WorldWideScience

Sample records for binary perovskite cacu3mn4o12

  1. Magnetotransport of CaCu3Mn4O12 complex perovskite derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Benitez, J.; Andres, A. de; Garcia-Hernandez, M.; Alonso, J.A.; Martinez-Lope, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction, magnetic and magnetotransport studies were carried out on new derivatives of the CaCu 3 Mn 4 O 12 (A'A 3 B 4 O 12 ) complex perovskite. The samples were prepared in polycrystalline form under moderate pressure conditions. Substitutions at A and A' sites of CaCu 3 Mn 4 O 12 , with only Mn 4+ and insulating behavior, imply electron doping that affects the magnetic and transport properties. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy showed that Mn 3+ /Mn 4+ valence mixing occurs only at B site, progressively filling the e g band and providing the metallic character in these compounds, as we observe in most of these samples. A semiconducting behavior is observed in samples with 50% Mn 3+ at B site. This can be understood by the opening of a gap in the conduction band corresponding to the half filling of the e g states. This is the case of the tetravalent rare earth doped samples (Ce and Th at A' site) and of the appropriate A site doped Ca(CuMn 2 )Mn 4 O 12 sample. At the strongly distorted A positions, Mn 3+ , with localized e g electrons, act as magnetic impurities at very low temperatures (<40 K) giving rise to the observed upturn in the resistivity. The magnetic origin of this scattering is evidenced by its drastic reduction under a magnetic field

  2. Full-color tuning in binary polymer:perovskite nanocrystals organic-inorganic hybrid blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perulli, A.; Balena, A.; Fernandez, M.; Nedelcu, G.; Cretí, A.; Kovalenko, M. V.; Lomascolo, M.; Anni, M.

    2018-04-01

    The excellent optical and electronic properties of metal halide perovskites recently proposed these materials as interesting active materials for optoelectronic applications. In particular, the high color purity of perovskite colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) had recently motivated their exploration as active materials for light emitting diodes with tunable emission across the visible range. In this work, we investigated the emission properties of binary blends of conjugated polymers and perovskite NCs. We demonstrate that the emission color of the blends is determined by the superposition of the component photoluminescence spectra, allowing color tuning by acting on the blend relative composition. The use of two different polymers, two different perovskite NCs, and different blend compositions is exploited to tune the blend color in the blue-green, yellow-red, and blue-red ranges, including white light generation.

  3. Solvent-molecule-mediated manipulation of crystalline grains for efficient planar binary lead and tin triiodide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Leize; Yuh, Brian; Schoen, Stefan; Li, Xinpei; Aldighaithir, Mohammed; Richardson, Beau J.; Alamer, Ahmed; Yu, Qiuming

    2016-03-01

    Binary lead and tin perovskites offer the benefits of narrower band gaps for broader adsorption of solar spectrum and better charge transport for higher photocurrent density. Here, we report the growth of large, smooth crystalline grains of bianry lead and tin triiodide perovskite films via a two-step solution process with thermal plus solvent vapor-assisted thermal annealing. The crystalline SnxPb1-xI2 films formed in the first step served as the templates for the formation of crystalline CH3NH3SnxPb1-xI3 films during the second step interdiffusion of methylammonium iodide (MAI). Followed by dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) vapor-assisted thermal annealing, small, faceted perovskite grains grew into large, smooth grains via the possible mechanism involving bond breaking and reforming mediated by DMSO solvent molecules. The absorption onset was extended to 950 and 1010 nm for the CH3NH3SnxPb1-xI3 perovskites with x = 0.1 and 0.25, respectively. The highest PCE of 10.25% was achieved from the planar perovskite solar cell with the CH3NH3Sn0.1Pb0.9I3 layer prepared via the thermal plus DMSO vapor-assisted thermal annealing. This research provides a way to control and manipulate film morphology, grain size, and especially the distribution of metal cations in binary metal perovskite layers, which opens an avenue to grow perovskite materials with desired properties to enhance device performance.Binary lead and tin perovskites offer the benefits of narrower band gaps for broader adsorption of solar spectrum and better charge transport for higher photocurrent density. Here, we report the growth of large, smooth crystalline grains of bianry lead and tin triiodide perovskite films via a two-step solution process with thermal plus solvent vapor-assisted thermal annealing. The crystalline SnxPb1-xI2 films formed in the first step served as the templates for the formation of crystalline CH3NH3SnxPb1-xI3 films during the second step interdiffusion of methylammonium iodide (MAI

  4. Perovskite-Perovskite Homojunctions via Compositional Doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänekamp, Benedikt; Müller, Christian; Sendner, Michael; Boix, Pablo P; Sessolo, Michele; Lovrincic, Robert; Bolink, Henk J

    2018-05-11

    One of the most important properties of semiconductors is the possibility of controlling their electronic behavior via intentional doping. Despite the unprecedented progress in the understanding of hybrid metal halide perovskites, extrinsic doping of perovskite remains nearly unexplored and perovskite-perovskite homojunctions have not been reported. Here we present a perovskite-perovskite homojunction obtained by vacuum deposition of stoichiometrically tuned methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) films. Doping is realized by adjusting the relative deposition rates of MAI and PbI 2 , obtaining p-type (MAI excess) and n-type (MAI defect) MAPI. The successful stoichiometry change in the thin films is confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, which allows us to determine the MA content in the films. We analyzed the resulting thin-film junction by cross-sectional scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) and found a contact potential difference (CPD) of 250 mV between the two differently doped perovskite layers. Planar diodes built with the perovskite-perovskite homojunction show the feasibility of our approach for implementation in devices.

  5. O3 perovskite ceramic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The prepared sample remains as double phases with the perovskite struc- ture. The structure ... Ferroelectric oxides with perovskite structure are the subject of many investigations. ... in optical devices and heterojunction solar cells. 1765 ...

  6. Resonant halide perovskite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiguntseva, Ekaterina Y.; Ishteev, Arthur R.; Komissarenko, Filipp E.; Zuev, Dmitry A.; Ushakova, Elena V.; Milichko, Valentin A.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Makarov, Sergey V.; Zakhidov, Anvar A.

    2017-09-01

    The hybrid halide perovskites is a prospective material for fabrication of cost-effective optical devices. Unique perovskites properties are used for solar cells and different photonic applications. Recently, perovskite-based nanophotonics has emerged. Here, we consider perovskite like a high-refractive index dielectric material, which can be considered to be a basis for nanoparticles fabrication with Mie resonances. As a result, we fabricate and study resonant perovskite nanoparticles with different sizes. We reveal, that spherical nanoparticles show enhanced photoluminescence signal. The achieved results lay a cornerstone in the field of novel types of organic-inorganic nanophotonics devices with optical properties improved by Mie resonances.

  7. Hybrid Perovskite/Perovskite Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinghong; Schlipf, Johannes; Wussler, Michael; Petrus, Michiel L; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Bein, Thomas; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Docampo, Pablo

    2016-06-28

    Recently developed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells combine low-cost fabrication and high power conversion efficiency. Advances in perovskite film optimization have led to an outstanding power conversion efficiency of more than 20%. Looking forward, shifting the focus toward new device architectures holds great potential to induce the next leap in device performance. Here, we demonstrate a perovskite/perovskite heterojunction solar cell. We developed a facile solution-based cation infiltration process to deposit layered perovskite (LPK) structures onto methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) films. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments were performed to gain insights into the crystallite orientation and the formation process of the perovskite bilayer. Our results show that the self-assembly of the LPK layer on top of an intact MAPI layer is accompanied by a reorganization of the perovskite interface. This leads to an enhancement of the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency due to reduced recombination losses, as well as improved moisture stability in the resulting photovoltaic devices.

  8. Interacting binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleton, P.P.; Pringle, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 15 review articles in the field of binary stars. The subjects reviewed span considerably, from the shortest period of interacting binaries to the longest, symbiotic stars. Also included are articles on Algols, X-ray binaries and Wolf-Rayet stars (single and binary). Contents: Preface. List of Participants. Activity of Contact Binary Systems. Wolf-Rayet Stars and Binarity. Symbiotic Stars. Massive X-ray Binaries. Stars that go Hump in the Night: The SU UMa Stars. Interacting Binaries - Summing Up

  9. Perovskite Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic–inorganic halide perovskite, a newcomerin the solar cell industry has proved its potential forincreasing efficiency rapidly from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in2016. High efficiency, flexibility, and cell architecture of theemerging hybrid halide perovskite have caught the attentionof researchers and technologists in the field.

  10. One-Step Printable Perovskite Films Fabricated under Ambient Conditions for Efficient and Reproducible Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Heo, Youn-Jung; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Lee, Donmin; Lee, Cheol-Ho; Joh, Han-Ik; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2017-08-23

    Despite the potential of roll-to-roll processing for the fabrication of perovskite films, the realization of highly efficient and reproducible perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) through continuous coating techniques and low-temperature processing is still challenging. Here, we demonstrate that efficient and reliable CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 (MAPbI 3 ) films fabricated by a printing process can be achieved through synergetic effects of binary processing additives, N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Notably, these perovskite films are deposited from premixed perovskite solutions for facile one-step processing under a room-temperature and ambient atmosphere. The CHP molecules result in the uniform and homogeneous perovskite films even in the one-step slot-die system, which originate from the high boiling point and low vapor pressure of CHP. Meanwhile, the DMSO molecules facilitate the growth of perovskite grains by forming intermediate states with the perovskite precursor molecules. Consequently, fully printed PeSC based on the binary additive system exhibits a high PCE of 12.56% with a high reproducibility.

  11. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

    2013-12-10

    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  12. Entropy in halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, Claudine; Mohite, Aditya D.; Even, Jacky

    2018-05-01

    Claudine Katan, Aditya D. Mohite and Jacky Even discuss the possible impact of various entropy contributions (stochastic structural fluctuations, anharmonicity and lattice softness) on the optoelectronic properties of halide perovskite materials and devices.

  13. Perovskites keep on giving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Whether you like exploring the mysteries of light-matter interactions, playing with a versatile chemical platform, or developing the most efficient devices, metal halide perovskites could be the materials for you.

  14. All-Ambient Processed Binary CsPbBr3-CsPb2Br5 Perovskites with Synergistic Enhancement for High-Efficiency Cs-Pb-Br-Based Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xisheng; Jin, Zhiwen; Zhang, Jingru; Bai, Dongliang; Bian, Hui; Wang, Kang; Sun, Jie; Wang, Qian; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2018-02-28

    All-inorganic CsPbBr 3 perovskite solar cells display outstanding stability toward moisture, light soaking, and thermal stressing, demonstrating great potential in tandem solar cells and toward commercialization. Unfortunately, it is still challenging to prepare high-performance CsPbBr 3 films at moderate temperatures. Herein, a uniform, compact CsPbBr 3 film was fabricated using its quantum dot (QD)-based ink precursor. The film was then treated using thiocyanate ethyl acetate (EA) solution in all-ambient conditions to produce a superior CsPbBr 3 -CsPb 2 Br 5 composite film with a larger grain size and minimal defects. The achievement was attributed to the surface dissolution and recrystallization of the existing SCN - and EA. More specifically, the SCN - ions were first absorbed on the Pb atoms, leading to the dissolution and stripping of Cs + and Br - ions from the CsPbBr 3 QDs. On the other hand, the EA solution enhances the diffusion dynamics of surface atoms and the surfactant species. It is found that a small amount of CsPb 2 Br 5 in the composite film gives the best surface passivation, while the Br-rich surface decreases Br vacancies (V Br ) for a prolonged carrier lifetime. As a result, the fabricated device gives a higher solar cell efficiency of 6.81% with an outstanding long-term stability.

