosity classes and IR properties of the sources, though small number statistics hamper this analysis. Finally, we find a Ks = 16.2 mag counterpart to the Ultra-Luminous X-ray (ULX) source X-37 within <0.5 ″ , eliminating the need for the ``runaway binary" hypothesis proposed by previous authors for this object. We discuss some of the implications of this detection for models of ULX emission. This work is funded by an NSF CAREER grant.

  13. Globular clusters as a source of X-ray emission from the neighbourhood of M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, A.C.; Pringle, J.E.; Rees, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the X-ray emission from globular clusters may be attributable to accretion on to compact objects, the accreting material being supplied from binary companions, or gas trapped in the potential well of the cluster. Counts of objects in the vicinity of the M87 have revealed that it has an extensive halo of globular clusters, the number of which may exceed 10,000 within a radius of 23 arc min. Most of these clusters may be explicable as a population effect, and the similarity of their optical properties to those of cluster in our own Galaxy suggests that they may also contain X-ray sources. The brighter globular clusters in M87 may, however, be substantially more X-ray luminous, and there may be proportionally more gas available in globular clusters in M87 compared with our Galaxy. The average X-ray luminosity of individual globular clusters may be of the order of 10 38 erg/sec., which raises the possibility that the integrated globular cluster emission may account for a substantial fraction of the X-ray emission observed from the region of M87. In support of this it is noted that the extended X-ray emission from the Virgo cluster is centered on M87, which lies approximately 45 arc min from the cluster centroid, and it is expected that the general X-ray emission from the globular cluster will appear to be smoothly and symmetrically distributed about M87 at moderate spatial resolution. A similar situation may apply to the elliptical galaxy NGC 3311 in Abell 1060 which, as a cluster, has been suggested as the identification for the X-ray source 3 U 1044-40, and it seems possible that that galaxy is surrounded by a similar globular cluster population to that of M87. (U.K.)

  14. Nuclear and x-ray spectroscopy with radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Research in nuclear chemistry for 1977 is reviewed. The greatest part of the effort was directed to nuclear spectroscopy (systematics, models, experimental studies), but some work was also done involving fast neutrons and x rays from radioactive sources. Isotopes of Tl, Hg, Au, and Eu were studied in particular. Personnel and publications lists are also included. 5 figures, 1 table

  15. New hard X-ray sources at 380 declination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    We report the detection of three new hard X-rays sources emitting in the range 15-150 KeV. Their observation was carried out by means of a balloon borne payload, consisting of two large area high spectral resolution Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters. (orig.)

  16. Compact X-ray Light Source Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Manke, Kristin L.; Plata, Charity

    2012-12-01

    This report, produced jointly by EMSL and FCSD, is the result of a workshop held in September 2011 that examined the utility of a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) in addressing many scientific challenges critical to advancing energy science and technology.

  17. A spherical model for the transient x-ray source A0620-00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilworth, C.; Maraschi, L.; Perola, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    The continuum spectrum of the transient X-ray source A0620-00, from infrared to X-ray frequencies, is interpreted as emission from a uniform spherical cloud of hot gas in which the free-free spectrum is modified by Thomson scattering. On this basis, the radius and the density of the cloud, and the distance of the source, are derived. The change of the spectrum with the time indicates a decrease of both radius and density with decreasing luminosity. Considering the production of X-rays to be due to impulsive accretion in a low-mass binary system, these results open the question as to whether the accreting object is a white dwarf rather than a neutron star. (author)

  18. X-Ray and Optical Study of the Gamma-ray Source 3FGL J0838.8–2829: Identification of a Candidate Millisecond Pulsar Binary and an Asynchronous Polar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Bogdanov, Slavko [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027-6601 (United States); Thorstensen, John R., E-mail: jules@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755-3528 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We observed the field of the Fermi source 3FGL J0838.8−2829 in optical and X-rays, initially motivated by the cataclysmic variable (CV) 1RXS J083842.1−282723 that lies within its error circle. Several X-ray sources first classified as CVs have turned out to be γ -ray emitting millisecond pulsars (MSPs). We find that 1RXS J083842.1−282723 is in fact an unusual CV, a stream-fed asynchronous polar in which accretion switches between magnetic poles (that are ≈120° apart) when the accretion rate is at minimum. High-amplitude X-ray modulation at periods of 94.8 ± 0.4 minutes and 14.7 ± 1.2 hr are seen. The former appears to be the spin period, while the latter is inferred to be one-third of the beat period between the spin and the orbit, implying an orbital period of 98.3 ± 0.5 minutes. We also measure an optical emission-line spectroscopic period of 98.413 ± 0.004 minutes, which is consistent with the orbital period inferred from the X-rays. In any case, this system is unlikely to be the γ -ray source. Instead, we find a fainter variable X-ray and optical source, XMMU J083850.38−282756.8, that is modulated on a timescale of hours in addition to exhibiting occasional sharp flares. It resembles the black widow or redback pulsars that have been discovered as counterparts of Fermi sources, with the optical modulation due to heating of the photosphere of a low-mass companion star by, in this case, an as-yet undetected MSP. We propose XMMU J083850.38−282756.8 as the MSP counterpart of 3FGL J0838.8−2829.

  19. THE AGES OF HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN NGC 2403 AND NGC 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Binder, Breanna A.; Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16803 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew, E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: bbinder@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: mce@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com [Raytheon Company, Tucson, AZ 85734 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We have examined resolved stellar photometry from HST imaging surrounding 18 high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) candidates in NGC 300 and NGC 2403 as determined from combined Chandra/HST analysis. We have fit the color-magnitude distribution of the surrounding stars with stellar evolution models. All but one region in NGC 300 and two in NGC 2403 contain a population with an age between 20 and 70 Myr. One of the candidates is the ultraluminous X-ray source in NGC 2403, which we associate with a 60 {+-} 5 Myr old population. These age distributions provide additional evidence that 16 of these 18 candidates are HMXBs. Furthermore, our results suggest that the most common HMXB age in these galaxies is 40-55 Myr. This preferred age is similar to observations of HMXBs in the Small Magellanic Cloud, providing new evidence of this formation timescale, but in higher metallicity populations. We suggest that this preferred HMXB age is the result of the fortuitous combination of two physical effects. First, this is the age of a population when the greatest rate of core-collapse events should be occurring, maximizing neutron star production. Second, this is the age when B stars are most likely to be actively losing mass. We also discuss our results in the context of HMXB feedback in galaxies, confirming HMXBs as a potentially important source of energy for the interstellar medium in low-mass galaxies.

  20. The superconducting x-ray lithography source program at Brookhaven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G. P.; Heese, R. N.; Vignola, G.; Murphy, J. B.; Godel, J. B.; Hsieh, H.; Galayda, J.; Seifert, A.; Knotek, M. L.

    1989-07-01

    A compact electron storage ring with superconducting dipole magnets, is being developed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven. The parameters of the source have been optimized for its future use as an x-ray source for lithography. This first ring is a prototype which will be used to study the operating characteristics of machines of this type with particular attention being paid to low-energy injection and long beam lifetime.

  1. A fast search strategy for gravitational waves from low-mass x-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messenger, C; Woan, G

    2007-01-01

    We present a new type of search strategy designed specifically to find continuously emitting gravitational wave sources in known binary systems. A component of this strategy is based on the incoherent summation of frequency-modulated binary signal sidebands, a method previously employed in the detection of electromagnetic pulsar signals from radio observations. The search pipeline can be divided into three stages: the first is a wide bandwidth, F-statistic search demodulated for sky position. This is followed by a fast second stage in which areas in frequency space are identified as signal candidates through the frequency domain convolution of the F-statistic with an approximate signal template. For this second stage only precise information on the orbit period and approximate information on the orbital semi-major axis are required a priori. For the final stage we propose a fully coherent Markov chain Monte Carlo based follow-up search on the frequency subspace defined by the candidates identified by the second stage. This search is particularly suited to the low-mass x-ray binaries, for which orbital period and sky position are typically well known and additional orbital parameters and neutron star spin frequency are not. We note that for the accreting x-ray millisecond pulsars, for which spin frequency and orbital parameters are well known, the second stage can be omitted and the fully coherent search stage can be performed. We describe the search pipeline with respect to its application to a simplified phase model and derive the corresponding sensitivity of the search

  2. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-01-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392). (paper)

  3. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-10-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392).

  4. Automatic classification of time-variable X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Kitty K.; Farrell, Sean; Murphy, Tara; Gaensler, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    To maximize the discovery potential of future synoptic surveys, especially in the field of transient science, it will be necessary to use automatic classification to identify some of the astronomical sources. The data mining technique of supervised classification is suitable for this problem. Here, we present a supervised learning method to automatically classify variable X-ray sources in the Second XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalog (2XMMi-DR2). Random Forest is our classifier of choice since it is one of the most accurate learning algorithms available. Our training set consists of 873 variable sources and their features are derived from time series, spectra, and other multi-wavelength contextual information. The 10 fold cross validation accuracy of the training data is ∼97% on a 7 class data set. We applied the trained classification model to 411 unknown variable 2XMM sources to produce a probabilistically classified catalog. Using the classification margin and the Random Forest derived outlier measure, we identified 12 anomalous sources, of which 2XMM J180658.7–500250 appears to be the most unusual source in the sample. Its X-ray spectra is suggestive of a ultraluminous X-ray source but its variability makes it highly unusual. Machine-learned classification and anomaly detection will facilitate scientific discoveries in the era of all-sky surveys.

  5. Automatic classification of time-variable X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Kitty K.; Farrell, Sean; Murphy, Tara; Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    To maximize the discovery potential of future synoptic surveys, especially in the field of transient science, it will be necessary to use automatic classification to identify some of the astronomical sources. The data mining technique of supervised classification is suitable for this problem. Here, we present a supervised learning method to automatically classify variable X-ray sources in the Second XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalog (2XMMi-DR2). Random Forest is our classifier of choice since it is one of the most accurate learning algorithms available. Our training set consists of 873 variable sources and their features are derived from time series, spectra, and other multi-wavelength contextual information. The 10 fold cross validation accuracy of the training data is ∼97% on a 7 class data set. We applied the trained classification model to 411 unknown variable 2XMM sources to produce a probabilistically classified catalog. Using the classification margin and the Random Forest derived outlier measure, we identified 12 anomalous sources, of which 2XMM J180658.7–500250 appears to be the most unusual source in the sample. Its X-ray spectra is suggestive of a ultraluminous X-ray source but its variability makes it highly unusual. Machine-learned classification and anomaly detection will facilitate scientific discoveries in the era of all-sky surveys.

  6. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Observation of the Gamma-Ray Binary Candidate HESS J1832–093

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Kaya; Gotthelf, E. V.; Hailey, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    −093, is detected up to ~30 keV and is well-described by an absorbed power-law model with a best-fit photon index . A re-analysis of archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data finds that the long-term X-ray flux increase of XMMU J183245−0921539 is (90% C.L.), much less than previously reported. A search for a pulsar spin...... of XMMU J183245−0921539 are most consistent with a non-accreting binary generating synchrotron X-rays from particle acceleration in the shock formed as a result of the pulsar and stellar wind collision. We also report on three nearby hard X-ray sources, one of which may be associated with diffuse emission...

  7. Optical Counterparts for Low-Luminosity X-ray Sources in Omega Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Adrienne

    2002-07-01

    We propose to use narrow-band HAlpha imaging with ACS to search for the optical counterparts of low-luminosity X-ray sources {Lx 2 x 10^30 - 5 x 10^32 erg/s} in the globular cluster Omega Centauri. With 9 WFC fields, we will cover the inner two core radii of the cluster, and encompass about 90 of the faint sources we have identified with Chandra. Approximately 30-50 of these sources should be cluster members, the remainder being mostly background galaxies plus a smaller number of foreground stars. This large population of low-Lx cluster X-ray sources is second only to the more than 100 faint sources recently discovered in 47 Tuc with Chandra {Grindlay et al. 2001a}, which have been identified as a mixture of cataclysmic variables, quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries, millisecond pulsars, and coronally active main-sequence binaries. Our Cycle 6 WFPC2 program successfully identified 2 of the 3 then-known faint X-ray sources in the core of Omega Cen using H-alpha imaging. We now propose to expand the areal coverage by a factor of about 18 to encompass the much larger number of sources that have since been discovered with Chandra. The extreme crowding in the central regions of Omega Cen requires the resolution of HST to obtain optical IDs. These identifications are key to making meaningful comparisons between the populations of faint X-ray sources in different clusters, in an effort to understand their origins and role in cluster dynamics.

  8. Effects of radiation pressure on the equipotential surfaces in X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Mccluskey, G. E., Jr.; Gulden, S. L.

    1976-01-01

    Equipotential surfaces incorporating the effect of radiation pressure were computed for the X-ray binaries Cen X-3, Cyg X-1 = HDE 226868, Vela XR-1 = 3U 0900-40 = HD 77581, and 3U 1700-37 = HD 153919. The topology of the equipotential surfaces is significantly affected by radiation pressure. In particular, the so-called critical Roche (Jacobian) lobes, the traditional figure 8's, do not exist. The effects of these results on modeling X-ray binaries are discussed.

  9. Effects of radiation pressure on the equipotential surfaces in x-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; McCluskey, G.E. Jr.; Gulden, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    Equipotential surfaces incorporating the effect of radiation pressure were computed for the x-ray binaries Cen X-3, Cyg X-1 = HDE 226868, Vela XR-1 = 3U 0900-40 = HD 77581, and 3U 1700-37 = HD 153919. The topology of the equipotential surfaces is significantly affected by radiation pressure. In particular, the so-called critical Roche (Jacobian) lobes, the traditional figure 8's, do not exist. The effects of these results on modeling x-ray binaries are discussed

  10. Excitation of Neutron Star f-mode in Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J C N de; Miranda, O D; Aguiar, O D

    2006-01-01

    Neutron Stars (NSs) present a host of pulsation modes. Only a few of them, however, is of relevance from the gravitational wave (GW) point of view. Among the various possible modes the pulsation energy is mostly stored in the f-mode in which the fluid parameters undergo the largest changes. An important question is how the pulsation modes are excited in NSs. Here we consider the excitation of the f-mode in the accreting NSs belonging to Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs), which may well be a recurrent source of GWs, since the NSs are continuously receiving matter from their companion stars. We also discuss the detectability of the GWs for the scenario considered here

  11. Observations of Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.

    2004-05-01

    I will review observations of Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources (ULXs; Lx > 1E39 erg/s), in particular those observations that have helped reveal the nature of these curious objects. Some recent observations suggest that ULXs are a heterogenous class. Although ULX phenomenology is not fully understood, I will present some examples from the (possibly overlapping) sub-classes. Since ULXs are the most luminous objects in starburst galaxies, they, and ``normal'' luminous black-hole high-mass X-ray binaries are intimately tied to the global galaxian X-ray-star-formation connection. Further work is needed to understand how ULXs form, and how they are associated with the putative population of intermediate-mass black holes.

  12. THE UNUSUAL X-RAY BINARIES OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6652

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coomber, G.; Heinke, C. O.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.; Grindlay, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Our 5 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of the globular cluster NGC 6652 detected seven X-ray sources, three of which were previously unidentified. This cluster hosts a well-known bright low-mass X-ray binary, source A (or XB 1832-330). Source B shows unusual rapid flaring variability, with an average L X (0.5-10 keV) ∼2 x 10 34 erg s -1 , but with minutes-long flares up to L X = 9 x 10 34 erg s -1 . Its spectrum can be fit by an absorbed power law of photon index Γ ∼ 1.24 and hardens as the count rate decreases. This suggests that part or all of the variation might be due to obscuration by the rim of a highly inclined accretion disk. Sources C and D, with L X ∼ 10 33 erg s -1 , have soft and unusual spectra. Source C requires a very soft component, with a spectrum peaking at 0.5 keV, which might be the hot polar cap of a magnetically accreting polar cataclysmic variable. Source D shows a soft spectrum (fit by a power law of photon index ∼2.3) with marginal evidence for an emission line around 1 keV; its nature is unclear. The faint new sources E, F, and G have luminosities of 1-2 x 10 32 erg s -1 , if associated with the cluster (which is likely). E and F have relatively hard spectra (consistent with power laws with photon index ∼1.5). G lacks soft photons, suggesting absorption with N H > 10 22 cm -2 .

  13. Linear polarization observations of some X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhovskoy, N.M.; Efimov, Yu.S.

    1975-01-01

    Multicolour linear polarization of optical radiation of the X-ray sources Sco X-1, Cyg X-2, Cyg X-1 and Her X-1 was measured at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory in 1970-1973. These observations indicate that polarization of Sco X-1 in the ultraviolet, blue and red spectral regions appears to be variable. No statistically significant variations of polarization were found for the other three sources observed. (Auth.)

  14. Discovery of radio emission from the symbiotic X-ray binary system GX 1+4

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eijnden, J.; Degenaar, N.; Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Wijnands, R.; Miller, J. M.; King, A. L.; Rupen, M. P.

    2018-02-01

    We report the discovery of radio emission from the accreting X-ray pulsar and symbiotic X-ray binary GX 1+4 with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. This is the first radio detection of such a system, wherein a strongly magnetized neutron star accretes from the stellar wind of an M-type giant companion. We measure a 9 GHz radio flux density of 105.3 ± 7.3 μJy, but cannot place meaningful constraints on the spectral index due to a limited frequency range. We consider several emission mechanisms that could be responsible for the observed radio source. We conclude that the observed properties are consistent with shocks in the interaction of the accretion flow with the magnetosphere, a synchrotron-emitting jet, or a propeller-driven outflow. The stellar wind from the companion is unlikely to be the origin of the radio emission. If the detected radio emission originates from a jet, it would show that strong magnetic fields (≥1012 G) do not necessarily suppress jet formation.

  15. Ultra-luminous X-ray sources and intermediate-mass black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cseh, David

    2012-01-01

    More than ten years ago, the discovery of Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) has opened up an entirely new field in astrophysics. Many ideas were developed to explain the nature of these sources, like their emission mechanism, mass, and origin, without any strong conclusions. Their discovery boosted the fields of X-ray binaries, accretion physics, stellar evolution, cosmology, black hole formation and growth, due to the concept of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). Since their discovery is related to the domain of X-ray astrophysics, there have been very few studies made in other wavelengths. This thesis focuses on the multiwavelength nature of Ultra-luminous X-ray sources and intermediate-mass black holes from various aspects, which help to overcome some difficulties we face today. First, I investigated the accretion signatures of a putative intermediate-mass black hole in a particular globular cluster. To this purpose, I characterized the nature of the innermost X-ray sources in the cluster. Then I calculated an upper limit on the mass of the black hole by studying possible accretion efficiencies and rates based on the dedicated X-ray and radio observations. The accreting properties of the source was described with standard spherical accretion and in the context of inefficient accretion. Secondly, I attempted to dynamically measure the mass of the black hole in a particular ULX via optical spectroscopy. I discovered that a certain emission line has a broad component that markedly shifts in wavelength. I investigated the possibility whether this line originates in the accretion disk, and thus might trace the orbital motion of the binary system. I also characterized the parameters of the binary system, such as the mass function, possible orbital separation, the size of the line-emitting region, and an upper limit on the mass of the black hole. Then I studied the environment of a number of ULXs that are associated with large-scale optical and radio nebulae. I

  16. An ultrasoft X-ray source in Coma Berenices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margon, B.; Malina, R.; Bowyer, S.; Cruddace, R.; Lampton, M.

    1976-01-01

    We have observed an intense soft X-ray source with an extraordinary spectrum in Coma Berenices, 4 0 northeast of and unassociated with the Coma cluster of galaxies. Two spectra, obtained at different times in a sounding rocket flight, indicate that the source temperature in thermal models is less than 10 6 K; a power-law model requires photon power-law indices steeper than n=-3. The intensity in the 44--165 A band is of the order of 5x10 -10 ergs cm -2 s -1 , but no flux is present at energies 0.3--2.1 keV to a limit of 1x10 -10 ergs cm -2 s -1 . The lack of bright stars or a supernova remnant in the error box implies that this may be a new class of soft X-ray sources

  17. On the Binary Nature of Massive Blue Hypergiants: High-resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy Suggests That Cyg OB2 12 is a Colliding Wind Binary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskinova, L. M.; Hamann, W.-R.; Shenar, T.; Sander, A. A. C.; Todt, H.; Hainich, R. [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Huenemoerder, D. P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar St., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ignace, R., E-mail: lida@astro.physik.uni-potsdam.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37663 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The blue hypergiant Cyg OB2 12 (B3Ia{sup +}) is a representative member of the class of very massive stars in a poorly understood evolutionary stage. We obtained its high-resolution X-ray spectrum using the Chandra observatory. PoWR model atmospheres were calculated to provide realistic wind opacities and to establish the wind density structure. We find that collisional de-excitation is the dominant mechanism depopulating the metastable upper levels of the forbidden lines of the He-like ions Si xiv and Mg xii. Comparison between the model and observations reveals that X-ray emission is produced in a dense plasma, which could reside only at the photosphere or in a colliding wind zone between binary components. The observed X-ray spectra are well-fitted by thermal plasma models, with average temperatures in excess of 10 MK. The wind speed in Cyg OB2 12 is not high enough to power such high temperatures, but the collision of two winds in a binary system can be sufficient. We used archival data to investigate the X-ray properties of other blue hypergiants. In general, stars of this class are not detected as X-ray sources. We suggest that our new Chandra observations of Cyg OB2 12 can be best explained if Cyg OB2 12 is a colliding wind binary possessing a late O-type companion. This makes Cyg OB2 12 only the second binary system among the 16 known Galactic hypergiants. This low binary fraction indicates that the blue hypergiants are likely products of massive binary evolution during which they either accreted a significant amount of mass or already merged with their companions.

  18. The optical polarization of X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    Polarimetric observations of close binaries may reveal the presence of a black-hole secondary. The Einstein photometric effect will introduce a characteristic, time-varying signature upon the interstellar polarization. For several reasons, it is concluded that the short time-scale variability in the polarization in HDE 226868 is caused by Rayleigh scattering from gas streams known to exist in the system. X Persei may have a variable polarization consistent with the predicted effectics and (Auth)

  19. Galactic distribution of X-ray burst sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, W.H.G.; Hoffman, J.A.; Doty, J.; Clark, G.W.; Swank, J.H.; Becker, R.H.; Pravdo, S.H.; Serlemitsos, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that 18 X-ray burst sources have been observed to date, applying the following definition for these bursts - rise times of less than a few seconds, durations of seconds to minutes, and recurrence in some regular pattern. If single burst events that meet the criteria of rise time and duration, but not recurrence are included, an additional seven sources can be added. A sky map is shown indicating their positions. The sources are spread along the galactic equator and cluster near low galactic longitudes, and their distribution is different from that of the observed globular clusters. Observations based on the SAS-3 X-ray observatory studies and the Goddard X-ray Spectroscopy Experiment on OSO-9 are described. The distribution of the sources is examined and the effect of uneven sky exposure on the observed distribution is evaluated. It has been suggested that the bursts are perhaps produced by remnants of disrupted globular clusters and specifically supermassive black holes. This would imply the existence of a new class of unknown objects, and at present is merely an ad hoc method of relating the burst sources to globular clusters. (U.K.)

  20. Stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fender, Rob; Belloni, Tomaso

    2012-08-03

    We review the likely population, observational properties, and broad implications of stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources. We focus on the clear empirical rules connecting accretion and outflow that have been established for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems in the past decade and a half. These patterns of behavior are probably the keys that will allow us to understand black hole feedback on the largest scales over cosmological time scales.

  1. Laser-driven soft-X-ray undulator source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The experimental results described in this thesis demonstrate the successful synergy between the research fields described above: the development of an undulator source driven by laser-plasma accelerated electron beams. First efforts in this new field have led to the production of radiation in the visible to infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum [Schlenvoigt et al., 2008]. In contrast to these early achievements, the experiment described here shows the successful production of laser-driven undulator radiation in the soft-X-ray range with a remarkable reproducibility. The source produced tunable, collimated beams with a wavelength of ∝17 nm from a compact setup. Undulator spectra were detected in ∝70% of consecutive driver-laser shots, which is a remarkable reproducibility for a first proof-of-concept demonstration using ultra-high intensity laser systems. This can be attributed to a stable electron acceleration scheme as well as to the first application of miniature magnetic quadrupole lenses with laseraccelerated beams. The lenses significantly reduce the electron beam divergence and its angular shot-to-shot fluctuations The setup of this experiment is the foundation of potential university-laboratory-sized, highly-brilliant hard X-ray sources. By increasing the electron energy to about 1 GeV, X-ray pulses with an expected duration of ∝10 fs and a photon energy of 1 keV could be produced in an almost identical arrangement. It can also be used as a testbed for the development of a free-electron laser of significantly smaller dimension than facilities based on conventional accelerators [Gruener et al., 2007]. Such compact sources have the potential for application in many fields of science. In addition, these developments could lead to ideal sources for ultrafast pump-probe experiments due to the perfect synchronization of the X-ray beam to the driver laser. (orig.)

  2. Laser-driven soft-X-ray undulator source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Matthias

    2010-08-04

    The experimental results described in this thesis demonstrate the successful synergy between the research fields described above: the development of an undulator source driven by laser-plasma accelerated electron beams. First efforts in this new field have led to the production of radiation in the visible to infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum [Schlenvoigt et al., 2008]. In contrast to these early achievements, the experiment described here shows the successful production of laser-driven undulator radiation in the soft-X-ray range with a remarkable reproducibility. The source produced tunable, collimated beams with a wavelength of {proportional_to}17 nm from a compact setup. Undulator spectra were detected in {proportional_to}70% of consecutive driver-laser shots, which is a remarkable reproducibility for a first proof-of-concept demonstration using ultra-high intensity laser systems. This can be attributed to a stable electron acceleration scheme as well as to the first application of miniature magnetic quadrupole lenses with laseraccelerated beams. The lenses significantly reduce the electron beam divergence and its angular shot-to-shot fluctuations The setup of this experiment is the foundation of potential university-laboratory-sized, highly-brilliant hard X-ray sources. By increasing the electron energy to about 1 GeV, X-ray pulses with an expected duration of {proportional_to}10 fs and a photon energy of 1 keV could be produced in an almost identical arrangement. It can also be used as a testbed for the development of a free-electron laser of significantly smaller dimension than facilities based on conventional accelerators [Gruener et al., 2007]. Such compact sources have the potential for application in many fields of science. In addition, these developments could lead to ideal sources for ultrafast pump-probe experiments due to the perfect synchronization of the X-ray beam to the driver laser. (orig.)

  3. 13.1 micrometers hard X-ray focusing by a new type monocapillary X-ray optic designed for common laboratory X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuepeng; zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Yu; Wang, Yabing; Shang, Hongzhong; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi

    2018-04-01

    A new type of monocapillary X-ray optic, called 'two bounces monocapillary X-ray optics' (TBMXO), is proposed for generating a small focal spot with high power-density gain for micro X-ray analysis, using a common laboratory X-ray source. TBMXO is consists of two parts: an ellipsoidal part and a tapered part. Before experimental testing, the TBMXO was simulated by the ray tracing method in MATLAB. The simulated results predicted that the proposed TBMXO would produce a smaller focal spot with higher power-density gain than the ellipsoidal monocapillary X-ray optic (EMXO). In the experiment, the TBMXO performance was tested by both an optical device and a Cu target X-ray tube with focal spot of 100 μm. The results indicated that the TBMXO had a slope error of 57.6 μrad and a 13.1 μm focal spot and a 1360 gain in power density were obtained.

  4. The Polarimeter for Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, Keith; Kallman, Timothy R.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Angelini, Lorella; Black, J. Kevin; Hill, Joanne E.; Jaeger, Theodore; Kaaret, Philip E.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Okajima, Takashi; Petre, Robert; Schnittman, Jeremy; Soong, Yang; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Tamagawa, Toru; Tawara, Yuzuru

    2016-07-01

    The Polarimeter for Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources (PRAXyS) is one of three Small Explorer (SMEX) missions selected by NASA for Phase A study, with a launch date in 2020. The PRAXyS Observatory exploits grazing incidence X-ray mirrors and Time Projection Chamber Polarimeters capable of measuring the linear polarization of cosmic X-ray sources in the 2-10 keV band. PRAXyS combines well-characterized instruments with spacecraft rotation to ensure low systematic errors. The PRAXyS payload is developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center with the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Iowa, and RIKEN (JAXA) collaborating on the Polarimeter Assembly. The LEOStar-2 spacecraft bus is developed by Orbital ATK, which also supplies the extendable optical bench that enables the Observatory to be compatible with a Pegasus class launch vehicle. A nine month primary mission will provide sensitive observations of multiple black hole and neutron star sources, where theory predicts polarization is a strong diagnostic, as well as exploratory observations of other high energy sources. The primary mission data will be released to the community rapidly and a Guest Observer extended mission will be vigorously proposed.

  5. Compound refractive lenses for novel X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piestrup, M.A. E-mail: melpie@adelphitech.com; Beguiristain, H.R.; Gary, C.K.; Cremer, J.T.; Pantell, R.H.; Tatchyn, R

    2001-01-01

    We have measured the intensity profile of X-rays focused by a linear array of closely spaced spherical lenses fabricated using Mylar (C{sub 5}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}). We have experimentally demonstrated that we can achieve two-dimensional focusing for photon energies between 7 and 9 keV with imaging distances of less than 1 m. For example, using 8-keV X-rays we have achieved full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) linewidths down to 27.5 {mu}m at a distance of only 62 cm from the lens. The effective aperture of the lens was measured to be about 390 {mu}m with 38% transmission at 9 keV. A synchrotron source having source-size dimensions of 0.44x1.7 mm{sup 2} was utilized for the experimental work. Such lenses are seen as useful for focusing and increasing the intensity of novel X-ray sources that are directional and have small source size ({sigma}<1 mm)

  6. Preferred orientation determination using line source x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, G.; Shmarjahu, D.

    1977-10-01

    A texture goniometer has been attached to a diffractometer connected to a line-focus x-ray source. Reasonable results are obtained for the texture of rolled sheets and the test procedure is given. To illustrate the test procedure, the determination of preferred orientation in cold-rolled copper is described, as compared with random powder of sintered copper. Improvements of the measurements are proposed

  7. Probing the Mysteries of the X-Ray Binary 4U 1210-64 with ASM, MAXI and Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Joel B.; Corbet, R.; Mukai, K.; Pottschmidt, K.

    2013-01-01

    Optical and X-ray observations of 4U 1210-64 (1ES 1210-646) suggest that the source is a High Mass X-ray Binary (HMXB) probably powered by the Be mechanism. Data acquired by the RXTE All Sky Monitor (ASM), the ISS Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) and Suzaku provide a detailed temporal and spectral description of this poorly understood source. Long-term data produced by ASM and MAXI indicate that the source shows two distinct high and low states. A 6.7-day orbital period of the system was found in folded light curves produced by both ASM and MAXI. A two day Suzaku observation in Dec. 2010 took place during a transition from the minimum to the maximum of the folded light curve. The two day Suzaku observation reveals large variations in flux indicative of strong orbit to orbit variability. Flares in the Suzaku light curve can reach nearly 1.4 times the mean count rate. From a spectral analysis of the Suzaku data, emission lines in the Fe K alpha region were detected at 6.4 keV, 6.7 keV and 6.97 keV interpreted as FeI, FeXXV and FeXXVI. In addition, emission lines were observed at approximately 1.0 and 2.6 keV, corresponding to NeX and SXVI respectively. Thermal bremsstrahlung or power law models both modified by interstellar and partially covering absorption provide a good fit to the continuum data. This source is intriguing for these reasons: i) No pulse period was observed; ii) 6.7 day orbital period is much less than typical orbital periods seen in Be/X-ray Binaries; iii) The optical companion is a B5V--an unusual spectral class for an HMXB; iv) There are extended high and low X-ray states.

  8. Measuring the black hole mass in ultraluminous X-ray sources with the X-ray scaling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, I.; Gliozzi, M.; Satyapal, S.; Titarchuk, L.

    2018-01-01

    In our recent work, we demonstrated that a novel X-ray scaling method, originally introduced for Galactic black holes (BH), could be reliably extended to estimate the mass of supermassive black holes accreting at moderate to high level. Here, we apply this X-ray scaling method to ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) to constrain their MBH. Using 49 ULXs with multiple XMM-Newton observations, we infer that ULXs host both stellar mass BHs and intermediate mass BHs. The majority of the sources of our sample seem to be consistent with the hypothesis of highly accreting massive stellar BHs with MBH ∼ 100 M⊙. Our results are in general agreement with the MBH values obtained with alternative methods, including model-independent variability methods. This suggests that the X-ray scaling method is an actual scale-independent method that can be applied to all BH systems accreting at moderate-high rate.

  9. X-ray Point Source Populations in Spiral and Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Heckman, T.; Weaver, K.; Strickland, D.

    2002-01-01

    The hard-X-ray luminosity of non-active galaxies has been known to be fairly well correlated with the total blue luminosity since the days of the Einstein satellite. However, the origin of this hard component was not well understood. Some possibilities that were considered included X-ray binaries, extended upscattered far-infrared light via the inverse-Compton process, extended hot 107 K gas (especially in ellipitical galaxies), or even an active nucleus. Chandra images of normal, elliptical and starburst galaxies now show that a significant amount of the total hard X-ray emission comes from individual point sources. We present here spatial and spectral analyses of the point sources in a small sample of Chandra obervations of starburst galaxies, and compare with Chandra point source analyses from comparison galaxies (elliptical, Seyfert and normal galaxies). We discuss possible relationships between the number and total hard luminosity of the X-ray point sources and various measures of the galaxy star formation rate, and discuss possible options for the numerous compact sources that are observed.

  10. Long-term activity of two ultra-compact X-ray binaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 132, - (2004), s. 656-659 ISSN 0920-5632. [BeppoSAX Conference /2./. Amsterdam, 05.05.2003-08.05.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : neutron stars * X-rays * close binaries Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.944, year: 2004

  11. Impact of ultraluminous X-ray sources on photoabsorption in the first galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, S.; Khabibullin, I.

    2018-05-01

    In the local Universe, integrated X-ray emission from high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) is dominated by the brightest ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with luminosity ≳1040 erg s-1. Such rare objects probably also dominated the production of X-rays in the early Universe. We demonstrate that a ULX with LX ˜ 1040-1041 erg s-1 (isotropic-equivalent luminosity in the 0.1-10 keV energy band) shining for ˜105 yr (the expected duration of a supercritically accreting phase in HMXBs) can significantly ionize the ISM in its host dwarf galaxy of total mass M ˜ 107-108 M⊙ and thereby reduce its opacity to soft X-rays. As a result, the fraction of the soft X-ray (below 1 keV) radiation from the ULX escaping into the intergalactic medium (IGM) can increase from ˜20-50 per cent to ˜30-80 per cent over its lifetime. This implies that HMXBs can induce a stronger heating of the IGM at z ≳ 10 compared to estimates neglecting the ULX feedback on the ISM. However, larger galaxies with M ≳ 3 × 108 M⊙ could not be significantly ionized even by the brightest ULXs in the early Universe. Since such galaxies probably started to dominate the global star formation rate at z ≲ 10, the overall escape fraction of soft X-rays from the HMXB population probably remained low, ≲30 per cent, at these epochs.

  12. How to Model Super-Soft X-ray Sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    During outbursts, the surface temperatures of white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables exceed by far half a million Kelvin. In this phase, they may become the brightest super-soft sources (SSS) in the sky. Time-series of high-resolution, high S/N X-ray spectra taken during rise, maximum, and decline of their X-ray luminosity provide insights into the processes following such outbursts as well as in the surface composition of the white dwarf. Their analysis requires adequate NLTE model atmospheres. The Tuebingen Non-LTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) is a powerful tool for their calculation. We present the application of TMAP models to SSS spectra and discuss their validity.

  13. Microfocus X-ray sources for 3D microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, M.J.; Hames, S.M.; Reimann, D.A.; Wilderman, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    An analytic model for the performance of cone beam microtomography is described. The maximum power of a microfocus X-ray source is assumed to be approximately proportional to the focal spot size. Radiation flux penetrating the specimen is predicted by a semi-empirical relation which is valid for X-ray energies less than 20 keV. Good signal to noise ratio is predicted for bone specimens of 0.1 to 10 mm when scanned at the optimal energy. A flux of about 1x10 10 photons/mm 2 /s is identified for 0.2 mm specimens. Cone beam volumetric microtomography is found to compare favorably with synchrotron based methods. ((orig.))

  14. Matching microlensing events with X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, N.; Treves, A.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: The detection of old neutron stars and stellar mass black holes in isolation is one of the most sought after goals of compact object astrophysics. Microlensing surveys may help in achieving this aim because the lensing mechanism is independent of the emission properties of the lens. Several black hole candidates have indeed been detected by means of microlensing observations have been reported in the literature. The identification of counterparts, especially in the X-rays, would be a strong argument in favor of the compact nature of these lenses. Methods: We perform a cross-correlation between the catalogs of microlensing events produced by the OGLE, MACHO, and MOA teams, and those of X-rays sources from the data acquired by the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites. On the basis of our previous work, we select only microlensing events with durations longer than one hundred days, which should contain a large fraction of lenses as compact objects. Our matching criterion takes into account the positional coincidence on the sky. Results: We find a single match between a microlensing event, OGLE-2004-BLG-081 (tE ~ 103 days), and the X-ray source 2XMM J180540.5-273427. The angular separation is ~0.5 arcsec, i.e. well within the 90% error box of the X-ray source. The hardness ratios reported in the 2XMM catalog imply that it has a hard spectrum with a peak between 2 keV and 4.5 keV or it has a softer but highly absorbed spectrum. Moreover, the microlensing event is not fully constrained, and other authors propose a possible association of the source star with either a flaring cataclysmic variable or a RS Canum Venaticorum-like star. Conclusions: The very small angular separation (within uncertainties) is a strong indicator that 2XMM J180540.5-273427 is the X-ray counterpart of the OGLE event. However, the uncertainties in the nature of both the lensed system and the lens itself challenge the interpretation of 2XMM J180540.5-273427 as the first confirmed isolated black

  15. X-ray photoelectron microscope with a compact x-ray source generated by line-focused laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.; Okamoto, Y.; Hara, T.; Takahashi, Z.; Nishimura, Y.; Sakata, A.; Watanabe, K.; Azuma, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A laboratory-sized microscopic system of x-ray photoelectrons has been developing using a compact x-ray source produced by line-focused laser irradiation. The system is a scanning type photoelectron microscope where x-ray beam is micro-focused via a Schwartzschild optics. A compact laser-plasma x-ray source has been developed with a YAG laser system, a line-focus lens system, a tape-target driving system and a debris prevention system, that was operated at repetition rate of 10 Hz or 50 Hz. X-rays were delivered along line plasma whose length was 0.6 to 11 mm with higher intensity than that from a point-focused source. Because the transition line of Al V (13.1 nm) was prominent in the soft x-ray spectrum when the Al tape target irradiated at the lower power density of 10 11 W/cm 2 , the 13.1 nm x-ray was used as an excitation source. The Schwartzschild optics was set on the beamline at a distance about 1 m from the source, which was coated with Mo/Si multilayers for 13.1 nm x-ray. The designed demagnification is 224 that was confirmed in the previous experiment. Therefore, an x-ray micro spot of sub-micron size can be formed on a sample surface when the source size is less than about 0.2 mm. Samples were set on a two-axis high-precision piezo stage mounted to a four-axis manipulator. The electron energy analyzer was a spherical capacitor analyzer with mean diameter of 279.4 mm. The electron detector was a microchannel plate (MCP) with a phosphor screen and the optical image of electrons on the exit plane of the analyzer was taken and recorded by using an ultra low dark noise CCD camera, that was suited for detection of vast photoelectrons excited by x-ray pulse of ns-order duration. We performed spatial resolution test measurements by using a GaAs wafer coated with photo-resist that formed a stripe pattern. The spatial resolution less than 3 micron has been obtained from the variation of As 3d electron intensity along the position of the GaAs sample

  16. Formation, evolution and environment of high-mass X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleiro, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    High-Mass X-ray Binaries are interacting binary systems composed of a compact object orbiting an O/B massive star. These objects are deeply studied with the aim of understanding accretion and ejection processes around compact objects. Recent studies claim that most of the Galactic massive stars do not live alone and suffer from mass transfer during their life. Therefore, understanding the HMXB evolution and their interaction with the close environment allows to better understand not only the evolution of massive binary stars, possible progenitors of gamma-ray bursts and gravitational waves emitters during their coalescence, but also to correctly characterize the faraway galaxies. How do these sources evolve? Where are they located in the Galaxy? What are their principal properties? What is the influence of their environment? What is their impact on the interstellar medium? This thesis aims at shedding some light on these questions, by adopting two complementary approaches: a statistical study of the Galactic population of HMXB and on another hand a multi-wavelength study of individual sources. The first part of this thesis introduces the main characteristics of massive stars. Their evolution and the observational features are described. We also present the main observational and theoretical properties of HMXB together with the multi-wavelength approach used in this work. With the aim of better understanding the stellar evolution and the connections between compact objects and supernovae or gamma-ray bursts, it is of major interest to understand where these compact objects are born. Thus, the second part details the statistical study carried out on the Galactic HMXB population. Thanks to a uniform approach based on spectral energy distribution fitting, we determine, for the first time, the distance of 46 HMXB into the Milky Way with an accurate uncertainties estimation. Then, we present the distribution of these sources in the Galaxy and we show that a correlation

  17. Non-conservative mass exchange and origin of X-ray close binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, D.; Miyaji, S.

