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Sample records for binary uw canis

  1. Mass flow in the 07f binary UW Canis Majoris. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCluskey, G.E. Jr.; Kondo, Y.

    1976-01-01

    The far-ultraviolet spectrum of the UW CMa was obtained from the Princeton telescope spectrometer on the Copernicus satellite at about phase 0.25 in order to supplement earlier observations of the same kind made near phase 0.75. Analysis of the data shows that the high-temperature gas giving rise to the P Cygni features in the far-ultraviolet spectrum is located primarily around the entire binary system and does not share in the motion of either component. The effects of radiation pressure on the Roche (Jacobian) equipotential surfaces and in generating a stellar wind are discussed

  2. Mass flow and evolution of UW Canis Majoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Rahe, J.

    1979-01-01

    The far-UV spectrum of the eclipsing binary UW CMa (07f + 0-B) has earlier been utilized to derive a mass-loss rate of about 10 -6 to 10 -5 solar mass per year. The mass flow seems to be basically in the form of a stellar wing emanating from the 07f primary component, with radiation pressure as the controlling factor. The main characteristics that make UW CMa a possible progenitor of a Wolf-Rayet system are discussed. (Auth.)

  3. Absolute dimensions and evolutionary status of UW CMa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, M.

    1978-01-01

    Photoelectric B and V light curves of close binary system UW Canis Majoris (08.5 If + O-B) are analysed. Combining the photoelectric elements and the spectroscopic orbit absolute dimensions of the system are determined. The mass of the bright primary (08.5 If) component is found to be 19.3 solar masses and that of the faint secondary to be 23.2 solar masses. The primary has filled the Roche lobe and it is 1 to 2 mag over-luminous for its mass. The massive secondary component is most likely a main sequence star. Comparison with the theoretical evolutionary models of massive close binary systems undergoing case A of mass exchange indicate that UW CMa is close to the contact stage of evolution. (author)

  4. Physical Properties and Evolution of the Eclipsing Binary System XZ Canis Minoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poochaum, R.; Komonjinda, S.; Soonthornthum, B.; Rattanasoon, S.

    2010-07-01

    This research aims to study the eclipse binary system so that its physical properties and evolution can be determined and used as an example to teach high school astronomy. The study of an eclipsing binary system XZ Canis Minoris (XZ CMi) was done at Sirindhorn Observatory, Chiang Mai University using a 0.5-meter reflecting telescope with CCD photometric system (2184×1417 pixel) in B V and R bands of UVB System. The data obtained were used to construct the light curve for each wavelength band and to compute the times of its light minima. New elements were derived using observations with linear to all available minima. As a result, linear ephemeris is HDJmin I = .578 808 948+/-0.000 000 121+2450 515.321 26+/-0.001 07 E, and the new orbital period of XZ CMi is 0.578 808 948+/-0.000 000 121 day. The values obtained were used with the previously published times of minima to get O-C curve of XZ CMi. The result revealed that the orbital period of XZ CMi is continuously decreased at a rate of 0.007 31+/-0.000 57 sec/year. This result indicates that the binary stars are moving closer continuously. From the O-C residuals, there is significant change to indicate the existence of the third body or magnetic activity cycle on the star. However, further analysis of the physical properties of XZ CMi is required.

  5. 46 CFR 54.20-5 - Welding qualification tests and production testing (modifies UW-26, UW-28, UW-29, UW-47, and UW-48).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding qualification tests and production testing... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Fabrication by Welding § 54.20-5 Welding qualification tests and production testing (modifies UW-26, UW-28, UW-29, UW-47, and UW-48). (a...

  6. Thermodynamic calculation of phase equilibria of the U-Ga and U-W systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Liu, X.J.; Wang, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    The thermodynamic assessments of the U-Ga and U-W systems have been carried out by using the CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) method using experimental data including thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria. Gibbs free energies of the solution phases were described by the subregular solution models with the Redlich-Kister equation, and those of the intermetallic compounds were described by the sublattice models. A consistent set of thermodynamic parameters has been derived for the Gibbs free energy of each phase in the U-Ga and U-W binary systems, respectively. The calculated phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties in the U-Ga and U-W systems are in good agreement with experimental data

  7. UW-Stout's Bachelor's in Industrial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor of Science in Industrial Management (BSIM) was designed for technical college graduates with work experience because the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) recognized a need among adult students with technical college degrees. The program was developed to provide these students with an opportunity to earn baccalaureate degrees…

  8. A neutral hydrogen bipole associated with UW CMa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, B.; Taylor, K.N.R.

    1986-01-01

    During a recent study of features associated with early-type stars, a linearly extended, low-mass (180 Msolar masses) cloud of neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of UW CMa has been observed. The structure of this cloud and its velocity field suggest that it is indeed associated with UW CMa. Possible models for their relation are considered. (author)

  9. Design and analysis of UW-OFDM signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Mario; Hofbauer, Christian; Onic, Alexander; Huber, Johannes B

    2014-10-01

    Unique word-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (UW-OFDM) is a novel signaling concept where the guard interval is implemented as a deterministic sequence, the so-called unique word. The UW is generated by introducing a certain level of redundancy in the frequency domain. Different data estimation strategies and the favourable bit error ratio (BER) performance of UW-OFDM, as well as comparisons to competing concepts have already extensively been discussed in previous papers. This work focuses on the different possibilities on how to generate UW-OFDM signals. The optimality of the two-step over the direct approach in systematic UW-OFDM is proved analytically, we present a heuristic algorithm that allows a fast numerical optimization of the redundant subcarrier positions, and we show that our original intuitive approach of spreading the redundant subcarriers in systematically encoded UW-OFDM by minimizing the mean redundant energy is practically also optimum w.r.t. transceiver based cost functions. Finally, we derive closed form approximations of the statistical symbol distributions on individual subcarriers as well as the redundant energy distribution and compare them with numerically found results.

  10. Demodex canis: redescription and reevaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutting, W B; Desch, C E

    1978-04-01

    A brief review of the taxonomy of Demodex canis is followed by a complete redescription. Demodex canis is diagnosed with D. odocoilei of the white-tailed deer. In view of the continued speculation that dogs and man share the same demodicid, simple morphological characters are noted which distinguish D. canis from D. folliculorum and D. brevis in all stages of their life cycles.

  11. LONG-TERM OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS OF TWO LMXBs: UW CrB (=MS 1603+260) AND V1408 Aql (=4U 1957+115)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Paul A.; Robinson, Edward L.; Bayless, Amanda J.; Hakala, Pasi J.

    2012-01-01

    We present new optical photometry of two low-mass X-ray binary stars, UW CrB (MS 1603+260) and V1408 Aql (4U 1957+115). UW CrB is an eclipsing binary and we refine its eclipse ephemeris and measure an upper limit to the rate of change of its orbital period, | P-dot | -11 (unitless). The light curve of UW CrB shows optical counterparts of type I X-ray bursts. We tabulate the times, orbital phases, and fluences of 33 bursts and show that the optical flux in the bursts comes primarily from the accretion disk, not from the secondary star. The new observations are consistent with a model in which the accretion disk in UW CrB is asymmetric and precesses in the prograde direction with a period of ∼5.5 days. The light curve of V1408 Aql has a low-amplitude modulation at its 9.33 hr orbital period. The modulation remained a nearly pure sine curve in the new data as it was in 1984 and 2008, but its mean amplitude was lower, 18% against 23% in the earlier data. A model in which the orbital modulation is caused by the varying aspect of the heated face of the secondary star continues to give an excellent fit to the light curve. We derive a much improved orbital ephemeris for the system.

  12. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piratae, Supawadee; Pimpjong, Kiattisak; Vaisusuk, Kotchaphon; Chatan, Wasupon

    2015-01-01

    Canine tick borne diseases showing distribution worldwide have caused morbidity and mortality in dogs. This study observed the mainly tick borne pathogens described for dogs in Thailand, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli. From May to July 2014, blood samples were collected from 79 stray dogs from 7 districts of Mahasarakham province to molecular surveyed for 16s rRNA gene of E. canis and 18s rRNA gene of H. canis and B. canis vogeli. Twenty eight (35.44%) of stray dogs showed the infection with tick borne pathogens. The prevalence of E. canis infection was the highest with 21.5% (17/79). DNA of H. canis and B. canis vogeli were detected at the prevalence of 10.1% (8/79) and 6.3% (5/79), respectively. Co-infection between E. canis and B. canis vogeli were identified in 2 (2.5%) dogs. The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens are circulation in the canine population in Mahasarakham province. This study is the first report on prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham, a province in northern part of Thailand. This data providing is important to understand the prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli infection in stray dogs in this region, which will assist in the management of these blood parasite.

  13. Morphology and function of dog arterial grafts preserved in UW-solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vischjager, M.; van Gulik, T. M.; Pfaffendorf, M.; van Zwieten, P. A.; van Marle, J.; Kromhout, J. G.; Klopper, P. J.; Jacobs, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the function of arterial grafts after prolonged preservation in the University of Wisconsin solution (UW), in vitro and in vivo. Carotid arteries were harvested from dogs and stored for 1-21 days at 4 degrees C in UW (n = 10) or in PBS (0.9% NaCl, pH 7.4), (PBS) (n = 10). Slices were

  14. Fatal Babesia canis canis infection in a splenectomized Estonian dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiškina, Valentina; Capligina, Valentina; Must, Külli; Berzina, Inese; Ranka, Renate; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-25

    A previously splenectomized dog from Estonia was presented with a sudden lack of appetite and discoloration of the urine. Despite supportive therapy, its condition deteriorated dramatically during 1 day. Severe thrombocytopenia and high numbers of protozoan hemoparasites were evident in blood smears, and the hematocrit dropped from 46 to 33 %. The dog was euthanized before specific antibabesial treatment was initiated. Blood samples from the dog and from two other dogs in the same household tested positive for Babesia using molecular methods, and the sequences of partial 18S rRNA gene confirmed the causative species as Babesia canis canis. The risk of severe, rapidly progressing babesiosis in splenectomized dogs merits awareness.

  15. Progress of cryogenic pulsating heat pipes at UW-Madison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Fonseca, Luis; Mok, Mason; Pfotenhauer, John; Miller, Franklin

    2017-12-01

    Space agencies continuously require innovative cooling systems that are lightweight, low powered, physically flexible, easily manufactured and, most importantly, exhibit high heat transfer rates. Therefore, Pulsating Heat Pipes (PHPs) are being investigated to provide these requirements. This paper summarizes the current development of cryogenic Pulsating Heat Pipes with single and multiple evaporator sections built and successfully tested at UW-Madison. Recently, a helium based Pulsating Heat Pipe with three evaporator and three condenser sections has been operated at fill ratios between 20 % and 80 % operating temperature range of 2.9 K to 5.19 K, resulting in a maximum effective thermal conductivity up to 50,000 W/m-K. In addition, a nitrogen Pulsating Heat Pipe has been built with three evaporator sections and one condenser section. This PHP achieved a thermal performance between 32,000 W/m-K and 96,000 W/m-K at fill ratio ranging from 50 % to 80 %. Split evaporator sections are very important in order to spread cooling throughout an object of interest with an irregular temperature distribution or where multiple cooling locations are required. Hence this type of configurations is a proof of concept which hasn’t been attempted before and if matured could be applied to cryo-propellant tanks, superconducting magnets and photon detectors.

  16. The complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Duan

    Full Text Available The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated "housekeeping" genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup.

  17. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2013-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs) were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated “housekeeping” genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup. PMID:23516524

  18. Interacting binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleton, P.P.; Pringle, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 15 review articles in the field of binary stars. The subjects reviewed span considerably, from the shortest period of interacting binaries to the longest, symbiotic stars. Also included are articles on Algols, X-ray binaries and Wolf-Rayet stars (single and binary). Contents: Preface. List of Participants. Activity of Contact Binary Systems. Wolf-Rayet Stars and Binarity. Symbiotic Stars. Massive X-ray Binaries. Stars that go Hump in the Night: The SU UMa Stars. Interacting Binaries - Summing Up

  19. 46 CFR 54.25-8 - Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57). 54.25-8 Section 54.25-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57). (a) Full radiography is required for all...

  20. UW Imaging of Seismic-Physical-Models in Air Using Fiber-Optic Fabry-Perot Interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Qiangzhou; Hao, Yongxin; Zhou, Ruixiang; Yin, Xunli; Shao, Zhihua; Liang, Lei; Qiao, Xueguang

    2017-02-17

    A fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) has been proposed and demonstrated for the ultrasound wave (UW) imaging of seismic-physical models. The sensor probe comprises a single mode fiber (SMF) that is inserted into a ceramic tube terminated by an ultra-thin gold film. The probe performs with an excellent UW sensitivity thanks to the nanolayer gold film, and thus is capable of detecting a weak UW in air medium. Furthermore, the compact sensor is a symmetrical structure so that it presents a good directionality in the UW detection. The spectral band-side filter technique is used for UW interrogation. After scanning the models using the sensing probe in air, the two-dimensional (2D) images of four physical models are reconstructed.

  1. Detection of Babesia canis rossi, B. canis vogeli, and Hepatozoon canis in Dogs in a Village of Eastern Sudan by Using a Screening PCR and Sequencing Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyamada, Maremichi; Davoust, Bernard; Boni, Mickaël; Dereure, Jacques; Bucheton, Bruno; Hammad, Awad; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Okuda, Masaru; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2005-01-01

    Babesia and Hepatozoon infections of dogs in a village of eastern Sudan were analyzed by using a single PCR and sequencing. Among 78 dogs, 5 were infected with Babesia canis rossi and 2 others were infected with B. canis vogeli. Thirty-three dogs were positive for Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon canis was detected by sequence analysis. PMID:16275954

  2. Detection of Babesia canis rossi, B. canis vogeli, and Hepatozoon canis in dogs in a village of eastern Sudan by using a screening PCR and sequencing methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyamada, Maremichi; Davoust, Bernard; Boni, Mickaël; Dereure, Jacques; Bucheton, Bruno; Hammad, Awad; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Okuda, Masaru; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2005-11-01

    Babesia and Hepatozoon infections of dogs in a village of eastern Sudan were analyzed by using a single PCR and sequencing. Among 78 dogs, 5 were infected with Babesia canis rossi and 2 others were infected with B. canis vogeli. Thirty-three dogs were positive for Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon canis was detected by sequence analysis.

  3. Detection of Babesia canis rossi, B. canis vogeli, and Hepatozoon canis in Dogs in a Village of Eastern Sudan by Using a Screening PCR and Sequencing Methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Oyamada, Maremichi; Davoust, Bernard; Boni, Mickaël; Dereure, Jacques; Bucheton, Bruno; Hammad, Awad; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Okuda, Masaru; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2005-01-01

    Babesia and Hepatozoon infections of dogs in a village of eastern Sudan were analyzed by using a single PCR and sequencing. Among 78 dogs, 5 were infected with Babesia canis rossi and 2 others were infected with B. canis vogeli. Thirty-three dogs were positive for Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon canis was detected by sequence analysis.

  4. Identification of Babesia canis genotypes in dogs from Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Tamoliūnaitė, Dovilė; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Sabūnas, Vytautas; Karvelienė, Birutė; Zamokas, Gintaras

    2018-01-01

    Canine babesiosis is a widespread tick-borne disease caused by haematozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. The vast majority of clinical babesiosis cases in dogs in Europe is caused by Babesia canis. Canine babesiosis has become quite frequent in Lithuania during the past decade. Babesiosis caused by B. canis may range from mild to severe disease in dogs. Such difference in the virulence of B. canis strains is associated with genetic heterogeneity among B. canis strains. We aimed to investiga...

  5. Analysis of fusion neutronics calculations and appraisal of UW cross-section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jianping; Li Xingzhong; Ying Chuntong

    1989-01-01

    A series of calculations for different cases (especially for the values of tritium breeding ratio T, and the fuel breeding ratio F in the blanket of a hybrid reactor) were carried out by using ANISN program and UW cross-section library. The comparison with other results in China and abroad kalso was done. It was shownwn that the installation and execution of ANISN program on ELXSI machine at Tsinghua University are successful, and the UW cross-section library is reliable. It may be used for fusion neutronics calculation in the future. The paper also points out that the difference between the calculations and by the authors are due to jthe different in cross-section data used

  6. Babesia canis vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Izzi, Salah; Martin, Donald S; Chan, Roxanne Y Y; Leutenegger, Christian M

    2013-12-01

    A 12-month-old male neutered mixed breed dog was presented with a history of diarrhea, lethargy, emaciation, polydypsia, and sniffling. Physical examination findings included pale mucous membranes, increased heart and respiratory rates, and normal rectal temperature (38°C). Hematologic abnormalities included anemia and thrombocytopenia. Biochemical abnormalities included hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated ALP and ALT activities. A SNAP 4Dx test result was positive for Ehrlichia canis. Babesia canis vogeli organisms were found in the peripheral blood films, while morulae of E canis were not seen. Real-time polymerase chain reaction testing confirmed the presence of both B c vogeli and E canis organisms, and also was positive for Anaplasma platys infection. The dog recovered following treatment with doxycycline and imidocarb dipropionate, with normal hematology and biochemical profiles. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. Mixed Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis, and presumptive Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonakis, Mathio E; Koutinas, Alex F; Baneth, Gad; Polizopoulou, Zoe; Fytianou, Anna

    2004-01-01

    A 5-month-old, female, mongrel dog was admitted to the Clinic of Companion Animal Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, with depression, anorexia, fever, peripheral lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, oculonasal discharge, nonregenerative anemia, and mild thrombocytopenia. Cytology of Giemsa-stained buffy coat, bone marrow, and lymph node aspiration smears revealed numerous morulae in mononuclear leukocytes and in neutrophils, and Hepatozoon canis gamonts in neutrophils. The dog was seropositive to Ehrlichia canis (immunofluorescence assay [IFA]) and Hepatozoon canis (ELISA) but not to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (IFA). A nested polymerase chain reaction performed on bone marrow aspirates was positive for E canis. This method was not applied for the detection of A phagocytophilum. Treatment with doxycycline and imidocarb dipropionate resulted in both clinical and parasitologic cure. This is the first reported case of a mixed infection with E canis, H canis, and presumptive A phagocytophilum. The findings emphasize the value of cytology in offering a quick and inexpensive diagnosis in mixed tick-borne infections of dogs.

  8. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  9. The mitochondrial genome of Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jex, Aaron R; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Hu, Min; Gasser, Robin B

    2008-08-06

    Toxocara canis (Ascaridida: Nematoda), which parasitizes (at the adult stage) the small intestine of canids, can be transmitted to a range of other mammals, including humans, and can cause the disease toxocariasis. Despite its significance as a pathogen, the genetics, epidemiology and biology of this parasite remain poorly understood. In addition, the zoonotic potential of related species of Toxocara, such as T. cati and T. malaysiensis, is not well known. Mitochondrial DNA is known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mitochondrial genomic data have been lacking for T. canis and its congeners. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome of T. canis was amplified by long-range polymerase chain reaction (long PCR) and sequenced using a primer-walking strategy. This circular mitochondrial genome was 14162 bp and contained 12 protein-coding, 22 transfer RNA, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes consistent for secementean nematodes, including Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex (Ascaridida). The mitochondrial genome of T. canis provides genetic markers for studies into the systematics, population genetics and epidemiology of this zoonotic parasite and its congeners. Such markers can now be used in prospecting for cryptic species and for exploring host specificity and zoonotic potential, thus underpinning the prevention and control of toxocariasis in humans and other hosts.

  10. The mitochondrial genome of Toxocara canis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron R Jex

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara canis (Ascaridida: Nematoda, which parasitizes (at the adult stage the small intestine of canids, can be transmitted to a range of other mammals, including humans, and can cause the disease toxocariasis. Despite its significance as a pathogen, the genetics, epidemiology and biology of this parasite remain poorly understood. In addition, the zoonotic potential of related species of Toxocara, such as T. cati and T. malaysiensis, is not well known. Mitochondrial DNA is known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mitochondrial genomic data have been lacking for T. canis and its congeners. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome of T. canis was amplified by long-range polymerase chain reaction (long PCR and sequenced using a primer-walking strategy. This circular mitochondrial genome was 14162 bp and contained 12 protein-coding, 22 transfer RNA, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes consistent for secementean nematodes, including Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex (Ascaridida. The mitochondrial genome of T. canis provides genetic markers for studies into the systematics, population genetics and epidemiology of this zoonotic parasite and its congeners. Such markers can now be used in prospecting for cryptic species and for exploring host specificity and zoonotic potential, thus underpinning the prevention and control of toxocariasis in humans and other hosts.

  11. The Mitochondrial Genome of Toxocara canis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Hu, Min; Gasser, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    Toxocara canis (Ascaridida: Nematoda), which parasitizes (at the adult stage) the small intestine of canids, can be transmitted to a range of other mammals, including humans, and can cause the disease toxocariasis. Despite its significance as a pathogen, the genetics, epidemiology and biology of this parasite remain poorly understood. In addition, the zoonotic potential of related species of Toxocara, such as T. cati and T. malaysiensis, is not well known. Mitochondrial DNA is known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mitochondrial genomic data have been lacking for T. canis and its congeners. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome of T. canis was amplified by long-range polymerase chain reaction (long PCR) and sequenced using a primer-walking strategy. This circular mitochondrial genome was 14162 bp and contained 12 protein-coding, 22 transfer RNA, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes consistent for secernentean nematodes, including Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex (Ascaridida). The mitochondrial genome of T. canis provides genetic markers for studies into the systematics, population genetics and epidemiology of this zoonotic parasite and its congeners. Such markers can now be used in prospecting for cryptic species and for exploring host specificity and zoonotic potential, thus underpinning the prevention and control of toxocariasis in humans and other hosts. PMID:18682828

  12. Analysis of L test series of ACE (Advanced Containment Experiments) project with modified corcon UW code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna Velasco, H.

    1994-01-01

    A series of experimental tests (so call L, Large scale) have been performance under sponsored of many research institutions around the world and management by Electric Power Research Institute at U.S.A. The goal of these tests is to analyze the phenomena of core-concrete interaction at the same conditions as severe accident in light water nuclear reactor. Results of these tests provides experimental data about thermohydraulic phenomenon and aerosol and fission products release. With these results, improves many codes that already have been developed to simulate core-concrete interaction during severe accident ; in case of CORCON.UW code is a improved version developed in University of Wisconsin at CORCON MOD 2. Scope of this work is shown results obtained from CORCON.UW improved. The improves consist of add data about BaSiO 3 , Ba 2 SiO 4 , BaZrO 3 , SrSiO 4 and SrZrO 3 , append Kutateladze's heat transfer correlation, and finally make more efficient the resolution of energy equations system through use a better algorithm. The results obtained by this improved code to the downward power and H 2 , H 2 O, CO and CO 2 release are agree with experimental results, and also it saved 40% of C.P.U. consumption during execution, due improve of energy equation system. Conclusions are, the increase of thermodynamics data in CORCON.UW produce a well results comparative with experimental results and update heat transfer correlations and algorithm brings a versatile code and reliable results. (Author)

  13. Crystal structures of Er4Ni13C4 and UW4C4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili, M.M.; Bodak, O.I.; Marusin, E.P.; Pecharskaya, A.O.

    1990-01-01

    Crystal structures of Er 4 Ni 13 C 4 (1) (sp.gr. Cmmm, a=1.1975(4), b=1.1694(3), c=0.3856(1) nm, Z=2) and UW 4 C 4 (2) (sp.gr. P4/m, a=0.8328(8), c=0.31345(9) nm, Z=2), relating to new types are determined. Structural type (1) is a derivative of La 2 Ni 5 C 3 structure, structural type (2) is close to UCr 4 C 4 structure

  14. Trojan Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans, in the context of giant planet migration models, can be thought of as an extension of the small body populations found beyond Neptune in the Kuiper Belt. Binaries are a distinctive feature of small body populations in the Kuiper Belt with an especially high fraction apparent among the brightest Cold Classicals. The binary fraction, relative sizes, and separations in the dynamically excited populations (Scattered, Resonant) reflects processes that may have eroded a more abundant initial population. This trend continues in the Centaurs and Trojans where few binaries have been found. We review new evidence including a third resolved Trojan binary and lightcurve studies to understand how the Trojans are related to the small body populations that originated in the outer protoplanetary disk.

  15. The Mitochondrial Genome of Toxocara canis

    OpenAIRE

    Jex, Aaron R.; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Hu, Min; Gasser, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    Toxocara canis (Ascaridida: Nematoda), which parasitizes (at the adult stage) the small intestine of canids, can be transmitted to a range of other mammals, including humans, and can cause the disease toxocariasis. Despite its significance as a pathogen, the genetics, epidemiology and biology of this parasite remain poorly understood. In addition, the zoonotic potential of related species of Toxocara, such as T. cati and T. malaysiensis, is not well known. Mitochondrial DNA is known to provid...

  16. Canine vector-borne co-infections: Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in the same host monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Harrus, Shimon; Gal, Arnon; Aroch, Itamar

    2015-02-28

    The protozoon Hepatozoon canis and the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis are tick-borne pathogens, transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which cause canine hepatozoonosis and canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, respectively. Co-infection of the same host monocytes with H. canis and E. canis confirmed by molecular characterization of the infecting agents and quantitative assessment of co-infected cells is described for the first time in three naturally-infected dogs. Blood smear evaluation indicated that at least 50% of the leukocytes infected with H. canis gamonts contained E. canis morulae. Co-infection of the same host cell demonstrated in this report suggests that infection with one pathogen may permit or enhance invasion or prolonged cellular survival of the other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. PGE1, dexamethasone, U-74389G, or Bt2-cAMP as an additive to promote protection by UW solution in I/R injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C H; Hsu, K; Yan, H C; Harn, H J; Chang, D M

    1997-08-01

    A method to reduce ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury can be an important criterion to improve the preservation solution. Although University of Wisconsin solution (UW) works as a lung preservation solution, its attenuation effect on I/R injury has not been investigated. We attempted to determine whether, by adding various protective agents, modified UW solutions will enhance the I/R attenuation by UW. We examined the I/R injury in an isolated rat lung model. Various solutions, e.g., physiological salt solution (PSS), UW, and modified UW solutions containing various protective agents such as prostaglandin E1, dexamethasone, U-74389G, or dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate were perfused individually to evaluate the I/R injury. Isolated rat lung experiments, with ischemia for 45 min, then reperfusion for 60 min, were conducted in a closed circulating system. Hemodynamic changes, lung weight gain (LWG), capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), protein content of lavage fluid, concentration of cytokines, and lung histopathology were analyzed. Results showed that the acute I/R lung injury with immediate permeability pulmonary edema was associated with an increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production. A significant correlation existed between TNF-alpha and Kfc (r = 0.8, P Kfc, LWG, TNF-alpha, and protein concentration of lung lavage (P Kfc, LWG, and TNF-alpha (P < 0.05). Histopathological observations also substantiated this evidence. In the UW+U-74389G group, bronchial alveolar lavage fluid contained lowest protein concentration. We conclude that the UW solution attenuates I/R injury of rat lung and that the modified UW solutions further enhance the effect of UW in reducing I/R injury. Among modified solutions, UW+U-74389G is the best. Further investigation of the improved effects of the modified UW solutions would be beneficial in lung transplantation.

  18. Different Babesia canis isolates, different diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, T P; Moubri, K; Précigout, E; Kleuskens, J; Scholtes, N C; Gorenflot, A

    1997-11-01

    Using surface immunofluorescence isolate-specific antigens were detected on the membrane of erythrocytes infected with Babesia parasites. In addition, the strains reacted differently with Plasmagel in that the European isolate (B.c. canis) could be purified on Plasmagel effectively, whereas infected erythrocytes of the South-African isolate (B.c. rossi) could not. Experimental infection of dogs with Babesia canis isolates from geographically different areas revealed different pathology. The European isolate obtained from France exhibited transient parasitaemia, usually below 1%, associated with low PCV values and congestion of internal organs. Clinical disease was correlated with an effect on the coagulation system, and not with peripheral parasitaemia. Infection of dogs with South-African-derived isolate induced high parasitaemia usually much higher than 1%, which required chemotherapeutic treatment. In these animals clinical disease was correlated with peripheral parasitaemia and not with parameters of the coagulation system. The results show that the etiology of disease caused by these isolates of B.c. canis and B.c. rossi is different. This might have implications for the development of vaccines against these infections.

  19. Quantity discrimination in wolves (Canis lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina eUtrata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested eleven hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris and coyotes (Canis latrans, our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current setup are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law.

  20. Development of multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp and Hepatozoon canis in canine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kledmanee, Kan; Suwanpakdee, Sarin; Krajangwong, Sakranmanee; Chatsiriwech, Jarin; Suksai, Parut; Suwannachat, Pongpun; Sariya, Ladawan; Buddhirongawatr, Ruangrat; Charoonrut, Phingphol; Chaichoun, Kridsada

    2009-01-01

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed for simultaneous detection of canine blood parasites, Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp and Hepatozoon canis, from blood samples in a single reaction. The multiplex PCR primers were specific to E. canis VirB9, Babesia spp 16S rRNA and H. canis 16S rRNA genes. Specificity of the amplicons was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The assay was evaluated using normal canine and infected blood samples, which were detected by microscopic examination. This multiplex PCR offers scope for simultaneous detection of three important canine blood parasites and should be valuable in monitoring parasite infections in dogs and ticks.

  1. An analysis of the small amplitude variations in the light curves of the R Coronae Borealis variables, S Apodis and UW Centauri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Flanagan, C.

    1983-01-01

    The small amplitude variations in the light curves of the R CrB stars, S Aps and UW Cen, are examined. The periodicity of these variations appears to be changing rapidly in S Aps and slowly, if at all, in UW Cen. The evolutionary consequences of these effects are discussed. (author)

  2. Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii, and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from Grenada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; McKibben, John; Macpherson, Calum N; Cattan, Peggy F; Cherry, Natalie A; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; O'Connor, Tom; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Paterson, Tara; Perea, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoffrey; Friesen, Stanley; Goedde, Jill; Henderson, Brooke; Sylvester, Wayne

    2008-02-14

    To identify the tick-borne pathogens in dogs from Grenada, we conducted a serologic survey for Ehrlichia canis in 2004 (104 dogs) and a comprehensive serologic and molecular survey for a variety of tick-borne pathogens in 2006 (73 dogs). In 2004 and 2006, 44 and 32 dogs (42.3% and 43.8%) were seropositive for E. canis, respectively. In 2006, several tick-borne pathogens were identified by serology and PCR. DNA of E. canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, and Bartonella sp. were identified in 18 (24.7%), 14 (19.2%), 5 (7%), 5 (7%), and 1 (1.4%) dogs, respectively. Six (8.2%) dogs were seropositive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. All dogs were seronegative and PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp. Coinfection with two or three pathogens was observed in eight dogs. Partial 16S rRNA E. canis and A. platys sequences were identical to sequences in GenBank. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from the Grenadian H. canis were identical to each other and had one possible mismatch (ambiguous base) from H. canis detected from Spain and Brazil. Grenadian B. c. vogeli sequences were identical to B. c. vogeli from Brazil and Japan. All of the detected pathogens are transmitted, or suspected to be transmitted, by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Results of this study indicate that dogs from Grenada are infected with multiple tick-borne pathogens; therefore, tick-borne diseases should be included as differentials for dogs exhibiting thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, fever, or lethargy. One pathogen, E. canis, is also of potential public health significance.

  3. Experimental evidence against transmission of Hepatozoon canis by Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Alessio; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mencke, Norbert; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    Hepatozoon canis is among the most widespread tick-borne protozoa infecting domestic and wild carnivores. Its distribution is related to the occurrence of its major vector, the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. However, the role of Ixodes ricinus as a vector of H. canis has been hypothesized. In the present study, the development of H. canis was investigated in I. ricinus and R. sanguineus nymphs collected from a naturally infested dog. All I. ricinus ticks examined (n=133) were negative by cytological examination at days 20, 30, and 90 post collection, although H. canis DNA was detected in one nymph at day 20 and in 2 nymphs at day 30 post collection. On the other hand, H. canis sporogony was documented by cytology, and H. canis DNA was detected by PCR in R. sanguineus at day 30 post collection. These results indicate that H. canis sporogony does not occur in I. ricinus, but in R. sanguineus, suggesting that I. ricinus does not act as a vector of H. canis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Helicobacter canis bacteremia in a renal transplant patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vusse, M. L.; van Son, W. J.; Ott, A.; Manson, W.

    Here we present a case report of a 41-year-old woman suffering from high fever and bacteremia due to Helicobacter canis, 11months after kidney transplantation. Identification of H.canis was achieved by 16s rDNA sequence analysis of a positive blood culture. The patient was restored fully to health

  5. Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis: an emerging zoonosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacave, Guillaume; Coutard, Aymeric; Troché, Gilles; Augusto, Sandrine; Pons, Stéphanie; Zuber, Benjamin; Laurent, Virginie; Amara, Marlène; Couzon, Brigitte; Bédos, Jean-Pierre; Pangon, Béatrice; Grimaldi, David

    2016-02-01

    We report a human case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis. Identification was carried out from positive blood culture using mass spectrometry and SodA gene sequencing. S. canis related zoonotic invasive infections may have been previously underdiagnosed due to inadequate identification of group G Streptococcus species.

  6. Quality of life outcome measures following partial glossectomy: Assessment using the UW-QOL scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The consequences of a diagnosis of head and neck cancer and the impact of treatment have a clear and direct influence on well-being and associated quality of life (QOL in these patients. Aims: To determine the QOL in head and neck cancer patients following a partial glossectomy operation. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional cohort study; Head and Neck Oncology Unit, tertiary referral center. Materials and Methods: 38 patients with partial glossectomy were assessed with the University of Washington head and neck quality of life (UW-QOL scale, version 4. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 10.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago version III. Information from the scale was correlated using the Mann Whitney test. A P value less than/equal to 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The mean (sd composite score of the QOL in our series was 73.6 (16.1. The majority (71.8% quoted their QOL as good or very good. Swallowing (n = 16, 47.1%, speech (n = 15, 44.1% and saliva (n = 15, 44.1% were most commonly cited issues over the last 7 days. On the other hand, the groups with reconstruction, neck dissection, complications and radiotherapy demonstrated a significant reduction of quality of life scores (Mann Whitney test, P < 0.05. Conclusion: The composite score and overall QOL as assessed using the UW-QOL scale (version 4 were modestly high in our series of partial glossectomy patients. Swallowing, speech, and saliva are regarded as the most important issues. Stage of the disease, neck dissection, reconstruction, complications, radiotherapy and time since operation were seen to significantly affect domain scores.

  7. The UW 21/123 monoclonal antibody in the radioimmunological detection of tumour tissue in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, N.

    1987-01-01

    When incorporated in a radioimmunoassay the UW 21/123 the monoclonal antibody permits the diagnosis of certain squamous cell carcinoma of the cephalocervical region and is particularly reliable in the detection laryngeal carcinomas. It even permits the assessment of tumour cells that are not yet fully developed and thus still escape histological detection. (MBC) [de

  8. Evaluation of rat liver apoptotic and necrotic cell death after cold storage using UW, HTK, and Celsior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatsburg, Irene H.; Abrahamse, Salomon L.; Song, Shao W.; Hartman, Robin J.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    Background. The benefit of Celsior in liver graft preservation is controversial. In the isolated perfused rat liver model, we compared the effects of Celsior, University of Wisconsin (UW), and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) preservation solutions on liver cell death. Methods. Rat livers

  9. Induction of necrosis and DNA fragmentation during hypothermic preservation of hepatocytes in UW, HTK, and Celsior solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Salomon L.; van Runnard Heimel, Pieter; Hartman, Robin J.; Chamuleau, Rob A. F. M.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    Donor cells can be preserved in University of Wisconsin (UW), histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK), or Celsior solution. However, differences in efficacy and mode of action in preventing hypothermia-induced cell injury have not been unequivocally clarified. Therefore, we investigated and

  10. Rhipicephalus turanicus, a new vector of Hepatozoon canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Alessio; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Annoscia, Giada; Buonavoglia, Canio; Lorusso, Eleonora; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

    2017-05-01

    The distribution of Hepatozoon canis mainly encompasses areas where its main tick vector, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, is present. However, the detection of this pathogen in dogs, foxes and golden jackals well outside the areas inhabited by this tick species reinforced the hypothesis that additional ixodids are involved in the life cycle and transmission of this protozoon. The present study provides, for the first time, data supporting the sporogonic development of H. canis in specimens of Rhipicephalus turanicus collected from a naturally infected fox from southern Italy. The epidemiological role of R. turanicus as a vector of H. canis is discussed, along with information on the potential use of cell cultures for the experimental infection with H. canis sporozoites. The in vitro infection of canine leucocytes by sporozoites from ticks is proposed as a potential tool for future in-depth studies on the biology of H. canis.

  11. CanisOme--The protein signatures of Canis lupus familiaris diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Mónica; Rosa, Nuno; Esteves, Eduardo; Correia, Maria José; Arrais, Joel; Ribeiro, Paulo; Vala, Helena; Barros, Marlene

    2016-03-16

    Although the applications of Proteomics in Human Biomedicine have been explored for some time now, in animal and veterinary research, the potential of this resource has just started to be explored, especially when companion animal health is considered. In the last years, knowledge on the Canis lupus familiaris proteome has been accumulating in the literature and a resource compiling all this information and critically reviewing it was lacking. This article presents such a resource for the first time. CanisOme is a database of all proteins identified in Canis lupus familiaris tissues, either in health or in disease, annotated with information on the proteins present on the sample and on the donors. This database reunites information on 549 proteins, associated with 63 dog diseases and 33 dog breeds. Examples of how this information may be used to produce new hypothesis on disease mechanisms is presented both through the functional analysis of the proteins quantified in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors and through the study of the interactome of C. lupus familiaris and Leishmania infantum. Therefore, the usefulness of CanisOme for researchers looking for protein biomarkers in dogs and interested in a comprehensive analysis of disease mechanisms is demonstrated. This paper presents CanisOme, a database of proteomic studies with relevant protein annotation, allowing the enlightenment of disease mechanisms and the discovery of novel disease biomarkers for C. lupus familiaris. This knowledge is important not only for the improvement of animal health but also for the use of dogs as models for human health studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular confirmation of Hepatozoon canis in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Ionică, Angela Monica; Jeetah, Keshav; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2018-01-01

    In this study, Hepatozoon species was molecularly identified and characterized for the first time on the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of the Hepatozoon isolates were analysed from three naturally infected dogs. The sequences of H. canis were similar to the 18S rRNA partial sequences (JX112783, AB365071 99%) from dog blood samples from West Indies and Nigeria. Our sequences were deposited in the GenBank database. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Distance to VY Canis Majoris with VERA

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yoon Kyung; Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Bushimata, Takeshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Iwadate, Kenzaburo; Jike, Takaaki; Kameno, Seiji; Kameya, Osamu; Kamohara, Ryuichi; Kan-ya, Yukitoshi; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kijima, Masachika; Kim, Mi Kyoung

    2008-01-01

    We report astrometric observations of H2O masers around the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) carried out with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). Based on astrometric monitoring for 13 months, we successfully measured a trigonometric parallax of 0.88 +/- 0.08 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.14 +0.11/-0.09 kpc. This is the most accurate distance to VY CMa and the first one based on an annual parallax measurement. The luminosity of VY CMa has been overestimated due to a p...

  14. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  15. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon canis from farm dogs in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Abdullah S; Saeed, Muhammad A; Rashid, Imran; Ashraf, Kamran; Shehzad, Wasim; Traub, Rebecca J; Baneth, Gad; Jabbar, Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a tick-borne pathogen of canids, which is distributed worldwide. However, very little is known about this protozoan parasite in Pakistan. This study provides the first molecular evidence of H. canis from farm dogs from three agro-ecological zones of Punjab, Pakistan. A conventional PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene was used to characterize H. canis from farm dogs from three districts, namely Kasur, Rawalpindi, and Muzaffargarh, in Punjab. Of 341 blood samples tested, 155 (45.5%) were positive for H. canis, 73 (61.3%) from Kasur, 46 (42.5%) from Rawalpindi, and 36 (31.5%) from Muzaffargarh. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 18S rRNA sequences of H. canis from this study clustered in three clades with those of H. canis from previously published studies to the exclusion of all other Hepatozoon spp. included in the analysis. This study provides the first insight into H. canis from farm dogs in Pakistan. Furthermore, it lays a foundation for future studies of the parasite to assess the impact of canine hepatozoonosis in dogs from various agro-ecological zones in Pakistan where pet ownership of dogs is increasing.

  16. Playing at bullying: The postmodern ethic of Bully (Canis Canem Edit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Bradford

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses Bully (Canis Canem Edit, considering the game’s antecedents (narratives involving young people in school settings and the features which set it apart from other teen texts. It discusses the controversy surrounding the game and comes to the conclusion that the principal reason for unease on the part of parents and educational authorities is that Bully’s postmodernist ethic evades the binaries of liberal humanism and calls into question the foundations on which conventional ethical systems are based. The paper considers several episodes from the game to flesh out its arguments about how the game manifests features of postmodernist textuality in its propensity for simultaneously deploying and interrogating references to historical and contemporary cultural practices.

  17. Implementing a Paid Leave Policy for Graduate Students at UW - Madison: The Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnell, Natalie M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 the University of Wisconsin - Madison Astronomy Department developed and implemented a departmental paid leave policy for our graduate students, even though the university lacks a campus-wide policy and cannot provide institutional funding for such programs. This policy includes 12 weeks of paid leave in event of a medical emergency or chronic medical condition, as well as paid parental leave for both male and female graduate research assistants. (The policy in its entirety can be found at http://www.astro.wisc.edu/grad-students/policies-procedures/medical-and-family-leave-policy.) This is the first of two presentations describing our policy implementation using a "bottom-up" approach, beginning with the graduate students. I will present the perspective of the graduate students who led the effort and will discuss the steps we took to put our policy in place, from the conception of the plan to the full implementation. These steps included identifying faculty allies, becoming knowledgeable about university policies and resources, involving department staff, and anticipating procedural and bureaucratic hurdles in order to come up with creative solutions in advance. Although each individual institution and department's path to implementing a similar plan will be unique, we hope the methods used to implement our policy at UW - Madison may serve as an example.

  18. Medullospheres from DAOY, UW228 and ONS-76 cells: increased stem cell population and proteomic modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Cristina; Ercole, Elisabetta; Mandili, Giorgia; Salaroli, Roberta; Poli, Alice; Renna, Cristiano; Papa, Valentina; Cenacchi, Giovanna; Forni, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is an aggressive pediatric tumor of the Central Nervous System (CNS) usually treated according to a refined risk stratification. The study of cancer stem cells (CSC) in MB is a promising approach aimed at finding new treatment strategies. The CSC compartment was studied in three characterized MB cell lines (DAOY, UW228 and ONS-76) grown in standard adhesion as well as being grown as spheres, which enables expansion of the CSC population. MB cell lines, grown in adherence and as spheres, were subjected to morphologic analysis at the light and electron microscopic level, as well as cytofluorimetric determinations. Medullospheres (MBS) were shown to express increasingly immature features, along with the stem cells markers: CD133, Nestin and β-catenin. Proteomic analysis highlighted the differences between MB cell lines, demonstrating a unique protein profile for each cell line, and minor differences when grown as spheres. In MBS, MALDI-TOF also identified some proteins, that have been linked to tumor progression and resistance, such as Nucleophosmin (NPM). In addition, immunocytochemistry detected Sox-2 as a stemness marker of MBS, as well as confirming high NPM expression. Culture conditioning based on low attachment flasks and specialized medium may provide new data on the staminal compartment of CNS tumors, although a proteomic profile of CSC is still elusive for MB.

  19. Medullospheres from DAOY, UW228 and ONS-76 cells: increased stem cell population and proteomic modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Zanini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma (MB is an aggressive pediatric tumor of the Central Nervous System (CNS usually treated according to a refined risk stratification. The study of cancer stem cells (CSC in MB is a promising approach aimed at finding new treatment strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The CSC compartment was studied in three characterized MB cell lines (DAOY, UW228 and ONS-76 grown in standard adhesion as well as being grown as spheres, which enables expansion of the CSC population. MB cell lines, grown in adherence and as spheres, were subjected to morphologic analysis at the light and electron microscopic level, as well as cytofluorimetric determinations. Medullospheres (MBS were shown to express increasingly immature features, along with the stem cells markers: CD133, Nestin and β-catenin. Proteomic analysis highlighted the differences between MB cell lines, demonstrating a unique protein profile for each cell line, and minor differences when grown as spheres. In MBS, MALDI-TOF also identified some proteins, that have been linked to tumor progression and resistance, such as Nucleophosmin (NPM. In addition, immunocytochemistry detected Sox-2 as a stemness marker of MBS, as well as confirming high NPM expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Culture conditioning based on low attachment flasks and specialized medium may provide new data on the staminal compartment of CNS tumors, although a proteomic profile of CSC is still elusive for MB.

  20. Demodicosis caused by Demodex canis and Demodex cornei in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Sivajothi, S.; Sudhakara Reddy, B.; Rayulu, V. C.

    2013-01-01

    Two mongrel dogs aged between 7 and 9 months in a same house were presented to the clinics with a history of chronic dermatitis associated with pruritus. Clinical examination revealed presence of primary and secondary skin lesions on the face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex cornei (majority) and D. canis (minority) in both the dogs. By using hair pluck examination D. canis were detected and by tape impression smears ...

  1. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in domestic dogs from Cuiabá, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolidorio, Mariana Granziera; Torres, Mariana de Medeiros; Campos, Wilma Neres da Silva; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Igarashi, Michelle; Amude, Alexandre Mendes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report for the first time infection by Hepatozoon spp. and Babesia spp. in 10 dogs from the city of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, central-western Brazil. A pair of primers that amplifies a 574 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA of Hepatozoon spp., and a pair of primers that amplifies a 551 bp fragment of the gene 18S rRNA for Babesia spp. were used. Six dogs were positive for Babesia spp., and 9 were positive for Hepatozoon spp. Co‑infection of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. was seen in 5 dogs. Sequenced samples revealed 100% identity with B. canis vogeli, and H. canis. This is the first molecular detection of H. canis in domestic dogs from Cuiabá. Additionally, it is described for the first time the presence of B. canis vogeli circulating among dogs in Cuiabá.

  2. Distance to VY Canis Majoris with VERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Kyung; Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Bushimata, Takeshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Iwadate, Kenzaburo; Jike, Takaaki; Kameno, Seiji; Kameya, Osamu; Kamohara, Ryuichi; Kan-Ya, Yukitoshi; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kijima, Masachika; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Kuji, Seisuke; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Manabe, Seiji; Maruyama, Kenta; Matsui, Makoto; Matsumoto, Naoko; Miyaji, Takeshi; Nagayama, Takumi; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Nakamura, Kayoko; Oh, Chung Sik; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Oyama, Tomoaki; Sakai, Satoshi; Sasao, Tetsuo; Sato, Katsuhisa; Sato, Mayumi; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Tsushima, Miyuki; Yamashita, Kazuyoshi

    2008-10-01

    We report on astrometric observations of H2O masers around the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris carried out with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). Based on astrometric monitoring for 13 months, we successfully measured a trigonometric parallax of 0.88±0.08 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.14+0.11-0.09kpc. This is the most accurate determined distance to VY CMa and the first one based on an annual parallax measurement. The luminosity of VY CMa has been overestimated due to a previously accepted distance. With our result, we re-estimated the luminosity of VY CMa to be (3±0.5) × 105Lodot using the bolometric flux integrated over optical and IR wavelengths. This improved luminosity value makes the location of VY CMa on the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram much closer to the theoretically allowable zone (i.e. the left side of the Hayashi track) than previous ones, though the uncertainty in the effective temperature of the stellar surface still does not permit us to make a final conclusion.

  3. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

  4. Angiostrongylus vasorum in 20 cani della provincia di Chieti, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Morelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A seguito di un caso di Angiostrongylus vasorum, diagnosticato all’inizio del 2008 nella provincia di Chieti, è stata organizzata una ricerca parassitologica al fine di indagare la presenza del parassita nei cani nella stessa area. Da gennaio a settembre 2008 sono stati esaminati 178 cani, 56 carcasse e 122 campioni di feci. Nelle carcasse sono stati ricercati i parassiti adulti nel ventricolo destro e nell’arteria polmonare e le forme larvali in tessuti di organi interni e cervello. Nelle feci è stata ricercata la forma larvale L1 con tre metodiche diagnostiche utilizzate correntemente per la ricerca di endoparassiti e larve di strongili broncopolmonari. Sono stati diagnosticati 20 casi (8,9% con identificazione di parassiti adulti in 5 cani e larve L1 in altri 15 soggetti. L’esame anatomopatologico delle carcasse dei cani con nematodi adulti ha evidenziato polmonite, pleurite, schiuma rossastra in trachea, versamento di liquido sieroemorragico in cavità toracica e ingrossamento di linfonodi medinici e meseraici. L’esame istologico dei tessuti ha evidenziato quadri gravi e sovrapponibili con lesioni da localizzazione dei parassiti in reni, linfonodi e cervello. Il numero cospicuo di casi riscontrati ha reso indispensabile considerare l’angiostrongilosi nelle diagnosi differenziali degli esami clinici e autoptici di cani della provincia di Chieti (Italia e dei territori confinanti.

  5. Sarcocystis canis associated hepatitis in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Trista; Burek-Huntington, Kathy; Savage, Kate; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Dubey, J P

    2014-04-01

    Sarcocystis canis infection was associated with hepatitis in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Intrahepatocellular protozoal schizonts were among areas of necrosis and inflammation. The parasite was genetically identical to S. canis and is the first report in a Steller sea lion, indicating another intermediate host species for S. canis.

  6. Isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts, but also can act as intermediate hosts by harbor tissue stages of the parasite that ca...

  7. Prophage Rs551 and Its Repressor Gene orf14 Reduce Virulence and Increase Competitive Fitness of Its Ralstonia solanacearum Carrier Strain UW551.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Abdelmonim Ali; Stulberg, Michael J; Huang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    We previously characterized a filamentous lysogenic bacteriophage, ϕRs551, isolated directly from the race 3 biovar 2 phylotype IIB sequevar 1 strain UW551 of Ralstonia solanacearum grown under normal culture conditions. The genome of ϕRs551 was identified with 100% identity in the deposited genomes of 11 race 3 biovar 2 phylotype IIB sequevar 1 strains of R. solanacearum , indicating evolutionary and biological importance, and ORF14 of ϕRs551 was annotated as a putative type-2 repressor. In this study, we determined the effect of the prophage and its ORF14 on the virulence and competitive fitness of its carrier strain UW551 by deleting the orf14 gene only (the UW551 orf14 mutant), and nine of the prophage's 14 genes including orf14 and six out of seven structural genes (the UW551 prophage mutant), respectively, from the genome of UW551. The two mutants were increased in extracellular polysaccharide production, twitching motility, expression of targeted virulence and virulence regulatory genes ( pilT, egl, pehC, hrPB, and phcA ), and virulence, suggesting that the virulence of UW551 was negatively regulated by ϕRs551, at least partially through ORF14. Interestingly, we found that the wt ϕRs551-carrying strain UW551 of R. solanacearum significantly outcompeted the wt strain RUN302 which lacks the prophage in tomato plants co-inoculated with the two strains. When each of the two mutant strains was co-inoculated with RUN302, however, the mutants were significantly out-competed by RUN302 for the same colonization site. Our results suggest that ecologically, ϕRs551 may play an important role by regulating the virulence of and offering a competitive fitness advantage to its carrier bacterial strain for persistence of the bacterium in the environment, which in turn prolongs the symbiotic relationship between the phage ϕRs551 and the R. solanacearum strain UW551. Our study is the first toward a better understanding of the co-existence between a lysogenic phage and

  8. Prophage Rs551 and Its Repressor Gene orf14 Reduce Virulence and Increase Competitive Fitness of Its Ralstonia solanacearum Carrier Strain UW551

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmonim Ali Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously characterized a filamentous lysogenic bacteriophage, ϕRs551, isolated directly from the race 3 biovar 2 phylotype IIB sequevar 1 strain UW551 of Ralstonia solanacearum grown under normal culture conditions. The genome of ϕRs551 was identified with 100% identity in the deposited genomes of 11 race 3 biovar 2 phylotype IIB sequevar 1 strains of R. solanacearum, indicating evolutionary and biological importance, and ORF14 of ϕRs551 was annotated as a putative type-2 repressor. In this study, we determined the effect of the prophage and its ORF14 on the virulence and competitive fitness of its carrier strain UW551 by deleting the orf14 gene only (the UW551 orf14 mutant, and nine of the prophage’s 14 genes including orf14 and six out of seven structural genes (the UW551 prophage mutant, respectively, from the genome of UW551. The two mutants were increased in extracellular polysaccharide production, twitching motility, expression of targeted virulence and virulence regulatory genes (pilT, egl, pehC, hrPB, and phcA, and virulence, suggesting that the virulence of UW551 was negatively regulated by ϕRs551, at least partially through ORF14. Interestingly, we found that the wt ϕRs551-carrying strain UW551 of R. solanacearum significantly outcompeted the wt strain RUN302 which lacks the prophage in tomato plants co-inoculated with the two strains. When each of the two mutant strains was co-inoculated with RUN302, however, the mutants were significantly out-competed by RUN302 for the same colonization site. Our results suggest that ecologically, ϕRs551 may play an important role by regulating the virulence of and offering a competitive fitness advantage to its carrier bacterial strain for persistence of the bacterium in the environment, which in turn prolongs the symbiotic relationship between the phage ϕRs551 and the R. solanacearum strain UW551. Our study is the first toward a better understanding of the co-existence between a

  9. Prophage Rs551 and Its Repressor Gene orf14 Reduce Virulence and Increase Competitive Fitness of Its Ralstonia solanacearum Carrier Strain UW551

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Abdelmonim Ali; Stulberg, Michael J.; Huang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    We previously characterized a filamentous lysogenic bacteriophage, ϕRs551, isolated directly from the race 3 biovar 2 phylotype IIB sequevar 1 strain UW551 of Ralstonia solanacearum grown under normal culture conditions. The genome of ϕRs551 was identified with 100% identity in the deposited genomes of 11 race 3 biovar 2 phylotype IIB sequevar 1 strains of R. solanacearum, indicating evolutionary and biological importance, and ORF14 of ϕRs551 was annotated as a putative type-2 repressor. In this study, we determined the effect of the prophage and its ORF14 on the virulence and competitive fitness of its carrier strain UW551 by deleting the orf14 gene only (the UW551 orf14 mutant), and nine of the prophage’s 14 genes including orf14 and six out of seven structural genes (the UW551 prophage mutant), respectively, from the genome of UW551. The two mutants were increased in extracellular polysaccharide production, twitching motility, expression of targeted virulence and virulence regulatory genes (pilT, egl, pehC, hrPB, and phcA), and virulence, suggesting that the virulence of UW551 was negatively regulated by ϕRs551, at least partially through ORF14. Interestingly, we found that the wt ϕRs551-carrying strain UW551 of R. solanacearum significantly outcompeted the wt strain RUN302 which lacks the prophage in tomato plants co-inoculated with the two strains. When each of the two mutant strains was co-inoculated with RUN302, however, the mutants were significantly out-competed by RUN302 for the same colonization site. Our results suggest that ecologically, ϕRs551 may play an important role by regulating the virulence of and offering a competitive fitness advantage to its carrier bacterial strain for persistence of the bacterium in the environment, which in turn prolongs the symbiotic relationship between the phage ϕRs551 and the R. solanacearum strain UW551. Our study is the first toward a better understanding of the co-existence between a lysogenic phage and

  10. Cutaneous Hepatozoon canis infection in a dog from New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Liz; Baneth, Gad

    2011-05-01

    A 7-month-old mixed-breed intact female dog was presented to a private veterinarian with a 2 cm in diameter raised, pruritic, alopecic, subcutaneous, fluctuant swelling over the right eye. Cytology of the mass revealed many degenerate neutrophils, moderate numbers of eosinophils, moderate numbers of macrophages, rare mast cells, and few erythrocytes. Rare neutrophils contained a protozoal agent compatible with a Hepatozoon gamont. Real-time polymerase chain reaction of peripheral blood was positive for Hepatozoon canis. The complete sequence identity of the amplified 18S ribosomal RNA fragment from the dog's blood confirmed H. canis and proved it was relatively distant from the corresponding fragment sequence of Hepatozoon americanum. This case is important in documenting an unusual presentation of infection with H. canis outside of the southern United States. © 2011 The Author(s)

  11. Mycoplasma canis and urogenital disease in dogs in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L'Abee-Lund, T.M.; Heiene, R.; Friis, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasmas identified as Mycoplasma canis were isolated from nine dogs with clinical signs of urogenital disease in Norway over a period of 20 months. Some of the dogs had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics, and three were euthanased as a result of severe persistent disease. Seven...... of the dogs had a urinary tract infection, one had chronic purulent epididymitis and one had chronic prostatitis. Overt haematuria was frequently observed among the dogs with cystitis. M canis was isolated in pure culture from seven of the dogs and in mixed culture from the other two. In three cases...... the mycoplasma was cultivated only from urinary sediment, and it was typically obtained in smaller numbers than would be considered indicative of a urinary tract infection. In contrast with most mycoplasmas, the M canis isolated from all the dogs grew on ordinary blood agar plates used for routine...