  15. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  16. Trojan Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans, in the context of giant planet migration models, can be thought of as an extension of the small body populations found beyond Neptune in the Kuiper Belt. Binaries are a distinctive feature of small body populations in the Kuiper Belt with an especially high fraction apparent among the brightest Cold Classicals. The binary fraction, relative sizes, and separations in the dynamically excited populations (Scattered, Resonant) reflects processes that may have eroded a more abundant initial population. This trend continues in the Centaurs and Trojans where few binaries have been found. We review new evidence including a third resolved Trojan binary and lightcurve studies to understand how the Trojans are related to the small body populations that originated in the outer protoplanetary disk.

  17. Textured perovskite cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Tezsevin, Y.; Barink, M.

    2017-01-01

    Most research of texturization of solar cells has been devoted to Si based cells. For perovskites, it was assumed that texturization would not have much of an impact because of the relatively low refractive indexes lead to relatively low reflection as compared to the Si based cells. However, our

  18. Large-Grain Tin-Rich Perovskite Films for Efficient Solar Cells via Metal Alloying Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Grätzel, Michael; Fan, Zhiyong

    2018-03-01

    Fast research progress on lead halide perovskite solar cells has been achieved in the past a few years. However, the presence of lead (Pb) in perovskite composition as a toxic element still remains a major issue for large-scale deployment. In this work, a novel and facile technique is presented to fabricate tin (Sn)-rich perovskite film using metal precursors and an alloying technique. Herein, the perovskite films are formed as a result of the reaction between Sn/Pb binary alloy metal precursors and methylammonium iodide (MAI) vapor in a chemical vapor deposition process carried out at 185 °C. It is found that in this approach the Pb/Sn precursors are first converted to (Pb/Sn)I 2 and further reaction with MAI vapor leads to the formation of perovskite films. By using Pb-Sn eutectic alloy, perovskite films with large grain sizes up to 5 µm can be grown directly from liquid phase metal. Consequently, using an alloying technique and this unique growth mechanism, a less-toxic and efficient perovskite solar cell with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.04% is demonstrated, while pure Sn and Pb perovskite solar cells prepared in this manner yield PCEs of 4.62% and 14.21%, respectively. It is found that this alloying technique can open up a new direction to further explore different alloy systems (binary or ternary alloys) with even lower melting point. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  20. Curtailing Perovskite Processing Limitations via Lamination at the Perovskite/Perovskite Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hest, Marinus F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moore, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Klein, Talysa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christians, Jeffrey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beard, Matthew C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Berry, Joseph J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dunfield, Sean P. [University of Colorado; Fabian, David M. [University of California Irvine; Dixon, Alex G. [University of Colorado; Dou, Benjia [University of Colorado; Ardo, Shane [University of California Irvine; Shaheen, Sean E. [University of Colorado

    2018-04-24

    Standard layer-by-layer solution processing methods constrain lead-halide perovskite device architectures. The layer below the perovskite must be robust to the strong organic solvents used to form the perovskite while the layer above has a limited thermal budget and must be processed in nonpolar solvents to prevent perovskite degradation. To circumvent these limitations, we developed a procedure where two transparent conductive oxide/transport material/perovskite half stacks are independently fabricated and then laminated together at the perovskite/perovskite interface. Using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, external quantum efficiency, X-ray diffraction, and time-resolved photoluminesence spectroscopy, we show that this procedure improves photovoltaic properties of the perovskite layer. Applying this procedure, semitransparent devices employing two high-temperature oxide transport layers were fabricated, which realized an average efficiency of 9.6% (maximum: 10.6%) despite series resistance limitations from the substrate design. Overall, the developed lamination procedure curtails processing constraints, enables new device designs, and affords new opportunities for optimization.

  1. Structural Properties of Ferroelectric Perovskites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vanderbilt, David

    1998-01-01

    Under this research grant, we carried out realistic first-principles computer calculations of the ground-state and finite-temperature structural and dielectric properties of cubic perovskite materials...

  2. Multifunctional optoelectronic devices based on perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Bakr, Osman

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide methods of growing halide films (e.g., single crystal halide perovskites or multi-crystal halide perovskites) on a structure, dual-mode photodetectors, methods of use, and the like.

  3. Photocatalysis: HI-time for perovskites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2017-01-01

    Organolead halide perovskite solar absorbers demonstrate high photovoltaic efficiencies but they are notorious for their intolerance to water. Now, methylammonium lead iodide perovskites are used to harvest solar energy — in water — via photocatalytic generation of hydrogen from solutions...

  4. Multifunctional optoelectronic devices based on perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2017-10-19

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide methods of growing halide films (e.g., single crystal halide perovskites or multi-crystal halide perovskites) on a structure, dual-mode photodetectors, methods of use, and the like.

  5. Highly Efficient and Stable Sn-Rich Perovskite Solar Cells by Introducing Bromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seojun; Kang, Dong-Won

    2017-07-12

    Compositional engineering of recently arising methylammonium (MA) lead (Pb) halide based perovskites is an essential approach for finding better perovskite compositions to resolve still remaining issues of toxic Pb, long-term instability, etc. In this work, we carried out crystallographic, morphological, optical, and photovoltaic characterization of compositional MASn 0.6 Pb 0.4 I 3-x Br x by gradually introducing bromine (Br) into parental Pb-Sn binary perovskite (MASn 0.6 Pb 0.4 I 3 ) to elucidate its function in Sn-rich (Sn:Pb = 6:4) perovskites. We found significant advances in crystallinity and dense coverage of the perovskite films by inserting the Br into Sn-rich perovskite lattice. Furthermore, light-intensity-dependent open circuit voltage (V oc ) measurement revealed much suppressed trap-assisted recombination for a proper Br-added (x = 0.4) device. These contributed to attaining the unprecedented power conversion efficiency of 12.1% and V oc of 0.78 V, which are, to the best of our knowledge, the highest performance in the Sn-rich (≥60%) perovskite solar cells reported so far. In addition, impressive enhancement of photocurrent-output stability and little hysteresis were found, which paves the way for the development of environmentally benign (Pb reduction), stable monolithic tandem cells using the developed low band gap (1.24-1.26 eV) MASn 0.6 Pb 0.4 I 3-x Br x with suggested composition (x = 0.2-0.4).

  6. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Zhou, Huanping; Li, Liang

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials garner enormous attention for a wide range of optoelectronic devices. Due to their attractive optical and electrical properties including high optical absorption coefficient, high carrier mobility, and long carrier diffusion length, perovskites have opened up a great opportunity for high performance photodetectors. This review aims to give a comprehensive summary of the significant results on perovskite-based photodetectors, focusing on the relationship among the perovskite structures, device configurations, and photodetecting performances. An introduction of recent progress in various perovskite structure-based photodetectors is provided. The emphasis is placed on the correlation between the perovskite structure and the device performance. Next, recent developments of bandgap-tunable perovskite and hybrid photodetectors built from perovskite heterostructures are highlighted. Then, effective approaches to enhance the stability of perovskite photodetector are presented, followed by the introduction of flexible and self-powered perovskite photodetectors. Finally, a summary of the previous results is given, and the major challenges that need to be addressed in the future are outlined. A comprehensive summary of the research status on perovskite photodetectors is hoped to push forward the development of this field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Stability Issues on Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organo lead halide perovskite materials like methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3 and formamidinium lead iodide (HC(NH22PbI3 show superb opto-electronic properties. Based on these perovskite light absorbers, power conversion efficiencies of the perovskite solar cells employing hole transporting layers have increased from 9.7% to 20.1% within just three years. Thus, it is apparent that perovskite solar cell is a promising next generation photovoltaic technology. However, the unstable nature of perovskite was observed when exposing it to continuous illumination, moisture and high temperature, impeding the commercial development in the long run and thus becoming the main issue that needs to be solved urgently. Here, we discuss the factors affecting instability of perovskite and give some perspectives about further enhancement of stability of perovskite solar cell.

  8. Patterning of Perovskite Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Corzo, Daniel

    2017-06-12

    As the internet-of-things hardware integration continues to develop and the requirements for electronics keep diversifying and expanding, the necessity for specialized properties other than the classical semiconductor performance becomes apparent. The success of emerging semiconductor materials depends on the manufacturability and cost as much as on the properties and performance they offer. Solution-based semiconductors are an emerging concept that offers the advantage of being compatible with large-scale manufacturing techniques and have the potential to yield high-quality electronic devices at a lower cost than currently available solutions. In this work, patterns of high-quality MAPbBr3 perovskite single crystals in specific locations are achieved through the modification of the substrate properties and solvent engineering. The fabrication of the substrates involved modifying the surface adhesion forces through functionalization with self-assembled monolayers and patterning them by photolithography processes. Spin coating and blade coating were used to deposit the perovskite solution on the modified silicon substrates. While single crystal perovskites were obtained with the modification of substrates alone, solvent engineering helped with improving the Marangoni flows in the deposited droplets by increasing the contact angle and lowering the evaporation rate, therefore controlling and improving the shape of the grown perovskite crystals. The methodology is extended to other types of perovskites such as the transparent MAPbCl3 and the lead-free MABi2I9, demonstrating the adaptability of the process. Adapting the process to electrode arrays opened up the path towards the fabrication of optoelectronic devices including photodetectors and field-effect transistors, for which the first iterations are demonstrated. Overall, manufacturing and integration techniques permitting the fabrication of single crystalline devices, such as the method in this thesis work, are

  9. Morphology modification of perovskite film by a simple post-treatment process in perovskite solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J.; Yang, Y.; Zhao, Y.L., E-mail: sdyulong@cumt.edu.cn; Che, M.; Zhu, L.; Gu, X.Q.; Qiang, Y.H., E-mail: yhqiang@cumt.edu.cn

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Perovskite films were post-treated by DMF/CBZ, DMSO/CBZ, or GBL/CBZ blend solvents. • This process could repair pinholes and enhance coverage in perovskite film. • This technique could modify charge transfer process at TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface. - Abstract: A homogenous perovskite thin film with high coverage is a determining factor for high performance perovskite solar cells. Unlike previous pre-treatments aiming at perovskite precursor, we proposed a simple method to modify the morphology of perovskite films by post-treatment process using mixed solvents of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or 1,4-butyrolactone (GBL) with chlorobenzene (CBZ) in this paper. As good solvent of perovskite, DMF, DMSO, and GBL could dissolve the formed perovskite film. Meanwhile, CBZ, anti-solvent of perovskite film, could decrease the dissolving capacity of these good solvents. Therefore, the perovskite film coverage might be improved by the partial dissolution and recrystallization after solvent post-treatment process. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry (EIS) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) indicated that this post-treatment process could enhance charge transfer at TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface. Finally, the conversion efficiency increased from 10.10% to 11.82%, 11.68%, and 10.66% using perovskite films post-treated by DMF/CBZ, DMSO/CBZ, and GBL/CBZ blend solvents, respectively.