    1980-01-01

    There are two distinct types of XCBS. The Type I XCBS consists of an X-ray star and an early type star more massive than about 12 solar masses. On the contrary, the Type II XCBS consists of an X-ray star and a star less massive than about 2 solar masses. The aim of the present paper lies in interpreting the origin of these types of XCBS on the bases of the conditions for the formation of a neutron star and of mass exchange in close binary systems. (Auth.)

  18. Enhanced winds and tidal streams in massive X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondin, J.M.; Stevens, I.R.; Kallman, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    The tidal effects created by the presence of a compact companion are expected to induce a stream of enhanced wind from the early-type primary star in massive X-ray binary systems. In this paper, two-dimensional gasdynamical simulations of such streams are presented. It is found that the wind enhancement is a sensitive function of the binary separation, and develops into a tidal stream as the primary approaches its critical surface. For typical system parameters, the Coriolis force deflects the stream sufficiently that it does not impact directly on the compact companion but passes behind it. The density in the stream can reach values of 20-30 times the ambient wind density, leading to strong attenuation of the X-ray flux that passes through the tidal stream, providing a possible explanation of the enhanced absorption events seen at later phases in the X-ray observations of massive X-ray binary systems such as Vela X-1. In contrast to the time-variable accretion wake, the tidal stream is relatively stationary, producing absorption features that should remain fixed from orbit to orbit. For systems with a strong tidal stream, the large asymmetry in the accreting wind results in the accretion of angular momentum of constant sign, as opposed to systems without streams, where the sign of the accreted angular momentum can change. 39 refs

  19. INTERFERENCE AS AN ORIGIN OF THE PEAKED NOISE IN ACCRETING X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veledina, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.veledina@gmail.com [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-12-01

    We propose a physical model for the peaked noise in the X-ray power density spectra of accreting X-ray binaries. We interpret its appearance as an interference of two Comptonization continua: one coming from the upscattering of seed photons from the cold thin disk and the other fed by the synchrotron emission of the hot flow. Variations of both X-ray components are caused by fluctuations in mass accretion rate, but there is a delay between them corresponding to the propagation timescale from the disk Comptonization radius to the region of synchrotron Comptonization. If the disk and synchrotron Comptonization are correlated, the humps in the power spectra are harmonically related and the dips between them appear at frequencies related as odd numbers 1:3:5. If they are anti-correlated, the humps are related as 1:3:5, but the dips are harmonically related. Similar structures are expected to be observed in accreting neutron star binaries and supermassive black holes. The delay can be easily recovered from the frequency of peaked noise and further used to constrain the combination of the viscosity parameter and disk height-to-radius ratio α ( H / R ){sup 2} of the accretion flow. We model multi-peak power spectra of black hole X-ray binaries GX 339–4 and XTE J1748–288 to constrain these parameters.

  20. Compact X-ray source based on Compton backscattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, E V; Zelinsky, A; Karnaukhov, I; Kononenko, S; Lapshin, V G; Mytsykov, A; Telegin, Yu P; Khodyachikh, A; Shcherbakov, A; Molodkin, V; Nemoshkalenko, V; Shpak, A

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility study of an intense X-ray source based on the interaction between the electron beam in a compact storage ring and the laser pulse accumulated in an optical resonator is carried out. We propose to reconstruct the 160 MeV electron storage ring N-100, which was shutdown several years ago. A new magnetic lattice will provide a transverse of electron beam size of approx 35 mu m at the point of electron beam-laser beam interaction. The proposed facility is to generate X-ray beams of intensity approx 2.6x10 sup 1 sup 4 s sup - sup 1 and spectral brightness approx 10 sup 1 sup 2 phot/0.1%bw/s/mm sup 2 /mrad sup 2 in the energy range from 10 keV up to 0.5 MeV. These X-ray beam parameters meet the requirements for most of technological and scientific applications. Besides, we plan to use the new facility for studying the laser cooling effect.

  1. Compact X-ray source based on Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Zelinsky, A. E-mail: zelinsky@kipt.kharkov.ua; Karnaukhov, I.; Kononenko, S.; Lapshin, V.; Mytsykov, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Khodyachikh, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Molodkin, V.; Nemoshkalenko, V.; Shpak, A

    2002-07-21

    The feasibility study of an intense X-ray source based on the interaction between the electron beam in a compact storage ring and the laser pulse accumulated in an optical resonator is carried out. We propose to reconstruct the 160 MeV electron storage ring N-100, which was shutdown several years ago. A new magnetic lattice will provide a transverse of electron beam size of {approx}35 {mu}m at the point of electron beam-laser beam interaction. The proposed facility is to generate X-ray beams of intensity {approx}2.6x10{sup 14} s{sup -1} and spectral brightness {approx}10{sup 12} phot/0.1%bw/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2} in the energy range from 10 keV up to 0.5 MeV. These X-ray beam parameters meet the requirements for most of technological and scientific applications. Besides, we plan to use the new facility for studying the laser cooling effect.

  2. A Chandra Survey of Milky Way Globular Clusters. I. Emissivity and Abundance of Weak X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhongqun; Li, Zhiyuan; Xu, Xiaojie; Li, Xiangdong

    2018-05-01

    Based on archival Chandra data, we have carried out an X-ray survey of 69, or nearly half the known population of, Milky Way globular clusters (GCs), focusing on weak X-ray sources, mainly cataclysmic variables (CVs) and coronally active binaries (ABs). Using the cumulative X-ray luminosity per unit stellar mass (i.e., X-ray emissivity) as a proxy of the source abundance, we demonstrate a paucity (lower by 41% ± 27% on average) of weak X-ray sources in most GCs relative to the field, which is represented by the Solar Neighborhood and Local Group dwarf elliptical galaxies. We also revisit the mutual correlations among the cumulative X-ray luminosity (L X), cluster mass (M), and stellar encounter rate (Γ), finding {L}{{X}}\\propto {M}0.74+/- 0.13, {L}{{X}}\\propto {{{Γ }}}0.67+/- 0.07 and {{Γ }}\\propto {M}1.28+/- 0.17. The three quantities can further be expressed as {L}{{X}}\\propto {M}0.64+/- 0.12 {{{Γ }}}0.19+/- 0.07, which indicates that the dynamical formation of CVs and ABs through stellar encounters in GCs is less dominant than previously suggested, and that the primordial formation channel has a substantial contribution. Taking these aspects together, we suggest that a large fraction of primordial, soft binaries have been disrupted in binary–single or binary–binary stellar interactions before they could otherwise evolve into X-ray-emitting close binaries, whereas the same interactions also have led to the formation of new close binaries. No significant correlations between {L}{{X}}/{L}K and cluster properties, including dynamical age, metallicity, and structural parameters, are found.

  3. Beam dynamics simulation in the X-ray Compton source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A. E-mail: shcherbakov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Zelinsky, A

    2002-05-01

    At the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' the X-ray source based on Compton scattering has been developed. The computer code for simulation of electron beam dynamics with taking into account the Compton scattering effect based on Monte Carlo method is described in this report. The first results of computer simulation of beam dynamics with electron-photon interaction, parameters of electron and photon beams are presented. Calculations were carried out with the lattice of synchrotron light source SRS-800 Ukrainian Synchrotron Center.

  4. Beam dynamics simulation in the X-ray Compton source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.

    2002-01-01

    At the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' the X-ray source based on Compton scattering has been developed. The computer code for simulation of electron beam dynamics with taking into account the Compton scattering effect based on Monte Carlo method is described in this report. The first results of computer simulation of beam dynamics with electron-photon interaction, parameters of electron and photon beams are presented. Calculations were carried out with the lattice of synchrotron light source SRS-800 Ukrainian Synchrotron Center

  5. Beam dynamics simulation in the X-ray Compton source

    CERN Document Server

    Gladkikh, P; Telegin, Yu P; Shcherbakov, A; Zelinsky, A

    2002-01-01

    At the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' the X-ray source based on Compton scattering has been developed. The computer code for simulation of electron beam dynamics with taking into account the Compton scattering effect based on Monte Carlo method is described in this report. The first results of computer simulation of beam dynamics with electron-photon interaction, parameters of electron and photon beams are presented. Calculations were carried out with the lattice of synchrotron light source SRS-800 Ukrainian Synchrotron Center.

  6. HST spectrum and timing of the ultracompact X-ray binary candidate 47 Tuc X9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, V.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Knigge, C.; Maccarone, T. J.; Tauris, T. M.; Bahramian, A.; Chomiuk, L.; Heinke, C. O.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Strader, J.; Plotkin, R. M.; Soria, R.; Albrow, M. D.; Anderson, G. E.; van den Berg, M.; Bernardini, F.; Bogdanov, S.; Britt, C. T.; Russell, D. M.; Zurek, D. R.

    2018-05-01

    To confirm the nature of the donor star in the ultracompact X-ray binary candidate 47 Tuc X9, we obtained optical spectra (3000-10 000 Å) with the Hubble Space Telescope / Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. We find no strong emission or absorption features in the spectrum of X9. In particular, we place 3σ upper limits on the H α and He II λ4686 emission line equivalent widths - EWH α ≲ 14 Å and -EW_{He {II}} ≲ 9 Å, respectively. This is much lower than seen for typical X-ray binaries at a similar X-ray luminosity (which, for L_2-10 keV ≈ 10^{33}-10^{34} erg s-1 is typically - EWH α ˜ 50 Å). This supports our previous suggestion, by Bahramian et al., of an H-poor donor in X9. We perform timing analysis on archival far-ultraviolet, V- and I-band data to search for periodicities. In the optical bands, we recover the 7-d superorbital period initially discovered in X-rays, but we do not recover the orbital period. In the far-ultraviolet, we find evidence for a 27.2 min period (shorter than the 28.2 min period seen in X-rays). We find that either a neutron star or black hole could explain the observed properties of X9. We also perform binary evolution calculations, showing that the formation of an initial black hole/ He-star binary early in the life of a globular cluster could evolve into a present-day system such as X9 (should the compact object in this system indeed be a black hole) via mass-transfer driven by gravitational wave radiation.

  7. COMMON PATTERNS IN THE EVOLUTION BETWEEN THE LUMINOUS NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY SUBCLASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, Jeroen; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray transient XTE J1701–462 was the first source observed to evolve through all known subclasses of low-magnetic-field neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), as a result of large changes in its mass accretion rate. To investigate to what extent similar evolution is seen in other NS-LMXBs we have performed a detailed study of the color–color and hardness–intensity diagrams (CDs and HIDs) of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—three luminous X-ray binaries, containing weakly magnetized neutron stars, known to exhibit strong secular changes in their CD/HID tracks. Using the full set of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array data collected for the sources over the 16 year duration of the mission, we show that Cyg X-2 and Cir X-1 display CD/HID evolution with close similarities to XTE J1701–462. Although GX 13+1 shows behavior that is in some ways unique, it also exhibits similarities to XTE J1701–462, and we conclude that its overall CD/HID properties strongly indicate that it should be classified as a Z source, rather than as an atoll source. We conjecture that the secular evolution of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—illustrated by sequences of CD/HID tracks we construct—arises from changes in the mass accretion rate. Our results strengthen previous suggestions that within single sources Cyg-like Z source behavior takes place at higher luminosities and mass accretion rates than Sco-like Z behavior, and lend support to the notion that the mass accretion rate is the primary physical parameter distinguishing the various NS-LMXB subclasses

  8. COMMON PATTERNS IN THE EVOLUTION BETWEEN THE LUMINOUS NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY SUBCLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridriksson, Joel K. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Homan, Jeroen; Remillard, Ronald A., E-mail: J.K.Fridriksson@uva.nl [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2015-08-10

    The X-ray transient XTE J1701–462 was the first source observed to evolve through all known subclasses of low-magnetic-field neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), as a result of large changes in its mass accretion rate. To investigate to what extent similar evolution is seen in other NS-LMXBs we have performed a detailed study of the color–color and hardness–intensity diagrams (CDs and HIDs) of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—three luminous X-ray binaries, containing weakly magnetized neutron stars, known to exhibit strong secular changes in their CD/HID tracks. Using the full set of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array data collected for the sources over the 16 year duration of the mission, we show that Cyg X-2 and Cir X-1 display CD/HID evolution with close similarities to XTE J1701–462. Although GX 13+1 shows behavior that is in some ways unique, it also exhibits similarities to XTE J1701–462, and we conclude that its overall CD/HID properties strongly indicate that it should be classified as a Z source, rather than as an atoll source. We conjecture that the secular evolution of Cyg X-2, Cir X-1, and GX 13+1—illustrated by sequences of CD/HID tracks we construct—arises from changes in the mass accretion rate. Our results strengthen previous suggestions that within single sources Cyg-like Z source behavior takes place at higher luminosities and mass accretion rates than Sco-like Z behavior, and lend support to the notion that the mass accretion rate is the primary physical parameter distinguishing the various NS-LMXB subclasses.

  9. Hard-x-ray phase-difference microscopy with a low-brilliance laboratory x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Hiroaki; Yashiro, Wataru; Harasse, Sebastien; Momose, Atsushi; Mizutani, Haruo

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a hard-X-ray phase-imaging microscopy method using a low-brilliance X-ray source. The microscope consists of a sample, a Fresnel zone plate, a transmission grating, and a source grating creating an array of mutually incoherent X-ray sources. The microscope generates an image exhibiting twin features of the sample with opposite signs separated by a distance, which is processed to generate a phase image. The method is quantitative even for non-weak-phase objects that are difficult to be quantitatively examined by the widely used Zernike phase-contrast microscopy, and it has potentially broad applications in the material and biological science fields. (author)

  10. Three-dimensional imagery by encoding sources of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, Isabelle

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the theoretical and practical study of X ray coded sources, and thus notably aims at exploring whether it would be possible to transform a standard digital radiography apparatus (as those operated in radiology hospital departments) into a low cost three-dimensional imagery system. The author first recalls the principle of conventional tomography and improvement attempts, and describes imagery techniques based on the use of encoding openings and source encoding. She reports the modelling of an imagery system based on encoded sources of X ray, and addresses the original notion of three-dimensional response for such a system. The author then addresses the reconstruction method by considering the reconstruction of a plane object, of a multi-plane object, and of real three-dimensional object. The frequency properties and the tomographic capacities of various types of source codes are analysed. She describes a prototype tomography apparatus, and presents and discusses three-dimensional actual phantom reconstructions. She finally introduces a new principle of dynamic three-dimensional radiography which implements an acquisition technique by 'gating code'. The acquisition principle should allow the reconstruction of volumes animated by periodic deformations, such as the heart for example [fr

  11. The 5 Hour Pulse Period and Broadband Spectrum of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 3A 1954+319

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Diana M.; Fuerst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Grinberg, Victoria; Miller, Sebstian; Wilms, Joern; Postnov, Konstantin A.; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Cadolle Bel, Marion

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the highly variable accreting X-ray pulsar 3A 1954+319 using 2005-2009 monitoring data obtained with INTEGRAL and Swift. This considerably extends the pulse period history and covers flaring episodes in 2005 and 2008. In 2006 the source was identified as one of only a few known symbiotic X-ray binaries, Le" systems composed of a neutron star accreting from the inhomogeneous medium around an M-giant star. The extremely long pulse period of approximately 5.3 h is directly visible in the 2008 INTEGRAL-ISGRI outburst light curve. The pulse profile is double peaked and not significantly energy dependent. During the outburst a strong spin-up of -1.8 x 10(exp -4) h h(exp -1) occurred. Between 2005 and 2008 a long term spin-down trend of 2.1 x 10(exp -5) h h(exp -1) was observed for the first time for this source. The 3-80 keV pulse peak spectrum of 3A 1954+319 during the 2008 flare could be well described by a thermal Comptonization model. We interpret the results within the framework of a recently developed quasi-spherical accretion model for symbiotic X-ray binaries.

  12. 21 CFR 872.1810 - Intraoral source x-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1810 Intraoral source x-ray system. (a... structures. The x-ray source (a tube) is located inside the mouth. This generic type of device may include... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral source x-ray system. 872.1810 Section...

  13. Determining the nature of faint X-ray sources from the ASCA Galactic center survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutovinov, A. A.; Revnivtsev, M. G.; Karasev, D. I.; Shimansky, V. V.; Burenin, R. A.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Vorob'ev, V. S.; Tsygankov, S. S.; Pavlinsky, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of the the identification of six objects from the ASCA Galactic center and Galactic plane surveys: AX J173548-3207, AX J173628-3141, AX J1739.5-2910, AX J1740.4-2856, AX J1740.5-2937, and AX J1743.9-2846. Chandra, XMM-Newton, and XRT/Swift X-ray data have been used to improve the positions of the optical counterparts to these sources. Thereafter, we have carried out a series of spectroscopic observations of the established optical counterparts at the RTT-150 telescope. Analysis of X-ray and optical spectra as well as photometric measurements in a wide wavelength range based on optical and infrared catalogs has allowed the nature of the program sources to be determined. Two X-ray objects have been detected in the error circle of AX J173628-3141: one is a coronally active G star and the other may be a symbiotic star, a red giant with an accreting white dwarf. Three sources (AX J1739.5-2910, AX J1740.5-2937, AX J1743.9-2846) have turned out to be active G-K stars, presumably RS CVn objects, one (AX J1740.4-2856) is an M dwarf, and another one (AX J173548-3207) most likely a low-mass X-ray binary in its low state. The distances and corresponding luminosities of the sources in the soft X-ray band (0.5-10 keV) have been estimated; analysis of deep INTEGRAL Galactic center observations has not revealed a statistically significant flux at energies >20 keV from any of them.

  14. Revelations of X-ray spectral analysis of the enigmatic black hole binary GRS 1915+105

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Charith; Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Varniere, Peggy; Rodriguez, Jerome; Pooley, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Of the black hole binaries discovered thus far, GRS 1915+105 stands out as an exceptional source primarily due to its wild X-ray variability, the diversity of which has not been replicated in any other stellar-mass black hole. Although extreme variability is commonplace in its light-curve, about half of the observations of GRS1915+105 show fairly steady X-ray intensity. We report on the X-ray spectral behavior within these steady observations. Our work is based on a vast RXTE/PCA data set obtained on GRS 1915+105 during the course of its entire mission and 10 years of radio data from the Ryle Telescope, which overlap the X-ray data. We find that the steady observations within the X-ray data set naturally separate into two regions in a color-color diagram, which we refer to as steady-soft and steady-hard. GRS 1915+105 displays significant curvature in the Comptonization component within the PCA band pass suggesting significantly heating from a hot disk present in all states. A new Comptonization model 'simplcut' was developed in order to model this curvature to best effect. A majority of the steady-soft observations display a roughly constant inner radius; remarkably reminiscent of canonical soft state black hole binaries. In contrast, the steady-hard observations display a growing disk truncation that is correlated to the mass accretion rate through the disk, which suggests a magnetically truncated disk. A comparison of X-ray model parameters to the canonical state definitions show that almost all steady-soft observations match the criteria of either thermal or steep power law state, while the thermal state observations dominate the constant radius branch. A large portion (80%) of the steady-hard observations matches the hard state criteria when the disk fraction constraint is neglected. These results suggest that within the complexity of this source is a simpler underlying basis of states, which map to those observed in canonical black hole binaries. When

  15. Suzaku observation of the eclipsing high mass X-ray binary pulsar XTE J1855-026

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasia, Jincy; Paul, Biswajit

    2018-02-01

    We report results from analysis performed on an eclipsing supergiant high mass X-ray binary pulsar XTE J1855-026 observed with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) on-board Suzaku Observatory in April 2015. Suzaku observed this source for a total effective exposure of ˜ 87 ks just before an eclipse. Pulsations are clearly observed and the pulse profiles of XTE J1855-026 did not show significant energy dependence during this observation consistent with previous reports. The time averaged energy spectrum of XTE J1855-026 in the 1.0-10.5 keV energy range can be well fitted with a partial covering power law model modified with interstellar absorption along with a black-body component for soft excess and a gaussian for iron fluorescence line emision. The hardness ratio evolution during this observation indicated significant absorption of soft X-rays in some segments of the observation. For better understanding of the reason behind this, we performed time-resolved spectroscopy in the 2.5-10.5 keV energy band which revealed significant variations in the spectral parameters, especially the hydrogen column density and iron line equivalent width with flux. The correlated variations in the spectral parameters indicate towards the presence of clumps in the stellar wind of the companion star accounting for the absorption of low energy X-rays in some time segments.

  16. HST/ACS Imaging of Omega Centauri: Optical Counterparts of Chandra X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Adrienne M.; Haggard, Daryl; Arias, Tersi; Brochmann, Michelle; Dorfman, Jason; Gafford, April; White, Vivian; Anderson, Jay

    2013-02-01

    We present results of a search for optical counterparts of X-ray sources in and toward the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ACS data consist of a mosaic of Wide Field Channel images obtained using F625W, F435W, and F658N filters; with nine pointings we cover the central ~10' × 10' of the cluster and encompass 109 known Chandra sources. We find promising optical counterparts for 59 of the sources, ~40 of which are likely to be associated with the cluster. These include 27 candidate cataclysmic variables (CVs), 24 of which are reported here for the first time. Fourteen of the CV candidates are very faint, with absolute magnitudes in the range M 625 =10.4-12.6, making them comparable in brightness to field CVs near the period minimum discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Additional optical counterparts include three BY Dra candidates, a possible blue straggler, and a previously reported quiescent low-mass X-ray binary. We also identify 3 foreground stars and 11 probable active galactic nuclei. Finally, we report the discovery of a group of seven stars whose X-ray properties are suggestive of magnetically active binaries, and whose optical counterparts lie on or very near the metal-rich anomalous giant and subgiant branches in ω Cen. If the apparent association between these seven stars and the RGB/SGB-a stars is real, then the frequency of X-ray sources in this metal-rich population is enhanced by a factor of at least five relative to the other giant and subgiant populations in the cluster. If these stars are not members of the metal-rich population, then they bring the total number of red stragglers (also known as sub-subgiants) that have been identified in ω to Cen 20, the largest number yet known in any globular cluster.

  17. Sequential x-ray diffraction topography at 1-BM x-ray optics testing beamline at the advanced photon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoupin, Stanislav, E-mail: sstoupin@aps.anl.gov; Shvyd’ko, Yuri; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Liu, Zunping; Lang, Keenan; Huang, Xianrong; Wieczorek, Michael; Kasman, Elina; Hammonds, John; Macrander, Albert; Assoufid, Lahsen [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    We report progress on implementation and commissioning of sequential X-ray diffraction topography at 1-BM Optics Testing Beamline of the Advanced Photon Source to accommodate growing needs of strain characterization in diffractive crystal optics and other semiconductor single crystals. The setup enables evaluation of strain in single crystals in the nearly-nondispersive double-crystal geometry. Si asymmetric collimator crystals of different crystallographic orientations were designed, fabricated and characterized using in-house capabilities. Imaging the exit beam using digital area detectors permits rapid sequential acquisition of X-ray topographs at different angular positions on the rocking curve of a crystal under investigation. Results on sensitivity and spatial resolution are reported based on experiments with high-quality Si and diamond crystals. The new setup complements laboratory-based X-ray topography capabilities of the Optics group at the Advanced Photon Source.

  18. Herschel OBSERVATIONS OF DUST AROUND THE HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY GX 301-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servillat, M. [Laboratoire Univers et Théories (CNRS/INSU, Observatoire de Paris, Université Paris Diderot), 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Coleiro, A.; Chaty, S. [Laboratoire AIM (CEA/Irfu/SAp, CNRS/INSU, Universit Paris Diderot), CEA Saclay, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rahoui, F. [Harvard University, Department of Astronomy, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zurita Heras, J. A., E-mail: mathieu.servillat@obspm.fr [AstroParticule et Cosmologie (Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-12-20

    We aim at characterizing the structure of the gas and dust around the high-mass X-ray binary GX 301-2, a highly obscured X-ray binary hosting a hypergiant (HG) star and a neutron star, in order to better constrain its evolution. We used Herschel PACS to observe GX 301-2 in the far infrared and completed the spectral energy distribution of the source using published data or catalogs from the optical to the radio range (0.4 to 4 × 10{sup 4} μm). GX 301-2 is detected for the first time at 70 and 100 μm. We fitted different models of circumstellar (CS) environments to the data. All tested models are statistically acceptable, and consistent with an HG star at ∼3 kpc. We found that the addition of a free-free emission component from the strong stellar wind is required and could dominate the far-infrared flux. Through comparisons with similar systems and discussion on the estimated model parameters, we favor a disk-like CS environment of ∼8 AU that would enshroud the binary system. The temperature goes down to ∼200 K at the edge of the disk, allowing for dust formation. This disk is probably a rimmed viscous disk with an inner rim at the temperature of the dust sublimation temperature (∼1500 K). The similarities between the HG GX 301-2, B[e] supergiants, and the highly obscured X-ray binaries (particularly IGR J16318-4848) are strengthened. GX 301-2 might represent a transition stage in the evolution of massive stars in binary systems, connecting supergiant B[e] systems to luminous blue variables.

  19. Time-dependent search for neutrino emission from X-ray binaries with the ANTARES telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A. [GRPHE—Université de Haute Alsace—Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit, BP 50568, Colmar, 68008 France (France); André, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Rambla Exposició, Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona, 08800 Spain (Spain); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, Erlangen, 91058 Germany (Germany); Ardid, M. [Institut d' Investigació per a la Gestió Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Universitat Politècnica de València, C/ Paranimf 1, Gandia, 46730 Spain (Spain); Aubert, J.-J. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, Marseille, 13288 France (France); Avgitas, T.; Baret, B. [APC, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, 75205 France (France); Barrios-Martí, J., E-mail: antares.spokesperson@in2p3.fr [IFIC—Instituto de Física Corpuscular (CSIC—Universitat de València), c/ Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, Paterna, Valencia, E-46980 Spain (Spain); and others

    2017-04-01

    ANTARES is currently the largest neutrino telescope operating in the Northern Hemisphere, aiming at the detection of high-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. Neutrino telescopes constantly monitor at least one complete hemisphere of the sky, and are thus well-suited to detect neutrinos produced in transient astrophysical sources. A time-dependent search has been applied to a list of 33 X-ray binaries undergoing high flaring activities in satellite data (RXTE/ASM, MAXI and Swift/BAT) and during hardness transition states in the 2008–2012 period. The background originating from interactions of charged cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere is drastically reduced by requiring a directional and temporal coincidence with astrophysical phenomena. The results of this search are presented together with comparisons between the neutrino flux upper limits and the neutrino flux predictions from astrophysical models. The neutrino flux upper limits resulting from this search limit the jet parameter space for some astrophysical models.

  20. ROSAT Energy Spectra of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, N. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 0.1-2.4 keV bandpass of the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) offers an opportunity to study the very soft X-ray continuum of bright low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). In 46 pointed observations, 23 LMXBs were observed with count rates between 0.4 and 165.4 counts s-1. The survey identified a total of 29 different luminosity levels, which are compared with observations and identified spectral states from other missions. The atoll source 4U 1705-44 was observed near Eddington luminosities in an unusually high intensity state. Spectral analysis provided a measure of the interstellar column density for all 49 observations. The sensitivity of spectral fits depends strongly on column density. Fits to highly absorbed spectra are merely insensitive toward any particular spectral model. Sources with column densities well below 1022 cm-2 are best fitted by power laws, while the blackbody model gives clearly worse fits to the data. Most single-component fits from sources with low column densities, however, are not acceptable at all. The inclusion of a blackbody component in eight sources can improve the fits significantly. The obtained emission radii of less than 5 km suggest emission from the neutron star surface. In 10 sources acceptable fits can only be achieved by including soft-line components. With a spectral resolution of the PSPC of 320-450 eV, between 0.6 and 1.2 keV unresolved broad-line features were detected around 0.65, 0.85, and 1.0 keV. The line fluxes range within 10-11 and 10-12 ergs cm-2 s-1, with equivalent widths between 24 and 210 eV. In LMC X-2, 2S 0918-549, and 4U 1254-690, line emission is indicated for the first time. The soft emission observed in 4U 0614+091 compares with recent ASCA results, with a new feature indicated at 1.31 keV. The deduced line fluxes in 4U 1820-30 and Cyg X-2 showed variability of a factor of 2 within timescales of 1-2 days. Average fluxes of line components in 4U 1820-30 varied by the same factor over a

  1. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culhane, J.L.; Sanford, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray astronomy has been established as a powerful means of observing matter in its most extreme form. The energy liberated by sources discovered in our Galaxy has confirmed that collapsed stars of great density, and with intense gravitational fields, can be studied by making observations in the X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The astronomical objects which emit detectable X-rays include our own Sun and extend to quasars at the edge of the Universe. This book describes the history, techniques and results obtained in the first twenty-five years of exploration. Space rockets and satellites are essential for carrying the instruments above the Earth's atmosphere where it becomes possible to view the X-rays from stars and nebulae. The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: the birth of X-ray astronomy; the nature of X-radiation; X-rays from the Sun; solar-flare X-rays; X-rays from beyond the solar system; supernovae and their remnants; X-rays from binary stars; white dwarfs and neutron stars; black holes; X-rays from galaxies and quasars; clusters of galaxies; the observatories of the future. (author)

  2. X-ray observations of the colliding wind binary WR 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Bharti; Pandey, Jeewan Chandra

    2018-04-01

    Using the archival data obtained from Chandra and Suzaku spanning over '8 years, we present an analysis of a WN6h+O4f Wolf-Rayet binary, WR 25. The X-ray light curves folded over a period of '208 d in the 0.3 - 10.0 keV energy band showed phase-locked variability where the count rates were found to be maximum near the periastron passage. The X-ray spectra of WR 25 were well explained by a two-temperature plasma model with temperatures of 0.64 ± 0.01 and 2.96 ± 0.05 keV and are consistent with previous results. The orbital phase dependent local hydrogen column density was found to be maximum just after the periastron passage, when the WN type star is in front of the O star. The hard (2.0 - 10.0 keV) X-ray luminosity was linearly dependent on the inverse of binary separation which confirms that WR 25 is a colliding wind binary.

  3. Roche-Lobe overflow in X-ray binaries, ch. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savonije, G.J.

    1977-01-01

    It is examined whether Roche-lobe overflow can be the main mechanism of mass transfer that powers the low-mass as well as the massive X-ray binaries. Detailed numerical computations of the initial phase of Roche-lobe overflow were performed in order to determine the precise time development of the mass transfer from normal stars with masses ranging from 1.5 M(sun) up to 20 M(sun) to compact companions with masses of 1 and 1.5 M(sun). The binary code includes a simplified hydrodynamical treatment of Roche-lobe overflow. For massive primaries this hydrodynamical treatment appears to result in much longer X-ray lifetimes than obtained in previous investigations. The calculations also include effects of slow, non-synchronous rotation of the contact star and loss of mass and angular momentum from the binary system. For Her X-1 and Cen X-3 X-ray lifetimes of the order of 10 5 and 10 4 yrs are predicted, respectively

  4. Rotation of the Mass Donors in High-mass X-ray Binaries and Symbiotic Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Stoyanov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to investigate the tidal interaction in High-mass X-ray Binaries and Symbiotic stars in order to determine in which objects the rotation of the mass donors is synchronized or pseudosynchronized with the orbital motion of the compact companion. We find that the Be/X-ray binaries are not synchronized and the orbital periods of the systems are greater than the rotational periods of the mass donors. The giant and supergiant High-mass X-ray binaries and symbiotic stars are close to synchronization. We compare the rotation of mass donors in symbiotics with the projected rotational velocities of field giants and find that the M giants in S-type symbiotics rotate on average 1.5 times faster than the field M giants. We find that the projected rotational velocity of the red giant in symbiotic star MWC 560 is v sin i= 8.2±1.5 km.s−1, and estimate its rotational period to be Prot<>/sub = 144 - 306 days. Using the theoretical predictions of tidal interaction and pseudosynchronization, we estimate the orbital eccentricity e = 0.68 − 0.82.

  5. The hypersoft state of Cygnus X-3. A key to jet quenching in X-ray binaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koljonen, K. I. I.; Maccarone, T.; McCollough, M. L.; Gurwell, M.; Trushkin, S. A.; Pooley, G. G.; Piano, G.; Tavani, M.

    2018-04-01

    Context. Cygnus X-3 is a unique microquasar in the Galaxy hosting a Wolf-Rayet companion orbiting a compact object that most likely is a low-mass black hole. The unique source properties are likely due to the interaction of the compact object with the heavy stellar wind of the companion. Aim. In this paper, we concentrate on a very specific period of time prior to the massive outbursts observed from the source. During this period, Cygnus X-3 is in a so-called hypersoft state, in which the radio and hard X-ray fluxes are found to be at their lowest values (or non-detected), the soft X-ray flux is at its highest values, and sporadic γ-ray emission is observed. We use multiwavelength observations to study the nature of the hypersoft state. Methods: We observed Cygnus X-3 during the hypersoft state with Swift and NuSTAR in X-rays and SMA, AMI-LA, and RATAN-600 in the radio. We also considered X-ray monitoring data from MAXI and γ-ray monitoring data from AGILE and Fermi. Results: We found that the spectra and timing properties of the multiwavelength observations can be explained by a scenario in which the jet production is turned off or highly diminished in the hypersoft state and the missing jet pressure allows the wind to refill the region close to the black hole. The results provide proof of actual jet quenching in soft states of X-ray binaries.

  6. Modification of the TASMIP x-ray spectral model for the simulation of microfocus x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisniega, A.; Vaquero, J. J.; Desco, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The availability of accurate and simple models for the estimation of x-ray spectra is of great importance for system simulation, optimization, or inclusion of photon energy information into data processing. There is a variety of publicly available tools for estimation of x-ray spectra in radiology and mammography. However, most of these models cannot be used directly for modeling microfocus x-ray sources due to differences in inherent filtration, energy range and/or anode material. For this reason the authors propose in this work a new model for the simulation of microfocus spectra based on existing models for mammography and radiology, modified to compensate for the effects of inherent filtration and energy range. Methods: The authors used the radiology and mammography versions of an existing empirical model [tungsten anode spectral model interpolating polynomials (TASMIP)] as the basis of the microfocus model. First, the authors estimated the inherent filtration included in the radiology model by comparing the shape of the spectra with spectra from the mammography model. Afterwards, the authors built a unified spectra dataset by combining both models and, finally, they estimated the parameters of the new version of TASMIP for microfocus sources by calibrating against experimental exposure data from a microfocus x-ray source. The model was validated by comparing estimated and experimental exposure and attenuation data for different attenuating materials and x-ray beam peak energy values, using two different x-ray tubes. Results: Inherent filtration for the radiology spectra from TASMIP was found to be equivalent to 1.68 mm Al, as compared to spectra obtained from the mammography model. To match the experimentally measured exposure data the combined dataset required to apply a negative filtration of about 0.21 mm Al and an anode roughness of 0.003 mm W. The validation of the model against real acquired data showed errors in exposure and attenuation in

  7. Modification of the TASMIP x-ray spectral model for the simulation of microfocus x-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisniega, A.; Vaquero, J. J., E-mail: juanjose.vaquero@uc3m.es [Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid ES28911 (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid ES28007 (Spain); Desco, M. [Departamento de Bioingeniería e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid ES28911 (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid ES28007 (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid ES28029 (Spain)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The availability of accurate and simple models for the estimation of x-ray spectra is of great importance for system simulation, optimization, or inclusion of photon energy information into data processing. There is a variety of publicly available tools for estimation of x-ray spectra in radiology and mammography. However, most of these models cannot be used directly for modeling microfocus x-ray sources due to differences in inherent filtration, energy range and/or anode material. For this reason the authors propose in this work a new model for the simulation of microfocus spectra based on existing models for mammography and radiology, modified to compensate for the effects of inherent filtration and energy range. Methods: The authors used the radiology and mammography versions of an existing empirical model [tungsten anode spectral model interpolating polynomials (TASMIP)] as the basis of the microfocus model. First, the authors estimated the inherent filtration included in the radiology model by comparing the shape of the spectra with spectra from the mammography model. Afterwards, the authors built a unified spectra dataset by combining both models and, finally, they estimated the parameters of the new version of TASMIP for microfocus sources by calibrating against experimental exposure data from a microfocus x-ray source. The model was validated by comparing estimated and experimental exposure and attenuation data for different attenuating materials and x-ray beam peak energy values, using two different x-ray tubes. Results: Inherent filtration for the radiology spectra from TASMIP was found to be equivalent to 1.68 mm Al, as compared to spectra obtained from the mammography model. To match the experimentally measured exposure data the combined dataset required to apply a negative filtration of about 0.21 mm Al and an anode roughness of 0.003 mm W. The validation of the model against real acquired data showed errors in exposure and attenuation in

  8. NLTE Model Atmospheres for Super-Soft X-ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Thomas; Werner, Klaus

    2009-09-01

    Spectral analysis by means of fully line-blanketed Non-LTE model atmospheres has arrived at a high level of sophistication. The Tübingen NLTE Model Atmosphere Package (TMAP) is used to calculate plane-parallel NLTE model atmospheres which are in radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium. Although TMAP is not especially designed for the calculation of burst spectra of novae, spectral energy distributions (SEDs) calculated from TMAP models are well suited e.g. for abundance determinations of Super Soft X-ray Sources like nova V4743 Sgr or line identifications in observations of neutron stars with low magnetic fields in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) like EXO 0748-676.

  9. Nuclear Malaysia Plasma Focus Device as a X-ray Source For Radiography Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokiah Mohd Sabri; Abdul Halim Baijan; Siti Aiasah Hashim; Mohd Rizal Mohd Chulan; Wah, L.K.; Mukhlis Mokhtar; Azaman Ahmad; Rosli Che Ros

    2013-01-01

    A 3.375 kJ plasma focus is designed to operate at 13.5 kV for the purpose of studying x-ray source for radiography in Argon discharge. X-rays is detected by using x-ray film from the mammography radiographic plate. The feasibility of the plasma focus as a high intensity flash x-ray source for good contrast in radiography image is presented. (author)

  10. High Brightness, Laser-Driven X-ray Source for Nanoscale Metrology and Femtosecond Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siders, C W; Crane, J K; Semenov, V; Betts, S; Kozioziemski, B; Wharton, K; Wilks, S; Barbee, T; Stuart, B; Kim, D E; An, J; Barty, C

    2007-02-26

    This project developed and demonstrated a new, bright, ultrafast x-ray source based upon laser-driven K-alpha generation, which can produce an x-ray flux 10 to 100 times greater than current microfocus x-ray tubes. The short-pulse (sub-picosecond) duration of this x-ray source also makes it ideal for observing time-resolved dynamics of atomic motion in solids and thin films.

  11. A First Estimate of the X-Ray Binary Frequency as a Function of Star Cluster Mass in a Single Galactic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Brandl, B. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Carson, J. C.; Henderson, C. P.; Hayward, T. L.; Barry, D. J.; Ptak, A. F.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2008-05-01

    We use the previously identified 15 infrared star cluster counterparts to X-ray point sources in the interacting galaxies NGC 4038/4039 (the Antennae) to study the relationship between total cluster mass and X-ray binary number. This significant population of X-Ray/IR associations allows us to perform, for the first time, a statistical study of X-ray point sources and their environments. We define a quantity, η, relating the fraction of X-ray sources per unit mass as a function of cluster mass in the Antennae. We compute cluster mass by fitting spectral evolutionary models to Ks luminosity. Considering that this method depends on cluster age, we use four different age distributions to explore the effects of cluster age on the value of η and find it varies by less than a factor of 4. We find a mean value of η for these different distributions of η = 1.7 × 10-8 M-1⊙ with ση = 1.2 × 10-8 M-1⊙. Performing a χ2 test, we demonstrate η could exhibit a positive slope, but that it depends on the assumed distribution in cluster ages. While the estimated uncertainties in η are factors of a few, we believe this is the first estimate made of this quantity to "order of magnitude" accuracy. We also compare our findings to theoretical models of open and globular cluster evolution, incorporating the X-ray binary fraction per cluster.

  12. Production of hollow atoms by high brightness x-ray sources and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moribayashi, Kengo

    2004-01-01

    We study x-ray emissions from the (multi-)inner-shell states and hollow atoms of Si ions excited by high intensity x-ray sources. It is found that the x-ray number from multi-inner-shell excited states (1s 2 2s 2 2p k 3s 2 3p 2 , k=1-4) and hollow atoms (1s 2 2s 2 3p 2 ) is affected greatly by the high intensity short-pulse x-rays and little by weak intensity post-long pulse x-rays. The ratio of the x-ray intensities from hollow atoms to those from the multi-inner-shell excited states becomes almost independent of the pulses and dependent on the intensities of x-ray sources. This ratio may be used for the measurement of intensities of high intensity short pulse x-ray sources. (author)

  13. X-ray nanoprobe project at Taiwan Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Gung-Chian, E-mail: gcyin@nsrrc.org.tw; Chang, Shih-Hung; Chen, Bo-Yi; Chen, Huang-Yeh; Lin, Bi-Hsuan; Tseng, Shao-Chin; Lee, Chien-Yu; Wu, Jian-Xing; Tang, Mau-Tsu [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Wu, Shao-Yun [National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-27

    The hard X-ray nanoprobe facility at Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) provides versatile X-ray analysis techniques, with tens of nanometer resolution, including XRF, XAS, XEOL, projection microscope, CDI, etc. Resulting from the large numerical aperture obtained by utilizing Montel KB mirrors, the beamline with a moderate length 75 meters can conduct similar performance with those beamlines longer than 100 meters. The two silica-made Montel mirrors are 45 degree cut and placed in a V-shape to eliminate the gap loss and the deformation caused by gravity. The slope error of the KB mirror pair is less than 0.04 µrad accomplished by elastic emission machining (EEM) method. For the beamline, a horizontal DCM and two-stage focusing in horizontal direction is applied. For the endstation, a combination of SEM for quickly positioning the sample, a fly scanning system with laser interferometers, a precise temperature control system, and a load lock transfer system will be implemented. In this presentation, the design and construction progress of the beamline and endstation is reported. The endstation is scheduled to be in commissioning phase in 2016.