  12. Book review, Amati cani, José Jorge Letria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Con Amati cani ci discostiamo per una volta dalle pubblicazioni a carattere scientifico, per dare il giusto risalto ad un’interessante raccolta di narrativa che esplora il rapporto tra l'uomo e il suo miglior amico. José Jorge Latria, noto soprattutto per essere un esponente di spicco della canzone politica portoghese e per le sue opere poetiche, teatrali e di letteratura per ragazzi, nello scrivere questo libro compie un vero e proprio atto d’amore verso i cani, con il preciso intento di costringere i lettori ad eliminare dal proprio vocabolario il gratuito modo di dire ‘mondo cane’. L’Autore delinea brevi ritratti di cani che, da Argo in poi, hanno accompagnato da amici veri i loro celebri padroni nella buona e nella cattiva sorte: racconta cioè la storia di quei cani che non sono sprofondati nella voragine dell’oblio perchè i loro padroni hanno raggiunto la celebrità nel mondo della letteratura, della politica, del cinema, delle scienze o della musica. Con a fianco un amico fedele come un cane, la vita ha avuto un sapore diverso per Ernest Hemingway, Isaac Newton, Sigmund Freud, Buster Keaton, Marilyn Monroe, Pablo Picasso, John Steinbeck, Lord Byron, Tim Burton e altri ancora, tutti personaggi che sono presenti in questo libro grazie ai cani che hanno condiviso con loro la vita e le memorie. La lettura di Amati cani dà piacere poichè in ognuno di questi racconti batte, affettuoso e delicato, il cuore di un cane; ma dà anche un pò da pensare in quanto celebra in maniera molto tenera l’amore, la fedeltà e la solidarietà tra l’uomo e il suo speciale amico a quattro zampe.

  13. A PCR-based epidemiological survey of Hepatozoon canis in dogs in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Mizuki; Omobowale, Olutayo; Ohta, Kaisaku; Tozuka, Morito; Matsuu, Aya; Hirata, Haruyuki; Nottidge, Helen Oyebukola; Ikadai, Hiromi; Oyamada, Takashi

    2008-07-01

    The prevalence of Hepatozoon canis infections in dogs in Nigeria was surveyed using molecular methods. DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from 400 dogs. A primer set that amplified the Babesia canis 18S rRNA gene, which has high similarity to the H. canis 18S rRNA gene, was used for the PCR. As a result, samples from 81 dogs (20.3%) produced 757 bp bands, which differed from the 698 bp band that corresponded to B. canis infection. The sequence of the PCR products of 10 samples were determined, all of which corresponded with the H. canis sequence.

  14. Hepatozoon canis infection in Slovakia: imported or autochthonous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majláthová, Viktória; Hurníková, Zuzana; Majláth, Igor; Petko, Branislav

    2007-01-01

    Tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the Michalovce district (Slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by PCR method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18S rRNA spanning the V4 region of Babesia and Theileria. An unexpected determination of 450 bp DNA fragment of Hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from the H. canis showed 100% similarity with the sequence from Brasil isolate of H. canis from a pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) (AY471615) as well as from a fox in Spain (AY150067) and from a dog in Brazil (AY864677). In the present study, we report the first PCR detection of Hepatozoon canis in a naturally infected red fox from Slovakia, a Rhipicephalus sanguineus-free region. We assume that the infection was spread by infected R. sanguineus that might have been brought to Slovakia by travelers, by golden jackals, or by foxes migrating because of expansion of golden jackals and environmental and climate changes.

  15. Infection of dogs with Babesia canis in Gwagwalada metropolis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological investigation was carried out to determine the prevalence of infection with Babesia canis in dogs in Gwagwalada metropolis of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja Nigeria, from November 2013 to January 2014. Blood samples were collected from 101 dogs and examined for the parasite. Data obtained were ...

  16. Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis amongst dogs in central Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutendo Manyarara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia canis is a major pathogen in dogs throughout Africa, yet it has not been reported in Namibia. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in central Namibia using the ImmunoComb assay (Biogal, Galed Laboratories. The study included 76 dogs that presented to the Rhino Park Veterinary Clinic in the north-western suburb of Khomasdal, Windhoek, Namibia, as well as 30 stray dogs from the Windhoek branch of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Of the 106 dogs tested, 53.8% were seropositive at titres > 1:80. Dogs that presented with symptoms of E. canis infection had a significantly higher seroprevalence (86.6% compared with apparently healthy dogs (41.6% (P = 0.00. Location of habitation was significant (P < 0.017, with a high percentage of dogs exposed to E. canis living in the northern or north-western part of Windhoek. As the first study to serologically establish E. canis as a major pathogen in dogs in central Namibia, it is notable that the highest proportion of seropositive dogs came from low-income areas. Further investigation is necessary to describe the ecology of this important tick-borne pathogen of companion animals in Namibia.

  17. Infection of dogs with Babesia canis in Gwagwalada metropolis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-10-30

    Oct 30, 2014 ... determine the prevalence of Babesia canis and the correlation of infection with age, sex, breed, types of management and presence .... Table 3: Breed distribution of Babesia infection in dogs in Gwagwalada Area Council, FCT. Breed ... the management style of the dogs and infection with. Babesia. Table 5 ...

  18. MRI findings of spinal visceral larva migrans of Toxocara canis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ho, E-mail: leeinho1974@hanmail.ne [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, 33 Munhwa-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon 301-721 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae, E-mail: st7.kim@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Dae Kun, E-mail: odk6464@nate.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Jin, E-mail: hyungkim@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keon Ha, E-mail: somatom@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Pyoung, E-mail: drpjeon@gmail.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hong Sik, E-mail: byun5474@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the MRI findings of visceral larva migrans (VLS) of Toxocara canis in spinal cord. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed spinal MRI findings in eight patients with serologically proven Toxocara canis between 2005 and 2008. We evaluated the location, length, extent and migration of the lesion, MR signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, and swelling of the spinal cord. We evaluated clinical features including presenting symptoms and signs and treatment response. Results: Total 8 patients (M = 8; age range 36-79 years) were included. The lesions were located in the cervical or thoracic spinal cord in all patients. All lesions showed high SI and minimal or mild swelling of involved spinal cord on T2WI and focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord. The length of involved lesion was relatively short in most patients. There was a migration of lesion in one patient. In spite of albendazole or steroid treatment, neurological symptoms or signs were not significantly improved in all patients. Conclusion: Although all lesions show non-specific imaging findings like non-tumorous myelopathy mimicking transverse myelitis, single lesion, focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord, relatively short segmental involvement and migration of lesion may be characteristic findings of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis. In addition, the reluctant response to the treatment may be characteristic of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis.

  19. MRI findings of spinal visceral larva migrans of Toxocara canis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ho; Kim, Sung Tae; Oh, Dae Kun; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Keon Ha; Jeon, Pyoung; Byun, Hong Sik

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the MRI findings of visceral larva migrans (VLS) of Toxocara canis in spinal cord. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed spinal MRI findings in eight patients with serologically proven Toxocara canis between 2005 and 2008. We evaluated the location, length, extent and migration of the lesion, MR signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, and swelling of the spinal cord. We evaluated clinical features including presenting symptoms and signs and treatment response. Results: Total 8 patients (M = 8; age range 36-79 years) were included. The lesions were located in the cervical or thoracic spinal cord in all patients. All lesions showed high SI and minimal or mild swelling of involved spinal cord on T2WI and focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord. The length of involved lesion was relatively short in most patients. There was a migration of lesion in one patient. In spite of albendazole or steroid treatment, neurological symptoms or signs were not significantly improved in all patients. Conclusion: Although all lesions show non-specific imaging findings like non-tumorous myelopathy mimicking transverse myelitis, single lesion, focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord, relatively short segmental involvement and migration of lesion may be characteristic findings of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis. In addition, the reluctant response to the treatment may be characteristic of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis.

  20. Solving a binary puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utomo, P.H.; Makarim, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    A Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0,1} {0,1}. Let n≥4 be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an n×n binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each

  1. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  2. Investigation of tick vectors of Hepatozoon canis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Metzger, Betina; de Paula Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo; Martins, Thiago Fenandes; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2013-12-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a common apicomplexan parasite of dogs. In Brazil, in addition to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma cajennense, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus have been suggested to act as vectors. The present study aimed to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the acquisition of H. canis by A. ovale, R. sanguineus, and A. cajennense after feeding on naturally infected dogs. Cytological and histophatological examinations were performed to recover oocysts and other sporogonic stages of the protozoan from the experimentally infected nymphs and adults. None of the R. sanguineus (n=30) or A. cajennense nymphs (n=15) that were dissected after feeding on H. canis naturally infected dogs became infected by the hemoparasite. Likewise, none of the R. sanguineus (n=165) and A. cajennense (n=114) adult ticks that were fed as nymphs on dogs demonstrated infection. Additionally, A. cajennense adult ticks were incapable of acquiring the infection, since no parasite was found in 62 adults that fed on H. canis-infected dogs. With regard to A. ovale ticks, 2 different infestations were carried out. Firstly, a dog with naturally occurring hepatozoonosis was infested with A. ovale adults originating from Rondônia, Brazil. Ticks fed to full engorgement. A total of 31 adults was collected from the dog and dissected on the third day after natural detachment. Oocysts were detected in 13 (42%) of the ticks. The second experimental infestation was carried out using adult ticks originating from São Paulo, Brazil. Surprisingly, of the 103 dissected ticks, only one (1%) contained oocysts in the hemocoel. No other sporogonic stage was found. Results indicate that different strains of A. ovale ticks may exist in Brazil with different susceptibilities to pathogens. Furthermore, it is possible that R. sanguineus and A. cajennense have little or no importance in the transmission of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  3. Life cycle of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) in the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and domestic dog (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Samish, Michael; Shkap, Varda

    2007-04-01

    The life cycle of the apicomplexan protozoon Hepatozoon canis in its natural hosts Rhipicephalus sanguineus (tick) and Canis familiaris (domestic dog) was studied in an experimental infection. Tick nymphs were fed on a naturally infected dog, or they were infected by percutaneous injection of blood. Dogs were inoculated by ingestion of adult ticks containing mature oocysts. Gamonts were in syzygy 24 hr after percutaneous injection of ticks. Early oocysts were detected 96 hr after nymph repletion, and mature oocysts in adult ticks were infective to dogs 40 days postmolt. Merogony was detected in dog bone marrow from 13 days postinoculation (PI) and included meronts containing 20-30 micromerozoites, and a second type with 2-4 macromerozoites. Monozoic cysts were observed in the spleen in conjunction with merogony. Gamontogony with infection of leukocytes by micromerozoites occurred from 26 days PI, and gamont parasitemia, which completed the life cycle, was detected 28 days PI. The length of the life cycle from nymphal attachment to parasitemia in dogs was 81 days. Increased body temperatures were evident from 16 to 27 days PI and paralleled the time of intensive bone marrow merogony. Skeletal pain and recumbency were manifested in 2 dogs. This study further elucidates the life cycle of H. canis and provides a sequential morphologic description of H. canis merogony, gamontogony, and sporogony.

  4. Anti-Hepatozoon canis serum antibodies and gamonts in naturally-occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Leontides, Leonidas; Gonen, Liat; Billinis, Charalambos; Koutinas, Alexander F; Baneth, Gad

    2005-05-15

    The prevalence of IgG antibodies to Hepatozoon canis and the presence of gamonts in the blood and hemolymphatic tissues were studied in dogs with canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) caused by Ehrlichia canis. Both pathogens are transmitted by the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Forty-five out of 69 (65.2%) dogs with CME were seropositive to H. canis by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Intra-neutrophilic gamonts of H. canis were found in 2 out of 69 dogs (2.9%) comprising 4.5% of the seropositive dogs. The present study indicated that the prevalence of antibodies to H. canis was high among dogs with CME in an area where both infections are endemic. However, previous exposure to H. canis was not found as an important contributor to clinical or clinicopathologic abnormalities found in dogs with CME.

  5. Association, inhibition, and object permanence in dogs' (Canis familiaris) spatial search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rebecca L; De Lillo, Carlo

    2011-05-01

    The relative role of associative processes and the use of explicit cues about object location in search behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris) was assessed by using a spatial binary discrimination reversal paradigm in which reversal conditions featured: (1) a previously rewarded location and a novel location, (2) a previously nonrewarded location and a novel location, or (3) a previously rewarded location and a previously nonrewarded location. Rule mediated learning predicts a similar performance in these different reversal conditions whereas associative learning predicts the worst performance in Condition 3. Evidence for an associative control of search emerged when no explicit cues about food location were provided (Experiment 1) but also when dogs witnessed the hiding of food in the reversal trials (Experiment 2) and when they did so in both the prereversal and the reversal trials (Experiment 3). Nevertheless, dogs performed better in the prereversal phase of Experiment 3 indicating that their search could be informed by the knowledge of the food location. Experiment 4 confirmed the results of Experiments 1 and 2, under a different arrangement of search locations. We conclude that knowledge about object location guides search behavior in dogs but it cannot override associative processes. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Description of dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis in the Aegean region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    PAŞA, Serdar; KIRAL, Funda; KARAGENÇ, Tülin; ATASOY, Abidin; SEYREK, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory findings recorded in 10 dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis in the Aegean region of Turkey were reported. The diagnosis was made by finding H. canis gamonts within leucocytes in Giemsa-stained blood smears. H. canis parasitaemia level was calculated manually by counting 500 neutrophils in blood smears. Parasitaemia varied from 1% to 23% of the circulating neutrophils. Anorexia, fever, depression, weight loss, and lymphadenopathy are the main clinical signs in...

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of arginine kinase gene of Toxocara canis

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu, Shivani; Samanta, S.; Harish, D. R.; Sudhakar, N. R.; Raina, O. K.; Shantaveer, S. B.; Madhu, D. N.; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Toxocara canis is an important gastrointestinal nematode of dogs and also a causative agent of visceral larva migrans in humans. Arginine kinase (AK) gene is one of the important biomolecule of phosphagen kinase of T. canis which is emerging as an exciting novel diagnostic target in toxocarosis. The present study was carried out to clone and characterize AK gene of T. canis for future utilization as a diagnostic molecule. Total RNA was extracted from intact adult worms and reverse transcripti...

  8. MASTICATORY MUSCLE MYOSITIS IN A GRAY WOLF (CANIS LUPUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marc; Glass, Eric N; Castro, Fernando A; Miller, Andrew D; de Lahunta, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    A 10-yr-old male, neutered gray wolf ( Canis lupus ) was presented for atrophy of the temporalis and masseter muscles. Clinical signs and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a myopathy. Positive serology for antibody titers directed against Type 2M myofibers, and the observation of a mixed mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate along with eosinophils and neutrophils within the temporalis muscle, were diagnostic for masticatory muscle myositis. Importantly, protozoal myositis was excluded based on other clinicopathologic data. The case highlights the potential for immune-mediated polymyositis in canids other than the domesticated dog ( Canis lupus familaris). Additionally, awareness of a diet in which raw meat is used should prompt a thorough investigation for an underlying infectious myositis in the gray wolf.

  9. Giardia and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, James M; Santín, Mónica; Fayer, Ronald

    2006-06-01

    Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. PCR-amplified fragments of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence analysis for species/genotype determination. Seven coyotes (32%) were positive for G. duodenalis: three assemblage C, three assemblage D, and one assemblage B. Six coyotes (27%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. One isolate shared 99.7% homology with C. muris, whereas five others (23%) shared 100% homology with C. canis, coyote genotype. This is the first report on multiple genotypes of Giardia spp. in coyotes and on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes in coyotes.

  10. Haematopathological Changes in Dogs Affected with Ehrlichia Canis in Lesvos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geromichalou A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine Ehrlichiosis is an important immunosuppressive tick borne disease in dogs. The geographical distribution and transmission is mostly related with Rhipicephalus sanguineus which acts as a vector. There is no predilection of age or sex; all breeds may be infected with Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME. The primary targets are monocytic cells. Platelet disorders and serum protein alterations are the principal hematological and biochemical consequences of infections. Clinical signs are almost non-specific. A definitive diagnosis requires: visualization of morulae within monocytes on cytology, detection of serum antibodies with E. canis, the IFA test, or the PCR. The objective of this study was to present information about haematological and biochemical tests of E. canis infected dogs in Lesvos island in Greece, which is an endemic area.

  11. SCM, the M Protein of Streptococcus canis Binds Immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Simone; Eichhorn, Inga; Kohler, Thomas P; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Goldmann, Oliver; Rohde, Manfred; Fulde, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The M protein of Streptococcus canis (SCM) is a virulence factor and serves as a surface-associated receptor with a particular affinity for mini-plasminogen, a cleavage product of the broad-spectrum serine protease plasmin. Here, we report that SCM has an additional high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding activity. The ability of a particular S. canis isolate to bind to IgG significantly correlates with a scm -positive phenotype, suggesting a dominant role of SCM as an IgG receptor. Subsequent heterologous expression of SCM in non-IgG binding S. gordonii and Western Blot analysis with purified recombinant SCM proteins confirmed its IgG receptor function. As expected for a zoonotic agent, the SCM-IgG interaction is species-unspecific, with a particular affinity of SCM for IgGs derived from human, cats, dogs, horses, mice, and rabbits, but not from cows and goats. Similar to other streptococcal IgG-binding proteins, the interaction between SCM and IgG occurs via the conserved Fc domain and is, therefore, non-opsonic. Interestingly, the interaction between SCM and IgG-Fc on the bacterial surface specifically prevents opsonization by C1q, which might constitute another anti-phagocytic mechanism of SCM. Extensive binding analyses with a variety of different truncated SCM fragments defined a region of 52 amino acids located in the central part of the mature SCM protein which is important for IgG binding. This binding region is highly conserved among SCM proteins derived from different S. canis isolates but differs significantly from IgG-Fc receptors of S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae sub. equisimilis , respectively. In summary, we present an additional role of SCM in the pathogen-host interaction of S. canis . The detailed analysis of the SCM-IgG interaction should contribute to a better understanding of the complex roles of M proteins in streptococcal pathogenesis.

  12. Large dust grains in the wind of VY Canis Majoris

    OpenAIRE

    Scicluna, P.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Wesson, R.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L; Kasper, M.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Wolf, S.

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars live short lives, losing large amounts of mass through their stellar wind. Their mass is a key factor determining how and when they explode as supernovae, enriching the interstellar medium with heavy elements and dust. During the red supergiant phase, mass-loss rates increase prodigiously, but the driving mechanism has proven elusive. Here we present high-contrast optical polarimetric-imaging observations of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris and its clumpy, dusty, mass...

  13. Denning behaviour of non-gravid wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Phillips, M.K.; Smith, D.W.; Kreeger, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Wild wolves (Canis lupus) that had produced pups in earlier years but were not currently pregnant, and ovariectomized captive wolves, dug dens during and after the whelping season even though they produced no pups. These observations suggest that den digging is not a function of pregnancy or of ovarian estrogen or progesterone. We hypothesize that increasing prolactin in spring elicits or mediates den-digging behavior.

  14. Molecular and serological detection of Ehrlichia canis and Babesia vogeli in dogs in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, G; André, M R; Faria, J L M; Munhoz, T D; Hernandez-Rodriguez, M; Machado, R Z; Tinucci-Costa, M

    2012-05-25

    Ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are tick-borne diseases, caused mainly by Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis, respectively, with a worldwide occurrence in dogs, whose main vector is the brown-dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The present work aimed to detect the presence of E. canis and Babesia sp. in 91 dog blood samples in Colombia, by molecular and serological techniques. We also performed sequence alignment to indicate the identity of the parasite species infecting these animals. The present work shows the first molecular detection of E. canis and B. vogeli in dogs from Colombia. Immunoglobulin-G (IgG) antibodies to E. canis and Babesia vogeli were found in 75 (82.4%) and 47 (51.6%) sampled dogs, respectively. Thirty-seven (40.6%) and 5 (5.5%) dogs were positive in PCR for E. canis and Babesia sp., respectively. After sequencing, amplicons showed 99% of identity with isolates of E. canis and B. vogeli. The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA-Anaplasmataceae sequences and 18S rRNA-piroplasmid sequences supported the identity of the found E. canis and B. vogeli DNAs, respectively. The present work shows the first molecular detection of E. canis and B. vogeli in dogs in Colombia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...

  16. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  17. Didelphis albiventris naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maria Regina Lucas; Fornazari, Felipe; Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Langoni, Helio; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2017-10-01

    Hepatozoon species are vector-borne pathogens that infect domestic and wild animals. Marsupials of the species Didelphis albiventris are adapted to urban and peri-urban areas and act as reservoir hosts for several parasites. The present study evaluated the occurrence of infection by Hepatozoon species in synantropic D. albiventris from Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Blood samples and ectoparasites from 19 D. albiventris were collected from urban and peri-urban areas. Hepatozoon spp. detection was performed by microscopy and molecular analysis. One opossum was positive for Hepatozoon spp. in microscopy analysis and PCR, while another animal was positive only in PCR. The obtained sequences were 100% identical to Hepatozoon canis. Six species of ticks and two species of fleas were detected on D. albiventris. This is the first report of H. canis in synantropic D. albiventris. In Brazil, H. canis transmission among dog populations is not well established, which highlights the importance of investigating the role that opossums might play in the epidemiology of this protozoan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon canis in dogs from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernandez, Giovanni; André, Marcos R; Munhoz, Thiago D; Faria, Joice M L; Machado, Rosangela Z; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

    2012-01-01

    Hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne disease whose transmission to dogs occurs by ingestion of oocysts infected ticks or feeding on preys infested by infected ticks. Until now, there is no previous report of molecular characterization of Hepatozoon sp. in dogs from Colombia. EDTA blood samples were collected from 91 dogs from central-western region of Colombia (Bogotá, Bucaramanga, and Villavicencio cities) and submitted to 18S rRNA Hepatozoon sp. PCR and blood smears confection. Phylogenetic analysis was used to access the identity of Hepatozoon species found in sampled dogs. From 91 sampled dogs, 29 (31.8%) were positive to Hepatozoon sp. (25 dogs were only positive in PCR, 1 was positive only in blood smears, and 3 were positive in both blood smears and PCR). After sequencing, the found Hepatozoon sp. DNA showed 100% of identity with Hepatozoon canis DNA isolates. The phylogenetic tree supported the identity of the found Hepatozoon sp. DNA, showing that the isolates from Colombia were placed in the same clade than other H. canis isolates from Venezuela, Spain, and Taiwan. This is the first molecular detection of H. canis in dogs from Colombia.

  19. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon canis in dogs from Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Bindu; Jose, K Jain; George, Arun; Usha, N P; Devada, K

    2018-06-01

    India has a wide range of agro-climatic zones which is highly conducive for a diverse range of vectors and canines are continuously exposed to the risk of spectrum of tick borne protozoan diseases. The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus is widely prevalent among dogs in Kerala and there is a high prevalence of this tick transmitted Babesia and Ehrlichia spp. infection. However, the incidence of Hepatozoon canis transmitted by the same tick species had not been reported in the state since 2004. Preliminary screening of client owned dogs revealed six dogs to be positive for typical gelatin capsule shaped gamonts of H. canis within neutrophils in blood smear by microscopic examination. A PCR assay was standardized to amplify a specific 737 bp fragment of 18S rRNA gene of H. canis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed closest relationship with West Indies isolate deposited at GenBank database. The present study records the molecular detection of this haemoparasite in the state, for the first time.

  20. Comparative study of Microsporum canis isolates by DNA fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Shabnam; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Ashrafi Tamai, Iradj

    2014-08-01

    Microsporum canis is a zoophilic fungus and it is an important agent of dermatophytosis. Cats act as important reservoirs. Clinically, it is too difficult to differentiate dermatophytosis caused by various species, also this fungus loses its morphological characteristics easily because of subculture; so using of rapid and accurate laboratory techniques for identifying the dermatophytes is important, therefore, RAPD-PCR was applied for the differentiation of the isolates. In this study, 10 M. canis isolates were detected in cats, dog, human, fox and rabbit at the Mycology Research Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran. For running the RAPD-PCR, PCR set system and three random primers OPU 15, OPU 13 and OPA 04 were used. Then phylogenetic tree and similarity coefficient table were drawn. The results showed that there were some common bands between M. canis isolates. There were some specific bands for each isolates, as well. Our study showed, despite the typical morphology of the whole isolates, they were placed in different branches in molecular typing. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis infection in stray dogs from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bogićević

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease with worldwide distribution. With regards to the population of stray dogs, the disease is facilitated due to their lifestyle and the lack of anti-parasitic protection. The aim of this study was to provide serological data on the presence of a specific Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies in stray dogs, originating from 7 municipalities in Serbia. During the period from April 2013 to June 2014, 217 canine sera were submitted to the laboratory of the Department of Infectious Diseases of Animals and Bees, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Belgrade. An immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT was performed to detect antibodies to Ehrlichia canis (cut off, 1:50. Seropositive dogs were found in 5 out of 7 counties with a seroprevalence varying from 3.57% to 20% and an overall seroprevalence of 11.06% (24/217. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of infection and the host age or gender. Results showed that stray dogs contribute to maintaining and spreading of Ehrlichia canis in Serbia. Due to the close relationship between people and dogs, it is of great importance to constantly monitor and improve prevention of this disease.

  2. Effect of Saprotrophic Soil Fungi on Toxocara canis Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciarmela, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to assess the ovicidal activity of Chrysosporium merdarium, Trichoderma harzianum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme and F. sulphureum isolated from public areas in the city of La Plata, Argentina, on Toxocara canis eggs in vitro. Each species were cultured on water agar 2% with a suspension of immature-stage T. canis eggs. At 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-culture, they were observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. One hundred eggs were evaluated and scored according to Lỳsek’s ovicidal effect classification. These procedures were repeated three times which each fungal species. Chrysosporium merdarium and F. oxysporum showed very high ovicidal activity, F. sulphureum high ovicidal activity, F. moniliforme intermediate ovicidal activity and T. harzianum did not affect the viability of T. canis eggs. Taking into account the effects on human and animal health and the environment, the species with better prospects for studying its potential use as biological control was F. sulphureum.

  3. ENCUESTA EXPLORATORIA DE INFECCION POR Brucella canis EN PERROS DE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pardo D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de anticuerpos a B. canis en perros domésticos y callejeros del municipio de Villavicencio, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó la prueba de aglutinación rápida en placa con antígeno menos mucoide (M- en 201 muestras de suero. En dos animales seropositivos se realizó intento de aislamiento por hemocultivo en medio selectivo para Brucella (oxoid®. En un animal seropositivo, con crecimiento bacteriano con características morfológicas sugestivas a B. canis se realizó histopatología de testículo, bazo e hígado. Resultados. La seropositividad general fue de 1.49% y correspondió a tres caninos machos, dos de los cuales presentaron signos clínicos de epididimitis y orquitis (unilateral. El cultivo y la histopatología no fueron concluyentes para el diagnostico de B. canis. Conclusiones. La seropositividad fue baja y sugiere que la población estudiada no ha estado en contacto con la bacteria. La presencia de reactores puede estar asociado con falsos positivos. El no aislamiento de la bacteria no indica que la enfermedad no exista por lo que se requiere de nuevos estudios.

  4. Mining frequent binary expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.; Paredaens, J.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Tjoa, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In data mining, searching for frequent patterns is a common basic operation. It forms the basis of many interesting decision support processes. In this paper we present a new type of patterns, binary expressions. Based on the properties of a specified binary test, such as reflexivity, transitivity

  5. Cross-infection between cats and cows: Origin and control of Streptococcus canis mastitis in a dairy herd

    OpenAIRE

    Tikofsky, L L; Zadoks, R N

    2005-01-01

    Group G streptococci in animals usually belong to the species Streptococcus canis and are most commonly found in dogs and cats. Occasionally, Strep. canis is detected in milk from dairy cows. An outbreak of Strep. canis mastitis in a dairy herd is described. Based on results from bacterial culture and ribotyping, a cat with chronic sinusitis was the most likely source of the outbreak. Subsequent cow-to-cow transmission of Strep. canis was facilitated by poor udder health management, including...

  6. Genetic and Antigenic Evidence Supports the Separation of Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum at the Species Level

    OpenAIRE

    Baneth, Gad; Barta, John R.; Shkap, Varda; Martin, Donald S.; Macintire, Douglass K.; Vincent-Johnson, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Recognition of Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum as distinct species was supported by the results of Western immunoblotting of canine anti-H. canis and anti-H. americanum sera against H. canis gamonts. Sequence analysis of 368 bases near the 3′ end of the 18S rRNA gene from each species revealed a pairwise difference of 13.59%.

  7. 76 FR 81665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Wolf (Canis lupus) in the Western Great Lakes; Final rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 249... (Canis lupus) in the Western Great Lakes AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule... Minnesota population of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to conform to current statutory and policy requirements...

  8. A critical reflection on current control of Toxocara canis in household dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, E.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314103198

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a roundworm that is common worldwide and also in Dutch household dogs. Adult stages of T. canis can be present in the small intestines of dogs where they produce large numbers of eggs that are shed in the environment (patent infection). Because very young dogs and humans can

  9. Recurrent patent infections with Toxocara canis in household dogs older than six months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To reduce environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs, the current general advice is to deworm all dogs older than six months on average four times a year. However, only a small proportion of non-juvenile household dogs actually shed T. canis eggs, and some dogs shed eggs

  10. Recurrent patent infections with Toxocara canis in household dogs older than six months : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Ploeger, Harm W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To reduce environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs, the current general advice is to deworm all dogs older than six months on average four times a year. However, only a small proportion of non-juvenile household dogs actually shed T. canis eggs, and some dogs shed eggs more

  11. Primers for polymerase chain reaction to detect genomic DNA of Toxocara canis and T. cati.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z; Nagano, I; Xu, D; Takahashi, Y

    1997-03-01

    Primers for polymerase chain reaction to amplify genomic DNA of both Toxocara canis and T. cati were constructed by adapting cloning and sequencing random amplified polymorphic DNA. The primers are expected to detect eggs and/or larvae of T. canis and T. cati, both of which are known to cause toxocariasis in humans.

  12. DISTANCES TO FOUR SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD ECLIPSING BINARIES FROM ABSOLUTE FLUXES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Van Hamme, W.

    2009-01-01

    Eclipsing binary (EB)-based distances are estimated for four solar neighborhood EBs by means of the Direct Distance Estimation (DDE) algorithm. Results are part of a project to map the solar neighborhood EBs in three dimensions, independently of parallaxes, and provide statistical comparisons between EB and parallax distances. Apart from judgments on adopted temperature and interstellar extinction, DDE's simultaneous light-velocity solutions are essentially objective and work as well for semidetached (SD) and overcontact binaries as for detached systems. Here, we analyze two detached and two SD binaries, all double lined. RS Chamaeleontis is a pre-main-sequence (MS), detached EB with weak δ Scuti variations. WW Aurigae is detached and uncomplicated, except for having high metallicity. RZ Cassiopeiae is SD and has very clear δ Scuti variations and several peculiarities. R Canis Majoris (R CMa) is an apparently simple but historically problematic SD system, also with weak δ Scuti variations. Discussions include solution rules and strategies, weighting, convergence, and third light problems. So far there is no indication of systematic band dependence among the derived distances, so the adopted band-calibration ratios seem consistent. Agreement of EB-based and parallax distances is typically within the overlapped uncertainties, with minor exceptions. We also suggest an explanation for the long-standing undermassiveness problem of R CMa's hotter component, in terms of a fortuitous combination of low metallicity and evolution slightly beyond the MS.

  13. Investigating the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens UW4 to reduce cadmium stress in Lactuca sativa via an intervention in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Lucas J; Macfie, Sheila M

    2016-12-01

    A typical plant response to any biotic or abiotic stress, including cadmium (Cd), involves increased ethylene synthesis, which causes senescence of the affected plant part. Stressed plants can experience reduced ethylene and improved growth if they are inoculated with bacteria that have the enzyme ACC deaminase, which metabolizes the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate). We investigated whether one such bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens UW4, reduces the production of ethylene and improves the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) sown in Cd-contaminated potting material (PRO-MIX® BX). Plants were inoculated with the wild-type P. fluorescens UW4 or a mutant strain that cannot produce ACC deaminase. Cadmium-treated plants contained up to 50 times more Cd than did control plants. In noninoculated plants, Cd induced a 5-fold increase in ethylene concentration. The wild-type bacterium prevented Cd-induced reductions in root biomass but there was no relationship between Cd treatment and ethylene production in inoculated plants. In contrast, when the concentration of ethylene was plotted against the extent of bacterial colonization of the roots, increased colonization with wild-type P. fluorescens UW4 was associated with 20% less ethylene production. Ours is the first study to show that the protective effect of this bacterium is proportional to the quantity of bacteria on the root surface.

  14. First Case of Canine Infection with Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seung-Joo; Kim, Yoon-Hee; Oh, Hyun-Hee; Choi, Ul-Soo

    2017-10-01

    This report describes a dog infected with Hepatozoon canis, the first canine infection in the Republic of Korea. A 2-year-old intact male Maltese dog presented with anorexia and depression. Physical examinations revealed mild dehydration and hyperthermia (39.8°C), and blood analysis showed pancytopenia. Diff-Quik staining of blood smear specimens showed the presence of ellipsoidal shaped structures (gamonts of H. canis) within a small number of neutrophils. Real-time PCR analysis using whole blood confirmed infection by H. canis. The clinical condition of the dog improved after symptomatic treatment and administration of doxycycline. Although a molecular epidemiologic survey in Korea showed H. canis infection of dogs, to our knowledge this is the first report of a dog infection in Korea molecularly shown to be H. canis.

  15. Neutropenia associated with osteomyelitis due to Hepatozoon canis infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa Miyama, Takako; Umeki, Saori; Baba, Kenji; Sada, Kumiko; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Inokuma, Hisashi; Hisasue, Masaharu; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya

    2011-10-01

    A 4-year-old, intact male Shiba dog was referred to Yamaguchi University Animal Medical Center, Yamaguchi, Japan, for the following complaints: anorexia, lethargy, intermittent fever, gingival bleeding and abdominal purpura. The dog presented with persistent neutropenia. Histopathological examination of a bone marrow sample revealed round to oval structures that resembled Hepatozoon micromerozoites and formed a "wheel-spoke" pattern. Furthermore, mature neutrophils were observed around these structures. PCR and sequencing using bone marrow aspirate confirmed Hepatozoon canis (H. canis) infection. These findings suggest that the neutropenia observed in this case was associated with osteomyelitis due to H. canis infection. This is the first report of neutropenia associated with H. canis infection. H. canis infection can be included in the differential diagnosis in canine cases of neutropenia in areas where the disease is endemic.

  16. Acquisition and transmission of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) by the tick Amblyomma ovale (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, A S; Paduan, K S; Martins, T F; Labruna, M B; O'Dwyer, L H

    2009-10-14

    The present study aimed to evaluate under controlled conditions the acquisition of Hepatozoon canis by Amblyomma ovale after feeding on infected dogs, and the subsequent induction of infection in uninfected dogs that ingested the experimentally infected ticks. Two H. canis naturally infected dogs were infested with A. ovale adult ticks derived from an uninfected laboratory tick colony. After feeding, two A. ovale females presented H. canis oocysts in the hemolymph at the first and fourth days after removal of ticks from dogs. The oocysts had an average size of 244.34 microm x 255.46 microm. Three uninfected dogs were fed with ticks previously fed on the infected dogs. Only one dog became infected 32 days after oral inoculation, presenting circulating gametocytes, parasitemia less than 1%, and positive PCR confirmed to be H. canis by DNA sequencing. The results obtained indicated A. ovale ticks as potential vector of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil.

  17. Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine ratio and renal failure index in dogs infected with Babesia canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2013-09-01

    Urinary creatinine to serum creatinine (UCr/SCr) ratio and renal failure index (RFI) are useful indices of renal damage. Both UCr/SCr ratio and RFI are used in differentiation between prerenal azotaemia and acute tubular necrosis. In this work the authors calculated the UCr/SCr ratio and RFI in dogs infected with Babesia canis and the values of these indices in azotaemic dogs infected with the parasite. The results of this study showed significantly lower UCr/SCr ratio in dogs infected with B. canis than in healthy dogs. Moreover, in azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis the UCr/SCr ratio was significantly lower and the RFI was significantly higher than in non-azotaemic dogs infected with B. canis. The calculated correlation between RFI and duration of the disease before diagnosis and treatment was high, positive and statistically significant (r = 0.89, p caused by B. canis in Poland acute tubular necrosis may develop.

  18. Comparative Foraging Efficiency of Two Sympatric Jackals, Silver-Backed Jackals (Canis mesomelas) and Golden Jackals (Canis aureus), in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Temu, S. E.; Nahonyo, C. L.; Moehlman, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    The foraging efficiency of two sympatric species of jackals, silver-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and golden jackals (Canis aureus), was studied in the Ngorongoro crater from July 2014 through May 2015. The focal animal observation method was used and individuals of both species were followed as they foraged from morning to evening. Observations of individuals of both jackal species were made from a vehicle using binoculars and a spotting scope. Three major parameters were used for determi...

  19. Intraoperative bleeding in dogs from Grenada seroreactive to Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza-Perea, M; Zieger, U; Qurollo, B A; Hegarty, B C; Pultorak, E L; Kumthekar, S; Bruhl-Day, R; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2014-01-01

    Frequent exposure of Grenadian dogs to Rhipicephalus sanguineus results in Anaplasma platys, and Ehrlichia canis seroreactivity. During elective surgeries, substantial intraoperative hemorrhage occurs in some seroreactive dogs. To assess hemostatic parameters and bleeding tendencies as well as prevalence of PCR positivity in apparently healthy A. platys and E. canis seroreactive and seronegative free-roaming dogs from Grenada. Forty-seven elective surgery dogs allocated to 4 groups: Seronegative control (n = 12), A. platys (n = 10), E. canis (n = 14) and A. platys, and E. canis (n = 11) seroreactive. Preoperatively, hemostasis was assessed by platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and buccal mucosal bleeding time. Intra- and postoperative bleeding scores were subjectively assigned. Blood, spleen, bone marrow, and lymph node aspirates were tested by PCR. Bleeding scores in dogs coseroreactive for A. platys and E. canis were higher (P = .015) than those of seronegative dogs. A. platys DNA was amplified from 7/21 (33%) A. platys seroreactive dogs and from 1 E. canis seroreactive dog; E. canis DNA was amplified from 21/25 (84%) E. canis seroreactive dogs. E. canis DNA was amplified most often from blood, whereas A. platys DNA was amplified most often from bone marrow. Apparently healthy, free-roaming dogs coseropositive for A. platys and E. canis may have increased intraoperative bleeding tendencies despite normal hemostatic parameters. Future investigations should explore the potential for vascular injury as a cause for bleeding in these dogs. Improved tick control is needed for dogs in Grenada. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. MLVA and LPS Characteristics of Brucella canis Isolated from Humans and Dogs in Zhejiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongri Piao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBrucella canis is a pathogenic bacterium that causes brucellosis in dogs, and its zoonotic potential has been increasing in recent years. B. canis is a rare source of human brucellosis in China, where Brucella melitensis has been the major pathogen associated with human brucellosis outbreaks. In late 2011, a case of a B. canis infection was detected in a human patient in Zhejiang Province, China. To compare the genotypes between strains of B. canis isolated from the patient and from dogs, a multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA-16 was performed. In addition, the lipopolysaccharide-synthesis-related genes were analyzed with the B. canis reference strain RM6/66.Results32 B. canis strains were divided into 26 genotypes using MLVA-16 [Hunter-Gaston Diversity Index (HGDI = 0.976]. The HGDI indexes for various loci ranged between 0.000 and 0.865. All four Hangzhou isolates were indistinguishable using panel 1 (genotype 3 and panel 2A (genotype 28. However, these strains were distinctly different from other isolates from Beijing, Jiangsu, Liaoning, and Inner Mongolia at Bruce 09. The emergence of a human B. canis infection was limited to an area. Comparative analysis indicated B. canis from canines and humans have no differences in lipopolysaccharide-synthesis locus.ConclusionThe comprehensive approaches have been used to analyze human and canine B. canis isolates, including molecular epidemiological and LPS genetic characteristics. Further detailed analysis of the whole genomic sequencing will contribute to understanding of the pathogenicity of B. canis in humans.

  1. High throughput pyrosequencing technology for molecular differential detection of Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in canine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkong, Worasak; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Kongklieng, Amornmas; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-06-01

    Canine babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis are tick-borne diseases caused by different hemopathogens. These diseases are causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs. The classic method for parasite detection and differentiation is based on microscopic observation of blood smears. The limitations of the microscopic method are that its performance requires a specially qualified person with professional competence, and it is ineffective in differentiating closely related species. This study applied PCR amplification with high throughput pyrosequencing for molecular differential detection of the following 4 hemoparasites common to tropical areas in dog blood samples: Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma platys. PCR was initially used to amplify specific target regions of the ribosomal RNA genes of each parasite using 2 primer pairs that included 18S rRNA for protozoa (B. vogeli and H. canis) and 16S rRNA for rickettsia (E. canis and A. platys). Babesia vogeli and H. canis were discriminated using 9 nucleotide positions out of 30 base pairs, whereas E. canis and A. platys were differentiated using 15 nucleotide positions out of 34 base pairs that were determined from regions adjacent to 3' ends of the sequencing primers. This method provides a challenging alternative for a rapid diagnosis and surveillance of these tick-borne diseases in canines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. The evolutionary state of the Beta Canis Majoris variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobbrook, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    New β photometry is presented for all the known β Canis Majoris variables and for other bright early B stars observable from the southern hemisphere which were close to the β CMa stars in a β/[c 1 ] diagram published earlier. The new β values are accurate to +- 0.002 or 0.003 mag and enable the 'instability strip' along which the variables lie to be defined much more precisely. Several of the other B stars also lie in the strip; most of these have already been found to be non-variable in a subsidiary observing programme. (author)

  3. Astrometry of red supergiant VY Canis Majoris with VERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y. K.; Hirota, T.; Honma, M.; Kobayashi, H.

    2008-07-01

    We present observational results on the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris with VERA. We have observed 22 GHz H2O masers and 43 GHz SiO masers (v=1 and 2 J=1-0) around VY CMa for 13 months. We succesfully detected a parallax of 0.87 ± 0.08 mas, corresponding to the distance of 1.15 +0.10-0.09 kpc using H2O masers. As the result of phase-referencing analyses, we have measured absolute positions for both H2O masers and SiO masers. The H2O maser features show rapid expansion off the central star.

  4. Close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson-Leander, G.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)

  5. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  6. Planet formation in Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Thebault, Ph.; Haghighipour, N.

    2014-01-01

    Spurred by the discovery of numerous exoplanets in multiple systems, binaries have become in recent years one of the main topics in planet formation research. Numerous studies have investigated to what extent the presence of a stellar companion can affect the planet formation process. Such studies have implications that can reach beyond the sole context of binaries, as they allow to test certain aspects of the planet formation scenario by submitting them to extreme environments. We review her...

  7. Demodicosis caused by Demodex canis and Demodex cornei in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C

    2015-12-01

    Two mongrel dogs aged between 7 and 9 months in a same house were presented to the clinics with a history of chronic dermatitis associated with pruritus. Clinical examination revealed presence of primary and secondary skin lesions on the face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex cornei (majority) and D. canis (minority) in both the dogs. By using hair pluck examination D. canis were detected and by tape impression smears examination large number of adult short-tail Demodex mites were found. D. cornei was identified by based on the morphological characters including short opisthosoma with blind and round terminal end. Mean length of total body, opisthosoma of both types of the mites were differed statistically significant (P  0.05). Dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin @ 500 μg/kg/day, external application of amitraz along with supportive therapy. After completion of 45 days of therapy dogs were recovered completely without any side effects.

  8. Large dust grains in the wind of VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicluna, P.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Wesson, R.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Kasper, M.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Wolf, S.

    2015-12-01

    Massive stars live short lives, losing large amounts of mass through their stellar wind. Their mass is a key factor determining how and when they explode as supernovae, enriching the interstellar medium with heavy elements and dust. During the red supergiant phase, mass-loss rates increase prodigiously, but the driving mechanism has proven elusive. Here we present high-contrast optical polarimetric-imaging observations of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris and its clumpy, dusty, mass-loss envelope, using the new extreme-adaptive-optics instrument SPHERE at the VLT. These observations allow us to make the first direct and unambiguous detection of submicron dust grains in the ejecta; we derive an average grain radius ~0.5 μm, 50 times larger than in the diffuse ISM, large enough to receive significant radiation pressure by photon scattering. We find evidence for varying grain sizes throughout the ejecta, highlighting the dynamical nature of the envelope. Grains with 0.5 μm sizes are likely to reach a safe distance from the eventual explosion of VY Canis Majoris; hence it may inject upwards of 10-2 M⊙ of dust into the ISM. Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program 60.A-9368(A).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Memory-Based Quantity Discrimination in Coyotes (Canis latrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salif Mahamane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that the ratio between competing quantities of food significantly mediates coyotes‘ (Canis latrans ability to choose the larger of two food options. These previous findings are consistent with predictions made by Weber‘s Law and indicate that coyotes possess quantity discrimination abilities that are similar to other species. Importantly, coyotes‘ discrimination abilities are similar to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris, indicating that quantitative discrimination may remain stable throughout certain species‘ evolution. However, while previously shown in two domestic dogs, it is unknown whether coyotes possess the ability to discriminate visual quantities from memory. Here, we address this question by displaying different ratios of food quantities to 14 coyotes before placing the choices out of sight. The coyotes were then allowed to select one of either non-visible food quantities. Coyotes‘ discrimination of quantity from memory does not follow Weber‘s Law in this particular task. These results suggest that working memory in coyotes may not be adapted to maintain information regarding quantity as well as in domestic dogs. The likelihood of a coyote‘s choosing the large option increased when it was presented with difficult ratios of food options first, before it was later presented with trials using more easily discriminable ratios, and when the large option was placed on one particular side. This suggests that learning or motivation increased across trials when coyotes experienced difficult ratios first, and that location of food may have been more salient in working memory than quantity of food.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxocara canis infection in tropical Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, N R; Eddy, K; Hodgen, A N; Lopez, R I; Turner, K J

    1988-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the seroprevalence of Toxocara canis infection in different socio-economic groups of the tropical population of Venezuela. The lack of definitive independent diagnostic criteria for toxocariasis required the establishment of operational upper limits of normality for Toxocara ELISA values, based upon their log-normalized distribution in a presumptive "non-toxocariasis" sub-population. Only 1.8% of urban subjects of medium-high socio-economic level were considered to be clearly positive in Toxocara ELISA, compared to 20.0% of urban slum dwellers, 25.6% rural subsistence farmers and 34.9% Amazon Indians. As the test was performed using excretory-secretory antigen, and under conditions of competitive inhibition by soluble extracts of non-homologous parasites, co-infection by common intestinal helminths, protozoa or other organisms did not give rise to false positive results. However, strong cross-reactivity with Onchocerca volvulus may have influenced the prevalence figure obtained for the Amazon Indians. These results indicate that T. canis is yet another parasite that is widely distributed in economically underprivileged tropical populations.

  11. Prevalence of Demodex canis-positive healthy dogs at trichoscopic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondati, Alessandra; De Lucia, Michela; Furiani, Nicla; Monaco, Moira; Ordeix, Laura; Scarampella, Fabia

    2010-04-01

    Demodex canis is thought to be present in small numbers in the skin of most healthy dogs; however, available data on the prevalence of normal dogs harbouring D. canis are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate, using microscopic examination of plucked hairs, the prevalence of healthy dogs harbouring D. canis. Seventy-eight clinically healthy dogs with no history of dermatological problems and clinically normal skin and hair coat were included in the study. Five areas (perioral skin 2-3mm from both labial commissures, periungual skin of the third digit of both anterior paws and chin) were examined in each dog. Fifty to sixty hairs were plucked from each skin site and microscopically examined. No D. canis mites were observed and only one adult form of Demodex injai was found in the labial commissure of one dog. Based on these results, the estimated prevalence of healthy dogs harbouring D. canis in clinically normal skin should not exceed the threshold of 5.4%, with 95% confidence level. Considering our and previous findings, we propose that, although small numbers of D. canis might inhabit the skin of normal dogs, the probability of finding these mites in normal dogs is low. Consequently, in most cases, the presence of a D. canis mite in the skin should not be considered as indicative of normality.

  12. SCM-positive Streptococcus canis are predominant among pet-associated group G streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkühlen, Gerd-Josef; Pägelow, Dennis; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Fulde, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) canis is a neglected zoonotic pathogen with increasing impor- tance. Since knowledge about its distribution in pets in Germany is scant, we designed a study and tested 335 dogs and 71 cats for colonization by S. canis. S. canis was isolated from swabs taken from the perianal region by culture and subsequent identification was performed biochemically as well as by PCR. In total, 15.8% (53) of the canine and 8.5% (six) of the feline strains grown on Staphlyo- coccus/Streptococcus Selective Agar were tested positive for the Lancefield group G antigen. The vast majority of strains expressing the Lancefield Group G carbohy- drate (56 out of 59) were further identified as S. canis underlining their outstanding role among animal-associated Group G streptococci (GGS). Furthermore, 90.0% of the canine and 83.3% of the feline S. canis strains harbour the species-specific anti- phagocytic M protein homologue SCM, which has been described as an important virulence factor. In contrast, emm-genes typically encoded by human-specific GGS could not be detected in any of the S. canis isolates. Taken together, this study provides insights into the distribution of the neglected zoonotic pathogen S. canis in a population of pets in Germany. The presence of SCM in the vast majority of strains indicates their pathogenic potential.

  13. Molecular detection of Dirofilaria immitis, Hepatozoon canis, Babesia spp., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs on Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lanjing; Kelly, Patrick; Ackerson, Kate; El-Mahallawy, Heba S; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Wang, Chengming

    2014-03-01

    Although vector-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs in tropical areas, there is little information on these conditions in Costa Rica. In PCRs of blood from dogs in Costa Rica, we did not detect DNAs of Rickettsia (R.) felis and Coxiella (C.) burnetii but we did find evidence of infection with Dirofilaria (D.) immitis (9/40, 22.5%), Hepatozoon (H.) canis (15/40, 37.5%), Babesia spp. (10/40, 25%; 2 with B. gibsoni and 8 with B. vogeli), Anaplasma (A.) platys (3/40, 7.5%) and Ehrlichia (E.) canis (20/40, 50%). Nine dogs (22.5%) were free of any vector-borne pathogens while 14 (35%) were infected with a single pathogen, 11 (27.5%) with two, 4 (10%) with three, 1 (2.5%) with four, and 1 (2.5%) with five pathogens. Dogs in Costa Rica are commonly infected with vector-borne agents.