  10. Systems and methods for scalable perovskite device fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinsong; Dong, Qingfeng; Sao, Yuchuan

    2017-02-28

    Continuous processes for fabricating a perovskite device are described that include using a doctor blade for continuously forming a perovskite layer and using a conductive tape lamination process to form an anode or a cathode layer on the perovskite device.

  11. Monolithic Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells with Advanced Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Jan C.; Bett, Alexander J.; Bivour, Martin; Blasi, Benedikt; Eisenlohr, Johannes; Kohlstadt, Markus; Lee, Seunghun; Mastroianni, Simone; Mundt, Laura; Mundus, Markus; Ndione, Paul; Reichel, Christian; Schubert, Martin; Schulze, Patricia S.; Tucher, Nico; Veit, Clemens; Veurman, Welmoed; Wienands, Karl; Winkler, Kristina; Wurfel, Uli; Glunz, Stefan W.; Hermle, Martin

    2016-11-14

    For high efficiency monolithic perovskite silicon tandem solar cells, we develop low-temperature processes for the perovskite top cell, rear-side light trapping, optimized perovskite growth, transparent contacts and adapted characterization methods.

  12. Magnetoresistance stories of double perovskites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    grain surfaces have also been proposed to act as tunnel barriers in Sr2FeMoO6. ... these double perovskites, a gradual decrease in the low-field MR and saturation ... simultaneously, and therefore serious material engineering was needed.

  13. Vibrational spectra of ordered perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsmit, A.F.; Hoefdraad, H.E.; Blasse, G.

    1972-01-01

    The vibrational spectra of the molecular M6+O6 (M = Mo, Te, W) group in ordered perovskites of the type Ba2M2+M6+O6 are reported. These groups have symmetry Oh, whereas their site symmetry is also Oh. An assignment of the internal vibrations is presented.

  14. Thermochromic halide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia; Lai, Minliang; Dou, Letian; Kley, Christopher S.; Chen, Hong; Peng, Fei; Sun, Junliang; Lu, Dylan; Hawks, Steven A.; Xie, Chenlu; Cui, Fan; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Limmer, David T.; Yang, Peidong

    2018-03-01

    Smart photovoltaic windows represent a promising green technology featuring tunable transparency and electrical power generation under external stimuli to control the light transmission and manage the solar energy. Here, we demonstrate a thermochromic solar cell for smart photovoltaic window applications utilizing the structural phase transitions in inorganic halide perovskite caesium lead iodide/bromide. The solar cells undergo thermally-driven, moisture-mediated reversible transitions between a transparent non-perovskite phase (81.7% visible transparency) with low power output and a deeply coloured perovskite phase (35.4% visible transparency) with high power output. The inorganic perovskites exhibit tunable colours and transparencies, a peak device efficiency above 7%, and a phase transition temperature as low as 105 °C. We demonstrate excellent device stability over repeated phase transition cycles without colour fade or performance degradation. The photovoltaic windows showing both photoactivity and thermochromic features represent key stepping-stones for integration with buildings, automobiles, information displays, and potentially many other technologies.

  15. Thermochromic halide perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia; Lai, Minliang; Dou, Letian; Kley, Christopher S; Chen, Hong; Peng, Fei; Sun, Junliang; Lu, Dylan; Hawks, Steven A; Xie, Chenlu; Cui, Fan; Alivisatos, A Paul; Limmer, David T; Yang, Peidong

    2018-03-01

    Smart photovoltaic windows represent a promising green technology featuring tunable transparency and electrical power generation under external stimuli to control the light transmission and manage the solar energy. Here, we demonstrate a thermochromic solar cell for smart photovoltaic window applications utilizing the structural phase transitions in inorganic halide perovskite caesium lead iodide/bromide. The solar cells undergo thermally-driven, moisture-mediated reversible transitions between a transparent non-perovskite phase (81.7% visible transparency) with low power output and a deeply coloured perovskite phase (35.4% visible transparency) with high power output. The inorganic perovskites exhibit tunable colours and transparencies, a peak device efficiency above 7%, and a phase transition temperature as low as 105 °C. We demonstrate excellent device stability over repeated phase transition cycles without colour fade or performance degradation. The photovoltaic windows showing both photoactivity and thermochromic features represent key stepping-stones for integration with buildings, automobiles, information displays, and potentially many other technologies.

  16. Magnetoresistance stories of double perovskites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-28

    May 28, 2015 ... Tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) in polycrystalline double perovskites has been an important research topic for more than a decade now, where the nature of the insulating tunnel barrier is the core issue of debate. Other than the nonmagnetic grain boundaries as conventional tunnel barriers, intragrain ...

  17. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kenneth D.

    1991-01-01

    Perovskites of the structure A.sub.2 B.sub.2 C.sub.3 O.sub.10 are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  18. Solving a binary puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utomo, P.H.; Makarim, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    A Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0,1} {0,1}. Let n≥4 be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an n×n binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each

  19. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  20. Phase Stability and Electronic Structure of Prospective Sb-Based Mixed Sulfide and Iodide 3D Perovskite (CH3NH3)SbSI2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyang; Wang, Xiaoming; Yan, Yanfa; Mitzi, David B

    2018-06-29

    Lead-free antimony-based mixed sulfide and iodide perovskite phases have recently been reported to be synthesized experimentally and to exhibit reasonable photovoltaic performance. Through a combination of experimental validation and computational analysis, we show no evidence of the formation of the mixed sulfide and iodide perovskite phase, MASbSI 2 (MA = CH 3 NH 3 + ), and instead that the main products are a mixture of the binary and ternary compounds (Sb 2 S 3 and MA 3 Sb 2 I 9 ). Density functional theory calculations also indicate that such a mixed sulfide and iodide perovskite phase should be thermodynamically less stable compared with binary/ternary anion-segregated secondary phases and less likely to be synthesized under equilibrium conditions. Additionally, band structure calculations show that this mixed sulfide and iodide phase, if possible to synthesize (e.g., under nonequilibrium conditions), should have a suitable direct band gap for photovoltaic application.

  1. Focused-ion beam patterning of organolead trihalide perovskite for subwavelength grating nanophotonic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2015-07-30

    The coherent amplified spontaneous emission and high photoluminescence quantum efficiency of organolead trihalide perovskite have led to research interest in this material for use in photonic devices. In this paper, the authors present a focused-ion beam patterning strategy for methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr3) perovskite crystal for subwavelength grating nanophotonic applications. The essential parameters for milling, such as the number of scan passes, dwell time, ion dose, ion current, ion incident angle, and gas-assisted etching, were experimentally evaluated to determine the sputtering yield of the perovskite. Based on our patterning conditions, the authors observed that the sputtering yield ranged from 0.0302 to 0.0719 μm3/pC for the MAPbBr3 perovskite crystal. Using XeF2 for the focused-ion beam gas-assisted etching, the authors determined that the etching rate was reduced to between 0.40 and 0.97, depending on the ion dose, compared with milling with ions only. Using the optimized patterning parameters, the authors patterned binary and circular subwavelength grating reflectors on the MAPbBr3 perovskite crystal using the focused-ion beam technique. Based on the computed grating structure with around 97% reflectivity, all of the grating dimensions (period, duty cycle, and grating thickness) were patterned with nanoscale precision (>±3 nm), high contrast, and excellent uniformity. Our results provide a platform for utilizing the focused-ion beam technique for fast prototyping of photonic nanostructures or nanodevices on organolead trihalide perovskite.

  2. Planar-integrated single-crystalline perovskite photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Adinolfi, Valerio; Comin, Riccardo; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Yuan, Mingjian; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.; Bakr, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid perovskites are promising semiconductors for optoelectronic applications. However, they suffer from morphological disorder that limits their optoelectronic properties and, ultimately, device performance. Recently, perovskite single crystals

  3. Ligand-Stabilized Reduced-Dimensionality Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Quan, Li Na; Yuan, Mingjian; Comin, Riccardo; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Beauregard, Eric M.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Buin, Andrei; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Zhao, Kui; Amassian, Aram; Kim, Dong Ha; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-01-01

    Metal halide perovskites have rapidly advanced thin film photovoltaic performance; as a result, the materials’ observed instabilities urgently require a solution. Using density functional theory (DFT), we show that a low energy of formation, exacerbated in the presence of humidity, explains the propensity of perovskites to decompose back into their precursors. We find, also using DFT, that intercalation of phenylethylammonium between perovskite layers introduces quantitatively appreciable van der Waals interactions; and these drive an increased formation energy and should therefore improve material stability. Here we report the reduced-dimensionality (quasi-2D) perovskite films that exhibit improved stability while retaining the high performance of conventional three-dimensional perovskites. Continuous tuning of the dimensionality, as assessed using photophysical studies, is achieved by the choice of stoichiometry in materials synthesis. We achieved the first certified hysteresis-free solar power conversion in a planar perovskite solar cell, obtaining a 15.3% certified PCE, and observe greatly improved performance longevity.

  4. Ligand-Stabilized Reduced-Dimensionality Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Quan, Li Na

    2016-02-03

    Metal halide perovskites have rapidly advanced thin film photovoltaic performance; as a result, the materials’ observed instabilities urgently require a solution. Using density functional theory (DFT), we show that a low energy of formation, exacerbated in the presence of humidity, explains the propensity of perovskites to decompose back into their precursors. We find, also using DFT, that intercalation of phenylethylammonium between perovskite layers introduces quantitatively appreciable van der Waals interactions; and these drive an increased formation energy and should therefore improve material stability. Here we report the reduced-dimensionality (quasi-2D) perovskite films that exhibit improved stability while retaining the high performance of conventional three-dimensional perovskites. Continuous tuning of the dimensionality, as assessed using photophysical studies, is achieved by the choice of stoichiometry in materials synthesis. We achieved the first certified hysteresis-free solar power conversion in a planar perovskite solar cell, obtaining a 15.3% certified PCE, and observe greatly improved performance longevity.

  5. Cerium luminescence in nd0 perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlur, A.A.; Happek, U.

    2010-01-01

    The luminescence of Ce 3+ in perovskite (ABO 3 ) hosts with nd 0 B-site cations, specifically Ca(Hf,Zr)O 3 and (La,Gd)ScO 3 , is investigated in this report. The energy position of the Ce 3+ excitation and emission bands in these perovskites is compared to those of typical Al 3+ perovskites; we find a Ce 3+ 5d 1 centroid shift and Stokes shift that are larger versus the corresponding values for the Al 3+ perovskites. It is also shown that Ce 3+ luminescence quenching is due to Ce 3+ photoionization. The comparison between these perovskites shows reasonable correlations between Ce 3+ luminescence quenching, the energy position of the Ce 3+ 5d 1 excited state with respect to the host conduction band, and the host composition. - Graphical abstract: Ce 3+ decay times versus temperature for perovskites with nd 0 B-site cations.

  6. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Ekerdt, John G., E-mail: ekerdt@utexas.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}. However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO{sub 3}), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable.

  7. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Ekerdt, John G.; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al 2 O 3 and HfO 2 . However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO 3 ), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable

  8. Perovskites synthesis to SOFC anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendler, L.P.; Chinelatto, A.L.; Chinelatto, A.S.A.; Ramos, K.