  14. Formation of Black Hole X-Ray Binaries with Non-degenerate Donors in Globular Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Natalia; Rocha, Cassio A. da; Van, Kenny X.; Nandez, Jose L. A., E-mail: nata.ivanova@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E7 (Canada)

    2017-07-10

    In this Letter, we propose a formation channel for low-mass X-ray binaries with black hole accretors and non-degenerate donors via grazing tidal encounters with subgiants. We estimate that in a typically dense globular cluster with a core density of 10{sup 5} stars pc{sup −3}, the formation rates are about one binary per Gyr per 50–100 retained black holes. The donors—stripped subgiants—will be strongly underluminous when compared to subgiant or giant branch stars of the same colors. The products of tidal stripping are underluminous by at least one magnitude for several hundred million years when compared to normal stars of the same color, and differ from underluminous red stars that could be produced by non-catastrophic mass transfer in an ordinary binary. The dynamically formed binaries become quiescent LMXBs, with lifetimes of about a Gyr. The expected number of X-ray binaries is one per 50–200 retained black holes, while the expected number of strongly underluminous subsubgiant is about half this. The presence of strongly underluminous stars in a GC may be indicative of the presence of black holes.

  15. Formation of Black Hole X-Ray Binaries with Non-degenerate Donors in Globular Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, Natalia; Rocha, Cassio A. da; Van, Kenny X.; Nandez, Jose L. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a formation channel for low-mass X-ray binaries with black hole accretors and non-degenerate donors via grazing tidal encounters with subgiants. We estimate that in a typically dense globular cluster with a core density of 10 5 stars pc −3 , the formation rates are about one binary per Gyr per 50–100 retained black holes. The donors—stripped subgiants—will be strongly underluminous when compared to subgiant or giant branch stars of the same colors. The products of tidal stripping are underluminous by at least one magnitude for several hundred million years when compared to normal stars of the same color, and differ from underluminous red stars that could be produced by non-catastrophic mass transfer in an ordinary binary. The dynamically formed binaries become quiescent LMXBs, with lifetimes of about a Gyr. The expected number of X-ray binaries is one per 50–200 retained black holes, while the expected number of strongly underluminous subsubgiant is about half this. The presence of strongly underluminous stars in a GC may be indicative of the presence of black holes.

  16. Flash X-Ray (FXR) Accelerator Optimization Electronic Time-Resolved Measurement of X-Ray Source Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, J; Ong, M; Wargo, P

    2005-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating various approaches to minimize the x-ray source size on the Flash X-Ray (FXR) linear induction accelerator in order to improve x-ray flux and increase resolution for hydrodynamic radiography experiments. In order to effectively gauge improvements to final x-ray source size, a fast, robust, and accurate system for measuring the spot size is required. Timely feedback on x-ray source size allows new and improved accelerator tunes to be deployed and optimized within the limited run-time constraints of a production facility with a busy experimental schedule; in addition, time-resolved measurement capability allows the investigation of not only the time-averaged source size, but also the evolution of the source size, centroid position, and x-ray dose throughout the 70 ns beam pulse. Combined with time-resolved measurements of electron beam parameters such as emittance, energy, and current, key limiting factors can be identified, modeled, and optimized for the best possible spot size. Roll-bar techniques are a widely used method for x-ray source size measurement, and have been the method of choice at FXR for many years. A thick bar of tungsten or other dense metal with a sharp edge is inserted into the path of the x-ray beam so as to heavily attenuate the lower half of the beam, resulting in a half-light, half-dark image as seen downstream of the roll-bar; by measuring the width of the transition from light to dark across the edge of the roll-bar, the source size can be deduced. For many years, film has been the imaging medium of choice for roll-bar measurements thanks to its high resolution, linear response, and excellent contrast ratio. Film measurements, however, are fairly cumbersome and require considerable setup and analysis time; moreover, with the continuing trend towards all-electronic measurement systems, film is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to procure. Here, we shall

  17. A JEM-X Catalog of X-ray Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    2009-01-01

    . A search for weaker, persistent, sources has been done in deep mosaic images that have been produced with all available observations for a large number of sky regions. The two resulting catalogs hold 158 and 179 sources respectively, but the combined catalog consists of 209 sources. This catalog can...... be downloaded as a FITS binary table file with source information such as names, positions, and fluxes at the PoS web page for the conference....

  18. The disc-jet coupling in the neutron star X-ray binary 4U 1728-34

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tudose, Valeriu; Tzioumis, Anastasios; Belloni, Tomaso; Altamirano, Diego; Linares, Manuel; Mendez, Mariano; Hiemstra, Beike

    2010-01-01

    The present radio proposal is part of a multi-wavelength campaign focused on the study of the accretion/ejection process in the neutron star X-ray binary system 4U 1728-34. Our intention is to study the behaviour of the inner part of the accretion disc as inferred from the X-ray observations of the

  19. X-ray emission as a diagnostic from pseudospark-sourced electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowes, D., E-mail: david.bowes@strath.ac.uk [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Yin, H.; He, W.; Zhang, L.; Cross, A.W.; Ronald, K.; Phelps, A.D.R. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Chen, D.; Zhang, P. [Computed Tomography Lab, School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Chen, X.; Li, D. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    X-ray emission has been achieved using an electron beam generated by a pseudospark low-pressure discharge and utilised as a diagnostic for beam detection. A 300 A, 34 kV PS-sourced electron beam pulse of 3 mm diameter impacting on a 0.1 mm-thick molybdenum target generated X-rays which were detected via the use of a small, portable X-ray detector. Clear X-ray images of a micro-sized object were captured using an X-ray photodetector. This demonstrates the inducement of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) not only as an indicator of beam presence but also as a future X-ray source for small-spot X-ray imaging of materials.

  20. Synchrotron x-ray sources and new opportunities in the soil and environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, D.; Anderson, S.; Mattigod, S.

    1990-07-01

    This report contains the following papers: characteristics of the advanced photon source and comparison with existing synchrotron facilities; x-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS and XANES -- A versatile tool to study the atomic and electronic structure of materials; applications of x-ray spectroscopy and anomalous scattering experiments in the soil and environmental sciences; X-ray fluorescence microprobe and microtomography

  1. X-ray lithography source (SXLS) vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuchman, J.C.; Aloia, J.; Hsieh, H.; Kim, T.; Pjerov, S.

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was awarded a contract to design and construct a compact light source for x-ray lithography. This award is part of a technology transfer-to-American-industry program. The contract is for an electron storage ring designed for 690 MeV-500 ma operations. It has a racetrack configuration with a circumference to 8.5 meters. The machine is to be constructed in two phases. Phase I (200 MeV-500ma) will primarily be for low energy injection studies and will incorporate all room temperature magnets. For Phase II the two room temperature dipole magnets will be replaced with (4T) superconducting magnets and operation will be at 690 MeV. This paper describes the vacuum system for this machine. 9 refs

  2. Laboratory Calibration of X-ray Velocimeters for Radiation Driven Winds and Outflows Surrounding X-ray Binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Graf, A.; Hell, N.; Liedahl, D.; Magee, E. W.; Träbert, E.; Beilmann, C.; Bernitt, S.; Crespo-Lopez-Urritiua, J.; Eberle, S.; Kubicek, K.; Mäckel, V.; Rudolph, J.; Steinbrügge, R.; Ullrich, J.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Porter, F. S.; Rasmussen, A.; Simon, M.; Epp, S.

    2011-09-01

    High resolution measurements of X-ray absorption and fluorescence by radiation driven winds and outflows surrounding X-ray binaries and AGN provide a powerful means for measuring wind velocities. The accuracy of these X-ray velocimeters is limited by the accuracy of atomic data. For example, in the case of the high mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 the uncertainty in the calculated transition wavelengths of the K alpha lines produced by photoionization and photoexcitation of Si L-shell ions is comparable to the likely Doppler shifts, making it impossible to determine a reliable velocity. Similar problems also exist in the case of absorption of X-rays by M-shell Fe ions, which produces in some AGN the so-called unresolved transition array across the 15-17 angstrom band. In this case, there is a 15-45 milliangstrom variation among different wavelength calculations. The uncertainty in the calculations makes it impossible to reliably determine the true velocity structure of the outflow, and in turn, prevents a reliable determination of the mass-loss rate of the AGN. We present results of a recent series of laboratory experiments conducted using an electron beam ion trap coupled with the LCLS X-ray free electron laser and the BESSY-II synchrotron and designed to calibrate the velocimeters provided by high resolution instruments on Chandra and XMM-Newton. We also present results of resonant photoexcitation measurements of the transition wavelength of an Fe XVI satellite line 'coincident' with the 2p-3d Fe XVII line 3D at 15.26 angstroms. This line has never been resolved using emission spectroscopy and its measurement confirms the intensity of line 3D is sensitive to the relative abundance of Fe XVI and XVII and thus temperature. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of DOE under contract DE-AC53-07NA27344 and supported by NASA's APRA program.

  3. Radioisotope sources for X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowich, J.; Pandian, S.; Preiss, I.L.

    1977-01-01

    Problems involved in developing radioisotope sources and the characteristics of potentially useful radioisotopes for X-ray fluorescence analysis are presented. These include the following. The isotope must be evaluated for the physical and chemical forms available, purity, half-life, specific activity, toxicity, and cost. The radiation hazards of the source must be considered. The type and amount of radiation output of the source must be evaluated. The source construction must be planned. The source should also present an advance over those currently available in order to justify its development. Some of the isotopes, which are not in use but look very promising, are indicated, and their data are tabulated. A more or less ''perfect'' source within a given range of interest would exhibit the following characteristics. (1) Decay by an isometric transition with little or no internal conversion, (2) Have an intense gamma transition near the absorption edge of the element(s) of interest with no high energy gammas, (3) Have a sufficiently long half-life (in the order of years) for both economic and calibration reasons, (4) Have a sufficiently large cross-section for production in a reasonable amount of time. If there are competing reactions the interfering isotopes should be reasonably short-lived, or if not, be apt to be separated from the isotope chemically with a minimum of difficulty. (T.G.)

  4. Strong disk winds traced throughout outbursts in black-hole X-ray binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetarenko, B E; Lasota, J-P; Heinke, C O; Dubus, G; Sivakoff, G R

    2018-02-01

    Recurring outbursts associated with matter flowing onto compact stellar remnants (such as black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs) in close binary systems provide a way of constraining the poorly understood accretion process. The light curves of these outbursts are shaped by the efficiency of angular-momentum (and thus mass) transport in the accretion disks, which has traditionally been encoded in a viscosity parameter, α. Numerical simulations of the magneto-rotational instability that is believed to be the physical mechanism behind this transport yield values of α of roughly 0.1-0.2, consistent with values determined from observations of accreting white dwarfs. Equivalent viscosity parameters have hitherto not been estimated for disks around neutron stars or black holes. Here we report the results of an analysis of archival X-ray light curves of 21 outbursts in black-hole X-ray binaries. By applying a Bayesian approach to a model of accretion, we determine corresponding values of α of around 0.2-1.0. These high values may be interpreted as an indication either of a very high intrinsic rate of angular-momentum transport in the disk, which could be sustained by the magneto-rotational instability only if a large-scale magnetic field threads the disk, or that mass is being lost from the disk through substantial outflows, which strongly shape the outburst in the black-hole X-ray binary. The lack of correlation between our estimates of α and the accretion state of the binaries implies that such outflows can remove a substantial fraction of the disk mass in all accretion states and therefore suggests that the outflows correspond to magnetically driven disk winds rather than thermally driven ones, which require specific radiative conditions.

  5. Strong disk winds traced throughout outbursts in black-hole X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetarenko, B. E.; Lasota, J.-P.; Heinke, C. O.; Dubus, G.; Sivakoff, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    Recurring outbursts associated with matter flowing onto compact stellar remnants (such as black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs) in close binary systems provide a way of constraining the poorly understood accretion process. The light curves of these outbursts are shaped by the efficiency of angular-momentum (and thus mass) transport in the accretion disks, which has traditionally been encoded in a viscosity parameter, α. Numerical simulations of the magneto-rotational instability that is believed to be the physical mechanism behind this transport yield values of α of roughly 0.1–0.2, consistent with values determined from observations of accreting white dwarfs. Equivalent viscosity parameters have hitherto not been estimated for disks around neutron stars or black holes. Here we report the results of an analysis of archival X-ray light curves of 21 outbursts in black-hole X-ray binaries. By applying a Bayesian approach to a model of accretion, we determine corresponding values of α of around 0.2–1.0. These high values may be interpreted as an indication either of a very high intrinsic rate of angular-momentum transport in the disk, which could be sustained by the magneto-rotational instability only if a large-scale magnetic field threads the disk, or that mass is being lost from the disk through substantial outflows, which strongly shape the outburst in the black-hole X-ray binary. The lack of correlation between our estimates of α and the accretion state of the binaries implies that such outflows can remove a substantial fraction of the disk mass in all accretion states and therefore suggests that the outflows correspond to magnetically driven disk winds rather than thermally driven ones, which require specific radiative conditions.

  6. A self-regulating braking mechanism in black-hole X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F.; Meyer-Hofmeister, E.

    2001-01-01

    The outbursts of black hole X-ray transients can be understood as caused by a limit cycle instability in the accretion disk, similar to dwarf nova outbursts. For adequately low mass overflow rates from the companion star long outburst recurrence times are expected. Buth the fact that we find predominantly long recurrence times or that only one X-ray nova outburst was detected at all poses a problem. The question arises whether any braking mechanism could act in a way that long recurrence times are favoured. We suggest that a circumbinary disk exists and brakes the orbital motion of the binary stars by tidal interaction. The irradiation during an outburst leads to mass loss by winds from the circumbinary disk, relieving the braking force until the removed matter is refilled by diffusion from outer parts. We show that this reduction of braking will self-adjust the mass transfer to the marginal rate that gives long recurrence times. (orig.)

  7. Feasibility study on X-ray source with pinhole imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Rui; Li Junli

    2007-01-01

    In order to verify the feasibility of study on X-ray source with pinhole imaging method, and optimize the design of X-ray pinhole imaging system, an X-ray pinhole imaging equipment was set up. The change of image due to the change of the position and intensity of X-ray source was estimated with mathematical method and validated with experiment. The results show that the change of the spot position and gray of the spot is linearly related with the change of the position and intensity of X-ray source, so it is feasible to study X-ray source with pinhole imaging method in this application. The results provide some references for the design of X-ray pinhole imaging system. (authors)

  8. On the Spatially Resolved Star Formation History in M51. II. X-Ray Binary Population Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Eufrasio, R. T.; Markwardt, L.; Zezas, A.; Basu-Zych, A.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Ptak, A.; Tzanavaris, P.; Yukita, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new technique for empirically calibrating how the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of X-ray binary (XRB) populations evolves following a star formation event. We first utilize detailed stellar population synthesis modeling of far-UV-to-far-IR photometry of the nearby face-on spiral galaxy M51 to construct maps of the star formation histories (SFHs) on subgalactic (≈400 pc) scales. Next, we use the ≈850 ks cumulative Chandra exposure of M51 to identify and isolate 2-7 keV detected point sources within the galaxy, and we use our SFH maps to recover the local properties of the stellar populations in which each X-ray source is located. We then divide the galaxy into various subregions based on their SFH properties (e.g., star formation rate (SFR) per stellar mass ({M}\\star ) and mass-weighted stellar age) and group the X-ray point sources according to the characteristics of the regions in which they are found. Finally, we construct and fit a parameterized XLF model that quantifies how the XLF shape and normalization evolves as a function of the XRB population age Our best-fit model indicates that the XRB XLF per unit stellar mass declines in normalization, by ˜3-3.5 dex, and steepens in slope from ≈10 Myr to ≈10 Gyr. We find that our technique recovers results from past studies of how XRB XLFs and XRB luminosity scaling relations vary with age and provides a self-consistent picture for how XRB XLFs evolve with age.

  9. WATCHDOG: A COMPREHENSIVE ALL-SKY DATABASE OF GALACTIC BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetarenko, B. E.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Heinke, C. O.; Gladstone, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of more sensitive all-sky instruments, the transient universe is being probed in greater depth than ever before. Taking advantage of available resources, we have established a comprehensive database of black hole (and black hole candidate) X-ray binary (BHXB) activity between 1996 and 2015 as revealed by all-sky instruments, scanning surveys, and select narrow-field X-ray instruments on board the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, Monitor of All-Sky X-ray Image, Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, and Swift telescopes; the Whole-sky Alberta Time-resolved Comprehensive black-Hole Database Of the Galaxy or WATCHDOG. Over the past two decades, we have detected 132 transient outbursts, tracked and classified behavior occurring in 47 transient and 10 persistently accreting BHs, and performed a statistical study on a number of outburst properties across the Galactic population. We find that outbursts undergone by BHXBs that do not reach the thermally dominant accretion state make up a substantial fraction (∼40%) of the Galactic transient BHXB outburst sample over the past ∼20 years. Our findings suggest that this “hard-only” behavior, observed in transient and persistently accreting BHXBs, is neither a rare nor recent phenomenon and may be indicative of an underlying physical process, relatively common among binary BHs, involving the mass-transfer rate onto the BH remaining at a low level rather than increasing as the outburst evolves. We discuss how the larger number of these “hard-only” outbursts and detected outbursts in general have significant implications for both the luminosity function and mass-transfer history of the Galactic BHXB population

  10. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma characterization by X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, David, E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Castro, Giuseppe; Celona, Luigi; Neri, Lorenzo; Gammino, Santo [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Biri, Sándor; Rácz, Richárd; Pálinkás, József [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Caliri, Claudia [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dip.to di Fisica e Astronomia, via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, Francesco Paolo [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); CNR, Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, Giuseppe [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, DIIES, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma X-ray emission has been recently carried out at the ECRISs—Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources laboratory of Atomki based on a collaboration between the Debrecen and Catania ECR teams. In a first series, the X-ray spectroscopy was performed through silicon drift detectors and high purity germanium detectors, characterizing the volumetric plasma emission. The on-purpose developed collimation system was suitable for direct plasma density evaluation, performed “on-line” during beam extraction and charge state distribution characterization. A campaign for correlating the plasma density and temperature with the output charge states and the beam intensity for different pumping wave frequencies, different magnetic field profiles, and single-gas/gas-mixing configurations was carried out. The results reveal a surprisingly very good agreement between warm-electron density fluctuations, output beam currents, and the calculated electromagnetic modal density of the plasma chamber. A charge-coupled device camera coupled to a small pin-hole allowing X-ray imaging was installed and numerous X-ray photos were taken in order to study the peculiarities of the ECRIS plasma structure.

  11. Wind accretion in the massive X-ray binary 4U 2206+54: abnormally slow wind and a moderately eccentric orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribó, M.; Negueruela, I.; Blay, P.; Torrejón, J. M.; Reig, P.

    2006-04-01

    Massive X-ray binaries are usually classified by the properties of the donor star in classical, supergiant and Be X-ray binaries, the main difference being the mass transfer mechanism between the two components. The massive X-ray binary 4U 2206+54 does not fit in any of these groups, and deserves a detailed study to understand how the transfer of matter and the accretion on to the compact object take place. To this end we study an IUE spectrum of the donor and obtain a wind terminal velocity (v_∞) of ~350 km s-1, which is abnormally slow for its spectral type. We also analyse here more than 9 years of available RXTE/ASM data. We study the long-term X-ray variability of the source and find it to be similar to that observed in the wind-fed supergiant system Vela X-1, reinforcing the idea that 4U 2206+54 is also a wind-fed system. We find a quasi-period decreasing from ~270 to ~130 d, noticed in previous works but never studied in detail. We discuss possible scenarios for its origin and conclude that long-term quasi-periodic variations in the mass-loss rate of the primary are probably driving such variability in the measured X-ray flux. We obtain an improved orbital period of P_orb=9.5591±0.0007 d with maximum X-ray flux at MJD 51856.6±0.1. Our study of the orbital X-ray variability in the context of wind accretion suggests a moderate eccentricity around 0.15 for this binary system. Moreover, the low value of v_∞ solves the long-standing problem of the relatively high X-ray luminosity for the unevolved nature of the donor, BD +53°2790, which is probably an O9.5 V star. We note that changes in v_∞ and/or the mass-loss rate of the primary alone cannot explain the different patterns displayed by the orbital X-ray variability. We finally emphasize that 4U 2206+54, together with LS 5039, could be part of a new population of wind-fed HMXBs with main sequence donors, the natural progenitors of supergiant X-ray binaries.

  12. Flat Field Anomalies in an X-Ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-Ray Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Haugh

    2008-01-01

    The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. It determines how accurately NIF can point the laser beams and is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 (micro)m square pixels, and 15 (micro)m thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 2mA, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/ΔE ∼ 12. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1.5% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. The efficiency pattern follows the properties of Si. The maximum quantum efficiency is 0.71. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation was >8% at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was less than the measurement uncertainty below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris on the CCD chip. The debris showed maximum contrast at the lowest energy used, 930 eV, and disappeared by 4 keV. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager

  13. Cygnus X-3 and the problem of the missing Wolf-Rayet X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, D.; Yungelson, L.; van den Heuvel, E.; Nelemans, G.A.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cygnus X-3 is a strong X-ray source (LX ≈ 1038 erg s-1) which is thought to consist of a compact object accreting matter from a helium star. We analytically find that the estimated ranges of mass-loss rate and orbital-period derivative for Cyg X-3 are consistent

  14. Radio Observations of Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources and their Implication for Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerding, E. G.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Falcke, H.

    2004-05-01

    We present the results of a radio monitoring campaign to search for radio emission from nearby ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs). These intriguing sources are bright off-nuclear X-ray point sources with luminosities exceeding LX > 1039 erg/sec. Assuming isotropic emission the Eddington Limit suggests that they harbor intermediate mass black holes. Due to the problems of this explanation also other possibilities are currently discussed, among them are anisotropic emission, super-Eddington accretion flows or relativistically beamed emission from microquasars. Detections of compact radio cores at the positions of ULXs would be a direct hint to jet-emission. However, as the ULX phenomenom is connected to star formation we have to assume that they are strongly accreting objects. Thus, similar to their nearest Galactic cousins, the very high state X-ray binaries (see e.g., GRS 1915), ULXs may show radio flares. A well-defined sample of the 9 nearest ULXs has been monitored eight times during 5 months with the Very Large Array in A and B configuration. Our limiting sensitivity is 0.15 mJy (4 σ ) for flares and 68 μ Jy for continuous emission. In M82 some ULXs seem to be connected to radio supernova remnants. Besides that no flare or continuous emission has been detected. As the timescales of radio flares in ULXs are highly uncertain, it could well be that we have undersampled the lightcurve. However, upper bounds for the probability to detect a flare can be given. The upper limits for the continuous emission are compared with the emission found in NGC 5408 X-1 and with quasars and microquasars. We show that these limits are well in agreement with the microblazar model using the Radio/X-ray correlation of XRBs and AGN. Thus, it could well be that ULXs are microblazers which may be radio loud.

  15. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction with accelerator- and laser-plasma-based X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoul, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Femtosecond X-ray pulses are a powerful tool to investigate atomic motions triggered by femtosecond pump pulses. This thesis is dedicated to the production of such pulses and their use in optical pump - X-ray probe measurement. This thesis describes the laser-plasma-based sources available at the University of Duisburg-Essen. Part of it consists of the description of the design, built-up and characterization of a new ''modular'' X-ray source dedicated to optimize the X-ray flux onto the sample under investigation. The acoustic wave generation in femtosecond optically excited semiconductor (gallium arsenide) and metal (gold) was performed using the sources of the University of Duisburg-Essen. The physical answer of the material was modeled by a simple strain model for the semiconductor, pressure model for the metal, in order to gain information on the interplay of the electronic and thermal pressures rising after excitation. Whereas no reliable information could be obtain in gallium arsenide (principally due to the use of a bulk), the model for gold achieved very good agreement, providing useful information. The relaxation time of the electron to lattice energy was found to be (5.0±0.3) ps, and the ratio of the Grueneisen parameters was found to be γ e / γ i = (0.5±0.1). This thesis also describes the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) which existed at the (formally) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, an accelerator-based X-ray source, and two measurements performed with it. The first one is the detailed investigation of the phonon softening of the A 1g mode launch in bismuth upon fluence excitation. Detailed information concerning the new equilibrium position and phonon frequency were obtained over extended laser pump fluences. The second measurement concerned the study of the liquid phase dynamics in a newly formed liquid phase following ultrafast melting in indium antimonide. The formation of the liquid phase and its development for excitations close to the

  16. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction with accelerator- and laser-plasma-based X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoul, Matthieu

    2010-09-01

    Femtosecond X-ray pulses are a powerful tool to investigate atomic motions triggered by femtosecond pump pulses. This thesis is dedicated to the production of such pulses and their use in optical pump - X-ray probe measurement. This thesis describes the laser-plasma-based sources available at the University of Duisburg-Essen. Part of it consists of the description of the design, built-up and characterization of a new ''modular'' X-ray source dedicated to optimize the X-ray flux onto the sample under investigation. The acoustic wave generation in femtosecond optically excited semiconductor (gallium arsenide) and metal (gold) was performed using the sources of the University of Duisburg-Essen. The physical answer of the material was modeled by a simple strain model for the semiconductor, pressure model for the metal, in order to gain information on the interplay of the electronic and thermal pressures rising after excitation. Whereas no reliable information could be obtain in gallium arsenide (principally due to the use of a bulk), the model for gold achieved very good agreement, providing useful information. The relaxation time of the electron to lattice energy was found to be (5.0{+-}0.3) ps, and the ratio of the Grueneisen parameters was found to be {gamma}{sub e} / {gamma}{sub i} = (0.5{+-}0.1). This thesis also describes the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) which existed at the (formally) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, an accelerator-based X-ray source, and two measurements performed with it. The first one is the detailed investigation of the phonon softening of the A{sub 1g} mode launch in bismuth upon fluence excitation. Detailed information concerning the new equilibrium position and phonon frequency were obtained over extended laser pump fluences. The second measurement concerned the study of the liquid phase dynamics in a newly formed liquid phase following ultrafast melting in indium antimonide. The formation of the liquid phase

  17. BROADBAND X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE GAMMA-RAY BINARY 1FGL J1018.6–5856

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Hongjun; Bellm, Eric; Fuerst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A.; Bhalerao, Varun; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Tomsick, John A.; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2015-01-01

    We report on NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Swift observations of the gamma-ray binary 1FGL J1018.6–5856. We measure the orbital period to be 16.544 ± 0.008 days using Swift data spanning 1900 days. The orbital period is different from the 2011 gamma-ray measurement which was used in the previous X-ray study of An et al. using ∼400 days of Swift data, but is consistent with a new gamma-ray solution reported in 2014. The light curve folded on the new period is qualitatively similar to that reported previously, having a spike at phase 0 and broad sinusoidal modulation. The X-ray flux enhancement at phase 0 occurs more regularly in time than was previously suggested. A spiky structure at this phase seems to be a persistent feature, although there is some variability. Furthermore, we find that the source flux clearly correlates with the spectral hardness throughout all orbital phases, and that the broadband X-ray spectra measured with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Swift are well fit with an unbroken power-law model. This spectrum suggests that the system may not be accretion-powered

  18. Classification of X-ray sources in the XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalog: Objects of special interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dacheng; Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier, E-mail: dlin@ua.edu [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2014-01-01

    We analyze 18 sources that showed interesting properties of periodicity, very soft spectra, and/or large long-term variability in X-rays in our project of classification of sources from the 2XMMi-DR3 catalog, but were poorly studied in the literature, in order to investigate their nature. Two hard sources show X-ray periodicities of ∼1.62 hr (2XMM J165334.4–414423) and ∼2.1 hr (2XMM J133135.2–315541) and are probably magnetic cataclysmic variables. One source, 2XMM J123103.2+110648, is an active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidate showing very soft X-ray spectra (kT ∼ 0.1 keV) and exhibiting an intermittent ∼3.8 hr quasi-periodic oscillation. There are six other very soft sources (with kT < 0.2 keV), which might be in other galaxies with luminosities between ∼10{sup 38}-10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}. They probably represent a diverse group that might include objects such as ultrasoft AGNs and cool thermal disk emission from accreting intermediate-mass black holes. Six highly variable sources with harder spectra are probably in nearby galaxies with luminosities above 10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1} and thus are great candidates for extragalactic X-ray binaries. One of them (2XMMi J004211.2+410429, in M31) is probably a new-born persistent source, having been X-ray bright and hard in 0.3-10 keV for at least four years since it was discovered entering an outburst in 2007. Three highly variable hard sources appear at low galactic latitudes and have maximum luminosities below ∼10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1} if they are in our Galaxy. Thus, they are great candidates for cataclysmic variables or very faint X-ray transients harboring a black hole or neutron star. Our interpretations of these sources can be tested with future long-term X-ray monitoring and multi-wavelength observations.

  19. Combined optic system based on polycapillary X-ray optics and single-bounce monocapillary optics for focusing X-rays from a conventional laboratory X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xuepeng; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Yi, Longtao; Sun, Weiyuan; Li, Fangzuo; Jiang, Bowen [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Two combined optic systems based on polycapillary X-ray optics and single-bounce monocapillary optics (SBMO) were designed for focusing the X-rays from a conventional laboratory X-ray source. One was based on a polycapillary focusing X-ray lens (PFXRL) and a single-bounce ellipsoidal capillary (SBEC), in which the output focal spot with the size of tens of micrometers of the PFXRL was used as the “virtual” X-ray source for the SBEC. The other system was based on a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) and a single-bounce parabolic capillary (SBPC), in which the PPXRL transformed the divergent X-ray beam from an X-ray source into a quasi-parallel X-ray beam with the divergence of sever milliradians as the incident illumination of the SBPC. The experiment results showed that the combined optic systems based on PFXRL and SBEC with a Mo rotating anode X-ray generator with the focal spot with a diameter of 300 μm could obtain a focal spot with the total gain of 14,300 and focal spot size of 37.4 μm, and the combined optic systems based on PPXRL and SBPC with the same X-ray source mentioned above could acquire a focal spot with the total gain of 580 and focal spot size of 58.3 μm, respectively. The two combined optic systems have potential applications in micro X-ray diffraction, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption near edge structure, full field X-ray microscopes and so on.

  20. X-ray detectors at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaj, Gabriel; Caragiulo, Pietro; Carini, Gabriella; Carron, Sebastian; Dragone, Angelo; Freytag, Dietrich; Haller, Gunther; Hart, Philip; Hasi, Jasmine; Herbst, Ryan; Herrmann, Sven; Kenney, Chris; Markovic, Bojan; Nishimura, Kurtis; Osier, Shawn; Pines, Jack; Reese, Benjamin; Segal, Julie; Tomada, Astrid; Weaver, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of area detectors developed for use at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) with particular emphasis on their impact on science. The experimental needs leading to the development of second-generation cameras for LCLS are discussed and the new detector prototypes are presented. Free-electron lasers (FELs) present new challenges for camera development compared with conventional light sources. At SLAC a variety of technologies are being used to match the demands of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and to support a wide range of scientific applications. In this paper an overview of X-ray detector design requirements at FELs is presented and the various cameras in use at SLAC are described for the benefit of users planning experiments or analysts looking at data. Features and operation of the CSPAD camera, which is currently deployed at LCLS, are discussed, and the ePix family, a new generation of cameras under development at SLAC, is introduced

  1. Enhanced X-ray yields in PIXE analysis of some binary metal fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peisach, M.; Pineda, C.A.; Pillay, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Enhanced X-ray yields from the metal components of homogeneous thick targets of binary metal fluorides were observed during PIXE irradiations with protons, deuterons and 3 He ions. The absence of these effects in the pure metals and in the corresponding metal oxides, nitrides and borides suggests that the fluoride component in such compounds plays a key role in producing the enhancement. Coulomb excitation of the extremely low-lying levels of the fluorine nucleus is discussed as a possible mechanism for the improved yields via secondary excitation. (orig.)

  2. Characteristics of hard X-ray double sources in impulsive solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakao, T.; Kosugi, T.; Masuda, S.; Yaji, K.; Inda-Koide, M.; Makishima, K.

    1996-01-01

    Imaging observations of solar flare hard X-ray sources with the Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) aboard the Yohkoh satellite have revealed that hard X-ray emissions (greater than 30 ke V) originate most frequently from double sources. The double sources are located on both sides of the magnetic neutral line, suggesting that the bulk of hard X-rays is emitted from footpoints of flaring magnetic loops. We also found that hard X-rays from the double sources are emitted simultaneously within a fraction of second and that the weaker source tends to be located in the stronger magnetic field region, showing a softer spectrum. Physcial implications on the observed characteristics of the hard X-ray double sources are discussed.

  3. LIGHT SOURCE: A simulation study of Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuan-Xiang; Li, Ren-Kai; Huang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Huai-Bi; Du, Ying-Chao; Du, Qiang; Du, Tai-Bin; He, Xiao-Zhong; Hua, Jian-Fei; Lin, Yu-Zhen; Qian, Hou-Jun; Shi, Jia-Ru; Xiang, Dao; Yan, Li-Xin; Yu, Pei-Cheng

    2009-06-01

    Thomson scattering X-ray sources are compact and affordable facilities that produce short duration, high brightness X-ray pulses enabling new experimental capacities in ultra-fast science studies, and also medical and industrial applications. Such a facility has been built at the Accelerator Laboratory of Tsinghua University, and upgrade is in progress. In this paper, we present a proposed layout of the upgrade with design parameters by simulation, aiming at high X-ray pulses flux and brightness, and also enabling advanced dynamics studies and applications of the electron beam. Design and construction status of main subsystems are also presented.

  4. Probing the clumpy winds of giant stars with high mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Victoria; Hell, Natalie; Hirsch, Maria; Garcia, Javier; Huenemoerder, David; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Nowak, Michael; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schulz, Norbert S.; Sundqvists, Jon O.; Townsend, Richard D.; Wilms, Joern

    2016-04-01

    Line-driven winds from early type stars are structured, with small, overdense clumps embedded in tenuous hot gas. High mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), systems where a neutron star or a black hole accretes from the line-driven stellar wind of an O/B-type companion, are ideal for studying such winds: the wind drives the accretion onto the compact object and thus the X-ray production. The radiation from close to the compact object is quasi-pointlike and effectively X-rays the wind.We used RXTE and Chandra-HETG observations of two of the brightest HMXBs, Cyg X-1 and Vela X-1, to decipher their wind structure. In Cyg X-1, we show that the orbital variability of absorption can be only explained by a clumpy wind model and constrain the porosity of the wind as well as the onion-like structure of the clumps. In Vela X-1 we show, using the newest reference energies for low ionization Si-lines obtained with LLNL’s EBIT-I, that the ionized phase of the circumstellar medium and the cold clumps have different velocities.

  5. Special issue on compact x-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Simon; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Rosenzweig, James

    2014-04-01

    Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is delighted to announce a forthcoming special issue on compact x-ray sources, to appear in the winter of 2014, and invites you to submit a paper. The potential for high-brilliance x- and gamma-ray sources driven by advanced, compact accelerators has gained increasing attention in recent years. These novel sources—sometimes dubbed 'fifth generation sources'—will build on the revolutionary advance of the x-ray free-electron laser (FEL). New radiation sources of this type have widespread applications, including in ultra-fast imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic medicine, and studies of matter under extreme conditions. Rapid advances in compact accelerators and in FEL techniques make this an opportune moment to consider the opportunities which could be realized by bringing these two fields together. Further, the successful development of compact radiation sources driven by compact accelerators will be a significant milestone on the road to the development of high-gradient colliders able to operate at the frontiers of particle physics. Thus the time is right to publish a peer-reviewed collection of contributions concerning the state-of-the-art in: advanced and novel acceleration techniques; sophisticated physics at the frontier of FELs; and the underlying and enabling techniques of high brightness electron beam physics. Interdisciplinary research connecting two or more of these fields is also increasingly represented, as exemplified by entirely new concepts such as plasma based electron beam sources, and coherent imaging with fs-class electron beams. We hope that in producing this special edition of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (iopscience.iop.org/0953-4075/) we may help further a challenging mission and ongoing intellectual adventure: the harnessing of newly emergent, compact advanced accelerators to the creation of new, agile light sources with unprecedented capabilities

  6. The DARPA compact Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heese, R.; Kalsi, S.; Leung, E.

    1991-01-01

    Under DARPA sponsorship, a compact Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS) is being designed and built by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with industry participation from Grumman Corporation and General Dynamics. This source is optimized for lithography work for sub-micron high density computer chips, and is about the size of a billiard table (1.5 m x 4.0 m). The machine has a racetrack configuration with two 180 degree bending magnets being designed and built by General Dynamics under a subcontract with Grumman Corporation. The machine will have 18 photon ports which would deliver light peaked at a wave length of 10 Angstroms. Grumman is commercializing the SXLS device and plans to book orders for delivery of industrialized SXLS (ISXLS) versions in 1995. This paper will describe the major features of this device. The commercial machine will be equipped with a fully automated user-friendly control systems, major features of which are already working on a compact warm dipole ring at BNL. This ring has normal dipole magnets with dimensions identical to the SXLS device, and has been successfully commissioned

  7. Inductive-energy power flow for X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, K.D.; Filios, P.G.; Gullickson, R.L.; Hebert, M.P.; Rowley, J.E.; Schneider, R.F.; Summa, W.J.; Vitkovski, I.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) has been developing inductive energy storage (IES) technology for generating intense x-rays from electron beam-target interactions and from plasma radiating sources (PRS). Because of the complex interaction between the commutation of the current from the plasma and the stable dissipation of the energy in the load, DNA has supported several variations of power flow technology. Major variations include: (1) current interruption using a plasma opening switch (POS); (2) continuous current commutation through current-plasma motion against neutral, ionized, or magnetized medium [i.e., dense plasma focus-like (DPF) and plasma flow switch (PFS) technologies]; and, in addition, possible benefits of (3) directly driven complex PRS loads are being investigated. DNA programs include experimental and theoretical modeling and analysis with investigations (1) on Hawk and a Decade module in conjunction with the development of the bremsstrahlung sources (BRS), and (2) on Hawk, ACE-4 and Shiva-Star, as well as cooperative research on GIT-4 and GIT-8, in conjunction with PRS. (author). 1 tab., 12 figs., 17 refs

  8. X-Pinch soft x-ray source for microlithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glidden, S.C.; Hammer, D.A.; Kalantar, D.H.; Qi, N.

    1993-01-01

    The x-pinch soft x-ray source is described for application in submicron resolution lithography. Experiments have been performed to characterize the radiation emitted from magnesium wire x-pinch plasmas using an 80 ns, ≤500 kA pulse. Yields of 14.2 J averaged over three independent calibrated diagnostics at 445 kA have been measured in magnesium K-shell radiation (predominantly 8.4 angstrom to 9.4 angstrom or 1.5 keV to 1.3 keV) from a submillimeter source, with as little as 5-10% of the yield below the 6.74 angstrom silicon absorption edge. A new ≤700 kA, 100 ns pulser being used for x-pinch physics experiments is described. The design of a 40 pulse per second pulsed power system and wire loading mechanism for exposing a resist in 1 second at a distance 40 cm is presented

  9. Inductive-energy power flow for X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, K D; Filios, P G; Gullickson, R L; Hebert, M P; Rowley, J E; Schneider, R F; Summa, W J [Defense Nuclear Agency, Alexandria, VA (United States); Vitkovski, I M [Logicon RDA, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) has been developing inductive energy storage (IES) technology for generating intense x-rays from electron beam-target interactions and from plasma radiating sources (PRS). Because of the complex interaction between the commutation of the current from the plasma and the stable dissipation of the energy in the load, DNA has supported several variations of power flow technology. Major variations include: (1) current interruption using a plasma opening switch (POS); (2) continuous current commutation through current-plasma motion against neutral, ionized, or magnetized medium [i.e., dense plasma focus-like (DPF) and plasma flow switch (PFS) technologies]; and, in addition, possible benefits of (3) directly driven complex PRS loads are being investigated. DNA programs include experimental and theoretical modeling and analysis with investigations (1) on Hawk and a Decade module in conjunction with the development of the bremsstrahlung sources (BRS), and (2) on Hawk, ACE-4 and Shiva-Star, as well as cooperative research on GIT-4 and GIT-8, in conjunction with PRS. (author). 1 tab., 12 figs., 17 refs.

  10. 100y DASCH Search for historical outbursts of Black Hole Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Miller, George; Gomez, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Black Hole Low mass X-ray binaries (BH-LMXBs) are all transients, although several (e.g. GRS1915+109 and GX339-4) are quasi-persistent. All of the now 22 dynamically confirmed BH-LMXBs were discovered by their luminous outbursts, reaching Lx ~10^37 ergs/s, with outburst durations of typically ~1-3 months. These systems then (with few exceptions) return to a deep quiescent state, with Lx reduced by factors ~10^5-6 and hard X-ray spectra. The X-ray outbursts are accompanied by optical outbursts (if not absorbed by Galactic extinction) with ~6-9 magnitude increases and similar lightcurve shapes and durations as the X-ray (discovery) outburst. Prior to this work, only 3 BH-LMXBs have had historical (before the X-ray discovery) outbursts found in the archival data: A0620-00, the first BH-LMXB to be so identified, V404 Cyg (discoverd as "Nova Cyg" in 1938 and regarded as a classical nova), and V4641-Sgr which was given its variable star name when first noted in 1975. We report on the historical outbursts now discovered from the DASCH (Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard) data from scanning and digitizing the now ~210,000 glass plates in the northern Galactic Hemisphere. This was one of the primary motivations for the DASCH project: to use the detection (or lack threof) of historic outbursts to measure or constrain the Duty Cycle of the accreting black holes in these systems. This, in turn, allows the total population of BH-LMXBs to be estimated and compared with that for the very similar systems containing neutron stars as the accretor (NS-LMXBs). Whereas the ratio of BHs/NSs from stellar evolution and IMFs is expected to be <<1, the DASCH results on half the sky point to an excess of BH-LMXBs. This must constrain the formation process for these systems, of importance for understanding both BH formation and compact binary evolution.