  14. Infestivity of Demodex canis to hamster skin engrafted onto SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Kenji; Une, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Adachi, Makoto; Kanda, Naoko; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Nakaichi, Munekazu; Taura, Yasuho

    2005-04-01

    We demonstrated that Demodex canis was transferred to skin xenografts of a dog and a hamster onto severe combined immunodeficiency mice. After the transfer of mites, the number of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites per gram of canine and hamster xenografts increased, whereas no live mites were detected on murine allograft. These results indicate that D. canis proliferates in hair follicles of dog and hamster skins but not in murine allograft. Therefore, D. canis may have host preference but not strict host-specificity.

  15. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  16. Modelling binary data

    CERN Document Server

    Collett, David

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Some Examples The Scope of this Book Use of Statistical Software STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR BINARY DATA The Binomial Distribution Inference about the Success Probability Comparison of Two Proportions Comparison of Two or More Proportions MODELS FOR BINARY AND BINOMIAL DATA Statistical Modelling Linear Models Methods of Estimation Fitting Linear Models to Binomial Data Models for Binomial Response Data The Linear Logistic Model Fitting the Linear Logistic Model to Binomial Data Goodness of Fit of a Linear Logistic Model Comparing Linear Logistic Models Linear Trend in Proportions Comparing Stimulus-Response Relationships Non-Convergence and Overfitting Some other Goodness of Fit Statistics Strategy for Model Selection Predicting a Binary Response Probability BIOASSAY AND SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS The Tolerance Distribution Estimating an Effective Dose Relative Potency Natural Response Non-Linear Logistic Regression Models Applications of the Complementary Log-Log Model MODEL CHECKING Definition of Re...

  17. Evolution of dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The conditions of mass exchange in close binary systems with masses of components less or equal to one solar mass have been analysed for the case, when the system radiates gravitational waves. It has been shown that the mass exchange rate depends in a certain way on the mass ratio of components and on the mass of component that fills its inner critical lobe. The comparison of observed periods, masses of contact components, and mass exchange rates of observed cataclysmic binaries have led to the conclusion that the evolution of close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G 61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves [ru

  18. Binary catalogue of exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard; Bazso, Akos; Zechner, Renate; Funk, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Since 1995 there is a database which list most of the known exoplanets (The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia at http://exoplanet.eu/). With the growing number of detected exoplanets in binary and multiple star systems it became more important to mark and to separate them into a new database, which is not available in the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Therefore we established an online database (which can be found at: http://www.univie.ac.at/adg/schwarz/multiple.html) for all known exoplanets in binary star systems and in addition for multiple star systems, which will be updated regularly and linked to the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. The binary catalogue of exoplanets is available online as data file and can be used for statistical purposes. Our database is divided into two parts: the data of the stars and the planets, given in a separate list. We describe also the different parameters of the exoplanetary systems and present some applications.

  19. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Duncan R

    2008-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 M ⊙ , a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric ( e = 0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-8.

  20. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  1. UW VLSI chip tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Neil

    1989-12-01

    We present a design for a low-cost, functional VLSI chip tester. It is based on the Apple MacIntosh II personal computer. It tests chips that have up to 128 pins. All pin drivers of the tester are bidirectional; each pin is programmed independently as an input or an output. The tester can test both static and dynamic chips. Rudimentary speed testing is provided. Chips are tested by executing C programs written by the user. A software library is provided for program development. Tests run under both the Mac Operating System and A/UX. The design is implemented using Xilinx Logic Cell Arrays. Price/performance tradeoffs are discussed.

  2. Dissipative binary collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The binary character of the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies in the exit channel has been observed under 30 MeV/n in medium and heavy systems. Measurements in light systems at energies approaching ∼ 100 MeV/nucleon as well as in very heavy systems have allowed to extend considerably the investigations of this binary process. Thus, the study of the Pb + Au system showed that the complete charge events indicated two distinct sources: the quasi-projectile and the quasi-target. The characteristics of these two sources are rather well reproduced by a trajectory computation which takes into account the Coulomb and nuclear forces and the friction appearing from the projectile-target interaction. The Wilczynski diagram is used to probe the correlation between the kinetic energy quenching and the deflecting angle. In case of the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon the diagram indicate dissipative binary collisions typical for low energies. This binary aspect was also detected in the systems Xe + Ag at 44 MeV/nucleon, 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. Thus, it was possible to reconstruct the quasi-projectile and to study its mass and excitation energy evolution as a function of the impact parameter. The dissipative binary collisions represent for the systems and energies under considerations the main contribution to the cross section. This does not implies that there are not other processes; particularly, the more or less complete fusion is also observed but with a low cross section which decreases with the increase of bombardment energy. More exclusive measurements with the INDRA detector on quasi-symmetric systems as Ar + KCl and Xe + Sn seem to confirm the importance of the binary collisions. The two source reconstruction of the Xe + Sn data at 50 MeV/nucleon reproduces the same behaviour as that observed in the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon

  3. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.

  4. Results from the Coded Aperture Neutron Imaging System (CANIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, Erik; Steele, John T.; Brennan, James S.; Hilton, Nathan R.; Marleau, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Because of their penetrating power, energetic neutrons and gamma rays (∼1 MeV) offer the best possibility of detecting highly shielded or distant special nuclear material (SNM). Of these, fast neutrons offer the greatest advantage due to their very low and well understood natural background. We are investigating a new approach to fast-neutron imaging- a coded aperture neutron imaging system (CANIS). Coded aperture neutron imaging should offer a highly efficient solution for improved detection speed, range, and sensitivity. We have demonstrated fast neutron and gamma ray imaging with several different configurations of coded masks patterns and detectors including an 'active' mask that is composed of neutron detectors. Here we describe our prototype detector and present some initial results from laboratory tests and demonstrations.

  5. Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2010-01-01

    Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

  6. [Diphyllobothrium pacificum (Nybelin,1931) margolis, 1956 in Canis familiaris from Chincha city, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, R; Tantaleán, M; Rojas, R

    2001-01-01

    In this communication is presented the finding of the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium pacificum, parasite of sea lions, in Canis familiaris (dog) in Chincha city, Peru. This is the first canine infection with D. pacificum in the South Peruvian coast.

  7. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara canis among Patients with Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su Jin; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Sun Hyun; Hong, Sung-Hee; You, Yong Sung; Kwon, Oh Woong; Kim, Hyeun Seung

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara canis in patients with uveitis. Patients with uveitis were examined. Serum antibodies to T. gondii and T. canis were tested by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done using blood and aqueous humor (AH). Ninety-eight patients were enrolled. Mean age was 43.5 ± 13.2 years. Six patients were seropositive for T. gondii with the following pattern: anterior uveitis, 1; posterior uveitis with retinitis, 2; pan uveitis, 2. One patient had a positive PCR result for T. gondii in AH, who showed panuveitis. Twenty-three patients were positive to serum IgG for T. canis with the following clinical manifestation: granuloma, 6; pigmented scar, 3; vitritis, 6--but none were PCR positive. T. gondii and T. canis are still important causes of uveitis. Ocular toxocariasis is not an uncommon cause of uveitis, even in adults.

  8. First isolation and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis in Costa Rica, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L E; Meneses, A I; Salazar, L; Jiménez, M; Romero, J J; Aguiar, D M; Labruna, M B; Dolz, G

    2011-08-01

    The present study investigated Ehrlichia species in blood samples from dogs suspected of clinical ehrlichiosis, using molecular and isolation techniques in cell culture. From a total of 310 canine blood samples analyzed by 16S rRNA nested PCR, 148 (47.7%) were positive for Ehrlichia canis. DNA from Ehrlichia chaffeensis or Ehrlichia ewingii was not detected in any sample using species-specific primers in separated reactions. Leukocytes from five PCR-positive dogs were inoculated into DH82 cells; successful isolation of E. canis was obtained in four samples. Partial sequence of the dsb gene of eight canine blood samples (including the five samples for in vitro isolation) was obtained by PCR and their analyses through BLAST showed 100% of identity with the corresponding sequence of E. canis in GenBank. This study represents the first molecular diagnosis, isolation, and molecular characterization of E. canis in dogs from Costa Rica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Z; Sréter-Lancz, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus were reported from Hungary. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of pathogens transmitted by R. sanguineus in a sentinel species, red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary and to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems. Fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out of all the foxes of Hungary. The spleen samples of the animals were tested by real-time PCR for Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, E. canis and H. canis infection. Positive results were confirmed by conventional PCR followed by sequencing. The prevalence of H. canis infection was 22.2% (95% CI=18.4-26.4%), and this parasite was detected in all areas including the mountain regions of Hungary. These findings indicate that other tick species or other transmission routes (oral and transplacental) might be in the background of the countrywide distribution of H. canis. Anaplasma platys was not found; nevertheless, the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection transmitted by Ixodes ricinus was 12.5% (95% CI=9.7-16.1%) in foxes. B. vogeli and E. canis infection was not detected. There was no correlation between environmental parameter values in the home range of foxes and A. phagocytophilum or H. canis infection, which is in line with that observed in the case of tick species infesting foxes in Hungary. The results of this study indicate that R. sanguineus, if present, might be rare in Hungary. Our baseline study can be used for future evaluation of the effect of climate change on the spreading and emergence of R. sanguineus transmitted pathogens in Hungary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Transstadial Transmission of Hepatozoon canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, M; Özübek, S

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated possible transovarial and transstadial transmission of Hepatozoon canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks collected from naturally infected dogs in a municipal dog shelter and the grounds of the shelter. Four hundred sixty-five engorged nymphs were collected from 16 stray dogs that were found to be infected with H. canis by blood smear and PCR analyses and maintained in an incubator at 28 °C for moulting. Four hundred eighteen nymphs moulted to adults 14-16 d post collection. Unfed ticks from the shelter grounds comprised 1,500 larvae, 2,100 nymphs, and 85 adults; were sorted according to origin, developmental stage, and sex into 117 pools; and screened by 18S rRNA PCR for Hepatozoon infection. Of 60 adult tick pools examined, 51 were infected with H. canis. The overall maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of infection rate was calculated as 21.0% (CI 15.80-28.21). Hepatozoon canis was detected in 31 out of 33 female pools (MLE 26.96%, CI 17.64-44.33) and 20 out of 27 male pools (MLE 14.82%, CI 20.15-46.41). Among 42 unfed nymph pools collected from the shelter, 26 were infected with H. canis, and MLE of infection was calculated as 1.9% (CI 1.25-2.77). No H. canis DNA was detected in any of the gDNA pools consisting of larva specimens. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene shared 99-100% similarity with the corresponding H. canis isolates. Our results revealed the transstadial transmission of H. canis by R. sanguineus, both from larva to nymph and from nymph to adult, in field conditions. However, there were no evidence of transovarial transmission. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Characterization of the genetic variability of field strains of Brucella canis isolated in Antioquia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Arboleda, Juana L; Ortiz Roman, Luisa F; Olivera Angel, Martha

    2017-12-22

    Brucella canis is a facultative intracellular pathogen responsible for canine brucellosis, a zoonotic disease that affects canines, causing abortions and reproductive failure; and the production of non-specific symptoms in humans. In 2005 the presence of B. canis in Antioquia was demonstrated and the strains were identified as type 2. The sequencing of the genome of a field strain denoted Brucella canis str. Oliveri, showed species-specific indel events, which led us to investigate the genomic characteristics of the B. canis strain isolated and to establish the phylogenetic relationships and the divergence time of B. canis str. Oliveri. Conventional PCR sequencing was performed in 30 field strains identifying 5 indel events recognized in B. canis str. Oliveri. ADN from Brucella suis, Brucella melitensis and vaccine strains from Brucella abortus were used as control, and it was determined that all of the studied field strains shared 4 out of the 5 indels of the sequenced Oliveri strain, indicating the presence of more than one strain circulating in the region. Phylogenetic analysis was performed with 24 strains of Brucella using concatenated sequences of genetic markers for species differentiation. The molecular clock hypothesis and Tajima's relative rate test were tested, showing that the Oliveri strain, similarly to other canis species, diverged from B. suis. The molecular clock hypothesis between Brucella species was rejected and an evolution rate and a similar genetic distance between the B. canis were demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  13. Modifications to LLNL Plutonium Packaging Systems (PuPS) to achieve ASME VIII UW-13.2(d) Requirements for the DOE Standard 3013-00 Outer Can Weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D; Dodson, K

    2001-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Packaging System (PuPS) prepares packages to meet the DOE Standard 3013 (Reference 1). The PuPS equipment was supplied by the British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL). The DOE Standard 3013 requires that the welding of the Outer Can meets ASME Section VIII Division 1 (Reference 2). ASME Section VIII references to ASME Section IX (Reference 3) for most of the welding requirements, but UW-13.2 (d) of Section VIII requires a certain depth and width of the weld. In this document the UW-13.2(d) requirement is described as the (a+b)/2t s ratio. This ratio has to be greater than or equal to one to meet the requirements of UW-13.2(d). The Outer Can welds had not been meeting this requirement. Three methods are being followed to resolve this issue: (1) Modify the welding parameters to achieve the requirement, (2) Submit a weld case to ASME that changes the UW-13.2(d) requirement for their review and approval, and (3) Change the requirements in the DOE-STD-3013. Each of these methods are being pursued. This report addresses how the first method was addressed for the LLNL PuPS. The experimental work involved adjusting the Outer Can rotational speed and the power applied to the can. These adjustments resulted in being able to achieve the ASME VIII, UW-13.2(d) requirement

  14. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  15. Binary tense and modality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.; Verkuyl, H.J

    2014-01-01

    The present paper adopts as its point of departure the claim by Te Winkel (1866) and Verkuyl (2008) that mental temporal representations are built on the basis of three binary oppositions: Present/Past, Synchronous/Posterior and Imperfect/Perfect. Te Winkel took the second opposition in terms of the

  16. N-Bit Binary Resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping

    1989-01-01

    Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.

  17. Transstadial transmission of Hepatozoon canis from larvae to nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Alessio; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Mencke, Norbert; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    Hepatozoon canis is an apicomplexan parasite of dogs, which is known to become infected by ingesting Rhipicephalus sanguineus adult ticks. To investigate the possibility of H. canis transovarial and transstadial transmission from larvae to nymphs, engorged adult female ticks were collected from a private animal shelter in southern Italy, where H. canis infection is highly prevalent. Female ticks (n=35) and egg batches were tested by PCR for H. canis. All eggs examined were PCR-negative whereas 88.6% of females from the environment tested positive. Additionally, fed larvae (n=120) from a dog naturally infected by H. canis were dissected at different time points post collection (i.e. 0, 10, 20 and 30 days). Molted nymphs dissected at 20 days post collection revealed immature oocysts displaying an amorphous central structure in 50% of the specimens, and oocysts containing sporocysts with sporozoites were found in 53.3% of the nymphs dissected at 30 days post collection. This study demonstrates that H. canis is not transmitted transovarially, but it is transmitted transstadially from larvae to nymphs of R. sanguineus and develops sporozoites in oocysts that may infect dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis detected in samples of human blood bank donors in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza-Mora, Laura; Dolz, Gaby; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the detection and identification of DNA and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in samples of blood bank donors in Costa Rica using molecular and serological techniques. Presence of Ehrlichia canis was determined in 10 (3.6%) out of 280 blood samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ehrlichial dsb conserved gene. Analysis of the ehrlichial trp36 polymorphic gene in these 10 samples revealed substantial polymorphism among the E. canis genotypes, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. Nucleotide sequences of dsb and trp36 amplicons revealed a novel genotype of E. canis in blood bank donors from Costa Rica. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detected antibodies in 35 (35%) of 100 serum samples evaluated. Thirty samples showed low endpoint titers (64-256) to E. canis, whereas five sera yielded high endpoint titers (1024-8192); these five samples were also E. canis-PCR positive. These findings represent the first report of the presence of E. canis in humans in Central America. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. The True Ultracool Binary Fraction Using Spectral Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle; Gelino, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Brown dwarfs bridge the gap between stars and giant planets. While the essential mechanisms governing their formation are not well constrained, binary statistics are a direct outcome of the formation process, and thus provide a means to test formation theories. Observational constraints on the brown dwarf binary fraction place it at 10 ‑ 20%, dominated by imaging studies (85% of systems) with the most common separation at 4 AU. This coincides with the resolution limit of state-of-the-art imaging techniques, suggesting that the binary fraction is underestimated. We have developed a separation-independent method to identify and characterize tightly-separated (dwarfs as spectral binaries by identifying traces of methane in the spectra of late-M and early-L dwarfs. Imaging follow-up of 17 spectral binaries yielded 3 (18%) resolved systems, corroborating the observed binary fraction, but 5 (29%) known binaries were missed, reinforcing the hypothesis that the short-separation systems are undercounted. In order to find the true binary fraction of brown dwarfs, we have compiled a volume-limited, spectroscopic sample of M7-L5 dwarfs and searched for T dwarf companions. In the 25 pc volume, 4 candidates were found, three of which are already confirmed, leading to a spectral binary fraction of 0.95 ± 0.50%, albeit for a specific combination of spectral types. To extract the true binary fraction and determine the biases of the spectral binary method, we have produced a binary population simulation based on different assumptions of the mass function, age distribution, evolutionary models and mass ratio distribution. Applying the correction fraction resulting from this method to the observed spectral binary fraction yields a true binary fraction of 27 ± 4%, which is roughly within 1σ of the binary fraction obtained from high resolution imaging studies, radial velocity and astrometric monitoring. This method can be extended to identify giant planet companions to young brown

  20. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  1. Size‐assortative choice and mate availability influences hybridization between red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Joseph W.; Gittleman, John L.; van Manen, Frank T.; Chamberlain, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic hybridization of historically isolated taxa has become a primary conservation challenge for many imperiled species. Indeed, hybridization between red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) poses a significant challenge to red wolf recovery. We considered seven hypotheses to assess factors influencing hybridization between red wolves and coyotes via pair‐bonding between the two species. Because long‐term monogamy and defense of all‐purpose territories are core characteristics of both species, mate choice has long‐term consequences. Therefore, red wolves may choose similar‐sized mates to acquire partners that behave similarly to themselves in the use of space and diet. We observed multiple factors influencing breeding pair formation by red wolves and found that most wolves paired with similar‐sized conspecifics and wolves that formed congeneric pairs with nonwolves (coyotes and hybrids) were mostly female wolves, the smaller of the two sexes. Additionally, we observed that lower red wolf abundance relative to nonwolves and the absence of helpers increased the probability that wolves consorted with nonwolves. However, successful pairings between red wolves and nonwolves were associated with wolves that maintained small home ranges. Behaviors associated with territoriality are energetically demanding and behaviors (e.g., aggressive interactions, foraging, and space use) involved in maintaining territories are influenced by body size. Consequently, we propose the hypothesis that size disparities between consorting red wolves and coyotes influence positive assortative mating and may represent a reproductive barrier between the two species. We offer that it may be possible to maintain wild populations of red wolves in the presence of coyotes if management strategies increase red wolf abundance on the landscape by mitigating key threats, such as human‐caused mortality and hybridization with coyotes. Increasing red wolf abundance would

  2. Brucella canis: inquéritos sorológico e bacteriológico em população felina Brucella canis: serological and bacteriological surveys in the feline population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available De 134 soros de felinos domésticos examinados pela prova de soroaglutinação lenta em tubos, 4 (3% foram positivos para Brucella canis, todos com título igual a 100. Não se obteve êxito na tentativa de isolamento de Brucella canis através de hemocultura desses animais.Of the 134 feline sera tested by tube agglutination test, 4 (3% were positive for Brucella canis antibodies, all with titer 100. It was not possible to isolate Brucella canis by blood culture in the case of these animals.

  3. HIGH-RESOLUTION INFRARED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE Z CANIS MAJORIS SYSTEM DURING QUIESCENCE AND OUTBURST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkley, Sasha; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Zimmerman, Neil; Brenner, Douglas [Astrophysics Department, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Rice, Emily L. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, 2800 Victory Bvld, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Burruss, Rick; Wallace, J. Kent; Cady, Eric; Zhai, Chengxing [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kraus, Adam L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109 (Australia); Beichman, Charles [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dekany, Richard [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Parry, Ian R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-01-20

    We present adaptive optics photometry and spectra in the JHKL bands along with high spectral resolution K-band spectroscopy for each component of the Z Canis Majoris system. Our high angular resolution photometry of this very young ({approx}<1 Myr) binary, comprised of an FU Ori object and a Herbig Ae/Be star, was gathered shortly after the 2008 outburst while our high-resolution spectroscopy was gathered during a quiescent phase. Our photometry conclusively determines that the outburst was due solely to the embedded Herbig Ae/Be member, supporting results from earlier works, and that the optically visible FU Ori component decreased slightly ({approx}30%) in luminosity during the same period, consistent with previous works on the variability of FU Ori type systems. Further, our high-resolution K-band spectra definitively demonstrate that the 2.294 {mu}m CO absorption feature seen in composite spectra of the system is due solely to the FU Ori component, while a prominent CO emission feature at the same wavelength, long suspected to be associated with the innermost regions of a circumstellar accretion disk, can be assigned to the Herbig Ae/Be member. These findings clarify previous analyses of the origin of the CO emission in this complex system.

  4. Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  5. Hepatozoon canis (James, 1905 in dogs from Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Reports of two cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vicente Mundim

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatozoon canis gametocytes, measuring 9,56 µm x 5,60 µm were identified in circulating leukocytes of two dogs admitted to the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Morulae of Ehrlichia canis were also found in circulating monocytes. The authors report the first occurrence of H. canis in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais state.

  6. Genetic and Antigenic Evidence Supports the Separation of Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum at the Species Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Barta, John R.; Shkap, Varda; Martin, Donald S.; Macintire, Douglass K.; Vincent-Johnson, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Recognition of Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum as distinct species was supported by the results of Western immunoblotting of canine anti-H. canis and anti-H. americanum sera against H. canis gamonts. Sequence analysis of 368 bases near the 3′ end of the 18S rRNA gene from each species revealed a pairwise difference of 13.59%. PMID:10699047

  7. Efficacy of Zingiber officinale ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity of Toxocara canis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Zingiber officinal e ( Z. officinal e) ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity Toxocara canis ( T. canis ) eggs. It was carried out both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiment, unembryonated T. canis eggs were incubated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL Z. officinal e extract at 25 °C for 6, 12, and 24 h to assess the effect of Z. officinal e on their viability and for two weeks to assess the effect of Z. officinal e on their embryogenesis. In vivo experiment was performed to assess the effect of Z. officinal e on infectivity of T. canis eggs. Treated embryonated eggs by Z. officinale extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL for 24 h were inoculated into mice and their livers were examined for the presence of T. canis larvae on the 7th day after infection and for histopathological evaluation at 14th day post-infection. Z. officinal e showed a significant ovicidal activity on T. canis eggs. The best effect was observed with 100 mg/mL concentration after 24 h with an efficacy of 98.2%. However, the treated eggs by 25, 50 mg/mL of Z. officinale extract after 24 h showed ovicidal activity by 59.22 and 82.5% respectively. Moreover, this extract effectively inhibited T. canis eggs embryogenesis by 99.64% and caused their degeneration at the concentration of 100 mg/mL after 2 weeks of treatment. However, the lower concentrations, 25 and 50 mg/mL inhibited embryogenesis by 51.19 and 78.57% respectively. The effect of Z. officinal e on the infectivity T. canis eggs was proven by the reduction of larvae recovery in the livers by 35.9, 62.8 and 89.5% in mice groups inoculated by Z. officinale treated eggs at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively. Histopathologically, the liver tissues of mice infected with Z. officinale treated eggs at the concentration of 100 mg/mL appeared healthy with slight degenerative changes of hepatocytes, opposite to that recorded in the infected mice

  8. Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decaprariis Donato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. Results A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling. In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season, the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively, with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8% out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. Conclusions The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to

  9. Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. Results A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling) and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling). In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season), the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively), with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8%) out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. Conclusions The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to blood smear evaluation

  10. A new PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of Babesia canis and Babesia vogeli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annoscia, Giada; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Olivieri, Emanuela; Manfredi, Maria Teresa; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2017-10-01

    Babesia spp. are globally distributed tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect the red blood cells of a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans. Diagnosis of babesiosis is often impeded by the transient presence of the parasites in peripheral blood, as well as by their pleomorphic nature. Given the reports of an expanding and, in some cases, sympatric geographical distribution of Babesia canis and Babesia vogeli in dogs and associated vectors, in Europe, the development of time-efficient and cost-effective diagnostic tools to detect and differentiate these two species is warranted. In this study, we designed and developed a novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the parasite cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of B. canis and B. vogeli. The analytical sensitivity of the PCR was evaluated using serial dilutions of genomic DNA extracted from individual and artificially mixed canine blood samples infected by B. canis (3×10 2 infected erythrocytes/ml, ie/ml) and B. vogeli (2.1×10 1 ie/ml). The analytical specificity of the assay was assessed using blood samples positive for Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia microti, Babesia rossi and Theileria annae (syn. Babesia vulpes). The clinical specificity of the PCR assay was evaluated on 147 blood samples from dogs and 128 tick specimens (Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato). Species-specific bands of the expected sizes (i.e., 750bp for B. canis and 450bp for B. vogeli), and two bands in the mixed blood samples were obtained. The PCR assay developed herein detected a low number of infected erythrocytes (i.e., 3×10 -2 B. canis, 2.1×10 -2 B. vogeli ie/ml). Of the 147 blood samples, nine (6.1%) were positive for B. canis and six (4.1%) for B. vogeli, whereas only one tick (D. reticulatus) was positive for B. canis. This PCR assay represents a rapid and reliable tool for the diagnosis of B

  11. Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Weigl, Stefania; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Stanneck, Dorothee; Decaprariis, Donato; Capelli, Gioia; Baneth, Gad

    2011-04-13

    Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling) and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling). In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season), the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively), with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8%) out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to blood smear evaluation. This study has also demonstrated

  12. Processing Of Binary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H. S.

    1985-07-01

    An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

  13. First molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Róbert; Solymosi, Norbert; Takács, Nóra; Hornyák, Ákos; Hornok, Sándor; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Baneth, Gad

    2014-07-02

    Recently, Hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of Hungary, which is considered to be free of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with Croatia. The aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of H. canis in Hungary. A conventional PCR was used to amplify a 666 bp long fragment of the Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene from blood samples collected from 334 foxes shot in 231 locations in 16 counties and 15 golden jackals shot in 9 locations in two southwestern counties close to Croatia. A second PCR assay was performed in some of the samples positive by the first PCR to amplify a larger segment (approximately 1500 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. for further phylogenetic analysis. Hepatozoon infection was detected in canids shot in 30 locations and 9 counties. Altogether 26 foxes (8.0%, 95% CI: 5-11%) and 9 jackals (60%, 95% CI: 33-81%) were PCR positive. Hepatozoon canis sequences were obtained from 12 foxes and 7 jackals. DNA sequences from 16 animals were 99-100% similar to H. canis from Croatian foxes or dogs while two of the sequences were 99% similar to an Italian fox. Half (13/26) of the infected red foxes and all golden jackals were shot in the two southwestern counties. This is the first report on molecular evidence of H. canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Hungary, which is considered free from the tick vector of H. canis, R. sanguineus. Although no R. sanguineus sensu lato had been found on infected or non-infected wild canids, the detection of authochnous canine hepatozoonosis in Hungary might imply that the range of R. sanguineus sensu lato has reached this country.

  14. Digital gene expression analysis of Microsporum canis exposed to berberine chloride.

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    Chen-Wen Xiao

    Full Text Available Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid of many medicinal herbs, has an active function against a variety of microbial infections including Microsporum canis (M. canis. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the effect of berberine chloride on M. canis infection, a Digital Gene Expression (DGE tag profiling was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the M. canis cellular responses upon berberine treatment was performed. Illumina/Hisseq sequencing technique was used to generate the data of gene expression profile, and the following enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO and Pathway function were conducted based on the data of transcriptome. The results of DGE showed that there were 8476945, 14256722, 7708575, 5669955, 6565513 and 9303468 tags respectively, which was obtained from M. canis incubated with berberine or control DMSO. 8,783 genes were totally mapped, and 1,890 genes have shown significant changes between the two groups. 1,030 genes were up-regulated and 860 genes were down-regulated (P<0.05 in berberine treated group compared to the control group. Besides, twenty-three GO terms were identified by Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis, such as calcium-transporting ATPase activity, 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process, valine catabolic process, peroxisome and unfolded protein binding. Pathway significant enrichment analysis indicated 6 signaling pathways that are significant, including steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, Parkinson's disease, 2,4-Dichlorobenzoate degradation, and tropane, piperidine and Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. Among these, eleven selected genes were further verified by qRT-PCR. Our findings provide a comprehensive view on the gene expression profile of M. canis upon berberine treatment, and shed light on its complicated effects on M. canis.

  15. A golden jackal (Canis aureus) from Austria bearing Hepatozoon canis--import due to immigration into a non-endemic area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Richter, Barbara; Suchentrunk, Franz

    2013-02-01

    The protozoan Hepatozoon canis, which is transmitted via ingestion of infected ticks by canine hosts, is not endemic to mid-latitude regions in Europe. Its distribution is supposed to be linked to the occurrence of its primary tick vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A young male golden jackal (Canis aureus) found as road kill close to Vienna, Austria, was infected by this pathogen. Cloning and sequencing of the PCR product revealed 6 different haplotypes of H. canis. Based on the sequences, no clear relationship to the origin of infection could be traced. This is the first report of H. canis for Austria, and wild canines such as the currently found jackal may provide a source of natural spread of this parasite into non-endemic areas. This natural immigration of wild animals represents a way of pathogen introduction, which has to be considered in disease prevention in addition to human-made introduction due to animal import and export. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Critical analysis of vector-borne infections in dogs: Babesia vogeli, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Lachhman Das; Sumbria, Deepak; Mandhotra, Ajay; Bal, M S; Kaur, Paramjit

    2016-12-01

    There are few published studies on various vector borne diseases of dogs in India and most depict clinical infection in dogs, diagnosed by observation of the haemopathogens in stained blood smears. This study provides the first report regarding molecular confirmation and ancestral relationship analysis of blood smears positive cases of assorted haemopathogens in Punjab province of India. On blood smear examination, haemopathogens were observed in 124 out of 778 (15.95%, 95% CI: 13.53- 18.68) blood smears. Further polymerase chain reactions (PCR) was used on bloods smear positive cases to validate the results. Out of 778 blood samples, Babesia gibsoni was most common parasite infecting dogs (15.04%, 95% CI: 12.7-17.72), followed by Ehrlichia canis (0.39%, 95% CI: 0.0-1.13), infection of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis was same (0.26%, 95% CI: 0.0-0.9). Among various risk factors studied (age, sex, season), prevalence of infection was non-significantly higher in 1-2 year of age group (19.88%, 95% CI: 14.45-26.71), regarding sex same prevalence was recorded (15.94%), and chances of infection was highest in pre-monsoon i.e. summer (18.26%, 95% CI: 14.49-22.76). Phylogenetic analysis revealed ancestral background of Ludhiana isolates of B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, H. canis, and E. canis with the isolates of Philippines, Mongolia and Tunisia.

  17. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

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    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  18. Detecção molecular de Ehrlichia canis e Babesia canis vogeli em Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato de carrapatos em Cuba

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    Maylin Gonzalez Navarrete

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Os carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae são de importância médica e veterinária relevantes em todo o mundo por causa da variedade de agentes patogênicos que podem transmitir. No presente trabalho, foi realizada uma pesquisa para identificar Babesia spp. e Ehrlichia spp. em carrapatos coletados de cães de Cuba. Foram coletados 431 carrapatos de 378 cães, tendo sido identificados como pertencentes às espécies de Ripicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s. 1. O DNA genômico foi extraído com protocolo usando fenol/clorofórmio. Os carrapatos foram organizados em “pools” e o DNA extraído foi testado pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (nPCR para amplificar 398 pares de bases (pb do DNA ribossômico 16S (rDNA de Ehrlichia canis e PCR para amplificar aproximadamente 560 pb do DNA ribossômico 18S (rDNA. Dos 49 pools testados, 8,16% (n = 4/49 foram positivos para o E. canis por nPCR visando o gene do 16S rDNA e apenas um pool (n = 1/49; 2,04% foi positivo para o gene 18S rDNA para Babesia canis. As quatro sequências obtidas para o fragmento de 16S rDNA foram idênticas entre si e resultaram em 100% de identidade com E. canis de diferentes países. A sequência obtida do gene do 18S rDNA para Babesia spp. apresentou semelhança de 100% com Babesia canis vogeli quando comparada às sequências depositadas no Genbank. Esta foi a primeira detecção molecular desses agentes no carrapato R. sanguineus s. l. em Cuba.

  19. [Dog (Canis familiaris) infectivity to Lutzomyia youngi in Trujillo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Dalila; Rojas, Elina; Scorza, José Vicente; Jorquera, Alicia

    2006-10-01

    In Trujillo, Venezuela the prevalence for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is 38 per 100,000 inhabitants. In a periurban, rural settlement of the capital city Trujillo, we studied the potential capability of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) as a source of infection for Lutzomyia youngi, a phlebotomine sand fly species abundant in the study area and whose domestic vectorial activity has been proven. Dogs with dermal lesions suggestive of ATL and parasitological confirmation of infection, were selected for xenodiagnosis by allowing sylvatic phlebotomines from a ATL free area, to feed ad libitum over each animal's entire body surface. The insects' intestinal tracts were dissected 5 days after the blood meal in order to look for flagellate forms. When these were found, parasitological identification was performed by the multiplex-PCR technique. Four hundred and fifty five sand flies engorged over two dogs in three different assays; promastigotes were found in 4 (0.88%) of the specimens on only one occasion. PCR identified DNA of the Leishmania Viannia subgenus. The household dog has the potential of being a domestic risk factor in the ATL transmission cycle.

  20. Accounts of famous North American Wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    We examined historical accounts of 59 famous North American Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) reported during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Fifty of the 59 wolves were purportedly responsible for great losses to livestock, but for 29 reports, evidence suggested that ???2 wolves (e.g., packs) were responsible for the purported kills; in addition, seven wolves had traits that suggested they were hybrids with dogs, and one wolf was probably not from the area where the damage purportedly occurred. Reported livestock losses, especially to Longhorn cattle, from individual wolves appeared excessively high in relation to current literature. Most famous wolves were old and/or impaired from past injuries: 19 were reportedly ???10 years old, 18 had mutilated feet from past trap injuries, and one had a partially severed trachea from being in a snare. Old age and physical impairments probably contributed to livestock depredations by some famous wolves. Several accounts appeared exaggerated, inaccurate, or fabricated. Historical accounts of famous wolves should be interpreted with great caution, especially when considering impacts of wolf reintroductions or when modeling predation rates.

  1. Helminth parasites in the endangered Ethiopian wolf, Canis simensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, F; Piggott, K J; Bengui, T; Kubri, S B; Mastin, A; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Paris, M; Millar, R P; Macdonald, D W; Shiferaw, F; Craig, P S

    2015-07-01

    Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, are an endangered carnivore endemic to the Ethiopian highlands. Although previous studies have focused on aspects of Ethiopian wolf biology, including diet, territoriality, reproduction and infectious diseases such as rabies, little is known of their helminth parasites. In the current study, faecal samples were collected from 94 wild Ethiopian wolves in the Bale Mountains of southern Ethiopia, between August 2008 and February 2010, and were screened for the presence of helminth eggs using a semi-quantitative volumetric dilution method with microscopy. We found that 66 of the 94 faecal samples (70.2%) contained eggs from at least one group of helminths, including Capillaria, Toxocara, Trichuris, ancylostomatids, Hymenolepis and taeniids. Eggs of Capillaria sp. were found most commonly, followed by Trichuris sp., ancylostomatid species and Toxocara species. Three samples contained Hymenolepis sp. eggs, which were likely artefacts from ingested prey species. Four samples contained taeniid eggs, one of which was copro-polymerase chain reaction (copro-PCR) and sequence positive for Echinococcus granulosus, suggesting a spillover from a domestic parasite cycle into this wildlife species. Associations between presence/absence of Capillaria, Toxocara and Trichuris eggs were found; and egg burdens of Toxocara and ancylostomatids were found to be associated with geographical location and sampling season.

  2. Where and How Wolves (Canis lupus Kill Beavers (Castor canadensis.

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    Thomas D Gable

    Full Text Available Beavers (Castor canadensis can be a significant prey item for wolves (Canis lupus in boreal ecosystems due to their abundance and vulnerability on land. How wolves hunt beavers in these systems is largely unknown, however, because observing predation is challenging. We inferred how wolves hunt beavers by identifying kill sites using clusters of locations from GPS-collared wolves in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. We identified 22 sites where wolves from 4 different packs killed beavers. We classified these kill sites into 8 categories based on the beaver-habitat type near which each kill occurred. Seasonal variation existed in types of kill sites as 7 of 12 (58% kills in the spring occurred at sites below dams and on shorelines, and 8 of 10 (80% kills in the fall occurred near feeding trails and canals. From these kill sites we deduced that the typical hunting strategy has 3 components: 1 waiting near areas of high beaver use (e.g., feeding trails until a beaver comes near shore or ashore, 2 using vegetation, the dam, or other habitat features for concealment, and 3 immediately attacking the beaver, or ambushing the beaver by cutting off access to water. By identifying kill sites and inferring hunting behavior we have provided the most complete description available of how and where wolves hunt and kill beavers.

  3. Detection and molecular identification of Hepatozoon canis and Babesia vogeli from domestic dogs in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Kifaya; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Abdelkader, Ahmad; Zaid, Taher; Ereqat, Suheir; Sawalha, Samer S; Baneth, Gad; Abdeen, Ziad

    2017-04-01

    Dogs serve as hosts for a great number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. This study aimed to observe tick borne pathogens in dogs from Palestine including Hepatozoon canis and Babesia species. The prevalence of both H. canis and Babesia species infections in apparently healthy dogs, from ten districts of the West Bank was surveyed. DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from dogs (n = 362) and ticks (n = 213) collected from dogs (n = 77). A primer set that amplifies a partial sequence of the Babesia and Hepatozoon 18S rRNA gene was used for PCR and the DNA sequences of the PCR products of all samples were determined. Twenty-nine (8·0%) of the dogs were found infected including 20 with H. canis (5·5%), seven with Babesia vogeli (1·9%) and two with undefined Babesia spp. (0·6%). Twelve Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l ticks were pathogen-positive, including ten with H. canis (4·7%), one with B. vogeli (0·5%), and one with Hepatozoon felis (0·5%). The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens is circulating in the canine population in the surveyed region. This study is the first report on the prevalence of H. canis, B. vogeli and Babesia spp. in dogs in Palestine and its results will assist in the management of diseases associated with these blood parasites.

  4. Trichoderma virens as a biocontrol of Toxocara canis: In vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; da Silva Fonseca, Anelise Oliveira; Persici, Beatriz Maroneze; de Souza Silveira, Julia; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Pötter, Luciana; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel

    Microorganisms have been widely studied as biological control agents of parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Coprophagous arthropods, bacteria and fungi are among the different organisms evaluated as potential biological control agents. Nematophagous fungi capture and digest the free forms of nematodes in the soil. Due to its zoonotic potential, Toxocara canis have been brought to the attention of researchers. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of embryonated T. canis eggs exposed to the nematophagous fungus Trichoderma virens reduces parasite infection in experimental animals. Embryonated T. canis eggs were exposed to T. virens mycelium for 15 days at 25°C. Subsequently, 100 fungus-exposed eggs were orally administered to 20 Swiss mice. As a positive control, another 20 mice received 100 embryonated eggs that were not exposed to the fungus. After 48h, the animals were killed, and heart, lungs and liver were harvested for the recovery of larvae. The organs of the animals that received embryonated T. canis eggs exposed to the fungus showed a lower mean larval recovery when compared with the animals that received embryonated eggs without fungus exposure (p<0.05). The exposure of T. canis eggs to T. virens reduces the experimental infection, demonstrating the potential of this nematophagous fungus as a biocontrol agent. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Babesia canis vogeli infection in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Andreina C. Araujo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This study aimed to report the prevalence of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the urban and rural areas of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Serum and peripheral blood samples of 404 dogs were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and by blood smears, respectively. The presence of tick infestation was evaluated, and some specimens were submitted to DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The presence of antibodies anti-B. canis vogeli was determinate in 57.9% (234/404 of dogs. The direct detection of Babesia spp was obtained in 0.5% (2/404 dogs by visualization of intraerythrocytic forms. Infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato was observed in 54.5% (220/404 of dogs in both urban and rural areas. DNA of Babesia canis vogeli were obtained by PCR in 6% individual (3/50 and 8.7% of pool of ticks (7/80. The risk factors for the presence of anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies, as determined through the application of logistic regression models (P<0.05, were the following: medium breed size variables (P<0.001; contact with areas of forest (P=0.021; and access on the street (P=0.046. This study describes, for the first time, the confirmation of infection of B. canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil.

  6. Evidence of morphine like substance and μ-opioid receptor expression in Toxacara canis (Nematoda: Ascaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabi, Mostafa; Naem, Soraya; Imani, Mehdi; Dalirezh, Nowruz

    2016-01-01

    Toxocara canis (Nematoda: Ascaridae) is an intestinal nematode parasite of dogs, which can also cause disease in humans. Transmission to humans usually occurs because of direct contact with T. canis eggs present in soil contaminated with the feces of infected dogs. This nematode has extraordinary abilities to survive for many years in different tissues of vertebrates, and develop to maturity in the intestinal tract of its definitive host. Survival of parasitic nematodes within a host requires immune evasion using complicated pathways. Morphine-like substance, as well as opioids, which are known as down regulating agents, can modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, and let the parasite survives in their hosts. In the present study, we aimed to find evidences of morphine-like substance and µ-opiate receptor expression in T. canis , using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results indicated that T. canis produced morphine-like substances at the level of 2.31± 0.26 ng g -1 wet weight, and expressed µ-opiate receptor as in expected size of 441 bp. According to our findings, it was concluded that T. canis , benefits using morphine-like substance to modulate host immunity.

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of arginine kinase gene of Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Shivani; Samanta, S; Harish, D R; Sudhakar, N R; Raina, O K; Shantaveer, S B; Madhu, D N; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Toxocara canis is an important gastrointestinal nematode of dogs and also a causative agent of visceral larva migrans in humans. Arginine kinase (AK) gene is one of the important biomolecule of phosphagen kinase of T. canis which is emerging as an exciting novel diagnostic target in toxocarosis. The present study was carried out to clone and characterize AK gene of T. canis for future utilization as a diagnostic molecule. Total RNA was extracted from intact adult worms and reverse transcription was done with oligo dT primers to obtain complementary DNA (cDNA). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using cDNA as template with specific primers which amplified a product of 1,202 bp. The amplicon was cloned into pDrive cloning vector and clone was confirmed by colony PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis. Sequence analysis of the gene showed 99.8 and 77.9 % homology with the published AK gene of T. canis (EF015466.1) and Ascaris suum respectively. Structural analysis shown that the mature AK protein consist of 400 amino acids with a molecular wt of 45360.73 Da. Further expression studies are required for producing the recombinant protein for its evaluation in the diagnosis of T. canis infection in humans as well as in adult dogs.

  8. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  9. Particle acceleration in binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cygnus X-3 massive binary system is one of the powerful sources of radio and X-ray emission consisting of an accreting compact object, probably a black hole, with a Wolf-Rayet star companion. Based on the detections of ultra high energy gamma-rays by Kiel and Havera Park, Cygnus X-3 has been proposed to be one of the most powerful sources of charged cosmic ray particles in the Galaxy. The results of long-term observations of the Cyg X-3 binary at energies 800 GeV–85 TeV detected by SHALON in 1995 are presented with images, integral spectra and spectral energy distribution. The identification of source with Cygnus X-3 detected by SHALON was secured by the detection of its 4.8 hour orbital period in TeV gamma-rays. During the whole observation period of Cyg X-3 with SHALON significant flux increases were detected at energies above 0.8 TeV. These TeV flux increases are correlated with flaring activity at a lower energy range of X-ray and/or at observations of Fermi LAT as well as with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The variability of very high-energy gamma-radiation and correlation of radiation activity in the wide energy range can provide essential information on particle mechanism production up to very high energies. Whereas, modulation of very high energy emission connected to the orbital motion of the binary system, provides an understanding of the emission processes, nature and location of particle acceleration.

  10. Parametrics for Molecular Deuterium Concentrations in the Source Region of the UW-IEC Device Using an Ion Acoustic Wave Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, D. R.; Emmert, G. A.

    2007-11-01

    The ion source region of the UW-Inertial Electrostatic Confinement device is comprised of a filament assisted DC discharge plasma that exists between the wall of the IEC vacuum chamber and the grounded spherical steel grid that makes up the anode of the IEC device. A 0-dimensional rate equation calculation of the molecular deuterium ion species concentration has been applied utilizing varying primary electron energy, and neutral gas pressure. By propagating ion acoustic waves in the source region of the IEC device the concentrations of molecular deuterium ion species have been determined for these varying plasma conditions, and high D3^+ concentrations have been verified. This was done by utilizing the multi-species ion acoustic wave dispersion relation, which relates the phase speed of the multi-species ion acoustic wave, vph, to the sum in quadrature of the concentration weighted ion acoustic sound speeds of the individual ion species.

  11. Cross-infection between cats and cows: origin and control of Streptococcus canis mastitis in a dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikofsky, L L; Zadoks, R N

    2005-08-01

    Group G streptococci in animals usually belong to the species Streptococcus canis and are most commonly found in dogs and cats. Occasionally, Strep. canis is detected in milk from dairy cows. An outbreak of Strep. canis mastitis in a dairy herd is described. Based on results from bacterial culture and ribotyping, a cat with chronic sinusitis was the most likely source of the outbreak. Subsequent cow-to-cow transmission of Strep. canis was facilitated by poor udder health management, including use of a common udder cloth and failure to use postmilking teat disinfection. Infected cows had macroscopically normal udders and milk, but significantly higher somatic cell counts than Strep. canis-negative herd mates. The outbreak was controlled through antibiotic treatment of lactating cows, early dry-off with dry cow therapy, culling of infected animals, and implementation of standard mastitis prevention measures. Cure was significantly more likely in dry-treated cows (87.5%) and cows treated during lactation (67%) than in untreated cows (9%). Whereas mastitis due to group G streptococci or Strep. canis in dairy cows is usually limited to sporadic cases of environmental (canine or feline) origin, this case study shows that crossing of the host species barrier by Strep. canis may result in an outbreak of mastitis if management conditions are conducive to contagious transmission. In such a situation, measures that are successful in control of Strep. agalactiae can also be used to control Strep. canis mastitis.

  12. The dog mite, Demodex canis: prevalence, fungal co-infection, reactions to light, and hair follicle apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3.

  13. The infection of questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Vichová, Bronislavá; Slivinska, Kateryna; Werszko, Joanna; Didyk, Julia; Peťko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Akimov, Igor

    2014-08-29

    Tick occurrence was studied in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) during the August-October 2009-2012. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis by a PCR method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. The prevalence of infection with B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. The results present the first evidence of B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum in questing D. reticulatus ticks from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. They also reveal the presence of tick-borne disease foci in areas with no human activity, and confirm that they can be maintained in areas after a nuclear disaster with radioactive contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Mendoza, N.; Goyanes, S.; Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V.; Rubiolo, G.; Candal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 °C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 μm) and sample B (smaller than 50 μm). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of α-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing α-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 μm showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 μm. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  15. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Mendoza, N. [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V. [LBT, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA. Ciudad Universitaria, Pab1, C1428EGA CABA (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Prov. de Bs As (Argentina); Candal, R., E-mail: candal@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 3iA, Universidad de Gral. San Martin, San Martin, Prov. Bs As (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 Degree-Sign C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 {mu}m) and sample B (smaller than 50 {mu}m). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 {mu}m showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 {mu}m. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  16. Detection of Hepatozoon canis in the Brown Dog Tick and Domestic Dogs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Batah Kunalan; Low, Van Lun; Tan, Tiong Kai; Vinnie-Siow, Wei Yin; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Morvarid, Akhavan Rezaei; Azman, Adzzie Shazleen; Yeong, Yze Shiuan; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2018-05-17

    Hepatozoon canis has been widely reported in dogs. Its prevalence in ticks, however, has not been well-established. Here we determine the occurrence of Hepatozoon DNA in the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae) sensu lato (s.l.) and domestic dogs from Peninsular Malaysia using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on amplification of the 18S ribosomal RNA coding sequence. Our results revealed a relatively low prevalence of H. canis DNA in both R. sanguineus s.l. (0.7%) and dogs (3.33%). This study represents the first report of H. canis DNA in R. sanguineus s.l. in Malaysia, highlighting the risk of this infection in dogs.

  17. Rangelia vitalii and Hepatozoon canis coinfection in pampas fox Lycalopex gymnocercus from Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Lucas da Silva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rangelia vitalii is a haemoparasite that infects erythrocytes, white blood cells and the cytoplasm of endothelial cells of blood capillaries of canids in South America, and has been detected in both domestic dogs and sylvatic canids. Hepatozoon canis is a parasite that infects neutrophils and monocytes of many mammalian hosts. This study reports the infection of Lycalopex gymnocercus from Santa Catarina, Brazil, with R. vitalii and H. canis. The piroplasm was observed on both blood smears and molecular tests. Many large piroplasms were detected inside the erythrocytes, with round, oval, or teardrop-shaped organism, that occurred singly or in pairs. They had an abundant, pale blue cytoplasm and decentral dark red small nucleus. The animal was also infected with H. canis that was detected only by molecular tests. The majority of haematological and biochemistry parameters were within the reference values for domestic dog and wild canids.

  18. Rangelia vitalii and Hepatozoon canis coinfection in pampas fox Lycalopex gymnocercus from Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Regina Lucas da; Mattoso, Cláudio Roberto Scabelo; Costa, Adson; Saito, Mere Erika; Tchaicka, Lygia; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2018-05-24

    Rangelia vitalii is a haemoparasite that infects erythrocytes, white blood cells and the cytoplasm of endothelial cells of blood capillaries of canids in South America, and has been detected in both domestic dogs and sylvatic canids. Hepatozoon canis is a parasite that infects neutrophils and monocytes of many mammalian hosts. This study reports the infection of Lycalopex gymnocercus from Santa Catarina, Brazil, with R. vitalii and H. canis. The piroplasm was observed on both blood smears and molecular tests. Many large piroplasms were detected inside the erythrocytes, with round, oval, or teardrop-shaped organism, that occurred singly or in pairs. They had an abundant, pale blue cytoplasm and decentral dark red small nucleus. The animal was also infected with H. canis that was detected only by molecular tests. The majority of haematological and biochemistry parameters were within the reference values for domestic dog and wild canids.

  19. A case report: a dog with acute onset of Hepatozoon canis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Masato; Nakahara, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Uchimura, Masato; Sekiya, Zin; Setoguchi, Asuka; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2009-06-01

    We present a clinical overview of a dog with acute onset of Hepatozoon canis infection. A stray female beagle dog of unknown age was referred to Kagoshima University showing anemia. Blood tests revealed the presence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperproteinemia, polyclonal gammopathy, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase activities. In addition, capsule-like organisms were detected in the cytoplasm of approximately 50% of neutrophils in blood smears. H. canis infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing analyses. Amplified DNA fragments revealed 100% identity to the 18S ribosomal RNA gene of H. canis. The clinical symptoms improved after the administration of antibiotics. Hepatozoonosis in dogs is rare, but veterinarians should be alert to its possible acute onset.

  20. Establishment of Demodex canis on canine skin engrafted onto scid-beige mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, J L; Yager, J A; Barta, J R; Parker, W

    1996-12-01

    A small animal model of canine demodicosis is described. Normal canine skin was engrafted onto scid (severe combined immunodeficient)-beige mice, which lack functional B and T lymphocytes and have reduced natural killer cell activity. The xenografts were later infected with Demodex canis collected from a dog with demodicosis. At 30-112 days following infection, mites were seen histologically in the canine hair follicles of the engrafted skin. Demodex canis adults, nymphs, larvae, and eggs were present in samples macerated in sodium hydroxide. Mite infestations could not be demonstrated in the mouse skin, nor were mites passed from the infected graft to uninfected skin grafts on in-contact mice. This model may be utilized to assess the efficacy of miticidal treatments, to evaluate the importance of specific components of the immune response, and to study the biology of D. canis.

  1. Scanning electron microscopy description of a new species of Demodex canis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Y; Kawamura, Y; Inoue, I; Ishino, S

    2001-10-01

    Between 1997 and 1999, the prevalence of Demodex canis mites was determined in 150 dogs. In two dogs, we found two different species of mites; Demodex canis and another, unidentified, Demodex mite. The unidentified Demodex mite species had several different morphological features. First, it had a short opisthosoma and an obtuse end. In addition, the fourth coxisternal plate was rectangular and there was a band-like segmental plate between the fourth coxisternal plate and opisthosoma. Although all of the morphology and the development of male mites could not be investigated in this study, the location of the opisthosoma and the genital pore clearly differed from Demodex canis, suggesting that this unidentified mite is a new species.