    2012-01-01

    Perovskite structure materials containing lanthanum have been widely applied as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) electrodes, due to its electrical properties. Was investigated the obtain of the perovskite structure LaCr 0,5 Ni 0,5 O 3 , by Pechini method, and its suitability as SOFC anode. The choice of this composition was based on the stability provided by chromium and the catalytic properties of nickel. After preparing the resins, the samples were calcined at 300 deg C, 600 deg C, 700 deg C and 850 deg C. The resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction to determine the existing phases. Furthermore, were performed other analysis, like X-ray fluorescence, He pycnometry, specific surface area by BET isotherm and scanning electronic microscopy (author)

  9. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...

  10. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  11. Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younghoon; Yassitepe, Emre; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Gong, Xiwen; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Nogueira, Ana F.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids.

  12. Oxyfluoride Chemistry of Layered Perovskite Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Tsujimoto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review recent progress and new challenges in the area of oxyfluoride perovskite, especially layered systems including Ruddlesden-Popper (RP, Dion-Jacobson (DJ and Aurivillius (AV type perovskite families. It is difficult to synthesize oxyfluoride perovskite using a conventional solid-state reaction because of the high chemical stability of the simple fluoride starting materials. Nevertheless, persistent efforts made by solid-state chemists have led to a major breakthrough in stabilizing such a mixed anion system. In particular, it is known that layered perovskite compounds exhibit a rich variety of O/F site occupation according to the synthesis used. We also present the synthetic strategies to further extend RP type perovskite compounds, with particular reference to newly synthesized oxyfluorides, Sr2CoO3F and Sr3Fe2O5+xF2−x (x ~ 0.44.

  13. Non-collinear magnetism in multiferroic perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Eric; Cano, Andrés

    2016-03-31

    We present an overview of the current interest in non-collinear magnetism in multiferroic perovskite crystals. We first describe the different microscopic mechanisms giving rise to the non-collinearity of spins in this class of materials. We discuss, in particular, the interplay between non-collinear magnetism and ferroelectric and antiferrodistortive distortions of the perovskite structure, and how this can promote magnetoelectric responses. We then provide a literature survey on non-collinear multiferroic perovskites. We discuss numerous examples of spin cantings driving weak ferromagnetism in transition metal perovskites, and of spin-induced ferroelectricity as observed in the rare-earth based perovskites. These examples are chosen to best illustrate the fundamental role of non-collinear magnetism in the design of multiferroicity.

  14. Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younghoon

    2015-11-18

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals\\' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids.

  15. Perovskite Superlattices as Tunable Microwave Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, H. M.; Harshavardhan, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have shown that superlattices that comprise alternating epitaxial layers of dissimilar paraelectric perovskites can exhibit large changes in permittivity with the application of electric fields. The superlattices are potentially useful as electrically tunable dielectric components of such microwave devices as filters and phase shifters. The present superlattice approach differs fundamentally from the prior use of homogeneous, isotropic mixtures of base materials and dopants. A superlattice can comprise layers of two or more perovskites in any suitable sequence (e.g., ABAB..., ABCDABCD..., ABACABACA...). Even though a single layer of one of the perovskites by itself is not tunable, the compositions and sequence of the layers can be chosen so that (1) the superlattice exhibits low microwave loss and (2) the interfacial interaction between at least two of the perovskites in the superlattice renders either the entire superlattice or else at least one of the perovskites tunable.

  16. Mining frequent binary expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.; Paredaens, J.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Tjoa, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In data mining, searching for frequent patterns is a common basic operation. It forms the basis of many interesting decision support processes. In this paper we present a new type of patterns, binary expressions. Based on the properties of a specified binary test, such as reflexivity, transitivity

  17. Perovskite Solar Cells: Progress and Advancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar Elumalai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs have emerged as a new class of optoelectronic semiconductors that revolutionized the photovoltaic research in the recent years. The perovskite solar cells present numerous advantages include unique electronic structure, bandgap tunability, superior charge transport properties, facile processing, and low cost. Perovskite solar cells have demonstrated unprecedented progress in efficiency and its architecture evolved over the period of the last 5–6 years, achieving a high power conversion efficiency of about 22% in 2016, serving as a promising candidate with the potential to replace the existing commercial PV technologies. This review discusses the progress of perovskite solar cells focusing on aspects such as superior electronic properties and unique features of halide perovskite materials compared to that of conventional light absorbing semiconductors. The review also presents a brief overview of device architectures, fabrication methods, and interface engineering of perovskite solar cells. The last part of the review elaborates on the major challenges such as hysteresis and stability issues in perovskite solar cells that serve as a bottleneck for successful commercialization of this promising PV technology.

  18. Oxygen permeation modelling of perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hassel, Bart A.; van Hassel, B.A.; Kawada, Tatsuya; Sakai, Natsuko; Yokokawa, Harumi; Dokiya, Masayuki; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A point defect model was used to describe the oxygen nonstoichiometry of the perovskites La0.75Sr0.25CrO3, La0.9Sr0.1FeO3, La0.9Sr0.1CoO3 and La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 as a function of the oxygen partial pressure. Form the oxygen vacancy concentration predicte by the point defect model, the ionic conductivity

  19. Phonon model of perovskite thermal capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, Ya.A.; Poloznikova, M.Eh.; Petrov, K.I.

    1983-01-01

    A model for calculating the temperature curve of thermal capacity of perovskite family crystals on the basis of vibrational spectra is proposed. Different representatives of the perovskite family: cubic SrTiO 3 , tetragonal BaTiO 3 and orthorbombic CaTiO 3 and LaCrO 3 are considered. The total frequency set is used in thermal capacity calcUlations. Comparison of the thermal capacity values of compounds calculated on the basis of the proposed model with the experimental values shows their good agreement. The method is also recommended for other compounds with the perovskite-like structure

  20. Photovoltaic Effect of 2D Homologous Perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Mi-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The mixed perovskite was prepared by exposure of MAI gas on the BAPbI_4 film. • The increased dimensional perovskite shows a smaller band gap than 2D perovskite. • The mixed perovskite system shows the vertical crystal orientation. • The mixed perovskite cell exhibits the higher Jsc and FF than 2D perovskite cell. - Abstract: The controlled growth of mixed dimensional perovskite structures, (C_6H_5CH_2NH_2)(CH_3NH_3)_n_-_1Pb_nI_3_n_+_1, through the introduction of CH_3NH_3I molecule vapor into the two-dimensional perovskite C_6H_5CH_2NH_3PbI_4 structure and its application in photovoltaic devices is reported. The dimensionality of (C_6H_5CH_2NH_2)(CH_3NH_3)_n_-_1Pb_nI_3_n_+_1 is controlled using the exposure time to the CH_3NH_3I vapor on the C_6H_5CH_2NH_3PbI_4 perovskite film. As the stacking of the lead iodide lattice increases, the crystallographic planes of the inorganic perovskite compound exhibit vertical growth in order to facilitate efficient charge transport. Furthermore, the devices have a smaller band gap, which offers broader absorption and the potential to increase the photocurrent density in the solar cell. As a result, the photovoltaic device based on the (C_6H_5CH_2NH_2)(CH_3NH_3)_n_-_1Pb_nI_3_n_+_1 perovskite exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 5.43% with a short circuit current density of 14.49 mA cm"−"2, an open circuit voltage of 0.85 V, and a fill factor of 44.30 for the best power conversion efficiency under AM 1.5G solar irradiation (100 mW cm"−"2), which is significantly higher than the 0.34% of the pure two-dimensional BAPbI_4 perovskite-based solar cell.

  1. Calculated optical absorption of different perovskite phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of the optical properties of a set of around 80 oxides, oxynitrides, and organometal halide cubic and layered perovskites (Ruddlesden-Popper and Dion-Jacobson phases) with a bandgap in the visible part of the solar spectrum. The calculations show that for different classes...... of perovskites the solar light absorption efficiency varies greatly depending not only on bandgap size and character (direct/indirect) but also on the dipole matrix elements. The oxides exhibit generally a fairly weak absorption efficiency due to indirect bandgaps while the most efficient absorbers are found...... in the classes of oxynitride and organometal halide perovskites with strong direct transitions....

  2. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  3. Close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson-Leander, G.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)

  4. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  5. Planet formation in Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Thebault, Ph.; Haghighipour, N.

    2014-01-01

    Spurred by the discovery of numerous exoplanets in multiple systems, binaries have become in recent years one of the main topics in planet formation research. Numerous studies have investigated to what extent the presence of a stellar companion can affect the planet formation process. Such studies have implications that can reach beyond the sole context of binaries, as they allow to test certain aspects of the planet formation scenario by submitting them to extreme environments. We review her...

  6. Neutral Color Semitransparent Microstructured Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eperon, Giles E.; Burlakov, Victor M.; Goriely, Alain; Snaith, Henry J.

    2014-01-01

    Neutral-colored semitransparent solar cells are commercially desired to integrate solar cells into the windows and cladding of buildings and automotive applications. Here, we report the use of morphological control of perovskite thin films to form

  7. Ambipolar solution-processed hybrid perovskite phototransistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feng; Ma, Chun; Wang, Hong; Hu, Weijin; Yu, Weili; Sheikh, Arif D.; Wu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Organolead halide perovskites have attracted substantial attention because of their excellent physical properties, which enable them to serve as the active material in emerging hybrid solid-state solar cells. Here we investigate the phototransistors

  8. Perovskites As Electrocatalysts for Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich; De La Osa Puebla, Ana Raquel; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2014-01-01

    such as X-ray diffraction, electrical conductivity, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive microscopy (EDX) and rotating disk electrode. The perovskites tested in this work were both produced by a ball-milling technique and by an auto-combustion synthesis, which appeared to be a fast...... and robust method for synthesis of perovskites with various chemical compositions1. The electrochemical performance of the materials was tested through pellet pressing of the perovskite powders. This involved in some case a time consuming preparation process. Furthermore the technique should show...... the adequate reproducibility.2 In this work we show the development of the method, which was further used to compare the activity of various electrocatalysts (Figures 1,2). The electrocatalytic activity of all prepared perovskites was tested in 1M KOH at 80 °C, using an ink consisting of potassium exchanged...

  9. Making and Breaking of Lead Halide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Manser, Joseph S.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Christians, Jeffrey A.; Bakr, Osman; Kamat, Prashant V.

    2016-01-01

    To date, improvements in perovskite solar cell efficiency have resulted primarily from better control over thin film morphology, manipulation of the stoichiometry and chemistry of lead halide and alkylammonium halide precursors, and the choice

  10. Scalable fabrication of perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhen; Klein, Talysa R.; Kim, Dong Hoe; Yang, Mengjin; Berry, Joseph J.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Zhu, Kai

    2018-03-27

    Perovskite materials use earth-abundant elements, have low formation energies for deposition and are compatible with roll-to-roll and other high-volume manufacturing techniques. These features make perovskite solar cells (PSCs) suitable for terawatt-scale energy production with low production costs and low capital expenditure. Demonstrations of performance comparable to that of other thin-film photovoltaics (PVs) and improvements in laboratory-scale cell stability have recently made scale up of this PV technology an intense area of research focus. Here, we review recent progress and challenges in scaling up PSCs and related efforts to enable the terawatt-scale manufacturing and deployment of this PV technology. We discuss common device and module architectures, scalable deposition methods and progress in the scalable deposition of perovskite and charge-transport layers. We also provide an overview of device and module stability, module-level characterization techniques and techno-economic analyses of perovskite PV modules.