  11. X-Ray imager power source on distribution trailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance for Beneficial Use documents the work completed on the addition of an X-ray cable reel on distribution trailer HO-64-3533 for core sampling equipment. Work and documentation remaining to be completed is identified

  12. An Overview of X-Ray Polarimetry of Astronomical Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C. Weisskopf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the history of astronomical X-ray polarimetry based on the author’s perspective, beginning with early sounding-rocket experiments by Robert Novick at Columbia University and his team, of which the author was a member. After describing various early techniques for measuring X-ray polarization, we discuss the polarimeter aboard the Orbiting Solar Observatory 8 (OSO-8 and its scientific results. Next, we describe the X-ray polarimeter to have flown aboard the ill-fated original Spectrum-X mission, which provided important lessons on polarimeter design, systematic effects, and the programmatics of a shared focal plane. We conclude with a description of the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE and its prospective scientific return. IXPE, a partnership between NASA and ASI, has been selected as a NASA Astrophysics Small Explorers Mission and is currently scheduled to launch in April of 2021.

  13. Binary population synthesis study of the supersoft X-ray phase of single degenerate type Ia supernova progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangcun; Yang Wuming

    2011-01-01

    In the single degenerate (SD) scenario for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), a mass-accreting white dwarf is expected to experience a supersoft X-ray source (SSS) phase. However, some recent observations showed that the expected number of mass-accreting WDs is much lower than that predicted from theory, regardless of whether they are in spiral or elliptical galaxies. In this paper, we performed a binary population synthesis study on the relative duration of the SSS phase to their whole mass-increasing phase of WDs leading to SNe Ia. We found that for about 40% of the progenitor systems, the relative duration is shorter than 2% and the evolution of the mean relative duration shows that it is always smaller than 5%, both for young and old SNe Ia. In addition, before the SNe Ia explosions, more than 55% of the progenitor systems were experiencing a dwarf novae phase and no more than 10% were staying in the SSS phase. These results are consistent with the recent observations and imply that both in early- and late-type galaxies, only a small fraction of mass-accreting WDs resulting in SNe Ia contributes to the supersoft X-ray flux. So, although our results are not directly related to the X-ray output of the SN Ia progenitor, the low supersoft X-ray luminosity observed in early type galaxies may not be able to exclude the validity of the SD model. On the contrary, it is evidence to support the SD scenario.

  14. Quantum electrodynamics of the internal source x-ray holographies: Bremsstrahlung, fluorescence, and multiple-energy x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.; Sorensen, L.B.

    1997-01-01

    Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to derive the differential cross sections measured in the three new experimental internal source ensemble x-ray holographies: bremsstrahlung (BXH), fluorescence (XFH), and multiple-energy (MEXH) x-ray holography. The polarization dependence of the BXH cross section is also obtained. For BXH, we study analytically and numerically the possible effects of the virtual photons and electrons which enter QED calculations in summing over the intermediate states. For the low photon and electron energies used in the current experiments, we show that the virtual intermediate states produce only very small effects. This is because the uncertainty principle limits the distance that the virtual particles can propagate to be much shorter than the separation between the regions of high electron density in the adjacent atoms. We also find that using the asymptotic form of the scattering wave function causes about a 5 10% error for near forward scattering. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. Accretion from a clumpy massive-star wind in supergiant X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mellah, I.; Sundqvist, J. O.; Keppens, R.

    2018-04-01

    Supergiant X-ray binaries (SgXB) host a compact object, often a neutron star (NS), orbiting an evolved O/B star. Mass transfer proceeds through the intense line-driven wind of the stellar donor, a fraction of which is captured by the gravitational field of the NS. The subsequent accretion process on to the NS is responsible for the abundant X-ray emission from SgXB. They also display peak-to-peak variability of the X-ray flux by a factor of a few 10-100, along with changes in the hardness ratios possibly due to varying absorption along the line of sight. We use recent radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of inhomogeneities (a.k.a. clumps) in the non-stationary wind of massive hot stars to evaluate their impact on the time-variable accretion process. For this, we run 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the wind in the vicinity of the accretor to investigate the formation of the bow shock and follow the inhomogeneous flow over several spatial orders of magnitude, down to the NS magnetosphere. In particular, we show that the impact of the wind clumps on the time variability of the intrinsic mass accretion rate is severely tempered by the crossing of the shock, compared to the purely ballistic Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton estimation. We also account for the variable absorption due to clumps passing by the line of sight and estimate the final effective variability of the column density and mass accretion rate for different orbital separations. Finally, we compare our results to the most recent analysis of the X-ray flux and the hardness ratio in Vela X-1.

  16. Multiwavelength study of Chandra X-ray sources in the Antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Brandl, B. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Carson, J. C.; Henderson, C. P.; Hayward, T. L.; Barry, D. J.; Ptak, A. F.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We use Wide-field InfraRed Camera (WIRC) infrared (IR) images of the Antennae (NGC 4038/4039) together with the extensive catalogue of 120 X-ray point sources to search for counterpart candidates. Using our proven frame-tie technique, we find 38 X-ray sources with IR counterparts, almost doubling the number of IR counterparts to X-ray sources that we first identified. In our photometric analysis, we consider the 35 IR counterparts that are confirmed star clusters. We show that the clusters with X-ray sources tend to be brighter, Ks≈ 16 mag, with (J-Ks) = 1.1 mag. We then use archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the Antennae to search for optical counterparts to the X-ray point sources. We employ our previous IR-to-X-ray frame-tie as an intermediary to establish a precise optical-to-X-ray frame-tie with <0.6 arcsec rms positional uncertainty. Due to the high optical source density near the X-ray sources, we determine that we cannot reliably identify counterparts. Comparing the HST positions to the 35 identified IR star cluster counterparts, we find optical matches for 27 of these sources. Using Bruzual-Charlot spectral evolutionary models, we find that most clusters associated with an X-ray source are massive, and young, ˜ 106 yr.

  17. Low-mass X-ray binaries from black hole retaining globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, Matthew; Clausen, Drew; Ott, Christian D.

    2018-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that globular clusters (GCs) may retain a substantial population of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), in contrast to the long-held belief of a few to zero BHs. We model the population of BH low-mass X-ray binaries (BH-LMXBs), an ideal observable proxy for elusive single BHs, produced from a representative group of Milky Way GCs with variable BH populations. We simulate the formation of BH binaries in GCs through exchange interactions between binary and single stars in the company of tens to hundreds of BHs. Additionally, we consider the impact of the BH population on the rate of compact binaries undergoing gravitational wave driven mergers. The characteristics of the BH-LMXB population and binary properties are sensitive to the GCs structural parameters as well as its unobservable BH population. We find that GCs retaining ˜1000 BHs produce a galactic population of ˜150 ejected BH-LMXBs, whereas GCs retaining only ˜20 BHs produce zero ejected BH-LMXBs. Moreover, we explore the possibility that some of the presently known BH-LMXBs might have originated in GCs and identify five candidate systems.

  18. Low-mass X-ray binaries from black-hole retaining globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, Matthew; Clausen, Drew; Ott, Christian D.

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that globular clusters (GCs) may retain a substantial population of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), in contrast to the long-held belief of a few to zero BHs. We model the population of BH low-mass X-ray binaries (BH-LMXBs), an ideal observable proxy for elusive single BHs, produced from a representative group of Milky Way GCs with variable BH populations. We simulate the formation of BH-binaries in GCs through exchange interactions between binary and single stars in the company of tens to hundreds of BHs. Additionally, we consider the impact of the BH population on the rate of compact binaries undergoing gravitational wave driven mergers. The characteristics of the BH-LMXB population and binary properties are sensitive to the GCs structural parameters as well as its unobservable BH population. We find that GCs retaining ˜1000 BHs produce a galactic population of ˜150 ejected BH-LMXBs whereas GCs retaining only ˜20 BHs produce zero ejected BH-LMXBs. Moreover, we explore the possibility that some of the presently known BH-LMXBs might have originated in GCs and identify five candidate systems.

  19. Attempt to explain black hole spin in X-ray binaries by new physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely believed that the spin of black holes in X-ray binaries is mainly natal. A significant spin-up from accretion is not possible. If the secondary has a low mass, the black hole spin cannot change too much even if the black hole swallows the whole stellar companion. If the secondary has a high mass, its lifetime is too short to transfer the necessary amount of matter and spin the black hole up. However, while black holes formed from the collapse of a massive star with solarmetallicity are expected to have low birth spin, current spin measurements show that some black holes in X-ray binaries are rotating very rapidly. Here we show that, if these objects are not the Kerr black holes of general relativity, the accretion of a small amount of matter (∝2 M s un) can make them look like very fast-rotating Kerr black holes. Such a possibility is not in contradiction with any observation and it can explain current spin measurements in a very simple way. (orig.)

  20. THE BROADBAND XMM-NEWTON AND NuSTAR X-RAY SPECTRA OF TWO ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN THE GALAXY IC 342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Vikram; Harrison, Fiona A.; Walton, Dominic J.; Furst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Webb, Natalie A. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Fabian, Andrew C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn C. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Ptak, Andrew F.; Zhang, William W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present results for two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), IC 342 X-1 and IC 342 X-2, using two epochs of XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations separated by ∼7 days. We observe little spectral or flux variability above 1 keV between epochs, with unabsorbed 0.3-30 keV luminosities being 1.04{sub −0.06}{sup +0.08}×10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} for IC 342 X-1 and 7.40 ± 0.20 × 10{sup 39} erg s{sup –1} for IC 342 X-2, so that both were observed in a similar, luminous state. Both sources have a high absorbing column in excess of the Galactic value. Neither source has a spectrum consistent with a black hole binary in low/hard state, and both ULXs exhibit strong curvature in their broadband X-ray spectra. This curvature rules out models that invoke a simple reflection-dominated spectrum with a broadened iron line and no cutoff in the illuminating power-law continuum. X-ray spectrum of IC 342 X-1 can be characterized by a soft disk-like blackbody component at low energies and a cool, optically thick Comptonization continuum at high energies, but unique physical interpretation of the spectral components remains challenging. The broadband spectrum of IC 342 X-2 can be fit by either a hot (3.8 keV) accretion disk or a Comptonized continuum with no indication of a seed photon population. Although the seed photon component may be masked by soft excess emission unlikely to be associated with the binary system, combined with the high absorption column, it is more plausible that the broadband X-ray emission arises from a simple thin blackbody disk component. Secure identification of the origin of the spectral components in these sources will likely require broadband spectral variability studies.

  1. HST/ACS IMAGING OF OMEGA CENTAURI: OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS OF CHANDRA X-RAY SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, Adrienne M.; Arias, Tersi; Brochmann, Michelle; Dorfman, Jason; Gafford, April; White, Vivian; Haggard, Daryl; Anderson, Jay

    2013-01-01

    We present results of a search for optical counterparts of X-ray sources in and toward the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ACS data consist of a mosaic of Wide Field Channel images obtained using F625W, F435W, and F658N filters; with nine pointings we cover the central ∼10' × 10' of the cluster and encompass 109 known Chandra sources. We find promising optical counterparts for 59 of the sources, ∼40 of which are likely to be associated with the cluster. These include 27 candidate cataclysmic variables (CVs), 24 of which are reported here for the first time. Fourteen of the CV candidates are very faint, with absolute magnitudes in the range M 625 =10.4-12.6, making them comparable in brightness to field CVs near the period minimum discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Additional optical counterparts include three BY Dra candidates, a possible blue straggler, and a previously reported quiescent low-mass X-ray binary. We also identify 3 foreground stars and 11 probable active galactic nuclei. Finally, we report the discovery of a group of seven stars whose X-ray properties are suggestive of magnetically active binaries, and whose optical counterparts lie on or very near the metal-rich anomalous giant and subgiant branches in ω Cen. If the apparent association between these seven stars and the RGB/SGB-a stars is real, then the frequency of X-ray sources in this metal-rich population is enhanced by a factor of at least five relative to the other giant and subgiant populations in the cluster. If these stars are not members of the metal-rich population, then they bring the total number of red stragglers (also known as sub-subgiants) that have been identified in ω to Cen 20, the largest number yet known in any globular cluster.

  2. The X-ray eclipse geometry of the super-soft X-ray source CAL 87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, T.; Lopes de Oliveira, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon s/n, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Borges, B. W., E-mail: tribeiro@ufs.br, E-mail: rlopes@ufs.br, E-mail: bernardo@astro.ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Araranguá, 88905-120 Araranguá, SC (Brazil)

    2014-09-01

    We explore XMM-Newton observations of the eclipsing super-soft X-ray source CAL 87 in order to map the accretion structures of the system. Indirect imaging techniques were applied in X-ray light curves to provide eclipse maps. The surface brightness distribution exhibits an extended and symmetric emission, and a feature is revealed from the hardest X-rays that is likely due to a bright spot. A rate of P-dot =(+6±2)×10{sup −10} for changes in the orbital period of the system was derived from the eclipses. There is no significant variation of the emission lines even during eclipses, arguing that the lines are formed in an extended region. The continuum emission dominates the decrease in flux that is observed during eclipses. The O VIII Lyα line reveals a broadening velocity that is estimated to be 365{sub −69}{sup +65} km s{sup –1} (at 1σ), marginal evidence for asymmetry in its profile, and sometimes shows evidence of double-peaked emission. Together, the results support that the wind-driven mass transfer scenario is running in CAL 87.

  3. Development of full-field x-ray phase-tomographic microscope based on laboratory x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, H.; Wu, Y.; Momose, A.

    2017-09-01

    An X-ray phase tomographic microscope that can quantitatively measure the refractive index of a sample in three dimensions with a high spatial resolution was developed by installing a Lau interferometer consisting of an absorption grating and a π/2 phase grating into the optics of an X-ray microscope. The optics comprises a Cu rotating anode X-ray source, capillary condenser optics, and a Fresnel zone plate for the objective. The microscope has two optical modes: a large-field-of-view mode (field of view: 65 μm x 65 μm) and a high-resolution mode (spatial resolution: 50 nm). Optimizing the parameters of the interferometer yields a self-image of the phase grating with 60% visibility. Through the normal fringe-scanning measurement, a twin phase image, which has an overlap of two phase image of opposite contrast with a shear distance much larger than system resolution, is generated. Although artifacts remain to some extent currently when a phase image is calculated from the twin phase image, this system can obtain high-spatial-resolution images resolving 50-nm structures. Phase tomography with this system has also been demonstrated using a phase object.

  4. Development of a compact x-ray source via laser compton scattering at KEK-LUCX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Washio, Masakazu; Aryshev, Alexander; Araki, Sakae; Urakawa, Junji; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Fukuda, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Takeda, Ayaki

    2013-01-01

    The compact X-ray source based on Laser-Compton scattering (LCS) has been developed at LUCX (Laser Undulator Compact X-ray source) facility in KEK. The multi-bunch high quality electron beam produced by a standing wave 3.6 cell RF Gun and accelerated by the followed S-band normal conducting 12 cells standing wave 'Booster' linear accelerator is scattered off the laser beam stored in the optical cavity. The 4-mirror planar optical cavity with finesse 335 is used. The MCP (Micro-Channer Plate) detector as well as SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) pixel sensor was used for scattered X-ray detection. The SOI pixel sensor has been used for LCS X-ray detection for the first time and has demonstrated high spatial resolution and high SN ratio X-ray detection that in turn lead to clearest X-ray images achieved by LCS X-ray. We have also achieved generation of 6.38x10 6 ph./sec., which is more than 30 times larger LCS X-ray flux in comparison with our previous results. The complete details of LUCX LCS X-ray source, specifications of both electron and laser beams, and the results of LCS X-ray generation experiments are reported in this paper. (author)

  5. What Can We Learn About Black-Hole Formation from Black-Hole X-ray Binaries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    I discuss the effect of the formation of a black hole on a (close) binary and show some of the current constraints that the observed properties of black hole X-ray binaries put on the formation of black holes. In particular, I discuss the evidence for and against asymmetric kicks imparted on the

  6. Marriage of x-ray and optical astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    An historical discussion of the relation of x-ray and optical astronomy is given including distances within our galaxy, the optical identification of x-ray sources, the binary x-ray stars, neutron stars and black holes, a program in x-ray astronomy, and future missions

  7. Possible mechanism for mass transfer in X-ray binary systems with OB supergiant companions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alme, M.L.; Wilson, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    We have studied the ''beginning Roche lobe overflow'' phase of mass transfer. We find that before the primary fills its Roche lobe, radiation-driven density waves generated in the atmosphere produce a sufficient mass outflow rate to power a compact X-ray source. In particular, for a model of Cygnus X-1, if the radius of the photosphere is between 82 and 86 percent of the radius of the Roche equipotential, large-amplitude density waves with irregular periods of a few days are observed. These density waves, which are generated by radiation pressure effects, pass through the inner Lagrangian point with velocities approx.100 km s -1 , and can easily provide sufficient material to power the compact X-ray source

  8. A mass of less than 15 solar masses for the black hole in an ultraluminous X-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motch, C; Pakull, M W; Soria, R; Grisé, F; Pietrzyński, G

    2014-10-09

    Most ultraluminous X-ray sources have a typical set of properties not seen in Galactic stellar-mass black holes. They have luminosities of more than 3 × 10(39) ergs per second, unusually soft X-ray components (with a typical temperature of less than about 0.3 kiloelectronvolts) and a characteristic downturn in their spectra above about 5 kiloelectronvolts. Such puzzling properties have been interpreted either as evidence of intermediate-mass black holes or as emission from stellar-mass black holes accreting above their Eddington limit, analogous to some Galactic black holes at peak luminosity. Recently, a very soft X-ray spectrum was observed in a rare and transient stellar-mass black hole. Here we report that the X-ray source P13 in the galaxy NGC 7793 is in a binary system with a period of about 64 days and exhibits all three canonical properties of ultraluminous sources. By modelling the strong optical and ultraviolet modulations arising from X-ray heating of the B9Ia donor star, we constrain the black hole mass to be less than 15 solar masses. Our results demonstrate that in P13, soft thermal emission and spectral curvature are indeed signatures of supercritical accretion. By analogy, ultraluminous X-ray sources with similar X-ray spectra and luminosities of up to a few times 10(40) ergs per second can be explained by supercritical accretion onto massive stellar-mass black holes.

  9. Synchrotron radiation sources and condensers for projection x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.B.; MacDowell, A.A.; White, D.L.; Wood, O.R. II

    1992-01-01

    The design requirements for a compact electron storage ring that could be used as a soft x-ray source for projection lithography are discussed. The design concepts of the x-ray optics that are required to collect and condition the radiation in divergence, uniformity and direction to properly illuminate the mask and the particular x-ray projection camera used are discussed. Preliminary designs for an entire soft x-ray projection lithography system using an electron storage ring as a soft X-ray source are presented. It is shown that by combining the existing technology of storage rings with large collection angle condensers, a powerful and reliable source of 130 Angstrom photons for production line projection x-ray lithography is possible

  10. X-ray Transient Sources (Multifrequency Laboratories The Case of the Prototype A0535+26/HDE 245770

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giovannelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to discuss the behaviour of the X-ray transient source A0535+26 which is considered for historical reasons and for the huge amount of multifrequency data, spread over a period of 35 years, as the prototype of this class of objects. Transient sources are formed by a Be star — the primary — and a neutron star X-ray pulsar — the secondary — and constitute a sub-class of X-ray binary systems. We will emphasize the discovery of low-energy indicators of high-energy processes. They are UBVRI magnitudes and Balmer lines of the optical companion. Particular unusual activity of the primary star — usually at the periastron passage of the neutron star – indicates that an X-ray flare is drawing near. The shape and intensity of X-ray outbursts are dependent on the strength of the activity of the primary. We derive the optical orbital period of the system as 110.856 ± 0.02 days. By using the optical flare of December 5, 1981 (here after 811205-E that triggered the subsequent X-ray outburst of December 13, 1981, we derive the ephemeris of the system as JD Popt−outb = JD0 (2, 444, 944 ± n(110.856 ± 0.02. Thus the passage of the neutron star at the periastron occurs with a periodicity of 110.856 ± 0.02 days and the different kinds of X-ray outbursts of A0535+26 — following the definitions reported in the review by Giovannelli & Sabau-Graziati (1992 — occur just after ∼ 8 days. The delay between optical and X-ray outbursts is just the transit time of the material coming out from the optical companion to reach the neutron star X-ray pulsar. The occurrence of X-ray “normal outbursts”, “anomalous outbursts” or “casual outbursts” is dependent on the activity of the Be star: “quiet state: steady stellar wind”, “excited state: stellar wind plus puffs of material”, and “expulsion of a shell”, respectively. In the latter case, the primary manifests a strong optical activity and the consequent strong

  11. Characterization of a pulsed x-ray source for fluorescent lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankespoor, S.C.; Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.; Rossington, C.S.; Ito, M.; Oba, K.

    1994-01-01

    To search for new, fast, inorganic scintillators, the authors have developed a bench-top pulsed x-ray source for determining fluorescent lifetimes and wavelengths of compounds in crystal or powdered form. This source uses a light-excited x-ray tube which produces x-rays when light from a laser diode strikes its photocathode. The x-ray tube has a tungsten anode, a beryllium exit window, a 30 kV maximum tube bias, and a 50 μA maximum average cathode current. The laser produces 3 x 10 7 photons at 650 nm per ∼100 ps pulse, with up to 10 7 pulses/sec. The time spread for the laser diode, x-ray tube, and a microchannel plate photomultiplier tube is less than 120 ps fwhm. The mean x-ray energy at tube biases of 20, 25, and 30 kV is 9.4, 10.3, and 11.1 keV, respectively. The authors measured 140, 230, and 330 x-ray photons per laser diode pulse per steradian, at tube biases of 20, 25, and 30 kV, respectively. Background x-rays due to dark current occur at a rate of 1 x 10 6 and 3 x 10 6 photons/sec/steradian at biases of 25 and 30 kV, respectively. Data characterizing the x-ray output with an aluminum filter in the x-ray beam are also presented

  12. THE CONTRIBUTION OF X-RAY BINARIES TO THE EVOLUTION OF LATE-TYPE GALAXIES: EVOLUTIONARY POPULATION SYNTHESIS SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Zhaoyu; Li Xiangdong

    2011-01-01

    X-ray studies of normal late-type galaxies have shown that non-nuclear X-ray emission is typically dominated by X-ray binaries and provides a useful measure of star formation activity. We have modeled the X-ray evolution of late-type galaxies over the ∼14 Gyr of cosmic history, with an evolutionary population synthesis code developed by Hurley et al. Our calculations reveal a decrease in the X-ray luminosity-to-mass ratio L X /M with time, in agreement with observations. We show that this decrease is a natural consequence of stellar and binary evolution and the mass accumulating process in galaxies. The X-ray-to-optical luminosity ratio L X /L B is found to be fairly constant (around ∼10 30 erg s -1 L -1 B,sun ) and insensitive to the star formation history in the galaxies. The nearly constant value of L X /L B is in conflict with the observed increase in L X /L B from z = 0 to 1.4. The discrepancy may be caused by intense obscured star formation activity that leads to a nonlinear relationship between X-ray and B-band emission.

  13. Phase-Resolved Spectroscopy of the Low-Mass X-ray Binary V801 Ara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Kaley; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Peris, Charith; McCollough, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We present phase-resolved optical spectra of the low mass X-ray binary system V801 Ara. The spectra, obtained in 2014 with IMACS on the Magellan/Baade telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, cover the full binary orbit of 3.8 hours. They contain strong emission features allowing us to map the emission of Hα, Hβ, He II λ4686, and the Bowen blend at λ4640. The radial velocity curves of the Bowen blend shows significantly stronger modulation at the orbital period than Hα as expected for the former originating on the secondary with the latter consistent with emission dominated by the disk. Our tomograms of Hα and Hβ are the most detailed studies of these lines for V801 to date and they clearly detect the accretion disk. The Hβ emission extends to higher velocities than Hα, suggesting emission from closer to the neutron star and differentiating temperature variance in the accretion disk for the first time. The center of the accretion disk appears offset from the center-of-mass of the neutron star as has been seen in several other X-ray binaries. This is often interpreted to imply disk eccentricity. Our tomograms do not show strong evidence for a hot spot at the point where the accretion stream hits the disk. This could imply a reduced accretion rate or could be due to the spot being drowned out by bright accretion flow around it. There is enhanced emission further along the disk, however, which implies gas stream interaction downstream of the hot spot.

  14. The epoch of cosmic heating by early sources of X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Marius B.; Graziani, Luca; Ciardi, Benedetta; Feng, Yu; Kakiichi, Koki; Di Matteo, Tiziana

    2018-05-01

    Observations of the 21 cm line from neutral hydrogen indicate that an epoch of heating (EoH) might have preceded the later epoch of reionization. Here we study the effects on the ionization state and the thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) during the EoH induced by different assumptions on ionizing sources in the high-redshift Universe: (i) stars; (ii) X-ray binaries (XRBs); (iii) thermal bremsstrahlung of the hot interstellar medium (ISM); and (iv) accreting nuclear black holes (BHs). To this aim, we post-process outputs from the (100 h-1 comoving Mpc)3 hydrodynamical simulation MassiveBlack-II with the cosmological 3D radiative transfer code CRASH, which follows the propagation of ultraviolet and X-ray photons, computing the thermal and ionization state of hydrogen and helium through the EoH. We find that stars determine the fully ionized morphology of the IGM, while the spectrally hard XRBs pave way for efficient subsequent heating and ionization by the spectrally softer ISM. With the seeding prescription in MassiveBlack-II, BHs do not contribute significantly to either ionization or heating. With only stars, most of the IGM remains in a cold state (with a median T = 11 K at z = 10), however, the presence of more energetic sources raises the temperature of regions around the brightest and more clustered sources above that of the cosmic microwave background, opening the possibility to observing the 21 cm signal in emission.

  15. Ultraluminous X-ray sources as neutrino pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtukov, Alexander A.; Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Suleimanov, Valery F.; Poutanen, Juri

    2018-05-01

    The classical limit on the accretion luminosity of a neutron star is given by the Eddington luminosity. The advanced models of accretion on to magnetized neutron stars account for the appearance of magnetically confined accretion columns and allow the accretion luminosity to be higher than the Eddington value by a factor of tens. However, the recent discovery of pulsations from ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in NGC 5907 demonstrates that the accretion luminosity can exceed the Eddington value up to by a factor of 500. We propose a model explaining observational properties of ULX-1 in NGC 5907 without any ad hoc assumptions. We show that the accretion column at extreme luminosity becomes advective. Enormous energy release within a small geometrical volume and advection result in very high temperatures at the bottom of accretion column, which demand to account for the energy losses due to neutrino emission which can be even more effective than the radiation energy losses. We show that the total luminosity at the mass accretion rates above 1021 g s-1 is dominated by the neutrino emission similarly to the case of core-collapse supernovae. We argue that the accretion rate measurements based on detected photon luminosity in case of bright ULXs powered by neutron stars can be largely underestimated due to intense neutrino emission. The recently discovered pulsating ULX-1 in galaxy NGC 5907 with photon luminosity of {˜ } 10^{41} {erg s^{-1}} is expected to be even brighter in neutrinos and is thus the first known Neutrino Pulsar.

  16. 21 CFR 872.1800 - Extraoral source x-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1800 Extraoral source x-ray system. (a... dental radiographic examination and diagnosis of diseases of the teeth, jaw, and oral structures. The x... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extraoral source x-ray system. 872.1800 Section...

  17. Searching for Exoplanets around X-Ray Binaries with Accreting White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imara, Nia; Di Stefano, Rosanne

    2018-05-01

    We recommend that the search for exoplanets around binary stars be extended to include X-ray binaries (XRBs) in which the accretor is a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole. We present a novel idea for detecting planets bound to such mass transfer binaries, proposing that the X-ray light curves of these binaries be inspected for signatures of transiting planets. X-ray transits may be the only way to detect planets around some systems, while providing a complementary approach to optical and/or radio observations in others. Any planets associated with XRBs must be in stable orbits. We consider the range of allowable separations and find that orbital periods can be hours or longer, while transit durations extend upward from about a minute for Earth-radius planets, to hours for Jupiter-radius planets. The search for planets around XRBs could begin at once with existing X-ray observations of these systems. If and when a planet is detected around an X-ray binary, the size and mass of the planet may be readily measured, and it may also be possible to study the transmission and absorption of X-rays through its atmosphere. Finally, a noteworthy application of our proposal is that the same technique could be used to search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence. If an advanced exocivilization placed a Dyson sphere or similar structure in orbit around the accretor of an XRB in order to capture energy, such an artificial structure might cause detectable transits in the X-ray light curve.

  18. Maximum mass ratio of AM CVn-type binary systems and maximum white dwarf mass in ultra-compact X-ray binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbutina Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AM CVn-type stars and ultra-compact X-ray binaries are extremely interesting semi-detached close binary systems in which the Roche lobe filling component is a white dwarf transferring mass to another white dwarf, neutron star or a black hole. Earlier theoretical considerations show that there is a maximum mass ratio of AM CVn-type binary systems (qmax ≈ 2/3 below which the mass transfer is stable. In this paper we derive slightly different value for qmax and more interestingly, by applying the same procedure, we find the maximum expected white dwarf mass in ultra-compact X-ray binaries.

  19. Development and characterization of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillman, C.

    1996-11-01

    A laser-produced plasma was generated by focusing 100 fs laser pulses, with an energy of 150 mJ, onto metal targets. The laser intensity was expected to reach 10 17 W/cm -2 . Radiation was emitted from the created plasma, with photon energies up to the MeV region. The laser-based X-ray source was optimized, with the purpose of making it a realistic source of hard X-rays (>10 keV). Dedicated equipment was developed for efficient generation and utilization of the hard X-rays. The X-ray source was characterized with respect to its spatial extent and the X-ray yield. Measurements were made of the spectral distribution, by the use of single-photon-counting detectors in different geometries, crystal spectrometers and dose measurements in combination with absorption filters. Ablation of the target material in the laser produced plasma was investigated. Imaging applications have been demonstrated, including ultrafast (picosecond) X-ray imaging, magnification imaging of up to x80, differential imaging in the spectral domain, and imaging of various biological and technical objects. The biological response of ultra-intense X-ray pulses was assessed in cell-culture exposures. The results indicate that the biological response from ultra-intense X-ray exposures is similar to the response with conventional X-ray tubes. 82 refs., 14 figs

  20. Development and characterization of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, C.

    1996-11-01

    A laser-produced plasma was generated by focusing 100 fs laser pulses, with an energy of 150 mJ, onto metal targets. The laser intensity was expected to reach 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup -2}. Radiation was emitted from the created plasma, with photon energies up to the MeV region. The laser-based X-ray source was optimized, with the purpose of making it a realistic source of hard X-rays (>10 keV). Dedicated equipment was developed for efficient generation and utilization of the hard X-rays. The X-ray source was characterized with respect to its spatial extent and the X-ray yield. Measurements were made of the spectral distribution, by the use of single-photon-counting detectors in different geometries, crystal spectrometers and dose measurements in combination with absorption filters. Ablation of the target material in the laser produced plasma was investigated. Imaging applications have been demonstrated, including ultrafast (picosecond) X-ray imaging, magnification imaging of up to x80, differential imaging in the spectral domain, and imaging of various biological and technical objects. The biological response of ultra-intense X-ray pulses was assessed in cell-culture exposures. The results indicate that the biological response from ultra-intense X-ray exposures is similar to the response with conventional X-ray tubes. 82 refs., 14 figs.

  1. Spinning-Up: the Case of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 3A 1954+319

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, F.; Marcu, D. M.; Pottschmidt, K.; Grinberg, V.; Wilms, J.; CadolleBel, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a timing and spectral analysis of the variable X-ray source 3A 1954+319. Our analysis is mainly based on an outburst serendipitously observed during INTEGRAL Key Program observations of the Cygnus region in 2008 fall and on the Swift/BAT longterm light curve. Previous observations, though sparse, have identified the source to be one of only nine known symbiotic X-ray binaries, i.e., systems composed of an accreting neutron star orbiting in a highly inhomogeneous medium around an M-giant companion. The spectrum of3A 1954+319 above > 20 keV can be best described by a broken power law model. The extremely long pulse period of approx.5.3 hours is clearly visible in the INTEGRAL/ISGRI light curve and confirmed through an epoch folding period search. Furthermore, the light curve allows us to determine a very strong spin up of -2 x 10(exp -4) h/h during the outburst. This spin up is confirmed by the pulse period evolution calculated from Swift/BAT data. The Swift/BAT data also show a long spin-down trend prior to the 2008 outburst, which is confirmed in archival INTEGRAL/ISGRI data. We discuss possible accretion models and geometries allowing for the transfer of such large amounts of angular momentum and investigate the harder spectrum of this outburst compared to previously published results.

  2. Broadband X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Fuerst, F.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V.; Stern, D. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, A. C.; Parker, M. L. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Ptak, A.; Zhang, W. W., E-mail: dwalton@srl.caltech.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the X-ray coverage of this remarkable source up to ∼30 keV. Broadband observations were undertaken at two epochs, between which Holmberg IX X-1 exhibited both flux and strong spectral variability, increasing in luminosity from L {sub X} = (1.90 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} to L {sub X} = (3.35 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. Neither epoch exhibits a spectrum consistent with emission from the standard low/hard accretion state seen in Galactic black hole binaries, which would have been expected if Holmberg IX X-1 harbors a truly massive black hole accreting at substantially sub-Eddington accretion rates. The NuSTAR data confirm that the curvature observed previously in the 3-10 keV bandpass does represent a true spectral cutoff. During each epoch, the spectrum appears to be dominated by two optically thick thermal components, likely associated with an accretion disk. The spectrum also shows some evidence for a nonthermal tail at the highest energies, which may further support this scenario. The available data allow for either of the two thermal components to dominate the spectral evolution, although both scenarios require highly nonstandard behavior for thermal accretion disk emission.

  3. 2XMM ultraluminous X-ray source candidates in nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Roberts, T. P.; Mateos, S.; Heard, V.

    2011-09-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are some of the most enigmatic X-ray bright sources known to date. It is generally accepted that they cannot host black holes as large as those associated with active galaxies, but they appear to be significantly more luminous than their better understood Galactic X-ray binary (XRB) cousins, while displaying an intriguing combination of differences and similarities with them. Through studying large, representative samples of these sources we may hope to enhance our understanding of them. To this end, we derive a large catalogue of 650 X-ray detections of 470 ULX candidates, located in 238 nearby galaxies, by cross-correlating the 2XMM Serendipitous Survey with the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies. The presented dedicated catalogue offers a significant improvement over those previously published in terms of both the number and the contribution of background contaminants, e.g. distant quasars, which we estimate to be at most 24 per cent, but more likely ˜17 per cent. To undertake population studies, we define a 'complete' sub-sample of sources compiled from observations of galaxies with sensitivity limits below 1039 erg s-1. The luminosity function of this sample is consistent with a simple power law of form N(>LX) ∝ L-0.96 ± 0.11X. Although we do not find any statistical requirement for a cut-off luminosity of Lc˜ 1040 erg s-1, as has been reported previously, we are not able to rule out its presence. Also, we find that the number of ULXs per unit galaxy mass, Su, decreases with increasing galaxy mass for ULXs associated with spiral galaxies, and is well modelled with a power law of form Su ∝ M-0.64 ± 0.07. This is in broad agreement with previous results, and is likely to be a consequence of the decrease in specific star formation and increase in metallicity with increasing spiral galaxy mass. Su is consistent with being constant with galaxy mass for sources associated with elliptical galaxies, implying this

  4. First light - II. Emission line extinction, population III stars, and X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Kirk S. S.; Wise, John H.; Aykutalp, Aycin; O'Shea, Brian W.; Norman, Michael L.; Xu, Hao

    2018-02-01

    We produce synthetic spectra and observations for metal-free stellar populations and high-mass X-ray binaries in the Renaissance Simulations at a redshift of 15. We extend our methodology from the first paper in the series by modelling the production and extinction of emission lines throughout a dusty and metal-enriched interstellar and circum-galactic media extracted from the simulation, using a Monte Carlo calculation. To capture the impact of high-energy photons, we include all frequencies from hard X-ray to far-infrared with enough frequency resolution to discern line emission and absorption profiles. The most common lines in our sample in order of their rate of occurrence are Ly α, the C IV λλ1548, 1551 doublet, H α, and the Ca II λλλ8498, 8542, 8662 triplet. The best scenario for a direct observation of a metal-free stellar population is a merger between two Population III Galaxies. In mergers between metal-enriched and metal-free stellar populations, some characteristics may be inferred indirectly. Single Population III galaxies are too dim to be observed photometrically at z = 15. Ly α emission is discernible by JWST as an increase in J200w - J277w colour off the intrinsic stellar tracks. Observations of metal-free stars will be difficult, though not impossible, with the next generation of space telescopes.

  5. OBSERVATIONS OF THE HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY A 0535+26 IN QUIESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothschild, Richard; Markowitz, Alex; Hemphill, Paul; Caballero, Isabel; Pottschmidt, Katja; Kühnel, Matthias; Wilms, Jörn; Fürst, Felix; Doroshenko, Victor; Camero-Arranz, Ascension

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed three observations of the high-mass X-ray binary A 0535+26 performed by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) three, five, and six months after the last outburst in 2011 February. We detect pulsations only in the second observation. The 3-20 keV spectra can be fit equally well with either an absorbed power law or absorbed thermal bremsstrahlung model. Reanalysis of two earlier RXTE observations made 4 yr after the 1994 outburst, original BeppoSAX observations 2 yr later, reanalysis of four EXOSAT observations made 2 yr after the last 1984 outburst, and a recent XMM-Newton observation in 2012 reveal a stacked, quiescent flux level decreasing from ∼2 to –11 erg cm –2 s –1 over 6.5 yr after outburst. The detection of pulsations during half of the quiescent observations would imply that accretion onto the magnetic poles of the neutron star continues despite the fact that the circumstellar disk may no longer be present. The accretion could come from material built up at the corotation radius or from an isotropic stellar wind.

  6. OBSERVATIONS OF THE HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY A 0535+26 IN QUIESCENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothschild, Richard; Markowitz, Alex; Hemphill, Paul [University of California, San Diego, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Caballero, Isabel [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp -UMR AIM (7158) CNRS/CEA/Universite P. Diderot, Orme des Merisiers, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pottschmidt, Katja [CRESST, UMBC, and NASA GSFC, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kuehnel, Matthias; Wilms, Joern [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Sternwartstr. 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany); Fuerst, Felix [Space Radiation Lab, MC 290-17 Cahill, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Doroshenko, Victor [Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Camero-Arranz, Ascension, E-mail: rrothschild@ucsd.edu [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Fac. de Ciencies, Torre C5, parell, 2a planta, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-06-10

    We have analyzed three observations of the high-mass X-ray binary A 0535+26 performed by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) three, five, and six months after the last outburst in 2011 February. We detect pulsations only in the second observation. The 3-20 keV spectra can be fit equally well with either an absorbed power law or absorbed thermal bremsstrahlung model. Reanalysis of two earlier RXTE observations made 4 yr after the 1994 outburst, original BeppoSAX observations 2 yr later, reanalysis of four EXOSAT observations made 2 yr after the last 1984 outburst, and a recent XMM-Newton observation in 2012 reveal a stacked, quiescent flux level decreasing from {approx}2 to <1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} over 6.5 yr after outburst. The detection of pulsations during half of the quiescent observations would imply that accretion onto the magnetic poles of the neutron star continues despite the fact that the circumstellar disk may no longer be present. The accretion could come from material built up at the corotation radius or from an isotropic stellar wind.

  7. Comparison of VLBI radio core and X-ray flux densities of extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, S.D.; Marscher, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory revealed that most quasars, selected in a variety of ways, are strong x-ray emitters. Radio bright quasars are statistically more luminous in the x-ray than their radio-quiet counterparts. It was also found that the 90 GHz to soft x-ray spectral index has a very small dispersion for sources selected by their strong millimeter emission. This implies a close relationship between compact radio flux density and x-ray emission. Strong correlations have been found between the arcsecond scale flux densities and soft x-ray fluxes. It is suggested that the correlation can be explained if the soft x-rays were produced by the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) process within the compact radio emitting region. (author)

  8. Measurement of spherical compound refractive X-ray lens at ANKA synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudchik, Yu.I.; Simon, R.; Baumbach, T.