  2. Konsentrasi Serum Anjing yang Optimum untuk Menumbuhkan dan Memelihara Babesia canis dalam Biakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuk Astyawati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of cultivation system in vitro is very important in the future study of Babesia canis. Theaim of this study was to cultivate B. canis in vitro using RPMI media with different concentration of dogsera. B. canis infected erythrocytes were collected from splenectomized infected dog. Parasites werecultivated with RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with normal dog sera at the concentration of 10%, 20%and 40%, the culture were then incubated in 5% CO2 , 37oC temperature for 17 days and subcultured every48 hours. The Percentage of Parasitized Erythrocytes (PPE in culture with 10% dog serum was significantlylower than those 20%, and 40% The used of 20% and 40 % sera were better than 10%. It is recommendedthat 40 % serum can be used for initiation phase of cultivation, whereas 20% concentration were used formaintenance of the culture.

  3. Molecular and histopathological detection of Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Luís; Cortes, Helder C E; Eyal, Osnat; Reis, Antónia; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Rodrigues, Paula A; Baneth, Gad

    2014-03-24

    Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan tick-borne pathogen of dogs and wild canids. Hepatozoon spp. have been reported to infect foxes in different continents and recent studies have mostly used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection and characterization of the infecting species. Surveying red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may contribute to better understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases, including hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis in domestic dogs. The present study investigated the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. by means of histopathology and molecular analysis of different tissues in red foxes from different parts of Portugal. Blood and tissues including bone marrow, heart, hind leg muscle, jejunum, kidney, liver, lung, popliteal or axillary lymph nodes, spleen and/or tongue were collected from 91 red foxes from eight districts in northern, central and southern Portugal. Tissues were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a ~650 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and the DNA products were sequenced. Hepatozoon canis was detected in 68 out of 90 foxes (75.6%) from all the sampled areas by PCR and sequencing. Histopathology revealed H. canis meronts similar in shape to those found in dogs in the bone marrow of 11 (23.4%) and in the spleen of two (4.3%) out of 47 foxes (p = 0.007). All the 11 foxes found positive by histopathology were also positive by PCR of bone marrow and/or blood. Positivity by PCR (83.0%) was significantly higher (p Hepatozoon canis was found to be highly prevalent in red fox populations from northern, central and southern Portugal. Detection of the parasite by histopathology was significantly less sensitive than by PCR. Red foxes are a presumptive reservoir of H. canis infection for domestic dogs.

  4. Neospora caninum and Ehrlichia canis co-infection in a dog with meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroch, Itamar; Baneth, Gad; Salant, Harold; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Berkowitz, Asaf; Shamir, Merav; Chai, Orit

    2018-06-01

    An 8-year-old mixed-breed dog was presented for acute, progressive weakness and ataxia, inappetence, and weight loss. The patient was mentally normal, but nonambulatory, with a right head tilt, right positional ventral strabismus, and slight head tremors. A neurologic lesion was localized to the cerebellum and right brainstem. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed a markedly increased protein concentration and mixed pleocytosis, with eosinophil predominance (44%), intracytoplasmic inclusions within eosinophils, consistent with Ehrlichia canis (E canis) morulae, and Toxoplasma gondii (T gondii) or Neospora caninum (N caninum) tachyzoites within eosinophils and monocytes. A serum indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was positive for N caninum (titer 1:12 800) and negative for T gondii. Both blood and CSF PCR results were N caninum- and E canis-positive and T gondii- and Anaplasma phagocytophilum-negative, and blood PCR, but not CSF PCR, was Hepatozoon canis-positive. The dog was treated for 30 days with clindamycin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, doxycycline, prednisone, and cephalosporin, but did not improve neurologically, and was euthanized. Brain histopathology showed moderate multifocal, subacute meningoencephalitis with necrosis and gliosis. The neurologic disease was mostly attributed to central nervous system (CNS) neosporosis, with the possible contribution of ehrlichiosis, which was likely a manifestation of blood-brain barrier disruption. Hepatozoonosis was probably a result or cause of underlying immunosuppression. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CNSN caninum and E canis co-infection detected by both CSF PCR and cytology and E canis morulae identified within CSF eosinophils. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  5. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts.

  6. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Arathy D S; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Ganta, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  7. Mortalidad por meningitis por Pasteurella canis. Oportunidades de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Ropero Vera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis bacteriana es una enfermedad importante de distribución mundial, causa mayor y sustancial de mortalidad y morbilidad en países en desarrollo. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS sostiene que la meningitis es una de las diez afecciones principales del ser humano y debe ser considerada como una emergencia infectológica; por eso es fundamental reconocer que esta enfermedad es causa de muerte en niños de todo el mundo, sin distinción de raza, nivel económico o sociocultural. Se realizó una investigación de caso en menor de 53 días de nacido, que cumplía con los criterios clínicos y de laboratorio compatible con meningitis bacteriana, con el propósito de analizar y fortalecer la toma de decisiones en salud pública por parte de la secretaría local de salud del municipio de Valledupar (Colombia. Entre los hallazgos se encontró antecedentes infecciosos en el menor, coloración de Gram y cultivo de LCR, en el que se identificó cocobacilos Gram negativos, que fueron aislados como agente causal Pasteurella canis. Este estudio pretende sensibilizar a los prestadores de salud para que cuenten con personal altamente capacitado para brindar tratamientos adecuados y prevenir complicaciones en la meningitis bacteriana en niños, y así disminuir la posibilidad de secuelas o muerte, tanto en pacientes con compromiso inmunológico o sin este.

  8. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in domestic dogs from Cuiabá, Brazil Detecção molecular de Hepatozoon canis e Babesia canis vogeli em cães domésticos de Cuiabá, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Granziera Spolidorio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to report for the first time infection by Hepatozoon spp. and Babesia spp. in 10 dogs from the city of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, central-western Brazil. A pair of primers that amplifies a 574 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA of Hepatozoon spp., and a pair of primers that amplifies a 551 bp fragment of the gene 18S rRNA for Babesia spp. were used. Six dogs were positive for Babesia spp., and 9 were positive for Hepatozoon spp. Co-infection of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. was seen in 5 dogs. Sequenced samples revealed 100% identity with B. canis vogeli, and H. canis. This is the first molecular detection of H. canis in domestic dogs from Cuiabá. Additionally, it is described for the first time the presence of B. canis vogeli circulating among dogs in Cuiabá.O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar pela primeira vez a infecção por Hepatozoon spp. e Babesia spp. em cães domésticos provenientes da cidade de Cuiabá, estado de Mato Grosso. Foram utilizados pares de primers que amplificam um fragmento de 574 pb do gene 18S rRNA de Hepatozoon spp., e 551 pb do gene 18S rRNA para Babesia spp. Dos 10 cães amostrados, 6 apresentaram-se positivos para Babesia spp., e 9 foram positivos para Hepatozoon spp. pela PCR. Co-infecção entre Babesia spp. e Hepatozoon spp. ocorreu em 5 cães. As amostras revelaram 100% de identidade com B. canis vogeli, e as amostras que foram positivas para Hepatozoon spp. foram 100% idênticas a H. canis. Esta é a primeira identificação molecular de H. canis em cães domésticos em Cuiabá. Adicionalmente, descrevemos pela primeira vez a presença de B. canis vogeli circulando entre cães em Cuiabá.

  9. Serum Zinc, Iron and Copper Concentrations in Dogs Infected with Hepatozoon canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Seyrek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging infection with a large number of cases detected during the past five years. In the present study, serum zinc, copper and iron concentrations of dogs infected with Hepatozoon canis were measured for the first time. Compared to the controls (n = 10, serum zinc and iron concentrations in infected animals (n = 14 decreased significantly (p p p Hepatozoon canis infection may cause alterations in serum zinc iron and copper concentrations. Furthermore, in the treatment of infected animals addition of zinc and iron to the ration of infected animals should be taken into consideration.

  10. A report of a Hepatozoon canis infection in a dog with transmissible venereal tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namakkal Rajamanickam Senthil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a case of a Hepatozoan canis infection in a dog with a sexually transmissible venereal tumour is reported. Haematological examination revealed marked decrease in haemoglobin, PCV and RBC counts and the blood smear revealed rouleaux formation of RBC, hypochromasia, leptocytes and neutrophilia. Neutrophils were parasitized with both non-nucleated and stained nucleated forms of H. canis. Serum biochemistry results showed elevated levels of alkaline phosphatise, whereas blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein, albumin and globulin were in the normal range.

  11. Morphometric variations in gametocytes of Hepatozoon canis from naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljadar, Mohamed S M; Singla, L D; Mustafa, Radya A A; Uppal, S K

    2013-04-01

    This study presents the morphometric characteristic of canine haemoprotozoan, Hepatozoon canis, using software DP2-BSW (OLYMPUS). The gametocytes of H. canis found inside the neutrophils were characteristic in shape and size and varied from 9.50 to 11.80 μm × 5.10-6.00 μm. Parasitaemia ranged from 1.00 to 39.00 %. Few gametocytes without nuclei and of abnormal shapes were also observed. The results were compared with the measurements done by using ocular micrometer.

  12. ELEVATED TRANS-MAMMARY TRANSMISSION OF Toxocara canis LARVAE IN BALB/c MICE

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    Paula de Lima Telmo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a widespread zoonosis and is considered an important worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of trans-mammary Toxocara canis infection in newborn BALB/c mice nursed by females experimentally infected with 1,200 eggs after delivery. After 50 days of age, the presence of larvae in different organs of the offspring was investigated. Trans-mammary infection was confirmed in 73.9% of the mice that had been nursed by infected females. These data show a high trans-mammary transmission of T. canis and confirm the significance of this transmission route in paratenic hosts.

  13. Ehrlichia canis morulae and DNA detection in whole blood and spleen aspiration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Joice Lara Maia; Dagnone, Ana Sílvia; Munhoz, Thiago Demarchi; João, Carolina Franchi; Pereira, Wanderson Adriano Biscola; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the detection of Ehrlichia canis morulae and DNA by nPCR in whole blood and spleen aspiration. The sample included 40 dogs showing thrombocytopenia associated to clinical signs suggestive of canine ehrlichiosis. Morulae detection showed that in 35 of the dogs studied, 17 had morulae in spleen tissue, and two in buffy coat smears. E. canis DNA was detected in 29/40 blood samples. We verified that morulae detection is more efficient in cytological preparations from spleen aspiration. On the other hand, nPCR on spleen and blood samples were equally efficient for disease diagnosis.

  14. Serology, molecular detection and risk factors of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes-González, Alexander V; Jiménez-Rocha, Ana E; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2016-10-01

    A cross-sectional study combining different serological and molecular techniques for the detection of Ehrlichia species in dogs and their ticks was carried out with data from all regions of Costa Rica. A seroprevalence of 32.1% (131/408), and infection with E. canis of 3.2% (13/407) was found, whereas 6.9% (9/130) of ticks attached to the dogs were PCR positive to E. canis. Higher prevalences were found outside the Greater Metropolitan Area (GMA). Risk factors associated with E. canis seropositivity were age, between 2 and 7 years (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2) and 8-15 years (RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-3.0), number of dogs/total of households [Dogs per Household Ratio (DHR) ≥3.1 (RR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.4-3.0)], number of dogs infested with at least one tick/total of dogs sampled [Tick Infestation Prevalence (TIP)≥31% (RR: 2.1; 95% CI:1.3-3.3)] and living outside the GMA (RR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4) and being a mixed-breed dog (RR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1). Risk factors for E. canis PCR positive dogs were a depressive attitude (OR: 11.2; 95% CI: 1.1-115.9), fever (OR:4.8; 95% CI:1.2-19.3), DHR≥3.1 (OR: 5.7; 95% CI:1.7-19.2)], number of ticks/total of dogs sampled [Tick Distribution Ratio (TDR) ≥2.1 (OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 1.3-31.8)], and TIP≥40% (OR: 5.7; 95% CI: 1.7-19.2). This paper describes E. canis seroprevalence, PCR prevalence and tick analysis in dogs from Costa Rica, with associated clinical signs and owner perceptions. In summary, most of the E. canis infections in dogs in our country seemed to pass unnoticed by owners. Since most of the seropositive dogs (97.7%, 131/134) were negative for E. canis DNA in their blood, it is important to determine in future studies if these dogs recovered from the E. canis infection without any medication, or are persistently infected, and will develop chronic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of Toxocara canis infection in dogs in the Warszawa area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecka, A; Gawor, J

    2000-01-01

    The evaluation of Toxocara canis infection in stray dogs from two shelters and private owners dogs in the Warszawa district was the aim of this study. In 1998 five hundred faecal samples were examined. The homeless dogs were found more infected than those kept as pets. T. canis was recorded in 3.4% and 8.8% of stray dogs from the shelters and in 0.4% of animals from flats. The higher prevalence of infection in homeless dogs was due to high density of dogs population, worse environmental condition and irregular anthelmintic treatment in the shelters when compare with housed dogs.

  16. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

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    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  17. Spectral properties of binary asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Myriam; Birlan, Mirel; Carry, Benoît; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Berthier, Jérôme

    2018-04-01

    We present the first attempt to characterize the distribution of taxonomic class among the population of binary asteroids (15% of all small asteroids). For that, an analysis of 0.8-2.5{μ m} near-infrared spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument on the NASA/IRTF is presented. Taxonomic class and meteorite analog is determined for each target, increasing the sample of binary asteroids with known taxonomy by 21%. Most binary systems are bound in the S-, X-, and C- classes, followed by Q and V-types. The rate of binary systems in each taxonomic class agrees within uncertainty with the background population of small near-Earth objects and inner main belt asteroids, but for the C-types which are under-represented among binaries.

  18. Planets in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...

  19. RS CVn binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsky, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author attempts to place in context the vast amount of data obtained in the last few years as a result of X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and microwave observations of RS CVn and similar spectroscopic binary systems. He concentrates on the RS CVn systems and their long-period analogs, and restricts the scope by attempting to answer on the basis of the recent data and theory following questions: (1) Are the original defining characteristics still valid and still adequate? (2) What is the evidence for discrete active regions? (3) Have we derived any meaningful physical properties for the atmospheres of RS CVn systems? (4) What are the flare observations telling us about magnetic fields in the RS CVn systems? (5) Is there evidence for systematic trends in RS CVn systems with spectral type?

  20. Serological cross-reactivity of Trypanosoma cruzi, Ehrlichia canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Babesia canis to Leishmania infantum chagasi tests in dogs

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    Maurício Franco Zanette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the serological cross-reactivity between Leishmania sp. and other canine pathogens. Methods: Positive serum samples for Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Trypanosoma cruzi were tested using three serological methods enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and Kalazar Detect™, for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Results: Of the 57 dog samples tested, 24 (42.1% tested positive using one of the three serological methods: 10/57 (17.5% for ELISA, 11/57 (19.3% for IFAT and 3/57 (5.3% for Kalazar Detect™. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the presence of other infectious agents may lead to cross-reactivity on leishmaniasis serological tests.

  1. Canis mtDNA HV1 database: a web-based tool for collecting and surveying Canis mtDNA HV1 haplotype in public database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Quan Ke; Chung, Dung Anh; Tran, Hoang-Dung

    2017-06-26

    Canine and wolf mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, which can be used for forensic or phylogenetic analyses, have been defined in various schemes depending on the region analyzed. In recent studies, the 582 bp fragment of the HV1 region is most commonly used. 317 different canine HV1 haplotypes have been reported in the rapidly growing public database GenBank. These reported haplotypes contain several inconsistencies in their haplotype information. To overcome this issue, we have developed a Canis mtDNA HV1 database. This database collects data on the HV1 582 bp region in dog mitochondrial DNA from the GenBank to screen and correct the inconsistencies. It also supports users in detection of new novel mutation profiles and assignment of new haplotypes. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database (CHD) contains 5567 nucleotide entries originating from 15 subspecies in the species Canis lupus. Of these entries, 3646 were haplotypes and grouped into 804 distinct sequences. 319 sequences were recognized as previously assigned haplotypes, while the remaining 485 sequences had new mutation profiles and were marked as new haplotype candidates awaiting further analysis for haplotype assignment. Of the 3646 nucleotide entries, only 414 were annotated with correct haplotype information, while 3232 had insufficient or lacked haplotype information and were corrected or modified before storing in the CHD. The CHD can be accessed at http://chd.vnbiology.com . It provides sequences, haplotype information, and a web-based tool for mtDNA HV1 haplotyping. The CHD is updated monthly and supplies all data for download. The Canis mtDNA HV1 database contains information about canine mitochondrial DNA HV1 sequences with reconciled annotation. It serves as a tool for detection of inconsistencies in GenBank and helps identifying new HV1 haplotypes. Thus, it supports the scientific community in naming new HV1 haplotypes and to reconcile existing annotation of HV1 582 bp sequences.

  2. A PARASITOLOGIC AND MOLECULAR SURVEY OF HEPATOZOON CANIS INFECTION IN STRAY DOGS IN NORTHEAST OF IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Ali; Razmi, Gholamreza

    2018-05-15

    Canine hepatozoonosis, caused by H. canis, is a tick-borne disease in domestic and wild dogs that is transmitted by ingestion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. The aim of the study was to detect H. canis in stray dogs in Iran using blood smear examination and molecular techniques. From October 2014 to September 2015, 150 EDTA blood samples were collected from stray dogs in the northeast region of Iran. Blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of Hepatozoon gamonts; whole blood was evaluated by PCR, with subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Hepatozoon spp. Gamonts were observed in the neutrophils of 5/150 (3.3%) blood smears, whereas Hepatozoon spp. 18S rDNA was detected in 12/150 (8.0%) blood samples from stray dogs. There was a good agreement between microscopy and PCR methods. (Kappa= 0.756). The highest rate of infection was seasonally detected in the summer (pHepatozoon spp infection was not significant by gender and age factors (p>0.05). The alignment analysis of the sequenced samples showed ≥99% similarity with other nucleotide sequences of Hepatozoon spp. in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree also revealed that the nucleotide sequences in this study were clustered in the H. canis clade and different from the H. felis and H. americanum clades. According to the results, it is concluded that H. canis infection is present among dogs in northeastern region of Iran.

  3. Molecular Survey of Hepatozoon canis in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Mirela; Dudu, Andreea; Ilie, Marius S; Morariu, Sorin; Imre, Kálmán; Dărăbuş, Gheorghe

    2015-08-01

    Blood samples of 119 red foxes, originating from 44 hunting grounds of 3 western counties (Arad, Hunedoara, and Timiş) of Romania, have been examined for the presence of Hepatozoon canis infection using the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the fragment of 18S rRNA gene. Overall, 15 (12.6%) samples were found to be PCR-positive. Of the sampled hunting grounds, 29.5% (13/44) were found positive. Positive samples were recorded in all screened counties with the prevalence of 14.8% (9/61) in Arad, 9.8% (5/51) in Timiş, and 14.3% (1/7) in Hunedoara, respectively. No correlation was found (P > 0.05) between H. canis positivity and gender or territorial distribution of the infection. To confirm PCR results, 9 randomly selected amplicons were sequenced. The obtained sequences were identical to each other, confirmed the results of the conventional PCR, and showed 98-100% homology to other H. canis sequences. The results of the current survey support the role of red foxes as sylvatic reservoirs of H. canis in Romania.

  4. Failure of imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril/emodepside plus clindamycin in treating Hepatozoon canis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tommasi, Anna Sara; Giannelli, Alessio; de Caprariis, Donato; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-03-01

    Hepatozoonosis caused by Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida, Hepatozoidae) is among the most widespread vector-borne infections of dogs, primarily transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks. Based on the absence of a consensus on the treatment regimes for canine hepatozoonosis, the present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate (5-6 mg/kg subcutaneously once a week for 6 weeks), and of toltrazuril/emodepside (Procox(®), 15 mg/kg once a day for 6 days) in association with clindamycin (15 mg/kg once a day for 21 days) in treating naturally infected dogs. At the enrollment time (T0), 32 dogs, cytologically or molecularly positive for H. canis, were assigned to test and control groups. Animals were treated according to the specific therapeutic protocol, and the presence of H. canis gamonts was assessed weekly by cytology and PCR throughout six months (T1-T19). In addition, any abnormality in leucocyte morphology was evaluated and recorded. Results indicate that, in spite of a reduction in the percentage of infected dogs, both treatments did not provide parasitological cure. Accordingly, new treatment protocols or active compounds against H. canis should be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hepatozoon canis infection in ticks during spring and summer in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Weigl, Stefania; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-02-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a common protozoan of dogs, being among the most prevalent tick-borne pathogens infecting dogs around the world. It is primarily transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick. In this study we tested ticks collected from dogs and from the environment in order to track the origin of an outbreak of H. canis infection detected in October 2009 in a private dog shelter in southern Italy. Ticks from dogs (n = 267) were collected during the spring of 2009, whereas ticks from environment (n = 300) were found on sticky traps placed in the same shelter during the summer of 2009. All ticks were tested by PCR for the detection of a H. canis 18S ribosomal RNA gene fragment. Four (1.5%, one female and three males) ticks collected from dogs were PCR positive. None of the larvae collected from the environment were positive, but a relatively high infection rate (8.0%) was detected in nymphs. These findings point out that dogs became infected during the summer, when ticks were abundant and highly infected by H. canis. Moreover, this study suggests that castor oil sticky traps might be useful to collect engorged immature ticks in highly infested environments (e.g., dog shelters). This might be particularly interesting to evaluate the level of infection by certain pathogens in free-ranging ticks R. sanguineus, as done in the present study.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of parasitic protozoa and Ehrlichia canis in wildlife in Madrid (central Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado-Fornelio, Angel; Martín-Pérez, T; Verdú-Expósito, C; Reinoso-Ortiz, S A; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2018-07-01

    Wildlife species are involved in the transmission of diverse pathogens. This study aimed to monitor raccoons (Procyon lotor), American minks (Neovison vison), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as potential reservoirs in central Spain. Specifically, 200 spleen and fecal samples (from 194 raccoons, 3 minks, and 3 foxes) were analyzed molecularly by PCR/qPCR and sequencing for the presence of piroplasmids, Hepatozoon spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Ehrlichia canis infections in the Community of Madrid (Spain). Biological samples were obtained in the years 2014, 2015, and 2016. No pathogen DNA was found in fecal samples. In contrast, analysis of raccoon spleen samples revealed that Toxoplasma was the most prevalent pathogen (prevalence 3.6 ± 2.6%), followed by Hepatozoon canis and E. canis (each with a prevalence of 2.57 ± 2.2%). Hepatozoon canis was also diagnosed in all three of the analyzed foxes. Analysis of yearly prevalence showed that tick-borne pathogens were less frequent in raccoon in 2015, a dry and warm year compared both to 2014 and 2016. These data suggest that fecal PCR assays are unsuitable for detection of DNA of non-erythrocytic pathogens. Furthermore, they demonstrate that the raccoon (an invasive species often living in proximity to domestic areas) and the red fox are putative reservoirs for pathogenic organisms in the Community of Madrid.

  7. Development of a real-time PCR to detect Demodex canis DNA in different tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Ivan; Altet, Laura; Francino, Olga; Bardagí, Mar; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís

    2011-02-01

    The present study reports the development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Demodex canis DNA on different tissue samples. The technique amplifies a 166 bp of D. canis chitin synthase gene (AB 080667) and it has been successfully tested on hairs extracted with their roots and on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded skin biopsies. The real-time PCR amplified on the hairs of all 14 dogs with a firm diagnosis of demodicosis and consistently failed to amplify on negative controls. Eleven of 12 skin biopsies with a morphologic diagnosis of canine demodicosis were also positive. Sampling hairs on two skin points (lateral face and interdigital skin), D. canis DNA was detected on nine of 51 healthy dogs (17.6%) a much higher percentage than previously reported with microscopic studies. Furthermore, it is foreseen that if the number of samples were increased, the percentage of positive dogs would probably also grow. Moreover, in four of the six dogs with demodicosis, the samples taken from non-lesioned skin were positive. This finding, if confirmed in further studies, suggests that demodicosis is a generalized phenomenon in canine skin, due to proliferation of local mite populations, even though macroscopic lesions only appear in certain areas. The real-time PCR technique to detect D. canis DNA described in this work is a useful tool to advance our understanding of canine demodicosis.

  8. First phylogenetic analysis of Ehrlichia canis in dogs and ticks from Mexico. Preliminary study

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    Carolina G. Sosa-Gutiérrez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Phylogenetic characterization of Ehrlichia canis in dogs naturally infected and ticks, diagnosed by PCR and sequencing of 16SrRNA gene; compare different isolates found in American countries. Materials and methods. Were collected Blood samples from 139 dogs with suggestive clinical manifestations of this disease and they were infested with ticks; part of 16SrRNA gene was sequenced and aligned, with 17 sequences reported in American countries. Two phylogenetic trees were constructed using the Maximum likelihood method, and Maximum parsimony. Results. They were positive to E. canis 25/139 (18.0% dogs and 29/139 (20.9% ticks. The clinical manifestations presented were fever, fatigue, depression and vomiting. Rhipicephalus sanguineus Dermacentor variabilis and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris ticks were positive for E. canis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequences of dogs and ticks in Mexico form a third group diverging of sequences from South America and USA. Conclusions. This is the first phylogenetic analysis of E. canis in Mexico. There are differences in the sequences of Mexico with those reported in South America and USA. This research lays the foundation for further study of genetic variability.

  9. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

  10. Hair Contamination of Sheepdog and Pet Dogs with Toxocara Canis Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Khezri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We tried to investigate the hair contamination of pet dogs and farm sheepdog with Toxocara eggs in terms of the different sex and age groups in north-west of Iran (Urmia and its sub­urbs.Methods: Hair samples were collected from a total of 138 pet and farm sheepdogs from November 2008 to June 2009 in Urmia City and the suburb (West Azerbaijan-Iran and examined for the pres­ence of T. canis eggs.Results: T. canis eggs found in 60 samples altogether (pet and shepherd dogs showed a contamina­tion rate of 36.2%. The number of observed T. canis eggs in each microscope field was va­ried from 1 to > 400. The age of the dog was found a significant factor to influence the prevalence and intensity of contamination, with 82% of all the eggs recovered from puppies (six months and younger. Additionally, the numbers of eggs in farm sheepdogs were significantly higher than pet dogs (P<0.05.Conclusions: This report shows that direct contact with T. canis infected dogs, particularly puppies from shepherd dogs, may pose a serious hazard to human. Besides, as they may harbor a considera­ble number of eggs on their hair, they can contaminate the soil and the environment.

  11. 75 FR 24741 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation Assessment... Mexico Ecological Services Field Office, 2105 Osuna NE, Albuquerque, NM 87113; by telephone at 505-761... guided by the 1982 Mexican Wolf Recovery Plan (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1982) (recovery plan...

  12. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  13. Sarcocystis arctica (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae): ultrastructural description and its new host record, the Alaskan wolf (Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcocystis sarcocysts are common in muscles of herbivores but are rare in muscles of carnivores. Here, we report sarcocysts in muscle of an Alaskan wolf (Canis lupus) from Alaska, USA for the first time. Sarcocysts extracted from tongue of the wolf were up to 900 µm long, slender, and appeared to h...

  14. Tissue expression pattern of ABCG transporter indicates functional roles in reproduction of Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong-Li; Ma, Guang-Xu; Luo, Yong-Fang; Kuang, Ce-Yan; Jiang, Ai-Yun; Li, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Rong-Qiong

    2018-03-01

    Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite with worldwide distribution. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are integral membrane proteins which involve in a range of biological processes in various organisms. In present study, the full-length coding sequence of abcg-5 gene of T. canis (Tc-abcg-5) was cloned and characterized. A 633 aa polypeptide containing two conserved Walker A and Walker B motifs was predicted from a continuous 1902 nt open reading frame. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to determine the transcriptional levels of Tc-abcg-5 gene in adult male and female worms, which indicated high mRNA level of Tc-abcg-5 in the reproductive tract of adult female T. canis. Tc-abcg-5 was expressed to produce rabbit polyclonal antiserum against recombinant TcABCG5. Indirect-fluorescence immunohistochemical assays were carried out to detect the tissue distribution of TcABCG5, which showed predominant distribution of TcABCG5 in the uterus (especially in the germ cells) of adult female T. canis. Tissue transcription and expression pattern of Tc-abcg-5 indicated that Tc-abcg-5 might play essential roles in the reproduction of this parasitic nematode.

  15. Tissue distribution and functional analysis of vitellogenin-6 of Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Hong; Ma, Guang-Xu; Luo, Yong-Fang; Luo, Yong-Li; Yin, Sha-Sha; Xiong, Yi; Zhou, Rong-Qiong

    2017-06-01

    Toxocara canis is an common intestinal nematode of canids and the principal causative agent of human toxocariasis. Vitellogenin (Vg), a source of amino acids and lipids in the eggs, are considered to play an important role in embryo development of a wide range of organisms. In the present study, the transcriptional levels of Tc-vit-6 gene in male and female adult T. canis were determined by quantitative real-time PCR, which indicated high transcription of Tc-vit-6 in the intestine, reproductive tract and body wall of male and female adult T. canis. The fragment of Tc-vit-6 encoding a vWD domain, was cloned and expressed to produce a rabbit anti-TcvWD polyclonal antibody. Tissue distribution of TcVg6 was detected by immunohistochemical assays, which showed predominant distribution of TcVg6 in the tissues of intestine, as well as reproductive tract (including some of the germ cells) and musculature of male and female adult worms. Collectively, these results indicated multiple biological roles of TcVg6 apart from that in the reproduction of T. canis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of serine/threonine protein phosphatase of Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guang Xu; Zhou, Rong Qiong; Hu, Shi Jun; Huang, Han Cheng; Zhu, Tao; Xia, Qing You

    2014-06-01

    Toxocara canis (T. canis) is a widely prevalent zoonotic parasite that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts, including humans. We generated the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of the serine/threonine phosphatase gene of T. canis (Tc stp) using 5' rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. The 1192-bp sequence contained a continuous 942-nucleotide open reading frame, encoding a 313-amino-acid polypeptide. The Tc STP polypeptide shares a high level of amino-acid sequence identity with the predicted STPs of Loa loa (89%), Brugia malayi (86%), Oesophagostomum columbianum (76%), and Oesophagostomumdentatum (76%). The Tc STP contains GDXHG, GDXVDRG, GNHE motifs, which are characteristic of members of the phosphoprotein phosphatase family. Our quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the Tc STP was expressed in six different tissues in the adult male, with high-level expression in the spermary, vas deferens, and musculature, but was not expressed in the adult female, suggesting that Tc STP might be involved in spermatogenesis and mating behavior. Thus, STP might represent a potential molecular target for controlling T. canis reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. sero-epidemiology of toxocara canis infection in chil- dren attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... dogs.2. The prevalence of toxocariasis is generally higher in tropical and developing countries than in developed countries and has been associated with .... canis sero-positivity and characteris- tics of children attending four selected hospitals in the. Central Region, Ghana. Variable Group. (Characteristic).

  18. Abnormal neurobehaviour and impaired memory function as a consequence of Toxocara canis- as well as Toxocara cati-induced neurotoxocarosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Janecek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinvasive larvae of the worldwide occurring zoonotic roundworms Toxocara canis and T. cati may induce neurotoxocarosis (NT in humans, provoking a variety of symptoms including cognitive deficits as well as neurological dysfunctions. An association with neuropsychological disorders has been discussed. Similar symptoms have been described in T. canis-infected mice, whereas data on T. cati-induced NT are rare. Therefore, it was aimed to obtain insights into the impact on neurobehaviour as well as progression of neurological symptoms and behavioural alterations during the course of NT directly comparing T. canis- and T. cati-infected mice as models for human NT.C57BL/6 mice were orally infected with 2000 embryonated T. canis or T. cati eggs, respectively, the control group received tap water. Mice were screened weekly for neurobehavioural alterations and memory function starting one day prior infection until 97 days post infection (pi; T. canis-infection and day 118 pi (T. cati-infection, uninfected control. Mostly motoric and neurological parameters were affected in T. canis-infected mice starting day 20 pi with severe progression accompanied by stereotypical circling. In contrast, T. cati-infected mice mostly showed reduced response to sudden sound stimulus (indicator for excitability and flight behaviour starting day 6 pi. Interestingly, enhanced grooming behaviour was observed exclusively in T. cati-infected mice, indicating a possible role of neurotransmitter dysregulation. Reduced exploratory behaviour and memory impairment was observed in both infection groups with delayed onset and less severe progression in T. cati- compared to T. canis-infected mice.Results highlight the need to consider T. cati beside T. canis as causative agent of human NT. Findings provide valuable hints towards differences in key regulatory mechanisms during T. canis- and T. cati-induced NT, contributing to a comprehensive picture and consequently a broader

  19. Molecular Detection and Prevalence of Hepatozoon canis in Dogs from Punjab (Pakistan) and Hematological Profile of Infected Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Muhammad; Malik, Muhammad Irfan; Latif, Muhammad; Ain, Qurat Ul; Aktas, Munir; Shaikh, Rehan Sadiq; Iqbal, Furhan

    2017-03-01

    The intraleukocytic parasite, Hepatozoon canis, causes the sometimes fatal tick borne disease canine hepatozoonosis. In this study, dogs from Islamabad, Lahore, and Multan Districts of the Punjab region of Pakistan were surveyed to investigate the presence and prevalence of H. canis infection and to determine the effects of the parasite on hematological parameters. Blood samples were collected from 151 domestic dogs (149 pet, 2 stray) of both sexes and varying ages. Data on sex, age, tick infestation, and clinical factors (body temperature, mucous membrane status, and presence of hematuria and vomiting) were collected. Using PCR, 18 dogs (11.9%) were found positive for the presence of H. canis DNA. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene shared 99-100% similarity with the corresponding H. canis isolates. This epidemiological survey revealed higher prevalence of H. canis in Islamabad (11/49, 22.4%) compared to Lahore (3/52, 5.8%) and Multan (4/50, 8%) in Pakistan. No investigated epidemiological or clinical factors were found to be associated with the presence of H. canis (p > 0.05) in dogs. H. canis positive dogs exhibited higher minimum inhibitory dilution (p = 0.04), mixed inclusion (p = 0.008) and relative distribution width of red blood cells (p = 0.02), and lower hematocrit (p = 0.03) and mean hemoglobin content (p = 0.03) than did dogs in which H. canis was not detected. We are recommending this PCR-based protocol to the veterinary practitioners for the detection and/or confirmation of H. canis in dogs suspected for hepatozoonosis to improve their health status.

  20. Occurrence of Hepatozoon canis (Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) and Anaplasma spp. (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzhorn, Barend L; Netherlands, Edward C; Cook, Courtney A; Smit, Nico J; Vorster, Ilse; Harrison-White, Robert F; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2018-03-20

    Domestic dogs are not native to sub-Saharan Africa, which may account for their susceptibility to Babesia rossi, of which endemic black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) are natural reservoirs. There is virtually no information on the occurrence of potentially pathogenic haemogregarines (e.g. Hepatozoon canis) or even rickettsial bacteria (e.g. Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp.) in indigenous canids in sub-Saharan Africa. Such organisms could pose a risk to domestic dogs, as well as to populations of endangered indigenous canid species. Genomic DNA extracted from blood samples taken from 126 free-ranging and 16 captive black-backed jackals was subjected to reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay; 82 (57.8%) specimens reacted only with the Ehrlichia/Anaplasma genera-specific probe. Full-length bacterial 16S rRNA gene of five of these specimens was cloned and the recombinants sequenced. The ten 16S rDNA sequences obtained were most closely related, with approximately 99% identity, to Anaplasma sp. South African Dog, various uncultured Anaplasma spp., as well as various Anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes. Ninety-one specimens were screened for haemogregarines through PCR amplification using the 18S rRNA gene; 20 (21.9%) specimens reacted positively, of which 14 (15.4%) were confirmed positive for Hepatozoon genotypes from within H. canis. Two (2.2%) specimens were found positive for two different Hepatozoon genotypes. Sequence analyses confirmed the presence of 16S rDNA sequences closely related to A. phagocytophilum and Anaplasma sp. South African Dog as well as two H. canis genotypes in both free-ranging and captive black-backed jackals. Distinguishing between closely related lineages may provide insight into differences in pathogenicity and virulence of various Anaplasma and H. canis genotypes. By building up a more comprehensive understanding of the range and diversity of the bacteria and eukaryotic organisms (piroplasms and haemogregarines) in the blood of

  1. Endocarditis por Brucella canis: primer caso documentado en un paciente adulto en Argentina Brucella canis endocarditis: first documented case in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Manias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el primer caso documentado de endocarditis por Brucella canis en Argentina. El paciente fue un varón adulto que consultó por edemas en miembros inferiores, registros febriles aislados de 2 meses de evolución y dolor precordial opresivo que irradiaba a brazo izquierdo. Negaba contacto con animales de cría o consumo de productos sin pasteurización. Estudios cardiológicos constataron endocarditis infecciosa. Se resuelve cirugía de recambio valvular ante fracaso terapéutico empírico con cefalotina, ampicilina y gentamicina. Los hemocultivos fueron positivos (4 de 4 muestras con bacilos gram negativos. Se realizó la identificación con técnica API 20 NE (bioMérieux, el método automatizado Phoenix (BD y las pruebas bioquímicas convencionales, sin concluir género ni especie. Se derivó la cepa al departamento de Bacteriología Especial INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" donde se identificó al aislamiento como Brucella canis. Se rotó el esquema terapéutico a doxiciclina, rifampicina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol con buena evolución. La importancia del caso radica en la posible falla del tratamiento antimicrobiano empírico administrado para endocarditis, ya que B. canis no responde a los antimicrobianos convencionales para esta patología.We herein present the case of an adult male patient who consulted for lower extremity edema, a 2- month history of fever and oppressive chest pain radiating to the left arm. He referred neither contact with breeding animals nor consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. A diagnosis of endocarditis was confirmed by cardiac studies. Since the empirical treatment with cephalotin, ampicillin and gentamicin failed, the patient underwent aortic valve replacement. A total of four blood cultures were positive with a gram-negative rod. Bacterial identification was performed using the API 20 NE technique (bioMerieux, the Phoenix automated method (BD and conventional biochemical tests which were

  2. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.

    2017-10-01

    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  3. Prevalence and diversity of Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs in Japanese islands and peninsulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Hirata, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Takashima, Yasuhiro; El-Morsey, Ahmed; Yanai, Tokuma

    2013-09-01

    Canine hepatozoonosis is a worldwide protozoal disease caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum and is transmitted by ixodid ticks, Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma spp., respectively. H. canis infection is widespread in Africa, Europe, South America, and Asia, including Japan. The objective of this study was to study the distribution pattern and diversity of H. canis in naturally infected dogs in nine Japanese islands and peninsulas. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011 and the ages and sexes were identified. Direct microscopy using Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed H. canis gametocytes in the peripheral blood of 45 (23.6%) dogs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on EDTA-anticoagulated blood, initially with the common primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, and then with the specific primer set (HepF and HepR) amplifying about 660 bp fragments of the same gene. Based on PCR, 84 (42.9%) dogs were positive using the common primer and 81 (41.3%) were positive using the specific primer. The current investigation indicated that all screened areas, except for Sado Island and Atsumi Peninsula, were infected. Yaku Island had the highest infection rate (84.6% in males and 100.0% in females), while Ishigaki Island showed the lowest infection rates (8.3% in males and 17.7% in females). Both sexes were infected with no significant difference. However, diversity of infection among the surveyed islands and peninsulas was significantly different (P canis has previously been reported in dogs in Japan, the higher infection rate described in the current study and the diversity of infection in a wide range of islands strongly encourage prospective studies dealing with the prevention and treatment of the infection in dogs, as well as control of ticks.

  4. Genome characterization and population genetic structure of the zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Vincent P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus canis is an important opportunistic pathogen of dogs and cats that can also infect a wide range of additional mammals including cows where it can cause mastitis. It is also an emerging human pathogen. Results Here we provide characterization of the first genome sequence for this species, strain FSL S3-227 (milk isolate from a cow with an intra-mammary infection. A diverse array of putative virulence factors was encoded by the S. canis FSL S3-227 genome. Approximately 75% of these gene sequences were homologous to known Streptococcal virulence factors involved in invasion, evasion, and colonization. Present in the genome are multiple potentially mobile genetic elements (MGEs [plasmid, phage, integrative conjugative element (ICE] and comparison to other species provided convincing evidence for lateral gene transfer (LGT between S. canis and two additional bovine mastitis causing pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, with this transfer possibly contributing to host adaptation. Population structure among isolates obtained from Europe and USA [bovine = 56, canine = 26, and feline = 1] was explored. Ribotyping of all isolates and multi locus sequence typing (MLST of a subset of the isolates (n = 45 detected significant differentiation between bovine and canine isolates (Fisher exact test: P = 0.0000 [ribotypes], P = 0.0030 [sequence types], suggesting possible host adaptation of some genotypes. Concurrently, the ancestral clonal complex (54% of isolates occurred in many tissue types, all hosts, and all geographic locations suggesting the possibility of a wide and diverse niche. Conclusion This study provides evidence highlighting the importance of LGT in the evolution of the bacteria S. canis, specifically, its possible role in host adaptation and acquisition of virulence factors. Furthermore, recent LGT detected between S. canis and human

  5. Genome characterization and population genetic structure of the zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Vincent P; Zadoks, Ruth N; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D; Lefébure, Tristan; Lang, Ping; Werner, Brenda; Tikofsky, Linda; Moroni, Paolo; Stanhope, Michael J

    2012-12-18

    Streptococcus canis is an important opportunistic pathogen of dogs and cats that can also infect a wide range of additional mammals including cows where it can cause mastitis. It is also an emerging human pathogen. Here we provide characterization of the first genome sequence for this species, strain FSL S3-227 (milk isolate from a cow with an intra-mammary infection). A diverse array of putative virulence factors was encoded by the S. canis FSL S3-227 genome. Approximately 75% of these gene sequences were homologous to known Streptococcal virulence factors involved in invasion, evasion, and colonization. Present in the genome are multiple potentially mobile genetic elements (MGEs) [plasmid, phage, integrative conjugative element (ICE)] and comparison to other species provided convincing evidence for lateral gene transfer (LGT) between S. canis and two additional bovine mastitis causing pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae), with this transfer possibly contributing to host adaptation. Population structure among isolates obtained from Europe and USA [bovine = 56, canine = 26, and feline = 1] was explored. Ribotyping of all isolates and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of a subset of the isolates (n = 45) detected significant differentiation between bovine and canine isolates (Fisher exact test: P = 0.0000 [ribotypes], P = 0.0030 [sequence types]), suggesting possible host adaptation of some genotypes. Concurrently, the ancestral clonal complex (54% of isolates) occurred in many tissue types, all hosts, and all geographic locations suggesting the possibility of a wide and diverse niche. This study provides evidence highlighting the importance of LGT in the evolution of the bacteria S. canis, specifically, its possible role in host adaptation and acquisition of virulence factors. Furthermore, recent LGT detected between S. canis and human bacteria (Streptococcus urinalis) is cause for concern

  6. Clinical Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum infections in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Chapman, Jennifer L; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Mense, M; Schueler, Ronald L

    2006-04-15

    Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum are related apicomplexans that can cause systemic illness in many species of animals, including dogs. We investigated one breeder's 25 Basset Hounds for these infections. In addition, tissues from dogs and other non-canine hosts previously reported as S. canis infections were studied retrospectively. Schizonts resembling those of S. neurona, and recognized by polyclonal rabbit anti-S. neurona antibodies, were found in six of eight retrospective cases, as well as in two additional dogs (one Basset Hound, one Springer Spaniel) not previously reported. S. neurona schizonts were found in several tissues including the central nervous system, lungs, and kidneys. Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in an adult dog, and neosporosis was diagnosed in an adult and a pup related to the one diagnosed with S. neurona. No serological reactivity to S. neurona antibodies occurred when S. canis-like liver schizonts were retrospectively assayed from two dogs, a dolphin, a sea lion, a horse, a chinchilla, a black or either of two polar bears. Sequencing conserved (18S) and variable (ITS-1) portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA isolated from the schizont-laden liver of a polar bear distinguished it from all previously characterized species of Sarcocystis. We take this genetic signature as provisionally representative of S. canis, an assumption that should be tested with future sequencing of similar liver infections in other mammalian hosts. These findings further extend the uncharacteristically broad intermediate host range for S. neurona, which also causes a neurologic disease in cats, mink, raccoons, skunks, Pacific harbor seals, ponies, zebras, lynxes, and sea otters. Further work is necessary to delineate the causative agent(s) of other cases of canine sarcocystosis, and in particular to specify the attributes of S. canis, which corresponds morphologically to infections reported from wide range of terrestrial

  7. Serological survey of Brucella canis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simbarashe Chinyoka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to detect antibodies for Brucella canis (B. canis in dogs from urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to B. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 17.6% of sera samples tested (57/324, 95% CI: 13.5–21.7 were positive for B. canis antibodies. For rural dogs, seroprevalence varied from 11.7% – 37.9%. Rural dogs recorded a higher seroprevalence (20.7%, 95% CI: 15.0–26.4 compared with Harare urban dogs (12.7%, 95% CI: 6.9–18.5 but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07. Female dogs from both sectors had a higher seroprevalence compared with males, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05. Five and two of the positive rural dogs had titres of 1:800 and 1:1600, respectively, whilst none of the positive urban dogs had a titre above 1:400. This study showed that brucellosis was present and could be considered a risk to dogs from the studied areas. Further studies are recommended in order to give insight into the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in Zimbabwe. Screening for other Brucella spp. (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis other than B. canis is also recommended.

  8. Genome characterization and population genetic structure of the zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus canis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus canis is an important opportunistic pathogen of dogs and cats that can also infect a wide range of additional mammals including cows where it can cause mastitis. It is also an emerging human pathogen. Results Here we provide characterization of the first genome sequence for this species, strain FSL S3-227 (milk isolate from a cow with an intra-mammary infection). A diverse array of putative virulence factors was encoded by the S. canis FSL S3-227 genome. Approximately 75% of these gene sequences were homologous to known Streptococcal virulence factors involved in invasion, evasion, and colonization. Present in the genome are multiple potentially mobile genetic elements (MGEs) [plasmid, phage, integrative conjugative element (ICE)] and comparison to other species provided convincing evidence for lateral gene transfer (LGT) between S. canis and two additional bovine mastitis causing pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae), with this transfer possibly contributing to host adaptation. Population structure among isolates obtained from Europe and USA [bovine = 56, canine = 26, and feline = 1] was explored. Ribotyping of all isolates and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of a subset of the isolates (n = 45) detected significant differentiation between bovine and canine isolates (Fisher exact test: P = 0.0000 [ribotypes], P = 0.0030 [sequence types]), suggesting possible host adaptation of some genotypes. Concurrently, the ancestral clonal complex (54% of isolates) occurred in many tissue types, all hosts, and all geographic locations suggesting the possibility of a wide and diverse niche. Conclusion This study provides evidence highlighting the importance of LGT in the evolution of the bacteria S. canis, specifically, its possible role in host adaptation and acquisition of virulence factors. Furthermore, recent LGT detected between S. canis and human bacteria (Streptococcus

  9. Separation in 5 Msun Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.

  10. Mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  11. Some properties of spectral binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcheva, Z.T.; Popova, E.I.; Tutukov, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1978-01-01

    Statistical investigations of spectra binary stars are carried out. Binary systems consisting of main sequence stars are considered. For 826 binary stars masses of components, ratios of component masses, semiaxes of orbits and orbital angular momenta are calculated. The distributions of these parameters and their correlations are analyzed. The dependences of statistical properties of spectral binary stars on their origin and evolution are discussed

  12. Diphyllobothrium pacificum (Nybelin, 1931) Margolis, 1956 en Canis familiaris de la ciudad de Chincha, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Ch; Tantaleán V, Manuel; Rojas M, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    In this communication is presented the finding of the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium pacificum, parasite of sea lions, in Canis familiaris (dog) in Chincha city, Peru. This is the first canine infection with D. pacificum in the South Peruvian coast

  13. Detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis in canine blood by a single-tube real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction assay and melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongklieng, Amornmas; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Sanpool, Oranuch; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-03-01

    A real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (qFRET PCR) coupled with melting curve analysis was developed for detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections in canine blood samples in a single tube assay. The target of the assay was a region within the 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplified in either species by a single pair of primers. Following amplification from the DNA of infected dog blood, a fluorescence melting curve analysis was done. The 2 species, B. canis vogeli and H. canis, could be detected and differentiated in infected dog blood samples (n = 37) with high sensitivity (100%). The detection limit for B. canis vogeli was 15 copies of a positive control plasmid, and for H. canis, it was 150 copies of a positive control plasmid. The assay could simultaneously distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of controls. Blood samples from 5 noninfected dogs were negative, indicating high specificity. Several samples can be run at the same time. The assay can reduce misdiagnosis and the time associated with microscopic examination, and is not prone to the carryover contamination associated with the agarose gel electrophoresis step of conventional PCR. In addition, this qFRET PCR method would be useful to accurately determine the range of endemic areas or to discover those areas where the 2 parasites co-circulate. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Binary Systems and the Initial Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, O. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper we discuss advantages and disadvantages of binary stars, which are important for star formation history determination. We show that to make definite conclusions of the initial mass function shape, it is necessary to study binary population well enough to correct the luminosity function for unresolved binaries; to construct the mass-luminosity relation based on wide binaries data, and to separate observational mass functions of primaries, of secondaries, and of unresolved binaries.

  15. Questing Dermacentor reticulatus harbouring Babesia canis DNA associated with outbreaks of canine babesiosis in the Swiss Midlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaarschmidt, Daniel; Gilli, Urs; Gottstein, Bruno; Marreros, Nelson; Kuhnert, Peter; Daeppen, Jérôme A; Rosenberg, Gertrud; Hirt, Didier; Frey, Caroline F

    2013-06-01

    In 2011 and 2012, outbreaks of clinical canine babesiosis were observed in 2 areas of the Swiss Midlands that had no history of this disease so far. In one area, cases of canine babesiosis occurred over 2 consecutive tick seasons. The outbreaks involved 29 dogs, 4 of which died. All dogs were infected with large Babesia sp. as diagnosed in Giemsa-stained blood smears and/or PCR. These were identified as B. canis (formerly known as B. canis canis) by subsequent partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia sp. Interestingly, the sequence indicated either a genotype with heterogeneity in the ssrRNA gene copies or double infection with different B. canis isolates. None of the dogs had a recent travel history, but one had frequently travelled to Hungary and had suffered twice from clinical babesiosis 18 and 24 months prior to the outbreak in autumn 2011. Retrospective sequencing of a stored blood DNA sample of this dog revealed B. canis, with an identical sequence to the Babesia involved in the outbreaks. For the first time in Switzerland, the partial 18S rRNA gene of B. canis could be amplified from DNA isolated from 19 out of 23 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks flagged in the same area. The sequence was identical to that found in the dogs. Furthermore, one affected dog carried a female D. reticulatus tick harbouring B. canis DNA. Our findings illustrate that, under favourable biogeographic and climatic conditions, the life-cycle of B. canis can relatively rapidly establish itself in previously non-endemic areas. Canine babesiosis should therefore always be a differential diagnosis when dogs with typical clinical signs are presented, regardless of known endemic areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Occurrence of Hepatozoon canis and Cercopithifilaria bainae in an off-host population of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Giannelli, Alessio; Carbone, Domenico; Baneth, Gad; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida, Hepatozoidae) and the filarioid Cercopithifilaria bainae (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) are tick-transmitted infectious agents of dogs, highly prevalent in the Mediterranean basin in association with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Ticks were collected from the environment every 25±2 days in a confined location in southern Italy where a community of dogs lives, from August 2012 to July 2013. In order to study the occurrence of H. canis and C. bainae, 1091 tick specimens (770 adults; 271 nymphs, and 50 larvae) were dissected, and oocysts of H. canis and larvae of C. bainae were morphologically identified. Out of 1091 dissected ticks, 13.47% (n=147) were positive for H. canis, with the highest prevalence recorded in unfed adults (16.4%; 126/770), followed by nymphs collected as larvae and allowed to moult (14%; 7/50), unfed nymphs dissected immediately after collection (3%; 8/271), and adults collected as nymphs and allowed to moult (2%; 6/271). The highest number of H. canis-positive ticks (35.5%; 43/121; Pcanis and C. bainae infections in the study area seem to be dependent on the seasonality of vector tick populations. Hence, dogs living in these areas are more exposed to both pathogens during the warmer months. These findings provide new insights into the ecology of both H. canis and C. bainae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Rickettsia monacensis in dogs from Maio Island of Cape Verde archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzi, Stefania; Maia, João P; Epis, Sara; Marcos, Ricardo; Pereira, Cristina; Luzzago, Camilla; Santos, Marta; Puente-Payo, Pablo; Giordano, Alessia; Pajoro, Massimo; Sironi, Giuseppe; Faustino, Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne diseases are emerging worldwide and have an important zoonotic relevance. Dogs play an important role in the epidemiology of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens acting as sentinels and/or reservoirs. This study focused on the molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in blood samples of 153 autochthonous asymptomatic dogs in Maio Island, Cape Verde archipelago. Eighty-four (54.9%) dogs were positive for one or more pathogens. Fifty-five (35.9%) dogs were infected with Hepatozoon canis, 53 (34.6%) with Anaplasma platys, five (3.3%) with Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia monacensis, an emerging human pathogen, was also identified in a single dog (0.7%). The former three pathogens cause important canine tick-borne diseases that are transmitted or potentially transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., the only hard tick identified in Cape Verde. Furthermore, Wolbachia spp. was amplified from the blood of one dog. None of the dogs were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Midichloria mitochondrii, Bartonella spp., Babesia spp. or Theileria spp. Fifty-four (35.3%) animals showed single infections and 30 (19.6%) co-infections, with A. platys and H. canis co-infection being the most frequent (28 dogs, 18.3%). The frequency of E. canis infection was statistically different among age groups (P=0.017), being higher among dogs older than 4 years compared to younger dogs. Infection by A. platys was also statistically different among age groups (P=0.031), being higher in dogs younger than 2 years compared to older dogs. The statistical analyses showed no significant association of PCR positivity with gender or location. The frequency of tick-borne pathogens detected in dogs in Maio Island, including R. monacensis, highlights the need to improve diagnosis and control in order to prevent the risk of transmission of these pathogens among dogs and humans living in or travelling to this touristic island. Copyright © 2016

  18. The prevalence and impact of Babesia canis and Theileria sp. in free-ranging grey wolf (Canis lupus) populations in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ana; Huber, Doroteja; Polkinghorne, Adam; Kurilj, Andrea Gudan; Benko, Valerija; Mrljak, Vladimir; Reljić, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Reil, Irena; Beck, Relja

    2017-04-04

    Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. are important emerging causes of disease in dogs. Alongside these domesticated hosts, there is increasing recognition that these piroplasms can also be found in a range of wild animals with isolated reports describing the presence of these pathogen in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and captive grey wolves (Canis lupus). The prevalence and impact of these infections in free-ranging populations of canids are unknown. To gain a better insight into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of piroplasm infections in free-ranging grey wolves, pathological and molecular investigations into captive and free-ranging grey wolves in Croatia were performed. The carcasses of 107 free-ranging wolves and one captive wolf were the subjects of post-mortem investigations and sampling for molecular studies. A blood sample from one live captured wolf for telemetric tracking was also used for molecular analysis. PCR amplification targeting the 18S RNA gene revealed that 21 of 108 free-ranging wolves and one captive animal were positive for Theileria/Babesia DNA. Subsequent sequencing of a fragment of the 18S RNA gene revealed that 7/22 animals were positive for Babesia canis while the other amplified sequence were found to be identical with corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of Theileria capreoli isolated from wild deer (15/22). Haematological and cytological analysis revealed the presence of signet-ring shaped or pear-shaped piroplasms in several animals with the overall parasite burden in all positive animals assessed to be very low. Pathological investigation of the captive animal revealed fatal septicemia as a likely outcome of hemolytic anaemia. There was little or no evidence of hemolytic disease consistent with babesiosis in other animals. Importantly, the presence of B. canis in free-ranging grey wolves has not been described before but has been reported in a single fox and domestic dogs only. That B. canis infections cause disease in dogs but have little impact

  19. Hidden slow pulsars in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.

  20. Duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of the eggs of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea) in soil and fecal samples

    OpenAIRE

    Durant, Jean-Francois; Irenge, Leonid M; Fogt-Wyrwas, Renata; Dumont, Catherine; Doucet, Jean-Pierre; Mignon, Bernard; Losson, Bertrand; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) and/or Toxocara cati (T. cati), two worldwide distributed roundworms which are parasites of canids and felids, respectively. Infections of humans occur through ingestion of embryonated eggs of T. canis or T. cati, when playing with soils contaminated with dogs or cats feces. Accordingly, the assessment of potential contamination of these areas with these roundworms eggs is paramount. Methods A duplex qua...