  11. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T. O.; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  12. Thermodynamic stability and kinetics of perovskite dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesbitt, H W; Bancroft, G M; Fyfe, W S; Karkhanis, S N; Nishijima, A [Western Ontario Univ., London (Canada); Shin, S [National Chemical Lab. for Industry, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1981-01-29

    Perovskite, a SYNROC host mineral for nuclear wastes, is thermodynamically unstable in natural waters and in association with common minerals. Leach experiments demonstrate that CaTiO/sub 3/ (perovskite), SrTiO/sub 3/ and BaTiO/sub 3/ are as reactive as some silicate glasses below 100/sup 0/C, but leach much more slowly than glasses above 100/sup 0/C.

  13. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-30

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  14. Ambipolar solution-processed hybrid perovskite phototransistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feng

    2015-09-08

    Organolead halide perovskites have attracted substantial attention because of their excellent physical properties, which enable them to serve as the active material in emerging hybrid solid-state solar cells. Here we investigate the phototransistors based on hybrid perovskite films and provide direct evidence for their superior carrier transport property with ambipolar characteristics. The field-effect mobilities for triiodide perovskites at room temperature are measured as 0.18 (0.17) cm2 V−1 s−1 for holes (electrons), which increase to 1.24 (1.01) cm2 V−1 s−1 for mixed-halide perovskites. The photoresponsivity of our hybrid perovskite devices reaches 320 A W−1, which is among the largest values reported for phototransistors. Importantly, the phototransistors exhibit an ultrafast photoresponse speed of less than 10 μs. The solution-based process and excellent device performance strongly underscore hybrid perovskites as promising material candidates for photoelectronic applications.

  15. Planar structured perovskite solar cells by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition with optimized perovskite film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangyang; Peng, Yanke; Jing, Gaoshan; Cui, Tianhong

    2018-05-01

    The thickness of perovskite absorber layer is a critical parameter to determine a planar structured perovskite solar cell’s performance. By modifying the spin coating speed and PbI2/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution concentration, the thickness of perovskite absorber layer was optimized to obtain high-performance solar cells. Using a PbI2/DMF solution of 1.3 mol/L, maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a perovskite solar cell is 15.5% with a perovskite film of 413 nm at 5000 rpm, and PCE of 14.3% was also obtained for a solar cell with a perovskite film of 182 nm thick. It is derived that higher concentration of PbI2/DMF will result in better perovskite solar cells. Additionally, these perovskite solar cells are highly uniform. In 14 sets of solar cells, standard deviations of 11 sets of solar cells were less than 0.50% and the smallest standard deviation was 0.25%, which demonstrates the reliability and effectiveness of hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method.

  16. Constructing Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Interconnecting Perovskite Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xian; Huang, Sumei; Ou-Yang, Wei; Pan, Likun; Sun, Zhuo; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-10-11

    A high-quality perovskite film with interconnected perovskite grains was obtained by incorporating terephthalic acid (TPA) additive into the perovskite precursor solution. The presence of TPA changed the crystallization kinetics of the perovskite film and promoted lateral growth of grains in the vicinity of crystal boundaries. As a result, sheet-shaped perovskite was formed and covered onto the bottom grains, which made some adjacent grains partly merge together to form grains-interconnected perovskite film. Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with TPA additive exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.51% with less hysteresis, which is obviously higher than that of pristine cells (15.53%). PSCs without and with TPA additive retain 18 and 51% of the initial PCE value, respectively, aging for 35 days exposed to relative humidity 30% in air without encapsulation. Furthermore, MAPbI 3 film with TPA additive shows superior thermal stability to the pristine one under 100 °C baking. The results indicate that the presence of TPA in perovskite film can greatly improve the performance of PSCs as well as their moisture resistance and thermal stability.

  17. Oxygen perovskites with tetravalent neodymium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, G; Kristen, H [Freiburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-09-01

    Neodymium could be stabilized by incorporating it in host-lattices with the perovskite structure. BaCeO/sub 3/, BaPrO/sub 3/, BaThO/sub 3/, and BaZrO/sub 3/ have been used for host-lattices. The samples were prepared by heating the corresponding oxides on air and at 1250-1400 /sup 0/C. X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis showed that Nd(IV) has been stabilized in different rates by these four host-lattices. BaCeO/sub 3/ is able to incorporate Nd(IV) up to 30%. BaPrO/sub 3/ up to 18%, BaThO/sub 3/ up to 17% and BaZrO/sub 3/ up to 4%.

  18. Ordered meso- and macroporous perovskite oxide catalysts for emerging applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arandiyan, Hamidreza; Wang, Yuan; Sun, Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    This feature article summarizes the recent progress in porous perovskite oxides as advanced catalysts for both energy conversion applications and various heterogeneous reactions. Recently, research has been focused on specifically designing porous perovskite materials so that large surface areas ...

  19. Highly Efficient Perovskite-Perovskite Tandem Solar Cells Reaching 80% of the Theoretical Limit in Photovoltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Adharsh; Yang, Zhibin; Jo, Sae Byeok; Braly, Ian L; Liang, Po-Wei; Hillhouse, Hugh W; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2017-09-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite multijunction solar cells have immense potential to realize power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit of single-junction solar cells; however, they are limited by large nonideal photovoltage loss (V oc,loss ) in small- and large-bandgap subcells. Here, an integrated approach is utilized to improve the V oc of subcells with optimized bandgaps and fabricate perovskite-perovskite tandem solar cells with small V oc,loss . A fullerene variant, Indene-C 60 bis-adduct, is used to achieve optimized interfacial contact in a small-bandgap (≈1.2 eV) subcell, which facilitates higher quasi-Fermi level splitting, reduces nonradiative recombination, alleviates hysteresis instabilities, and improves V oc to 0.84 V. Compositional engineering of large-bandgap (≈1.8 eV) perovskite is employed to realize a subcell with a transparent top electrode and photostabilized V oc of 1.22 V. The resultant monolithic perovskite-perovskite tandem solar cell shows a high V oc of 1.98 V (approaching 80% of the theoretical limit) and a stabilized PCE of 18.5%. The significantly minimized nonideal V oc,loss is better than state-of-the-art silicon-perovskite tandem solar cells, which highlights the prospects of using perovskite-perovskite tandems for solar-energy generation. It also unlocks opportunities for solar water splitting using hybrid perovskites with solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies beyond 15%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  1. Making and Breaking of Lead Halide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Manser, Joseph S.

    2016-02-16

    A new front-runner has emerged in the field of next-generation photovoltaics. A unique class of materials, known as organic metal halide perovskites, bridges the gap between low-cost fabrication and exceptional device performance. These compounds can be processed at low temperature (typically in the range 80–150 °C) and readily self-assemble from the solution phase into high-quality semiconductor thin films. The low energetic barrier for crystal formation has mixed consequences. On one hand, it enables inexpensive processing and both optical and electronic tunability. The caveat, however, is that many as-formed lead halide perovskite thin films lack chemical and structural stability, undergoing rapid degradation in the presence of moisture or heat. To date, improvements in perovskite solar cell efficiency have resulted primarily from better control over thin film morphology, manipulation of the stoichiometry and chemistry of lead halide and alkylammonium halide precursors, and the choice of solvent treatment. Proper characterization and tuning of processing parameters can aid in rational optimization of perovskite devices. Likewise, gaining a comprehensive understanding of the degradation mechanism and identifying components of the perovskite structure that may be particularly susceptible to attack by moisture are vital to mitigate device degradation under operating conditions. This Account provides insight into the lifecycle of organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites, including (i) the nature of the precursor solution, (ii) formation of solid-state perovskite thin films and single crystals, and (iii) transformation of perovskites into hydrated phases upon exposure to moisture. In particular, spectroscopic and structural characterization techniques shed light on the thermally driven evolution of the perovskite structure. By tuning precursor stoichiometry and chemistry, and thus the lead halide charge-transfer complexes present in solution, crystallization

  2. Modelling binary data

    CERN Document Server

    Collett, David

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Some Examples The Scope of this Book Use of Statistical Software STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR BINARY DATA The Binomial Distribution Inference about the Success Probability Comparison of Two Proportions Comparison of Two or More Proportions MODELS FOR BINARY AND BINOMIAL DATA Statistical Modelling Linear Models Methods of Estimation Fitting Linear Models to Binomial Data Models for Binomial Response Data The Linear Logistic Model Fitting the Linear Logistic Model to Binomial Data Goodness of Fit of a Linear Logistic Model Comparing Linear Logistic Models Linear Trend in Proportions Comparing Stimulus-Response Relationships Non-Convergence and Overfitting Some other Goodness of Fit Statistics Strategy for Model Selection Predicting a Binary Response Probability BIOASSAY AND SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS The Tolerance Distribution Estimating an Effective Dose Relative Potency Natural Response Non-Linear Logistic Regression Models Applications of the Complementary Log-Log Model MODEL CHECKING Definition of Re...

  3. Evolution of dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The conditions of mass exchange in close binary systems with masses of components less or equal to one solar mass have been analysed for the case, when the system radiates gravitational waves. It has been shown that the mass exchange rate depends in a certain way on the mass ratio of components and on the mass of component that fills its inner critical lobe. The comparison of observed periods, masses of contact components, and mass exchange rates of observed cataclysmic binaries have led to the conclusion that the evolution of close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G 61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves [ru

  4. Binary catalogue of exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard; Bazso, Akos; Zechner, Renate; Funk, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Since 1995 there is a database which list most of the known exoplanets (The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia at http://exoplanet.eu/). With the growing number of detected exoplanets in binary and multiple star systems it became more important to mark and to separate them into a new database, which is not available in the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Therefore we established an online database (which can be found at: http://www.univie.ac.at/adg/schwarz/multiple.html) for all known exoplanets in binary star systems and in addition for multiple star systems, which will be updated regularly and linked to the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. The binary catalogue of exoplanets is available online as data file and can be used for statistical purposes. Our database is divided into two parts: the data of the stars and the planets, given in a separate list. We describe also the different parameters of the exoplanetary systems and present some applications.

  5. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Duncan R

    2008-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 M ⊙ , a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric ( e = 0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-8.

  6. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  7. Halide-Dependent Electronic Structure of Organolead Perovskite Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Buin, Andrei; Comin, Riccardo; Xu, Jixian; Ip, Alexander H.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    -based perovskites, in line with recent experimental data. As a result, the optimal growth conditions are also different for the distinct halide perovskites: growth should be halide-rich for Br and Cl, and halide-poor for I-based perovskites. We discuss stability

  8. Dissipative binary collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The binary character of the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies in the exit channel has been observed under 30 MeV/n in medium and heavy systems. Measurements in light systems at energies approaching ∼ 100 MeV/nucleon as well as in very heavy systems have allowed to extend considerably the investigations of this binary process. Thus, the study of the Pb + Au system showed that the complete charge events indicated two distinct sources: the quasi-projectile and the quasi-target. The characteristics of these two sources are rather well reproduced by a trajectory computation which takes into account the Coulomb and nuclear forces and the friction appearing from the projectile-target interaction. The Wilczynski diagram is used to probe the correlation between the kinetic energy quenching and the deflecting angle. In case of the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon the diagram indicate dissipative binary collisions typical for low energies. This binary aspect was also detected in the systems Xe + Ag at 44 MeV/nucleon, 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. Thus, it was possible to reconstruct the quasi-projectile and to study its mass and excitation energy evolution as a function of the impact parameter. The dissipative binary collisions represent for the systems and energies under considerations the main contribution to the cross section. This does not implies that there are not other processes; particularly, the more or less complete fusion is also observed but with a low cross section which decreases with the increase of bombardment energy. More exclusive measurements with the INDRA detector on quasi-symmetric systems as Ar + KCl and Xe + Sn seem to confirm the importance of the binary collisions. The two source reconstruction of the Xe + Sn data at 50 MeV/nucleon reproduces the same behaviour as that observed in the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon

  9. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.