    2007-01-01

    Parameters of compound refractive X-ray lens were measured at ANKA synchrotron radiation source. The lens consists of 224 spherical concave epoxy microlenses formed inside glass capillary. The curvature radius of individual microlens is equal to 100 microns. Measured were: X-ray focal spot, lens focal length and gain in intensity. The energy of X-ray beam was equal to 12 keV and 14 keV. It is shown that when X-ray lens is used, the gain in intensity of the X-ray beam in some cases may exceed value of 100. Tested lens is suitable to focus X-rays into, at least, 2-microns in size spot. (authors)

  9. Laser interaction with matter as a source of U.V. and soft X-ray radiation: application to X-ray cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonon, G.F.; Colombant, Denis; Delmare, Claude; Rabeau, Maxime

    A new detecting device is described. It allows one to get the frequency, the time and space resolution of pictures of U.V. and soft X ray emission of a laser created plasma in a single shot: X ray pictures of such a plasma are presented. After these preliminary results, it is possible to set up readily an X ray framing camera. A laser created plasma is an X ray source of special interest: the emitted power can be 10% of the laser intensity and the emitted spectrum is centered around 1A wavelength [fr

  10. Supersoft X-Ray Source CAL 83: A Possible AE Aqr-like System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Odendaal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available CAL83 is a close binary supersoft X-ray source in the Large Magellanic Cloud. A ~67 s periodicity detected in supersoft X-rays is most probably associated with the spin period of a highly spun-up white dwarf (WD. The variability in the period is ascribed to the obscuration of the WD by the hydrogen burning envelope surrounding it, rotating with a period that is close to, but not quite synchronized with, the WD rotation period. Optical spectra obtained with SALT exhibit accretion disc emission lines with broad wing structures and P Cyg profiles, indicating mass outflows. Timing analysis of photometrical observations performed at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO revealed variable signals at ≤1 mHz which are thought to be associated with quasi-periodic oscillations from an accretion disc. The short spin period inferred for CAL83 can be the result of spin-up by accretion disc torques during a long mass transfer history, placing this source on a similar evolutionary track as the cataclysmic variable AE Aqr.

  11. XTE J1701-462 AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NATURE OF SUBCLASSES IN LOW-MAGNETIC-FIELD NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, Jeroen; Fridriksson, Joel K.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Van der Klis, Michiel; Wijnands, Rudy; Altamirano, Diego; Mendez, Mariano; Lin Dacheng; Casella, Piergiorgio; Belloni, Tomaso M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on an analysis of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data of the transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (NS-LMXB) XTE J1701-462, obtained during its 2006-2007 outburst. The X-ray properties of the source changed between those of various types of NS-LMXB subclasses. At high luminosities, the source switched between two types of Z source behavior and at low luminosities we observed a transition from Z source to atoll source behavior. These transitions between subclasses primarily manifest themselves as changes in the shapes of the tracks in X-ray color-color (CD) and hardness-intensity diagrams (HID), but they are accompanied by changes in the kHz quasi-periodic oscillations, broadband variability, burst behavior, and/or X-ray spectra. We find that for most of the outburst the low-energy X-ray flux is a good parameter to track the gradual evolution of the tracks in CD and HID, allowing us to resolve the evolution of the source in greater detail than before and relate the observed properties to other NS-LMXBs. We further find that during the transition from Z to atoll, characteristic behavior known as the atoll upper banana can equivalently be described as the final stage of a weakening Z source flaring branch, thereby blurring the line between the two subclasses. Our findings strongly suggest that the wide variety in behavior observed in NS-LXMBs with different luminosities can be linked through changes in a single variable parameter, namely the mass accretion rate, without the need for additional differences in the neutron star parameters or viewing angle. We briefly discuss the implications of our findings for the spectral changes observed in NS-LMXBs and suggest that, contrary to what is often assumed, the position along the color-color tracks of Z sources is not determined by the instantaneous mass accretion rate.

  12. Time-resolved X-ray studies using third generation synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1991-10-01

    The third generation, high-brilliance, hard x-ray, synchrotron radiation (SR) sources currently under construction (ESRF at Grenoble, France; APS at Argonne, Illinois; and SPring-8 at Harima, Japan) will usher in a new era of x-ray experimentation for both physical and biological sciences. One of the most exciting areas of experimentation will be the extension of x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of transient or time-evolving systems. The high repetition rate, short-pulse duration, high brilliance, and variable spectral bandwidth of these sources make them ideal for x-ray time-resolved studies. The temporal properties (bunch length, interpulse period, etc.) of these new sources will be summarized. Finally, the scientific potential and the technological challenges of time-resolved x-ray scattering from these new sources will be described. 13 refs., 4 figs

  13. S-band linac-based X-ray source with {pi}/2-mode electron linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Abhay, E-mail: abhay@post.kek.jp [Department of Accelerator Science, School of High Energy Accelerator Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan International Village, Hayama, Miura, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Society for Applied Microwave Electronic Engineering and Research (SAMEER), R and D Laboratory of the Government of India, IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Araki, Sakae [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Dixit, Tanuja [Society for Applied Microwave Electronic Engineering and Research (SAMEER), R and D Laboratory of the Government of India, IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Fukuda, Masafumi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Krishnan, R; Pethe, Sanjay [Society for Applied Microwave Electronic Engineering and Research (SAMEER), R and D Laboratory of the Government of India, IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Sakaue, Kazuyuki [Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Washio, Masakazu [Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2011-05-01

    The activities with the compact X-ray source are attracting more attention, particularly for the applications of the source in medical fields. We propose the fabrication of a compact X-ray source using the SAMEER electron linear accelerator and the KEK laser undulator X-ray source (LUCX) technologies. The linac developed at SAMEER is a standing wave side-coupled S-band linac operating in the {pi}/2 mode. In the proposed system, a photocathode RF gun will inject bunches of electrons in the linac to accelerate and achieve a high-energy, low-emittance beam. This beam will then interact with the laser in the laser cavity to produce X-rays of a type well suited for various applications. The side-coupled structure will make the system more compact, and the {pi}/2 mode of operation will enable a high repetition rate operation, which will help to increase the X-ray yield.

  14. Superorbital Period in the high mass X-ray binary 2S 0114+650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, S.; Sood, R.; O'Neill, P.

    2004-05-01

    We report the identification of a superorbital period in the high mass X-ray binary 2S 0114+650. RXTE ASM observations of this object from 1996 Jan 5 to 2003 May 26 show the presence of a modulation at a period of 30.7 +/- 0.2 days. This period is detected using a Lomb-Scargle periodogram, and has a false-alarm probability of 5E-12. Epoch folding of the data gives an ephemeris of JD 2450079.4 (+/- 0.7) +30.7 (+/- 0.2)N, where N is the cycle number, with phase zero defined as the modulation minimum, and a full amplitude of 60 +/- 20%.

  15. GLOBULAR CLUSTER FORMATION EFFICIENCIES FROM BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARY FEEDBACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justham, Stephen [The Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Beijing 100012 (China); Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Schawinski, Kevin, E-mail: sjustham@nao.cas.cn [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-08-10

    We investigate a scenario in which feedback from black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) sometimes begins inside young star clusters before strong supernova (SN) feedback. Those BHXBs could reduce the gas fraction inside embedded young clusters while maintaining virial equilibrium, which may help globular clusters (GCs) to stay bound when SN-driven gas ejection subsequently occurs. Adopting a simple toy model with parameters guided by BHXB population models, we produce GC formation efficiencies consistent with empirically inferred values. The metallicity dependence of BHXB formation could naturally explain why GC formation efficiency is higher at lower metallicity. For reasonable assumptions about that metallicity dependence, our toy model can produce a GC metallicity bimodality in some galaxies without a bimodality in the field-star metallicity distribution.

  16. An Overabundance of Black Hole X-Ray Binaries in the Galactic Center from Tidal Captures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generozov, A.; Stone, N. C.; Metzger, B. D.; Ostriker, J. P.

    2018-05-01

    A large population of X-ray binaries (XRBs) was recently discovered within the central parsec of the Galaxy by Hailey et al. (2018). While the presence of compact objects on this scale due to radial mass segregation is, in itself, unsurprising, the fraction of binaries would naively be expected to be small because of how easily primordial binaries are dissociated in the dynamically hot environment of the nuclear star cluster (NSC). We propose that the formation of XRBs in the central parsec is dominated by the tidal capture of stars by black holes (BHs) and neutron stars (NSs). We model the time-dependent radial density profiles of stars and compact objects in the NSC with a Fokker-Planck approach, using the present-day stellar population and rate of in situ massive star (and thus compact object) formation as observational constraints. Of the ˜1 - 4 × 104 BHs that accumulate in the central parsec over the age of the Galaxy, we predict that ˜60 - 200 currently exist as BH-XRBs formed from tidal capture, consistent with the population seen by Hailey et al. (2018). A somewhat lower number of tidal capture NS-XRBs is also predicted. We also use our observationally calibrated models for the NSC to predict rates of other exotic dynamical processes, such as the tidal disruption of stars by the central supermassive black hole (˜10-4 per year at z=0).

  17. Low-Energy Microfocus X-Ray Source for Enhanced Testing Capability in the Stray Light Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; O'Dell, Stephen; Kolodziejczak, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Research toward high-resolution, soft x-ray optics (mirrors and gratings) necessary for the next generation large x-ray observatories requires x-ray testing using a low-energy x-ray source with fine angular size (energy microfocus (approximately 0.1 mm spot) x-ray source from TruFocus Corporation that mates directly to the Stray Light Facility (SLF). MSFC X-ray Astronomy team members are internationally recognized for their expertise in the development, fabrication, and testing of grazing-incidence optics for x-ray telescopes. One of the key MSFC facilities for testing novel x-ray instrumentation is the SLF. This facility is an approximately 100-m-long beam line equipped with multiple x-ray sources and detectors. This new source adds to the already robust compliment of instrumentation, allowing MSFC to support additional internal and community x-ray testing needs.

  18. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1 AND ITS STELLAR ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grise, F.; Kaaret, P.; Pakull, M. W.; Motch, C.

    2011-01-01

    Holmberg IX X-1 is an archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX). Here we study the properties of the optical counterpart and of its stellar environment using optical data from SUBARU/Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph, GEMINI/GMOS-N and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys, as well as simultaneous Chandra X-ray data. The V ∼ 22.6 spectroscopically identified optical counterpart is part of a loose cluster with an age ∼ sun . The counterpart is more luminous than the other stars of the association, suggesting a non-negligible optical contribution from the accretion disk. An observed UV excess also points to non-stellar light similar to X-ray active low-mass X-ray binaries. A broad He II λ4686 emission line identified in the optical spectrum of the ULX further suggests optical light from X-ray reprocessing in the accretion disk. Using stellar evolutionary tracks, we have constrained the mass of the counterpart to be ∼> 10 M sun , even if the accretion disk contributes significantly to the optical luminosity. Comparison of the photometric properties of the counterpart with binary models show that the donor may be more massive, ∼> 25 M sun , with the ULX system likely undergoing case AB mass transfer. Finally, the counterpart exhibits photometric variability of 0.14 mag between two HST observations separated by 50 days which could be due to ellipsoidal variations and/or disk reprocessing of variable X-ray emission.

  19. CHANDRA ACIS SURVEY OF X-RAY POINT SOURCES: THE SOURCE CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Song; Liu, Jifeng; Qiu, Yanli; Bai, Yu; Yang, Huiqin; Guo, Jincheng; Zhang, Peng, E-mail: jfliu@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: songw@bao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-06-01

    The Chandra archival data is a valuable resource for various studies on different X-ray astronomy topics. In this paper, we utilize this wealth of information and present a uniformly processed data set, which can be used to address a wide range of scientific questions. The data analysis procedures are applied to 10,029 Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observations, which produces 363,530 source detections belonging to 217,828 distinct X-ray sources. This number is twice the size of the Chandra Source Catalog (Version 1.1). The catalogs in this paper provide abundant estimates of the detected X-ray source properties, including source positions, counts, colors, fluxes, luminosities, variability statistics, etc. Cross-correlation of these objects with galaxies shows that 17,828 sources are located within the D {sub 25} isophotes of 1110 galaxies, and 7504 sources are located between the D {sub 25} and 2 D {sub 25} isophotes of 910 galaxies. Contamination analysis with the log N –log S relation indicates that 51.3% of objects within 2 D {sub 25} isophotes are truly relevant to galaxies, and the “net” source fraction increases to 58.9%, 67.3%, and 69.1% for sources with luminosities above 10{sup 37}, 10{sup 38}, and 10{sup 39} erg s{sup −1}, respectively. Among the possible scientific uses of this catalog, we discuss the possibility of studying intra-observation variability, inter-observation variability, and supersoft sources (SSSs). About 17,092 detected sources above 10 counts are classified as variable in individual observation with the Kolmogorov–Smirnov (K–S) criterion ( P {sub K–S} < 0.01). There are 99,647 sources observed more than once and 11,843 sources observed 10 times or more, offering us a wealth of data with which to explore the long-term variability. There are 1638 individual objects (∼2350 detections) classified as SSSs. As a quite interesting subclass, detailed studies on X-ray spectra and optical spectroscopic follow-up are needed to

  20. Timing and Spectral Studies of the Peculiar X-ray Binary Circinus X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saz Parkinson, Pablo M.

    2003-08-26

    Circinus X-1 (Cir X-1) is an X-ray binary displaying an array of phenomena which makes it unique in our Galaxy. Despite several decades of observation, controversy surrounds even the most basic facts about this system. It is generally classified as a Neutron Star (NS) Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB),though this classification is based primarily on the observation of Type I X-ray Bursts by EXOSAT in 1985. It is believed to be in a very eccentric {approx} 16.5 day orbit, displaying periodic outbursts in the radio and other frequency bands (including optical and IR) which reinforce the notion that this is in fact the orbital period. Cir X-1 lies in the plane of the Galaxy, where optical identification of the companion is made difficult due to dust obscuration. The companion is thought to be a low mass star, though a high mass companion has not currently been ruled out. In this work, the author analyzes recent observations of Cir X-1 made with the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) experiment, as well as archival observations of Cir X-1 made by a variety of instruments, from as early as 1969. The fast (< 1 s) timing properties of Cir X-1 are studied by performing FFT analyses of the USA data. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in the 1-50 Hz range are found and discussed in the context of recent correlations which question the leading models invoked for their generation. The energy dependence of the QPOs (rms increasing with energy) argues against them being generated in the disk and favors models in which the QPOs are related to a higher energy Comptonizing component. The power spectrum of Cir X-1 in its soft state is compared to that of Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1), the prototypical black hole candidate. Using scaling arguments the author argues that the mass of Cir X-1 could exceed significantly the canonical 1.4 M{circle_dot} mass of a neutron star, possibly partly explaining why this object appears so different to other neutron stars. The spectral evolution of Cir X-1 is

  1. SWIFT X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF CLASSICAL NOVAE. II. THE SUPER SOFT SOURCE SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Greg J. [American Astronomical Society, 2000 Florida Avenue, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20009-1231 (United States); Ness, Jan-Uwe [XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, ESAC, Apartado 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Evans, P. A.; Beardmore, A. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Walter, Frederick M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Andrew Helton, L. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, M.S. N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Woodward, Charles E. [Minnesota Institute of Astrophysics, 116 Church Street S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bode, Mike [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Starrfield, Sumner [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Drake, Jeremy J., E-mail: Greg.Schwarz@aas.org [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 3, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Swift gamma-ray burst satellite is an excellent facility for studying novae. Its rapid response time and sensitive X-ray detector provides an unparalleled opportunity to investigate the previously poorly sampled evolution of novae in the X-ray regime. This paper presents Swift observations of 52 Galactic/Magellanic Cloud novae. We included the X-Ray Telescope (0.3-10 keV) instrument count rates and the UltraViolet and Optical Telescope (1700-8000 A) filter photometry. Also included in the analysis are the publicly available pointed observations of 10 additional novae the X-ray archives. This is the largest X-ray sample of Galactic/Magellanic Cloud novae yet assembled and consists of 26 novae with Super Soft X-ray emission, 19 from Swift observations. The data set shows that the faster novae have an early hard X-ray phase that is usually missing in slower novae. The Super Soft X-ray phase occurs earlier and does not last as long in fast novae compared to slower novae. All the Swift novae with sufficient observations show that novae are highly variable with rapid variability and different periodicities. In the majority of cases, nuclear burning ceases less than three years after the outburst begins. Previous relationships, such as the nuclear burning duration versus t{sub 2} or the expansion velocity of the eject and nuclear burning duration versus the orbital period, are shown to be poorly correlated with the full sample indicating that additional factors beyond the white dwarf mass and binary separation play important roles in the evolution of a nova outburst. Finally, we confirm two optical phenomena that are correlated with strong, soft X-ray emission which can be used to further increase the efficiency of X-ray campaigns.

  2. SWIFT X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF CLASSICAL NOVAE. II. THE SUPER SOFT SOURCE SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Greg J.; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Evans, P. A.; Beardmore, A. P.; Walter, Frederick M.; Andrew Helton, L.; Woodward, Charles E.; Bode, Mike; Starrfield, Sumner; Drake, Jeremy J.

    2011-01-01

    The Swift gamma-ray burst satellite is an excellent facility for studying novae. Its rapid response time and sensitive X-ray detector provides an unparalleled opportunity to investigate the previously poorly sampled evolution of novae in the X-ray regime. This paper presents Swift observations of 52 Galactic/Magellanic Cloud novae. We included the X-Ray Telescope (0.3-10 keV) instrument count rates and the UltraViolet and Optical Telescope (1700-8000 Å) filter photometry. Also included in the analysis are the publicly available pointed observations of 10 additional novae the X-ray archives. This is the largest X-ray sample of Galactic/Magellanic Cloud novae yet assembled and consists of 26 novae with Super Soft X-ray emission, 19 from Swift observations. The data set shows that the faster novae have an early hard X-ray phase that is usually missing in slower novae. The Super Soft X-ray phase occurs earlier and does not last as long in fast novae compared to slower novae. All the Swift novae with sufficient observations show that novae are highly variable with rapid variability and different periodicities. In the majority of cases, nuclear burning ceases less than three years after the outburst begins. Previous relationships, such as the nuclear burning duration versus t 2 or the expansion velocity of the eject and nuclear burning duration versus the orbital period, are shown to be poorly correlated with the full sample indicating that additional factors beyond the white dwarf mass and binary separation play important roles in the evolution of a nova outburst. Finally, we confirm two optical phenomena that are correlated with strong, soft X-ray emission which can be used to further increase the efficiency of X-ray campaigns.

  3. Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Using a High-Repetition-Rate Laser-Induced X-Ray Source for Sub-100 Nanometer Lithography Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Louis,; F. Bijkerk,; Shmaenok, L.; Voorma, H. J.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Schlatmann, R.; Verhoeven, J.; van der Drift, E. W. J. M.; Romijn, J.; Rousseeuw, B. A. C.; Voss, F.; Desor, R.; Nikolaus, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present the status of a joint development programme on soft x-ray projection lithography (SXPL) integrating work on high brightness laser plasma sources. fabrication of multilayer x-ray mirrors. and patterning of reflection masks. We are in the process of optimization of a

  4. A hard X-ray study of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, E. S.; Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results from coordinated X-ray observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 performed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and XMM-Newton in early 2013. These observations provide the first detection of NGC 5204 X-1 above 10 keV, extending the broadband cover...

  5. Broadband X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous x-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the...

  6. Towards a Unified View of Inhomogeneous Stellar Winds in Isolated Supergiant Stars and Supergiant High Mass X-Ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Núñez, Silvia; Kretschmar, Peter; Bozzo, Enrico; Oskinova, Lidia M.; Puls, Joachim; Sidoli, Lara; Sundqvist, Jon Olof; Blay, Pere; Falanga, Maurizio; Fürst, Felix; Gímenez-García, Angel; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kühnel, Matthias; Sander, Andreas; Torrejón, José Miguel; Wilms, Jörn

    2017-10-01

    sources in the sky. A large number of them consist of a neutron star accreting from the wind of a massive companion and producing a powerful X-ray source. The characteristics of the stellar wind together with the complex interactions between the compact object and the donor star determine the observed X-ray output from all these systems. Consequently, the use of SgXBs for studies of massive stars is only possible when the physics of the stellar winds, the compact objects, and accretion mechanisms are combined together and confronted with observations. This detailed review summarises the current knowledge on the theory and observations of winds from massive stars, as well as on observations and accretion processes in wind-fed high mass X-ray binaries. The aim is to combine in the near future all available theoretical diagnostics and observational measurements to achieve a unified picture of massive star winds in isolated objects and in binary systems.

  7. Plasma X-ray sources powered by megajoule magnetocumulative generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkov, N F; Averchenkov, V Ya; Pikar` , A S; Ryaslov, E A; Kargin, V I; Lazarev, S A; Borodkov, V V; Nazarenko, S T; Makartsev, G F [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation). Russian Federal Nuclear Center

    1997-12-31

    Experiments using magnetocumulative generators (MCGs) were performed to power three different types of high-energy-density plasma discharges suitable for intense x-ray generation. These included the H-pressed discharge, the capillary z-pinch, and the {theta}-pinch. The MCGs were operated both with and without plasma opening switches. The characteristic currents were approximately 10 MA and characteristic time scales approximately 1 {mu}s. (author). 7 figs., 3 refs.

  8. Manipulating Electronic States at Oxide Interfaces Using Focused Micro X-Rays from Standard Lab Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poccia, Nicola; Ricci, Alessandro; Coneri, F.; Stehno, Martin; Campi, Gaetano; Demitri, Nicola; Bais, Giorgio; Wang, X. Renshaw; Hilgenkamp, H.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, X-ray illumination, using synchrotron radiation, has been used to manipulate defects, stimulate self-organization, and to probe their structure. Here, we explore a method of defect-engineering low-dimensional systems using focused laboratory-scale X-ray sources. We demonstrate an

  9. Shielded radiography with a laser-driven MeV-energy X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shouyuan; Golovin, Grigory [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Miller, Cameron [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Haden, Daniel; Banerjee, Sudeep; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Cheng; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Baozhen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Clarke, Shaun; Pozzi, Sara [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Umstadter, Donald, E-mail: donald.umstadter@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of experimental and numerical-simulation studies of shielded radiography using narrowband MeV-energy X-rays from a compact all-laser-driven inverse-Compton-scattering X-ray light source. This recently developed X-ray light source is based on a laser-wakefield accelerator with ultra-high-field gradient (GeV/cm). We demonstrate experimentally high-quality radiographic imaging (image contrast of 0.4 and signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1) of a target composed of 8-mm thick depleted uranium shielded by 80-mm thick steel, using a 6-MeV X-ray beam with a spread of 45% (FWHM) and 10{sup 7} photons in a single shot. The corresponding dose of the X-ray pulse measured in front of the target is ∼100 nGy/pulse. Simulations performed using the Monte-Carlo code MCNPX accurately reproduce the experimental results. These simulations also demonstrate that the narrow bandwidth of the Compton X-ray source operating at 6 and 9 MeV leads to a reduction of deposited dose as compared to broadband bremsstrahlung sources with the same end-point energy. The X-ray beam’s inherently low-divergence angle (∼mrad) is advantageous and effective for interrogation at standoff distance. These results demonstrate significant benefits of all-laser driven Compton X-rays for shielded radiography.

  10. Characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temporal, spatial and spectral characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source based on vacuum diode with laser-produced plasma as cathode are presented. Electrons from a laser-produced aluminium plasma were accelerated towards a conical point tip titanium anode to generate K-shell x-ray radiation.

  11. Hard X-ray sources from miniature plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raspa, V.; Silva, P.; Moreno, J.; Zambra, M.; Soto, L.

    2004-01-01

    As first stage of a program to design a repetitive pulsed radiation generator for industrial applications, two miniature plasma foci have been designed and constructed at the Chilean commission of nuclear energy. The devices operate at an energy level of the order of tens of joules (PF-50 J, 160 nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100 J, ∼ 150 ns time to peak current) and hundred of joules (PF-400 J, 880 nF, 20-35 kV, 176-539 J, ∼ 300 ns time to peak current). Hard X-rays are being studied in these devices operating with hydrogen. Images of metallic plates with different thickness were obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize the energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge chamber of PF-400 J. An effective energy of the order of 90 keV was measured under those conditions. X ray images of different metallic objects also have been obtained. (authors)

  12. Hard X-ray sources from miniature plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspa, V. [Buenos Aires Univ., PLADEMA, CONICET and INFIP (Argentina); Silva, P.; Moreno, J.; Zambra, M.; Soto, L. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    As first stage of a program to design a repetitive pulsed radiation generator for industrial applications, two miniature plasma foci have been designed and constructed at the Chilean commission of nuclear energy. The devices operate at an energy level of the order of tens of joules (PF-50 J, 160 nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100 J, {approx} 150 ns time to peak current) and hundred of joules (PF-400 J, 880 nF, 20-35 kV, 176-539 J, {approx} 300 ns time to peak current). Hard X-rays are being studied in these devices operating with hydrogen. Images of metallic plates with different thickness were obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize the energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge chamber of PF-400 J. An effective energy of the order of 90 keV was measured under those conditions. X ray images of different metallic objects also have been obtained. (authors)

  13. Monte Carlo simulations of the detailed iron absorption line profiles from thermal winds in X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Ryota; Done, Chris; Odaka, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2018-05-01

    Blueshifted absorption lines from highly ionized iron are seen in some high inclination X-ray binary systems, indicating the presence of an equatorial disc wind. This launch mechanism is under debate, but thermal driving should be ubiquitous. X-ray irradiation from the central source heats disc surface, forming a wind from the outer disc where the local escape velocity is lower than the sound speed. The mass-loss rate from each part of the disc is determined by the luminosity and spectral shape of the central source. We use these together with an assumed density and velocity structure of the wind to predict the column density and ionization state, then combine this with a Monte Carlo radiation transfer to predict the detailed shape of the absorption (and emission) line profiles. We test this on the persistent wind seen in the bright neutron star binary GX 13+1, with luminosity L/LEdd ˜ 0.5. We approximately include the effect of radiation pressure because of high luminosity, and compute line features. We compare these to the highest resolution data, the Chandra third-order grating spectra, which we show here for the first time. This is the first physical model for the wind in this system, and it succeeds in reproducing many of the features seen in the data, showing that the wind in GX13+1 is most likely a thermal-radiation driven wind. This approach, combined with better streamline structures derived from full radiation hydrodynamic simulations, will allow future calorimeter data to explore the detail wind structure.

  14. Transient periodic x-ray source in Taurus, A0535+26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradt, H.; Mayer, W.; Buff, J.; Clark, G.W.; Doxsey, R.; Hearn, D.; Jernigan, G.; Joss, P.C.; Laufer, B.; Lewin, W.; Li, F.; Matilsky, T.; McClintock, J.; Primini, F.; Rappaport, S.; Schnopper, H.

    1976-01-01

    Light curves of the 104 s periodicity in the transient X-ray source in Taurus (A0535+26) are presented for six energy intervals in the range 1-35 keV for the period 1975 May 30-June 2. The pulse structure ranges from an apparently simple modulation at higher energies to a very complex pattern at lower energies. No Doppler shift is observed in the 104 s pulse period during the three days of observations. This places severe constraints upon possible binary orbital motion. Upper limits on the power at other periodicities are approximately-less-than10 percent for 2 ms-2s and approximately-less-than2 percent for 2 s-2000 s

  15. In-situ X-ray diffraction system using sources and detectors at fixed angular positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David M [Voorheesville, NY; Gibson, Walter M [Voorheesville, NY; Huang, Huapeng [Latham, NY

    2007-06-26

    An x-ray diffraction technique for measuring a known characteristic of a sample of a material in an in-situ state. The technique includes using an x-ray source for emitting substantially divergent x-ray radiation--with a collimating optic disposed with respect to the fixed source for producing a substantially parallel beam of x-ray radiation by receiving and redirecting the divergent paths of the divergent x-ray radiation. A first x-ray detector collects radiation diffracted from the sample; wherein the source and detector are fixed, during operation thereof, in position relative to each other and in at least one dimension relative to the sample according to a-priori knowledge about the known characteristic of the sample. A second x-ray detector may be fixed relative to the first x-ray detector according to the a-priori knowledge about the known characteristic of the sample, especially in a phase monitoring embodiment of the present invention.

  16. The supersoft X-ray source in V5116 Sagittarii. I. The high resolution spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, G.; Ness, J. U.; Hernanz, M.; Greiner, J.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Classical nova explosions occur on the surface of an accreting white dwarf in a binary system. After ejection of a fraction of the envelope and when the expanding shell becomes optically thin to X-rays, a bright source of supersoft X-rays arises, powered by residual H burning on the surface of the white dwarf. While the general picture of the nova event is well established, the details and balance of accretion and ejection processes in classical novae are still full of unknowns. The long-term balance of accreted matter is of special interest for massive accreting white dwarfs, which may be promising supernova Ia progenitor candidates. Nova V5116 Sgr 2005b was observed as a bright and variable supersoft X-ray source by XMM-Newton in March 2007, 610 days after outburst. The light curve showed a periodicity consistent with the orbital period. During one third of the orbit the luminosity was a factor of seven brighter than during the other two thirds of the orbital period. Aims: In the present work we aim to disentangle the X-ray spectral components of V5116 Sgr and their variability. Methods: We present the high resolution spectra obtained with XMM-Newton RGS and Chandra LETGS/HRC-S in March and August 2007. Results: The grating spectrum during the periods of high-flux shows a typical hot white dwarf atmosphere dominated by absorption lines of N VI and N VII. During the low-flux periods, the spectrum is dominated by an atmosphere with the same temperature as during the high-flux period, but with several emission features superimposed. Some of the emission lines are well modeled with an optically thin plasma in collisional equilibrium, rich in C and N, which also explains some excess in the spectra of the high-flux period. No velocity shifts are observed in the absorption lines, with an upper limit set by the spectral resolution of 500 km s-1, consistent with the expectation of a non-expanding atmosphere so late in the evolution of the post-nova. Based on

  17. JEM-X observations of the Be/X-ray binary EXO 2030+375

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, S.M.; Reig, P.; Blay, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have used data from the Joint European Monitor (JEM-X) to perform an X-ray spectral and timing analysis of the 42-s transient pulsar EXO 2030+375 during an X-ray outburst. X-ray pulsations are clearly detected with an average pulse period of 41.66+/-0.05 s and an average pulse fraction of 60...

  18. Constraining the inclination of the Low-Mass X-ray Binary Cen X-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Erica K.; Cackett, Edward M.; Reynolds, Mark T.; Miller, Jon M.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of ellipsoidal light curve modeling of the low mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 in order to constrain the inclination of the system and mass of the neutron star. Near-IR photometric monitoring was performed in May 2008 over a period of three nights at Magellan using PANIC. We obtain J, H and K lightcurves of Cen X-4 using differential photometry. An ellipsoidal modeling code was used to fit the phase folded light curves. The lightcurve fit which makes the least assumptions about the properties of the binary system yields an inclination of 34.9^{+4.9}_{-3.6} degrees (1σ), which is consistent with previous determinations of the system's inclination but with improved statistical uncertainties. When combined with the mass function and mass ratio, this inclination yields a neutron star mass of 1.51^{+0.40}_{-0.55} M⊙. This model allows accretion disk parameters to be free in the fitting process. Fits that do not allow for an accretion disk component in the near-IR flux gives a systematically lower inclination between approximately 33 and 34 degrees, leading to a higher mass neutron star between approximately 1.7 M⊙ and 1.8 M⊙. We discuss the implications of other assumptions made during the modeling process as well as numerous free parameters and their effects on the resulting inclination.

  19. A compact X-ray source based on Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Grigor' ev, Yu.; Guk, I.; Karnaukhov, I.; Khodyachikh, A.; Kononenko, S.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Shcherbakov, A. E-mail: shcherbakov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Tarasenko, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Zelinsky, A

    2001-07-21

    The main parameters of Kharkov electron storage ring N-100 with a beam energy range from 70 to 150 MeV are presented. The main results that were obtained in experimental researches are briefly described. The future of the N-100 upgrade to the development of the X-ray generator based on Compton back-scattering are presented. The electron beam energy range will be extended up to 250 MeV and the circumference of the storage ring will be 13.72 m. The lattice, parameters of the electron beam and the Compton back-scattering photons flux are described.

  20. A compact X-ray source based on Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyak, E.; Gladkikh, P.; Grigor'ev, Yu.; Guk, I.; Karnaukhov, I.; Khodyachikh, A.; Kononenko, S.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Tarasenko, A.; Telegin, Yu.; Zelinsky, A.

    2001-01-01

    The main parameters of Kharkov electron storage ring N-100 with a beam energy range from 70 to 150 MeV are presented. The main results that were obtained in experimental researches are briefly described. The future of the N-100 upgrade to the development of the X-ray generator based on Compton back-scattering are presented. The electron beam energy range will be extended up to 250 MeV and the circumference of the storage ring will be 13.72 m. The lattice, parameters of the electron beam and the Compton back-scattering photons flux are described

  1. On the methods of determination of x-ray sources protection quality in x-ray diagnostic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, L.V.

    1973-01-01

    Existing procedures for assessing the quality of shielding of X-ray radiators are compared; these procedures are shown to have a number of shortcomings and to be very time-consuming. A procedure is offered in which shielding quality is tested in two stages: (1) X-ray tests aimed at determining the quality of protection of the X-ray tube unit; and (2) dosimeter tests proper. The results of measurements are compared with maximum permissible dosage rate

  2. Infrared Counterparts to Chandra X-Ray Sources in the Antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Brandl, B. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Carson, J. C.; Henderson, C. P.; Hayward, T. L.; Barry, D. J.; Ptak, A. F.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2007-03-01

    We use deep J (1.25 μm) and Ks (2.15 μm) images of the Antennae (NGC 4038/4039) obtained with the Wide-field InfraRed Camera on the Palomar 200 inch (5 m) telescope, together with the Chandra X-ray source list of Zezas and coworkers to search for infrared counterparts to X-ray point sources. We establish an X-ray/IR astrometric frame tie with ~0.5" rms residuals over a ~4.3' field. We find 13 ``strong'' IR counterparts brighter than Ks=17.8 mag and 99.9% confidence level that IR counterparts to X-ray sources are ΔMKs~1.2 mag more luminous than average non-X-ray clusters. We also note that the X-ray/IR matches are concentrated in the spiral arms and ``overlap'' regions of the Antennae. This implies that these X-ray sources lie in the most ``super'' of the Antennae's super star clusters, and thus trace the recent massive star formation history here. Based on the NH inferred from the X-ray sources without IR counterparts, we determine that the absence of most of the ``missing'' IR counterparts is not due to extinction, but that these sources are intrinsically less luminous in the IR, implying that they trace a different (possibly older) stellar population. We find no clear correlation between X-ray luminosity classes and IR properties of the sources, although small-number statistics hamper this analysis.

  3. Formation of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries. II. Common Envelope Evolution of Primordial Binaries with Extreme Mass Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogera, Vassiliki; Webbink, Ronald F.

    1998-01-01

    We study the formation of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) through helium star supernovae in binary systems that have each emerged from a common envelope phase. LMXB progenitors must satisfy a large number of evolutionary and structural constraints, including survival through common envelope evolution, through the post-common envelope phase, where the precursor of the neutron star becomes a Wolf-Rayet star, and survival through the supernova event. Furthermore, the binaries that survive the explosion must reach interaction within a Hubble time and must satisfy stability criteria for mass transfer. These constraints, imposed under the assumption of a symmetric supernova explosion, prohibit the formation of short-period LMXBs transferring mass at sub-Eddington rates through any channel in which the intermediate progenitor of the neutron star is not completely degenerate. Barring accretion-induced collapse, the existence of such systems therefore requires that natal kicks be imparted to neutron stars. We use an analytical method to synthesize the distribution of nascent LMXBs over donor masses and orbital periods and evaluate their birthrate and systemic velocity dispersion. Within the limitations imposed by observational incompleteness and selection effects, and our neglect of secular evolution in the LMXB state, we compare our results with observations. However, our principal objective is to evaluate how basic model parameters (common envelope ejection efficiency, rms kick velocity, primordial mass ratio distribution) influence these results. We conclude that the characteristics of newborn LMXBs are primarily determined by age and stability constraints and the efficiency of magnetic braking and are largely independent of the primordial binary population and the evolutionary history of LMXB progenitors (except for extreme values of the average kick magnitude or of the common envelope ejection efficiency). Theoretical estimates of total LMXB birthrates are not credible

  4. Discovery of the third transient X-ray binary in the galactic globular cluster Terzan 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahramian, Arash; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Gladstone, Jeanette C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Altamirano, Diego; Wijnands, Rudy [Astronomical Institute " Anton Pannekoek," University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Homan, Jeroen [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Linares, Manuel [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, c/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Pooley, David [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341 (United States); Degenaar, Nathalie, E-mail: bahramia@ualberta.ca [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We report and study the outburst of a new transient X-ray binary (XRB) in Terzan 5, the third detected in this globular cluster, Swift J174805.3-244637 or Terzan 5 X-3. We find clear spectral hardening in Swift/XRT data during the outburst rise to the hard state, thanks to our early coverage (starting at L{sub X} ∼ 4 × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1}) of the outburst. This hardening appears to be due to the decline in relative strength of a soft thermal component from the surface of the neutron star (NS) during the rise. We identify a Type I X-ray burst in Swift/XRT data with a long (16 s) decay time, indicative of hydrogen burning on the surface of the NS. We use Swift/BAT, MAXI/GSC, Chandra/ACIS, and Swift/XRT data to study the spectral changes during the outburst, identifying a clear hard-to-soft state transition. We use a Chandra/ACIS observation during outburst to identify the transient's position. Seven archival Chandra/ACIS observations show evidence for variations in Terzan 5 X-3's nonthermal component but not the thermal component during quiescence. The inferred long-term time-averaged mass accretion rate, from the quiescent thermal luminosity, suggests that if this outburst is typical and only slow cooling processes are active in the NS core, such outbursts should recur every ∼10 yr.

  5. X-RAY OUTFLOWS AND SUPER-EDDINGTON ACCRETION IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Roberts, T. P.; Middleton, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of X-ray continuum emission and flux variability have not conclusively revealed the nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) at the high-luminosity end of the distribution (those with L X ≥ 10 40 erg s –1 ). These are of particular interest because the luminosity requires either super-Eddington accretion onto a black hole of mass ∼10 M ☉ or more standard accretion onto an intermediate-mass black hole. Super-Eddington accretion models predict strong outflowing winds, making atomic absorption lines a key diagnostic of the nature of extreme ULXs. To search for such features, we have undertaken a long, 500 ks observing campaign on Holmberg IX X-1 with Suzaku. This is the most sensitive data set in the iron K bandpass for a bright, isolated ULX to date, yet we find no statistically significant atomic features in either emission or absorption; any undetected narrow features must have equivalent widths less than 15-20 eV at 99% confidence. These limits are far below the ∼>150 eV lines expected if observed trends between mass inflow and outflow rates extend into the super-Eddington regime and in fact rule out the line strengths observed from disk winds in a variety of sub-Eddington black holes. We therefore cannot be viewing the central regions of Holmberg IX X-1 through any substantial column of material, ruling out models of spherical super-Eddington accretion. If Holmberg IX X-1 is a super-Eddington source, any associated outflow must have an anisotropic geometry. Finally, the lack of iron emission suggests that the stellar companion cannot be launching a strong wind and that Holmberg IX X-1 must primarily accrete via Roche-lobe overflow

  6. Development of X-ray photoelectron microscope with a compact X-ray source generated by line-focused laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.; Takahashi, Z.; Nishimura, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Okamoto, Y.; Sakata, A.; Azuma, H.; Hara, T.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-sized X-ray photoelectron microscope was constructed using a compact X-ray source produced by line-focused laser irradiation. The system is a scanning type photoelectron microscope where X-ray beam is micro-focused via Schwarzschild optics. A compact laser-plasma X-ray source has been developed with a YAG laser, a line-focus lens assembly, an Al tape-target driver and a debris prevention system. The 13.1 nm X-ray was delivered along line plasma whose length was 0.6 or 11 mm with higher intensity than that from a point-focused source. The Schwarzschild optics having the designed demagnification of 224, which was coated with Mo/Si multilayers for 13.1 nm X-ray, was set on the beamline 1 m distant from the source. The electron energy analyser was a spherical capacitor analyser with the photoelectron image detection system that was suited for detection of vast photoelectrons excited by an X-ray pulse of ns-order duration. The spatial resolution less than 5 μm has been confirmed from the variation of As 3d electron intensity along the position of the GaAs sample coated with a photo-resist test pattern

  7. X-ray microscopy resource center at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Ilse, W.; Koike, M.; Beguiristain, R.; Maser, J.; Attwood, D.

    1992-07-01

    An x-ray microscopy resource center for biological x-ray imaging vvill be built at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley. The unique high brightness of the ALS allows short exposure times and high image quality. Two microscopes, an x-ray microscope (XM) and a scanning x-ray microscope (SXM) are planned. These microscopes serve complementary needs. The XM gives images in parallel at comparable short exposure times, and the SXM is optimized for low radiation doses applied to the sample. The microscopes extend visible light microscopy towards significantly higher resolution and permit images of objects in an aqueous medium. High resolution is accomplished by the use of Fresnel zone plates. Design considerations to serve the needs of biological x-ray microscopy are given. Also the preliminary design of the microscopes is presented. Multiple wavelength and multiple view images will provide elemental contrast and some degree of 3D information

  8. Development of a sub-MeV X-ray source via Compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, K.; Kando, M.; Hayakawa, T.; Daito, I.; Kondo, S.; Homma, T.; Kameshima, T.; Kotaki, H.; Chen, L.-M.; Fukuda, Y.; Faenov, A.; Shizuma, T.; Shimomura, T.; Yoshida, H.; Hajima, R.; Fujiwara, M.; Bulanov, S.V.; Kimura, T.; Tajima, T.