  1. Skin impression with acetate tape in Demodex canis and Scarcoptes scabiei var. vulpes diagnosis

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    D.T. Pereira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the efficacy of skin impression with acetate tape and the deep skin scraping test to find D. canis and S. scabiei in dogs. During six months, 134 samples were collected by both techniques from 115 dogs treated at the dermatology service of the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Maria (HVU-UFSM. Of these patients, 27 had demodicosis and 12 had scabies. The impression with acetate tape test (ITT was shown to be significantly superior to the deep skin scraping test (DSST in finding D. canis and S. scabiei mites (p = 0.007. Based on our results we could conclude that acetate tape impression is a reliable method for diagnosing and monitoring therapy of dermatopathies caused by mites and can be used to replace the traditional deep skin scraping method. In addition, since it is less traumatic for the dog, this method shows more acceptance by the owner.

  2. Prevalence and Characteristics of Streptococcus canis Strains Isolated from Dogs and Cats

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    P. Lysková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of Streptococcus canis in dogs and cats, a total of 926 swabs were examined bacteriologically in the period from 2003 to 2005. Eighty-six isolates obtained from various anatomical locations were further characterized for their phenotypic properties. The most frequently isolated biotype produced phosphatase, leucine amidopeptidase, arginine dihydrolase, alpha-D- and beta-D-galactosidase and fermented lactose and ribose. Additional identification by species-specific amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region was consistent with S. canis. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin G and ampicillin. The least effective antimicrobial agent was found to be tetracycline (only 33.8% of susceptible strains.

  3. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle (CITRONELLA AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT

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    Isis Regina Grenier CAPOCI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008 of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively. Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment.

  4. CANIS LUPUS (MAMMALIA, CANIDAE FROM THE LATE PLEISTOCENE DEPOSIT OF AVETRANA (TARANTO, SOUTHERN ITALY

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    DAVIDE F.BERTÈ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we described the remains of Canis lupus from the bed 8 of Avetrana karst filling (Late Pleistocene; Taranto, Southern Italy. The studied specimens are larger than those collected from the early Late Pleistocene Apulian localities and those referred to the recent Italian wolf. Moreover, the remains from Avetrana are morphometrically close to Canis lupus maximus from France and to C. lupus collected from Central and Northern Italian localities, chronologically related to MIS 2 and MIS 3. Morphologically, the studied specimens slightly differ from both C. l. maximus and other Pleistocene Apulian wolves. The dimensional differences between the Avetrana wolves and those collected from the other early Late Pleistocene Apulian localities could be explained through a spread of a large-sized morphotype from the Northern Italy.

  5. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia

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    Duško Ćirović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013 from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9% were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9% were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes.

  6. Investigations of prevalence of antibodies to B.canis in stray dogs in territory of Belgrade

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    Radojičić Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers investigations of stray dogs in the territory of the city of Belgrade. A total of 184 blood serum samples were examined for the presence of antibodies specific to Brucella canis. The method of slow agglutination in a test tube with 2- mercaptoethanol was used in the diagnostic procedure. Of the 184 examined serums, 49 (26.63% had a titer of 1/50, 25 serums had a titer of 1/100 (13.58%, while 20 serums had a titer equal to or bigger than 1/200 (10.87%. Furthermore, 15 samples of full blood from serologiclly negative animals were also presented for isolation. The bacteriological finding for these samples was negative. The obtained results indicate that the number of seropositive stray dogs in the territory of Belgrade is extremely high and that 10.87% of the testes animals are definitely infected with Brucella canis.

  7. The Young Visual Binary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian; Lindstrom, Kyle; Graham, Sean; Sullivan, Kendall; Biddle, Lauren; Skiff, Brian; Nofi, Larissa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Differences in the stellar and circumstellar properties of the components of young binaries provide key information about star and disk formation and evolution processes. Because objects with separations of a few to a few hundred astronomical units share a common environment and composition, multiple systems allow us to control for some of the factors which play into star formation. We are completing analysis of a rich sample of about 100 pre-main sequence binaries and higher order multiples, primarily located in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions. This poster will highlight some of out recent, exciting results. All reduced spectra and the results of our analysis will be publicly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  8. A molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis in domestic dogs in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Munir; Özübek, Sezayi; Altay, Kürşat; Balkaya, İbrahim; Utuk, Armagan Erdem; Kırbas, Akın; Şimsek, Sami; Dumanlı, Nazir

    2015-04-30

    In this study, asymptomatic dogs in nine provinces of Turkey were surveyed to investigate the prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon canis infection. DNA obtained from blood samples collected from 694 domestic dogs (243 stray, 288 shelter, and 163 pets) of both genders and varying ages were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, 285 thin blood smears prepared from these blood samples were also evaluated for microscopic examination. Direct microscopy revealed Hepatozoon gamonts in the peripheral blood of three of 285 (1.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-3.04) tested. Using PCR, 155 of the 694 (22.3%; 95% CI: 19.28-25.61) were found to be positive for the presence of H. canis DNA. The prevalence of infection was higher in adult dogs (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.1-30.7) than young animals (16.4%; 95% CI: 12.2-21.3). Although the prevalence determined by PCR was higher in male dogs (24.5%; 95% CI: 19.6-29.9) than in female dogs (20.8%; 95% CI: 16.9-25.1), gender differences were not significant. Pet dogs had a lower prevalence of infection (10.4%; 95% CI: 6.2-16.2) compared to stray (26.3%; 95% CI: 20.9-32.3) and shelter dogs (25.7%; 95% CI: 20.7-31.1), but no significant association between stray and shelter dogs was found for the presence of the parasite. Partial sequences of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene shared 99-100% similarity with the corresponding H. canis isolates. This epidemiological survey revealed a high prevalence of H. canis in dogs from several provinces in Turkey, and it suggests that the age and origin are associated with the parasite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Parasitological detection and molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis from canines in Manila, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Baticados, Waren; Baticados,Waren; Carlos,; Villarba,; Subiaga,; Carlos Sr.,Enrique; Baticados,Abigail

    2011-01-01

    Abigail M Baticados1, Waren N Baticados1, Enrique T Carlos2, Sixto MEAS Carlos2, Lorelie A Villarba1, Sherlyn G Subiaga1, Jomarte M Magcalas11Department of Veterinary Paraclinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; 2Makati Dog and Cat Hospital (MDCH), Makati City, PhilippinesAbstract: Hepatozoon canis infection in canines is allegedly an underreported disease in the Philippines. In over the past four decades, ther...

  10. Molecular identification of Hepatozoon canis in dogs from Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento; Babo-Terra, Verônica Jorge; Pedroso, Thatianna Camillo; Souza Filho, Antônio Francisco; de Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro; Cleveland, Herbert Patric Kellermann

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Hepatozoon species infecting dogs in the municipality of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, using blood samples (n = 165) drawn from dogs. The species Hepatozoon canis was identified in 3.63% of the tested animals using molecular tools. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of this infection and the main arthropod vectors involved in its transmission.

  11. Oocysts of Hepatozoon canis in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from a naturally infected dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Renata Lima; de Castro, Jacqueline Ribeiro; Olegário, Maria Marlene Martins; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Mundim, Antonio Vicente; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena; Eyal, Osnat; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Cury, Márcia Cristina; Baneth, Gad

    2011-05-11

    Canine hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne disease caused by protozoans of the genus Hepatozoon. Several tick species have been implicated as potential vectors. Therefore, extensive studies are needed to determine the 'natural' endemic cycle of this parasite. This paper presents the first report of the presence of Hepatozoon canis oocysts in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from an infected dog. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii in dogs in North America

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    Beall Melissa J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the exposure of dogs to three different Ehrlichia spp. in the south and central regions of the United States where vector-borne disease prevalence has been previously difficult to ascertain, particularly beyond the metropolitan areas. Methods Dog blood samples (n = 8,662 were submitted from 14 veterinary colleges, 6 private veterinary practices and 4 diagnostic laboratories across this region. Samples were tested for E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii specific antibodies using peptide microtiter ELISAs. Results Overall, E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii seroprevalence was 0.8%, 2.8%, and 5.1%, respectively. The highest E. canis seroprevalence (2.3% was found in a region encompassing Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas. E. chaffeensis seroreactivity was 6.6% in the central region (Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma and 4.6% in the southeast region (Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia. Seroreactivity to E. ewingii was also highest in the central region (14.6% followed by the southeast region (5.9%. The geospatial pattern derived from E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii seropositive samples was similar to previous reports based on E. chaffeensis seroreactivity in white-tailed deer and the distribution of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME cases reported by the CDC. Conclusions The results of this study provide the first large scale regional documentation of exposure to E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii in pet dogs, highlighting regional differences in seroprevalence and providing the basis for heightened awareness of these emerging vector-borne pathogens by veterinarians and public health agencies.

  13. In vitro effect of Chrysosporium indicum and Chrysosporium keratinophylum on Toxocara canis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanich, María V; Basualdo, Juan A; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2017-12-05

    The degree of antagonism exercised by fungi on geohelminth development varies according to the morphological alterations caused by different fungal species. Saprophytic fungi may exert ovicidal or ovistatic effects. The aim of this study was to apply scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the action of two soil saprophytic species of Chrysosporium (C. indicum and C. keratinophylum) on Toxocara canis eggs. The fungal strains to be tested were incubated for 28 days at 28°C in 2% water agar with a suspension of unembryonated T. canis eggs. A suspension of T. canis eggs in 2% water agar was used as control group. The assay was done in triplicate for each fungus and the control group. SEM observations were performed on the 4th, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day after inoculation. The effect of the fungi on eggs was evaluated in accordance with the alterations observed on the surface and the changes in the normal characteristics of the eggs. Hyphae around the eggs, appresoria penetrating the shell and changes in the typical egg membrane were observed in this assay. Type 3 effect (alterations that occur both in the embryo and the shell, and hyphal penetration of the eggs) was the prevalent effect. SEM allowed us to observe clearly the morphological alterations in T. canis eggs due to the effect of C. indicum and C. keratinophylum. Both saprophytic species of Chrysosporium alter the egg structure and alterations increase as exposure increases. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Restricted evaluation of Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae detection methods in Alaska gray wolves

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    Theresa M. Woldstad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae was first documented on Alaska (USA gray wolves (Canis lupus on the Kenai Peninsula in 1981. In subsequent years, numerous wolves exhibited visually apparent, moderate to severe infestations. Currently, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game utilizes visual inspection, histopathology, and potassium hydroxide (KOH hide digestion for T. canis detection. Our objective was to determine optimal sampling locations for T. canis detection. Wolf hides were subjected to lice enumeration using KOH hide digestion. Thirty nine of the 120 wolves examined had lice. Of these 39, total louse burdens ranged from 14 to an extrapolated 80,000. The hides of 12 infested animals were divided into 10 cm by 10 cm subsections and the lice enumerated on a subsection from each of four regions: neck; shoulder; groin; and rump. Combining the data from these 12 wolves, the highest mean proportions of the total louse burdens on individual wolves were found on the rump and differed significantly from the lowest mean proportion on the neck. However, examination of the four subsections failed to detect all infested wolves. Hides from 16 of the 39 infested animals were cut into left and right sides, and each side then cut into four, approximately equal sections: neck and shoulder; chest; abdomen; and rump. Half hides were totally digested from 11 wolves, and whole hides from 5. For these 21 half hides, the highest mean proportions of total louse burdens were found on the rump, and this section had the highest sensitivity for louse detection, regardless of burden. However, removal of this large section from a hide would likely be opposed by hunters and trappers.

  15. Long-distance dispersal connects Dinaric-Balkan and Alpine grey wolf (Canis lupus) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ražen, Nina; Kljun, Franc; Kos, Ivan; Krofel, Miha; Luštrik, Roman; Majić Skrbinšek, Aleksandra; Potočnik, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    In the last two centuries, persecution and deforestation caused grey wolf Canis lupus populations in Europe to decline. Recently, their numbers started to recover although most populations still remain isolated from one another. This study presents the first documented evidence of the successful reconnection of the Dinaric-Balkan and the Alpine wolf populations via long distance dispersal and subsequent reproduction. A young male wolf radiocollared in the Dinaric Mountains in July...

  16. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification as a reliable assay for Toxocara canis infection in pet dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshakhlagh, Paria; Spotin, Adel; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Shahbazi, Abbas; Ozlati, Maryam

    2017-09-01

    Keeping of infected dogs as pet results in the potential transmission risk factors for shedding helminthic infections such as toxocariasis. Lack of accurate identification of Toxocara canis eggs in non-dewormed infected pet dogs remains a diagnostic concern among researchers. In this study, dog owners were asked to fill up a questionnaire regarding their pets and their attitude towards the deworming regimen. One hundred faecal samples were collected from pet dogs (Northwest Iran) and were subsequently identified by the ZnSo4 flotation technique, PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays. The DNA of the recovered T. canis eggs was then extracted and amplified by LAMP and PCR. Furthermore, ITS2 amplicons were sequenced for appraisal of the phylogenetic analysis. Nine, 5 and 11% of T. canis infections were identified by microscopy, PCR and LAMP, respectively. It was detected that LAMP was 10 times (10 -10 to 10 -13  g/μl) more sensitive than PCR (10 -10 to 10 -12  g/μl). The kappa value between LAMP and PCR indicated a faint concurrence (0.463). The kappa coefficient between LAMP and flotation technique indicated a strong agreement (0.667). The highest infection rate (n = 11) was detected in non-dewormed pet dogs, particularly those less than 3 months old (P canis eggs in infected pet dogs. It was proposed that the dog holder's awareness is insufficient to implement regular deworming schedules. Additionally, regional policymakers should broadly revise anthelmintic treatment guidelines.

  17. Study of cross-reactivity in serum samples from dogs positive for Leishmania sp., Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect fluorescent antibody test Estudo da reatividade cruzada em amostras de soro de cães positivos para Leishmania sp., Babesia canis e Ehrlichia canis, pelo ensaio imunoenzimático indireto e pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trícia Maria F. de Sousa Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To verify the presence of cross-reaction among leishmaniosis, ehrlichiosis and babesiosis in serological diagnostics used in human visceral leishmaniasis control programs, serum samples from leishmaniasis endemic and non-endemic areas were collected and tested by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFAT and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All serum samples from endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by ELISA and IFAT, 51% positive for Babesia canis and 43% for Ehrlichia canis by IFAT. None of the serum samples from non-endemic areas were positive for Leishmania sp., by IFAT, but 67% were positive for B. canis and 78% for E. canis using the same test. When tested by ELISA for Leishmania sp., four samples from non-endemic area were positive. These dogs were then located and no clinical signs, parasites or antibody was detected in new tests for a six month period. Only one of these 4 samples was positive for B. canis by IFAT and ELISA and three for E. canis by IFAT. The results of the work suggest a co-infection in the endemic area and no serological cross-reaction among these parasites by IFAT and ELISA.Para verificar a existência de reação cruzada entre leishmaniose visceral, erliquiose e babesiose, nos testes sorológicos utilizados em programas de controle da leishmaniose visceral humana, amostras de soro canino provenientes de áreas endêmicas e não endêmicas para essa enfermidade, foram testadas pela Reação de Imunofluorescência (RIFI e Ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA. Todos os soros provenientes de área endêmica foram positivos para Leishmania sp pelo ELISA e RIFI, 51% para Babesia canis e 43% para Ehrlichia canis pela RIFI. Pela RIFI, nenhum dos soros provenientes de área não endêmica foi positivo para Leishmania sp, sendo 67% positivos para B. canis e 78% para E. canis pelo mesmo teste. Quando testados pelo ELISA para Leishmania sp., quatro soros da área não endêmica foram positivos. Os cães foram localizados

  18. Hepatozoon canis and Leishmania spp. coinfection in dogs diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis

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    Fernanda Nazaré Morgado

    Full Text Available Abstract This study describes the occurrence of dogs naturally co-infected with Hepatozoon canis and two Leishmania species: L. infantum or L. braziliensis. Four dogs serologically diagnosed with Visceral Leishmaniasis were euthanized. Liver and spleen samples were collected for histopathological analysis and DNA isolation. H. canis meronts were observed in tissues from all four dogs. H. canis infection was confirmed by PCR followed by sequencing of a fragment of 18S rRNA gene. Leishmania detection and typing was confirmed by ITS1' PCR-RFLP and parasite burden was calculated using ssrRNA quantitative qPCR. A DPP - Dual Path platform test was performed. One out (Dog #2 of four animals was asymptomatic. Dogs #1 and #4 were infected by L. infantum and were DPP test positive. Dogs #2 and #3 were infected by L. braziliensis and were DPP test negative. Furthermore, visceral dissemination was observed in Dogs #2 and #3, since L. braziliensis was detected in liver and spleen samples. The visceral dissemination of L. braziliensis associated with systemic signs suggested that this co-infection could influence the parasite burden and disease progression.

  19. Molecular detection of Anaplasma bovis, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon felis in cats from Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Luz, Maria Francisca; Granada, Sara; Vilhena, Hugo; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Cardoso, Luís; Baneth, Gad

    2018-03-20

    Molecular identification of tick-borne pathogen infection in cats from Africa is scarce. The presence of bacterial (Anaplasma and Ehrlichia) and protozoal (Babesia and Hepatozoon) agents was investigated in blood samples from 102 domestic cats from Luanda, Angola, by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Three cats (2.9%) were found infected with Ehrlichia canis, three (2.9%) with Hepatozoon felis and one (1.0%) with Anaplasma bovis. The prevalence of infections with one single agent was 4.9%, and that of infection with two agents (i.e. E. canis and H. felis) was 1.0%. In total, six cats (5.9%) were found infected with at least one of the detected tick-borne agents. This is the first report of A. bovis, E. canis and H. felis in cats from Angola. To the best of our knowledge, A. bovis is also being reported for the first time in domestic cats outside of Japan. Cats are at a low to moderate risk of being infected with tick-borne agents in Luanda.

  20. Molecular detection of Theileria annae and Hepatozoon canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezdek, Danko; Vojta, Lea; Curković, Snjezana; Lipej, Zoran; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Cvetnić, Zeljko; Beck, Relja

    2010-09-20

    An epizootiological field study on tick-borne protozoan infections in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was carried out in different parts of Croatia. Spleen samples of 191 carcasses of red foxes killed in sanitary hunting, were examined for the presence of hematozoa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent sequencing. The investigation revealed four species of hematozoa in 57 foxes (30%), namely Theileria annae, Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon canis. T. annae was found in 10 foxes (5%), Theileria sp. 3182/05 in a single animal (1%), H. canis in 44 (23%) and Hepatozoon sp. was detected in two foxes (1%). T. annae and H. canis were distributed through all the studied regions, while Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon sp. were restricted to the Zagreb and Zagorje, and Istria regions, respectively. Detection of T. annae in all regions of Croatia indicates the presence of the natural cycle of the parasite and raises the possibility of other vectors other than the proposed Ixodes hexagonus.

  1. Hepatozoon canis and Leishmania spp. coinfection in dogs diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Fernanda Nazaré; Cavalcanti, Amanda Dos Santos; Miranda, Luisa Helena de; O'Dwyer, Lúcia Helena; Silva, Maria Regina Lucas da; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Andrade da Silva, Aurea Virgínia; Boité, Mariana Côrtes; Cupolillo, Elisa; Porrozzi, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the occurrence of dogs naturally co-infected with Hepatozoon canis and two Leishmania species: L. infantum or L. braziliensis. Four dogs serologically diagnosed with Visceral Leishmaniasis were euthanized. Liver and spleen samples were collected for histopathological analysis and DNA isolation. H. canis meronts were observed in tissues from all four dogs. H. canis infection was confirmed by PCR followed by sequencing of a fragment of 18S rRNA gene. Leishmania detection and typing was confirmed by ITS1' PCR-RFLP and parasite burden was calculated using ssrRNA quantitative qPCR. A DPP - Dual Path platform test was performed. One out (Dog #2) of four animals was asymptomatic. Dogs #1 and #4 were infected by L. infantum and were DPP test positive. Dogs #2 and #3 were infected by L. braziliensis and were DPP test negative. Furthermore, visceral dissemination was observed in Dogs #2 and #3, since L. braziliensis was detected in liver and spleen samples. The visceral dissemination of L. braziliensis associated with systemic signs suggested that this co-infection could influence the parasite burden and disease progression.

  2. Identification of toxocara canis antigens by Western blot in experimentally infected rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORALES Olga Lucía

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a frequent helminthiasis that can cause visceral and ocular damage in humans specially in children. The identification of specific antigens of Toxocara canis is important in order to develop better diagnostic techniques. Ten rabbits were infected orally with a dose of 5000 Toxocara canis embryonated eggs. Rabbits were bled periodically and an ELISA assay was performed to determine levels of specific Toxocara IgG antibodies. ELISA detected antibodies at day 15 after infection. Western blot (WB assay was performed using excretory/secretory antigens (E/S of T. canis second stage larvae. Different antigen concentrations were evaluated: 150, 200, 250 and 300 µg/mL. The concentration of 250 µg/mL was retained for analysis. Rabbit sera were diluted 1:100. Secondary antibody was used at a dilution of 1:1000. Results of WB indicated that in the first month after infection specific antibodies against the 200 KDa, 116 KDa, 92 KDa and 35 KDa antigens were detected; antibodies against the 92 KDa, 80 KDa, 66 KDa, 45 KDa, 31 KDa and 28 KDa antigens appeared later. All positive sera in the ELISA test were also positive in WB. Two antigen bands, 92 KDa and 35 KDa, were identified since the beginning and throughout the course of infection. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidates for use in diagnosis.

  3. Epidemiological Survey of Brucella canis Infection in Different Breeds of Dogs in Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Behzadi and Asghar Mogheiseh1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella canis antibodies in different breeds, sex and ages of dogs in southern of Iran. A total of 113 whole blood samples were taken from different breeds based on exotic or native sources. The samples were examined with immunochromatography assay for detection of B. canis antibodies. Twelve dogs were serologically positive (10.62%. There was significant differences in ratio of infected dogs between breeds (exotic or native, ages (less, equal or more than 2 years old and the history of vaccination (against rabies, leptospirosis, parvovirus, adenovirus type 2, canine distemper, parainfluenza (P<0.001. However, the results were not significant statistically, among both sex (P=0.058 and the history of clinical signs (P=0.456 in seropositive dogs. Based on this study and the other investigation in companion dogs from southwest of Iran, it seems that the mixed and spray (native breeds are not infected with B. canis, yet. Conversely, the exotic breeds would be the source of bacterium in Iran. Therefore, preventive and control measures are strongly recommended.

  4. Contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs from sandpits in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuhova, K; Akao, N; Fujinami, Y; Kumagai, T; Ohta, N

    2013-09-01

    The contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs in sandpits in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, are described. A total of 34 sandpits were examined, 14 of which were contaminated with T. cati eggs, as assessed by the floatation method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Two naturally contaminated sandpits were investigated to determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of eggs, and an inverse relationship between the sand depth and number of eggs was observed. To examine the pathogenicity of the eggs, three ICR mice were inoculated with 300 eggs, which were recovered from sandpits. The mice exhibited eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and IgG antibody production in the sera after 3 weeks of infection. Most migrating larvae were recovered from carcasses, although three were found in the brains of two infected mice. These three larvae were determined to be T. canis by PCR, revealing that not only T. cati, but also T. canis eggs could be found in sandpits and, further, that eggs recovered from sandpits have the ability to invade a paratenic host.

  5. Determination of anthelmintic efficacy against Toxocara canis in dogs by use of capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice C Y; Epe, Christian; Bowman, Dwight D

    2015-09-15

    Industry guidelines for anthelmintic testing call for postmortem inspection of animals to verify treatment efficacy. A previous study showed that capsule endoscopy (CE) can be performed on dogs in vivo to quantify hookworms in the small intestine. Adoption of a minimally invasive procedure such as this could reduce the need for necropsy in efficacy trials. The present study employed CE to enumerate Toxocara canis in dogs, with two main goals: to determine if multiple capsule examinations improves the accuracy of worm counts compared to a single examination, and to establish if the efficacy of an anthelmintic compound is the same whether calculated using CE or necropsy data. To avoid needless animal sacrifice, the study was carried out on beagle dogs already in a product development trial with a planned terminal endpoint. Dogs were infected by oral inoculation with T. canis eggs. Untreated control dogs (n=8) were evaluated by CE three times while dogs treated with test compounds (3 groups of 4) were examined only once. Utilizing either the average count or just the last complete capsule examination, a robust correlation was found between CE and postmortem numbers (r=0.94, p<0.001). Calculated anthelmintic efficacy was essentially identical for the two enumeration methods, ranging from 94% to 100% for the three research compounds. CE may therefore be a viable alternative to necropsy for T. canis parasiticide trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolution in close binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yungel'son, L.R.; Masevich, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    Duality is the property most typical of stars. If one investigates how prevalent double stars are, making due allowance for selection effects, one finds that as many as 90 percent of all stars are paired. Contrary to tradition it is single stars that are out of the ordinary, and as will be shown presently even some of these may have been formed by coalescence of the members of binary systems. This review deals with the evolution of close binaries, defined as double-star systems whose evolution entails exchange of material between the two components

  7. Comparative Foraging Efficiency of Two Sympatric Jackals, Silver-Backed Jackals (Canis mesomelas and Golden Jackals (Canis aureus, in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Temu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The foraging efficiency of two sympatric species of jackals, silver-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas and golden jackals (Canis aureus, was studied in the Ngorongoro crater from July 2014 through May 2015. The focal animal observation method was used and individuals of both species were followed as they foraged from morning to evening. Observations of individuals of both jackal species were made from a vehicle using binoculars and a spotting scope. Three major parameters were used for determination of foraging efficiency: distance travelled while foraging, time spent foraging, and amount of food secured in foraging period. The Mann–Whitney U test showed no significant difference (P>0.05 in distance travelled per unit time of foraging between the two species in the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Golden jackals secured a significantly higher amount of food than the silver-backed jackals in the wet season (Mann–Whitney U test, P<0.05, U=1035.4. Hunting of prey larger than Thomson’s gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii fawns was not common. Both species mainly fed on smaller prey such as invertebrates and rodents and scavenged opportunistically. Efficient foraging is crucial for both jackal species especially during their breeding season when they are provisioning dependent pups.

  8. Hematologic changes in dogs naturally infected Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus and Brucella canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Ribeiro de Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Castro J.R., Silva C.B., Souza M.A., Salaberry S.R.S., Guimarães E.C., Mundim A.V. & Lima-Ribeiro A.M.C. [Hematologic changes in dogs naturally infected Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus and Brucella canis.] Altera- ções hematológicas em cães naturalmente infectados por Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus e Brucella canis. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(1:49-54, 2014. Laboratório de Doenças Infectocontagiosas, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Ceará s/n, Bloco 2D, Sala 33, Campus Umuarama, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902, Brasil. E-mail: jack_ufu@yahoo.com.br The investigations of leptospirosis and brucellosis canine act as sanitary control in public health and zoonoses because they were established by close contact between dog and human. The aim was to determine the main hematological reagents in asymptomatic dogs against Leptospira spp. Brucella abortus and Brucella canis naturally infected, living in urban areas in the city of Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. We examined 140 blood samples from clinically healthy dogs, males and females and different ages. Leptospirosis was diagnosed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT, with a collection of twelve serovars, whereas, brucellosis was identified through the tests of Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID for B. canis and buffered acidified antigen (TAA confirmed 2-Mercaptoethanol (2-ME for B. abortus. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics with the calculation of simple percentages, mean and standard deviation. He applied and short sample t test for two independent samples to assess whether there were significant differences (p<0.05 between hematological parameters obtained. Dogs evaluated, 15% (21/140 and 2.85% (4/140 were reactive to Leptospira spp. and B. abortus, respectively. There was no sample reagent against B. canis. It was concluded that although no specific thrombocytopenia may be a significant finding in dogs

  9. Association between canine leishmaniosis and Ehrlichia canis co-infection: a prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipa, Charalampos; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Soutter, Francesca; Morris, David; Helps, Chris; Carver, Scott; Tasker, Séverine

    2018-03-20

    In the Mediterranean basin, Leishmania infantum is a major cause of disease in dogs, which are frequently co-infected with other vector-borne pathogens (VBP). However, the associations between dogs with clinical leishmaniosis (ClinL) and VBP co-infections have not been studied. We assessed the risk of VBP infections in dogs with ClinL and healthy controls. We conducted a prospective case-control study of dogs with ClinL (positive qPCR and ELISA antibody for L. infantum on peripheral blood) and clinically healthy, ideally breed-, sex- and age-matched, control dogs (negative qPCR and ELISA antibody for L. infantum on peripheral blood) from Paphos, Cyprus. We obtained demographic data and all dogs underwent PCR on EDTA-blood extracted DNA for haemoplasma species, Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., and Hepatozoon spp., with DNA sequencing to identify infecting species. We used logistic regression analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM) to evaluate the risk of VBP infections between ClinL cases and controls. From the 50 enrolled dogs with ClinL, DNA was detected in 24 (48%) for Hepatozoon spp., 14 (28%) for Mycoplasma haemocanis, 6 (12%) for Ehrlichia canis and 2 (4%) for Anaplasma platys. In the 92 enrolled control dogs, DNA was detected in 41 (45%) for Hepatozoon spp., 18 (20%) for M. haemocanis, 1 (1%) for E. canis and 3 (3%) for A. platys. No Babesia spp. or "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum" DNA was detected in any dog. No statistical differences were found between the ClinL and controls regarding age, sex, breed, lifestyle and use of ectoparasitic prevention. A significant association between ClinL and E. canis infection (OR = 12.4, 95% CI: 1.5-106.0, P = 0.022) was found compared to controls by multivariate logistic regression. This association was confirmed using SEM, which further identified that younger dogs were more likely to be infected with each of Hepatozoon spp. and M. haemocanis, and dogs with Hepatozoon spp. were more likely to

  10. The Binary Ties that Bind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mike

    2008-01-01

    As any reader of "About Campus" knows, binary oppositions contribute to the definitions of institutional types--the trade school versus the liberal arts college, for example. They help define disciplines and subdisciplines and the status differentials among them: consider the difference in intellectual cachet as one moves from linguistics to…

  11. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch

    2017-01-01

    their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal...

  12. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  13. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-07603Y Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  14. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  15. Binary logic is rich enough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapatrin, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs

  16. Astronomy of binary and multiple stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Various types of binary stars and methods for their observation are described in a popular form. Some models of formation and evolution of binary and multiple star systems are presented. It is concluded that formation of binary and multiple stars is a regular stage in the process of star production

  17. Coevolution of Binaries and Circumbinary Gaseous Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2018-04-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, and how the disk and binary interact. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disk that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disk. To probe how these interactions impact both binary eccentricity and disk structure evolution, we ran N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 for 10^4 binary orbital periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disk via a parametric instability and excite disk eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk causing eccentricity growth for both the disk and binary. Disks around sufficiently eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk and develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance (EOLR). This wave corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. We find that in all simulations, the binary semi-major axis decays due to dissipation from the viscous disk.

  18. Formation and evolution of compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain

  19. Hematological disorders detected in dogs infected by Hepatozoon canis in a municipality in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Paiz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A retrospective review of hematological reports of nine dogs detected with Hepatozoon canis infection by microscopic examination of blood smears in a laboratory in the municipality of Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil was conducted. This study aimed to evaluate the hematological profile of these infected dogs, in addition to the occurrence of coinfections with other agents that infect blood cells, since studies concerning canine hepatozoonosis in Brazil are scarce and there are some divergences regarding H. canis infection that still require a resolution. The nine cases of H. canis infection were identified among all dogs examined at the studied laboratory in 2009 and 2010, with an occurrence of 7/1,192 (0.59%; 95% CI 0.15 - 1.02% positive dogs in the first year and 2/1,313 (0.15%; 95% CI 0.02 - 0.55% cases in 2010. The analysis of the hematological reports showed an occurrence of coinfection between H. canis and other agents in two (2/9; 22.22%; 95% CI 2.81 - 60.00% dogs, one with E. canis and another with Babesia spp. (1/9; 11.11%; 95% CI 0.28 - 48.24%. Only the blood test of one dog had no alterations, based on reference values. Anemia was the most frequent hematological alteration (6/9; 66.67%; 95% CI 29.93 - 92.51%. Although the occurrence of H. canis infection was low, significative hematological alterations were observed in most infected dogs. Coinfection with Babesia spp. and E. canis was detected in two dogs and the hematological alterations cannot be attributed exclusively to H. canis in these animals. Longitudinal studies would be of fundamental importance to determine the causality of these alterations. These results highlight the importance of differential diagnosis in dogs when there is clinical suspicion of infection by hemoparasites, since the hematological changes in dogs infected by H. canis are quite variable.

  20. Binary Linear-Time Erasure Decoding for Non-Binary LDPC codes

    OpenAIRE

    Savin, Valentin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce the extended binary representation of non-binary codes, which corresponds to a covering graph of the bipartite graph associated with the non-binary code. Then we show that non-binary codewords correspond to binary codewords of the extended representation that further satisfy some simplex-constraint: that is, bits lying over the same symbol-node of the non-binary graph must form a codeword of a simplex code. Applied to the binary erasure channel, this descript...

  1. Retrospective study of clinical and hematological aspects associated with dogs naturally infected by Hepatozoon canis in Ludhiana, Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Sushma; Uppal, Sanjeev Kumar; Singla, Lachhman Das

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis (H. canis) presented at the Small Animal Clinics of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana. Methods Blood films of 34 naturally infected dogs were examined for haematological alterations and parasitaemia. Signalment and clinical signs were recorded from the animals. Clinical histories were filled out during the consultation. Results Of the 34 positive dogs by Giemsa stained peripheral blood films, 88.23% presented parasitaemia by H. canis only, while 11.77% had the combination of H. canis, Babesia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. Young male dogs less than one-year-old, of non-descript breed, were the most commonly affected. And 26.47% were presented with anorexia/inappetence as the only clinical symptom. Other clinical symptoms were mild to moderate fever, pale mucosae and lethargy; a few were also showing the signs of vomiting and diarrhoea. Haematological alterations showed mainly normochromic-normocytic anaemia, leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Conclusions The findings of this study substantiate that H. canis caused clinical and haematological alterations of the varied intensity in dogs, even with low parasitaemia, should be taken into consideration. PMID:23730562

  2. Retrospective study of clinical and hematological aspects associated with dogs naturally infected by Hepatozoon canis in Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Sushma; Uppal, Sanjeev Kumar; Singla, Lachhman Das

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis (H. canis) presented at the Small Animal Clinics of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana. Blood films of 34 naturally infected dogs were examined for haematological alterations and parasitaemia. Signalment and clinical signs were recorded from the animals. Clinical histories were filled out during the consultation. Of the 34 positive dogs by Giemsa stained peripheral blood films, 88.23% presented parasitaemia by H. canis only, while 11.77% had the combination of H. canis, Babesia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. Young male dogs less than one-year-old, of non-descript breed, were the most commonly affected. And 26.47% were presented with anorexia/inappetence as the only clinical symptom. Other clinical symptoms were mild to moderate fever, pale mucosae and lethargy; a few were also showing the signs of vomiting and diarrhoea. Haematological alterations showed mainly normochromic-normocytic anaemia, leukocytosis and neutrophilia. The findings of this study substantiate that H. canis caused clinical and haematological alterations of the varied intensity in dogs, even with low parasitaemia, should be taken into consideration.

  3. Transmission trials, ITS2-PCR and RAPD-PCR show identity of Toxocara canis isolates from red fox and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epe, C; Meuwissen, M; Stoye, M; Schnieder, T

    1999-07-01

    Toxocara canis isolates from dog and from red fox were compared in transmission trials and with molecular analysis using RAPD-PCR technique and comparison of the ITS2 sequence. After oral infection of bitches with 20,000 embryonated T. canis eggs of vulpine and canine origin, the vertical transmission to pup's was examined. All animals of both groups developed typical clinical symptoms of toxocarosis. The haematological, serological, parasitological and post mortem results showed no differences between both isolates except for the infectivity of T. canis stages in mice where the fox isolate showed a significant higher infectivity than the dog isolate. The RAPD-PCR showed a similarity coefficient of 0.95, similar to the range of intraspecific variation in Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina specimens as outgroups. The ITS2 comparison showed a 100% identity between both isolates with no intraspecific variations. Therefore, the study shows that the fox and the dog isolate of T. canis were identical in infectivity, transmission and molecular structure; a host adaptation could not be found and the fox has to be seen as a reservoir for T. canis infections in dogs. Considering the increasing number of foxes in urban areas the importance of helminth control in dogs is stressed.

  4. Hoe effectief zijn uw voedselveiligheidssystemen?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Boekel, van T.; Devlieghere, F.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    Binnen het Europees project PathogenCombat zijn nieuwe tools ontwikkeld waarmee de prestaties van een voedselveiligheidssysteem kunnen worden gemeten. Vandaag deel 1 over het Microbial Assessment Scheme (MAS), een protocol voor een microbiologisch monternameplan.

  5. Cardiac markers: profile in rats experimentally infected with Toxocara canis Marcadores cardíacos: perfil em ratos infectados experimentalmente com Toxocara canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Braga Laposy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of the enzymes creatine kinase (CK, creatine kinase MB (CK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in Wistar rats infected with 250 (GI, n = 24 or 1000 (GII, n = 24 Toxocara canis eggs. Animals were evaluated on days 7, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 post-infection (DPI. Only the GI rats showed an increase in CK and CK-MB, at 15 and 30 DPI, respectively. Anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies were detected by ELISA in infected animals. Despite of the presence of eosinophilic infiltrate in the heart of three infected animals, none larva was recovered from the organ neither by acid digestion nor by Baermann procedure. Eosinophilia was observed in both groups but there was no significant difference in the eosinophil counts between GI and GII (p = 0.2239. It is possible to consider that cardiac lesion is an eventual finding in murine model for toxocariasis.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o perfil das enzimas creatinoquinase (CK, creatinoquinase-MB (CK-MB e lactato desidrogenase (LDH em ratos Wistar infectados com 250 (GI, n = 24 ou 1000 (GII, n = 24 ovos de Toxocara canis. Os animais foram avaliados nos dias 7, 15, 30, 60, 120 e 180 pós-infecção (DPI. Observou-se que apenas os animais do GI apresentaram aumento da atividade de CK e CK-MB aos 15 e 30 DPI, respectivamente. Anticorpos anti-T. canis foram detectados por ELISA nos animais infectados. Apesar da presença de infiltrado eosinofílico em três animais infectados, nenhuma larva foi recuperada do coração pela digestão ácida ou pela técnica de Baermann. Eosinofilia foi observada em todos os momentos em GI e GII, sem diferença significativa entre os grupos (p = 0,2239. Pode-se considerar que as lesões cardíacas foram um achado eventual no modelo murino para toxocaríase.

  6. Detecting Malicious Code by Binary File Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius POPA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object, library and executable code is stored in binary files. Functionality of a binary file is altered when its content or program source code is changed, causing undesired effects. A direct content change is possible when the intruder knows the structural information of the binary file. The paper describes the structural properties of the binary object files, how the content can be controlled by a possible intruder and what the ways to identify malicious code in such kind of files. Because the object files are inputs in linking processes, early detection of the malicious content is crucial to avoid infection of the binary executable files.

  7. Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.

  8. A ROSAT Survey of Contact Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, M. T.; Gettel, S. J.; McKay, T. A.

    2006-01-01

    Contact binary stars are common variable stars that are all believed to emit relatively large fluxes of X-rays. In this work we combine a large new sample of contact binary stars derived from the ROTSE-I telescope with X-ray data from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) to estimate the X-ray volume emissivity of contact binary stars in the Galaxy. We obtained X-ray fluxes for 140 contact binaries from the RASS, as well as two additional stars observed by the XMM-Newton observatory. From these data we confirm the emission of X-rays from all contact binary systems, with typical luminosities of approximately 1.0×1030 ergs s-1. Combining calculated luminosities with an estimated contact binary space density, we find that contact binaries do not have strong enough X-ray emission to account for a significant portion of the Galactic X-ray background.

  9. Soroepidemiologia da brucelose canina causada por Brucella canis e Brucella abortus na cidade de Alfenas, MG Seroepidemiology of canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis and Brucella abortus in Alfenas, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Almeida

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of canine brucellosis was evaluated in the city of Alfenas, MG through the technique of agarose gel imunodifusion for Brucella canis and slow serum agglutination test with 2-mercaptoetanol for Brucella abortus. The prevalence was of 14.2% and 2.8%, respectively, for B. canis and B. abortus. The positives, characterized by animals above one year of age (77.8%, and mongrel dogs (56.2%, showed a prevalence of 50 and 48% for males and females, respectively. The canine brucellosis was prevalent in the city principally in dogs of outskirts.

  10. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF THE PROBIOTIC Saccharomyces boulardii IN Toxocara canis INFECTION IS NOT DUE TO DIRECT ACTION ON THE LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Farias da Costa de Avila

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY In a previous study our group found that the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii was capable of reducing the intensity of infection in mice with toxocariasis. In order to assess whether the mechanism involved would be a direct action of the probiotic on Toxocara canis larvae, this study was designed. Both probiotics were singly cultivated in plates containing RPMI 1640 medium and T. canis larvae. S. boulardii and B. cereus var. toyoi cultures presented 97.6% and 95.7% of larvae with positive motility, respectively, and absence of color by the dye trypan blue, not representing significant difference to the control group (p > 0.05. We conclude that none of the probiotics showed in vitro effects on T. canis larvae and that the interaction with the intestinal mucosa is necessary for the development of the protective effect of S. boulardii.

  11. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Hepatozoon canis in dogs from urban and rural areas in Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, R L; O'Dwyer, L H; de Castro, J R; Metzger, B; Rubini, A S; Mundim, A V; Eyal, O; Talmi-Frank, D; Cury, M C; Baneth, G

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this survey was to investigate the prevalence of Hepatozoon infection in dogs in the rural and urban areas of Uberlândia, Brazil by PCR and molecular characterization. DNA was obtained from blood samples collected from 346 local dogs from both genders and various ages. Seventeen PCR products from positive blood samples of urban dogs and 13 from the rural dogs were sequenced. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene indicated that all 30 dogs were infected with Hepatozoon canis similar in sequence to H. canis from southern Europe. Four local dog sequences were submitted to GenBank (accessions JN835188; KF692038; KF692039; KF692040). This study indicates that H. canis is the cause of canine hepatozoonosis in Uberlândia and that infection is similarly widespread in rural and urban dogs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Protective effect of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in Toxocara canis infection is not due to direct action on the larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa de; Telmo, Paula de Lima; Martins, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues; Glaeser, Thaís Aimeé; Conceição, Fabricio Rochedo; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas; Scaini, Carlos James

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study our group found that the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii was capable of reducing the intensity of infection in mice with toxocariasis. In order to assess whether the mechanism involved would be a direct action of the probiotic on Toxocara canis larvae, this study was designed. Both probiotics were singly cultivated in plates containing RPMI 1640 medium and T. canis larvae. S. boulardii and B. cereus var. toyoi cultures presented 97.6% and 95.7% of larvae with positive motility, respectively, and absence of color by the dye trypan blue, not representing significant difference to the control group (p > 0.05). We conclude that none of the probiotics showed in vitro effects on T. canis larvae and that the interaction with the intestinal mucosa is necessary for the development of the protective effect of S. boulardii.

  13. Binary evolution and observational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of close binaries is discussed in connection with problems concerning mass and angular momentum losses. Theoretical and observational evidence for outflow of matter, leaving the system during evolution is given: statistics on total masses and mass ratios, effects of the accretion of the mass gaining component, the presence of streams, disks, rings, circumstellar envelopes, period changes, abundance changes in the atmosphere. The effects of outflowing matter on the evolution is outlined, and estimates of the fraction of matter expelled by the loser, and leaving the system, are given. The various time scales involved with evolution and observation are compared. Examples of non conservative evolution are discussed. Problems related to contact phases, on mass and energy losses, in connection with entropy changes are briefly analysed. For advanced stages the disruption probabilities for supernova explosions are examined. A global picture is given for the evolution of massive close binaries, from ZAMS, through WR phases, X-ray phases, leading to runaway pulsars or to a binary pulsar and later to a millisecond pulsar. (Auth.)

  14. X rays from radio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to the radio binary systems CC Cas, AR Lac, β Per (Algol), β Lyr, b Per and Cyg X-1. It is stated that a thermal interpretation of the radiation from Algol requires a much larger x-ray flux than the observed value of 3.8 x 10 -11 erg/cm 2 /sec/keV in the 2 to 6 keV energy range. Observations of some non-thermal flares, together with the small size of the radio source in Algol, indicate that the radio emission is non-thermal in nature. The radio emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation and it is suggested that the observed x-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the light of the primary star by the radio electrons. The x-ray emission from other radio binaries is also calculated using this model. The energy for the radio electrons can arise from annihilation of magnetic lines connecting the binary stars, twisted by the rotation of the stars. (U.K.)

  15. Failure of imidocarb dipropionate to eliminate Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs based on parasitological and molecular evaluation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasanelli, Mariateresa; Paradies, Paola; Greco, Beatrice; Eyal, Osnat; Zaza, Valeria; Baneth, Gad

    2010-08-04

    The efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate for the treatment of Hepatozoon canis infection was studied in three naturally infected asymptomatic dogs followed longitudinally over 8 months. Response to treatment was followed by monitoring blood counts, parasitemia levels in blood, parasite in concentrated buffy-coat smears and by PCR. The dogs were initially treated with a low dose of 3 mg/kg imidocarb dipropionate twice a month and when parasitemia persisted after five treatments, with the regular dose of 6 mg/kg. In one dog, H. canis gamonts were no longer detectable by blood and buffy-coat microscopy after 2 months of therapy with 6 mg/kg while in the two other dogs gamonts were intermittently found in blood but persistently detectable in buffy-coat smears during the whole study period. Furthermore, combined therapy with doxycycline monohydrate administered at 10 mg/kg/day PO for 4 weeks also failed to eliminate H. canis. PCR revealed that parasite DNA was present in the blood of all dogs at all sampling dates regardless of treatment refuting the effectiveness of treatment suggested by negative blood microscopy. Detection of H. canis in buffy coat was found to be twice as sensitive than by blood smear and detection by PCR was even more sensitive revealing infection in eight samples (16% of total samples) negative by blood and buffy-coat microscopy. In conclusion, imidocarb dipropionate was not effective in eliminating H. canis from dogs treated repeatedly over 8 months. Microscopical detection is not sufficient for the evaluation of treatment response in H. canis infection and follow up by molecular techniques is recommended. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The first report of Hepatozoon canis identified in Vulpes vulpes and ticks from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Simona; Kumlien, Susanna; Calderini, Pietro; Brozzi, Alberto; Iori, Albertina; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2010-11-01

    This is the first report on the presence of Hepatozoon canis in Vulpes vulpes in Italy. During the years 2005 and 2006, a total of 119 foxes were collected and their spleen tissues were screened by microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing. In the same area, 290 ticks were picked off from dogs or collected from the environment. Microscopy detected inclusion bodies regarded as belonging to the genus Hepatozoon in four samples, whereas molecular diagnostics evidenced 16 foxes (13.4%) and 6 ticks (2.1%) positive to H. canis. The H. canis isolates we found in foxes, compared with the strains we previously detected in dogs from the same area and with the strains found in foxes from other European countries, show a certain genetic heterogeneity. In fact, seven isolates cluster with the Italian dog strain and nine isolates cluster with the fox strain found in Spain and Slovakia; moreover, the dog's strain is closely related to one tick's isolate, and the strain found in three Rhipicephalus sanguineus and in one Ixodes ricinus collected from the environment cluster with the aforementioned Spanish and Slovak fox strains. Our findings confirm the importance of R. sanguineus as final host and suggest that I. ricinus might also be implicated in parasite transmission, explaining in that way the occurrence of hepatozoonosis in areas considered R. sanguineus-free. The peridomestic habits of V. vulpes and the increasing global temperature are expected to amplify the impact of this vector-borne disease and to enforce the transmission of Hepatozoon to domestic animals.

  17. Comparison of three methods for recovery of Brucella canis DNA from canine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinga, Maria Cryskely A; Dos Santos, Jaíne C; Lima, Julia T R; Bigotto, Maria Fernanda D; Muner, Kerstin; Faita, Thalita; Soares, Rodrigo M; da Silva, David A V; Oliveira, Trícia M F S; Ferreira, Helena L; Diniz, Jaqueline A; Keid, Lara B

    2017-12-01

    Brucella canis, a gram-negative, facultative intracellular and zoonotic bacterium causes canine brucellosis. Direct methods are the most appropriate for the detection of canine brucellosis and bacterial isolation from blood samples has been employed as gold-standard method. However, due to the delay in obtaining results and the biological risk of the bacterial culturing, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been successfully used as an alternative method for the diagnosis of the infection. Sample preparation is a key step for successful PCR and protocols that provide high DNA yield and purity are recommended to ensure high diagnostic sensitivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR for the diagnosis of B. canis infection in 36 dogs by testing DNA of whole blood obtained through different extraction and purification protocols. Methods 1 and 2 were based on a commercial kit, using protocols recommended for DNA purification of whole blood and tissue samples, respectively. Method 3 was an in-house method based on enzymatic lysis and purification using organic solvents. The results of the PCR on samples obtained through three different DNA extraction protocols were compared to the blood culture. Of the 36 dogs, 13 (36.1%) were positive by blood culturing, while nine (25.0%), 14 (38.8%), and 15 (41.6%) were positive by PCR after DNA extraction using methods 1, 2 and 3, respectively. PCR performed on DNA purified by Method 2 was as efficient as blood culturing and PCR performed on DNA purified with in-house method, but had the advantage of being less laborious and, therefore, a suitable alternative for the direct B. canis detection in dogs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A protected area influences genotype-specific survival and the structure of a Canis hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Mahoney, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    It is widely recognized that protected areas can strongly influence ecological systems and that hybridization is an important conservation issue. However, previous studies have not explicitly considered the influence of protected areas on hybridization dynamics. Eastern wolves are a species of special concern and their distribution is largely restricted to a protected population in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada, where they are the numerically dominant canid. We studied intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing survival and cause-specific mortality of hybrid and parental canids in the three-species hybrid zone between eastern wolves, eastern coyotes, and gray wolves in and adjacent to APP. Mortality risk for eastern wolves in areas adjacent to APP was significantly higher than for other sympatric Canis types outside of APP, and for eastern wolves and other canids within APP. Outside of APP, the annual mortality rate of all canids by harvest (24%) was higher than for other causes of death (4-7%). Furthermore, eastern wolves (hazard ratio = 3.5) and nonresidents (transients and dispersing animals, hazard ratio = 2.7) were more likely to die from harvest relative to other Canis types and residents, respectively. Thus, eastern wolves dispersing from APP were especially vulnerable to harvest mortality. For residents, eastern wolf survival was more negatively influenced by increased road density than for other Canis types, further highlighting the sensitivity of eastern wolves to human disturbance. A cycle of dispersal from APP followed by high rates of mortality and hybridization appears to maintain eastern wolves at low density adjacent to APP, limiting the potential for expansion beyond the protected area. However, high survival and numerical dominance of eastern wolves within APP suggest that protected areas can allow rare hybridizing species to persist even if their demographic performance is compromised and barriers to hybridization are largely

  19. Molecular characterization and transcriptional analysis of the female-enriched chondroitin proteoglycan 2 of Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G X; Zhou, R Q; Hu, L; Luo, Y L; Luo, Y F; Zhu, H H

    2018-03-01

    Toxocara canis is an important but neglected zoonotic parasite, and is the causative agent of human toxocariasis. Chondroitin proteoglycans are biological macromolecules, widely distributed in extracellular matrices, with a great diversity of functions in mammals. However, there is limited information regarding chondroitin proteoglycans in nematode parasites. In the present study, a female-enriched chondroitin proteoglycan 2 gene of T. canis (Tc-cpg-2) was cloned and characterized. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to measure the transcription levels of Tc-cpg-2 among tissues of male and female adult worms. A 485-amino-acid (aa) polypeptide was predicted from a continuous 1458-nuleotide open reading frame and designated as TcCPG2, which contains a 21-aa signal peptide. Conserved domain searching indicated three chitin-binding peritrophin-A (CBM_14) domains in the amino acid sequence of TcCPG2. Multiple alignment with the inferred amino acid sequences of Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum showed that CBM_14 domains were well conserved among these species. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that TcCPG2 was closely related to the sequence of chondroitin proteoglycan 2 of A. suum. Interestingly, a high level of Tc-cpg-2 was detected in female germline tissues, particularly in the oviduct, suggesting potential roles of this gene in reproduction (e.g. oogenesis and embryogenesis) of adult T. canis. The functional roles of Tc-cpg-2 in reproduction and development in this parasite and related parasitic nematodes warrant further functional studies.