  10. Rational Strategies for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jangwon; Noh, Jun Hong; Seok, Sang Il

    2016-03-15

    A long-standing dream in the large scale application of solar energy conversion is the fabrication of solar cells with high-efficiency and long-term stability at low cost. The realization of such practical goals depends on the architecture, process and key materials because solar cells are typically constructed from multilayer heterostructures of light harvesters, with electron and hole transporting layers as a major component. Recently, inorganic-organic hybrid lead halide perovskites have attracted significant attention as light absorbers for the fabrication of low-cost and high-efficiency solar cells via a solution process. This mainly stems from long-range ambipolar charge transport properties, low exciton binding energies, and suitable band gap tuning by managing the chemical composition. In our pioneering work, a new photovoltaic platform for efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs) was proposed, which yielded a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12%. The platform consisted of a pillared architecture of a three-dimensional nanocomposite of perovskites fully infiltrating mesoporous TiO2, resulting in the formation of continuous phases and perovskite domains overlaid with a polymeric hole conductor. Since then, the PCE of our PSCs has been rapidly increased from 3% to over 20% certified efficiency. The unprecedented increase in the PCE can be attributed to the effective integration of the advantageous attributes of the refined bicontinuous architecture, deposition process, and composition of perovskite materials. Specifically, the bicontinuous architectures used in the high efficiency comprise a layer of perovskite sandwiched between mesoporous metal-oxide layer, which is a very thinner than that of used in conventional dye-sensitized solar cells, and hole-conducting contact materials with a metal back contact. The mesoporous scaffold can affect the hysteresis under different scan direction in measurements of PSCs. The hysteresis also greatly depends on

  11. Molecular behavior of zero-dimensional perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Jun

    2017-12-16

    Low-dimensional perovskites offer a rare opportunity to investigate lattice dynamics and charge carrier behavior in bulk quantum-confined solids, in addition to them being the leading materials in optoelectronic applications. In particular, zero-dimensional (0D) inorganic perovskites of the Cs4PbX6 (X = Cl, Br, or I) kind have crystal structures with isolated lead halide octahedra [PbX6]4− surrounded by Cs+ cations, allowing the 0D crystals to exhibit the intrinsic properties of an individual octahedron. Using both experimental and theoretical approaches, we studied the electronic and optical properties of the prototypical 0D perovskite Cs4PbBr6. Our results underline that this 0D perovskite behaves akin to a molecule, demonstrating low electrical conductivity and mobility as well as large polaron binding energy. Density functional theory calculations and transient absorption measurements of Cs4PbBr6 perovskite films reveal the polaron band absorption and strong polaron localization features of the material. A short polaron lifetime of ~2 ps is observed in femtosecond transient absorption experiments, which can be attributed to the fast lattice relaxation of the octahedra and the weak interactions among them.

  12. Hybrid Perovskites: Prospects for Concentrator Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianqian; Wang, Zhiping; Snaith, Henry J; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2018-04-01

    Perovskite solar cells have shown a meteoric rise of power conversion efficiency and a steady pace of improvements in their stability of operation. Such rapid progress has triggered research into approaches that can boost efficiencies beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit stipulated for a single-junction cell under normal solar illumination conditions. The tandem solar cell architecture is one concept here that has recently been successfully implemented. However, the approach of solar concentration has not been sufficiently explored so far for perovskite photovoltaics, despite its frequent use in the area of inorganic semiconductor solar cells. Here, the prospects of hybrid perovskites are assessed for use in concentrator solar cells. Solar cell performance parameters are theoretically predicted as a function of solar concentration levels, based on representative assumptions of charge-carrier recombination and extraction rates in the device. It is demonstrated that perovskite solar cells can fundamentally exhibit appreciably higher energy-conversion efficiencies under solar concentration, where they are able to exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit and exhibit strongly elevated open-circuit voltages. It is therefore concluded that sufficient material and device stability under increased illumination levels will be the only significant challenge to perovskite concentrator solar cell applications.

  13. Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Zhijun; Gong, Xiwen; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Yassitepe, Emre; Buin, Andrei; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Heteroepitaxy - atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate - is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned 'dots-in-a-matrix' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics.

  14. Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Zhijun

    2015-07-15

    © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Heteroepitaxy - atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate - is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned \\'dots-in-a-matrix\\' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics.

  15. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  16. Binary tense and modality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.; Verkuyl, H.J

    2014-01-01

    The present paper adopts as its point of departure the claim by Te Winkel (1866) and Verkuyl (2008) that mental temporal representations are built on the basis of three binary oppositions: Present/Past, Synchronous/Posterior and Imperfect/Perfect. Te Winkel took the second opposition in terms of the

  17. N-Bit Binary Resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping

    1989-01-01

    Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.

  18. The True Ultracool Binary Fraction Using Spectral Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle; Gelino, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Brown dwarfs bridge the gap between stars and giant planets. While the essential mechanisms governing their formation are not well constrained, binary statistics are a direct outcome of the formation process, and thus provide a means to test formation theories. Observational constraints on the brown dwarf binary fraction place it at 10 ‑ 20%, dominated by imaging studies (85% of systems) with the most common separation at 4 AU. This coincides with the resolution limit of state-of-the-art imaging techniques, suggesting that the binary fraction is underestimated. We have developed a separation-independent method to identify and characterize tightly-separated (dwarfs as spectral binaries by identifying traces of methane in the spectra of late-M and early-L dwarfs. Imaging follow-up of 17 spectral binaries yielded 3 (18%) resolved systems, corroborating the observed binary fraction, but 5 (29%) known binaries were missed, reinforcing the hypothesis that the short-separation systems are undercounted. In order to find the true binary fraction of brown dwarfs, we have compiled a volume-limited, spectroscopic sample of M7-L5 dwarfs and searched for T dwarf companions. In the 25 pc volume, 4 candidates were found, three of which are already confirmed, leading to a spectral binary fraction of 0.95 ± 0.50%, albeit for a specific combination of spectral types. To extract the true binary fraction and determine the biases of the spectral binary method, we have produced a binary population simulation based on different assumptions of the mass function, age distribution, evolutionary models and mass ratio distribution. Applying the correction fraction resulting from this method to the observed spectral binary fraction yields a true binary fraction of 27 ± 4%, which is roughly within 1σ of the binary fraction obtained from high resolution imaging studies, radial velocity and astrometric monitoring. This method can be extended to identify giant planet companions to young brown

  19. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  20. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpel, Michael [Naperville, IL; Liu, Di-Jia [Naperville, IL

    2009-03-24

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  1. Aqueous-Containing Precursor Solutions for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianyi; Traverse, Christopher J; Chen, Pei; Elinski, Mark; Yang, Chenchen; Wang, Lili; Young, Margaret; Lunt, Richard R

    2018-01-01

    Perovskite semiconductors have emerged as competitive candidates for photovoltaic applications due to their exceptional optoelectronic properties. However, the impact of moisture instability on perovskite films is still a key challenge for perovskite devices. While substantial effort is focused on preventing moisture interaction during the fabrication process, it is demonstrated that low moisture sensitivity, enhanced crystallization, and high performance can actually be achieved by exposure to high water content (up to 25 vol%) during fabrication with an aqueous-containing perovskite precursor. The perovskite solar cells fabricated by this aqueous method show good reproducibility of high efficiency with average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.7% and champion PCE of 20.1% under solar simulation. This study shows that water-perovskite interactions do not necessarily negatively impact the perovskite film preparation process even at the highest efficiencies and that exposure to high contents of water can actually enable humidity tolerance during fabrication in air.

  2. Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  3. Perovskite Solar Cells—Towards Commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Luis K.; Park, Nam-Gyu; Zhu, Kai; Huang, Wei; Qi, Yabing

    2017-01-01

    The Symposium ES1, Perovskite Solar Cells - Towards Commercialization, held at the 2017 Materials Research Society (MRS) Spring Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona (April 17-21, 2017) received ~200 abstracts. The 23 invited talks and 72 contributed oral presentations as well as 3 poster presentation sessions were organized into 13 principal themes according to the contents of the received abstracts. This Energy Focus article provides a concise summary of the opinions from the scientists and engineers who participated in this symposium regarding the recent progresses, challenges, and future directions for perovskite solar cells as well as other optoelectronic devices.

  4. Research Update: Luminescence in lead halide perovskites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Ram Srimath Kandada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency and dynamics of radiative recombination of carriers are crucial figures of merit for optoelectronic materials. Following the recent success of lead halide perovskites in efficient photovoltaic and light emitting technologies, here we review some of the noted literature on the luminescence of this emerging class of materials. After outlining the theoretical formalism that is currently used to explain the carrier recombination dynamics, we review a few significant works which use photoluminescence as a tool to understand and optimize the operation of perovskite based optoelectronic devices.

  5. Partial oxidation of 2-propanol on perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumathi, R.; Viswanathan, B.; Varadarajan, T.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-12-31

    Partial oxidation of 2-propanol was carried out on AB{sub 1-x}B`{sub x}O{sub 3} (A=Ba, B=Pb, Ce, Ti; B`=Bi, Sb and Cu) type perovskite oxides. Acetone was the major product observed on all the catalysts. All the catalysts underwent partial reduction during the reaction depending on the composition of the reactant, nature of the B site cation and the extent of substitution at B site. The catalytic activity has been correlated with the reducibility of the perovskite oxides determined from Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR) studies. (orig.)

  6. Large polarons in lead halide perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Kiyoshi; Meggiolaro, Daniele; Trinh, M. Tuan; Joshi, Prakriti P.; Mosconi, Edoardo; Jones, Skyler C.; De Angelis, Filippo; Zhu, X.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Lead halide perovskites show marked defect tolerance responsible for their excellent optoelectronic properties. These properties might be explained by the formation of large polarons, but how they are formed and whether organic cations are essential remain open questions. We provide a direct time domain view of large polaron formation in single-crystal lead bromide perovskites CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3. We found that large polaron forms predominantly from the deformation of the PbBr3 ? framewor...