    2011-01-01

    At the Kansai Photon Science Institute of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, we have developed a Compton backscattered X-ray source in the energy region of a few hundred keV. The X-ray source consists of a 150-MeV electron beam, with a pulse duration of 10 ps (rms), accelerated by a Microtron accelerator and an Nd:YAG laser, with a pulse duration of 10 ns (FWHM). In the first trial experiment, the X-ray flux is estimated to be (2.2±1.0)x10 2 photons/pulse. For the actual application of an X-ray source, it is important to increase the generated X-ray flux as much as possible. Thus, for the purpose of increasing the X-ray flux, we have developed the pulse compression system for the Nd:YAG laser via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). The SBS pulse compression has the great advantages of a high conversion efficiency and a simple structure. In this article, we review the present status of the Compton backscattered X-ray source and describe the SBS pulse compression system.

  9. Stationary scanning x-ray source based on carbon nanotube field emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, G.; Cheng, Y.; Gao, B.; Qiu, Q.; Lee, Y.Z.; Lu, J.P.; Zhou, O.

    2005-01-01

    We report a field emission x-ray source that can generate a scanning x-ray beam to image an object from multiple projection angles without mechanical motion. The key component of the device is a gated carbon nanotube field emission cathode with an array of electron emitting pixels that are individually addressable via a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor-based electronic circuit. The characteristics of this x-ray source are measured and its imaging capability is demonstrated. The device can potentially lead to a fast data acquisition rate for laminography and tomosynthesis with a simplified experimental setup

  10. CHANDRA X-RAY AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF OPTICALLY SELECTED KILOPARSEC-SCALE BINARY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST GALAXY MORPHOLOGY AND AGN ACTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C.; Liu, Xin; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W ( U -band) and F105W ( Y -band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope . Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow-up observations. We find that kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from their host bulge stellar masses and obtain Eddington ratios for each AGN. Compared with a representative control sample drawn at the same redshift and stellar mass, the AGN luminosities and Eddington ratios of our binary AGNs are similar to those of single AGNs. The U − Y color maps indicate that clumpy star-forming regions could significantly affect the X-ray detection of binary AGNs, e.g., the hardness ratio. Considering the weak X-ray emission in AGNs triggered in merger systems, we suggest that samples of X-ray-selected AGNs may be biased against gas-rich mergers.

  11. Quasimonochromatic x-ray computed tomography by the balanced filter method using a conventional x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2004-01-01

    A quasimonochromatic x-ray computed tomography (CT) system utilizing balanced filters has recently been developed for acquiring quantitative CT images. This system consisted of basic components such as a conventional x-ray generator for radiography, a stage for mounting and rotating objects, and an x-ray line sensor camera. Metallic sheets of Er and Yb were used as the balanced filters for obtaining quasimonochromatic incident x rays that include the characteristic lines of the W Kα doublet from a tungsten target. The mean energy and energy width of the quasimonochromatic x rays were determined to be 59.0 and 1.9 keV, respectively, from x-ray spectroscopic measurements using a high-purity Ge detector. The usefulness of the present x-ray CT system was demonstrated by obtaining spatial distributions of the linear attenuation coefficients of three selected samples--a 20 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom, a 3.5 cm diameter aluminum rod, and a human head phantom. The results clearly indicate that this apparatus is surprisingly effective for estimating the distribution of the linear attenuation coefficients without any correction of the beam-hardening effect. Thus, implementing the balanced filter method on an x-ray CT scanner has promise in producing highly quantitative CT images

  12. M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTER STRUCTURES AND THE PRESENCE OF X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agar, J. R. R.; Barmby, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Andromeda galaxy, M31, has several times the number of globular clusters found in the Milky Way. It contains a correspondingly larger number of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) associated with globular clusters, and as such can be used to investigate the cluster properties that lead to X-ray binary formation. The best tracer of the spatial structure of M31 globulars is the high-resolution imaging available from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and we have used HST data to derive structural parameters for 29 LMXB-hosting M31 globular clusters. These measurements are combined with structural parameters from the literature for a total of 41 (of 50 known) LMXB clusters and a comparison sample of 65 non-LMXB clusters. Structural parameters measured in blue bandpasses are found to be slightly different (smaller core radii and higher concentrations) than those measured in red bandpasses; this difference is enhanced in LMXB clusters and could be related to stellar population differences. Clusters with LMXBs show higher collision rates for their mass compared to clusters without LMXBs, and collision rates estimated at the core radius show larger offsets than rates estimated at the half-light radius. These results are consistent with the dynamical formation scenario for LMXBs. A logistic regression analysis finds that, as expected, the probability of a cluster hosting an LMXB increases with increasing collision rate and proximity to the galaxy center. The same analysis finds that probability of a cluster hosting an LMXB decreases with increasing cluster mass at a fixed collision rate, although we caution that this could be due to sample selection effects. Metallicity is found to be a less important predictor of LMXB probability than collision rate, mass, or distance, even though LMXB clusters have a higher metallicity on average. This may be due to the interaction of location and metallicity: a sample of M31 LMXBs with a greater range in galactocentric distance would

  13. Light source for synchrotron radiation x-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyong; Jiang Jianhua; Tian Yulian

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of the synchrotron radiation source for X-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL) is described, local geometrical resolution of topographies is discussed, and the diffracting intensities of white beam topography is given

  14. Comparison of X-ray source concepts for radiographic purposes at OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, L.; Primout, M.; Villette, B.; Girard, F.; Oudot, G.

    2013-01-01

    As multi-keV X-ray sources, seven targets including thick and thin foils, metal-lined halfraums and a foil combined with a plastic cylinder, have been shot on Omega in September 2011. Titanium was used as X-ray emitting material for all the sources. Using experimental data and FCI 2 simulation results, we have, for each source type, characterized the emission lobes and determined the spatial directions of maximum multi-keV energy. These results demonstrate the benefit of using a laser drive with a prepulse for both thick and thin foils. The favorable effect of a confinement cylinder for the X-ray emitted from front side by a thin foil has also been experimentally found but is not yet confirmed by the simulations. The temporal waveforms of the X-ray power obtained from the different sources as well as the emission spots at the times of maximum emission are also compared. (authors)

  15. Optical synchronization system for femtosecond X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Russell B [El Cerrito, CA; Holzwarth, Ronald [Munich, DE

    2011-12-13

    Femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses require precise synchronization between 100 meter-10 km separated lasers in a various experiments. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1-10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with various implementations. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range two single-frequency lasers separated by several teraHertz will be lock to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes.

  16. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE DOUBLE-BINARY OB-STAR SYSTEM QZ CAR (HD 93206)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, E. R.; Naze, Y.; Rauw, G.; Broos, P. S.; Townsley, L. K.; Pittard, J. M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Oskinova, L. M.; Waldron, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray observations of the double-binary OB-star system QZ Car (HD 93206) obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory over a period of roughly 2 years are presented. The respective orbits of systems A (O9.7 I+b2 v, P A = 21 days) and B (O8 III+o9 v, P B = 6 days) are reasonably well sampled by the observations, allowing the origin of the X-ray emission to be examined in detail. The X-ray spectra can be well fitted by an attenuated three-temperature thermal plasma model, characterized by cool, moderate, and hot plasma components at kT ≅ 0.2, 0.7, and 2 keV, respectively, and a circumstellar absorption of ≅0.2 x 10 22 cm -2 . Although the hot plasma component could be indicating the presence of wind-wind collision shocks in the system, the model fluxes calculated from spectral fits, with an average value of ≅7 x 10 -13 erg s -1 cm -2 , do not show a clear correlation with the orbits of the two constituent binaries. A semi-analytical model of QZ Car reveals that a stable momentum balance may not be established in either system A or B. Yet, despite this, system B is expected to produce an observed X-ray flux well in excess of the observations. If one considers the wind of the O8 III star to be disrupted by mass transfer, the model and observations are in far better agreement, which lends support to the previous suggestion of mass transfer in the O8 III + o9 v binary. We conclude that the X-ray emission from QZ Car can be reasonably well accounted for by a combination of contributions mainly from the single stars and the mutual wind-wind collision between systems A and B.

  17. Optical technologies for extreme-ultraviolet and soft X-ray coherent sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canova, Federico; Poletto, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The book reviews the most recent achievements in optical technologies for XUV and X-ray coherent sources. Particular attention is given to free-electron-laser facilities, but also to other sources available at present, such as synchrotrons, high-order laser harmonics and X-ray lasers. The optical technologies relevant to each type of source are discussed. In addition, the main technologies used for photon handling and conditioning, namely multilayer mirrors, adaptive optics, crystals and gratings are explained. Experiments using coherent light received during the last decades a lot of attention for the X-ray regime. Strong efforts were taken for the realization of almost fully coherent sources, e.g. the free-electron lasers, both as independent sources in the femtosecond and attosecond regimes and as seeding sources for free-electron-lasers and X-ray gas lasers. In parallel to the development of sources, optical technologies for photon handling and conditioning of such coherent and intense X-ray beams advanced. New problems were faced for the realization of optical components of beamlines demanding to manage coherent X-ray photons, e.g. the preservation of coherence and time structure of ultra short pulses.

  18. Design, development and integration of a large scale multiple source X-ray computed tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, Andrew A.; Liu, Tong; Ng, Ivan Kee Beng; Teng, Wei Yuen; Yap, Tsi Tung; Wan, Siew Ping; Kong, Chun Jeng

    2013-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) allows visualisation of the physical structures in the interior of an object without physically opening or cutting it. This technology supports a wide range of applications in the non-destructive testing, failure analysis or performance evaluation of industrial products and components. Of the numerous factors that influence the performance characteristics of an X-ray CT system the energy level in the X-ray spectrum to be used is one of the most significant. The ability of the X-ray beam to penetrate a given thickness of a specific material is directly related to the maximum available energy level in the beam. Higher energy levels allow penetration of thicker components made of more dense materials. In response to local industry demand and in support of on-going research activity in the area of 3D X-ray imaging for industrial inspection the Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (SIMTech) engaged in the design, development and integration of large scale multiple source X-ray computed tomography system based on X-ray sources operating at higher energies than previously available in the Institute. The system consists of a large area direct digital X-ray detector (410 x 410 mm), a multiple-axis manipulator system, a 225 kV open tube microfocus X-ray source and a 450 kV closed tube millifocus X-ray source. The 225 kV X-ray source can be operated in either transmission or reflection mode. The body of the 6-axis manipulator system is fabricated from heavy-duty steel onto which high precision linear and rotary motors have been mounted in order to achieve high accuracy, stability and repeatability. A source-detector distance of up to 2.5 m can be achieved. The system is controlled by a proprietary X-ray CT operating system developed by SIMTech. The system currently can accommodate samples up to 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m in size with weight up to 50 kg. These specifications will be increased to 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 m and 100 kg in future

  19. A nanotube-based field emission x-ray source for microcomputed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Cheng, Y.; Lee, Y.Z.; Gao, B.; Qiu, Q.; Lin, W.L.; Lalush, D.; Lu, J.P.; Zhou, O.

    2005-01-01

    Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) is a noninvasive imaging tool commonly used to probe the internal structures of small animals for biomedical research and for the inspection of microelectronics. Here we report the development of a micro-CT scanner with a carbon nanotube- (CNT-) based microfocus x-ray source. The performance of the CNT x-ray source and the imaging capability of the micro-CT scanner were characterized

  20. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  1. Radiation parameters of the X-ray binary A 0535+26=HDE 245770 from the polarization and photometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larionov, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of Shakhovskay et al's observations of the X-ray binary A 0535+26=HDE 245770 made it possible to distinguish in its radiation the two components connected with the visible star (O9 III) and the accretion disc around the neutron star. The interstellar polarization parameters are in accordance with Serkowski's formula and the observations of the field stars. The IR and optical variability can be explained in terms of variable accretion disc radiation. The intrinsic polarization parameters obtained can be used to predict, in the model proposed, the directions of the polarization vectors in the IR and X-ray bands

  2. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  3. Direct intensity calibration of X-ray grazing-incidence microscopes with home-lab source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaran; Xie, Qing; Chen, Zhiqiang; Xin, Qiuqi; Wang, Xin; Mu, Baozhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Liu, Shenye; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-01-01

    Direct intensity calibration of X-ray grazing-incidence microscopes is urgently needed in quantitative studies of X-ray emission from laser plasma sources in inertial confinement fusion. The existing calibration methods for single reflecting mirrors, crystals, gratings, filters, and X-ray detectors are not applicable for such X-ray microscopes due to the specific optical structure and the restrictions of object-image relation. This article presents a reliable and efficient method that can be performed using a divergent X-ray source and an energy dispersive Si-PIN (silicon positive-intrinsic-negative) detector in an ordinary X-ray laboratory. The transmission theory of X-ray flux in imaging diagnostics is introduced, and the quantities to be measured are defined. The calibration method is verified by a W/Si multilayer-coated Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope with a field of view of ˜95 μm at 17.48 keV. The mirror reflectance curve in the 1D coordinate is drawn with a peak value of 20.9% and an uncertainty of ˜6.0%.

  4. Characterisation and application of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graetz, M.

    1998-11-01

    Hard X-rays are generated by focusing 110 fs laser pulses with intensities of about 1017 W/cm 2 onto solid metal targets. Characteristic properties of this X-ray source are the small source size, the short pulse duration and the high peak flux. The aim of the present work was to characterise this X-ray source and to demonstrate possible applications. A comparison with other X-ray sources and conventional imaging techniques is made. Characterising measurements were performed, including source size, emission spectrum, temporal behaviour, source stability and the influence of various laser parameters. The emission spectrum was measured using both energy-dispersive solid-state detectors and wavelength-dispersive crystal spectroscopy. The conversion efficiency from laser light to X-ray radiation was measured for different target materials. The laser ablation from different targets was studied. The feasibility of special imaging techniques, e.g. differential imaging and time-gated imaging, was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Differential imaging allows for selective imaging of contrast agents, while time-gated imaging can reduce the influence of scattered radiation in X-ray imaging. Time-gated imaging was demonstrated in different imaging geometries, both for planar imaging and computed tomography imaging. Reasonable agreement between theoretically calculated values and experimental results was obtained

  5. [Experimental investigation of laser plasma soft X-ray source with gas target].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qi-liang; Gong, Yan; Lin, Jing-quan; Chen, Bo; Cao, Jian-lin

    2003-02-01

    This paper describes a debris-free laser plasma soft X-ray source with a gas target, which has high operating frequency and can produce strong soft X-ray radiation. The valve of this light source is drived by a piezoelectrical ceramic whose operating frequency is up to 400 Hz. In comparison with laser plasma soft X-ray sources using metal target, the light source is debris-free. And it has higher operating frequency than gas target soft X-ray sources whose nozzle is controlled by a solenoid valve. A channel electron multiplier (CEM) operating in analog mode is used to detect the soft X-ray generated by the laser plasma source, and the CEM's output is fed to to a charge-sensitive preamplifier for further amplification purpose. Output charges from the CEM are proportional to the amplitude of the preamplifier's output voltage. Spectra of CO2, Xe and Kr at 8-14 nm wavelength which can be used for soft X-ray projection lithography are measured. The spectrum for CO2 consists of separate spectral lines originate mainly from the transitions in Li-like and Be-like ions. The Xe spectrum originating mainly from 4d-5f, 4d-4f, 4d-6p and 4d-5p transitions in multiply charged xenon ions. The spectrum for Kr consists of separate spectral lines and continuous broad spectra originating mainly from the transitions in Cu-, Ni-, Co- and Fe-like ions.

  6. Characterisation and application of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetz, M

    1998-11-01

    Hard X-rays are generated by focusing 110 fs laser pulses with intensities of about 1017 W/cm{sup 2} onto solid metal targets. Characteristic properties of this X-ray source are the small source size, the short pulse duration and the high peak flux. The aim of the present work was to characterise this X-ray source and to demonstrate possible applications. A comparison with other X-ray sources and conventional imaging techniques is made. Characterising measurements were performed, including source size, emission spectrum, temporal behaviour, source stability and the influence of various laser parameters. The emission spectrum was measured using both energy-dispersive solid-state detectors and wavelength-dispersive crystal spectroscopy. The conversion efficiency from laser light to X-ray radiation was measured for different target materials. The laser ablation from different targets was studied. The feasibility of special imaging techniques, e.g. differential imaging and time-gated imaging, was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Differential imaging allows for selective imaging of contrast agents, while time-gated imaging can reduce the influence of scattered radiation in X-ray imaging. Time-gated imaging was demonstrated in different imaging geometries, both for planar imaging and computed tomography imaging. Reasonable agreement between theoretically calculated values and experimental results was obtained 120 refs, figs, tabs

  7. Apparatus with a cooled X-ray source and a high voltage generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    Apparatus, especially for a dental application, with an X-ray source and a high voltage generator, whereby the X-ray source and a high voltage generator are contained in a housing, which is filled with a coolant medium, characterised by the housing being divided into two chambers, whereby the X-ray source is in the first chamber and the high voltage generator is in the second chamber and between the chambers a dividing wall is placed for the screening of the X-ray irradiation from the first chamber from the second, whereby at least one of the walls of the second chamber is elastic to accommodate the expansion of the coolant medium.

  8. Low-mass X-ray binaries and globular clusters streamers and arcs in NGC 4278

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Abrusco, R.; Fabbiano, G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brassington, N. J. [Center for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane Campus, Hatfield, Hertordshire, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    We report significant inhomogeneities in the projected two-dimensional spatial distributions of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and globular clusters (GCs) of the intermediate mass elliptical galaxy NGC 4278. In the inner region of NGC 4278, a significant arc-like excess of LMXBs extending south of the center at ∼50'' in the western side of the galaxy can be associated with a similar overdensity of the spatial distribution of red GCs from Brassington et al. Using a recent catalog of GCs produced by Usher et al. and covering the whole field of the NGC 4278 galaxy, we have discovered two other significant density structures outside the D {sub 25} isophote to the W and E of the center of NGC 4278, associated with an overdensity and an underdensity, respectively. We discuss the nature of these structures in the context of the similar spatial inhomogeneities discovered in the LMXBs and GCs populations of NGC 4649 and NGC 4261, respectively. These features suggest streamers from disrupted and accreted dwarf companions.

  9. On the spin period distribution in Be/X-ray binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Z.-Q.; Shao, Y.; Li, X.-D., E-mail: lixd@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-05-10

    There is a remarkable correlation between the spin periods of the accreting neutron stars (NSs) in Be/X-ray binaries (BeXBs) and their orbital periods. Recently, Knigge et al. showed that the distribution of the spin periods contains two distinct subpopulations peaked at ∼10 s and ∼200 s, respectively, and suggested that they may be related to two types of supernovae for the formation of the NSs, i.e., core-collapse and electron-capture supernovae. Here we propose that the bimodal spin period distribution is likely to be ascribed to different accretion modes of the NSs in BeXBs. When the NS tends to capture material from the warped, outer part of the Be star disk and experiences giant outbursts, a radiatively cooling dominated disk is formed around the NS, which spins up the NS and is responsible for the short-period subpopulation. In BeXBs that are dominated by normal outbursts or are persistent, the accretion flow is advection-dominated or quasi-spherical. The spin-up process is accordingly inefficient, leading to longer periods of the neuron stars. The potential relation between the subpopulations and the supernova mechanism is also discussed.

  10. X-ray holographic microscopy experiments at the Brookhaven synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.; Iarocci, M.; Kenney, J.; Kirz, J.; Rarback, H.

    1983-01-01

    Soft x-ray holographic microscopy is discussed from an experimental point of view. Three series of measurements have been carried out using the Brookhaven 750 MeV storage ring as an x-ray source. Young slits fringes, Gabor (in line) holograms and various data pertaining to the soft x-ray performance of photographic plates are reported. The measurements are discussed in terms of the technique for recording them and the experimental limitations in effect. Some discussion is also given of the issues involved in reconstruction using visible light

  11. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays. II. Faint Sources Detected with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, N. E.; Luna, G. J. M.; Pillitteri, I.; Mukai, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection from four symbiotic stars that were not known to be X-ray sources. These four object show a ß-type X-ray spectrum, that is, their spectra can be modeled with an absorbed optically thin thermal emission with temperatures of a few million degrees. Photometric series obtained with the Optical Monitor on board XMM-Newton from V2416 Sgr and NSV 25735 support the proposed scenario where the X-ray emission is produced in a shock-heated region inside the symbiotic nebulae.

  12. The spherical pinch as a soft x-ray source for microlithography and other industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aithal, S.; Lamari, M.; Panarella, E.

    1992-01-01

    In the course of the past several years, an R and D program has been carried out at ALFT in order to exploit the Spherical Pinch concept of plasma heating to create a hot plasma of radiation emission characteristics of interest for industrial X-ray microlithography. The program has been successful and a prototype machine has now been built. The plasma is generated by inductively discharging 30 kJ of electrical energy from a condenser bank in a spherically shaped coil. Since the energy transfer efficiency is ∼ 25%, in excess of 7 kJ of energy is deposited into the plasma. The strong implosion thus generated, on compressing a preformed central plasma, creates a source of soft X-rays having the following characteristics: X-ray energy, 1--3, keV; X-ray energy per pulse, ∼ 50, J; Source size, ∼ 1, mm; X-ray flux at--20 cm from source, ∼10, mJ/cm 2 /shot; position reproducibility, 0.1, Hz. These characteristics are very close to what is required by the semiconductor industries for microlithography. For this reason, a commercial unit is now being designed and manufactured and will be available for marketing by the end of 1992. This source of soft X-rays has recently found another industrial application, paper radiography for quality evaluation and control in the paper industry. The possibility of imaging by means of soft X-rays the microstructure of paper on production line enables the operator to adjust the paper manufacturing configuration through variations of the relative speed of the jet compared to that of the wire. A compact X-ray source for paper radiography is now being designed and manufactured, and a prototype machine will be ready by the beginning of 1993. The Spherical Pinch plasma source is a good radiation emitter also in the UV and the deep UV range of the spectrum

  13. Development of a Novel Tunable X-Ray Source for the RPI-LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danon, Y.; Block, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of a three year effort to develop a parametric x-ray (PXR) source. The emphasis of this research was to demonstrate production of high yield monoenergetic x-rays. Production of PXR is accomplished by placing a crystal in a relativistic electron beam. The process was first demonstrated in 1985 in Russia. Numerous papers were written about the characteristics of PXR from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. The advantage of PXR over other monoenergetic x-ray sources is that it is produced at large angle relative to the electron beam and at high intensity. None of the previous work described in the literature capitalized on this effect to study what is required in order to generate an effective monoenergetic x-ray source that can be used for practical applications. The work summarized here describes the process done in order to optimize the PXR production process by selecting an appropriate crystal and the optimal conditions. The research focused on production of 18 keV x-rays which are suitable for mammography however the results are not limited to this application or energy range. We are the first group to demonstrate x-ray imaging using PXR. Such sources can improve current medical imaging modalities. More research is required in order to design a prototype of a compact source

  14. Development of a Novel Tunable X-Ray Source for the RPI-LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Danon; R.C. Block

    2004-11-30

    This document summarizes the results of a three year effort to develop a parametric x-ray (PXR) source. The emphasis of this research was to demonstrate production of high yield monoenergetic x-rays. Production of PXR is accomplished by placing a crystal in a relativistic electron beam. The process was first demonstrated in 1985 in Russia. Numerous papers were written about the characteristics of PXR from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. The advantage of PXR over other monoenergetic x-ray sources is that it is produced at large angle relative to the electron beam and at high intensity. None of the previous work described in the literature capitalized on this effect to study what is required in order to generate an effective monoenergetic x-ray source that can be used for practical applications. The work summarized here describes the process done in order to optimize the PXR production process by selecting an appropriate crystal and the optimal conditions. The research focused on production of 18 keV x-rays which are suitable for mammography however the results are not limited to this application or energy range. We are the first group to demonstrate x-ray imaging using PXR. Such sources can improve current medical imaging modalities. More research is required in order to design a prototype of a compact source.

  15. Chandra Resolves Cosmic X-ray Glow and Finds Mysterious New Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    While taking a giant leap towards solving one of the greatest mysteries of X-ray astronomy, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory also may have revealed the most distant objects ever seen in the universe and discovered two puzzling new types of cosmic objects. Not bad for being on the job only five months. Chandra has resolved most of the X-ray background, a pervasive glow of X-rays throughout the universe, first discovered in the early days of space exploration. Before now, scientists have not been able to discern the background's origin, because no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. "This is a major discovery," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure andEvolution of the universe science theme. "Since it was first observed thirty-seven years ago, understanding the source of the X-ray background has been aHoly Grail of X-ray astronomy. Now, it is within reach." The results of the observation will be discussed today at the 195th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, Georgia. An article describing this work has been submitted to the journal Nature by Dr. Richard Mushotzky, of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., Drs. Lennox Cowie and Amy Barger at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, and Dr. Keith Arnaud of the University of Maryland, College Park. "We are all very excited by this finding," said Mushotzky. "The resolution of most of the hard X-ray background during the first few months of the Chandra mission is a tribute to the power of this observatory and bodes extremely well for its scientific future," Scientists have known about the X-ray glow, called the X-ray background, since the dawn of X-ray astronomy in the early 1960s. They have been unable to discern its origin, however, for no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. The German-led ROSAT mission, now completed, resolved much of the lower

  16. The disc-jet coupling in the neutron star X-ray binary 4U 1728-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudose, Valeriu; Tzioumis, Anastasios; Belloni, Tomaso; Altamirano, Diego; Linares, Manuel; Mendez, Mariano; Hiemstra, Beike

    2010-10-01

    The present radio proposal is part of a multi-wavelength campaign focused on the study of the accretion/ejection process in the neutron star X-ray binary system 4U 1728-34. Our intention is to study the behaviour of the inner part of the accretion disc as inferred from the X-ray observations of the Fe emission line and the kHz quasi-periodic oscillations, and to link it to the properties of the radio jet. To achieve this goal we request 5 × 11h of observing time with ATCA, scheduled at regular intervals in the period 2010 August 27- October 13, the visibility window of the granted X-ray observations with RXTE (PI: Mendez) and Suzaku (PI: Linares).

  17. Optical Synchronization Systems for Femtosecond X-raySources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, Russell; Staples, John W.; Holzwarth, Ronald

    2004-05-09

    In femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses, precise synchronization must be maintained between widely separated lasers in a synchrotron or FEL facility. We are developing synchronization systems using optical signals for applications requiring different ranges of timing error over 100 meter of glass fiber. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1 10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with a piezoelectric phase modulator. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range we will lock two single-frequency lasers separated by several tera Hertz to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes.

  18. Optical Synchronization Systems for Femtosecond X-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Russell; Staples, John W

    2005-01-01

    In femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short x-ray and optical pulses, precise synchronization must be maintained between widely separated lasers in a synchrotron or FEL facility. We are developing synchronization systems using optical signals for applications requiring different ranges of timing error. For the sub-100fs range we use an amplitude modulated CW laser at 1GHz to transmit RF phase information, and control the delay through a 100m fiber by observing the retroreflected signal. Initial results show 40fs peak-to-peak error above 10Hz, and 200fs long term drift, mainly due to amplitude sensitivity in the analog mixers. For the sub-10fs range we will lock two single-frequency lasers separated by several teraHertz to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes. For attosecond synchronization we propose a stabilized, free space link using bulk lens wavegu...

  19. Accelerator Physics Challenges of X-Ray FEL SASE Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emma, Paul J

    2002-05-30

    A great deal of international interest has recently focused on the design and construction of free-electron lasers (FEL) operating in the x-ray region ({approx}1 {angstrom}). At present, a linac-based machine utilizing the principle of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) appears to be the most promising approach. This new class of FEL achieves lasing in a single pass of a high brightness electron beam through a long undulator. The requirements on electron beam quality become more demanding as the FEL radiation wavelength decreases, with the 1-{angstrom} goal still 3-orders of magnitude below the shortest wavelength operational SASE FEL (TTF-FEL at DESY [1]). The subpicosecond bunch length drives damaging effects such as coherent synchrotron radiation, and undulator vacuum chamber wakefields. Unlike linear colliders, beam brightness needs to be maintained only over a small ''slice'' of the bunch length, so the concepts of bunch integrated emittance and energy spread are less relevant than their high-frequency (or ''time-sliced'') counterparts, also adding a challenge to phase space diagnostics. Some of the challenges associated with the generation, preservation, measurement, and stability of high brightness FEL electron beams are discussed here.

  20. Optical Synchronization Systems for Femtosecond X-ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, Russell; Staples, John W.; Holzwarth, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    In femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses, precise synchronization must be maintained between widely separated lasers in a synchrotron or FEL facility. We are developing synchronization systems using optical signals for applications requiring different ranges of timing error over 100 meter of glass fiber. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1 10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with a piezoelectric phase modulator. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range we will lock two single-frequency lasers separated by several tera Hertz to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes

  1. A preliminary study of synchrotron light sources for x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, C.R.; Bigham, C.B.; Ebrahim, N.A.; Sawicki, J.A.; Taylor, T.

    1989-02-01

    A preliminary study of synchrotron light sources has been made, primarily oriented toward x-ray lithography. X-ray lithography is being pursued vigorously in several countries, with a goal of manufacturing high-density computer chips (0.25 μm feature sizes), and may attain commercial success in the next decade. Many other applications of soft x-rays appear worthy of investigation as well. The study group visited synchrotron radiation facilities and had discussions with members of the synchrotron radiation community, particularly Canadians. It concluded that accelerator technology for a conventional synchrotron light source appropriate for x-ray lithography is well established and is consistent with skills and experience at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Compact superconducting systems are being developed also. Their technical requirements overlap with capabilities at Chalk River. (32 refs)

  2. Time-resolved materials science opportunities using synchrotron x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.; Tischler, J.Z.

    1995-06-01

    The high brightness, high intensity, and pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources provide new opportunities for time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. With third generation synchrotron sources coming on line, high brilliance and high brightness are now available in x-ray beams with the highest flux. In addition to the high average flux, the instantaneous flux available in synchrotron beams is greatly enhanced by the pulsed time structure, which consists of short bursts of x-rays that are separated by ∼tens to hundreds of nanoseconds. Time-resolved one- and two-dimensional position sensitive detection techniques that take advantage of synchrotron radiation for materials science x-ray diffraction investigations are presented, and time resolved materials science applications are discussed in terms of recent diffraction and spectroscopy results and materials research opportunities

  3. Analysis of monochromatic and quasi-monochromatic X-ray sources in imaging and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Maximillian; Lim, Sara; Nahar, Sultana; Orban, Christopher; Pradhan, Anil

    2017-04-01

    We studied biomedical imaging and therapeutic applications of recently developed quasi-monochromatic and monochromatic X-ray sources. Using the Monte Carlo code GEANT4, we found that the quasi-monochromatic 65 keV Gaussian X-ray spectrum created by inverse Compton scattering with relatavistic electron beams were capable of producing better image contrast with less radiation compared to conventional 120 kV broadband CT scans. We also explored possible experimental detection of theoretically predicted K α resonance fluorescence in high-Z elements using the European Synchrotron Research Facility with a tungsten (Z = 74) target. In addition, we studied a newly developed quasi-monochromatic source generated by converting broadband X-rays to monochromatic K α and β X-rays with a zirconium target (Z = 40). We will further study how these K α and K β dominated spectra can be implemented in conjunction with nanoparticles for targeted therapy. Acknowledgement: Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus, OH.

  4. X-ray sources in regions of star formation. I. The naked T Tauri stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Einstein X-ray observations of regions of active star formation in Taurus, Ophiuchus, and Corona Australis show a greatly enhanced surface density of stellar X-ray sources over that seen in other parts of the sky. Many of the X-ray sources are identified with low-mass, pre-main-sequence stars which are not classical T Tauri stars. The X-ray, photometric, and spectroscopic data for these stars are discussed. Seven early K stars in Oph and CrA are likely to be 1-solar-mass post-T Tauri stars with ages of 10-million yr. The late K stars in Taurus are not post-T Tauri, but naked T Tauri stars, which are coeval with the T Tauri stars, differing mainly in the lack of a circumstellar envelope. 72 references

  5. Source apportionment of aerosol particles using polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Tianxi [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: stxbeijing@163.com; Liu Zhiguo [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: liuzgbeijing@163.com; Zhu Guanghua; Liu Hui [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Xu Qing [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100039 (China); Li Yude; Wang Guangpu; Luo Ping; Pan Qiuli; Ding Xunliang [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2009-06-11

    A micro-X-ray fluorescence (Micro-XRF) spectrometer based on a polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray lens (PSFXRL) and laboratory X-ray source was designed to carry out the source apportionment of aerosol particles. In the distribution curve of the X-ray intensity in the focal spot of PSFXRL, there was a plateau with a diameter of about 65 {mu}m. The uniformity of this plateau was about 3%. This was helpful in measuring the XRF spectrum of a single aerosol particle in which the element distributions are not uniform. The minimum detection limit (MDL) of this Micro-XRF spectrometer was 15 ppm for the Fe-K{sub {alpha}}. The origins of the aerosol particles at the exit of a subway station and a construction site were apportioned. This Micro-XRF spectrometer has potential applications in analysis of single aerosol particles.

  6. Laboratory source based full-field x-ray microscopy at 9 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fella, C.; Balles, A.; Wiest, W. [Lehrstuhl für Röntgenmikroskopie, Julius-Maximilians-Universität, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Zabler, S.; Hanke, R. [Lehrstuhl für Röntgenmikroskopie, Julius-Maximilians-Universität, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Fraunhofer Development Center X-Ray Technology (EZRT), Flugplatzstrasse 75, 90768 Fürth (Germany)

    2016-01-28

    In the past decade, hard x-ray transmission microscopy experienced tremendous developments. With the avail-ability of efficient Fresnel zone plates, even set-ups utilizing laboratory sources were developed [1]. In order to improve the performance of these x-ray microscopes, novel approaches to fabricate optical elements [2] and brighter x-ray tubes [3] are promising candidates. We are currently building a laboratory transmission x-ray microscope for 9.25 keV, using an electron impact liquid-metal-jet anode source. Up to now, the further elements of our setup are: a polycapillary condenser, a tungsten zone plate, and a scintillator which is optically coupled to a CMOS camera. However, further variations in terms of optical elements are intended. Here we present the current status of our work, as well as first experimental results.

  7. An accreting pulsar with extreme properties drives an ultraluminous x-ray source in NGC 5907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Gian Luca; Belfiore, Andrea; Stella, Luigi; Esposito, Paolo; Casella, Piergiorgio; De Luca, Andrea; Marelli, Martino; Papitto, Alessandro; Perri, Matteo; Puccetti, Simonetta; Castillo, Guillermo A Rodríguez; Salvetti, David; Tiengo, Andrea; Zampieri, Luca; D'Agostino, Daniele; Greiner, Jochen; Haberl, Frank; Novara, Giovanni; Salvaterra, Ruben; Turolla, Roberto; Watson, Mike; Wilms, Joern; Wolter, Anna

    2017-02-24

    Ultraluminous x-ray sources (ULXs) in nearby galaxies shine brighter than any x-ray source in our Galaxy. ULXs are usually modeled as stellar-mass black holes (BHs) accreting at very high rates or intermediate-mass BHs. We present observations showing that NGC 5907 ULX is instead an x-ray accreting neutron star (NS) with a spin period evolving from 1.43 seconds in 2003 to 1.13 seconds in 2014. It has an isotropic peak luminosity of [Formula: see text]1000 times the Eddington limit for a NS at 17.1 megaparsec. Standard accretion models fail to explain its luminosity, even assuming beamed emission, but a strong multipolar magnetic field can describe its properties. These findings suggest that other extreme ULXs (x-ray luminosity [Formula: see text] 10 41 erg second[Formula: see text]) might harbor NSs. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Discovery of Periodic Dips in the Brightest Hard X-Ray Source of M31 with EXTraS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Martino; Tiengo, Andrea; De Luca, Andrea; Salvetti, David; Saronni, Luca; Sidoli, Lara; Paizis, Adamantia; Salvaterra, Ruben; Belfiore, Andrea; Israel, Gianluca; Haberl, Frank; D’Agostino, Daniele

    2017-12-01

    We performed a search for eclipsing and dipping sources in the archive of the EXTraS project—a systematic characterization of the temporal behavior of XMM-Newton point sources. We discovered dips in the X-ray light curve of 3XMM J004232.1+411314, which has been recently associated with the hard X-ray source dominating the emission of M31. A systematic analysis of XMM-Newton observations revealed 13 dips in 40 observations (total exposure time of ∼0.8 Ms). Among them, four observations show two dips, separated by ∼4.01 hr. Dip depths and durations are variable. The dips occur only during low-luminosity states ({L}0.2{--12}< 1× {10}38 erg s‑1), while the source reaches {L}0.2{--12}∼ 2.8× {10}38 erg s‑1. We propose that this system is a new dipping low-mass X-ray binary in M31 seen at high inclination (60°–80°) the observed dipping periodicity is the orbital period of the system. A blue HST source within the Chandra error circle is the most likely optical counterpart of the accretion disk. The high luminosity of the system makes it the most luminous (not ULX) dipper known to date.

  9. Plasma instability control toward high fluence, high energy x-ray continuum source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Patrick; Kirkwood, Robert; Wilks, Scott; Blue, Brent

    2017-10-01

    X-ray source development at Omega and NIF seeks to produce powerful radiation with high conversion efficiency for material effects studies in extreme fluence environments. While current K-shell emission sources can achieve tens of kJ on NIF up to 22 keV, the conversion efficiency drops rapidly for higher Z K-alpha energies. Pulsed power devices are efficient generators of MeV bremsstrahlung x-rays but are unable to produce lower energy photons in isolation, and so a capability gap exists for high fluence x-rays in the 30 - 100 keV range. A continuum source under development utilizes instabilities like Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) to generate plasma waves that accelerate electrons into high-Z converter walls. Optimizing instabilities using existing knowledge on their elimination will allow sufficiently hot and high yield electron distributions to create a superior bremsstrahlung x-ray source. An Omega experiment has been performed to investigate the optimization of SRS and high energy x-rays using Au hohlraums with parylene inner lining and foam fills, producing 10× greater x-ray yield at 50 keV than conventional direct drive experiments on the facility. Experiment and simulation details on this campaign will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DoE by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. REFINED NEUTRON STAR MASS DETERMINATIONS FOR SIX ECLIPSING X-RAY PULSAR BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawls, Meredith L.; Orosz, Jerome A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Torres, Manuel A. P.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Buxton, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    We present an improved method for determining the mass of neutron stars in eclipsing X-ray pulsar binaries and apply the method to six systems, namely, Vela X-1, 4U 1538-52, SMC X-1, LMC X-4, Cen X-3, and Her X-1. In previous studies to determine neutron star mass, the X-ray eclipse duration has been approximated analytically by assuming that the companion star is spherical with an effective Roche lobe radius. We use a numerical code based on Roche geometry with various optimizers to analyze the published data for these systems, which we supplement with new spectroscopic and photometric data for 4U 1538-52. This allows us to model the eclipse duration more accurately and thus calculate an improved value for the neutron star mass. The derived neutron star mass also depends on the assumed Roche lobe filling factor β of the companion star, where β = 1 indicates a completely filled Roche lobe. In previous work a range of β between 0.9 and 1.0 was usually adopted. We use optical ellipsoidal light-curve data to constrain β. We find neutron star masses of 1.77 ± 0.08 M sun for Vela X-1, 0.87 ± 0.07 M sun for 4U 1538-52 (eccentric orbit), 1.00 ± 0.10 M sun for 4U 1538-52 (circular orbit), 1.04 ± 0.09 M sun for SMC X-1, 1.29 ± 0.05 M sun for LMC X-4, 1.49 ± 0.08 M sun for Cen X-3, and 1.07 ± 0.36 M sun for Her X-1. We discuss the limits of the approximations that were used to derive the earlier mass determinations, and we comment on the implications our new masses have for observationally refining the upper and lower bounds of the neutron star mass distribution.

  11. Demonstration of Laser Plasma X-Ray Source with X-Ray Collimator Final Report CRADA No. TC-1564-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, S. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Forber, R. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-28

    This collaborative effort between the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and JMAR Research, Inc. (JRI), was to demonstrate that LLNL x-ray collimators can effectively increase the wafer throughput of JRI's laser based x-ray lithography systems. The technical objectives were expected to be achieved by completion of the following tasks, which are separated into two task lists by funding source. The organization (LLNL or JMAR) having primary responsibility is given parenthetically for each task.

  12. The structure of the coronal soft X-ray source associated with the dark filament disappearance of 1991 September 28 using the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcallister, Alan; Uchida, Yutaka; Tsuneta, Saku; Strong, Keith T.; Acton, Loren W.; Hiei, Eijiro; Bruner, Marilyn E.; Watanabe, Takashi; Shibata, Kazunari

    1992-01-01

    The structure of the coronal soft X-ray source associated with the dark filament disappearance on September 28, 1991, observed with the Soft X-ray Telescope, is examined as a possible example of the 'eruption-reconnection' model of filament disappearance. The results suggest, however, that this model may not fit. There is a strong possibility that much of the dark filament mass remains in the heated unwinding axial field.