  20. Serological survey for diseases in free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese, E M; Schultz, R D; Johnson, M R; Williams, E S; Crabtree, R L; Ruff, R L

    1997-01-01

    From October 1989 to June 1993, we captured and sampled 110 coyotes (Canis latrans) for various diseases in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). Prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus (CPV) was 100% for adults (> 24 months old), 100% for yearlings (12 to 24 months old), and 100% for old pups (4 to 12 months old); 0% of the young pups (Yellowstone National Park, with CPV influencing coyote pup survival during the first 3 months of life; eight of 21 transmitted pups died of CPV infection in 1992. The potential impact of these canine pathogens on wolves (C. lupus) reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park remains to be documented.

  1. Unusual behavior by Bison, Bison bison, toward Elk, Cervus elaphus, and wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McIntyre, R.T.; Smith, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Incidents are described of Bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park mauling and possibly killing a young Elk (Cervus elaphus) calf, chasing wolves (Canis lupus) off Elk they had just killed or were killing, and keeping the wolves away for extended periods. During one of the latter cases, the Bison knocked a wolf-wounded Elk down. Bison were also seen approaching wolves that were resting and sleeping, rousting them, following them to new resting places and repeating this behavior. These behaviors might represent some type of generalized hyper-defensiveness that functions as an anti-predator strategy.

  2. Hepatozoon canis infecting dogs in the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolidorio, Mariana G; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zago, Augusto M; Donatele, Dirlei M; Caliari, Késia M; Yoshinari, Natalino H

    2009-08-26

    From May 2007 to March 2008, blood samples were collected from 92 healthy dogs living in 21 households (17 farms in rural area, and 4 homes in urban area) in 6 counties of the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. In addition, ticks were collected from these dogs. A mean of 4.4+/-3.0 dogs (range: 1-12) were sampled per household; 78 and 14 dogs were from rural and urban areas, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to amplify fragments of the 18S rDNA gene of Babesia spp or Hepatozoon spp revealed amplicons of the expected size in 20 (21.7%) dogs for Babesia, and 54 (58.7%) dogs for Hepatozoon. All Babesia-positive dogs were also Hepatozoon-positive. Among the 21 households, 15 (71.4%) from 3 counties had at least one PCR-positive dog, including 13 farms (rural area) and 2 homes (urban area). A total of 40 PCR products from the Hepatozoon-PCR, and 19 products from the Babesia-PCR were submitted to DNA sequencing. All generated sequences from Hepatozoon-PCR were identical to each other, and to corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of H. canis in GenBank. Surprisingly, all generated sequences from the Babesia PCR were also identical to corresponding 18S rDNA sequences of H. canis in GenBank. Dogs from 10 rural and 2 urban households were found infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. Immature of Amblyomma cajennense ticks were found in dogs from only 4 rural households (also infested by R. sanguineus). All but one household with R. sanguineus-infested dogs had at least one Hepatozoon-infected dog. Statistical analysis showed that the presence of ticks (i.e. R. sanguineus) infesting dogs in the households was significantly (P0.05) between PCR-positive dogs and urban or rural households. Canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis is a high frequent infection in Espírito Santo, Brazil, where it is possibly vectored by R. sanguineus. Since all infected dogs were found apparently healthy, the pathogenicity of H. canis for dogs in Espírito Santo is

  3. Aspectos anatomopatológicos em cães naturalmente infectados por Hepatozoon canis

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Pâmela A.; Barçante, Joziana M.P.; Boeloni, Jankerle N.; Bezerra Júnior, Pedro S.; Wouters, Flademir; Wouters, Angélica T.; Varaschin, Mary S.; Seixas, Josilene N.

    2017-01-01

    RESUMO: A hepatozoonose canina é causada principalmente pelos protozoários Hepatozoon canis e H. americanum, transmitida por ingestão de carrapatos parasitados. Os sinais clínicos podem ser inespecíficos ou de difícil reconhecimento, pois geralmente ocorre associada a outras doenças. No Brasil, o parasito, e a doença, já foram identificados em vários Estados, no entanto pouco se sabe sobre as alterações clínicas e anátomo-patológicas decorrentes da infecção. O presente trabalho relata cinco c...

  4. Cross-sectional study of object permanence in domestic puppies (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, S; Doré, F Y

    1994-09-01

    Visual accommodation and object permanence tests were administered to 70 puppies (Canis familiaris), aged 4 weeks to 9 months. The results showed that understanding of visible displacement problems emerged at the 5th weeks and developed rapidly until the 8th week. Although the search behaviors of older puppies were more flexible, no further significant development was observed between 8 weeks and 9 months. The results on invisible displacement tests suggest that understanding of invisible displacement problems appears around the 1st year in dogs' development.

  5. Extinguishing a learned response in a free-ranging gray wolf (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2017-01-01

    A free-ranging Gray Wolf (Canis lupus), habituated to human presence (the author) on Ellesmere Island, Canada, learned to anticipate experimental feeding by a human, became impatient, persistent, and bold and exhibited stalking behaviour toward the food source. Only after the author offered the wolf about 90 clumps of dry soil over a period of 45 minutes in three bouts, did the wolf give up this behaviour. To my knowledge, this is the first example of extinguishing a learned response in a free-ranging wolf and provides new insight into the learning behaviour of such animals.

  6. Joint manifestations in children infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and Toxocara canis – single centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Janicka-Szczepaniak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Joint disorders in children are a frequent cause of parents’ concern and a reason of visiting family doctors and rheumatologists. In search for the correct diagnosis, a wide differential diagnosis should be conducted, including bacterial, parasitic, but also rheumatoid or proliferative process. However, the majority of complaints reported by children are reactive in nature. Diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and serology tests results. Ascaris lumbricoides or Toxocara canis infection may manifest itself not only with gastrointestinal, but also musculoskeletal symptoms, depending on the period of the disease. The aim of the paper was to assess the frequency of complaints associated with the locomotor system in children with the presence of serum antibodies against Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Toxocara canis and to analyse their relationship with selected laboratory tests (eosinophilia and the final diagnosis. Material and methods: Medical records of 86 children hospitalised in 2013–2015 at the Department of Paediatric Cardiology and Rheumatology, Medical University of Łódź, were analysed. Children with musculoskeletal symptoms and positive serum antibody titres against Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Toxocara canis were included in the study. Results: Among the infected patients, the most frequently reported complaint from the locomotor system was knee (51% and wrist (19% pain. Ascaris lumbricoides infection was the dominant human parasitosis (66%, while in 15 patients (17% Toxocara canis co-infestation was detected. Rheumatoid process was the most common suspicion (36%, but the final diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis was determined in only 12 patients (14%. Conclusions: Parasitic infections often coexist with articular symptoms reported by children and should always be excluded in the differential diagnosis. In some cases, a parasitic infection may be one of the factors that initiate the rheumatoid

  7. Genetic blueprint of the zoonotic pathogen Toxocara canis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xing-Quan; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Cai, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite of major socioeconomic importance worldwide. In humans, this nematode causes disease (toxocariasis) mainly in the under-privileged communities in developed and developing countries. Although relatively well studied from clinical and epidemiological perspectives...... of 13.5% and encodes at least 18,596 protein-coding genes. We study transcription in a larval, as well as adult female and male stages, characterize the parasite's gene-silencing machinery, explore molecules involved in development or host-parasite interactions and predict intervention targets...

  8. Diagnostic PCR tests for Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and Trichophyton infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Swierkowska, Aleksandra; Lindhardt Saunte, Ditte Marie

    2010-01-01

    ; 25 routine specimens from patients suspected of having dermatophytosis; 10 hair specimens from guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. canis; and two samples from un-infected control animals. DNA was prepared by a 10-min procedure from pure cultures as previously described. The 302 bp PCR product....... Finally, the Microsporum PCR was positive for 10/10 guinea pig specimens from infected animals but for 0/2 of the control animal samples. The evaluation of the two PCR tests indicated excellent sensitivity and specificity....

  9. Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Kilgo, John; Ray, Scott; Miller, Karl V.

    2007-07-01

    Abstract – A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with paracites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Bacteria, fungi, and paracites were not found in the aneurysm. Death was due to exsanguinations. This represents a first report of an aneurysm in a coyote.

  10. Seroepidemiology of Toxocara canis infection among primary schoolchildren in the capital area of the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chung-Jung; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Lin, Huei-Shan; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Liu, Yung-Ching; Langinlur, Mailynn K; Lu, Min-Yun; Hsiao, Wesley Wei-Wen; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2014-05-15

    Toxocariasis, which is predominantly caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) infection, is a common zoonotic parasitosis worldwide; however, the status of toxocariasis endemicity in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) remains unknown. A seroepidemiological investigation was conducted among 166 primary school children (PSC) aged 7-12 years from the capital area of the RMI. Western blots based the excretory-secretory antigens of larval T. canis (TcES) was employed, and children were considered seropositive if their serum reacted with TcES when diluted at a titer of 1:64. Information regarding demographic characteristics of and environmental risk factors affecting these children was collected using a structured questionnaire. A logistic regression model was applied to conduct a multivariate analysis. The overall seropositive rate of T. canis infection was 86.75% (144/166). In the univariate analysis, PSC who exhibited a history of feeding dogs at home (OR = 5.52, 95% CI = 1.15-26.61, p = 0.02) and whose parents were employed as nonskilled workers (OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.08-7.60, p = 0.03) demonstrated a statistically elevated risk of contracting T. canis infections. Cleaning dog huts with gloves might prevent infection, but yielded nonsignificant effects. The multivariate analysis indicated that parental occupation was the critical risk factor in this study because its effect remained significant after adjusting for other variables; by contrast, the effect of dog feeding became nonsignificant because of other potential confounding factors. No associations were observed among gender, age, consuming raw meat or vegetables, drinking unboiled water, cleaning dog huts with gloves, or touching soil. This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among PSC in the RMI. The high seroprevalence indicates the commonness of T. canis transmission and possible human risk. The fundamental information that the present study provides

  11. Differential serodiagnostics of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati - is it possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, C. S.; Skov, Søren; Yoshida, A.

    2015-01-01

    and uncertainties regarding the validity of existing serological assays. In this study, we used sera from a pig model experimentally infected with T. canis and T. cati to evaluate whether a Western blot could discriminate between the two species. No proteins were observed that could be used as a diagnostic tool......One of the most common zoonotic helminth infections is caused by species in the genus Toxocara, particularly Toxocara canis and T. cati (Syn. T. mystax). However, their relative contribution to toxocarosis in humans remains largely unknown because causative larvae are seldom recovered...

  12. GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Khan, Fazeel Mahmood, E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu [Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-09-10

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy.

  13. GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Khan, Fazeel Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy

  14. Repair of potentially lethal damage following irradiation with x rays or cyclotron neutrons: response of the EMT-6/UW tumor system treated under various growth conditions in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasey, J.S.; Nelson, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    Postirradiation potentially lethal damage (PLD) repair was examined in the EMT-6/UW tumor system under a variety of in vitro and in vivo growth conditions. Following x irradiation, surviving fraction increased in fed and unfed plateau cultures if subculture and plating were delayed; in exponentially growing cultures if they were covered with depleted medium for the first 6 h postirradiation; and in tumors in vivo if excision for preparation of a cell suspension was delayed. Following irradiation with 21.5 meV (d + → Be) neutrons, PLD repair was measurable only in unfed plateau cultures when subculture was delayed and in exponentially growing cells exposed to depleted culture medium immediately after irradiation. In x-irradiated EMT-6/UW cells, the greatest repair capacity and the highest surviving fraction ratios were measured in unfed plateau cultures; the least repair was observed in exponentially growing cells exposed to depleted medium. Thus post-neutron repair was not limited to situations where the amount of repair of photon PLD is large. The demonstration of PLD repair in tumors irradiated in vivo with X rays and the absence of such repair after neutrons could have important implications in radiotherapy if this is a general phenomenon

  15. Activity coefficients of solutes in binary solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The activity coefficients in dilute ternary systems are discussed in detail by using the Margules equations. Analyses of some relevant data at high temperatures show that the sparingly dissolved solutes in binary solvents follow complex behavior even when the binary solvents are very nearly ideal. It is shown that the activity data on the solute or the binary system cannot permit computation of the remaining activities except for the regular solutions. It is also shown that a fourth-order equation is usually adequate in expressing the activity coefficient of a solute in binary solvents at high temperatures. When the activity data for a binary solvent are difficult to obtain in a certain range of composition, the activity data for a sparingly dissolved solute can be used to supplement determination of the binary activities

  16. Case report of canine co-infection with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis

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    Stefanovska Jovana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine leishmaniasis (CanL due to Leishmania infantum and canine monocytic ehrilichiosis (CME due to Ehrlichia canis are common diseases with zoonotic potential in the Mediterranean area. Their prevalence in R. Macedonia as a neighboring Mediterranean county is expected. In both diseases similar clinical symptoms can be manifested in dogs such as: lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, epistaxis, fever, pale mucous membranes, enlarged lymph nodes, splenomegaly, ocular signs. This case report present an atypical case of 11 year old female Samoyed with starting single clinical symptom epistaxys. Initial diagnostic procedures revealed the presence only of CanL, which was diagnosed using indirect immunofluorescence method and ELISA. First laboratory findings showed normal hematological and renal profiles. Dog was put on a treatment with Allopurinol (20mg/kg, p/o for at least 9 months. Termination of the therapy after 6 months brought a numerous clinical symptoms involving weakness, dehydration, pale mucous membranes lost pupilar reflex, uremic breath and biochemical parameters revealed a renal failure. Using a commercial ELISA kit Ehrlichia canis as a co infection was diagnosed. Most probably the second infectious agent was induced in the past 6 months, causing more severe pathological effects than CanL infection alone.

  17. Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Achar, S; Estes, S A

    1984-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis served as a suitable model for the study of S. scabiei var. hominis survival. S. scabiei var. canis and var. hominis mites were found to survive off the host for 24 to 36 hours at room conditions (21 degrees C and 40% to 80% relative humidity [RH]), and the canine variety survived 19 days at 10 degrees C and 97% RH. Female mites survived decidedly longer than male mites at comparable conditions. Generally, higher RH values and lower temperatures favored survival, whereas higher temperature and lower RH led to early death. Most canine scabies mites that were held off the host for 36 hours at 75% RH and 22 degrees to 24 degrees C remained infective and penetrated when returned to the host. Live mites of the human variety that were recovered from bed linen slept on by infested patients would also penetrate a host after being held off a host for 96 hours in alternating 12-hour periods of room conditions and refrigeration. Penetration required less than 30 minutes for all life stages of both varieties, and it was accomplished by a mite secretion that dissolved the host tissue. Dislodged mites, particularly those in close proximity to the source, can be a likely source of infestation.

  18. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and a sympatric widespread carnivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Figueiredo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes, in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina, and a protozoa (Balantidium coli were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  19. Aspectos anatomopatológicos em cães naturalmente infectados por Hepatozoon canis

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    Pâmela A. Lima

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A hepatozoonose canina é causada principalmente pelos protozoários Hepatozoon canis e H. americanum, transmitida por ingestão de carrapatos parasitados. Os sinais clínicos podem ser inespecíficos ou de difícil reconhecimento, pois geralmente ocorre associada a outras doenças. No Brasil, o parasito, e a doença, já foram identificados em vários Estados, no entanto pouco se sabe sobre as alterações clínicas e anátomo-patológicas decorrentes da infecção. O presente trabalho relata cinco casos de infecções naturais por Hepatozoon canis em cães do Estado de Minas Gerais e descreve pela primeira vez no Brasil os achados de necropsias e histopatológicos relacionados à infecção. Merontes de Hepatozoon sp., submetidos a avaliação morfométrica, foram observados em cortes histológicos de fígado, baço, medula óssea e rim.

  20. Terbinafine hydrochloride treatment of Microsporum canis experimentally-induced ringworm in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnik, T; Kozuh Erzen, N; Kuzner, J; Drobnic-Kosorok, M

    2001-11-08

    Cats represent the most important source of Microsporum canis infection to people. Terbinafine hydrochloride is commonly used in the treatment of microsporosis. Its fungicidal action permits short period of treatment. It was our objective to evaluate the effectiveness of this drug in treatment of microsporosis in cats. We treated nine experimentally M. canis infected cats with terbinafine at a dose of 10-20mg/kg SID (low-dose group, LDG), nine cats with 30-40mg/kg SID (high-dose group, HDG), and nine cats were left untreated (control group, CG). The drug's levels in cats' plasma and hair were measured by a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method (RP-HPLC) and the cats' cure was followed by Wood's lamp illumination, microscopic exam and fungal culture. We showed no difference between the clinical course in CG and LDG, but HDG were significantly differentiated from both other groups. Terbinafine levels in plasma at 120 days of treatment were not statistically different among LDG (4.13 microg/l) and HDG (5.48 microg/l), but levels in hair of LDG (1.24 microg/l) and HDG (3.62 microg/l) were significantly different. Terbinafine can be used for the treatment of microsporosis in cats in the dose of 30-40mg/kg SID.

  1. Helminths parasites of stray dogs (Canis lupus familiaris from Cuiabá, Midwestern of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Guilherme de Souza Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Helminths cause respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in animals, especially in neonates and young animals. Some species of helminth parasites of domestic animals have zoonotic potential, becoming a public health problem, especially when combined with lack of information about the population of these zoonosis and lack of control over of their hosts. This study aimed to identify and quantify the species of helminths from dogs that are not domiciled in the region of Cuiabá, in the Midwest region of Brazil. A total of 100 animals, from the Center for Zoonosis Control of Cuiabá were euthanized and necropsied for helminth searching. Overall 8,217 helminths were found in 85 animals identified in six species: Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma. braziliense, Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara canis, Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum. It was evidenced the wide distribution of helminths pathogenic to domestic dogs and especially with zoonotic potential as A. caninum, T. canis, D. caninum and D. immitis. The presence of D. immitis is an important finding, since it is a potentially zoonotic agent, however, this finding is considered sporadic.

  2. Multiorgan fungal infection caused by Microsporum canis in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Ho; Kim, Eun-Ju; Choi, Ul Soo

    2014-06-01

    Multiple organ invasion by keratinophilic fungi in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) has not been previously reported. In this case, a 1-yr-old female green iguana presented with a nodular, darkly discolored skin lesion surrounded by necrosis in the right ventral abdominal region. A cytologic examination of the fine needle aspiration of the lesion revealed an exuberant proliferation of fibroblasts, macrophages, and multinucleated cells along with frequent filamentous structures consistent with hyphal elements. The necropsy revealed diffuse infiltration of the liver, lung, and cardiac apex with white nodules. A histopathologic examination of the lesions also confirmed a fungal infection associated with granulomatous inflammation. Rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the chitin synthase 1 gene was conducted for rapid direct detection, and inter-simple sequence repeat fingerprinting was conducted to classify the infectious origin. The PCR analysis definitively demonstrated representative Microsporum canis fungus. The present report is the first case of disseminated M. canis infection with multiorgan involvement in a green iguana.

  3. Using diets of Canis breeding pairs to assess resource partitioning between sympatric red wolves and coyotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Joseph W.; Ashley, Annaliese K.; Dellinger, Justin A.; Gittleman, John L.; van Manen, Frank T.; Chamberlain, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Foraging behaviors of red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are complex and their ability to form congeneric breeding pairs and hybridize further complicates our understanding of factors influencing their diets. Through scat analysis, we assessed prey selection of red wolf, coyote, and congeneric breeding pairs formed by red wolves and coyotes, and found that all 3 had similar diets. However, red wolf and congeneric pairs consumed more white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) than coyote pairs. Coyotes forming breeding pairs with red wolves had 12% more white-tailed deer in their diet than conspecifics paired with coyotes. Contrary to many studies on coyotes in the southeastern United States, we found coyotes in eastern North Carolina to be primarily carnivorous with increased consumption of deer during winter. Although prey selection was generally similar among the 3 groups, differences in diet among different breeding pairs were strongly associated with body mass. Larger breeding pairs consumed more white-tailed deer, and fewer rabbits (Sylvilagus spp.) and other small mammals. Partitioning of food resources by sympatric red wolves and coyotes is likely via differences in the proportions of similar prey consumed, rather than differences in types of prey exploited. Consequently, our results suggest coexistence of red wolves and coyotes in the southeastern United States may not be possible because there are limited opportunities for niche partitioning to reduce competitive interactions.

  4. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

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    Taís MATA-SANTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL, lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL, β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL. The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.

  5. Colorimetric detection of Ehrlichia canis via nucleic acid hybridization in gold nano-colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangchuen, Ajima; Chaumpluk, Piyasak; Suriyasomboon, Annop; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-08-08

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is a major thick-bone disease of dog caused by Ehrlichia canis. Detection of this causal agent outside the laboratory using conventional methods is not effective enough. Thus an assay for E. canis detection based on the p30 outer membrane protein gene was developed. It was based on the p30 gene amplification using loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP). The primer set specific to six areas within the target gene were designed and tested for their sensitivity and specificity. Detection of DNA signals was based on modulation of gold nanoparticles' surface properties and performing DNA/DNA hybridization using an oligonucleotide probe. Presence of target DNA affected the gold colloid nanoparticles in terms of particle aggregation with a plasmonic color change of the gold colloids from ruby red to purple, visible by the naked eye. All the assay steps were completed within 90 min including DNA extraction without relying on standard laboratory facilities. This method was very specific to target bacteria. Its sensitivity with probe hybridization was sufficient to detect 50 copies of target DNA. This method should provide an alternative choice for point of care control and management of the disease.

  6. Human case of bacteremia caused by Streptococcus canis sequence type 9 harboring the scm gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Daisuke; Abe, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Tetsuya; Kikuchi, Takahide; Takahashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus canis (Sc) is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene. The similarity of the 16S rRNA from the infecting species to that of the Sc type strain, as well as the amplification of the species-specific cfg gene, encoding a co-hemolysin, was used to confirm the species identity. Furthermore, the isolate was confirmed as sequence type 9. The partial scm gene sequence harbored by the isolate was closely related to those of other two Sc strains. While this isolate did not possess the erm (A), erm (B), or mef (A), macrolide/lincosamide resistance genes, it was not susceptible to azithromycin: its susceptibility was intermediate. Even though human Sc bacteremia is rare, clinicians should be aware of this microorganism, as well as Pasteurella sp., Prevotella sp., and Capnocytophaga sp., when examining and treating patients with fever who maintain close contact with companion animals.

  7. Biotypes and ScM types of isolates of Streptococcus canis from diseased and healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, J F; Velineni, S; Ulrich, B; Blanchard, P

    2017-04-08

    Lancefield group G Streptococcus canis is a component of the normal urogenital and pharyngeal flora of the cat. It is also frequently implicated in epizootics of severe disease in closed cat colonies and animal shelters. Given the importance of S canis as a feline pathogen and relative lack of published information on characteristics potentially associated with virulence, the authors have compared isolates from healthy and diseased cats in New York and California using fermentation profiles (biotype) and ScM sequences. With few exceptions, isolates associated with disease were biotype 1. Four alleles of scm were identified of which type 1 dominated in diseased cats. Type 4 allelic variants were found only in healthy cats and all but one were biotype 2. Type 2 and 3 alleles showed extensive N-terminal variation suggesting a plasminogen-binding site as found on the type 1 allele was absent. Cat antisera to ScM were opsonobactericidal, and these potentially protective antibodies increased during convalescence. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Clinical and Histopathological Evaluation of Terbinafine Treatment in Cats Experimentally Infected with Microsporum canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kotnik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride (Lamisil©, Novartis in the treatment of 27 M. canis infected cats was followed. Treatment was started on the 17th day post inoculation (p.i., when successful experimental infection was proved. Nine cats were treated with low-dose terbinafine 10-20 mg/kg QD (LD group, nine cats were treated with high-dose terbinafine 30-40 mg/kg QD (HD group and nine were left untreated as a control group (C group. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated using Wood's lamp examination, fungal culture and histopathology. All cats were positive 14 days p.i. Sixty days p.i. 8 cats from the LD group, 9 from the C group and 2 cats from the HD group had fungi in the tissue. Ninety days p.i. the HD group was free of fungi in the skin and other tests became negative on the 120th day p.i. Statistically significant differences were found between the HD group and both of the other groups (p M. canis yielded an inflammatory reaction of a mononuclear and neutrophil type in the cat skin. Hyperplastic interstitial dermatitis was a predominant tissue reaction although other types were also present during the study.

  9. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Assis Braga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5% cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4% cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  10. Effects of irradiation on the biology of the infective larvae of Toxocara canis in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, O.O.; Myser, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    Mice were infected with either 2000 normal or irradiated embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis and the number of larvae in their livers, lungs, brains, and carcasses investigated at 5, 20, and 33 days of infection. Mortality of mice infected with normal eggs was 33% between day 4 and 8 postinfection but there was no mortality among mice infected with irradiated eggs. Irradiation with 60, 90, or 150 kr of X-rays inhibited the migration of larvae from the livers and lungs and their accumulation in brain and carcass in proportion to the irradiation dose. By day 33 of infection, the ratio of larvae in liver and lungs to larvae in brain and carcass was 0.16 in normal mice, 0.42 in 60-kr mice, 0.98 in 90-kr mice, and 23.3 in 150-kr mice. Irradiated larvae, particularly those migrating through the peritoneal cavity, died faster than normal larvae until day 20. Irradiation favored survival after day 20. By days 20 and 33 postinfection the total parasite load was 29% and 8%, respectively, of the administered dose in control mice, 18% and 12% in 60-kr mice, 8% and 4% in 90-kr mice, and 0.9% and 0.3% in 150-kr mice. Irradiation of infective T. canis larvae, then, reduces their pathogenicity, inhibits their migration from liver and lungs, kills some of the parasites during the first 3 weeks of infection, but favors their late survival in the host.

  11. Isolation of Aureimonas altamirensis, a Brucella canis-like bacterium, from an edematous canine testicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas J; Calcutt, Michael J; Wennerdahl, Laura A; Williams, Fred; Evans, Tim J; Ganjam, Irene K; Bowman, Jesse W; Fales, William H

    2014-11-01

    Microbiological and histological analysis of a sample from a swollen testicle of a 2-year-old Border Collie dog revealed a mixed infection of the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis and the Gram-negative bacterium Aureimonas altamirensis. When subjected to an automated microbial identification system, the latter isolate was provisionally identified as Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, but the organism shared several biochemical features with Brucella canis and exhibited agglutination, albeit weakly, with anti-B. canis antiserum. Unequivocal identification of the organism was only achieved by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, ultimately establishing the identity as A. altamirensis. Since its first description in 2006, this organism has been isolated infrequently from human clinical samples, but, to the authors' knowledge, has not been reported from a veterinary clinical sample. While of unknown clinical significance with respect to the pathology observed for the polymicrobial infection described herein, it highlights the critical importance to unambiguously identify the microbe for diagnostic, epidemiological, infection control, and public health purposes. © 2014 The Author(s).

  12. The genome of obligately intracellular Ehrlichia canis revealsthemes of complex membrane structure and immune evasion strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, K.; Kuyler Doyle, C.; Lykidis, A.; Ivanova, N.; Francino, P.; Chain, P.; Shin, M.; Malfatti, S.; Larimer, F.; Copeland,A.; Detter, J.C.; Land, M.; Richardson, P.M.; Yu, X.J.; Walker, D.H.; McBride, J.W.; Kyrpides, N.C.

    2005-09-01

    Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, a-proteobacterium is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, and 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of non-coding sequence (27 percent). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences, and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O-glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly G:C tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified including a small group of proteins (12) with tandem repeats and another with eukaryotic-like ankyrin domains (7).

  13. Ecological changes in Coyotes (Canis latrans in response to the ice age megafaunal extinctions.

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    Julie A Meachen

    Full Text Available Coyotes (Canis latrans are an important species in human-inhabited areas. They control pests and are the apex predators in many ecosystems. Because of their importance it is imperative to understand how environmental change will affect this species. The end of the Pleistocene Ice Age brought with it many ecological changes for coyotes and here we statistically determine the changes that occurred in coyotes, when these changes occurred, and what the ecological consequences were of these changes. We examined the mandibles of three coyote populations: Pleistocene Rancho La Brean (13-29 Ka, earliest Holocene Rancho La Brean (8-10 Ka, and Recent from North America, using 2D geometric morphometrics to determine the morphological differences among them. Our results show that these three populations were morphologically distinct. The Pleistocene coyotes had an overall robust mandible with an increased shearing arcade and a decreased grinding arcade, adapted for carnivory and killing larger prey; whereas the modern populations show a gracile morphology with a tendency toward omnivory or grinding. The earliest Holocene populations are intermediate in morphology and smallest in size. These findings indicate that a niche shift occurred in coyotes at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary - from a hunter of large prey to a small prey/more omnivorous animal. Species interactions between Canis were the most likely cause of this transition. This study shows that the Pleistocene extinction event affected species that did not go extinct as well as those that did.

  14. Pulsar magnetospheres in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershkovich, A. I.; Dolan, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The criterion for stability of a tangential discontinuity interface in a magnetized, perfectly conducting inviscid plasma is investigated by deriving the dispersion equation including the effects of both gravitational and centrifugal acceleration. The results are applied to neutron star magnetospheres in X-ray binaries. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability appears to be important in determining whether MHD waves of large amplitude generated by instability may intermix the plasma effectively, resulting in accretion onto the whole star as suggested by Arons and Lea and leading to no X-ray pulsar behavior.

  15. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR

    1990-01-01

    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  16. Tomographic reconstruction of binary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Stéphane; Leclerc, Hugo; Hild, François

    2012-01-01

    A novel algorithm is proposed for reconstructing binary images from their projection along a set of different orientations. Based on a nonlinear transformation of the projection data, classical back-projection procedures can be used iteratively to converge to the sought image. A multiscale implementation allows for a faster convergence. The algorithm is tested on images up to 1 Mb definition, and an error free reconstruction is achieved with a very limited number of projection data, saving a factor of about 100 on the number of projections required for classical reconstruction algorithms.

  17. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    ADONIS Observes Low-mass Eclipsing System in Orion Summary A series of very detailed images of a binary system of two young stars have been combined into a movie . In merely 3 days, the stars swing around each other. As seen from the earth, they pass in front of each other twice during a full revolution, producing eclipses during which their combined brightness diminishes . A careful analysis of the orbital motions has now made it possible to deduce the masses of the two dancing stars . Both turn out to be about as heavy as our Sun. But while the Sun is about 4500 million years old, these two stars are still in their infancy. They are located some 1500 light-years away in the Orion star-forming region and they probably formed just 10 million years ago . This is the first time such an accurate determination of the stellar masses could be achieved for a young binary system of low-mass stars . The new result provides an important piece of information for our current understanding of how young stars evolve. The observations were obtained by a team of astronomers from Italy and ESO [1] using the ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS) on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. PR Photo 29a/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before primary eclipse PR Photo 29b/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-primary eclipse PR Photo 29c/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after primary eclipse PR Photo 29d/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before secondary eclipse PR Photo 29e/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-secondary eclipse PR Photo 29f/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after secondary eclipse PR Video Clip 06/01 : Video of the RXJ 0529.4+0041 system Binary stars and stellar masses Since some time, astronomers have noted that most stars seem to form in binary or multiple systems. This is quite fortunate, as the study of binary stars is the only way in which it is possible to measure directly one of the most fundamental quantities of a star, its mass. The mass of a

  18. Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.

  19. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong

    2015-07-28

    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.

  20. Contact Binaries on Their Way Towards Merging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeas, K.

    2015-07-01

    Contact binaries are the most frequently observed type of eclipsing star system. They are small, cool, low-mass binaries belonging to a relatively old stellar population. They follow certain empirical relationships that closely connect a number of physical parameters with each other, largely because of constraints coming from the Roche geometry. As a result, contact binaries provide an excellent test of stellar evolution, specifically for stellar merger scenarios. Observing campaigns by many authors have led to the cataloging of thousands of contact binaries and enabled statistical studies of many of their properties. A large number of contact binaries have been found to exhibit extraordinary behavior, requiring follow-up observations to study their peculiarities in detail. For example, a doubly-eclipsing quadruple system consisting of a contact binary and a detached binary is a highly constrained system offering an excellent laboratory to test evolutionary theories for binaries. A new observing project was initiated at the University of Athens in 2012 in order to investigate the possible lower limit for the orbital period of binary systems before coalescence, prior to merging.

  1. Fatal Sarcocystis canis-like hepatitis in an Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike most species in the genus Sarcocystis, Sarcocystis canis has a broad intermediate host range. Its life cycle is incompletely known and most reports are from the USA. Here we report fatal hepatitis in a 4 year old male Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) from Hong Kong associate...

  2. A parasitological, molecular and serological survey of Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs around the Aegean coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagenc, Tulin Ilhan; Pasa, Serdar; Kirli, Gulcan; Hosgor, Murat; Bilgic, Huseyin Bilgin; Ozon, Yavuz Hakan; Atasoy, Abidin; Eren, Hasan

    2006-01-30

    Canine hepatozoonosis is caused by the tick-borne protozoon Hepatozoon spp. The prevalence of the infection in the Aegean coast of Turkey was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using blood samples from 349 dogs collected from Central Aydin, Kusadasi, Selcuk, Central Manisa, Bodrum and Marmaris within the Aegean coast of Turkey. The indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the detection of Hepatozoon canis antibodies was also used to detect the exposure rate to H. canis. PCR amplifying a 666bp fragment of 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. was used in the epidemiological survey. The prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 10.6% by blood smear parasitology and 25.8% by PCR. IFAT revealed that 36.8% of serum samples were positive for antibodies reactive with Hepatozoon spp. The PCR products of 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. isolated from six infected dogs, one isolate originating from each of the six different locations, were sequenced. The results of sequence analysis indicate that they are closely related to Indian and Japanese isolates of H. canis. This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of H. canis infection in the dog, in Turkey.

  3. Spatial heterodyne interferometry of VY Canis Majoris, alpha Orionis, alpha Scorpii, and R Leonis at 11 microns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, E.C.; Storey, J.W.V.; Betz, A.L.; Townes, C.H.; Spears, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Using the technique of heterodyne interferometry, measurements were made of the spatial distribution of 11 micron radiation from four late type stars. The circumstellar shells surrounding VY Canis Majoris, alpha Orionis, and alpha Scorpii were resolved, whereas that of R Leonis was only partially resolved at a fringe spacing of 0.4 sec

  4. Spatial heterodyne interferometry of VY Canis Major's, alpha Orionis, alpha Scorpii, and R leonis at 11 microns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, E. C.; Storey, J. W. V.; Betz, A. L.; Townes, C. H.; Spears, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    Using the technique of heterodyne interferometry, measurements were made of the spatial distribution of 11 micron radiation from four late type stars. The circumstellar shells surrounding VY Canis Majoris, alpha Orionis, and alpha Scorpii were resolved, whereas that of R Leonis was only partially resolved at a fringe spacing of 0.4 sec.

  5. Production of Toxocara cati TES-120 Recombinant Antigen and Comparison with its T. canis Homolog for Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahabiun, Farzaneh; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Rahumatullah, Anizah; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hosein Falaki; Saidin, Syazwan; Noordin, Rahmah

    2015-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease caused by the infective larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Diagnosis in humans is usually based on clinical symptoms and serology. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits using T. canis excretory–secretory (TES) larval antigens are commonly used for serodiagnosis. Differences in the antigens of the two Toxocara species may influence the diagnostic sensitivity of the test. In this study, T. cati recombinant TES-120 (rTES-120) was cloned, expressed, and compared with its T. canis homolog in an IgG4-western blot. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of T. cati rTES-120 were 70% (33/47) and 100% (39/39), respectively. T. canis rTES-120 showed 57.4% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity. When the results of assays using rTES-120 of both species were considered, the diagnostic sensitivity was 76%. This study shows that using antigens from both Toxocara species may improve the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis. PMID:26033026

  6. In vitro culture and structural differences in the major immunoreactive protein gp36 of geographically distant Ehrlichia canis isolates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zweygarth, E.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Josemans, A.I.; Oosthuizen, M.C.; Matjila, P.T.; Lis, K.; Broniszewska, M.; Schöl, H.; Ferrolho, J.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Passos, L.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2014), s. 423-431 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ehrlichia canis * In vitro culture * IDE8 tick cells * DH82 * 16S rRNA * gp36 Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  7. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  8. The in vitro effect of prolactin on the growth, motility and expression of prolactin receptors in larvae of Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Güitrón, L E; Morales-Montor, J; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Nava-Castro, K E; Ramírez-Álvarez, H; Moreno-Méndoza, N A; Hernández-Cervantes, R; Alba-Hurtado, F

    2016-07-15

    The in vitro effect of prolactin (PRL) on the growth and motility of Toxocara canis larvae was assessed. Additionally, the expression and location of prolactin receptors (PRL-Rs) were determined in the larvae. Larvae of T. canis were incubated with different concentrations of PRL for different periods of time. The stimulated larvae accelerated their enlargement and increased their motility. The mean percentage of PRL-R+ cells in non-stimulated larvae, measured by flow cytometry was 7.3±0.3%. Compared with non-stimulated larvae, the mean fluorescence intensity (pPCR. The sequence of this fragment showed 99% similarity with the gene fragment that codes for the PRL-R of the domestic dog. A high concentration of PRL-Rs was immune-located in the posterior region of the larval intestine; therefore, the intestinal cells in this region were most likely the targets for this hormone. Based on these results, PRL-Rs were identified in T. canis larvae, and the in vitro stimulation with PRL increased the number of these receptors, accelerated the growth and modified the activity of larvae. All of the above suggest that T. canis larvae are evolutionarily adapted to recognize the PRL of their definitive host and furthermore might explain the reactivation of tissue-arrested larvae during the gestation of bitches, which does not occur in gestating females of other species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence for eosinophil recruitment, leukotriene B4 production and mast cell hyperplasia following Toxocara canis infection in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that eosinophilia is a key pathogenetic component of toxocariasis. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is an association between peritoneal and blood eosinophil influx, mast cell hyperplasia and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 production after Toxocara canis infection. Oral inoculation of 56-day-old Wistar rats (N = 5-7 per group with 1000 embryonated eggs containing third-stage (L3 T. canis larvae led to a robust accumulation of total leukocytes in blood beginning on day 3 and peaking on day 18, mainly characterized by eosinophils and accompanied by higher serum LTB4 levels. At that time, we also noted increased eosinophil numbers in the peritoneal cavity. In addition, we observed increased peritoneal mast cell number in the peritoneal cavity, which correlated with the time course of eosinophilia during toxocariasis. We also demonstrated that mast cell hyperplasia in the intestines and lungs began soon after the T. canis larvae migrated to these compartments, reaching maximal levels on day 24, which correlated with the complete elimination of the parasite. Therefore, mast cells appear to be involved in peritoneal and blood eosinophil infiltration through an LTB4-dependent mechanism following T. canis infection in rats. Our data also demonstrate a tight association between larval migratory stages and intestinal and pulmonary mast cell hyperplasia in the toxocariasis model.

  10. "Wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze": Correction to Werhahn et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Reports an error in "Wolves ( Canis lupus ) and dogs ( Canis familiaris ) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze" by Geraldine Werhahn, Zsófia Virányi, Gabriela Barrera, Andrea Sommese and Friederike Range ( Journal of Comparative Psychology , 2016[Aug], Vol 130[3], 288-298). In the article, the affiliations for the second and fifth authors should be Wolf Science Center, Ernstbrunn, Austria, and Comparative Cognition, Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna/ Medical University of Vienna/University of Vienna. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-26311-001.) Gaze following into distant space is defined as visual co-orientation with another individual's head direction allowing the gaze follower to gain information on its environment. Human and nonhuman animals share this basic gaze following behavior, suggested to rely on a simple reflexive mechanism and believed to be an important prerequisite for complex forms of social cognition. Pet dogs differ from other species in that they follow only communicative human gaze clearly addressed to them. However, in an earlier experiment we showed that wolves follow human gaze into distant space. Here we set out to investigate whether domestication has affected gaze following in dogs by comparing pack-living dogs and wolves raised and kept under the same conditions. In Study 1 we found that in contrast to the wolves, these dogs did not follow minimally communicative human gaze into distant space in the same test paradigm. In the observational Study 2 we found that pack-living dogs and wolves, similarly vigilant to environmental stimuli, follow the spontaneous gaze of their conspecifics similarly often. Our findings suggest that domestication did not affect the gaze following ability of dogs itself. The results raise hypotheses about which other dog skills

  11. Enteric Parasitic in canines (Canis familiaris in the urban area of Coroico, Nor Yungas department of La Paz Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llanos Mariana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety species of intestinal protozoa and helminthes are pathogen for the domestic animals. Between April and November 2009, a study was done with the purpose of determining the enteric parasitic infection in dogs (Cannis familiaris, 96 dogs (58 males and 38 females with owner of 10 species, one hybrid, eight age groups in two seasons of the urban area of the Coroico town, Nor Yungas, department of La Paz, Bolivia. The coproparasitology diagnostic was made by direct examination, with the Willis-Molloy flotation simple technique with a solution oversaturated of sodium chloride. It was detected one or more species of helminthes and protozoa, was used the chi-square and descriptive method for the statistical analysis. The results were: from the 96 sampled dogs, in 87% is present at less one type of parasitic shape, were identify: Ancylostoma spp, Toxocara canis, Strogyloides spp, Giardia spp, Isospora canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostoma spp/Uncinaria spp and Dipylidium caninum. The evaluation by season show a (p ≤ 0,05 for the Giardia spp. In a humidity season, but not for a dry season, the rest of parasites can be found in both seasons. By sex in a humidity season T.canis in females 43% and 22% in males, in dry season by sex was found T.vulpis in female with a high frequency (p ≤ 0,05, the rest of parasites do not show statistic differences in both seasons. By age in dry season T. canis and Stronyiloides sp. prevails 1-24 months and 49-72 months respectively, in a humidity season T. canis prevails in the same age (p ≤ 0,05. By race in dry season Ancylostoma spp Uncinaria spp prevails in the race Pekingese, in humidity season Strongyloides sp prevails in the Cocker race. Prevail in both seasons A. canis y T. canis. In relation to the mono-parasitism and multi-parasitism, was viewed, in both seasons the dogs multi-parasitism are more than the mono-parasitism.

  12. Fabricating binary optics: An overview of binary optics process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Margaret B.

    1993-01-01

    A review of binary optics processing technology is presented. Pattern replication techniques have been optimized to generate high-quality efficient microoptics in visible and infrared materials. High resolution optical photolithography and precision alignment is used to fabricate maximally efficient fused silica diffractive microlenses at lambda = 633 nm. The degradation in optical efficiency of four-phase-level fused silica microlenses resulting from an intentional 0.35 micron translational error has been systematically measured as a function of lens speed (F/2 - F/60). Novel processes necessary for high sag refractive IR microoptics arrays, including deep anisotropic Si-etching, planarization of deep topography and multilayer resist techniques, are described. Initial results are presented for monolithic integration of photonic and microoptic systems.

  13. The parasite assemblage in the spiral intestine of the shark Mustelus canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cislo, P R; Caira, J N

    1993-12-01

    The parasite assemblage in the 8 chambers of the spiral intestine of 49 specimens of the shark Mustelus canis collected from Long Island Sound and off the coast of Virginia was investigated. Assemblages within host individuals were composed of up to 3 of 4 species of cestodes: the trypanorhynch species Prochristianella tumidula and Lacistorhynchus tenuis and the hooked tetraphyllidean species Calliobothrium verticillatum and Calliobothrium lintoni. Each individual shark hosted 1-3 (mean = 2.17) tapeworm species and 1-166 (mean = 34.3) tapeworm individuals. The assemblage consisted of 2 core species, 1 secondary species, and 1 satellite species. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences among the areas of the 8 intestinal chambers. ANOVAs of worm density among chambers revealed that each of the 4 species exhibited site specificity within the spiral intestine. Least significant difference analysis revealed that each of the species, except C. verticillatum, was usually found in the anterior 3 chambers. Calliobothrium verticillatum was more commonly found in the middle region of the organ, centered around chamber 4. Horn's information index indicated that L. tenuis and C. lintoni had the greatest amount of overlap within the spiral intestine and the congeners C. lintoni and C. verticillatum had the least amount of overlap. No evidence of interaction among the species in this assemblage was found. In cases where observations could be made, neither cestode total length nor location within the spiral intestine appeared to be affected by the presence of other individuals or species respectively. There was some evidence of underutilized space; the posteriormost chamber was vacant in all 49 sharks examined and 91.8% of sharks had at least 2 vacant chambers. Linear regression revealed no relationship between shark total length and either total number of worms or total number of individuals of each of the 4 species of cestodes. The chi-square test revealed

  14. Radial Velocities of 41 Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Rachel A.; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao; Williams, Stephen J.

    2017-12-01

    Eclipsing binaries are vital for directly determining stellar parameters without reliance on models or scaling relations. Spectroscopically derived parameters of detached and semi-detached binaries allow us to determine component masses that can inform theories of stellar and binary evolution. Here we present moderate resolution ground-based spectra of stars in close binary systems with and without (detected) tertiary companions observed by NASA’s Kepler mission and analyzed for eclipse timing variations. We obtain radial velocities and spectroscopic orbits for five single-lined and 35 double-lined systems, and confirm one false positive eclipsing binary. For the double-lined spectroscopic binaries, we also determine individual component masses and examine the mass ratio {M}2/{M}1 distribution, which is dominated by binaries with like-mass pairs and semi-detached classical Algol systems that have undergone mass transfer. Finally, we constrain the mass of the tertiary component for five double-lined binaries with previously detected companions.

  15. BHDD: Primordial black hole binaries code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Gaggero, Daniele; Bertone, Gianfranco

    2018-06-01

    BHDD (BlackHolesDarkDress) simulates primordial black hole (PBH) binaries that are clothed in dark matter (DM) halos. The software uses N-body simulations and analytical estimates to follow the evolution of PBH binaries formed in the early Universe.

  16. Main Memory Implementations for Binary Grouping

    OpenAIRE

    May, Norman; Moerkotte, Guido

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of applications depend on efficient storage and analysis features for XML data. Hence, query optimization and efficient evaluation techniques for the emerging XQuery standard become more and more important. Many XQuery queries require nested expressions. Unnesting them often introduces binary grouping. We introduce several algorithms implementing binary grouping and analyze their time and space complexity. Experiments demonstrate their performance.

  17. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  18. Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion onto Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Andrea; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramírez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    Binary stars are not rare. While only close binary stars will eventually interact with one another, even the widest binary systems interact with their gaseous surroundings. The rates of accretion and the gaseous drag forces arising in these interactions are the key to understanding how these systems evolve. This poster examines accretion flows around a binary system moving supersonically through a background gas. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion using the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH. We simulate a range of values of semi-major axis of the orbit relative to the gravitational focusing impact parameter of the pair. On large scales, gas is gravitationally focused by the center-of-mass of the binary, leading to dynamical friction drag and to the accretion of mass and momentum. On smaller scales, the orbital motion imprints itself on the gas. Notably, the magnitude and direction of the forces acting on the binary inherit this orbital dependence. The long-term evolution of the binary is determined by the timescales for accretion, slow down of the center-of-mass, and decay of the orbit. We use our simulations to measure these timescales and to establish a hierarchy between them. In general, our simulations indicate that binaries moving through gaseous media will slow down before the orbit decays.

  19. Binary Relations as a Foundation of Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Jan; Barendsen, E.; Capretta, V.; Geuvers, H.; Niqui, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a theory for binary relations in the Zermelo-Fraenkel style. We choose for ZFCU, a variant of ZFC Set theory in which the Axiom of Foundation is replaced by an axiom allowing for non-wellfounded sets. The theory of binary relations is shown to be equi-consistent ZFCU by constructing a

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FLASH POINTS OF SOME BINARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    Miscellaneous binary blends containing solvent neutral-150 (SN-150), ... viscosity, the flash point test has always been a standard part of a lubricant's specification. ... between structure and flash points of organic compounds [5-12] and fuels [13, 14]. ... in binary mixtures, the gaps between flash points would be high enough.

  1. The origin of the RS CVn binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, P.

    1976-01-01

    Six possible origins for the RS CVn binaries are considered based on the following possibilities. RS CVn binaries might now be either pre-main-sequence or post-main-sequence. A pre-main-sequence binary might not always have been a binary but might have resulted from fission of a rapidly rotating single pre-main-sequence star. The main-sequence counterparts might be either single stars or binaries. To decide which of the six origins is possible, the following observed data for the RS CVn binaries are considered: total mass, total angular momentum, lack of observed connection with regions of star formation, large space density, kinematical age, and the visual companion of WW Dra. In addition lifetimes and space densities of single stars and other types of binaries are considered. The only origin possible is that the RS CVn binaries are in a thermal phase following fission of a main-sequence single star. In this explanation the single star had a rapidly rotating core which became unstable due to the core contraction which made it begin to evolve off the main sequence. The present Be stars might be examples of such parent single stars. (Auth.)

  2. Mass Transfer in Mira-Type Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Detached, symbiotic binaries are generally assumed to interact via Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton (BHL wind accretion. However, the accretion rates and outflow geometries that result from this mass-transfer mechanism cannot adequately explain the observations of the nearest and best studied symbiotic binary, Mira, or the formation of some post-AGB binaries, e.g. barium stars. We propose a new mass-transfer mode for Mira-type binaries, which we call ‘wind Roche-lobe overflow’ (WRLOF, and which we demonstrate with 3D hydrodynamic simulations. Importantly, we show that the circumstellar outflows which result from WRLOF tend to be highly aspherical and strongly focused towards the binary orbital plane. Furthermore, the subsequent mass-transfer rates are at least an order of magnitude greater than the analogous BHL values. We discuss the implications of these results for the shaping of bipolar (proto-planetary nebulae and other related systems.

  3. Logistic chaotic maps for binary numbers generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanso, Ali; Smaoui, Nejib

    2009-01-01

    Two pseudorandom binary sequence generators, based on logistic chaotic maps intended for stream cipher applications, are proposed. The first is based on a single one-dimensional logistic map which exhibits random, noise-like properties at given certain parameter values, and the second is based on a combination of two logistic maps. The encryption step proposed in both algorithms consists of a simple bitwise XOR operation of the plaintext binary sequence with the keystream binary sequence to produce the ciphertext binary sequence. A threshold function is applied to convert the floating-point iterates into binary form. Experimental results show that the produced sequences possess high linear complexity and very good statistical properties. The systems are put forward for security evaluation by the cryptographic committees.

  4. Phonons in fcc binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Amita; Rathore, R.P.S.

    1992-01-01

    Born-Mayer potential has been modified to account for the unpaired (three body) forces among the common nearest neighbours of the ordered binary fcc alloys i.e. Ni 3 Fe 7 , Ni 5 Fe 5 and Ni 75 Fe 25 . The three body potential is added to the two body form of Morse to formalize the total interaction potential. Measured inverse ionic compressibility, cohesive energy, lattice constant and one measured phonon frequency are used to evaluate the defining parameters of the potential. The potential seeks to bring about the binding among 140 and 132 atoms though pair wise (two body) and non-pair wise (three body) forces respectively. The phonon-dispersion relations obtained by solving the secular equation are compared with the experimental findings on the aforesaid alloys. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs

  5. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in ticks of dogs in Cuiaba, Mato GrossoEhrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em carrapatos de cães de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Dutra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diseases transmitted by arthropods such as Rhipicephalus sanguineus, are caused by a spectrum of pathogens. Among these are the canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and cyclical thrombocytopenia with a cosmopolitan distribution. Aiming to verify the presence of DNA of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in ticks R. sanguineus collected in the period 2008 to 2009 of 380 infected dogs. Ticks, after maceration, were subjected to DNA extraction and then nested PCR was performed for amplification of A. platys and E. canis. Of these, 81 (29.7% amplified DNA from ehrlichiais agents, where 38 (17.9% amplified in E. canis and 32 (15.7% for A. platys. The observation of two pathogens, combined with worldwide distribution of the tick R. sanguineus, demonstrates the high risk of infection with these pathogens in dogs in the city of Cuiaba. Doenças transmitidas por artrópodes, como o Rhipicephalus sanguineus, são causadas por um espectro de patógenos. Dentre estas, estão a erliquiose monocítica canina e trombocitopenia cíclica com distribuição cosmopolita. Com o objetivo de verificar a presença de DNA de Anaplasma platys e Ehrlichia canis em carrapatos R. sanguineus coletados no período de 2008 a 2009 de 380 cães infestados. Os carrapatos, após a maceração, foram submetidos a extração de DNA e, em seguida, foi realizada a Nested PCR para a amplificação da espécie A. platys e E. canis. Destes, 81 (29.7% amplificaram o DNA dos agentes ehrlichiais, onde 38 (17.9% amplificaram para E. canis e 32 (15.7% para A. platys. A observação dos dois patógenos, combinado com distribuição mundial do carrapato R. sanguineus, demonstra o elevado risco de infecção por esses patógenos de cães na cidade de Cuiabá.