  7. Novel Solvent-free Perovskite Deposition in Fabrication of Normal and Inverted Architectures of Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejand, Bahram Abdollahi; Gharibzadeh, Saba; Ahmadi, Vahid; Shahverdi, H. Reza

    2016-01-01

    We introduced a new approach to deposit perovskite layer with no need for dissolving perovskite precursors. Deposition of Solution-free perovskite (SFP) layer is a key method for deposition of perovskite layer on the hole or electron transport layers that are strongly sensitive to perovskite precursors. Using deposition of SFP layer in the perovskite solar cells would extend possibility of using many electron and hole transport materials in both normal and invert architectures of perovskite solar cells. In the present work, we synthesized crystalline perovskite powder followed by successful deposition on TiO2 and cuprous iodide as the non-sensitve and sensitive charge transport layers to PbI2 and CH3NH3I solution in DMF. The post compressing step enhanced the efficiency of the devices by increasing the interface area between perovskite and charge transport layers. The 9.07% and 7.71% cell efficiencies of the device prepared by SFP layer was achieved in respective normal (using TiO2 as a deposition substrate) and inverted structure (using CuI as deposition substrate) of perovskite solar cell. This method can be efficient in large-scale and low cost fabrication of new generation perovskite solar cells. PMID:27640991

  8. Enhanced planar perovskite solar cell efficiency and stability using a perovskite/PCBM heterojunction formed in one step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Long; Chang, Jingjing; Liu, Ziye; Sun, Xu; Lin, Zhenhua; Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2018-02-08

    Perovskite/PCBM heterojunctions are efficient for fabricating perovskite solar cells with high performance and long-term stability. In this study, an efficient perovskite/PCBM heterojunction was formed via conventional sequential deposition and one-step formation processes. Compared with conventional deposition, the one-step process was more facile, and produced a perovskite thin film of substantially improved quality due to fullerene passivation. Moreover, the resulting perovskite/PCBM heterojunction exhibited more efficient carrier transfer and extraction, and reduced carrier recombination. The perovskite solar cell device based on one-step perovskite/PCBM heterojunction formation exhibited a higher maximum PCE of 17.8% compared with that from the conventional method (13.7%). The device also showed exceptional stability, retaining 83% of initial PCE after 60 days of storage under ambient conditions.

  9. Processing Of Binary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H. S.

    1985-07-01

    An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

  10. Amine treatment induced perovskite nanowire network in perovskite solar cells: efficient surface passivation and carrier transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ke; Cui, Can; Wang, Peng; Lin, Ping; Qiang, Yaping; Xu, Lingbo; Xie, Jiangsheng; Yang, Zhengrui; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yu, Xuegong; Yang, Deren

    2018-02-01

    In the fabrication of high efficiency organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs), an additional interface modifier is usually applied for enhancing the interface passivation and carrier transport. In this paper, we develop an innovative method with in-situ growth of one-dimensional perovskite nanowire (1D PNW) network triggered by Lewis amine over the perovskite films. To our knowledge, this is the first time to fabricate PSCs with shape-controlled perovskite surface morphology, which improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 14.32% to 16.66% with negligible hysteresis. The amine molecule can passivate the trap states on the polycrystalline perovskite surface to reduce trap-state density. Meanwhile, as a fast channel, the 1D PNWs would promote carrier transport from the bulk perovskite film to the electron transport layer. The PSCs with 1D PNW modification not only exhibit excellent photovoltaic performances, but also show good stability with only 4% PCE loss within 30 days in the ambient air without encapsulation. Our results strongly suggest that in-situ grown 1D PNW network provides a feasible and effective strategy for nanostructured optoelectronic devices such as PSCs to achieve superior performances.

  11. Light-Independent Ionic Transport in Inorganic Perovskite and Ultrastable Cs-Based Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenke; Zhao, Yicheng; Zhou, Xu; Fu, Rui; Li, Qi; Zhao, Yao; Liu, Kaihui; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Qing

    2017-09-07

    Due to light-induced effects in CH 3 NH 3 -based perovskites, such as ion migration, defects formation, and halide segregation, the degradation of CH 3 NH 3 -based perovskite solar cells under maximum power point is generally implicated. Here we demonstrated that the effect of light-enhanced ion migration in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 can be eliminated by inorganic Cs substitution, leading to an ultrastable perovskite solar cell. Quantitatively, the ion migration barrier for CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 is 0.62 eV under dark conditions, larger than that of CsPbI 2 Br (0.45 eV); however, it reduces to 0.07 eV for CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 under illumination, smaller than that for CsPbI 2 Br (0.43 eV). Meanwhile, photoinduced halide segregation is also suppressed in Cs-based perovskites. Cs-based perovskite solar cells retained >99% of the initial efficiency (10.3%) after 1500 h of maximum power point tracking under AM1.5G illumination, while CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 solar cells degraded severely after 50 h of operation. Our work reveals an uncovered mechanism for stability improvement by inorganic cation substitution in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices.

  12. Improved perovskite phototransistor prepared using multi-step annealing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mingxuan; Zhang, Yating; Yu, Yu; Yao, Jianquan

    2018-02-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites with good intrinsic physical properties have received substantial interest for solar cell and optoelectronic applications. However, perovskite film always suffers from a low carrier mobility due to its structural imperfection including sharp grain boundaries and pinholes, restricting their device performance and application potential. Here we demonstrate a straightforward strategy based on multi-step annealing process to improve the performance of perovskite photodetector. Annealing temperature and duration greatly affects the surface morphology and optoelectrical properties of perovskites which determines the device property of phototransistor. The perovskite films treated with multi-step annealing method tend to form highly uniform, well-crystallized and high surface coverage perovskite film, which exhibit stronger ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectrum compare to the perovskites prepared by conventional one-step annealing process. The field-effect mobilities of perovskite photodetector treated by one-step direct annealing method shows mobility as 0.121 (0.062) cm2V-1s-1 for holes (electrons), which increases to 1.01 (0.54) cm2V-1s-1 for that treated with muti-step slow annealing method. Moreover, the perovskite phototransistors exhibit a fast photoresponse speed of 78 μs. In general, this work focuses on the influence of annealing methods on perovskite phototransistor, instead of obtains best parameters of it. These findings prove that Multi-step annealing methods is feasible to prepared high performance based photodetector.

  13. Highly Efficient Spectrally Stable Red Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Zhou, Chenkun; Worku, Michael; Wang, Xi; Ling, Yichuan; Gao, Hanwei; Zhou, Yan; Miao, Yu; Guan, Jingjiao; Ma, Biwu

    2018-05-01

    Perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have recently attracted great research interest for their narrow emissions and solution processability. Remarkable progress has been achieved in green perovskite LEDs in recent years, but not blue or red ones. Here, highly efficient and spectrally stable red perovskite LEDs with quasi-2D perovskite/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) composite thin films as the light-emitting layer are reported. By controlling the molar ratios of organic salt (benzylammonium iodide) to inorganic salts (cesium iodide and lead iodide), luminescent quasi-2D perovskite thin films are obtained with tunable emission colors from red to deep red. The perovskite/polymer composite approach enables quasi-2D perovskite/PEO composite thin films to possess much higher photoluminescence quantum efficiencies and smoothness than their neat quasi-2D perovskite counterparts. Electrically driven LEDs with emissions peaked at 638, 664, 680, and 690 nm have been fabricated to exhibit high brightness and external quantum efficiencies (EQEs). For instance, the perovskite LED with an emission peaked at 680 nm exhibits a brightness of 1392 cd m -2 and an EQE of 6.23%. Moreover, exceptional electroluminescence spectral stability under continuous device operation has been achieved for these red perovskite LEDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Molecular behavior of zero-dimensional perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Jun; Maity, Partha; de Bastiani, Michele; Dursun, Ibrahim; Bakr, Osman; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    -dimensional (0D) inorganic perovskites of the Cs4PbX6 (X = Cl, Br, or I) kind have crystal structures with isolated lead halide octahedra [PbX6]4− surrounded by Cs+ cations, allowing the 0D crystals to exhibit the intrinsic properties of an individual octahedron

  15. Elastic softness of hybrid lead halide perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, A. C.; Lé toublon, A.; Paofai, S.; Raymond, S.; Ecolivet, C.; Rufflé , B.; Cordier, S.; Katan, C.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Zhumekenov, A. A.; Bakr, Osman; Even, J.; Bourges, Ph.

    2018-01-01

    scattering, low frequency acoustic phonons in four different hybrid perovskite single crystals: MAPbBr3, FAPbBr3, MAPbI3 and α-FAPbI3 (MA: methylammonium, FA: formamidinium). We report a complete set of elastic constants caracterized by a very soft shear

  16. Combustion synthesis and characterization of porous perovskite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    But those perovskite-structural complex oxides produced via ... and cobalt nitrates in a desired molar ratio were dis- solved in a ... At pH 6-7 (ammonia adjustor), ... areas were measured by nitrogen adsorption-desorp- .... The obtained oxide.

  17. High performance magnetocaloric perovskites for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian R. H.; Velazquez, David; Nielsen, Kaspar K.

    2012-01-01

    We have applied mixed valance manganite perovskites as magnetocaloric materials in a magnetic refrigeration device. Relying on exact control of the composition and a technique to process the materials into single adjoined pieces, we have observed temperature spans above 9 K with two materials...

  18. Tilts and Ionic Shifts in Rhombohedral Perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noheda, Beatriz; Duan, Ning; Cereceda, Noé; Gonzalo, Julio A.

    1998-01-01

    We make a comparative analysis of rhombohedral perovskites (ABO3) with/without oxygen rotations and ionic shifts, within the framework of a generalised effective field approach. We analyse available data on LaAlO3 and LiTaO3 and new data on Zr-rich PZT, examples of three different ways of structural

  19. Hybrid solar cells : Perovskites under the Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, Maria Antonietta; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-halide organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites are reported to display electron–hole diffusion lengths over 1 μm. This observation provides important insight into the charge-carrier dynamics of this class of semiconductors and increases the expectations for highly efficient and cheap solar cells.

  20. Calculated optical absorption of different perovskite phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelli, Ivano E. [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design; Department of Physics; Technical University of Denmark; DK 2800, Kongens Lyngby; Denmark; Thygesen, Kristian S. [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design; Department of Physics; Technical University of Denmark; DK 2800, Kongens Lyngby; Denmark; Jacobsen, Karsten W. [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design; Department of Physics; Technical University of Denmark; DK 2800, Kongens Lyngby; Denmark

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of the optical properties of a set of around 80 oxides, oxynitrides, and organometal halide cubic and layered perovskites (Ruddlesden–Popper and Dion–Jacobson phases) with a bandgap in the visible part of the solar spectrum.

  1. Small polarons in 2D perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Cortecchia, Daniele

    2017-11-02

    We demonstrate that white light luminescence in two-dimensional (2D) perovskites stems from photoinduced formation of small polarons confined at specific sites of the inorganic framework in the form of self-trapped electrons and holes. We discuss their application in white light emitting devices and X-ray scintillators.

  2. Small polarons in 2D perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Cortecchia, Daniele; Yin, Jun; Birowosuto, Muhammad D.; Lo, Shu-Zee A.; Gurzadyan, Gagik G.; Bruno, Annalisa; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Soci, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that white light luminescence in two-dimensional (2D) perovskites stems from photoinduced formation of small polarons confined at specific sites of the inorganic framework in the form of self-trapped electrons and holes. We discuss their application in white light emitting devices and X-ray scintillators.

  3. Spontaneous emission enhancement of colloidal perovskite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhili; Waks, Edo

    Halide perovskite semiconductors have emerged as prominent photovoltaic materials since their high conversion efficiency and promising light emitting materials in optoelectronics. In particular, easy-to-fabricated colloidal perovskite nanocrystals based on CsPbX3 quantum dots has been intensively investigated recently. Their luminescent wavelength could be tuned precisely by their chemical composition and size of growth. This opens new applications including light-emitting diodes, optical amplifiers and lasing since their promising performance as emitters. However, this potentially high-efficient emitter and gain material has not been fully investigated and realized in integrated photonic structures. Here we demonstrate Purcell enhancement effect of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals by coupling to an optimized photonic crystal nanobeam cavity as a first crucial step towards realization of integrated on-chip coherent light source with low energy consumption. We show clearly highly-enhanced photoluminescent spectrum and an averaged Purcell enhancement factor of 2.9 is achieved when they are coupled to nanobeam photonic crystal cavities compared to the ones on unpatterned surface in our lifetime measurement. Our success in enhancement of emission from CsPbX3 perovskite nanocrystals paves the way towards the realization of efficient light sources for integrated optoelectronic devices with low energy consumption.