  13. Compact alpha-excited sources of low energy x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amlauer, K.; Tuohy, I.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion is given of the use of alpha emitting isotopes, such as 210 Po and 244 Cm, for the production of low energy x-rays (less than 5.9 keV). The design of currently available sources is described, and x-ray fluxes observed from various target materials are presented. Commercial applications of the alpha excitation technique are briefly discussed

  14. Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science instrument optical design and monochromator commissioning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heimann, P.; Krupin, O.; Schlotter, W.F.; Turner, J.; Krzywinski, J.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Messerschmidt, M.; Bernstein, D.; Chalupský, Jaromír; Hájková, Věra; Hau-Riege, S.; Holmes, M.; Juha, Libor; Kelez, N.; Lüning, J.; Nordlund, D.; Perea, M.F.; Scherz, A.; Soufli, R.; Wurth, W.; Rowen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 9 (2011), 093104/1-093104/8 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : diffraction gratings * light sources * linear accelerators * optical materials * x-ray monochromators * x-ray optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.367, year: 2011

  15. TH-F-209-01: Pitfalls: Reliability and Performance of Diagnostic X-Ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Performance and reliability of medical X-ray tubes for imaging are crucial from an ethical, clinical and economic perspective. This lecture will deliver insight into the aspects to consider during the decision making process to invest in X-ray imaging equipment. Outdated metric still hampers realistic product comparison. It is time to change this and to comply with latest standards, which consider current technology. Failure modes and ways to avoid down-time of the equipment shall be discussed. In view of the increasing number of interventional procedures and the hazards associated with ionizing radiation, toxic contrast agents, and the combination thereof, the aspect of system reliability is of paramount importance. Methods: A comprehensive picture of trends for different modalities (CT, angiography, general radiology) has been drawn and led to the development of novel X-ray tube technology. Results: Recent X-ray tubes feature enhanced reliability and unprecedented performance. Relevant metrics for product comparison still have to be implemented in practice. Conclusion: The speed of scientific and industrial development of new diagnostic and therapeutic X-ray sources remains tremendous. Still, users suffer from gaps between desire and reality in day-to-day diagnostic routine. X-ray sources are still limiting cutting-edge medical procedures. Side-effects of wear and tear, limitations of the clinical work flow, costs, the characteristics of the X-ray spectrum and others topics need to be further addressed. New applications and modalities, like detection-based color-resolved X-ray and phase-contrast / dark-field imaging will impact the course of new developments of X-ray sources. Learning Objectives: Understand the basic requirements on medical diagnostic X-ray sources per modality Learn to select the optimal equipment employing state-of-the-art metric Know causes of failures, depending on the way X-ray sources are operated Understand methods to remediate

  16. TH-F-209-00: Pitfalls: Reliability and Performance of Diagnostic X-Ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Performance and reliability of medical X-ray tubes for imaging are crucial from an ethical, clinical and economic perspective. This lecture will deliver insight into the aspects to consider during the decision making process to invest in X-ray imaging equipment. Outdated metric still hampers realistic product comparison. It is time to change this and to comply with latest standards, which consider current technology. Failure modes and ways to avoid down-time of the equipment shall be discussed. In view of the increasing number of interventional procedures and the hazards associated with ionizing radiation, toxic contrast agents, and the combination thereof, the aspect of system reliability is of paramount importance. Methods: A comprehensive picture of trends for different modalities (CT, angiography, general radiology) has been drawn and led to the development of novel X-ray tube technology. Results: Recent X-ray tubes feature enhanced reliability and unprecedented performance. Relevant metrics for product comparison still have to be implemented in practice. Conclusion: The speed of scientific and industrial development of new diagnostic and therapeutic X-ray sources remains tremendous. Still, users suffer from gaps between desire and reality in day-to-day diagnostic routine. X-ray sources are still limiting cutting-edge medical procedures. Side-effects of wear and tear, limitations of the clinical work flow, costs, the characteristics of the X-ray spectrum and others topics need to be further addressed. New applications and modalities, like detection-based color-resolved X-ray and phase-contrast / dark-field imaging will impact the course of new developments of X-ray sources. Learning Objectives: Understand the basic requirements on medical diagnostic X-ray sources per modality Learn to select the optimal equipment employing state-of-the-art metric Know causes of failures, depending on the way X-ray sources are operated Understand methods to remediate

  17. TH-F-209-01: Pitfalls: Reliability and Performance of Diagnostic X-Ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behling, R. [Philips Medical Systems DMC GmbH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Performance and reliability of medical X-ray tubes for imaging are crucial from an ethical, clinical and economic perspective. This lecture will deliver insight into the aspects to consider during the decision making process to invest in X-ray imaging equipment. Outdated metric still hampers realistic product comparison. It is time to change this and to comply with latest standards, which consider current technology. Failure modes and ways to avoid down-time of the equipment shall be discussed. In view of the increasing number of interventional procedures and the hazards associated with ionizing radiation, toxic contrast agents, and the combination thereof, the aspect of system reliability is of paramount importance. Methods: A comprehensive picture of trends for different modalities (CT, angiography, general radiology) has been drawn and led to the development of novel X-ray tube technology. Results: Recent X-ray tubes feature enhanced reliability and unprecedented performance. Relevant metrics for product comparison still have to be implemented in practice. Conclusion: The speed of scientific and industrial development of new diagnostic and therapeutic X-ray sources remains tremendous. Still, users suffer from gaps between desire and reality in day-to-day diagnostic routine. X-ray sources are still limiting cutting-edge medical procedures. Side-effects of wear and tear, limitations of the clinical work flow, costs, the characteristics of the X-ray spectrum and others topics need to be further addressed. New applications and modalities, like detection-based color-resolved X-ray and phase-contrast / dark-field imaging will impact the course of new developments of X-ray sources. Learning Objectives: Understand the basic requirements on medical diagnostic X-ray sources per modality Learn to select the optimal equipment employing state-of-the-art metric Know causes of failures, depending on the way X-ray sources are operated Understand methods to remediate

  18. TH-F-209-00: Pitfalls: Reliability and Performance of Diagnostic X-Ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Performance and reliability of medical X-ray tubes for imaging are crucial from an ethical, clinical and economic perspective. This lecture will deliver insight into the aspects to consider during the decision making process to invest in X-ray imaging equipment. Outdated metric still hampers realistic product comparison. It is time to change this and to comply with latest standards, which consider current technology. Failure modes and ways to avoid down-time of the equipment shall be discussed. In view of the increasing number of interventional procedures and the hazards associated with ionizing radiation, toxic contrast agents, and the combination thereof, the aspect of system reliability is of paramount importance. Methods: A comprehensive picture of trends for different modalities (CT, angiography, general radiology) has been drawn and led to the development of novel X-ray tube technology. Results: Recent X-ray tubes feature enhanced reliability and unprecedented performance. Relevant metrics for product comparison still have to be implemented in practice. Conclusion: The speed of scientific and industrial development of new diagnostic and therapeutic X-ray sources remains tremendous. Still, users suffer from gaps between desire and reality in day-to-day diagnostic routine. X-ray sources are still limiting cutting-edge medical procedures. Side-effects of wear and tear, limitations of the clinical work flow, costs, the characteristics of the X-ray spectrum and others topics need to be further addressed. New applications and modalities, like detection-based color-resolved X-ray and phase-contrast / dark-field imaging will impact the course of new developments of X-ray sources. Learning Objectives: Understand the basic requirements on medical diagnostic X-ray sources per modality Learn to select the optimal equipment employing state-of-the-art metric Know causes of failures, depending on the way X-ray sources are operated Understand methods to remediate

  19. Rayleigh-Taylor Gravity Waves and Quasiperiodic Oscillation Phenomenon in X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev

    2002-01-01

    Accretion onto compact objects in X-ray binaries (black hole, neutron star (NS), white dwarf) is characterized by non-uniform flow density profiles. Such an effect of heterogeneity in presence of gravitational forces and pressure gradients exhibits Rayleigh-Taylor gravity waves (RTGW). They should be seen as quasiperiodic wave oscillations (QPO) of the accretion flow in the transition (boundary) layer between the Keplerian disk and the central object. In this paper the author shows that the main QPO frequency, which is very close to the Keplerian frequency, is split into separate frequencies (hybrid and low branch) under the influence of the gravitational forces in the rotational frame of reference. The RTGWs must be present and the related QPOs should be detected in any system where the gravity, buoyancy and Coriolis force effects cannot be excluded (even in the Earth and solar environments). The observed low and high QPO frequencies are an intrinsic signature of the RTGW. The author elaborates the conditions for the density profile when the RTGW oscillations are stable. A comparison of the inferred QPO frequencies with QPO observations is presented. The author finds that hectohertz frequencies detected from NS binaries can be identified as the RTGW low branch frequencies. The author also predicts that an observer can see the double NS spin frequency during the NS long (super) burst events when the pressure gradients and buoyant forces are suppressed. The Coriolis force is the only force which acts in the rotational frame of reference and its presence causes perfect coherent pulsations with a frequency twice of the NS spin. The QPO observations of neutron binaries have established that the high QPO frequencies do not go beyond of the certain upper limit. The author explains this observational effect as a result of the density profile inversions. Also the author demonstrates that a particular problem of the gravity waves in the rotational frame of reference in the

  20. Bright x-ray stainless steel K-shell source development at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, M. J.; Fournier, K. B.; Colvin, J. D.; Barrios, M. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Moody, J.; Patterson, J. R.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808 L170, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    High x-ray conversion efficiency (XRCE) K-shell sources are being developed for high energy density experiments for use as backlighters and for the testing of materials exposed to high x-ray fluxes and fluences. Recently, sources with high XRCE in the K-shell x-ray energy range of iron and nickel were investigated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The x-ray conversion efficiency in the 5–9 keV spectral range was determined to be 6.8% ± 0.3%. These targets were 4.1 mm diameter, 4 mm tall hollow epoxy tubes having a 50 μm thick wall supporting a tube of 3 to 3.5 μm thick stainless steel. The NIF laser deposited ∼460 kJ of 3ω light into the target in a 140 TW, 3.3 ns square pulse. The absolute x-ray emission of the source was measured by two calibrated Dante x-ray spectrometers. Time resolved images filtered for the Fe K-shell were recorded to follow the heating of the target. Time integrated high-resolution spectra were recorded in the K-shell range.

  1. Providing Bright-Hard X-ray Beams from a Lower Energy Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, David

    2002-04-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) there had been an increasing demand for more high brightness harder X-ray sources in the 7 to 40 KeV range. In response to that demand, the ALS storage ring was modified in August 2001. Three 1.3 Tesla normal conducting bending magnets were removed and replaced with three 5 Tesla superconducting magnets (Superbends). The radiation produced by these Superbends is an order of magnitude higher in photon brightness and flux at 12 keV than the 1.3 Tesla bends, making them excellent sources of harder x-rays for protein crystallography and other harder x-ray applications. At the same time the Superbends do not compromise the performance of the facility in the UV and Soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. The Superbends will eventually feed 12 new x-ray beam lines greatly enhancing the facility's capacity in the hard x-ray region. The Superbend project is the biggest upgrade to the ALS storage ring since the ring was commissioned in 1993. In this paper we present, a history of the project, details of the magnet, installation, commissioning, and resulting performance of the ALS with Superbends.

  2. Discovery of a highly variable dipping ultraluminous X-ray source in M94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier [CNRS, IRAP, 9 avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Remillard, Ronald A., E-mail: dlin@ua.edu [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We report the discovery of a new ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) 2XMM J125048.6+410743 within the spiral galaxy M94. The source has been observed by ROSAT, Chandra, and XMM-Newton on several occasions, exhibiting as a highly variable persistent source or a recurrent transient with a flux variation factor of ≳100, a high duty cycle (at least ∼70%), and a peak luminosity of L {sub X} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 39} erg s{sup –1} (0.2-10 keV, absorbed). In the brightest observation, the source is similar to typical low-luminosity ULXs, with the spectrum showing a high-energy cutoff but harder than that from a standard accretion disk. There are also sporadical short dips, accompanied by spectral softening. In a fainter observation with L {sub X} ∼ 3.6 × 10{sup 38} erg s{sup –1}, the source appears softer and is probably in the thermal state seen in Galactic black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs). In an even fainter observation (L {sub X} ∼ 9 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}), the spectrum is harder again, and the source might be in the steep-power-law state or the hard state of BHBs. In this observation, the light curve might exhibit ∼7 hr (quasi-)periodic large modulations over two cycles. The source also has a possible point-like optical counterpart from Hubble Space Telescope images. In terms of the colors and the luminosity, the counterpart is probably a G8 supergiant or a compact red globular cluster containing ∼2 × 10{sup 5} K dwarfs, with some possible weak UV excess that might be ascribed to accretion activity. Thus, our source is a candidate stellar-mass BHB with a supergiant companion or with a dwarf companion residing in a globular cluster. Our study supports that some low-luminosity ULXs are supercritically accreting stellar-mass BHBs.

  3. Characteristics of a molybdenum X-pinch X-ray source as a probe source for X-ray diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchini, F.; Chauvin, C.; Combes, P.; Sol, D.; Loyen, A.; Roques, B.; Grunenwald, J.; Bland, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray emission from a molybdenum X-pinch has been investigated as a potential probe for the high pressure states made in dynamic compression experiments. Studies were performed on a novel 300 kA, 400 ns generator which coupled the load directly to a low inductance capacitor and switch combination. The X-pinch load consisted of 4 crossed molybdenum wires of 13 μm diameter, crossed at an angle of 62°. The load height was 10 mm. An initial x-ray burst generated at the wire crossing point, radiated in the soft x-ray range (hυ < 10 keV). This was followed, 2–5 ns later, by at least one harder x-ray burst (hυ > 10 keV) whose power ranged from 1 to 7 MW. Time integrated spectral measurements showed that the harder bursts were dominated by K-alpha emission; though, a lower level, wide band continuum up to at least 30 keV was also present. Initial tests demonstrated that the source was capable of driving Laue diffraction experiments, probing uncompressed samples of LiF and aluminium

  4. A compact soft X-ray microscope using an electrode-less Z-pinch source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, S. F.; Silterra, J.; Holber, W.

    2009-09-01

    Soft X-rays (medical interest both for imaging and microdosimetry applications. X-ray sources at this low energy present a technological challenge. Synchrotrons, while very powerful and flexible, are enormously expensive national research facilities. Conventional X-ray sources based on electron bombardment can be compact and inexpensive, but low x-ray production efficiencies at low electron energies restrict this approach to very low power applications. Laser-based sources tend to be expensive and unreliable. Energetiq Technology, Inc. (Woburn, MA, USA) markets a 92 eV, 10W(2pi sr) electrode-less Z-pinch source developed for advanced semiconductor lithography. A modified version of this commercial product has produced 400 mW at 430 eV (2pi sr), appropriate for water window soft X-ray microscopy. The US NIH has funded Energetiq to design and construct a demonstration microscope using this source, coupled to a condenser optic, as the illumination system. The design of the condenser optic matches the unique characteristics of the source to the illumination requirements of the microscope, which is otherwise a conventional design. A separate program is underway to develop a microbeam system, in conjunction with the RARAF facility at Columbia University, NY, USA. The objective is to develop a focused, sub-micron beam capable of delivering > 1 Gy/second to the nucleus of a living cell. While most facilities of this type are coupled to a large and expensive particle accelerator, the Z-pinch X-ray source enables a compact, stand-alone design suitable to a small laboratory. The major technical issues in this system involve development of suitable focusing X-ray optics. Current status of these programs will be reported. (Supported by NIH grants 5R44RR022488-03 and 5R44RR023753-03)

  5. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsuka, Shinji, E-mail: ohsuka@crl.hpk.co.jp [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsu-cho, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 431-1202 (Japan); Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Nakano, Tomoyasu [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Ray-Focus Co. Ltd., 6009 Shinpara, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-0003 (Japan); Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen Kα x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  6. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

    2014-09-01

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen Kα x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  7. Development of a fluorescent x-ray source for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyofuku, F.; Tokumori, K.; Nishimura, K.; Saito, T.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Ando, M.; Endo, M.; Naito, H.; Uyama, C.

    1995-02-01

    A fluorescent x-ray source for medical imaging, such as K-edge subtraction angiography and monochromatic x-ray CT, has been developed. Using a 6.5 GeV accumulation ring in Tsukuba, fluorescent x rays, which range from about 30 to 70 keV are generated by irradiating several target materials. Measurements have been made of output intensities and energy spectra for different target angles and extraction angles. The intensities of fluorescent x rays at a 30 mA beam current are on the order of 1-3×106 photons/mm2/s at 30 cm from the local spot where the incident beam is collimated to 1 mm2. A phantom which contains three different contrast media (iodine, barium, gadolinium) was used for the K-edge energy subtraction, and element selective CT images were obtained.

  8. Laser plasmas as x-ray sources for lithographic imaging of submicron structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijkerk, F.; van Dorssen, G.E.; van der Wiel, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Laser radiation can be used efficiently to generate x-rays for lithographic imaging of submicron patterns, e.g., for VLSI device fabrication. Due to their short wavelength and high average power, excimer lasers show much potential for this application. Results are presented of scaling studies for high repetition rate excimer laser application, using the frequency doubled output of a low repetition rate Nd:YAG/Glass laser. Spectral and spatial characteristics of x-ray emission of the laser plasma are shown. The power density in the laser focus was 3 x 10 12 W/cm 2 . With this source Si x-ray masks with submicron Au absorber profiles are imaged into high sensitivity x-ray photoresist. For the exposures 80 laser shots sufficed to yield high quality submicron structures. Extrapolation of the results to a high power excimer laser reduces the exposure time of the photoresists to several seconds, enabling a wafer throughput at an industrial level

  9. Intensity-Modulated Advanced X-ray Source (IMAXS) for Homeland Security Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langeveld, Willem G. J.; Johnson, William A.; Owen, Roger D.; Schonberg, Russell G.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray cargo inspection systems for the detection and verification of threats and contraband require high x-ray energy and high x-ray intensity to penetrate dense cargo. On the other hand, low intensity is desirable to minimize the radiation footprint. A collaboration between HESCO/PTSE Inc., Schonberg Research Corporation and Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc. has been formed in order to design and build an Intensity-Modulated Advanced X-ray Source (IMAXS). Such a source would allow cargo inspection systems to achieve up to two inches greater imaging penetration capability, while retaining the same average radiation footprint as present fixed-intensity sources. Alternatively, the same penetration capability can be obtained as with conventional sources with a reduction of the average radiation footprint by about a factor of three. The key idea is to change the intensity of the source for each x-ray pulse based on the signal strengths in the inspection system detector array during the previous pulse. In this paper we describe methods to accomplish pulse-to-pulse intensity modulation in both S-band (2998 MHz) and X-band (9303 MHz) linac sources, with diode or triode (gridded) electron guns. The feasibility of these methods has been demonstrated. Additionally, we describe a study of a shielding design that would allow a 6 MV X-band source to be used in mobile applications.

  10. A CHANGE IN THE QUIESCENT X-RAY SPECTRUM OF THE NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY MXB 1659-29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cackett, E. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock Street, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Brown, E. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Cumming, A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Fridriksson, J. K.; Wijnands, R. [Astronomical Institute ' ' Anton Pannekoek' ' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098-XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Homan, J., E-mail: ecackett@wayne.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    The quasi-persistent neutron star low-mass X-ray binary MXB 1659-29 went into quiescence in 2001, and we have followed its quiescent X-ray evolution since. Observations over the first 4 yr showed a rapid drop in flux and temperature of the neutron star atmosphere, interpreted as cooling of the neutron star crust which had been heated during the 2.5 yr outburst. However, observations taken approximately 1400 and 2400 days into quiescence were consistent with each other, suggesting the crust had reached thermal equilibrium with the core. Here we present a new Chandra observation of MXB 1659-29 taken 11 yr into quiescence and 4 yr since the last Chandra observation. This new observation shows an unexpected factor of {approx}3 drop in count rate and change in spectral shape since the last observation, which cannot be explained simply by continued cooling. Two possible scenarios are that either the neutron star temperature has remained unchanged and there has been an increase in the column density, or, alternatively the neutron star temperature has dropped precipitously and the spectrum is now dominated by a power-law component. The first scenario may be possible given that MXB 1659-29 is a near edge-on system, and an increase in column density could be due to build-up of material in, and a thickening of, a truncated accretion disk during quiescence. But, a large change in disk height may not be plausible if standard accretion disk theory holds during quiescence. Alternatively, the disk may be precessing, leading to a higher column density during this latest observation.

  11. Development and characterization of a tunable ultrafast X-ray source via inverse-Compton-scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochmann, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Ultrashort, nearly monochromatic hard X-ray pulses enrich the understanding of the dynamics and function of matter, e.g., the motion of atomic structures associated with ultrafast phase transitions, structural dynamics and (bio)chemical reactions. Inverse Compton backscattering of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons not only allows for the generation of bright X-ray pulses which can be used in a pump-probe experiment, but also for the investigation of the electron beam dynamics at the interaction point. The focus of this PhD work lies on the detailed understanding of the kinematics during the interaction of the relativistic electron bunch and the laser pulse in order to quantify the influence of various experiment parameters on the emitted X-ray radiation. The experiment was conducted at the ELBE center for high power radiation sources using the ELBE superconducting linear accelerator and the DRACO Ti:sapphire laser system. The combination of both these state-of-the-art apparatuses guaranteed the control and stability of the interacting beam parameters throughout the measurement. The emitted X-ray spectra were detected with a pixelated detector of 1024 by 256 elements (each 26μm by 26μm) to achieve an unprecedented spatial and energy resolution for a full characterization of the emitted spectrum to reveal parameter influences and correlations of both interacting beams. In this work the influence of the electron beam energy, electron beam emittance, the laser bandwidth and the energy-anglecorrelation on the spectra of the backscattered X-rays is quantified. A rigorous statistical analysis comparing experimental data to ab-initio 3D simulations enabled, e.g., the extraction of the angular distribution of electrons with 1.5% accuracy and, in total, provides predictive capability for the future high brightness hard X-ray source PHOENIX (Photon electron collider for Narrow bandwidth Intense X-rays) and potential all optical gamma-ray sources. The results

  12. Pleiades: A Sub-picosecond Tunable X-ray Source at the LLNL Electron Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, Dennis; Springer, Paul; Le Sage, Greg; Crane, John; Ditmire, Todd; Cowan, Tom; Anderson, Scott G.; Rosenzweig, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The use of ultra fast laser pulses to generate very high brightness, ultra short (fs to ps) pulses of x-rays is a topic of great interest to the x-ray user community. In principle, femto-second-scale pump-probe experiments can be used to temporally resolve structural dynamics of materials on the time scale of atomic motion. The development of sub-ps x-ray pulses will make possible a wide range of materials and plasma physics studies with unprecedented time resolution. A current project at LLNL will provide such a novel x-ray source based on Thomson scattering of high power, short laser pulses with a high peak brightness, relativistic electron bunch. The system is based on a 5 mm-mrad normalized emittance photo-injector, a 100 MeV electron RF linac, and a 300 mJ, 35 fs solid-state laser system. The Thomson x-ray source produces ultra fast pulses with x-ray energies capable of probing into high-Z metals, and a high flux per pulse enabling single shot experiments. The system will also operate at a high repetition rate (∼ 10 Hz). (authors)

  13. Multimessenger astronomy with pulsar timing and X-ray observations of massive black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesana, A.; Roedig, C.; Reynolds, M. T.; Dotti, M.

    2012-02-01

    In the decade of the dawn of gravitational wave astronomy, the concept of multimessenger astronomy, combining gravitational wave signals to conventional electromagnetic observation, has attracted the attention of the astrophysical community. So far, most of the effort has been focused on ground- and space-based laser interferometer sources, with little attention devoted to the ongoing and upcoming pulsar timing arrays (PTAs). We argue in this paper that PTA sources, being very massive (>108 M⊙) cosmologically nearby (z 10-13 erg s-1 cm-2 will be in the reach of upcoming X-ray observatories; in the most optimistic case, a few of them may be already being observed by the MAXI detector placed on the International Space Station. Double relativistic Kα lines may be observable in a handful of low-redshift (z figures depend on the details of the adopted MBHB population and on the properties of the circumbinary discs, but the existence of a sizeable population of sources suitable to multimessenger astronomy is a robust prediction of our investigation.

  14. FORMATION OF BLACK HOLE LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN HIERARCHICAL TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoz, Smadar; Stephan, Alexander P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Fragos, Tassos [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Geller, Aaron; Rasio, Frederic A., E-mail: snaoz@astro.ucla.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60201 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The formation of black hole (BH) low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) poses a theoretical challenge, as low-mass companions are not expected to survive the common-envelope scenario with the BH progenitor. Here we propose a formation mechanism that skips the common-envelope scenario and relies on triple-body dynamics. We study the evolution of hierarchical triples following the secular dynamical evolution up to the octupole-level of approximation, including general relativity, tidal effects, and post-main-sequence evolution such as mass loss, changes to stellar radii, and supernovae. During the dynamical evolution of the triple system the “eccentric Kozai-Lidov” mechanism can cause large eccentricity excitations in the LMXB progenitor, resulting in three main BH-LMXB formation channels. Here we define BH-LMXB candidates as systems where the inner BH-companion star crosses its Roche limit. In the “eccentric” channel (∼81% of the LMXBs in our simulations) the donor star crosses its Roche limit during an extreme eccentricity excitation while still on a wide orbit. Second, we find a “giant” LMXB channel (∼11%), where a system undergoes only moderate eccentricity excitations but the donor star fills its Roche-lobe after evolving toward the giant branch. Third, we identify a “classical” channel (∼8%), where tidal forces and magnetic braking shrink and circularize the orbit to short periods, triggering mass-transfer. Finally, for the giant channel we predict an eccentric (∼0.3–0.6) preferably inclined (∼40°, ∼140°) tertiary, typically on a wide enough orbit (∼10{sup 4} au) to potentially become unbound later in the triple evolution. While this initial study considers only one representative system and neglects BH natal kicks, we expect our scenario to apply across a broad region of parameter space for triple-star systems.

  15. ANALYSIS OF A STATE CHANGING SUPERSOFT X-RAY SOURCE IN M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Di Stefano, R.; Primini, F. A.; Liu, J.; Scoles, S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Nelson, T. [Department of Physics, 1000 Hilltop Circle, University of Maryland at Baltimore, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We report on observations of a luminous supersoft X-ray source (SSS) in M31, r1-25, that has exhibited spectral changes to harder X-ray states. We document these spectral changes. In addition, we show that they have important implications for modeling the source. Quasisoft states in a source that has been observed as an SSS represent a newly discovered phenomenon. We show how such state changers could prove to be examples of unusual black hole or neutron star accretors. Future observations of this and other state changers can provide the information needed to determine the nature(s) of these intriguing new sources.

  16. CHANDRA CHARACTERIZATION OF X-RAY EMISSION IN THE YOUNG F-STAR BINARY SYSTEM HD 113766

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisse, C. M. [Planetary Exploration Branch, Space Exploration Sector, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Christian, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Wolk, S. J. [Chandra X-ray Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Günther, H. M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, NE83-569, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chen, C. H. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Grady, C. A., E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: damian.christian@csun.edu, E-mail: swolk@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: hgunther@mit.edu, E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu, E-mail: carol.a.grady@nasa.gov [Eureka Scientific and Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, NASA-GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Using Chandra , we have obtained imaging X-ray spectroscopy of the 10–16 Myr old F-star binary HD 113766. We individually resolve the 1.″4 separation binary components for the first time in the X-ray and find a total 0.3–2.0 keV luminosity of 2.2 × 10{sup 29} erg s{sup −1}, consistent with previous RASS estimates. We find emission from the easternmost, infrared-bright, dusty member HD 113766A to be only ∼10% that of the western, infrared-faint member HD 113766B. There is no evidence for a 3rd late-type stellar or substellar member of HD 113766 with L {sub x} > 6 × 10{sup 25} erg s{sup −1} within 2′ of the binary pair. The ratio of the two stars’ X-ray luminosity is consistent with their assignments as F2V and F6V by Pecaut et al. The emission is soft for both stars, kT {sub Apec} = 0.30–0.50 keV, suggesting X-rays produced by stellar rotation and/or convection in young dynamos, but not accretion or outflow shocks, which we rule out. A possible 2.8 ± 0.15 (2 σ ) hr modulation in the HD 113766B X-ray emission is seen, but at very low confidence and of unknown provenance. Stellar wind drag models corresponding to L {sub x} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 29} erg s{sup −1} argue for a 1 mm dust particle lifetime around HD 113766B of only ∼90,0000 years, suggesting that dust around HD 113766B is quickly removed, whereas 1 mm sized dust around HD 113766A can survive for >1.5 × 10{sup 6} years. At 10{sup 28}–10{sup 29} erg s{sup −1} X-ray luminosity, astrobiologically important effects, like dust warming and X-ray photolytic organic synthesis, are likely for any circumstellar material in the HD 113766 systems.

  17. CHANDRA CHARACTERIZATION OF X-RAY EMISSION IN THE YOUNG F-STAR BINARY SYSTEM HD 113766

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisse, C. M.; Christian, D. J.; Wolk, S. J.; Günther, H. M.; Chen, C. H.; Grady, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Using Chandra , we have obtained imaging X-ray spectroscopy of the 10–16 Myr old F-star binary HD 113766. We individually resolve the 1.″4 separation binary components for the first time in the X-ray and find a total 0.3–2.0 keV luminosity of 2.2 × 10 29 erg s −1 , consistent with previous RASS estimates. We find emission from the easternmost, infrared-bright, dusty member HD 113766A to be only ∼10% that of the western, infrared-faint member HD 113766B. There is no evidence for a 3rd late-type stellar or substellar member of HD 113766 with L x  > 6 × 10 25 erg s −1 within 2′ of the binary pair. The ratio of the two stars’ X-ray luminosity is consistent with their assignments as F2V and F6V by Pecaut et al. The emission is soft for both stars, kT Apec  = 0.30–0.50 keV, suggesting X-rays produced by stellar rotation and/or convection in young dynamos, but not accretion or outflow shocks, which we rule out. A possible 2.8 ± 0.15 (2 σ ) hr modulation in the HD 113766B X-ray emission is seen, but at very low confidence and of unknown provenance. Stellar wind drag models corresponding to L x  ∼ 2 × 10 29 erg s −1 argue for a 1 mm dust particle lifetime around HD 113766B of only ∼90,0000 years, suggesting that dust around HD 113766B is quickly removed, whereas 1 mm sized dust around HD 113766A can survive for >1.5 × 10 6 years. At 10 28 –10 29 erg s −1 X-ray luminosity, astrobiologically important effects, like dust warming and X-ray photolytic organic synthesis, are likely for any circumstellar material in the HD 113766 systems.

  18. Multi-keV X-ray area source intensity at SGII laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-rong; An, Hong-hai; Xie, Zhi-yong; Wang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Experiments for investigating the feasibility of multi-keV backlighters for several different metallic foil targets were performed at the Shenguang II (SGII) laser facility in China. Emission spectra in the energy range of 1.65-7.0 keV were measured with an elliptically bent crystal spectrometer, and the X-ray source size was measured with a pinhole camera. The X-ray intensity near 4.75 keV and the X-ray source size for titanium targets at different laser intensity irradiances were studied. By adjusting the total laser energy at a fixed focal spot size, laser intensity in the range of 1.5-5.0 × 1015 W/cm2, was achieved. The results show that the line emission intensity near 4.75 keV and the X-ray source size are dependent on the laser intensity and increase as the laser intensity increases. However, an observed "peak" in the X-ray intensity near 4.75 keV occurs at an irradiance of 4.0 × 1015 W/cm2. For the employed experimental conditions, it was confirmed that the laser intensity could play a significant role in the development of an efficient multi-keV X-ray source. The experimental results for titanium indicate that the production of a large (˜350 μm in diameter) intense backlighter source of multi-keV X-rays is feasible at the SGII facility.

  19. X-ray Studies of Unidentified Galactic TeV Gamma-ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pühlhofer, Gerd

    2009-05-01

    Many of the recently discovered Galactic TeV sources remain unidentified to date. A large fraction of the sources is possibly associated with relic pulsar wind nebula (PWN) systems. One key question here is the maximum energy (beyond TeV) attained in the compact PWNe. Hard X-ray emission can trace those particles, but current non-focussing X-ray instruments above 10 keV have difficulties to deconvolve the hard pulsar spectrum from its surrounding nebula. Some of the new TeV sources are also expected to originate from middle-aged and possibly even from old supernova remnants (SNR). But no compelling case for such an identification has been found yet. In established young TeV-emitting SNRs, X-ray imaging above 10 keV could help to disentangle the leptonic from the hadronic emission component in the TeV shells, if secondary electrons produced in hadronic collisions can be effectively detected. As SNRs get older, the high energy electron component is expected to fade away. This may allow to verify the picture through X-ray spectral evolution of the source population. Starting from the lessons we have learned so far from X-ray follow-up observations of unidentified TeV sources, prospects for Simbol-X to resolve open questions in this field will be discussed.

  20. X-ray Studies of Unidentified Galactic TeV Gamma-ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puehlhofer, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Many of the recently discovered Galactic TeV sources remain unidentified to date. A large fraction of the sources is possibly associated with relic pulsar wind nebula (PWN) systems. One key question here is the maximum energy (beyond TeV) attained in the compact PWNe. Hard X-ray emission can trace those particles, but current non-focussing X-ray instruments above 10 keV have difficulties to deconvolve the hard pulsar spectrum from its surrounding nebula.Some of the new TeV sources are also expected to originate from middle-aged and possibly even from old supernova remnants (SNR). But no compelling case for such an identification has been found yet. In established young TeV-emitting SNRs, X-ray imaging above 10 keV could help to disentangle the leptonic from the hadronic emission component in the TeV shells, if secondary electrons produced in hadronic collisions can be effectively detected. As SNRs get older, the high energy electron component is expected to fade away. This may allow to verify the picture through X-ray spectral evolution of the source population.Starting from the lessons we have learned so far from X-ray follow-up observations of unidentified TeV sources, prospects for Simbol-X to resolve open questions in this field will be discussed.

  1. Line x-ray source for diffraction enhanced imaging in clinical and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin

    Mammography is one type of imaging modalities that uses a low-dose x-ray or other radiation sources for examination of breasts. It plays a central role in early detection of breast cancers. The material similarity of tumor-cell and health cell, breast implants surgery and other factors, make the breast cancers hard to visualize and detect. Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI), first proposed and investigated by D. Chapman is a new x-ray radiographic imaging modality using monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source, which produced images of thick absorbing objects that are almost completely free of scatter. It shows dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging when applied to the same phantom. The contrast is based not only on attenuation but also on the refraction and diffraction properties of the sample. This imaging method may improve image quality of mammography, other medical applications, industrial radiography for non-destructive testing and x-ray computed tomography. However, the size, and cost, of a synchrotron source limits the application of the new modality to be applicable at clinical levels. This research investigates the feasibility of a designed line x-ray source to produce intensity compatible to synchrotron sources. It is composed of a 2-cm in length tungsten filament, installed on a carbon steel filament cup (backing plate), as the cathode and a stationary oxygen-free copper anode with molybdenum coating on the front surface serves as the target. Characteristic properties of the line x-ray source were computationally studied and the prototype was experimentally investigated. SIMIION code was used to computationally study the electron trajectories emanating from the filament towards the molybdenum target. A Faraday cup on the prototype device, proof-of-principle, was used to measure the distribution of electrons on the target, which compares favorably to computational results. The intensities of characteristic x-ray for molybdenum

  2. Perspectives of the lobster-eye telescope: The promising types of cosmic X-ray sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 184-191 ISSN 1335-1842. [INTEGRAL/BART Workshop /14./. Karlovy Vary, 03.04.2017-07.04.2017] Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-33324S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : X-rays binaries * radiation mechanisms * observational methods Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2016

  3. From laser-plasma accelerators to femtosecond X-ray sources: study, development and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corde, S.

    2012-01-01

    During the relativistic interaction between a short and intense laser pulse and an underdense plasma, electrons can be injected and accelerated up to hundreds of MeV in an accelerating structure formed in the wake of the pulse: this is the so-called laser-plasma accelerator. One of the major perspectives for laser-plasma accelerators resides in the realization of compact sources of femtosecond x-ray beams. In this thesis, two x-ray sources was studied and developed. The betatron radiation, intrinsic to laser-plasma accelerators, comes from the transverse oscillations of electrons during their acceleration. Its characterization by photon counting revealed an x-ray beam containing 10"9 photons, with energies extending above 10 keV. We also developed an all-optical Compton source producing photons with energies up to hundreds of keV, based on the collision between a photon beam and an electron beam. The potential of these x-ray sources was highlighted by the realization of single shot phase contrast imaging of a biological sample. Then, we showed that the betatron x-ray radiation can be a powerful tool to study the physics of laser-plasma acceleration. We demonstrated the possibility to map the x-ray emission region, which gives a unique insight into the interaction, permitting us for example to locate the region where electrons are injected. The x-ray angular and spectral properties allow us to gain information on the transverse dynamics of electrons during their acceleration. (author)

  4. Multiband Diagnostics of Unidentified 1FGL Sources with Suzaku and Swift X-Ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Maeda, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamori, T.; Tahara, M.

    2013-10-01

    We have analyzed all the archival X-ray data of 134 unidentified (unID) gamma-ray sources listed in the first Fermi/LAT (1FGL) catalog and subsequently followed up by the Swift/XRT. We constructed the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from radio to gamma-rays for each X-ray source detected, and tried to pick up unique objects that display anomalous spectral signatures. In these analyses, we target all the 1FGL unID sources, using updated data from the second Fermi/LAT (2FGL) catalog on the Large Area Telescope (LAT) position and spectra. We found several potentially interesting objects, particularly three sources, 1FGL J0022.2-1850, 1FGL J0038.0+1236, and 1FGL J0157.0-5259, which were then more deeply observed with Suzaku as a part of an AO-7 program in 2012. We successfully detected an X-ray counterpart for each source whose X-ray spectra were well fitted by a single power-law function. The positional coincidence with a bright radio counterpart (currently identified as an active galactic nucleus, AGN) in the 2FGL error circles suggests these sources are definitely the X-ray emission from the same AGN, but their SEDs show a wide variety of behavior. In particular, the SED of 1FGL J0038.0+1236 is not easily explained by conventional emission models of blazars. The source 1FGL J0022.2-1850 may be in a transition state between a low-frequency peaked and a high-frequency peaked BL Lac object, and 1FGL J0157.0-5259 could be a rare kind of extreme blazar. We discuss the possible nature of these three sources observed with Suzaku, together with the X-ray identification results and SEDs of all 134 sources observed with the Swift/XRT.

  5. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of x-ray optics at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Zhou, Tunhe; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sawhney, Kawal

    2017-08-01

    To achieve high resolution and sensitivity on the nanometer scale, further development of X-ray optics is required. Although ex-situ metrology provides valuable information about X-ray optics, the ultimate performance of X-ray optics is critically dependent on the exact nature of the working conditions. Therefore, it is equally important to perform in-situ metrology at the optics' operating wavelength (`at-wavelength' metrology) to optimize the performance of X-ray optics and correct and minimize the collective distortions of the upstream beamline optics, e.g. monochromator, windows, etc. Speckle-based technique has been implemented and further improved at Diamond Light Source. We have demonstrated that the angular sensitivity for measuring the slope error of an optical surface can reach an accuracy of two nanoradians. The recent development of the speckle-based at-wavelength metrology techniques will be presented. Representative examples of the applications of the speckle-based technique will also be given - including optimization of X-ray mirrors and characterization of compound refraction lenses. Such a high-precision metrology technique will be extremely beneficial for the manufacture and in-situ alignment/optimization of X-ray mirrors for next-generation synchrotron beamlines.

  6. Development of multi-pixel x-ray source using oxide-coated cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandlakunta, Praneeth; Pham, Richard; Khan, Rao; Zhang, Tiezhi

    2017-07-07

    Multiple pixel x-ray sources facilitate new designs of imaging modalities that may result in faster imaging speed, improved image quality, and more compact geometry. We are developing a high-brightness multiple-pixel thermionic emission x-ray (MPTEX) source based on oxide-coated cathodes. Oxide cathodes have high emission efficiency and, thereby, produce high emission current density at low temperature when compared to traditional tungsten filaments. Indirectly heated micro-rectangular oxide cathodes were developed using carbonates, which were converted to semiconductor oxides of barium, strontium, and calcium after activation. Each cathode produces a focal spot on an elongated fixed anode. The x-ray beam ON and OFF control is performed by source-switching electronics, which supplies bias voltage to the cathode emitters. In this paper, we report the initial performance of the oxide-coated cathodes and the MPTEX source.

  7. Laser-produced multi-charged heavy ions as efficient soft x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yuhei; Kawasaki, Masato

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate EUV and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6x nm and a water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to x-ray optics. We will discuss the progress and Z-scaling of UTA emission spectra to achieve lab-scale table-top, efficient, high-brightness high-Z plasma EUV-soft x-ray sources for in vivo bio-imaging applications. (author)

  8. Debris-free soft x-ray source with gas-puff target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qiliang; Chen, Bo; Gong, Yan; Cao, Jianlin; Lin, Jingquan; Lee, Hongyan

    2001-12-01

    We have been developing a debris-free laser plasma light source with a gas-puff target system whose nozzle is driven by a piezoelectric crystal membrane. The gas-puff target system can utilize gases such as CO2, O2 or some gas mixture according to different experiments. Therefore, in comparison with soft X-ray source using a metal target, after continuously several-hour laser interaction with gas from the gas-puff target system, no evidences show that the light source can produce debris. The debris-free soft X-ray source is prepared for soft X-ray projection lithography research at State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics. Strong emission from CO2, O2 and Kr plasma is observed.

  9. The Chandra Source Catalog: X-ray Aperture Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Vinay; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, I. N.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G., II; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) represents a reanalysis of the entire ACIS and HRC imaging observations over the 9-year Chandra mission. We describe here the method by which fluxes are measured for detected sources. Source detection is carried out on a uniform basis, using the CIAO tool wavdetect. Source fluxes are estimated post-facto using a Bayesian method that accounts for background, spatial resolution effects, and contamination from nearby sources. We use gamma-function prior distributions, which could be either non-informative, or in case there exist previous observations of the same source, strongly informative. The current implementation is however limited to non-informative priors. The resulting posterior probability density functions allow us to report the flux and a robust credible range on it.