  6. Yellowstone wolf (Canis lupus) denisty predicted by elk (Cervus elaphus) biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Range (NR) of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) hosts a higher prey biomass density in the form of elk (Cervus elaphus L., 1758) than any other system of gray wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) and prey reported. Therefore, it is important to determine whether that wolf–prey system fits a long-standing model relating wolf density to prey biomass. Using data from 2005 to 2012 after elk population fluctuations dampened 10 years subsequent to wolf reintroduction, we found that NR prey biomass predicted wolf density. This finding and the trajectory of the regression extend the validity of the model to prey densities 19% higher than previous data and suggest that the model would apply to wolf–prey systems of even higher prey biomass.

  7. Immunological inquiry for the epidemiology of leptospirosis in Canis familiaris in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, E M; Doria, J D; Martins, M A

    1977-12-01

    A total of 430 dogs were immunologically examined in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, and 21.6% of them were positive. The animals were selected through an aleatory pattern, according to the division of the City in 18 residential zones a division which had been established by the vaccination campaign against canis hydrophobia. The serotypes icterohemorrhagiae and canicola were the most frequently registered. Between the sexes, the male presented the highest index of positivity, though the difference wasn't statistically significant. The period of age ranging from 12 to 48 months comprised 67.7% of the investigations. Mestizo dogs presented a higher frequency of positivity than any other race and the areas of Nordeste de Amaralina, Liberdade and Quintas showed the greatest percentages of positive dogs.

  8. Demodex canis regulates cholinergic system mediated immunosuppressive pathways in canine demodicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, P; Nigam, R; Singh, A; Nakade, U P; Sharma, A; Garg, S K; Singh, S K

    2017-09-01

    Demodex canis infestation in dogs remains one of the main challenges in veterinary dermatology. The exact pathogenesis of canine demodicosis is unknown but an aberration in immune status is considered very significant. No studies have underpinned the nexus between induction of demodicosis and neural immunosuppressive pathways so far. We have evaluated the involvement of cholinergic pathways in association with cytokines regulation as an insight into the immuno-pathogenesis of canine demodicosis in the present study. Remarkable elevations in circulatory immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 and cholinesterase activity were observed in dogs with demodicosis. Simultaneously, remarkable reduction in circulatory pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha level was observed in dogs with demodicosis. Findings of the present study evidently suggest that Demodex mites might be affecting the cholinergic pathways to induce immunosuppression in their host and then proliferate incessantly in skin microenvironment to cause demodicosis.

  9. Search behavior in various breeds of adult dogs (Canis familiaris): object permanence and olfactory cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, S; Doré, F Y

    1992-03-01

    Human analog tests of object permanence were administered to various breeds of adult dogs (Canis familiaris). Experiment 1 showed that the performance of terriers, sporting, and working dogs did not differ. Dogs succeeded in solving invisible displacement problems, but performance was lower than in visible displacement tests. Familiarity with the task had some influence because invisible displacement tests were more successful if they were preceded by visible displacement tests. In Experiment 2, odor cues from the target object and the hiding screens were available or were masked. Results confirmed that success was lower in invisible than in visible displacement tests and that these problems were solved on the basis of representation of visual information rather than on the basis of olfactory cues or of local rule learning. Dogs are compared with other species that display Stage 6 object permanence.

  10. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadallah, Maysa A. I.; Salem, Lobna M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts) and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33%) (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, p0.05) did not seem to have a significant association among the examined dogs. Enteric parasitic infection was reported in 31/150 human stools (20.67%). Students were the most affected groups (37.14%), followed by nomadic people (24%), house wives (20%), house guarders and military workers (12%, each), and employees (10%). The identified parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. (9.33%), Ascaris lumbercoides (3.33%), Heterophyes spp. and Ancylostoma spp. (2.66%, each) and Paragonimus spp. and Hymenolepis nana (1.33%, each). Toxocara IgG antibodies were detected in 36/150 (24%) serum samples investigated. Toxocara IgG antibodies were more prevalent in males (26.66%) than females (20%). Seroprevalence was highest (17/35, 48.57%) in 7-15 years old (COR=6.93, 95% CI=1.75-27.43, p=0.006). Seroprevalence values for T. canis antibodies were higher in those; raising dogs (29.85%), eating raw vegetables (25

  11. Characteristics, immunological events, and diagnostics of Babesia spp. infection, with emphasis on Babesia canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostro Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector-borne infection constitutes a significant health issue in dogs worldwide. Recent reports point to an increasing number of canine vector-borne disease cases in European countries, including Poland. Canine babesiosis caused by various Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and significant veterinary importance. The development and application of molecular methods have increased our knowledge about canine babesiosis, its prevalence, and clinical and pathological aspects of the infection. Parasitologists and veterinary surgeons need an accurate description of the species responsible for canine babesiosis to improve diagnostic and therapeutic methods, as well as predictions for the course of the disease. Therefore, we decided to summarise recent knowledge concerning Babesia species and B. canis.

  12. 557 GHz Observations of Water Vapor Outflow from VY Canis Majoris and W Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwit, Martin; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2002-02-01

    We report the first detection of thermal water vapor emission in the 557 GHz, 110-101 ground-state transition of ortho-H2O toward VY Canis Majoris. In observations obtained with the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, we measured a flux of ~450 Jy, in a spectrally resolved line centered on a velocity vLSR=25 km s-1 with an FWHM of ~35 km s-1, somewhat dependent on the assumed line shape. We analyze the line shape in the context of three different radial outflow models for which we provide analytical expressions. We also detected a weaker 557 GHz emission line from W Hydrae. We find that these and other H2O emission-line strengths scale as suggested by Zubko and Elitzur.

  13. Unveiling the molecular bipolar outflow of the peculiar red supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, Hiroko; Claussen, Mark J.; Lim, Jeremy; Dinh-van-Trung; Tsuboi, Masato

    2003-04-01

    We carried out polarimetric spectral-line imaging of the molecular outflow of the peculiar red supergiant VY Canis Majoris in SiO J=1-0 line in the ground vibrational state, which contains highly linearly-polarized velocity components, using the Very Large Array. We succeeded in unveiling the highly linearly polarized bipolar outflow for the first time at subarcsecond spatial resolution. The results clearly show that the direction of linear polarization of the brightest maser components is parallel to the outflow axis. The results strongly suggest that the linear polarization of the SiO maser is closely related to the outflow phenomena of the star. Furthermore, the results indicate that the linear polarization observed in the optical and infrared also occur due to the outflow phenomena.

  14. Astrometry of the Red Supergiant Star VY Canis Majoris with VERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y. K.; Hirota, T.; Honma, M.; Kobayashi, H.

    2009-08-01

    We present observational results on the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris with VERA. We have observed 22 GHz H_2O masers and 43 GHz SiO masers (v=1 and 2 J=1-0) around VY CMa for 13 months. We successfully detected a parallax of 0.87 ± 0.08 mas, corresponding to 1.15 +0.10 -0.09 kpc of distance using H_2O masers. As results of phase--referencing analyses, we have measured absolute positions for both the H_2O masers and SiO masers. The proper motions of the H_2O masers show the tendency of expansion.

  15. The 3D morphology of the ejecta surrounding VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terry Jay; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Helton, L. Andrew

    2007-03-01

    We use second epoch images taken with WFPC2 on the HST and imaging polarimetry taken with the HST/ACS/HRC to explore the three dimensional structure of the circumstellar dust distribution around the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris. Transverse motions, combined with radial velocities, provide a picture of the kinematics of the ejecta, including the total space motions. The fractional polarization and photometric colors provide an independent method of locating the physical position of the dust along the line-of-sight. Most of the individual arc-like features and clumps seen in the intensity image are also features in the fractional polarization map, and must be distinct geometric objects. The location of these features in the ejecta of VY CMa using kinematics and polarimetry agree well with each other, and strongly suggest they are the result of relatively massive ejections, probably associated with magnetic fields.

  16. Osteometrical and CT examination of the Japanese wolf [Canis hodophilax] skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, H.; Obara, I.; Yoshida, T.; Kurohmaru, M.; Hayshi, Y.; Suzuki, N.

    1997-01-01

    The skulls of Japanese wolf (Canis hodophilax) were osteometrically examined and compared with those of Akita-Inu. The skull total length was not statistically different between two species. However, significant differences were demonstrated between two species in some ratios concerning the frontal bone. CT examination was carried out in the Japanese wolf skull. The data indicated that the frontal sinus is not be largely developed and compressed in the dorso-ventral direction in parasagittal area. The narrow frontal sinus fitted to external shape of the frontal bone. The cribriform plate had a well-developed complicated structure in a caudal part of the ethmoid bone. These data will be useful to examine the respiratory function and the olfactory sense in the Japanese wolf

  17. Treatment-resistant neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders associated with Toxocara canis infection: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Daisuke; Takeoka, Kayo; Ogawa, Kenta; Doi, Kosuke; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Yoshida, Ayako; Suenaga, Toshihiko; Kageyama, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    A 53-year-old woman was admitted to the department of neurology in Tenri Hospital because of progressive thoracic myelitis a month after she had eaten uncooked bovine liver. A previous episode of right optic neuritis and a positive test for serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies indicated a diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Although the patient initially recovered with the reduction of anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies during treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone infusion and plasma exchange, her neurological symptoms deteriorated soon after the completion of plasma exchange. Western blotting analysis detected anti-Toxocara canis antibodies in the serum; thus, the patient underwent oral albendazole treatment. This resulted in the alleviation of her symptoms. We therefore consider that rigorous investigation should be encouraged to detect rare pathogens including parasites in cases of treatment-resistant neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Canis familiaris As a Model for Non-Invasive Comparative Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunford, Nóra; Andics, Attila; Kis, Anna; Miklósi, Ádám; Gácsi, Márta

    2017-07-01

    There is an ongoing need to improve animal models for investigating human behavior and its biological underpinnings. The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is a promising model in cognitive neuroscience. However, before it can contribute to advances in this field in a comparative, reliable, and valid manner, several methodological issues warrant attention. We review recent non-invasive canine neuroscience studies, primarily focusing on (i) variability among dogs and between dogs and humans in cranial characteristics, and (ii) generalizability across dog and dog-human studies. We argue not for methodological uniformity but for functional comparability between methods, experimental designs, and neural responses. We conclude that the dog may become an innovative and unique model in comparative neuroscience, complementing more traditional models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) dyad monthly association rates by demographic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary data from GPS-collared wolves (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota indicated wolves had low association rates with packmates during summer. However, aerial-telemetry locations of very high frequency (VHF)-radioed wolves in this same area showed high associations among packmates during winter. We analyzed aerial-telemetry-location data from VHF-collared wolves in several packs (n=18 dyads) in this same area from 1994-2012 by month, and found lowest association rates occurred during June. While other studies have found low association among wolf packmates during summer, information on differences in association patterns depending on the wolf associates’ demographics is sparse. During May-July, association rates were greatest for breeding pairs, followed by sibling dyads, and lowest for parent– offspring dyads. Our findings improve our understanding of how individual wolf relationships affect monthly association rates. We highlight some important remaining questions regarding wolf packmate associations.

  20. A serosurvey of diseases of free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Michelle; Giudice, John H.; Hildebrand, Erik C.; Dubey, J. P.; Erb, John; Stark, Dan; Hart, John; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David; Windels, Steve K.; Edwards, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    We tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota's wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and Lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). Sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum. Exposure to arboviruses was confirmed, including West Nile virus (37% adults, 18% pups) and eastern equine encephalitis (3% adults). Exposure rates were lower for canine distemper (19% adults, 5% pups) and heartworm (7% adults, 3% pups). Significant spatial trends were observed in wolves exposed to canine parvovirus and Lyme disease. Serologic data do not confirm clinical disease, but better understanding of disease ecology of wolves can provide valuable insight into wildlife population dynamics and improve management of these species.

  1. Wolf, Canis lupus, visits to white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, summer ranges: Optimal foraging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demma, D.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether Wolf (Canis lupus) visits to individual female White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) summer ranges during 2003 and 2004 in northeastern Minnesota were in accord with optimal-foraging theory. Using GPS collars with 10- to 30-minute location attempts on four Wolves and five female deer, plus eleven VHF-collared female deer in the Wolves' territory, provided new insights into the frequency of Wolf visits to summer ranges of female deer. Wolves made a mean 0.055 visits/day to summer ranges of deer three years and older, significantly more than their 0.032 mean visits/day to ranges of two-year-old deer, which generally produce fewer fawns, and most Wolf visits to ranges of older deer were much longer than those to ranges of younger deer. Because fawns comprise the major part of the Wolf's summer diet, this Wolf behavior accords with optimal-foraging theory.

  2. Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moks, E; Jõgisalu, I; Saarma, U; Talvik, H; Järvis, T; Valdmann, H

    2006-04-01

    Carcasses of 26 wolves were collected during the 2000/2001 and 2003/2004 hunting seasons and examined for helminths. Thirteen helminth species were recorded: one trematode (Alaria alata), seven cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus), and five nematode species (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella britovi). The most common species were A. alata and U. stenocephala. Mature Echinococcus granulosus was found and described for the first time in Estonia, and its identity verified using PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mtND1) gene showed that the E. granulosus strain from Estonia was identical to strain G10, recently characterized in reindeer and moose in Finland.

  3. [A case of the myelitis due to Toxocara canis infection complicated with cervical spondylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Yutaka; Naitou, Kentarou; Yamauchi, Shigeru; Naruse, Hirotsune; Matsuoka, Yoshimi; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Hiromatsu, Kenji

    2006-11-01

    A 59-year-old male had suffered from numbness of the hands for 7 months. With a diagnosis of cervical spondylosis, he had been treated conservatively at a nearby clinic. After he fell off his bicycle, the numbness intensified and limb weakness developed. Cervical MRI revealed spinal cord compression at the C4/5 and C5/6 levels due to cervical spondylosis with prominent edema in the spinal cord spreading from the C4 to C6 level. The edema was very serious. Therefore, we suspected that the traumatic spinal injury underlying the cervical spondylosis was complicated by another disease. Cervical spinal angiography revealed no apparent vascular disorder. Contrast enhanced MRI showed a small enhanced area in the spinal cord at the C5 level. Because of the rapid progression of gait disturbance, expansive laminoplasty was performed without further examination. Although remarkable amelioration of the symptoms was seen just after the surgery, the symptoms worsened again about 1 month later. The patient's clinical history was reconsidered, revealing that he likes raw bovine liver. Serological examination, because of suspicion of parasitic infection showed elevated titers of anti-Toxocara canis antibody in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Administration of albendazole improved the clinical symptoms, and normalized the serological and MRI findings. Myelitis due to T canis infection is a rare disease. For an early and accurate diagnosis, it is important to be fully aware of this disease and to include detailed information on food preferences and pet-keeping in the process of compiling a clinical history.

  4. Detection of Hepatozoon canis in stray dogs and cats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Rungphisutthipongse, Opart; Maruyama, Soichi; Schaefer, John J; Stich, Roger W

    2006-10-01

    A rapidly increasing stray animal population in Bangkok has caused concern regarding transmission of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine if stray animals in Bangkok are a potential reservoir of Hepatozoon, a genus of tick-borne parasites that has received little attention in Thailand. Blood samples were collected from stray companion animals near monasteries in 42 Bangkok metropolitan districts. Both dogs and cats were sampled from 26 districts, dogs alone from 4 districts and cats alone from 12 districts. Samples were collected from a total of 308 dogs and 300 cats. Light microscopy and an 18 S rRNA gene-based PCR assay were used to test these samples for evidence of Hepatozoon infection. Gamonts were observed in blood smears for 2.6% of dogs and 0.7% of cats by microscopy. The PCR assay detected Hepatozoon in buffy coats from 11.4% of dogs and 32.3% of cats tested. The prevalence of infection was the same between male and female dogs or cats, and PCR-positive dogs and cats were found in 36.6% and 36.8% of the districts surveyed, respectively. There was an association between the percentages of PCR-positive dogs and cats in districts where both host species were sampled. Sequences of representative amplicons were closest to those reported for H. canis. These results represent the first molecular confirmation that H. canis is indigenous to Thailand. The unexpectedly high prevalence of Hepatozoon among stray cats indicates that their role in the epizootiology of hepatozoonosis should be investigated.

  5. Failure of combination therapy with imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril to clear Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasa, Serdar; Voyvoda, Huseyin; Karagenc, Tulin; Atasoy, Abidin; Gazyagci, Serkal

    2011-09-01

    Current treatments with imidocarb dipropionate for infected dogs with Hepatozoon canis do not always provide parasitological cure. The objective of this study is to determine whether concomitant use of toltrazuril may potentiate the effect of imidocarb dipropionate in the management of H. canis infection (HCI). Twelve dogs were determined to have naturally HCI based on clinical signs, identification of the parasite in blood smears, and serologic assay. The animals were allocated randomly to one of two groups (n = 6 in each group). Dogs in Imi group were given imidocarb dipropionate at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously in two injections 14 days apart. Imi plus Toltra group was given imidocarb dipropionate as dose mentioned above and toltrazuril at 10 mg/kg/day orally for the first five treatment days. Clinical findings, blood counts and parasitaemia levels in blood before and 14, 28 and 56 days after the initial treatment were performed to evaluate treatment response. The overall clinical efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate with and without toltrazuril was 83.3% and 66.7%, respectively; with a mean recovery time of 21.0 and 25.6 days, respectively. A substantial main effect of time on mean PCV, Hb, WBC, neutrophil and PLT and gradual reduction of parasitaemia were significantly observed in both groups (P < 0.05), whereas no significant difference was noticed between the studied protocols. The parasitologic cure rate at the end of eight weekly observation period was 16.6% and 33.3% in Imi and Imi plus Toltra groups, respectively. Similar clinicopathologic and parasitologic responses were observed in both treated groups; thus, it was concluded that toltrazuril does not reveal additional benefit to imidocarb therapy in dogs with HCI.

  6. Antigenisitas, Sensitivitas, dan Spesifisitas Protein Toxocara canis pada Pemeriksaan Antibodi Serum Mencit dengan Indirect-ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Subekti Bendryman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research were to determine antigenicity, sensitivity, and specificity of Toxocara canisprotein used as antigen in indirect-ELISA for the detection antibody against the worm in the infected hostin order to proper diagnose kit. The design used was true experimental, with Post-test Only ControlGroups Design. Mouse was immunized with various worm homogenates used to antigenicity, sensitivityand specificity tests of T. canis protein with indirect-ELISA technique. The independence variable werevarious immunogens (homogenates; the dependence variables were antigenicity, sensitivity and specificityvalues interpreted by optical density (OD value of mouse sera; and controlled variable were mouse strain,feed and retrieval time of sera. The result showed that OD values of mouse sera immunized with T. canisand T.cati homogenate were signicantly difference (p<0.01 as compared to those immunized withAncylostoma spp., Dipylidium caninum and control sera. Using the diagnosis based on the finding ofToxocara, the sensitivity of OD value by ELISA result from mouse sera immunized with Toxocara spp.homogenate were 100%. Using negative OD value by ELISA from mouse sera immunized with Ancylostomaspp. and D. caninum homogenate, the specificity of the test was 87.5%. In conclusion, protein of T.canishas the same antigenicity against anti-T. canis and anti-T. cati sera, but they had the lower antigenicityagainst anti-Ancylostoma spp. and anti-D.caninum sera. As the sensitivity value of 100% and specificityvalue of 87.5%, in detecting antibody against toxocariasis, the possibility of obtaining false positive was12.5%.

  7. Space Use and Habitat Selection by Resident and Transient Red Wolves (Canis rufus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W Hinton

    Full Text Available Recovery of large carnivores remains a challenge because complex spatial dynamics that facilitate population persistence are poorly understood. In particular, recovery of the critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus has been challenging because of its vulnerability to extinction via human-caused mortality and hybridization with coyotes (Canis latrans. Therefore, understanding red wolf space use and habitat selection is important to assist recovery because key aspects of wolf ecology such as interspecific competition, foraging, and habitat selection are well-known to influence population dynamics and persistence. During 2009-2011, we used global positioning system (GPS radio-telemetry to quantify space use and 3rd-order habitat selection for resident and transient red wolves on the Albemarle Peninsula of eastern North Carolina. The Albemarle Peninsula was a predominantly agricultural landscape in which red wolves maintained spatially stable home ranges that varied between 25 km2 and 190 km2. Conversely, transient red wolves did not maintain home ranges and traversed areas between 122 km2 and 681 km2. Space use by transient red wolves was not spatially stable and exhibited shifting patterns until residency was achieved by individual wolves. Habitat selection was similar between resident and transient red wolves in which agricultural habitats were selected over forested habitats. However, transients showed stronger selection for edges and roads than resident red wolves. Behaviors of transient wolves are rarely reported in studies of space use and habitat selection because of technological limitations to observed extensive space use and because they do not contribute reproductively to populations. Transients in our study comprised displaced red wolves and younger dispersers that competed for limited space and mating opportunities. Therefore, our results suggest that transiency is likely an important life-history strategy for red wolves that

  8. Space use and habitat selection by resident and transient red wolves (Canis rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Joseph W.; Proctor, Christine; Kelly, Marcella J.; van Manen, Frank T.; Vaughan, Michael R.; Chamberlain, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of large carnivores remains a challenge because complex spatial dynamics that facilitate population persistence are poorly understood. In particular, recovery of the critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) has been challenging because of its vulnerability to extinction via human-caused mortality and hybridization with coyotes (Canis latrans). Therefore, understanding red wolf space use and habitat selection is important to assist recovery because key aspects of wolf ecology such as interspecific competition, foraging, and habitat selection are well-known to influence population dynamics and persistence. During 2009–2011, we used global positioning system (GPS) radio-telemetry to quantify space use and 3rd-order habitat selection for resident and transient red wolves on the Albemarle Peninsula of eastern North Carolina. The Albemarle Peninsula was a predominantly agricultural landscape in which red wolves maintained spatially stable home ranges that varied between 25 km2 and 190 km2. Conversely, transient red wolves did not maintain home ranges and traversed areas between 122 km2 and 681 km2. Space use by transient red wolves was not spatially stable and exhibited shifting patterns until residency was achieved by individual wolves. Habitat selection was similar between resident and transient red wolves in which agricultural habitats were selected over forested habitats. However, transients showed stronger selection for edges and roads than resident red wolves. Behaviors of transient wolves are rarely reported in studies of space use and habitat selection because of technological limitations to observed extensive space use and because they do not contribute reproductively to populations. Transients in our study comprised displaced red wolves and younger dispersers that competed for limited space and mating opportunities. Therefore, our results suggest that transiency is likely an important life-history strategy for red wolves that facilitates

  9. Gene repertoire evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes inferred from phylogenomic analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Lefébure

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46% of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86% in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus and (ii the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB.

  10. Hybridization among three native North American Canis species in a region of natural sympatry.

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    Frank Hailer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans, Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi and red wolf (C. rufus, were historically sympatric in Texas, United States. Human impacts caused the latter two to go extinct in the wild, although they survived in captive breeding programs. Morphological data demonstrate historic reproductive isolation between all three taxa. While the red wolf population was impacted by introgressive hybridization with coyotes as it went extinct in the wild, the impact of hybridization on the Texas populations of the other species is not clear.We surveyed variation at maternally and paternally inherited genetic markers (mitochondrial control region sequence and Y chromosome microsatellites in coyotes from Texas, Mexican wolves and red wolves from the captive breeding programs, and a reference population of coyotes from outside the historic red wolf range. Levels of variation and phylogenetic analyses suggest that hybridization has occasionally taken place between all three species, but that the impact on the coyote population is very small.Our results demonstrate that the factors driving introgressive hybridization in sympatric Texan Canis are multiple and complex. Hybridization is not solely determined by body size or sex, and density-dependent effects do not fully explain the observed pattern either. No evidence of hybridization was identified in the Mexican wolf captive breeding program, but introgression appears to have had a greater impact on the captive red wolves.

  11. Two randomized, controlled studies to assess the efficacy and safety of lotilaner (Credelio™ in preventing Dermacentor reticulatus transmission of Babesia canis to dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cavalleri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs worldwide are at risk of Babesia spp. infections. Preventive efficacy of lotilaner tablets (Credelio™, Elanco against Babesia canis was evaluated in two studies. Methods Sixteen dogs in Study 1 and 12 dogs in Study 2, all seronegative and polymerase chain reaction (PCR negative for B. canis, were randomized to a sham-treated control group or a lotilaner (20–43 mg/kg treatment group, administered on Day 0 (Study 1: n = 8/group; Study 2: n = 6/group. Dogs were each infested with 50 Dermacentor reticulatus, a percentage of which (Study 1: 8.0–30.0%; Study 2: 12.2% were infected with B. canis, in Study 1 on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28, and in Study 2 on Day 28. Ticks were removed and counted on Day 30 in Study 1, and Day 34 in Study 2. Blood was collected for Babesia detection via smear, PCR and immunofluorescence assay (IFA in Study 1 on Day 2, then approximately weekly through Day 56, and in Study 2 at weekly intervals between Days 28 to 49, and on Days 63 and 91. Additional samples were collected from dogs with body temperature > 39.4 °C (measured three times weekly, from Days 7 to 56 in Study 1 and from Days 35 to 56 in Study 2 and positive for B. canis on blood smear. Dogs with confirmed infections were rescue-treated, removed from the study and, in Study 1, replaced. Results Across both studies B. canis infection of ticks ranged between 8.0–30.0%. In Study 1, all control dogs were positive for B. canis on blood smear and PCR on Day 10 and IFA on Day 21; on Day 21 seven of eight replacement control dogs were B. canis-positive; no replacement dogs were B. canis-positive following tick removal on Day 30. In Study 2, all control dogs were B. canis-positive on Day 56. All lotilaner-treated dogs remained B. canis-negative at all assessments in both studies. Conclusion Lotilaner efficacy was 100% in preventing establishment of B. canis infection, despite post-treatment challenge with infected ticks on Days 2, 7

  12. Zoonotic enteric parasites transmitted from dogs in Egypt with special concern to Toxocara canis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa A. I. Awadallah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work aimed to study the role played by dogs in transmitting zoonotic enteric parasites to humans in Egypt and to analyze the risk factors associated with the occurrence of such infection in dogs. Serodiagnosis of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies among human beings as well as analyzing risk factors predispose to Toxocara canis infection in human beings are another objectives of this study. Materials and Methods: From June to December 2013, a total of 130 fecal samples from 4 dog populations (Military, nomadic and domiciled dogs from rural and high standard districts and 150 stool samples of 6 occupational groups were examined for the presence of enteric parasitic infection. Moreover, 150 serum samples were collected from humans from whom stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies. Results: Enteric parasites were detected in 30% of fecal samples from 4 dog populations in Egypt. High infectivity had been reported in nomadic dogs (63.33% (Crude odds ratios [COR]=67.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]=8.09-560.8, p˂0.000, followed by domiciled dogs from rural areas (40% (COR=26, 95% CI=3.14-215.54, p=0.003, domiciled dogs from high standard areas (23.33% (COR=11.87, 95% CI=1.37-102.69, p=0.025 and military dogs (2.5%. Twelve species of enteric parasites were identified, Ancylostomatidae (6.15%, T. canis and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.38%, each, Heterophyes spp. (3.85%, Toxocara leonina and Blastocystis spp. (3.07%, Taenidae eggs (2.31%, Hymenolepis diminuta (1.54% and Entamoeba canis, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Paragonimus spp. (0.77%, each. Univariate logestic regression revealed significant association of age (COR=4.73, 95% CI=2.13-10.53, p˂0.000, gender (COR=2.63, 95% CI=1.22-5.68, p˂0.014, housing system (COR=5.10, 95% CI=2.04-12.75, p˂0.000 with enteric parasitic infection in dogs. However, breeds (COR=6.91, 95% CI=0.88-54.52, p=0.067 and type of feeding (COR ranged from 3.5 to

  13. The role of oxytocin in the ability of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) to use human social cues and bond with humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Jessica Lee

    2017-01-01

    The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) demonstrates attachment/bonding behaviour towards humans, whilst wolves (Canis lupus) do not. Domestic dogs also use humans’ non-verbal social cues to solve problems better than wolves do, even wolves raised in the same manner as domestic dogs. The neuropeptide oxytocin has been implicated in mammalian bonding and non-verbal intelligence and therefore the oxytocinergic system may have evolved in the dog during domestication in such a manner as to enable the...

  14. PERIODIC SIGNALS IN BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xinyi; Stefano, Rosanne Di; Esin, Ann; Taylor, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing events are powerful tools for the study of stellar populations. In particular, they can be used to discover and study a variety of binary systems. A large number of binary lenses have already been found through microlensing surveys and a few of these systems show strong evidence of orbital motion on the timescale of the lensing event. We expect that more binary lenses of this kind will be detected in the future. For binaries whose orbital period is comparable to the event duration, the orbital motion can cause the lensing signal to deviate drastically from that of a static binary lens. The most striking property of such light curves is the presence of quasi-periodic features, which are produced as the source traverses the same regions in the rotating lens plane. These repeating features contain information about the orbital period of the lens. If this period can be extracted, then much can be learned about the lensing system even without performing time-consuming, detailed light-curve modeling. However, the relative transverse motion between the source and the lens significantly complicates the problem of period extraction. To resolve this difficulty, we present a modification of the standard Lomb–Scargle periodogram analysis. We test our method for four representative binary lens systems and demonstrate its efficiency in correctly extracting binary orbital periods

  15. Topological and categorical properties of binary trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pajoohesh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Binary trees are very useful tools in computer science for estimating the running time of so-called comparison based algorithms, algorithms in which every action is ultimately based on a prior comparison between two elements. For two given algorithms A and B where the decision tree of A is more balanced than that of B, it is known that the average and worst case times of A will be better than those of B, i.e., ₸A(n ≤₸B(n and TWA (n≤TWB (n. Thus the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees play a main role. Here we consider them as semilattices and characterize the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees by topological and categorical properties. Also we define the composition of binary trees as a commutative binary operation, *, such that for binary trees A and B, A * B is the binary tree obtained by attaching a copy of B to any leaf of A. We show that (T,* is a commutative po-monoid and investigate its properties.

  16. Factores asociados a la infección por Ehrlichia canis en perros infestados con garrapatas en la ciudad de Huánuco, Perú

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    Edward Huerto-Medina

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la frecuencia y factores asociados a la infección por Ehrlichia canis en perros. Se recolectaron muestras de sangre de 150 perros infestados con garrapatas en 10 consultorios veterinarios de la ciudad de Huánuco en Perú, los perros fueron seleccionados al azar sin distinción de raza, edad ni sexo. Se detectó anticuerpos contra Ehrlichia canis mediante inmunoensayo cromatográfico. El 51,3% de perros estuvieron infectados por Ehrlichia canis. En el análisis multivariado se encontraron asociados a la presencia Ehrlichia canis, el mal estado de salud del perro (p=0,049, un promedio mayor de infestación por garrapatas (p=0,018, perros de edad adulta (p=0,038. La frecuencia de Ehrlichia canis en perros de esta ciudad es alta. Se recomienda el control de la garrapata marrón del perro (Rhipicephalus sanguineus vector de la Ehrlichia canis

  17. Influence of land use and meteorological factors on the spatial distribution of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati eggs in soil in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Li, Jianxin; Qin, Hongyu; Xiao, Jianhua

    2017-01-15

    Soil which has been contaminated by Toxocara spp. eggs is considered as one of the main infection sources of Toxocariasis in animals and humans. The present study conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial patterns of Toxocara canis (T. canis) and Toxocara cati (T. cati) eggs in soil in urban area of northeastern Mainland China, and assessed the inter-relationships between meteorological factors, land use and the distribution of the Toxocara spp. eggs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the determination of T. canis and T. cati eggs contamination in soil samples. Between April 2014 and May 2015, 9420 soil samples were subjected to PCR examination and 7027 sheep (74.6%) were determined to be positive for T. canis and T. cati eggs. Subsequently, we evaluated the effect of land use, and meteorological factors on the spatial distribution of T. canis and T. cati eggs based on a maximum entropy model. Jackknife analysis revealed that the area of residential land, wood and grass land and precipitation may influence the occurrence of T. canis and T. cati eggs in soil. Our findings indicate that land use and meteorological factors may be important variables affecting transmission of Toxocariasis and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance programmes for Toxocariasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigations into the prevention of prenatal and lactogenic Toxocara canis infections in puppies by application of moxidectin to the pregnant dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, F; Hammerstein, R; Stoye, M; Epe, C

    2006-06-01

    Aim of the investigation was to examine whether two administrations of moxidectin to pregnant dogs could prevent pre-natal and lactogenic infections of puppies with reactivated Toxocara canis larvae. Four pregnant beagles, infected experimentally with 20 000 embryonated eggs of T. canis, were treated subcutaneously with 1 mg moxidectin per kg body weight on days 40 and 55 of pregnancy (5-13 days before parturition). One further dam and its puppies served as untreated control. Two applications of moxidectin completely prevented pre-natal and lactogenic infections in the puppies. Neither intestinal stages nor somatic larvae were found in the dams or their corresponding puppies. All puppies and dams of the treatment group remained coproscopically negative until 42 days after parturition. The administration of moxidectin did not show any side effects in the dams. None of the puppies of the treated dams showed any pathological abnormalities. In the untreated dam one adult and 26 somatic larvae of T. canis were detected at necropsy. All puppies of the untreated dam showed a patent T. canis infection from day 28 post-natum (p.n.); 296 pre-adult and adult stages of T. canis were spontaneously eliminated and 51 intestinal stages and five somatic larvae of T. canis were recovered at necropsy. In contrast to the puppies of the treated dams all negative control puppies showed blood eosinophilia after parturition and elevated liver enzyme levels.

  19. Theoretical studies of binaries in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dischler, Johann Sebastian

    This thesis introduces and summarizes four papers dealing with computer simulations of astrophysical processes involving binaries. The first part gives the rational and theoretical background to these papers. In paper I and II a statistical approach to studying eclipsing binaries is described. By using population synthesis models for binaries the probabilities for eclipses are calculated for different luminosity classes of binaries. These are compared with Hipparcos data and they agree well if one uses a standard input distribution for the orbit sizes. If one uses a random pairing model, where both companions are independently picked from an IMF, one finds too feclipsing binaries by an order of magnitude. In paper III we investigate a possible scenario for the origin of the stars observed close to the centre of our galaxy, called S stars. We propose that a cluster falls radially cowards the central black hole. The binaries within the cluster can then, if they have small impact parameters, be broken up by the black hole's tidal held and one of the components of the binary will be captured by the black hole. Paper IV investigates how the onset of mass transfer in eccentric binaries depends on the eccentricity. To do this we have developed a new two-phase SPH scheme where very light particles are at tire outer edge of our simulated star. This enables us to get a much better resolution of the very small mass that is transferred in close binaries. Our simulations show that the minimum required distance between the stars to have mass transfer decreases with the eccentricity.

  20. Persistence of specific antibody response in different experimental infections of mice with Toxocara canis larvae Persistência da resposta humoral em camundongos experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Toxocara canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Chieffi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Toxocara antibody production and persistence were studied in experimental infections of BALB/c mice, according to three different schedules: Group I (GI - 25 mice infected with 200 T. canis eggs in a single dose; Group II (GII 25 mice infected with 150 T. canis eggs given in three occasions, 50 in the 1st, 50 in the 5th and 50 in the 8th days; Group III (GIII - 25 mice also infected with 150 T. canis eggs, in three 50 eggs portions given in the 1st, 14th and 28th days. A 15 mice control group (GIV was maintained without infection. In the 30th, 50th, 60th, 75th, 105th and 180th post-infection days three mice of the GI, GII and GIII groups and two mice of the control group had been sacrificed and exsanguinated for sera obtention. In the 360th day the remainder mice of the four groups were, in the same way, killed and processed. The obtained sera were searched for the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies by an ELISA technique, using T. canis larvae excretion-secretion antigen. In the GI and GII, but not in the GIII, anti-Toxocara antibodies had been found, at least, up to the 180th post-infection day. The GIII only showed anti-Toxocara antibodies, at significant level, in the 30th post-infection day.Estudou-se a cinética de anticorpos anti-Toxocara em camundongos BALB/c infectados experimentalmente segundo três esquemas: Grupo I (GI: 25 camundongos infectados com dose única de 200 ovos embrionados de T. canis; grupo II (GII: 25 camundongos infectados com 150 ovos embrionados de T. canis, divididos em três doses de 50 ovos, administrados no 1º, 5º e 8º dias; Grupo III (GIII: 25 camundongos infectados com 150 ovos embrionados de T. canis, administrados em três doses de 50 ovos no 1º, 14º e 28º dias. Um grupo de 15 camundongos foi mantido nas mesmas condições, porém sem infecção, constituindo o grupo controle (GIV. No 30º, 50º, 60º, 75º, 105º e 180º dias pós-infecção três camundongos dos grupos GI, GII e GIII e dois do

  1. Pesquisa de aglutininas anti Brucella canis em soros humanos na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Research on agglutinins for Brucella canis in human sera in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available De 330 soros humanos examinados pela prova de soroaglutinação lenta em tubos, 4(1,21% apresentaram aglutininas anti Brucella canis em diluição 1:100 (1 reagente com título 100, 2 reagentes com título 200 e 1 reagente com título 400.Of the 330 human sera tested by tube agglutination test, 4 (1.21% were positive for Brucella canis antibodies with tilers 1:100 or higher (1 reagent with titer of 1:100, 2 reagents with titer of 1:200, and 1 reagent with tiler of 1:400.

  2. Binary neutron star merger simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruegmann, Bernd [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Our research focuses on the numerical tools necessary to solve Einstein's equations. In recent years we have been particularly interested in spacetimes consisting of two neutron stars in the final stages of their evolution. Because of the emission of gravitational radiation, the objects are driven together to merge; the emitted gravitational wave signal is visualized. This emitted gravitational radiation carries energy and momentum away from the system and contains information about the system. Late last year the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) began searches for these gravitational wave signals at a sensitivity at which detections are expected. Although such systems can radiate a significant amount of their total mass-energy in gravitational waves, the gravitational wave signals one expects to receive on Earth are not strong, since sources of gravitational waves are often many millions of light years away. Therefore one needs accurate templates for the radiation one expects from such systems in order to be able to extract them out of the detector's noise. Although analytical models exist for compact binary systems when the constituents are well separated, we need numerical simulation to investigate the last orbits before merger to obtain accurate templates and validate analytical approximations. Due to the strong nonlinearity of the equations and the large separation of length scales, these simulations are computationally demanding and need to be run on large supercomputers. When matter is present the computational cost as compared to pure black hole (vacuum) simulations increases even more due to the additional matter fields. But also more interesting astrophysical phenomena can happen. In fact, there is the possibility for a strong electromagnetic signal from the merger (e.g., a short gamma-ray burst or lower-energy electromagnetic signatures from the ejecta) and significant neutrino emission. Additionally, we can expect that

  3. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.

    2017-07-01

    The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other

  4. Variance in binary stellar population synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.

    2016-03-01

    In the years preceding LISA, Milky Way compact binary population simulations can be used to inform the science capabilities of the mission. Galactic population simulation efforts generally focus on high fidelity models that require extensive computational power to produce a single simulated population for each model. Each simulated population represents an incomplete sample of the functions governing compact binary evolution, thus introducing variance from one simulation to another. We present a rapid Monte Carlo population simulation technique that can simulate thousands of populations in less than a week, thus allowing a full exploration of the variance associated with a binary stellar evolution model.

  5. Proposed experiment to test fundamentally binary theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmann, Matthias; Vértesi, Tamás; Cabello, Adán

    2017-09-01

    Fundamentally binary theories are nonsignaling theories in which measurements of many outcomes are constructed by selecting from binary measurements. They constitute a sensible alternative to quantum theory and have never been directly falsified by any experiment. Here we show that fundamentally binary theories are experimentally testable with current technology. For that, we identify a feasible Bell-type experiment on pairs of entangled qutrits. In addition, we prove that, for any n , quantum n -ary correlations are not fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary. For that, we introduce a family of inequalities that hold for fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary theories but are violated by quantum n -ary correlations.

  6. Galactic binaries with eLISA

    OpenAIRE

    Nelemans, G.

    2013-01-01

    I review what eLISA will see from Galactic binaries -- double stars with orbital periods less than a few hours and white dwarf (or neutron star/black hole) components. I discuss the currently known binaries that are guaranteed (or verification) sources and explain why the expected total number of eLISA Galactic binaries is several thousand, even though there are large uncertainties in our knowledge of this population, in particular that of the interacting AM CVn systems. I very briefly sketch...

  7. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  8. The symbiotics as binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plavec, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The author envisages at least three models that can give a symbiotic object: He has called them, respectively, the PN symbiotic, the Algol symbiotic, and the novalike symbiotic. Their properties are briefly discussed. The most promising model is one of a binary system in the second stage of mass transfer, actually at the beginning of it: The cool component is a red giant ascending the asymptotic branch, expanding but not yet filling its critical lobe. The hot star is a subdwarf located in the same region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram as the central stars of planetary nebulae. It may be closely related to them, or it may be a helium star, actually a remnant of an Algol primary which underwent the first stage of mass transfer. In these cases, accretion on this star may not play a significant role (PN symbiotic). Perhaps more often, the subdwarf is a ''rejuvenated'' degenerate dwarf whose nuclear burning shells were ignited and are maintained by accretion of material coming from the red giant in the form of a stellar wind. Eruptions are often inevitable: this is the novalike symbiotic. A third alternative is a system in the first stage of mass transfer, where the photons needed for ionization of the nebula come from an accretion disk surrounding a main sequence star: an Algol symbiotic. In spite of considerable observational effort, the symbiotics are known so poorly that it is hard to decide between the models, or even decide if all three can actually exist. (Auth.)

  9. First evidence of Anaplasma platys and Hepatozoon canis co-infection in a dog from Romania--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin; Turcitu, Mihai A; Stefanache, Mircea; Tamba, Paula; Barbuceanu, Florica; Chitimia, Lidia

    2013-06-01

    Anaplasma platys was first identified and described in North America as a Rickettsia-like, platelet-specific organism in dogs with infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia. In Europe, A. platys has so far mainly been described for some Mediterranean countries. Here, we describe a case of A. platys infection in a dog from Romania, confirmed by PCR. Additionally, the dog had a co-infection with Hepatozoon canis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of A. platys infection in Romania and the first case of a co-infection with A. platys and H. canis altogether. Both pathogens should be considered as possible disease agents in dogs suffering from disease associated with tick bite in south-eastern Europe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. First molecular characterization of canine hepatozoonosis in Argentina: evaluation of asymptomatic Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs from Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, Diego Fernando; Basabe, Julia; Scodellaro, Carla F; Banach, Diana B; Matos, María L; Krimer, Alejandro; Baneth, Gad

    2007-11-10

    Canine hepatozoonosis is an expanding tick-borne disease in Argentina. Hepatozoonosis was studied during 1 year in six dogs from the same household in Buenos Aires. Blood parasitemia with Hepatozoon gamonts was found in five dogs and all six were positive by PCR for Hepatozoon sp. Although the levels of parasitemia fluctuated during the year, no clinical signs of disease were detected during the follow up period. Amplification and sequencing of a 650 bases fragment of the 18S rRNA gene from all six dogs yielded fragments that were 99% identical to H. canis. The results of the partial 18S rRNA genotyping with the sub-clinical course of infection and lack of severe hematological abnormalities are compatible with clinical and molecular descriptions of Hepatozoon canis infection from other areas of the world. This is the first molecular characterization of Hepatozoon from Argentina.

  11. Pulsars in binary systems: probing binary stellar evolution and general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs, Ingrid H

    2004-04-23

    Radio pulsars in binary orbits often have short millisecond spin periods as a result of mass transfer from their companion stars. They therefore act as very precise, stable, moving clocks that allow us to investigate a large set of otherwise inaccessible astrophysical problems. The orbital parameters derived from high-precision binary pulsar timing provide constraints on binary evolution, characteristics of the binary pulsar population, and the masses of neutron stars with different mass-transfer histories. These binary systems also test gravitational theories, setting strong limits on deviations from general relativity. Surveys for new pulsars yield new binary systems that increase our understanding of all these fields and may open up whole new areas of physics, as most spectacularly evidenced by the recent discovery of an extremely relativistic double-pulsar system.

  12. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results

  13. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  14. ISO observations of far-infrared rotational emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris

    OpenAIRE

    Neufeld, David A.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Harwit, Martin; Melnick, Gary J.

    1999-01-01

    We report the detection of numerous far-infrared emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris. A 29.5 - 45 micron grating scan of VY CMa, obtained using the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at a spectral resolving power of approximately 2000, reveals at least 41 spectral features due to water vapor that together radiate a total luminosity ~ 25 solar luminosities. In addition to pure rotational transitions within the groun...

  15. The 3D Morphology of VY Canis Majoris II: Polarimetry and the Line-of-Sight Distribution of the Ejecta

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Terry Jay; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Helton, L. Andrew; Gui, Changfeng; Huang, Xiang

    2007-01-01

    We use imaging polarimetry taken with the HST/ACS/HRC to explore the three dimensional structure of the circumstellar dust distribution around the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris. The polarization vectors of the nebulosity surrounding VY CMa show a strong centro-symmetric pattern in all directions except directly East and range from 10% - 80% in fractional polarization. In regions that are optically thin, and therefore likely have only single scattering, we use the fractional polarization and...

  16. Screening of bat faeces for arthropod-borne apicomplexan protozoa: Babesia canis and Besnoitia besnoiti-like sequences from Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Estók, Péter; Kováts, Dávid; Flaisz, Barbara; Takács, Nóra; Szőke, Krisztina; Krawczyk, Aleksandra; Kontschán, Jenő; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Fedák, András; Farkas, Róbert; Haarsma, Anne-Jifke; Sprong, Hein

    2015-08-28

    Bats are among the most eco-epidemiologically important mammals, owing to their presence in human settlements and animal keeping facilities. Roosting of bats in buildings may bring pathogens of veterinary-medical importance into the environment of domestic animals and humans. In this context bats have long been studied as carriers of various pathogen groups. However, despite their close association with arthropods (both in their food and as their ectoparasites), only a few molecular surveys have been published on their role as carriers of vector-borne protozoa. The aim of the present study was to compensate for this scarcity of information. Altogether 221 (mostly individual) bat faecal samples were collected in Hungary and the Netherlands. The DNA was extracted, and analysed with PCR and sequencing for the presence of arthropod-borne apicomplexan protozoa. Babesia canis canis (with 99-100% homology) was identified in five samples, all from Hungary. Because it was excluded with an Ixodidae-specific PCR that the relevant bats consumed ticks, these sequences derive either from insect carriers of Ba. canis, or from the infection of bats. In one bat faecal sample from the Netherlands a sequence having the highest (99%) homology to Besnoitia besnoiti was amplified. These findings suggest that some aspects of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis are underestimated or unknown, i.e. the potential role of insect-borne mechanical transmission and/or the susceptibility of bats to Ba. canis. In addition, bats need to be added to future studies in the quest for the final host of Be. besnoiti.

  17. Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

  18. Conservation implications for the Himalayan wolf Canis (lupus) himalayensis based on observations of packs and home sites in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Werhahn, G; Kusi, N; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Macdonald, DW

    2017-01-01

    We provide insights into pack composition and den site parameters of the Himalayan wolf Canis (lupus) himalayensis based on observations of free-ranging wolves in three study areas in Nepal. We combine this with a social survey of the local Buddhist communities regarding human–carnivore conflict, to draw inferences for conservation practice in the Nepalese Himalayas. We recorded eight wolf packs (with an average composition of two adults and three pups), and found five home sites in high-alti...

  19. General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico

    2017-02-01

    The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.

  20. General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico

    2017-02-01

    The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.

  1. Observations of new Wolf-Rayet binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemela, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    The author reports here preliminary results of spectrographic observations for three southern WR stars, whose binary nature had not been previously verified: HDE 320102, CD -45 0 4482, HD 62910. The observations were carried out at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile, mostly with the Cassegrain spectrograph with IT attached to the 1-m reflector. These spectrograms were secured on Kodak IIIaJ emulsion, and have a dispersion of 45 A/mm. The results suggest that HDE 320102 must be a double-lined 05-7 + WN3 spectroscopic binary, that CD -45 0 4482 appears to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary and that HD 62910 may be a binary. (Auth.)

  2. Diffusion in ordered binary solid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolwijk, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis contains contributions to the field of diffusion in ordered binary solid systems. An extensive experimental investigation of the self diffusion in CoGa is presented. The results of these diffusion measurements strongly suggest that a substantial part of the atomic migration is caused by a new type of defect. A quantitative description of the atomic displacements via this defect is given. Finally computer simulations are presented of diffusion and ordering in binary solid systems. (Auth.)

  3. An Introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1996-01-01

    This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996.......This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996....

  4. Molecular diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in symptomatic dogs in the city of Goiania, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Duarte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT More than 300 species have been described in the genus Hepatozoon, occurring in different vertebrates. Among these, only Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum are seen in dogs. Different methods may be used for laboratory diagnosis. The most common of these is direct parasitological examination of parasite stages in blood smears. The aim of this investigation was to conduct a phylogenetic study on Hepatozoon isolates from symptomatic dogs in the city of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 40 symptomatic dogs that had been referred to the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Goiás. Among these, only two samples were positive for Hepatozoon spp. using the direct parasitological method. These samples were then subjected to a DNA extraction process and amplification of a fragment of the 18S rRNA by means of PCR. Subsequently, the PCR products from each sample were purified and sequenced. The sequences obtained were then analyzed using the BLASTn algorithm, which identified both sequences of this study as Hepatozoon canis. By applying the Mega4 software, it was confirmed that these isolates of H. canis from dogs in Goiânia are similar to other reference isolates of the same species from other regions of Brazil and worldwide.

  5. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias Rotondano

    Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100 of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100 of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10% and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007 and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01. None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  6. Molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in dogs from rural area of Sao Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Adriano Stefani; dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Von Ah Lopes, Viviane; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2008-04-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan that infects dogs and is transmitted by the ingestion of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Two distinct species of Hepatozoon genus can infect dogs, H. canis and H. americanum. Routine tests to detect the disease are based on direct examination of gametocytes on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The objectives of this study were the investigation of infection prevalence in rural area dogs, the comparison of diagnostics by blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the association of infection with tick infestation. Blood smears, collected by puncture of the cephalic vein and ear margin capillary bed from 150 dogs, were examined. This technique detected 17 positive animals (11.3%), with 14 (9.3%) in peripheral blood and seven (4.7%) in cephalic vein blood. PCR tests detected 80 (53.3%) positive animals. R. sanguineus and Amblyomma spp. were found in 36 of the dogs (24%), in equal proportions. The identified species for Amblyomma genus were A. cajennense and A. ovale. Data analysis showed that PCR was much more sensitive when compared to blood smear examination. Hepatozoon species was previously identified as closely related to H. canis.

  7. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondano, Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias; Almeida, Herta Karyanne Araújo; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Santana, Vanessa Lira; Vidal, Ivana Fernandes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Ade lmeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; de Melo, Marcia Almeida

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100) of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100) of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10%) and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01). None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  8. Pathology of dogs in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Braziliano Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Different parasites that commonly occur concomitantly can influence one another, sometimes with unpredictable effects. We evaluated pathological aspects of dogs naturally co-infected with Leishmania infantum and Ehrlichia canis. The health status of the dogs was investigated based on histopathological, hematological and biochemical analyses of 21 animals infected solely with L. infantum and 22 dogs co- infected with L. infantum and E. canis. The skin of both groups showed chronic, predominantly lymphohistioplasmacytic inflammatory reaction. The plasmacytosis in the lymphoid tissues was likely related with the hypergammaglobulinemia detected in all the dogs. The disorganization of extracellular matrix found in the reticular dermis of the inguinal region and ear, characterized by the substitution of thick collagen fibers for thin fibers, was attributed to the degree of inflammatory reaction, irrespective of the presence of parasites. In addition, the histopathological analysis revealed that twice as many dogs in the co-infected group presented Leishmania amastigotes in the ear skin than those infected solely with Leishmania, increasing the possibility of becoming infected through sand fly vectors. Our findings highlight the fact that the health of dogs infected concomitantly with L. infantum and E. canis is severely compromised due to their high levels of total plasma protein, globulins, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase, and severe anemia.