  10. Broad-band monitoring tracing the evolution of the jet and disc in the black hole candidate X-ray binary MAXI J1659-152

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, A.J.; Curran, P.A.; Miller-Jonis, J.C.A.; Linford, J.D.; Gorosabel, J.; Russell, D.M.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Lundgren, A.A.; Taylor, G.B.; Maitra, D.; Guziy, S.; Belloni, T.M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Jonker, P.G.; Kamble, A.; Paragi, Z.; Homan, J.; Kuulkers, E.; Granot, J.; Altamirano, D.; Buxton, M.M.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Fender, R.P.; Garret, M.A.; Gehrels, N.; Hartmann, D.H.; Kennea, J.A.; Krimm, H.A.; Mangano, V.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Romano, P.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Wijnands, R.; Yang, Y.J.

    2013-01-01

    MAXI J1659−152 was discovered on 2010 September 25 as a new X-ray transient, initially identified as a gamma-ray burst, but was later shown to be a new X-ray binary with a black hole as the most likely compact object. Dips in the X-ray light curves have revealed that MAXI J1659−152 is the shortest

  11. Z-pinches as intense x-ray sources for high energy density physics application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzen, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Fast z-pinch implosions can convert more than 10% of the stored electrical energy in a pulsed-power accelerator into x rays. These x rays are produced when an imploding cylindrical plasma, driven by the magnetic field pressure associated with very large axial currents, stagnates upon the cylindrical axis of symmetry. On the Saturn pulsed-power accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories, for example, currents of 6 to 8 MA with a risetime of less than 50 ns are driven through cylindrically-symmetric loads, producing implosions velocities as high as 100 cm/μs and x-ray energies as high as 500 kJ. The keV component of the resulting x-ray spectrum has been used for many years 8 a radiation source for material response studies. Alternatively, the x-ray output can be thermalized into a near-Planckian x-ray source by containing it within a large cylindrical radiation case. These large volume, long-lived radiation sources have recently been used for ICF-relevant ablator physics experiments as well as astrophysical opacity and radiation-material interaction experiments. Hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and cylindrical load symmetry are critical, limiting factors in determining the assembled plasma densities and temperatures, and thus in the x-ray pulse widths that can be produced on these accelerators. In recent experiments on the Saturn accelerator, these implosion nonuniformities have been minimized by using uniform-fill gas puff loads or by using wire arrays with as many a 192 wires. These techniques produced significant improvements in the pinched plasma quality, Zn reproducibility, and x-ray output power. X-ray pulse widths of less than 5 ns and peak powers of 75±10 TW have been achieved with arrays of 120 tungsten wires. These powers represent greater than a factor of three in power amplification over the electrical power of the Saturn n accelerator, and are a record for x-ray powers in the laboratory

  12. OSO-7 observations of high galactic latitude x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, T.H.; Canizares, C.R.; Clark, G.W.; Li, F.K.; Northridge, P.L.; Sprott, G.F.; Wargo, G.F.

    1976-01-01

    Six hundred days of observations by the MIT X-ray detectors aboard OSO-7 have been analyzed. All-sky maps of X-ray intensity have been constructed from these data. A sample map is displayed. Seven sources with galactic latitude vertical-barb/subi//subi/vertical-bar>10degree, discovered during the mapping process, are reported, and upper limits are set on other high-latitude sources. The OSO-7 results are compared with those of Uhuru and an implication of this comparison, that many of the high-latitude sources may be variable, is discussed

  13. Microfocus x-ray imaging of traceable pointlike {sup 22}Na sources for quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T.; Oda, K.; Sato, Y.; Ito, H.; Masuda, S.; Yamada, T.; Matsumoto, M.; Murayama, H.; Takei, H. [Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University Kitasato 1-15-1, Minami-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-0373 (Japan); Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Sakaecho 35-2, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0015 (Japan); Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Kanagawa Industrial Technology Center (KITC) Shimoimazumi 705-1, Ebina-shi, Kanagawa 243-0435 (Japan); Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) Komagome 2-28-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8941 (Japan); Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kitasato University Kitasato 1-15-1, Minami-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-0373 (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose a microfocus x-ray imaging technique for observing the internal structure of small radioactive sources and evaluating geometrical errors quantitatively, and to apply this technique to traceable pointlike {sup 22}Na sources, which were designed for positron emission tomography calibration, for the purpose of quality control of the pointlike sources. Methods: A microfocus x-ray imaging system with a focus size of 0.001 mm was used to obtain projection x-ray images and x-ray CT images of five pointlike source samples, which were manufactured during 2009-2012. The obtained projection and tomographic images were used to observe the internal structure and evaluate geometrical errors quantitatively. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the effect of possible geometrical errors on the intensity and uniformity of 0.511 MeV annihilation photon pairs emitted from the sources. Results: Geometrical errors were evaluated with sufficient precision using projection x-ray images. CT images were used for observing the internal structure intuitively. As a result, four of the five examined samples were within the tolerance to maintain the total uncertainty below {+-}0.5%, given the source radioactivity; however, one sample was found to be defective. Conclusions: This quality control procedure is crucial and offers an important basis for using the pointlike {sup 22}Na source as a basic calibration tool. The microfocus x-ray imaging approach is a promising technique for visual and quantitative evaluation of the internal geometry of small radioactive sources.

  14. X-ray stress measurement by use of synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Matsui, Hisaaki; Moro-oka, Toshimasa; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi; Nakajima, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    In the field of X-ray stress measurement of polycrystalline materials, a diffraction plane at higher Bragg angle has to be selected in order to obtain the precise value of stress. However, the stress measurement on an optional (hkl) plane desired is not always possible because the X-ray beam exited from a metal target has a dispersive wave length. Recently, we have been able to use the synchrotron radiation source (SR) as an excellent X-ray source. In Japan, the facility of synchrotron radiation (Photon Factory, PF) was constructed in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) at Tsukuba academic city. The use of this SR enables the stress measurements on many (hkl) planes with high accuracy in the higher Bragg angle region by providing an X-ray beam having an optional wave length. We have started the X-ray stress analysis by use of the synchrotron radiation source. This paper reports the system of measurement and some results of preliminaly experiments. Since a monochromatic X-ray beam is required for the stress measurement, we used a beam line which consists of a double crystal monochrometer and a focusing mirror. X-rays between 4 KeV (λ = 0.31 nm) and 10 KeV (λ = 0.12 nm) are available with this optical system. We adopted a constant Bragg angle of 2θ = 154 deg for all the diffraction planes. A PSPC having a carbon fiber anode is made and used as a detector with the use of a fast digital signal processor. We could observe the diffraction profiles from (200), (211), (220), (310) and (321) crystal plane of alpha iron, respectively, and the residual stresses in these planes except the (200) plane were measured with high accuracy in a short time. Such feature especially suits the stress analysis of the material which has preferred orientation or stress gradient. (author)

  15. New Constraints on the Geometry and Kinematics of Matter Surrounding the Accretion Flow in X-Ray Binaries from Chandra High-energy Transmission Grating X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanavaris, P.; Yaqoob, T.

    2018-03-01

    The narrow, neutral Fe Kα fluorescence emission line in X-ray binaries (XRBs) is a powerful probe of the geometry, kinematics, and Fe abundance of matter around the accretion flow. In a recent study it has been claimed, using Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) spectra for a sample of XRBs, that the circumnuclear material is consistent with a solar-abundance, uniform, spherical distribution. It was also claimed that the Fe Kα line was unresolved in all cases by the HETG. However, these conclusions were based on ad hoc models that did not attempt to relate the global column density to the Fe Kα line emission. We revisit the sample and test a self-consistent model of a uniform, spherical X-ray reprocessor against HETG spectra from 56 observations of 14 Galactic XRBs. We find that the model is ruled out in 13/14 sources because a variable Fe abundance is required. In two sources a spherical distribution is viable, but with nonsolar Fe abundance. We also applied a solar-abundance Compton-thick reflection model, which can account for the spectra that are inconsistent with a spherical model, but spectra with a broader bandpass are required to better constrain model parameters. We also robustly measured the velocity width of the Fe Kα line and found FWHM values of up to ∼5000 km s‑1. Only in some spectra was the Fe Kα line unresolved by the HETG.

  16. New Constraints on the Geometry and Kinematics of Matter Surrounding the Accretion Flow in X-Ray Binaries from Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanavaris, P.; Yaqoob, T.

    2018-01-01

    The narrow, neutral Fe Ka fluorescence emission line in X-ray binaries (XRBs) is a powerful probe of the geometry, kinematics, and Fe abundance of matter around the accretion flow. In a recent study it has been claimed, using Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) spectra for a sample of XRBs, that the circumnuclear material is consistent with a solar-abundance, uniform, spherical distribution. It was also claimed that the Fe Ka line was unresolved in all cases by the HETG. However, these conclusions were based on ad hoc models that did not attempt to relate the global column density to the Fe Ka line emission. We revisit the sample and test a self-consistent model of a uniform, spherical X-ray reprocessor against HETG spectra from 56 observations of 14 Galactic XRBs. We find that the model is ruled out in 13/14 sources because a variable Fe abundance is required. In two sources a spherical distribution is viable, but with nonsolar Fe abundance. We also applied a solar-abundance Compton-thick reflection model, which can account for the spectra that are inconsistent with a spherical model, but spectra with a broader bandpass are required to better constrain model parameters. We also robustly measured the velocity width of the Fe Ka line and found FWHM values of up to approx. 5000 km/s. Only in some spectra was the Fe Ka line unresolved by the HETG.

  17. Neutron star crustal plate tectonics. I. Magnetic dipole evolution in millisecond pulsars and low-mass X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, M.

    1991-01-01

    Crust lattices in spinning-up or spinning-down neutron stars have growing shear stresses caused by neutron superfluid vortex lines pinned to lattice nuclei. For the most rapidly spinning stars, this stress will break and move the crust before vortex unpinning occurs. In spinning-down neutron stars, crustal plates will move an equatorial subduction zone in which the plates are forced into the stellar core below the crust. The opposite plate motion occurs in spinning-up stars. Magnetic fields which pass through the crust or have sources in it move with the crust. Spun-up neutron stars in accreting low-mass X-ray binaries LMXBs should then have almost axially symmetric magnetic fields. Spun-down ones with very weak magnetic fields should have external magnetic fields which enter and leave the neutron star surface only near its equator. The lowest field millisecond radiopulsars seem to be orthogonal rotators implying that they have not previously been spun-up in LMXBs but are neutron stars initially formed with periods near 0.001 s that subsequently spin down to their present periods. Accretion-induced white dwarf collapse is then the most plausible genesis for them. 29 refs

  18. Phase-contrast imaging and tomography at 60 keV using a conventional x-ray tube source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donath, Tilman; Bunk, Oliver; Groot, Waldemar; Bednarzik, Martin; Gruenzweig, Christian; David, Christian; Pfeiffer, Franz; Hempel, Eckhard; Popescu, Stefan; Hoheisel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Phase-contrast imaging at laboratory-based x-ray sources using grating interferometers has been developed over the last few years for x-ray energies of up to 28 keV. Here, we show first phase-contrast projection and tomographic images recorded at significantly higher x-ray energies, produced by an x-ray tube source operated at 100 kV acceleration voltage. We find our measured tomographic phase images in good agreement with tabulated data. The extension of phase-contrast imaging to this significantly higher x-ray energy opens up many applications of the technique in medicine and industrial nondestructive testing.

  19. Performance of the IBM synchrotron X-ray source for lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archie, C.

    1993-01-01

    The compact superconducting synchrotron X-ray source at the IBM Advanced Lithography Facility in East Fishkill, New York has been in service to customers since the start of 1992. It availability during scheduled time is greater than 90%, with recent months frequently surpassing 95%. Data on the long-term behavior of the X-ray source properties and subsystem performance are now available. The full system continues to meet all specifications and even to surpass them in key areas. Measured electron beam properties such as beam size, short- and long-term positional stability, and beam life are presented. Lifetimes greater than 20 hours for typical stored beams have significantly simplified operations and increased availability compared to projections. This paper also describes some unique features of this X-ray source and goes beyond a discussion of downtime to describe the efforts behind the scenes to maintain and operate it

  20. Influence of Bernstein modes on the efficiency of electron cyclotron resonance x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V. V.; Nikitin, G.V.; Savanovich, V.Yu.; Umnov, A.M.; Elizarov, L.I.; Serebrennikov, K.S.; Vostrikova, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    The article considers the factors influencing the temperature of hot electron component in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) x-ray source. In such sources the electron heating occurs often due to extraordinary electromagnetic wave propagating perpendicularly to the magnetic field. In this case the possibility of the absorption of Bernstein modes is regarded as an additional mechanism of electron heating. The Bernstein modes in an ECR x-ray source can arise due to either linear transformation or parametric instability of external transversal wave. The article briefly reviews also the further experiments which will be carried out to study the influence of Bernstein modes on the increase of hot electron temperature and consequently of x-ray emission

  1. A quasi-monochromatic X-rays source for art painting pigments investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertin, F.; Franconieri, A.; Gambaccini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Chiozzi, S. [University of Ferrara, Department of Physics and INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Moro, D. [University of Padova, Department of Physics, Padova (Italy); LNL - INFN, Legnaro, Padova (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    Monochromatic X-ray sources can be used for several applications, like in medicine or in studying our cultural heritage. We are investigating imaging systems based on a tuneable energy band X-ray source, to obtain an element mapping of painting layers using the K-edge technique. The narrow energy band beams are obtained with conventional X-ray source via Bragg diffraction on a mosaic crystal; such an analysis has been performed at different diffraction angles, tuning the energy to investigate spectra of interest from the artistic point of view, like zinc and copper. In this paper the characteristics of the system in terms of fluence rate are reported, and first results of this technique on canvas samples and painting are presented. (orig.)

  2. The Ultraluminous X-Ray Source X-37 Is a Background Quasar in the Antennae Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Christopher, M. H.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Brandl, B. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Carson, J. C.; Henderson, C. P.; Hayward, T. L.; Barry, D. J.; Ptak, A. F.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2005-10-01

    In this Letter we report that a bright, X-ray source in the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/9), previously identified as an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX), is in fact a background quasar. We identify an isolated infrared and optical counterpart within 0.3" +/- 0.5" of the X-ray source X-37. After acquiring an optical spectrum of its counterpart, we use the narrow [O III] and broad Hα emission lines to identify X-37 as a quasar at a redshift of z=0.26. Through a U, V, and Ks photometric analysis, we demonstrate that most of the observable light along this line of sight is from the quasar. We discuss the implications of this discovery and the importance of acquiring spectra for optical and IR counterparts to ULXs.

  3. Flat Field Anomalies in an X-ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-ray Source (HTPD 08 paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugh, M; Schneider, M B

    2008-01-01

    The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. The intensity distribution taken by the SXI camera during a NIF shot is used to determine how accurately NIF can aim laser beams. This is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 (micro)m square pixels, and 15 (micro)m thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 10W, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/ΔE ∼ 10. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation occurred at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was not observable below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris, damage, and surface defects on the CCD chip. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager

  4. A NuSTAR observation of the reflection spectrum of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1728-34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleator, Clio C.; Tomsick, John A.; King, Ashley L.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift observation of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1728-34. We identified and removed four Type I X-ray bursts during the observation in order to study the persistent emission. The continuum spectrum is hard and described well by a blackbody with...

  5. Detection of Reflection Features in the Neutron Star Low-mass X-Ray Binary Serpens X-1 with NICER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludlam, R. M.; Miller, J. M.; Arzoumanian, Z.

    2018-01-01

    We present Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) observations of the neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary Serpens X-1 during the early mission phase in 2017. With the high spectral sensitivity and low-energy X-ray passband of NICER, we are able to detect the Fe L line complex in a...

  6. Statistical properties of twin kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. H.; Chen, L.; Zhang, C. M.; Lei, Y. J.; Qu, J. L.

    2014-02-01

    We collect the data of twin kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) published before 2012 from 26 neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) sources, then we analyze the centroid frequency (ν) distribution of twin kHz QPOs (lower frequency ν_1 and upper frequency ν_2) both for Atoll and Z sources. For the data without shift-and-add, we find that Atoll and Z sources show different distributions of ν_1, ν_2 and ν_2/ν_1, but the same distribution of Δν (difference of twin kHz QPOs), which indicates that twin kHz QPOs may share the common properties of LXMBs and have the same physical origins. The distribution of Δν is quite different from a constant value, so is ν_2/ν_1 from a constant ratio. The weighted mean values and maxima of ν_1 and ν_2 in Atoll sources are slightly higher than those in Z sources. We also find that shift-and-add technique can reconstruct the distributions of ν_1 and Δν. The K-S test results of ν_1 and Δν between Atoll and Z sources from data with shift-and-add are quite different from those without it, and we think that this may be caused by the selection biases of the sample. We also study the properties of the quality factor (Q) and the root-mean-squared (rms) amplitude of 4U 0614+09 with data from the two observational methods, but the errors are too big to make a robust conclusion. The NS spin frequency (ν_s) distribution of 28 NS-LMXBs show a bigger mean value (˜ 408 Hz) than that (˜ 281 Hz) of the radio binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs), which may be due to the lack of the spin detections from Z sources (systematically lower than 281 Hz). Furthermore, on the relations between the kHz QPOs and NS spin frequency ν_s, we find the approximate correlations of the mean values of Δν with NS spin and its half, respectively.

  7. Observations of X-ray sources in the Large Magellanic cloud by the OSO-7 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, T.H.; Clark, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud with the 1-40 keV X-ray detectors on the OSO-7 satellite are reported. Results include the discovery of a previously unreported source LMC X-5, measurements of the spectral characteristics of four sources, and observations of their variability on time scales of months

  8. X-ray spectra from the Cornell Electron-Beam Ion Source (CEBIS I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Kostroun, V.O.; Ghanbari, E.; Janson, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation emitted from the Cornell electron beam ion source (CEBIS I) has been surveyed with a Si(Li) x-ray detector. These spectra can be used to estimate backgrounds from electron bremsstrahlung and to evaluate the feasibility of atomic physics experiments using the CEBIS I source in this configuration. 1 ref., 2 figs

  9. X-ray micro-Tomography at the Advanced Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    The X-ray micro-Tomography Facility at the Advanced Light Source has been in operation since 2004. The source is a superconducting bend magnet of critical energy 10.5KeV; photon energy coverage is 8-45 KeV in monochromatic mode, and a filtered white light option yields useful photons up to 50 KeV. A...

  10. Short Pulse High Brightness X-ray Production with the PLEIADES Thomson Scattering Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.G.; Barty, C.P.J.; Betts, S.M.; Brown, W.J.; Crane, J.K.; Cross, R.R.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Gibson, D.J.; Hartemann, F.V.; Kuba, J.; LaSage, G.P.; Rosenzweig, J.B.; Slaughter, D.R.; Springer, P.T.; Tremaine, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe PLEIADES, a compact, tunable, high-brightness, ultra-short pulse, Thomson x-ray source. The peak brightness of the source is expected to exceed 10 20 photons/s/0.1% bandwidth/mm 2 /mrad 2 . Initial results are reported and compared to theoretical calculations

  11. Imaging ultrafast excited state pathways in transition metal complexes by X-ray transient absorption and scattering using X-ray free electron laser source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lin X; Shelby, Megan L; Lestrange, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    This report will describe our recent studies of transition metal complex structural dynamics on the fs and ps time scales using an X-ray free electron laser source, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Ultrafast XANES spectra at the Ni K-edge of nickel(ii) tetramesitylporphyrin (NiTMP) were measured...... on the low-energy shoulder of the edge, which is aided by the computation of X-ray transitions for postulated excited electronic states. The observed and computed inner shell to valence orbital transition energies demonstrate and quantify the influence of the electronic configuration on specific metal...

  12. X-ray system with coupled source drive and detector drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    An electronic coupling replacing the (more expensive) mechanical coupling which controls the speed of two sets of two electric motors, one driving an X-ray source and the other an X-ray detector, is described. Source and detector are kept rotating in parallel planes with a fairly constant velocity ratio. The drives are controlled by an electronic system comprising a comparator circuit comparing the position-indicative signals, a process control circuit and an inverter switch. The control system regulates the speed of the electric motors. The signal processing is described

  13. X-Band Linac Beam-Line for Medical Compton Scattering X-Ray Source

    CERN Document Server

    Dobashi, Katsuhiro; Ebina, Futaro; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Hayano, Hitoshi; Higo, Toshiyasu; Kaneyasu, Tatsuo; Ogino, Haruyuki; Sakamoto, Fumito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Urakawa, Junji; Yamamoto, Tomohiko

    2005-01-01

    Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10~80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U. Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard ( 10-80

  14. Development and application of sub-nanosecond pulse-repeatable hard X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Lin; Fan Yajun; Tu Jing

    2013-01-01

    A multipurpose X-ray source was developed to meet the needs of multitask application such as radiation detection, radiation imaging and so on. The multipurpose X-ray source has characteristic of adjustable width and energy, pulse-repetition operation, ultra-short pulse and fine stability. Its rising time is close to 98.6 ps, the operation voltage reaches 425 kV, and the peak fluence rate exceeds 2.07 × 10 18 cm -2 · s -1 at 10 cm, which provides an ideal radiation environment for relevant application. (authors)

  15. Soft x-ray microradiography and lithograph using a laser produced plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    Considering the hardware characteristics of the laser-induced plasma X-ray source and the limitations of the conventional cone-beam reconstruction algorithm, a general cone-beam reconstruction algorithm has been developed at our laboratory, in which the motion locus of the X-ray source is an arbitrary curve corresponding to at least a 2π continuous horizontal angular displacement in the coordinate system of the specimen. The preliminary simulation shows that the general cone-beam reconstruction algorithm consistently results in visually satisfactory images

  16. Uncovering extreme AGN variability in serendipitous X-ray source surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward C.; Garcia Soto, Aylin; LaMassa, Stephanie; Urry, Meg

    2018-01-01

    Constraints on the duty cycle and duration of accretion episodes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are vital for establishing how most AGNs are fueled, which is essential for a complete picture of black hole/galaxy co-evolution. Perhaps the best handle we have on these activity parameters is provided by AGNs that have displayed dramatic changes in their bolometric luminosities and, in some cases, spectroscopic classifications. Given that X-ray emission is directly linked to black-hole accretion, X-ray surveys should provide a straightforward means of identifying AGNs that have undergone dramatic changes in their accretion states. However, it appears that such events are very rare, so wide-area surveys separated in time by many years are needed to maximize discovery rates. We have cross-correlated the Einstein IPC Two-Sigma Catalog with the ROSAT All-Sky Survey Faint Source Catalog to identify a sample of soft X-ray sources that varied by factors ranging from 7 to more than 100 over a ten year timescale. When possible, we have constructed long-term X-ray light curves for the sources by combining the Einstein and RASS fluxes with those obtained from serendipitous pointed observations by ROSAT, Chandra,XMM, and Swift. Optical follow-up observations indicate that many of the extremely variable sources in our sample are indeed radio-quiet AGNs. Interestingly, the majority of objects that dimmed between ~1980 and ~1990 are still (or are again) broad-line AGNs rather than“changing-look” candidates that have more subtle AGN signatures in their spectra — despite the fact that none of the sources examined thus far has returned to its highest observed luminosity. Future X-ray observations will provide the opportunity to characterize the X-ray behavior of these anonymous, extreme AGNs over a four decade span.

  17. Probing the Spatial Distribution of the Interstellar Dust Medium by High Angular Resolution X-ray Halos of Point Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jingen

    _{H,WD01} = (0.720±0.009) × N_{H,abs} + (0.051±0.013) and N_{H, MRN} = (1.156±0.016) × N_{H,abs} + (0.062±0.024) in the units 10^{22} cm^{-2}. Then the correlation between FHI and N_{H} is obtained. Both WD01 model and MRN model fits show that the scattering dust density very close to these sources is much higher than the normal interstellar medium and we consider it is the evidence of molecular clouds around these X-ray binaries. We also find that there is the linear correlation between the effective distance through the galactic dust layer and hydrogen scattering olumn density N_{H} excluding the one in x=0.99-1.0 but the correlation does not exist between he effective distance and the N_{H} in x=0.99-1.0. It shows that the dust nearby the X-ray sources is not the dust from galactic disk. Then we estimate the structure and density of the stellar wind around the special X-ray pulsars Vela X-1 and GX 301-2. Finally we discuss the possibility of probing the three dimensional structure of the interstellar using the X-ray halos of the transient sources, probing the spatial distributions of interstellar dust medium nearby the point sources, even the structure of the stellar winds using higher angular resolution X-ray dust scattering halos and testing the model that the black hole can be formed from the direct collapse of a massive star without supernova using the statistical distribution of the dust density nearby the X-ray binaries.

  18. Phase contrast imaging using a micro focus x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-09-01

    Phase contrast x-ray imaging, a new technique to increase the imaging contrast for the tissues with close attenuation coefficients, has been studied since mid 1990s. This technique reveals the possibility to show the clear details of the soft tissues and tumors in small scale resolution. A compact and low cost phase contrast imaging system using a conventional x-ray source is described in this paper. Using the conventional x-ray source is of great importance, because it provides the possibility to use the method in hospitals and clinical offices. Simple materials and components are used in the setup to keep the cost in a reasonable and affordable range.Tungsten Kα1 line with the photon energy 59.3 keV was used for imaging. Some of the system design details are discussed. The method that was used to stabilize the system is introduced. A chicken thigh bone tissue sample was used for imaging followed by the image quality, image acquisition time and the potential clinical application discussion. High energy x-ray beam can be used in phase contrast imaging. Therefore the radiation dose to the patients can be greatly decreased compared to the traditional x-ray radiography.

  19. At-wavelength metrology of x-ray optics at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Berujon, Sebastien; Sutter, John; Alcock, Simon G.; Sawhney, Kawal

    2014-09-01

    Modern, third-generation synchrotron radiation sources provide coherent and extremely bright beams of X-ray radiation. The successful exploitation of such beams depends to a significant extent on imperfections and misalignment of the optics employed on the beamlines. This issue becomes even more critical with the increasing use of active optics, and the desire to achieve diffraction-limited and coherence-preserving X-ray beams. In recent years, significant progress has been made to improve optic testing and optimization techniques, especially those using X-rays for so-called atwavelength metrology. These in-situ and at-wavelength metrology methods can be used not only to optimize the performance of X-ray optics, but also to correct and minimize the collective distortions of upstream beamline optics, including monochromators, and transmission windows. An overview of at-wavelength metrology techniques implemented at Diamond Light Source is presented, including grating interferometry and X-ray near-field speckle based techniques. Representative examples of the application of these techniques are also given, including in-situ and atwavelength calibration and optimization of: active, piezo bimorph mirrors; Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors; and refractive optics such as compound refractive lenses.

  20. Development of Compact Soft X-ray Source Based on Laser Undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, Ryunosuke; Minamiguchi, S; Saitô, T; Ueyama, D; Washio, Masakazu

    2004-01-01

    A compact soft X-ray source is required in various research fields such as material and biological science. The laser undulator based on backward Compton scattering has been developed as a compact soft X-ray source for the biological observation at Waseda University. It is performed in a water window region (250eV - 500 eV) using the interaction between 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser and 4 MeV high quality electron beam generated from rf gun system. The range of energy in the water window region has K-shell absorption edges of Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen, which mainly constitute of living body. Since the absorption coefficient of water is much smaller than the protein’s coefficient in this range, a dehydration of the specimens is not necessary. As a preliminary experiment, about 300 eV X-ray generation was carried out. As next step, soft X-ray optics with zone plate was proposed for Soft X-ray microscopy. In this conference, we will report details and results of the experiment.

  1. Computerized tomography using high resolution X-ray imaging system with a microfocus source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaprazny, Z.; Korytar, D.; Konopka, P.; Ac, V.; Bielecki, J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there is an effort to image an internal structure of an object by using not only conventional 2D X-ray radiography but also using high resolution 3D tomography which is based on reconstruction of multiple 2D projections at various angular positions of the object. We have previously reported [1] the development and basic parameters of a high resolution x-ray imaging system with a microfocus source. We report the recent progress using this high resolution X-ray laboratory system in this work. These first findings show that our system is particularly suitable for light weight and nonmetallic objects such as biological objects, plastics, wood, paper, etc. where phase contrast helps to increase the visibility of the finest structures of the object. Phase-contrast X-ray Computerized Tomography is of our special interest because it is an emerging imaging technique that can be implemented at third generation synchrotron radiation sources and also in laboratory conditions using a microfocus X-ray tube or beam conditioning optics. (authors)

  2. A new hybrid target concept for multi-keV X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primout, M.; Babonneau, D.; Jacquet, L.; Villette, B.; Girard, F.; Brebion, D.; Stemmler, P.; Fournier, K.B.; Marrs, R.; May, M.J.; Heeter, R.F.; Wallace, R.J.; Nishimura, H.; Fujioka, S.; Tanabe, M.; Nagai, H.

    2013-01-01

    A novel concept for using hybrid targets to create multi-keV X-ray sources was tested on the GEKKO XII facility of the Osaka University and on the OMEGA facility of the University of Rochester. The sources were made via laser irradiation of a titanium foil placed at the end of a plastic cylinder, filled with a very low-density (2 and 5 mg/cm 3 ) silicon-dioxide aerogel that was designed to control the longitudinal expansion of the titanium plasma. Preliminary calculations were used to determine optimal conditions for the aerogel density, cylinder diameter and length that maximize multi-keV X-ray emission. The X-ray emission power was measured on OMEGA using absolutely calibrated broad-band, diode-based CEA diagnostics, in addition to high resolution crystal spectrometers. On GEKKO XII, the heat wave propagation velocity in the aerogel was also measured with an X-ray framing camera. The advantage of using the thermal wave generated in the aerogel to heat a solid material to increase the conversion efficiency has not been fully demonstrated in these experiments. However, it was shown that a 5 mg/cm 3 aerogel placed in front of a titanium foil can improve the x-ray conversion efficiency with respect to the case of 2 mg/cm 3 for some target diameter and length. (authors)

  3. Observations of Intermediate-mass Black Holes and Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.

    2003-12-01

    I will review various observations that suggest that intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses ˜102-104 M⊙ exist in our Universe. I will also discuss some of the limitations of these observations. HST Observations of excess dark mass in globular cluster cores suggest IMBHs may be responsible, and some mass estimates from lensing experiments are nearly in the IMBH range. The intriguing Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs, or IXOs) are off-nuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities LX ≳ 1039 erg s-1. ULXs are typically rare (1 in every 5 galaxies), and the nature of their ultra-luminous emission is currently debated. I will discuss the evidence for IMBHs in some ULXs, and briefly outline some phenomenology. Finally, I will discuss future observations that can be made to search for IMBHs.

  4. Ultraluminous X-ray sources: new distance indicators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, A.; Bresler, K.; Bełdycki, B.; Madej, J.; Adhikari, T. P.

    2018-05-01

    Aims: In this paper we fit the NuSTAR and XMM-Newton data of three sources: NGC 7793 P13, NGC5907 ULX1, and Circinus ULX5. Methods: Our single model contains emission from a non-spherical system: a neutron star plus an accretion disk directed towards the observer. Results: We obtained a very good fit with the reduced χ2 per degree of freedom equal to 1.08 for P13, 1.01 for ULX1, and 1.14 for ULX5. The normalization of our model constrains the distance to the source. The resulting distances are D = 3.41-0.10+0.11, 6.55-0.81+0.69, and 2.60-0.03+0.05 Mpc for P13, ULX1, and ULX5 respectively. The distances to P13 and ULX5 are in perfect agreement with previous distance measurements to their host galaxies. Conclusions: Our results confirm that P13, ULX1, and ULX5 may contain central hot neutron stars. When the outgoing emission is computed by integration over the emitting surface and successfully fitted to the data, then the resulting model normalization is the direct distance indicator.

  5. High resolution stationary digital breast tomosynthesis using distributed carbon nanotube x-ray source array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xin; Tucker, Andrew; Gidcumb, Emily; Shan, Jing; Yang, Guang; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Sultana, Shabana; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Spronk, Derrek; Sprenger, Frank; Zhang, Yiheng; Kennedy, Don; Farbizio, Tom; Jing, Zhenxue

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of increasing the system spatial resolution and scanning speed of Hologic Selenia Dimensions digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) scanner by replacing the rotating mammography x-ray tube with a specially designed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array, which generates all the projection images needed for tomosynthesis reconstruction by electronically activating individual x-ray sources without any mechanical motion. The stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) design aims to (i) increase the system spatial resolution by eliminating image blurring due to x-ray tube motion and (ii) reduce the scanning time. Low spatial resolution and long scanning time are the two main technical limitations of current DBT technology. A CNT x-ray source array was designed and evaluated against a set of targeted system performance parameters. Simulations were performed to determine the maximum anode heat load at the desired focal spot size and to design the electron focusing optics. Field emission current from CNT cathode was measured for an extended period of time to determine the stable life time of CNT cathode for an expected clinical operation scenario. The source array was manufactured, tested, and integrated with a Selenia scanner. An electronic control unit was developed to interface the source array with the detection system and to scan and regulate x-ray beams. The performance of the s-DBT system was evaluated using physical phantoms. The spatially distributed CNT x-ray source array comprised 31 individually addressable x-ray sources covering a 30 angular span with 1 pitch and an isotropic focal spot size of 0.6 mm at full width at half-maximum. Stable operation at 28 kV(peak) anode voltage and 38 mA tube current was demonstrated with extended lifetime and good source-to-source consistency. For the standard imaging protocol of 15 views over 14, 100 mAs dose, and 2 × 2 detector binning, the projection

  6. Performance Characteristics Of An Intensity Modulated Advanced X-Ray Source (IMAXS) For Homeland Security Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langeveld, Willem G. J.; Brown, Craig; Condron, Cathie; Ingle, Mike; Christensen, Phil A.; Johnson, William A.; Owen, Roger D.; Hernandez, Michael; Schonberg, Russell G.; Ross, Randy

    2011-01-01

    X-ray cargo inspection systems for the detection and verification of threats and contraband must address stringent, competitive performance requirements. High x-ray intensity is needed to penetrate dense cargo, while low intensity is desirable to minimize the radiation footprint, i.e. the size of the controlled area, required shielding and the dose to personnel. In a collaborative effort between HESCO/PTSE Inc., XScell Corp., Stangenes Industries, Inc. and Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., an Intensity Modulated Advanced X-ray Source (IMAXS) was designed and produced. Cargo inspection systems utilizing such a source have been projected to achieve up to 2 inches steel-equivalent greater penetration capability, while on average producing the same or smaller radiation footprint as present fixed-intensity sources. Alternatively, the design can be used to obtain the same penetration capability as with conventional sources, but reducing the radiation footprint by about a factor of three. The key idea is to anticipate the needed intensity for each x-ray pulse by evaluating signal strength in the cargo inspection system detector array for the previous pulse. The IMAXS is therefore capable of changing intensity from one pulse to the next by an electronic signal provided by electronics inside the cargo inspection system detector array, which determine the required source intensity for the next pulse. We report on the completion of a 9 MV S-band (2998 MHz) IMAXS source and comment on its performance.

  7. UV-Visible Absorption Spectroscopy Enhanced X-ray Crystallography at Synchrotron and X-ray Free Electron Laser Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aina E; Doukov, Tzanko; Soltis, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the use of single crystal UV-Visible Absorption micro-Spectrophotometry (UV-Vis AS) to enhance the design and execution of X-ray crystallography experiments for structural investigations of reaction intermediates of redox active and photosensitive proteins. Considerations for UV-Vis AS measurements at the synchrotron and associated instrumentation are described. UV-Vis AS is useful to verify the intermediate state of an enzyme and to monitor the progression of reactions within crystals. Radiation induced redox changes within protein crystals may be monitored to devise effective diffraction data collection strategies. An overview of the specific effects of radiation damage on macromolecular crystals is presented along with data collection strategies that minimize these effects by combining data from multiple crystals used at the synchrotron and with the X-ray free electron laser.

  8. Radiation parameters of the x-ray binary A 0535 + 26 = HDE 245770 based on polarization and photometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larionov, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of the observations of Shakhovskaya et al. has led to the identification in the radiation of the x-ray binary system A 0535 + 26 = HDE 245770 of two components associated with an optical 09 III star and an accretion disk around a neutron star. The parameters of the interstellar polarization agree with Serkowski's formula and the observations of neighboring stars. The variability of the brightness of the system observed in the optical and infrared ranges can be explained by changes in the contribution of the accretion disk to the total emission of the system. The values obtained for the parameters of the intrinsic polarization, interpreted in the framework of the proposed model, suggest directions of the polarization vectors in the infrared and x-ray range

  9. Dense plasma focus x-ray source for sub-micron lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Mangano, J.; Greene, P.; Qi, Niansheng

    1993-01-01

    A discharge driven, dense plasma focus in neon is under development at SRL for use as a point x-ray source for sub-micron lithography. This source is presently capable of delivering ∼ 13j/pulse of neon K-shell x-rays (8--14 angstrom) into 4π steradians with 2 kj of electrical energy stored in the capacitor bank charged to 9 kV at a pulse repetition rate of 2 Hz. The discharge is produced by a ≤4 kj, ≤12 kV, capacitor bank circuit, which has a fixed inductance of 12 nH and drives ≤450 kA currents into the DPF load, with ∼1.1 μs rise-times. X-rays are produced when a dense pinch of neon is formed along the axis of the DPF electrodes. A new rail-gap switched capacitor bank and DPF have been built, designed for continuous operation at 2 Hz and burst mode operation at 20 Hz. This paper will present measurements of the x-ray output at a repetition rate of 2 Hz using the new capacitor bank. It will also describe measurements of the spot size (0.3--0.8 mm) and the spectrum (8--14 angstrom) of the DPF source. The dependence of these parameters on the DPF head geometry, bank energy and operating pressure will be discussed. The x-ray output has been measured using filtered pin diodes, x-ray diodes, and absolutely calibrated x-ray crystal spectra. Results from the source operating at 2 Hz will be presented. A novel concept of a windowless beamline has also been developed. The results of preliminary experiments to test the concept will be discussed. At a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz, this source should produce 200--400 W of x-ray power in the 8-14 angstrom wavelength band, with an input power of 40--60 kW

  10. A new endstation at the Swiss Light Source for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of liquid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Matthew A.; Redondo, Amaia Beloqui; Duyckaerts, Nicolas; Mächler, Jean-Pierre; Jordan, Inga; Wörner, Hans Jakob; Lee, Ming-Tao; Ammann, Markus; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Huthwelker, Thomas; Birrer, Mario; Honegger, Juri; Wetter, Reto; Bokhoven, Jeroen A. van

    2013-01-01

    A new liquid microjet endstation designed for ultraviolet (UPS) and X-ray (XPS) photoelectron, and partial electron yield X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies at the Swiss Light Source is presented. The new endstation, which is based on a Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 electron spectrometer, is the first liquid microjet endstation capable of operating in vacuum and in ambient pressures up to the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid water at room temperature. In addition, the Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 energy analyzer of this new endstation allows for XPS measurements up to 7000 eV electron kinetic energy that will enable electronic structure measurements of bulk solutions and buried interfaces from liquid microjet samples. The endstation is designed to operate at the soft X-ray SIM beamline and at the tender X-ray Phoenix beamline. The endstation can also be operated using a Scienta 5 K ultraviolet helium lamp for dedicated UPS measurements at the vapor-liquid interface using either He I or He II α lines. The design concept, first results from UPS, soft X-ray XPS, and partial electron yield XAS measurements, and an outlook to the potential of this endstation are presented

  11. A new endstation at the Swiss Light Source for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of liquid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew A; Redondo, Amaia Beloqui; Jordan, Inga; Duyckaerts, Nicolas; Lee, Ming-Tao; Ammann, Markus; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Huthwelker, Thomas; Müächler, Jean-Pierre; Birrer, Mario; Honegger, Juri; Wetter, Reto; Wörner, Hans Jakob; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A

    2013-07-01

    A new liquid microjet endstation designed for ultraviolet (UPS) and X-ray (XPS) photoelectron, and partial electron yield X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies at the Swiss Light Source is presented. The new endstation, which is based on a Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 electron spectrometer, is the first liquid microjet endstation capable of operating in vacuum and in ambient pressures up to the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid water at room temperature. In addition, the Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 energy analyzer of this new endstation allows for XPS measurements up to 7000 eV electron kinetic energy that will enable electronic structure measurements of bulk solutions and buried interfaces from liquid microjet samples. The endstation is designed to operate at the soft X-ray SIM beamline and at the tender X-ray Phoenix beamline. The endstation can also be operated using a Scienta 5 K ultraviolet helium lamp for dedicated UPS measurements at the vapor-liquid interface using either He I or He II α lines. The design concept, first results from UPS, soft X-ray XPS, and partial electron yield XAS measurements, and an outlook to the potential of this endstation are presented.

  12. A new endstation at the Swiss Light Source for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of liquid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew A.; Redondo, Amaia Beloqui; Duyckaerts, Nicolas; Mächler, Jean-Pierre [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Jordan, Inga; Wörner, Hans Jakob [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Lee, Ming-Tao; Ammann, Markus; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Huthwelker, Thomas; Birrer, Mario; Honegger, Juri; Wetter, Reto [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bokhoven, Jeroen A. van [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    A new liquid microjet endstation designed for ultraviolet (UPS) and X-ray (XPS) photoelectron, and partial electron yield X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies at the Swiss Light Source is presented. The new endstation, which is based on a Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 electron spectrometer, is the first liquid microjet endstation capable of operating in vacuum and in ambi