  9. Cross-Reactions between Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum in the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans by western blotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNES Cáris Maroni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans (VLM is a clinical syndrome caused by infection of man by Toxocara spp, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Tissue migration of larval stages causes illness specially in children. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. After the introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the larval excretory-secretory antigen of T. canis (TES, the diagnosis specificity was greatly improved although cross-reactivity with other helminths are still being reported. In Brazil, diagnosis is routinely made after absorption of serum samples with Ascaris suum antigens, a nematode antigenicaly related with Ascaris lumbricoides which is a common intestinal nematode of children. In order to identify T. canis antigens that cross react to A. suum antigens we analyzed TES antigen by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. When we used serum samples from patients suspected of VLM and positive result by ELISA as well as a reference serum sample numerous bands were seen (molecular weight of 210-200 kDa, 116-97 kDa, 55-50 kDa and 35-29 kDa. Among these there is at least one band with molecular weight around 55-66 kDa that seem to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between T. canis e A. suum once it disappears when previous absorption of serum samples with A. suum antigens is performed

  10. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression and protein secretion of Babesia canis during virulent infection identifies potential pathogenicity factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Ramon M; Ramakrishnan, Chandra; Russo, Giancarlo; Deplazes, Peter; Hehl, Adrian B

    2017-06-13

    Infections of dogs with virulent strains of Babesia canis are characterized by rapid onset and high mortality, comparable to complicated human malaria. As in other apicomplexan parasites, most Babesia virulence factors responsible for survival and pathogenicity are secreted to the host cell surface and beyond where they remodel and biochemically modify the infected cell interacting with host proteins in a very specific manner. Here, we investigated factors secreted by B. canis during acute infections in dogs and report on in silico predictions and experimental analysis of the parasite's exportome. As a backdrop, we generated a fully annotated B. canis genome sequence of a virulent Hungarian field isolate (strain BcH-CHIPZ) underpinned by extensive genome-wide RNA-seq analysis. We find evidence for conserved factors in apicomplexan hemoparasites involved in immune-evasion (e.g. VESA-protein family), proteins secreted across the iRBC membrane into the host bloodstream (e.g. SA- and Bc28 protein families), potential moonlighting proteins (e.g. profilin and histones), and uncharacterized antigens present during acute crisis in dogs. The combined data provides a first predicted and partially validated set of potential virulence factors exported during fatal infections, which can be exploited for urgently needed innovative intervention strategies aimed at facilitating diagnosis and management of canine babesiosis.

  11. Asteroseismic effects in close binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Ofer M.; Shaviv, Nir J.

    2013-09-01

    Turbulent processes in the convective envelopes of the Sun and stars have been shown to be a source of internal acoustic excitations. In single stars, acoustic waves having frequencies below a certain cut-off frequency propagate nearly adiabatically and are effectively trapped below the photosphere where they are internally reflected. This reflection essentially occurs where the local wavelength becomes comparable to the pressure scale height. In close binary stars, the sound speed is a constant on equipotentials, while the pressure scale height, which depends on the local effective gravity, varies on equipotentials and may be much greater near the inner Lagrangian point (L1). As a result, waves reaching the vicinity of L1 may propagate unimpeded into low-density regions, where they tend to dissipate quickly due to non-linear and radiative effects. We study the three-dimensional propagation and enhanced damping of such waves inside a set of close binary stellar models using a WKB approximation of the acoustic field. We find that these waves can have much higher damping rates in close binaries, compared to their non-binary counterparts. We also find that the relative distribution of acoustic energy density at the visible surface of close binaries develops a ring-like feature at specific acoustic frequencies and binary separations.

  12. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Guo

    Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.

  13. Soroprevalência de anticorpos anti-Ehrlichia canis em cães de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso Seroprevalence anti-Ehrlichia canis antibodies in dogs of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nivaldo da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A erliquiose canina é uma doença transmitida por carrapatos Rhipicephalus sanguineus e ocasionada pela Ehrlichia canis, bactéria intracelular obrigatória. O presente estudo verificou a prevalência de anticorpos anti-E. canis em 254 cães de quatro regiões administrativas de Cuiabá, Estado de Mato Grosso, por imunofluorescência indireta, observando-se uma prevalência de 42,5% (108/254 sem diferença significativa entre as regiões. As variáveis idade, raça, sexo, hábitat, acesso à zona rural e presença de carrapatos foram analisadas. Os títulos de anticorpos variaram entre 1:40 a 1:2.560. Somente 32 (29,63% cães soropositivos estavam infestados por carrapatos, todos R. sanguineus. O resultado encontrado confirma que não há predisposição racial, sexual ou etária, enquanto a menor ocorrência de cães reagentes no intradomicílio provavelmente está relacionada à baixa infestação por carrapato, apesar de não ter sido observada diferença significativa entre os cães com ou sem a infestação com o carrapato vetor.Canine ehrlichiosis is a disease transmitted by ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus and caused by Ehrlichia canis, obligatory intracellular bacteria. The present study examined the prevalence of anti-E. canis in 254 dogs from four administrative regions of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, by indirect immunofluorescence assay. There was a prevalence of 42.5% (108/254 without significant difference between the studied regions. The variables age, breed, sex, habitat, access to rural and ticks were analyzed. The antibody titers ranged from 1:40 to 1:2,560. Only 32 (29.63% seropositive dogs were infested with ticks, all R. sanguineus. The results confirm that do not have breed, sex or age predisposition to ehrlichiosis due E. canis, while the lowest occurrence of reactive dogs indoors probably related to low tick infestation, although no significant difference between dogs with or without infestation with the tick vector.

  14. Origin of very-short orbital-period binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaji, S.

    1983-01-01

    Recent observations of four close binaries have established that there is a group of very-short orbital-period (VSOP) binaries whose orbital periods are less than 60 minutes. The VSOP binaries consist of both X-ray close binaries and cataclysmic variables. Their orbital periods are too short to have a main-sequence companion. However, four binaries, none of which belongs to any globular cluster, are too abundant to be explained by the capturing mechanism of a white dwarf. Therefore it seemed to be worthwhile to present an evolutionary scenario from an original binary system which can be applied for all VSOP binaries. (Auth.)

  15. Gas dynamics of semidetached binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubow, S.H.; Shu, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    We analyze the gas dynamics of semidetached binary systems within the context of the Rohce model. With the adoption of the assumptions that the contact component rotates synchronously and that the flow occurs isothermally with the thermal speed being a small fraction epsilon of the relative orbital speed, Ωd, of the two stars, we show that the steady flow can be formulated in terms of a problem with multiple length scales. Using this concept, we demonstrate the following by semianalytical methods. (1) The escape of material from the surface of the contact component is accomplished by a highly nonisotropic stellar wind which reaches sonic velocities in a neighborhood of the inner Lagrangian point, L1, of size epsilon in comparison with the orbit separation d. (2) This wind throttles into a narrow stram of material which makes a prescribed angle with respect to the line joining the stellar centers ranging from 19 0 5 to 28 0 4 for the full range of possible stellar mass ratios. (3) The width of the stream scales epsilond while its density scales with epsilon -2 M-dot/Ωd 3 , where M-dot is the mass transfer rate. (4) The stream width remains nearly constant over the part of the stream which is nearly straight, and narrows somewhat as the stream curves toward the detached component. (5) If the detached component is smaller than a certain specified size, the stream results in the formation of a disk of material of prescribed size orbiting the detached component in a direct sense. A subsidi []ry issue examined briefly in this paper is the flow mechanism responsible for moving material to the equator of the contact component, and from there to the L1 region where it is lost by the directed stellar wind. Comparisons of our work are made with previous theoretical studies, and some applications are indicated

  16. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and D. immitis in hunting dogs from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Santoro, Mario; Pacifico, Laura; Sgroi, Giovanni; Auletta, Luigi; Buch, Jesse; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2017-10-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are caused by a range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods. The present study investigates Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Dirofilaria immitis seroprevalences in hunting dogs from southern Italy. Dogs (no. 1335) were tested using a commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors. Overall, 138/1335 dogs (10.3%) were seroreactive to at least one CVBD pathogen. E. canis, Anaplasma spp., B. burgdorferi s.l., and D. immitis seroprevalences were 7.6, 4.4, 0.3, and 0.2%, respectively. E. canis and Anaplasma spp. co-exposures were found in 30 dogs (2.2%), compared with Anaplasma spp. and B. burgdorferi s.l. co-exposures in 2 dogs (0.1%). Adult age was a risk factor for E. canis (OR 2.35) seroreactivity whereas hunting fur-bearing animals for E. canis (OR 4.75) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 1.87), respectively. The historical presence of tick infestation was identified as a risk factor for positivity to E. canis (OR 2.08) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 2.15). Finally, larger dog pack size was significantly associated with E. canis (OR 1.85) and Anaplasma spp. (OR 2.42) exposures. The results of the present survey indicated that hunting dog populations are at relative risk of CVBDs in southern Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of hunting dogs in the epidemiology of vector-borne organisms due to sharing common environments with wild, sympatric animal populations.

  17. Duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of the eggs of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea in soil and fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durant Jean-Francois

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis and/or Toxocara cati (T. cati, two worldwide distributed roundworms which are parasites of canids and felids, respectively. Infections of humans occur through ingestion of embryonated eggs of T. canis or T. cati, when playing with soils contaminated with dogs or cats feces. Accordingly, the assessment of potential contamination of these areas with these roundworms eggs is paramount. Methods A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (2qPCR targeting the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 has been developed and used for rapid and specific identification of T. canis and T. cati eggs in fecal and soil samples. The assay was set up on DNA samples extracted from 53 adult worms including T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, Ascaris suum (A. suum and Parascaris equorum (P. equorum. The assay was used to assess the presence of T. cati eggs in several samples, including 12 clean soil samples spiked with eggs of either T. cati or A. suum, 10 actual soil samples randomly collected from playgrounds in Brussels, and fecal samples from cats, dogs, and other animals. 2qPCR results on dogs and cats fecal samples were compared with results from microscopic examination. Results 2qPCR assay allowed specific detection of T. canis and T. cati, whether adult worms, eggs spiked in soil or fecal samples. The 2qPCR limit of detection (LOD in spiked soil samples was 2 eggs per g of soil for a turnaround time of 3 hours. A perfect concordance was observed between 2qPCR assay and microscopic examination on dogs and cats feces. Conclusion The newly developed 2qPCR assay can be useful for high throughput prospective or retrospective detection of T.canis and/or T. cati eggs in fecal samples as well as in soil samples from playgrounds, parks and sandpits.

  18. Duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of the eggs of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea) in soil and fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Jean-Francois; Irenge, Leonid M; Fogt-Wyrwas, Renata; Dumont, Catherine; Doucet, Jean-Pierre; Mignon, Bernard; Losson, Bertrand; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2012-12-07

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) and/or Toxocara cati (T. cati), two worldwide distributed roundworms which are parasites of canids and felids, respectively. Infections of humans occur through ingestion of embryonated eggs of T. canis or T. cati, when playing with soils contaminated with dogs or cats feces. Accordingly, the assessment of potential contamination of these areas with these roundworms eggs is paramount. A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (2qPCR) targeting the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) has been developed and used for rapid and specific identification of T. canis and T. cati eggs in fecal and soil samples. The assay was set up on DNA samples extracted from 53 adult worms including T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, Ascaris suum (A. suum) and Parascaris equorum (P. equorum). The assay was used to assess the presence of T. cati eggs in several samples, including 12 clean soil samples spiked with eggs of either T. cati or A. suum, 10 actual soil samples randomly collected from playgrounds in Brussels, and fecal samples from cats, dogs, and other animals. 2qPCR results on dogs and cats fecal samples were compared with results from microscopic examination. 2qPCR assay allowed specific detection of T. canis and T. cati, whether adult worms, eggs spiked in soil or fecal samples. The 2qPCR limit of detection (LOD) in spiked soil samples was 2 eggs per g of soil for a turnaround time of 3 hours. A perfect concordance was observed between 2qPCR assay and microscopic examination on dogs and cats feces. The newly developed 2qPCR assay can be useful for high throughput prospective or retrospective detection of T.canis and/or T. cati eggs in fecal samples as well as in soil samples from playgrounds, parks and sandpits.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Zarnke, R.; Thomas, N.J.; Wong, S.K.; Vanbonn, W.; Briggs, M.; Davis, J.W.; Ewing, R.; Mense, M.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Romand, S.; Thulliez, P.

    2003-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT a?Y1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

  20. Analysis of Canis mitochondrial DNA demonstrates high concordance between the control region and ATPase genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Bradley N

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic studies of wild Canis species have relied heavily on the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR to infer species relationships and evolutionary lineages. Previous analyses of the CR provided evidence for a North American evolved eastern wolf (C. lycaon, that is more closely related to red wolves (C. rufus and coyotes (C. latrans than grey wolves (C. lupus. Eastern wolf origins, however, continue to be questioned. Therefore, we analyzed mtDNA from 89 wolves and coyotes across North America and Eurasia at 347 base pairs (bp of the CR and 1067 bp that included the ATPase6 and ATPase8 genes. Phylogenies and divergence estimates were used to clarify the evolutionary history of eastern wolves, and regional comparisons of nonsynonomous to synonomous substitutions (dN/dS at the ATPase6 and ATPase8 genes were used to elucidate the potential role of selection in shaping mtDNA geographic distribution. Results We found high concordance across analyses between the mtDNA regions studied. Both had a high percentage of variable sites (CR = 14.6%; ATP = 9.7% and both phylogenies clustered eastern wolf haplotypes monophyletically within a North American evolved lineage apart from coyotes. Divergence estimates suggest the putative red wolf sequence is more closely related to coyotes (DxyCR = 0.01982 ± 0.00494 SD; DxyATP = 0.00332 ± 0.00097 SD than the eastern wolf sequences (DxyCR = 0.03047 ± 0.00664 SD; DxyATP = 0.00931 ± 0.00205 SD. Neutrality tests on both genes were indicative of the population expansion of coyotes across eastern North America, and dN/dS ratios suggest a possible role for purifying selection in the evolution of North American lineages. dN/dS ratios were higher in European evolved lineages from northern climates compared to North American evolved lineages from temperate regions, but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions These results demonstrate high concordance between coding

  1. Binaries and triples among asteroid pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Galád, Adrián

    2015-08-01

    Despite major achievements obtained during the past two decades, our knowledge of the population and properties of small binary and multiple asteroid systems is still far from advanced. There is a numerous indirect evidence for that most small asteroid systems were formed by rotational fission of cohesionless parent asteroids that were spun up to the critical frequency presumably by YORP, but details of the process are lacking. Furthermore, as we proceed with observations of more and more binary and paired asteroids, we reveal new facts that substantially refine and sometimes change our understanding of the asteroid systems. One significant new finding we have recently obtained is that primaries of many asteroid pairs are actually binary or triple systems. The first such case found is (3749) Balam (Vokrouhlický, ApJL 706, L37, 2009). We have found 9 more binary systems among asteroid pairs within our ongoing NEOSource photometric project since October 2012. They are (6369) 1983 UC, (8306) Shoko, (9783) Tensho-kan, (10123) Fideoja, (21436) Chaoyichi, (43008) 1999 UD31, (44620) 1999 RS43, (46829) 1998 OS14 and (80218) 1999 VO123. We will review their characteristics. These paired binaries as we call them are mostly similar to binaries in the general ("background") population (of unpaired asteroids), but there are a few trends. The paired binaries tend to have larger secondaries with D_2/D_1 = 0.3 to 0.5 and they also tend to be wider systems with 8 of the 10 having orbital periods between 30 and 81 hours, than average among binaries in the general population. There may be also a larger fraction of triples; (3749) Balam is a confirmed triple, having a larger close and a smaller distant satellite, and (8306) Shoko and (10123) Fideoja are suspect triples as they show additional rotational lightcurve components with periods of 61 and 38.8 h that differ from the orbital period of 36.2 and 56.5 h, respectively. The unbound secondaries tend to be of the same size or

  2. Close-binary central stars of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, H.E.; Grauer, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Recent observations of PN central stars identified as binary systems are reviewed. The theoretical significance of binary central stars is discussed, and the characteristics of UU Sge, V 477 Lyr, MT Ser, LSS 2018, VW Pyx, and the central star of HFG 1 are briefly summarized. All of these binaries are shown to have periods less than 1 day, and it is estimated that about 10 percent of all binary central stars are close binaries. 27 references

  3. Do stellar clusters form fewer binaries? Using moderate separation binaries to distinguish between nature and nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Megan

    2017-08-01

    Fewer wide-separation binaries are found in dense stellar clusters than in looser stellar associations. It is therefore unclear whether feedback in clusters prevents the formation of multiple systems or dynamical interactions destroy them. Measuring the prevalence of close, bound binary systems provide a key test to distinguish between these possibilities. Systems with separations of 10-50 AU will survive interactions in the cluster environment, and therefore are more representative of the natal population of multiple systems. By fitting a double-star PSF, we will identify visual binaries in the Orion Nebula with separations as small as 0.03. At the distance of Orion, this corresponds to a physical separation of 12 AU, effectively closing the observational gap in the binary separation distribution left between known visual and spectroscopic binaries (>65 AU or PhD thesis.

  4. Leadership behavior in relation to dominance and reproductive status in gray wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R.O.; Jacobs, A.K.; Drummer, T.D.; Mech, L.D.; Smith, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed the leadership behavior of breeding and nonbreeding gray wolves (Canis lupus) in three packs during winter in 1997-1999. Scent-marking, frontal leadership (time and frequency in the lead while traveling), initiation of activity, and nonfrontal leadership were recorded during 499 h of ground-based observations in Yellowstone National Park. All observed scent-marking (N = 158) was done by breeding wolves, primarily dominant individuals. Dominant breeding pairs provided most leadership, consistent with a trend in social mammals for leadership to correlate with dominance. Dominant breeding wolves led traveling packs during 64% of recorded behavior bouts (N = 591) and 71% of observed travel time (N = 64 h). During travel, breeding males and females led packs approximately equally, which probably reflects high parental investment by both breeding male and female wolves. Newly initiated behaviors (N = 104) were prompted almost 3 times more often by dominant breeders (70%) than by nonbreeders (25%). Dominant breeding females initiated pack activities almost 4 times more often than subordinate breeding females (30 vs. 8 times). Although one subordinate breeding female led more often than individual nonbreeders in one pack in one season, more commonly this was not the case. In 12 cases breeding wolves exhibited nonfrontal leadership. Among subordinate wolves, leadership behavior was observed in subordinate breeding females and other individuals just prior to their dispersal from natal packs. Subordinate wolves were more often found leading packs that were large and contained many subordinate adults.

  5. Diphyllobothrium sp. in Canis familiaris from the subtropical area of Argentina (Puerto Iguazú, Misiones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, María R; Motta, Carlos E; Salas, Martín M; Chiaretta, Alicia; Salomón, Oscar D

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first finding of Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs in Canis familiaris (domestic dog) from Puerto Iguazú, a subtropical city of Misiones province, Argentina. In 2013, two positive cases of Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs were detected during an annual parasitological survey of dogs. Dog feces were collected in vials containing 10% formalin and processed using Telemann's sedimentation and Sheather's flotation techniques. The two cases were detected in rural areas of the municipality. Since Misiones is not a part of the endemic area of diphyllobothriasis and given the fact that it is located in the three-border area of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, we consider this finding of great importance to public health. We stress the need for updating the current knowledge about the life cycle of these parasites considering the range of intermediate and definitive hosts, their zoonotic potential, and the epidemiological situation in non-endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A Hepatozoon species genetically distinct from H. canis infecting spotted hyenas in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Marion L; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Ludwig, Arne; Goller, Katja; Wilhelm, Kerstin; Schares, Gereon; Thierer, Dagmar; Hofer, Heribert

    2008-01-01

    Health monitoring of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania, revealed Hepatozoon infection in all of 11 immature individuals examined following death from natural causes. Hepatozoon infection was probably an important factor contributing to mortality in two cases that exhibited clinical signs of ataxia, lethargy, ocular discharge, retching, and labored breathing before death. Whether Hepatozoon infection contributed to six deaths from fire, probable lion predation and unknown causes could not be determined. Four deaths from infanticide and starvation were unlikely to be associated with Hepatozoon infection. Histologic examination revealed lung tissue infected with cyst-like structures containing protozoan stages in all eight cases examined and interstitial pneumonia in most cases. Systemic spread of infection to several organs was found in three cases. Alignment of a 426 bp sequence from the parasite's 18s rRNA gene revealed a Hepatozoon species identical to that recently described from two domestic cats in Spain and only 7 bp substitutions when a 853 bp sequence was aligned to this cat Hepatozoon species. Previous reports of infection of wild carnivores in eastern and southern Africa with an unspecified Hepatozoon species similar in appearance to H. canis may have involved the species described in this study.

  8. A gene expression signature of confinement in peripheral blood of red wolves (Canis rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerly, Erin; Ballmann, Anne; Martin, Stanton; Wolfinger, Russ; Gregory, Simon; Stoskopf, Michael; Gibson, Greg

    2008-06-01

    The stresses that animals experience as a result of modification of their ecological circumstances induce physiological changes that leave a signature in profiles of gene expression. We illustrate this concept in a comparison of free range and confined North American red wolves (Canis rufus). Transcription profiling of peripheral blood samples from 13 red wolf individuals in the Alligator River region of North Carolina revealed a strong signal of differentiation. Four hundred eighty-two out of 2980 transcripts detected on Illumina HumanRef8 oligonucleotide bead arrays were found to differentiate free range and confined wolves at a false discovery rate of 12.8% and P stress responses in confined animals. Consequently, characterization of differential transcript abundance in an accessible tissue such as peripheral blood identifies biomarkers that could be useful in animal management practices and for evaluating the impact of habitat changes on population health, particularly as attention turns to the impact of climate change on physiology and in turn species distributions.

  9. Trichinella britovi in the jackal Canis aureus from south-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalali, H; Rezaei, S; Pozio, E; Naddaf, S R; Salahi-Moghaddam, A; Kia, E B; Shahbazi, F; Mowlavi, Gh

    2014-12-01

    Trichinellosis is an important helminthic food-borne zoonosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Although, Trichinella spp. has been detected frequently in Iranian wildlife, this parasitic infection is not considered a major public health problem. This is largely because Islamic codes forbid consumption of pork meat in this country. However, knowledge about this zoonotic pathogen is important because human trichinellosis has been documented in countries where most of the population is Muslim. The aims of the present work were to investigate whether Trichinella spp. was still circulating in wildlife of the Khuzestan Province (south-west Iran) about 30 years after the first investigation, to identify the aetiological agent at the species level by molecular analyses, and to review the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals of Iran. During the winter 2009-2010, muscle samples from 32 road-killed animals (14 dogs and 18 jackals, Canis aureus) were collected. Muscle samples were digested and Trichinella sp. larvae were isolated from two jackals. The Trichinella sp. larvae have been identified as Trichinella britovi by molecular analyses. These results confirm that T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild animals of Iran.

  10. [Toxocara canis eggs as bait for soil fungus in a subtropical city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanich, María Viviana; Sarmiento, María Mercedes; Giusiano, Gustavo; Mangiaterra, Magdalena; Basualdo, Juan Ángel

    2015-01-01

    The use of different isolation techniques allows the recovery of fungi based on their ability to use selective substrates. The sprinkle method is a technique for the recovery of nematophagous fungi in the soil. These fungi are natural predators of nematodes and are widely distributed in nature. To detect possible fungi with nematophagous ability in the soil of city parks in Corrientes (Argentina). The soil samples were taken from an area of ground between two trees and to no more than 2cm deep. The isolation was performed according to the sprinkle method with Toxocara canis eggs as bait. Eighteen soil samples were collected, and 6 genera and 8 species of fungi were isolated. The sprinkle method, simple and efficient, has the advantage of using a small amount of untreated soil for the isolation of fungi that can grow on the eggs of geohelminths. The genera Bipolaris, Fusarium, Purpureocillium, Curvularia, Phoma and Scytalidium were isolated in this study. No other studies describing the interaction between the genera Curvularia, Phoma and Scytalidium with nematode eggs have been found in the literature, thus more studies are required to determine what is their real action on these eggs. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Arcsecond Resolution Mapping of Sulfur Dioxide Emission in the Circumstellar Envelope of VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Roger R.; Moullet, Arielle; Patel, Nimesh A.; Biersteker, John; Derose, Kimberly L.; Young, Kenneth H.

    2012-02-01

    We report Submillimeter Array observations of SO2 emission in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris, with an angular resolution of ≈1''. SO2 emission appears in three distinct outflow regions surrounding the central continuum peak emission that is spatially unresolved. No bipolar structure is noted in the sources. A fourth source of SO2 is identified as a spherical wind centered at the systemic velocity. We estimate the SO2 column density and rotational temperature assuming local thermal equilibrium (LTE) as well as perform non-LTE radiative transfer analysis using RADEX. Column densities of SO2 are found to be ~1016 cm-2 in the outflows and in the spherical wind. Comparison with existing maps of the two parent species OH and SO shows the SO2 distribution to be consistent with that of OH. The abundance ratio f_{SO_{2}}/f_{SO} is greater than unity for all radii larger than 3 × 1016 cm. SO2 is distributed in fragmented clumps compared to SO, PN, and SiS molecules. These observations lend support to specific models of circumstellar chemistry that predict f_{SO_{2}}/f_{SO}>1 and may suggest the role of localized effects such as shocks in the production of SO2 in the CSE.

  12. An Interferometric Spectral Line and Imaging Survey of VY Canis Majoris in the 345 GHz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, T.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Young, K. H.; Menten, K. M.; Patel, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    A spectral line survey of the oxygen-rich red supergiant VY Canis Majoris was made between 279 and 355 GHz with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Two hundred twenty-three spectral features from 19 molecules (not counting isotopic species of some of them) were observed, including the rotational spectra of TiO, TiO2, and AlCl for the first time in this source. The parameters and an atlas of all spectral features are presented. Observations of each line with a synthesized beam of ~0.''9, reveal the complex kinematics and morphology of the nebula surrounding VY CMa. Many of the molecules are observed in high-lying rotational levels or in excited vibrational levels. From these, it was established that the main source of the submillimeter-wave continuum (dust) and the high-excitation molecular gas (the star) are separated by about 0.''15. Apparent coincidences between the molecular gas observed with the SMA, and some of the arcs and knots observed at infrared wavelengths and in the optical scattered light by the Hubble Space Telescope are identified. The observations presented here provide important constraints on the molecular chemistry in oxygen-dominated circumstellar environments and a deeper picture of the complex circumstellar environment of VY CMa.

  13. Mapping the Spatial Distribution of Metal-Bearing Oxides in VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Andrew; Booth, S. Tom; Remijan, Anthony; Carroll, Brandon; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2015-06-01

    The formation of silicate-based dust grains is not well constrained. Despite this, grain surface chemistry is essential to modern astrochemical formation models. In carbon-poor stellar envelopes, such as the red hypergiant VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), metal-bearing oxides, the building blocks of silicate grains, dominate the grain formation, and thus are a key location to study dust chemistry. TiO_2, which was only first detected in the radio recently (Kaminski et al., 2013a), has been proposed to be a critical molecule for silicate grain formation, and not oxides containing more abundant metals (eg. Si, Fe, and Mg) (Gail and Sedlmayr, 1998). In addition, other molecules, such as SO_2, have been found to trace shells produced by numerous outflows pushing through the expanding envelope, resulting in a complex velocity structure (Ziurys et al., 2007). With the advanced capabilities of ALMA, it is now possible to individually resolve the velocity structure of each of these outflows and constrain the underlying chemistry in the region. Here, we present high resolution maps of rotational transitions of several metal-bearing oxides in VY CMa from the ALMA Band 7 and Band 9 Science Verification observations. With these maps, the physical parameters of the region and the formation chemistry of metal-bearing oxides will be studied.

  14. Chemical complexity in the winds of the oxygen-rich supergiant star VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziurys, L. M.; Milam, S. N.; Apponi, A. J.; Woolf, N. J.

    2007-06-01

    The interstellar medium is enriched primarily by matter ejected from old, evolved stars. The outflows from these stars create spherical envelopes, which foster gas-phase chemistry. The chemical complexity in circumstellar shells was originally thought to be dominated by the elemental carbon to oxygen ratio. Observations have suggested that envelopes with more carbon than oxygen have a significantly greater abundance of molecules than their oxygen-rich analogues. Here we report observations of molecules in the oxygen-rich shell of the red supergiant star VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa). A variety of unexpected chemical compounds have been identified, including NaCl, PN, HNC and HCO+. From the spectral line profiles, the molecules can be distinguished as arising from three distinct kinematic regions: a spherical outflow, a tightly collimated, blue-shifted expansion, and a directed, red-shifted flow. Certain species (SiO, PN and NaCl) exclusively trace the spherical flow, whereas HNC and sulphur-bearing molecules (amongst others) are selectively created in the two expansions, perhaps arising from shock waves. CO, HCN, CS and HCO+ exist in all three components. Despite the oxygen-rich environment, HCN seems to be as abundant as CO. These results suggest that oxygen-rich shells may be as chemically diverse as their carbon counterparts.

  15. The Asymmetric Nebula Surrounding the Extreme Red Supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Gehrz, Robert D.; Schuster, M. T.; Krautter, Joachim

    2001-02-01

    We present HST/WFPC2 images plus ground-based infrared images and photometry of the very luminous OH/IR star VY Canis Majoris. Our WFPC2 data show a complex distribution of knots and filamentary arcs in the asymmetric reflection nebula around the obscured central star. The reflection arcs may result from multiple, asymmetric ejection episodes due to localized events on VY CMa's surface. Such events probably involve magnetic fields and convection, by analogy with solar activity. Surface photometry indicates that the star may have experienced enhanced mass loss over the past 1000 yr. We also demonstrate that the apparent asymmetry of the nebula results from a combination of high extinction and backscattering by dust grains. Thermal-infrared images reveal a more symmetric distribution, elongated along a nearly east-west direction. VY CMa probably has a flattened disklike distribution of dust with a northeast-southwest polar axis and may be experiencing activity analogous to solar prominences. The presence of an axis of symmetry raises interesting questions for a star the size of Saturn's orbit. Magnetic fields and surface activity may play an important role in VY CMa's mass-loss history. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  16. Molecular Abundances in the Circumstellar Envelope of Oxygen-Rich Supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica L.; Ziurys, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    A complete set of molecular abundances have been established for the Oxygen-rich circumstellar envelope (CSE) surrounding the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa). These data were obtained from The Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 1-mm spectral line survey of this object using the ARO Sub-millimeter Telescope (SMT), as well as complimentary transitions taken with the ARO 12-meter. The non-LTE radiative transfer code ESCAPADE has been used to obtain the molecular abundances and distributions in VY CMa, including modeling of the various asymmetric outflow geometries in this source. For example, SO and SO2 were determined to arise from five distinct outflows, four of which are asymmetric with respect to the central star. Abundances of these two sulfur-bearing molecules range from 3 x 10-8 - 2.5 x 10-7 for the various outflows. Similar results will be presented for molecules like CS, SiS, HCN, and SiO, as well as more exotic species like NS, PO, AlO, and AlOH. The molecular abundances between the various outflows will be compared and implications for supergiant chemistry will be discussed.

  17. ARCSECOND RESOLUTION MAPPING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSION IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE OF VY CANIS MAJORIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Roger R.; Moullet, Arielle; Patel, Nimesh A.; Biersteker, John; Derose, Kimberly L.; Young, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    We report Submillimeter Array observations of SO 2 emission in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris, with an angular resolution of ≈1''. SO 2 emission appears in three distinct outflow regions surrounding the central continuum peak emission that is spatially unresolved. No bipolar structure is noted in the sources. A fourth source of SO 2 is identified as a spherical wind centered at the systemic velocity. We estimate the SO 2 column density and rotational temperature assuming local thermal equilibrium (LTE) as well as perform non-LTE radiative transfer analysis using RADEX. Column densities of SO 2 are found to be ∼10 16 cm –2 in the outflows and in the spherical wind. Comparison with existing maps of the two parent species OH and SO shows the SO 2 distribution to be consistent with that of OH. The abundance ratio f SO 2 /f SO is greater than unity for all radii larger than 3 × 10 16 cm. SO 2 is distributed in fragmented clumps compared to SO, PN, and SiS molecules. These observations lend support to specific models of circumstellar chemistry that predict f SO 2 /f SO >1 and may suggest the role of localized effects such as shocks in the production of SO 2 in the CSE.

  18. Role of golden jackals (Canis aureus) as natural reservoirs of Dirofilaria spp. in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionică, Angela Monica; Matei, Ioana Adriana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Juránková, Jana; Ionescu, Dan Traian; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Modrý, David; Gherman, Călin Mircea

    2016-04-28

    Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are mosquito-transmitted zoonotic nematodes, causing heartworm disease and skin lesions, respectively, in carnivores. In Europe, the domestic dog is apparently the main definitive host, but patent infections occur also in other species of carnivores. The rapid spread of the golden jackals (Canis aureus) throughout Europe opens a question of involvement of this species in the sylvatic cycle of pathogens in the colonised territories, including Dirofilaria spp. Between January 2014 and May 2015, 54 golden jackals from 18 localities in Romania were examined by full necropsy for the presence of adult filarioid nematodes and blood samples from all animals were screened for the presence of microfilariae of D. immitis, D. repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum by multiplex PCR DNA amplification. Nematodes morphologically identified as D. immitis were found in 18.52% of the animals, originating from the southern part of Romania. No D. repens or A. reconditum were found at necropsy. The molecular prevalence in blood samples from the same animals was 9.26% for D. immitis and 1.85% for D. repens. All samples were negative by PCR for A. reconditum. The relatively high prevalence of Dirofilaria spp. infections in golden jackals from Romania together with the increasing density of the jackal populations highlight their potential role in the transmission of these zoonotic parasites and in the maintenance of natural disease foci.

  19. Habitat selection by a focal predator (Canis lupus) in a multiprey ecosystem of the northern Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milakovic, B.; Parker, K.L.; Gustine, D.D.; Lay, R.J.; Walker, A.B.D.; Gillingham, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Large predators respond to land cover and physiography that maximize the likelihood of encountering prey. Using locations from global positioning system-collared wolves (Canis lupus), we examined whether land cover, vegetation productivity or change, or habitat-selection value for ungulate prey species themselves most influenced patterns of selection by wolves in a large, intact multiprey system of northern British Columbia. Selection models based on land cover, in combination with topographical features, consistently outperformed models based on indexes of vegetation quantity and quality (using normalized difference vegetation index) or on selection value to prey species (moose [Alces americanus], elk [Cervus elaphus], woodland caribou [Rangifer tarandus], and Stone's sheep [Ovis dalli stonei]). Wolves generally selected for shrub communities and high diversity of cover across seasons and avoided conifer stands and non-vegetated areas and west aspects year-round. Seasonal selection strategies were not always reflected in use patterns, which showed highest frequency of use in riparian, shrub, and conifer classes. Patterns of use and selection for individual wolf packs did not always conform to global models, and appeared related to the distribution of land cover and terrain within respective home ranges. Our findings corroborate the biological linkages between wolves and their habitat related to ease of movement and potential prey associations. ?? American 2011 Society of Mammalogists.

  20. Clinical, morphological, and molecular characterization of Penicillium canis sp. nov., isolated from a dog with osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Daniel K; Sutton, Deanna A; Swenson, Cheryl L; Bailey, Chris J; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Nelson, Nathan C; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Wickes, Brian L; French, Stephanie; Fu, Jianmin; Vilar-Saavedra, Paulo; Peterson, Stephen W

    2014-07-01

    Infections caused by Penicillium species are rare in dogs, and the prognosis in these cases is poor. An unknown species of Penicillium was isolated from a bone lesion in a young dog with osteomyelitis of the right ilium. Extensive diagnostic evaluation did not reveal evidence of dissemination. Resolution of lameness and clinical stability of disease were achieved with intravenous phospholipid-complexed amphotericin B initially, followed by long-term combination therapy with terbinafine and ketoconazole. A detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the mold was undertaken. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer revealed the isolate to be closely related to Penicillium menonorum and Penicillium pimiteouiense. Additional sequence analysis of β-tubulin, calmodulin, minichromosome maintenance factor, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and pre-rRNA processing protein revealed the isolate to be a novel species; the name Penicillium canis sp. nov. is proposed. Morphologically, smooth, ovoid conidia, a greenish gray colony color, slow growth on all media, and a failure to form ascomata distinguish this species from closely related Penicillium species. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.

    2009-07-01

    ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

  2. Hyperhidrosis in naïve purpose-bred beagle dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Catherine A; Seeman, Jennifer L; Hoffmann, Guenther

    2011-05-01

    This case study details the unusual clinical findings in a unique paw-pad disorder that recently emerged among 2 male and 1 female naïve purpose-bred beagle dogs (Canis familiaris) newly received into our facility. During acclimation period physical examinations, the affected dogs demonstrated constantly moist, soft paw pads on all 4 feet. No information was available regarding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this pad condition in beagle dogs. Here, we report the results of physical examination, clinical chemistry analysis, hematology, histopathology, detailed observations, and novel testing techniques performed during the acclimation period. Histopathology of several sections of affected footpads was compared with that of an age-matched dog with clinically normal paw pads. We describe the morphologic features of a distinctive cutaneous canine footpad condition and discuss the possible differential diagnoses. The histologic and clinical features were most consistent with those of hyperhidrosis; to our knowledge, this report is the first description of hyperhidrosis as a distinct condition in purpose-bred beagle dogs.

  3. Weekly summer diet of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Thomas D.; Windels, Steve K.; Bruggink, John G.; Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2018-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) are opportunistic predators and will capitalize on available abundant food sources. However, wolf diet has primarily been examined at monthly, seasonal, or annual scales, which can obscure short-term responses to available food. We examined weekly wolf diet from late June to early October by collecting scats from a single wolf pack in northeastern Minnesota. During our 15 week study, nonungulate food types constituted 58% of diet biomass. Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns were a major food item until mid-July after which berries (primarily Vaccinium and Rubus spp.) composed 56–83% of weekly diet biomass until mid-August. After mid-August, snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and adult deer were the primary prey. Weekly diet diversity approximately doubled from June to October as wolves began using several food types in similar proportions as the summer transitioned into fall. Recreational hunting of black bears (Ursus americanus) contributed to weekly wolf diet in the fall as wolves consumed foods from bear bait piles and from gut piles/carcasses of successfully harvested or fatally wounded bears. To our knowledge, we are the first to examine wolf diet via scat analysis at weekly intervals, which enabled us to provide a detailed description of diet plasticity of this wolf pack, as well as the rapidity with which wolves can respond to new available food sources.

  4. Wolf (Canis lupus) generation time and proportion of current breeding females by age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  5. Cranial and dental abnormalities of the endangered red wolf Canis rufus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federoff, Nicholas E.; Nowak, Ronald M.

    1998-01-01

    Three skulls of captive-raised female endangered red wolves (Canis rufus) exhibited severe malocclusion of the jaws. Cranial and dental abnormalities (including crowding of upper toothrows, and an extra tooth behind the lower left M3 in one of the three mandibles) were also evident. Ratios of alveolar length of maxillary toothrow to maximum width across the outer sides of crowns of P4 were significantly different (p=0.008) compared to unaffected skulls. Significant differences were also evident when ratios of maximum width across inner edges of alveoli of P1 to alveolar length of maxillary toothrow and maximum width across outer sides of crowns of P4 were compared between the two groups. Although the three skulls all exhibited malocclusion, the abnormality expressed itself differently in relation to the effects to each skull. Captive inbreeding may increase the probability and frequency of expressing these anomalies, although inbreeding coefficients calculated for the wolves expressing malocclusion were not considered high (0.0313-0.0508). A wild female red wolf specimen captured in 1921 in Arkansas also exhibited the malocclusion, although not as severely as in the captive females. This demonstrates that this trait was present in wild populations prior to, and not a result of, the captive breeding program.

  6. Length of time domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) spend smelling urine of gonadectomised and intact conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riach, Anna C; Asquith, Rachel; Fallon, Melissa L D

    2017-09-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) use urine to communicate among themselves, however, it is unknown whether the gonadectomy (neutering or spaying) of a dog affects this communication in anyway. Urine samples from 10 intact and 10 gonadectomised, unfamiliar dogs were presented to 12 tester dogs to sniff under controlled conditions in a pilot study. The amount of time the tester dogs spent sniffing each sample was recorded. Overall, tester dogs were recorded smelling the urine of gonadectomised individuals for a longer time. In addition to the type of urine sample, the result is likely to have been influenced by the sex and status (gonadectomised or intact) of the tester dogs. The observed increase in the length of time spent sniffing urine from gonadectomised individuals could be explained by the tester dogs experiencing more difficulty in gaining information from the urine or facing more confusion while analysing the urine compared to the intact urine they have evolved to smell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Communication between domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and humans: dogs are good learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgier, Angel M; Jakovcevic, Adriana; Barrera, Gabriela; Mustaca, Alba E; Bentosela, Mariana

    2009-07-01

    Communication involves a wide range of behaviours that animals emit in their daily lives and can take place between different species, as is the case of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and humans. Dogs have shown to be successful at following human cues to solve the object choice task. The question is what are the mechanisms involved in these communicative abilities. This article presents a review of studies about the communicative capacities of domestic dogs emphasizing the ones that considered the effect of associative learning upon these skills. In addition, evidence about differences in dogs' performance in following physical or social cues is summarized and two studies where both signals compete are presented here. The obtained results suggest that the training of a colour cue reverses the dogs' preference for the social one. These results are discussed in light of the findings that gave importance to the learning effect, concluding that the dogs fundamentally follow those cues that allowed them to obtain reinforcers in their previous learning history.

  8. The geographical distribution of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Ma, Ya-Ping; Zhou, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Savolaimen, Peter; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-11-18

    The grey wolf ( Canis lupus ) is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals, and its distribution and ecology in Europe and North America are largely well described. However, the distribution of grey wolf in southern China is still highly controversial. Several well-known western literatures stated that there are no grey wolves in southern China, while the presence of grey wolf across China has been indicated in A Guide to the Mammals of China , published by Princeton University Press. It is essential to solve this discrepancy since dogs may have originated from grey wolfs in southern China. Therefore, we systematically investigated Chinese literatures about wild animal surveys and identified more than 100 articles and books that included information of the distribution of grey wolves in China. We also surveyed the collections of three Chinese natural museums and found 26 grey wolf skins specimens collected across China. Moreover, we investigated the fossil records of wolf in China and identified 25 archaeological sites with wolf remains including south China. In conclusion, with the comprehensive summary of Chinese literatures, museum specimens and fossil records, we demonstrate that grey wolves does distribute across all parts of the Chinese mainland, including the most southern parts of China.

  9. Eastern Coyote/Coywolf (Canis latrans x lycaon Movement Patterns: Lessons Learned in Urbanized Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan G. Way

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity and movement patterns represent a fundamental aspect of a species natural history. Twenty four-hour movements of eastern coyotes or coywolves (Canis latrans x lycaon; hereafter eastern coyote for consistency purposes ranged up to 31.9 linear km and averaged 23.5 + 7.3 (SD km from 5-14 radio-fixes during each 24 hr monitoring period. Coyotes moved mostly at night and through altered open areas (e.g., powerlines, dumps more than expected when compared to residential and natural areas. Coyotes inhabiting urbanized areas generally use residential areas for traveling and/or foraging. With large daily (or more aptly, nightly movement patterns, resident coyotes can potentially be located anywhere within their large home ranges at any given time, as data revealed that one pack (3-4 individuals can cover a combined 75-100 km per night, in a territory averaging 20-30 km2. Transient movements from capture location to end location varied from 23.0—100.5 km and averaged 63.8 km for two females and 49.3 km for four males. Eastern coyotes travel long distances even in human-dominated areas, allowing transients to find vacant territories. Because of their ability to move through urban areas and to colonize and recolonize areas, management efforts should focus more on educating the public about actual coyote behavior and their life history needs than on killing them.

  10. Domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) choices in reference to information provided by human and artificial hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundey, Shannon M A; Delise, Justin; De Los Reyes, Andres; Ford, Kathy; Starnes, Blair; Dennen, Weston

    2014-03-01

    Even young humans show sensitivity to the accuracy and reliability of informants' reports. Children are selective in soliciting information and in accepting claims. Recent research has also investigated domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) sensitivity to agreement among human informants. Such research utilizing a common human pointing gesture to which dogs are sensitive in a food retrieval paradigm suggests that dogs might choose among informants according to the number of points exhibited, rather than the number of individuals indicating a particular location. Here, we further investigated dogs' use of information from human informants using a stationary pointing gesture, as well as the conditions under which dogs would utilize a stationary point. First, we explored whether the number of points or the number of individuals more strongly influenced dogs' choices. To this end, dogs encountered a choice situation in which the number of points exhibited toward a particular location and the number of individuals exhibiting those points conflicted. Results indicated that dogs chose in accordance with the number of points exhibited toward a particular location. In a second experiment, we explored the possibility that previously learned associations drove dogs' responses to the stationary pointing gesture. In this experiment, dogs encountered a choice situation in which artificial hands exhibited a stationary pointing gesture toward or away from choice locations in the absence of humans. Dogs chose the location to which the artificial hand pointed. These results are consistent with the notion that dogs may respond to a human pointing gesture due to their past-learning history.

  11. Infectividad del perro (Canis familiaris para Lutzomyia youngi en Trujillo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Hernández

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En Trujillo, Venezuela, la prevalencia de leishmaniasis tegumentaria americana (LTA es de 38 por 100.000 habitantes. Objetivo. En una localidad periurbana, rural, de la ciudad capital, estudiamos a los perros caseros (Canis familiaris para investigar mediante la técnica de xenodiagnóstico la eventual capacidad para infectar a Lutzomyia youngi, especie flebotomina con actividad vectorial intradomiciliaria comprobada y abundante en el área de estudio. Materiales y métodos. Los perros con lesiones sugestivas de LTA, parasitológicamente diagnosticados, fueron seleccionados para el xenodiagnóstico permitiendo a flebótomos silvestres de una zona libre de LTA alimentarse ad libitum sobre toda la superficie corporal de cada animal, y evidenciar, en disecciones efectuadas a los 5 días post-ingesta, la posible presencia de flagelados en sus tractos digestivos, en cuyo caso, fueron evaluados por la técnica PCR-Multiplex para determinar la identidad del parásito. Resultados. Un total de 455 flebótomos se ingurgitaron sobre dos perros en tres evaluaciones distintas; en una única ocasión, se observaron promastigotes en 4 (0,88% insectos, cuya identificación molecular reveló pertenecían al subgénero Viannia. Conclusión. El perro casero constituye un potencial factor de riesgo intradomiciliario en el ciclo de la LTA.

  12. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  13. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  14. Beyond binaries : a way forward for comparativeeducation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Larsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Binary discourses shape and produce the stories we construct about the field of comparative education. In the first part of this article, I review a set of binary discourses that have characterized social science research since the Enlightenment, including: quantitative-qualitative, nomotheticidiographic, inductive-deductive, and practice-theory. We can think of each of these binaries at opposite ends of a set of spectrums. In the second section of the paper, I show some of the ways in which these binaries have influenced the ways that we write and talk about research within the field of comparative education. I refer to the notion of binary discourses and the productive capacity of these discourses to shape our field. I then outline some critiques of these binaries to demonstrate the inherent limitations of binary discourses, and why we need to move beyond binaries in our research, and in the histories about our field. Finally, I present some tentative conclusions on ways to get ourselves out of the trap of binary thinking.Los discursos binarios moldean y producen los argumentos que construimos sobre la disciplina de la Educación Comparada. En la primera parte de este artículo, analizo un conjunto de discursos binarios que han caracterizado la investigación en Ciencias Sociales desde la Ilustración, incluyendo la cuantitativa-cualitativa, nomotética-idiográfica, inductivadeductiva, y la práctica-teoría. Podemos pensar sobre cada uno de estos discursos binarios como argumentos en los polos de un conjunto de posibilidades. En la segunda sección del artículo, revelo algunos modos en los que estos discursos binarios han influenciado las formas a través de las cuales escribimos y analizamos la investigación en el ámbito de la Educación Comparada. Analizo la noción de discursos binarios y la capacidad productiva de estos discursos de impactar nuestra ciencia. Seguidamente expongo algunas críticas de estos discursos binarios con el

  15. The binary white dwarf LHS 3236

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Canzian, Blaise; Guetter, Harry H.; Levine, Stephen E.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Monet, Alice K. B.; Stone, Ronald C.; Subasavage, John P.; Tilleman, Trudy; Walker, Richard L. [US Naval Observatory, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hartkopf, William I. [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109 (Australia); Leggett, S. K., E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    The white dwarf LHS 3236 (WD1639+153) is shown to be a double-degenerate binary, with each component having a high mass. Astrometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory gives a parallax and distance of 30.86 ± 0.25 pc and a tangential velocity of 98 km s{sup –1}, and reveals binary orbital motion. The orbital parameters are determined from astrometry of the photocenter over more than three orbits of the 4.0 yr period. High-resolution imaging at the Keck Observatory resolves the pair with a separation of 31 and 124 mas at two epochs. Optical and near-IR photometry give a set of possible binary components. Consistency of all data indicates that the binary is a pair of DA stars with temperatures near 8000 and 7400 K and with masses of 0.93 and 0.91 M {sub ☉}; also possible is a DA primary and a helium DC secondary with temperatures near 8800 and 6000 K and with masses of 0.98 and 0.69 M {sub ☉}. In either case, the cooling ages of the stars are ∼3 Gyr and the total ages are <4 Gyr. The combined mass of the binary (1.66-1.84 M {sub ☉}) is well above the Chandrasekhar limit; however, the timescale for coalescence is long.

  16. Investigating Dark Energy with Black Hole Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura; Kelleher, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The accelerated expansion of the universe is ascribed to the existence of dark energy. Black holes accrete dark energy. The accretion induces a mass change proportional to the energy density and pressure of the background dark energy fluid. The time scale during which the mass of black holes changes considerably is long relative to the age of the universe, thus beyond detection possibilities. We propose to take advantage of the modified black hole masses for exploring the equation of state w[z] of dark energy, by investigating the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries on a dark energy background. Deriving the signatures of dark energy accretion on the evolution of binaries, we find that dark energy imprints on the emitted gravitational radiation and on the changes in the orbital radius of the binary can be within detection limits for certain supermassive black hole binaries. This talk describes how binaries can provide a useful tool in obtaining complementary information on the nature of dark energy.

  17. Star formation history: Modeling of visual binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Y. M.; Tessema, S. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sytov, A. Yu.; Tutukov, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    Most stars form in binary or multiple systems. Their evolution is defined by masses of components, orbital separation and eccentricity. In order to understand star formation and evolutionary processes, it is vital to find distributions of physical parameters of binaries. We have carried out Monte Carlo simulations in which we simulate different pairing scenarios: random pairing, primary-constrained pairing, split-core pairing, and total and primary pairing in order to get distributions of binaries over physical parameters at birth. Next, for comparison with observations, we account for stellar evolution and selection effects. Brightness, radius, temperature, and other parameters of components are assigned or calculated according to approximate relations for stars in different evolutionary stages (main-sequence stars, red giants, white dwarfs, relativistic objects). Evolutionary stage is defined as a function of system age and component masses. We compare our results with the observed IMF, binarity rate, and binary mass-ratio distributions for field visual binaries to find initial distributions and pairing scenarios that produce observed distributions.

  18. Occurrence and diversity of arthropod-transmitted pathogens in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in western Austria, and possible vertical (transplacental) transmission of Hepatozoon canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodžić, Adnan; Mrowietz, Naike; Cézanne, Rita; Bruckschwaiger, Pia; Punz, Sylvia; Habler, Verena Elisabeth; Tomsik, Valentina; Lazar, Judit; Duscher, Georg G; Glawischnig, Walter; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2018-03-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most abundant wild canid species in Austria, and it is a well-known carrier of many pathogens of medical and veterinary concern. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and diversity of protozoan, bacterial and filarial parasites transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods in a red fox population in western Austria. Blood (n = 351) and spleen (n = 506) samples from foxes were examined by PCR and sequencing and the following pathogens were identified: Babesia canis, Babesia cf. microti (syn. Theileria annae), Hepatozoon canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp. and Bartonella rochalimae. Blood was shown to be more suitable for detection of Babesia cf. microti, whilst the spleen tissue was better for detection of H. canis than blood. Moreover, extremely low genetic variability of H. canis and its relatively low prevalence rate observed in this study may suggest that the parasite has only recently been introduced in the sampled area. Furthermore, the data presented here demonstrates, for the first time, the possible vertical transmission of H. canis from an infected vixen to the offspring, and this could explain the very high prevalence in areas considered free of its main tick vector(s).

  19. Anticorpos anti-Brucella canis e anti-Brucella abortus em cães de Araguaína, Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Maria Seles Dorneles

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to determine the seroprevalence of infection by Brucella canis and Brucella abortus and to evaluate possible risk factors for infection in dogs from Araguaína, Tocantins, Brazil. Sera from 374 dogs, of the urban zones of the municipality, from both sexes, were submitted to the agar-gel immunodiffusion for Brucella canis-antibodies and to rose Bengal test (AAT and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA for Brucella abortus-antibodies. From the 374 tested dogs, 21 reacted in the AAT, but no one was positive in the FPA. The seroprevalence of B. canis infection found in Araguaína, Tocantins, Brazil, was 44.53% (95% IC; 39.43 to 49.72. No association was found among seropositivity for B. canis and the risk factors studied. Thus, data from the present study showed that there was no infection by B. abortus among dogs in the sample and that infection by B. canis is widespread and at high prevalence in Araguaína, Tocantins, Brazil.

  20. Systems analysis of pathogenicity BvrR/BvrS, VjbR and VirB in Brucella canis and Brucella abortus 2308

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Eduarte, Maria Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    An association between the expression of the system of two BvrR/BvrS components is established with respect to the expression of proteins VirB and VjbR. The expression patterns are compared between the species B. abortus 2308 and B. canis 206-10. Strains of B. abortus and B. canis were isolated at the Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria of the Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica from an aborted fetus. The expressions of BvrR and BvrS are determined in different points of the growth curve of B. abortus 2308 and B. canis 206-10. The expressions of VjbR and VirB are defined in different points of the growth curve of B. abortus 2308 and B. canis 206-10. The expression patterns of BvrR, BvrS, VjbR and VirB are compared in different points curve of B. abortus 2308 and B. canis 206-10. The experimental analysis has required a series of reagents, equipment and fundamental materials such as: laminar flow chamber, spectrophotometer, agitator with temperature-controlled, ELISA plate reader, stirrer template, culture media, disposable plastic material, chambers for electrophoresis and Western blot, etc. [es