  4. Monocrystalline halide perovskite nanostructures for optoelectronic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoram, P.

    2018-01-01

    Halide perovskites are a promising class of materials for incorporation in optoelectronics with higher efficiency and lower cost. The solution processability of these materials provides unique opportunities for simple nanostructure fabrication. In the first half of the thesis (chapter 2 and 3) we

  5. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  6. Conducting Layered Organic-inorganic Halides Containing -Oriented Perovskite Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, D B; Wang, S; Feild, C A; Chess, C A; Guloy, A M

    1995-03-10

    Single crystals of the layered organic-inorganic perovskites, [NH(2)C(I=NH(2)](2)(CH(3)NH(3))m SnmI3m+2, were prepared by an aqueous solution growth technique. In contrast to the recently discovered family, (C(4)H(9)NH(3))(2)(CH(3)NH(3))n-1SnnI3n+1, which consists of (100)-terminated perovskite layers, structure determination reveals an unusual structural class with sets of m -oriented CH(3)NH(3)SnI(3) perovskite sheets separated by iodoformamidinium cations. Whereas the m = 2 compound is semiconducting with a band gap of 0.33 +/- 0.05 electron volt, increasing m leads to more metallic character. The ability to control perovskite sheet orientation through the choice of organic cation demonstrates the flexibility provided by organic-inorganic perovskites and adds an important handle for tailoring and understanding lower dimensional transport in layered perovskites.

  7. Morphology-Controlled Synthesis of Organometal Halide Perovskite Inverse Opals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Tüysüz, Harun

    2015-11-09

    The booming development of organometal halide perovskites in recent years has prompted the exploration of morphology-control strategies to improve their performance in photovoltaic, photonic, and optoelectronic applications. However, the preparation of organometal halide perovskites with high hierarchical architecture is still highly challenging and a general morphology-control method for various organometal halide perovskites has not been achieved. A mild and scalable method to prepare organometal halide perovskites in inverse opal morphology is presented that uses a polystyrene-based artificial opal as hard template. Our method is flexible and compatible with different halides and organic ammonium compositions. Thus, the perovskite inverse opal maintains the advantage of straightforward structure and band gap engineering. Furthermore, optoelectronic investigations reveal that morphology exerted influence on the conducting nature of organometal halide perovskites. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Hybrid perovskites: Approaches towards light-emitting devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2016-10-06

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted extensive research for photonic device applications. Using the bromide halide as an example, we present key approaches of our work towards realizing efficient perovskites based light-emitters. The approaches involved determination of optical constants for the hybrid perovskites thin films, fabrication of photonic nanostructures in the form of subwavelength grating reflector patterned directly on the hybrid perovskites as light manipulation layer, and enhancing the emission property of the hybrid perovskites by using microcavity structure. Our results provide a platform for realization of hybrid perovskites based light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting and display applications. © 2016 IEEE.

  9. Generalized trends in the formation energies of perovskite oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Zhenhua; Calle-Vallejo, Federico; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Generalized trends in the formation energies of several families of perovskite oxides (ABO3) and plausible explanations to their existence are provided in this study through a combination of DFT calculations, solid-state physics analyses and simple physical/chemical descriptors. The studied...... elements at the A site of perovskites comprise rare-earth, alkaline-earth and alkaline metals, whereas 3d and 5d metals were studied at the B site. We also include ReO3-type compounds, which have the same crystal structure of cubic ABO3 perovskites except without A-site elements. From the observations we...... extract the following four conclusions for the perovskites studied in the present paper: for a given cation at the B site, (I) perovskites with cations of identical oxidation state at the A site possess close formation energies; and (II) perovskites with cations of different oxidation states at the A site...

  10. Hybrid perovskites: Approaches towards light-emitting devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Dursun, Ibrahim; Priante, Davide; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Ng, Tien Khee; Bakr, Osman; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted extensive research for photonic device applications. Using the bromide halide as an example, we present key approaches of our work towards realizing efficient perovskites based light-emitters. The approaches involved determination of optical constants for the hybrid perovskites thin films, fabrication of photonic nanostructures in the form of subwavelength grating reflector patterned directly on the hybrid perovskites as light manipulation layer, and enhancing the emission property of the hybrid perovskites by using microcavity structure. Our results provide a platform for realization of hybrid perovskites based light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting and display applications. © 2016 IEEE.

  11. Water-Induced Dimensionality Reduction in Metal-Halide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Turedi, Bekir

    2018-03-30

    Metal-halide perovskite materials are highly attractive materials for optoelectronic applications. However, the instability of perovskite materials caused by moisture and heat-induced degradation impairs future prospects of using these materials. Here we employ water to directly transform films of the three-dimensional (3D) perovskite CsPbBr3 to stable two-dimensional (2D) perovskite-related CsPb2Br5. A sequential dissolution-recrystallization process governs this water induced transformation under PbBr2 rich condition. We find that these post-synthesized 2D perovskite-related material films exhibit excellent stability against humidity and high photoluminescence quantum yield. We believe that our results provide a new synthetic method to generate stable 2D perovskite-related materials that could be applicable for light emitting device applications.

  12. Neutral- and Multi-Colored Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Guo, L Jay; Park, Hui Joon

    2016-04-11

    In this review, we summarize recent works on perovskite solar cells with neutral- and multi-colored semitransparency for building-integrated photovoltaics and tandem solar cells. The perovskite solar cells exploiting microstructured arrays of perovskite "islands" and transparent electrodes-the latter of which include thin metallic films, metal nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphenes, and transparent conductive oxides for achieving optical transparency-are investigated. Moreover, the perovskite solar cells with distinctive color generation, which are enabled by engineering the band gap of the perovskite light-harvesting semiconductors with chemical management and integrating with photonic nanostructures, including microcavity, are discussed. We conclude by providing future research directions toward further performance improvements of the semitransparent perovskite solar cells.

  13. Band gap engineering strategy via polarization rotation in perovskite ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fenggong; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a strategy to engineer the band gaps of perovskite oxide ferroelectrics, supported by first principles calculations. We find that the band gaps of perovskites can be substantially reduced by as much as 1.2 eV through local rhombohedral-to-tetragonal structural transition. Furthermore, the strong polarization of the rhombohedral perovskite is largely preserved by its tetragonal counterpart. The B-cation off-center displacements and the resulting enhancement of the antibonding character in the conduction band give rise to the wider band gaps of the rhombohedral perovskites. The correlation between the structure, polarization orientation, and electronic structure lays a good foundation for understanding the physics of more complex perovskite solid solutions and provides a route for the design of photovoltaic perovskite ferroelectrics

  14. Ceramic materials on perovskite-type structure for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surowiak, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Ceramic materials exhibiting the perovskite-type structure constitute among others, resource base for many fields of widely understood electronics (i.e., piezoelectronics, accustoelectronics, optoelectronics, computer science, tele- and radioelectronics etc.). Most often they are used for fabrication of different type sensors (detectors), transducers, ferroelectric memories, limiters of the electronic current intensity, etc., and hence they are numbered among so-called intelligent materials. Prototype structure of this group of materials is the structure of the mineral called perovskite (CaTiO 3 ). By means of right choice of the chemical composition of ABO 3 and deforming the regular perovskite structure (m3m) more than 5000 different chemical compounds and solid solutions exhibiting the perovskite-type structure have been fabricated. The concept of perovskite functional ceramics among often things ferroelectric ceramics, pyroelectric ceramics, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostrictive ceramics, posistor ceramics, superconductive ceramics and ferromagnetic ceramics. New possibilities of application of the perovskite-type ceramics are opened by nanotechnology. (author)

  15. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  16. Particle acceleration in binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cygnus X-3 massive binary system is one of the powerful sources of radio and X-ray emission consisting of an accreting compact object, probably a black hole, with a Wolf-Rayet star companion. Based on the detections of ultra high energy gamma-rays by Kiel and Havera Park, Cygnus X-3 has been proposed to be one of the most powerful sources of charged cosmic ray particles in the Galaxy. The results of long-term observations of the Cyg X-3 binary at energies 800 GeV–85 TeV detected by SHALON in 1995 are presented with images, integral spectra and spectral energy distribution. The identification of source with Cygnus X-3 detected by SHALON was secured by the detection of its 4.8 hour orbital period in TeV gamma-rays. During the whole observation period of Cyg X-3 with SHALON significant flux increases were detected at energies above 0.8 TeV. These TeV flux increases are correlated with flaring activity at a lower energy range of X-ray and/or at observations of Fermi LAT as well as with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The variability of very high-energy gamma-radiation and correlation of radiation activity in the wide energy range can provide essential information on particle mechanism production up to very high energies. Whereas, modulation of very high energy emission connected to the orbital motion of the binary system, provides an understanding of the emission processes, nature and location of particle acceleration.

  17. Perovskite type nanopowders and thin films obtained by chemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Fruth

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the contribution of the authors, to the preparation of two types of perovskites, namely BiFeO3 and LaCoO3, by innovative methods. The studied perovskites were obtained as powders, films and sintered bodies. Their complex structural and morphological characterization is also presented. The obtained results have underlined the important influence of the method of preparation on the properties of the synthesized perovskites.

  18. High-pressure stability relations, crystal structures, and physical properties of perovskite and post-perovskite of NaNiF3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirako, Y.; Shi, Y.G.; Aimi, A.; Mori, D.; Kojitani, H.; Yamaura, K.; Inaguma, Y.; Akaogi, M.

    2012-01-01

    NaNiF 3 perovskite was found to transform to post-perovskite at 16–18 GPa and 1273–1473 K. The equilibrium transition boundary is expressed as P (GPa)=−2.0+0.014×T (K). Structure refinements indicated that NaNiF 3 perovskite and post-perovskite have almost regular NiF 6 octahedra consistent with absence of the first-order Jahn–Teller active ions. Both NaNiF 3 perovskite and post-perovskite are insulators. The perovskite underwent a canted antiferromagnetic transition at 156 K, and the post-perovskite antiferromagnetic transition at 22 K. Magnetic exchange interaction of NaNiF 3 post-perovskite is smaller than that of perovskite, reflecting larger distortion of Ni–F–Ni network and lower dimension of octahedral arrangement in post-perovskite than those in perovskite. - Graphical abstract: Perovskite–post-perovskite transition in NaNiF 3 at high pressure Highlights: ► NaNiF 3 perovskite (Pv) transforms to post-perovskite (pPv) at 16 GPa and 1300 K. ► The equilibrium transition boundary is expressed as P (GPa)=−2.0+0.014 T (K). ► Antiferromagnetic transition occurs at 156 K in Pv and 22 K in pPv.

  19. Development of Perovskite-Type Materials for Thermoelectric Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingjun Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxide perovskite materials have a long history of being investigated for thermoelectric applications. Compared to the state-of-the-art tin and lead chalcogenides, these perovskite compounds have advantages of low toxicity, eco-friendliness, and high elemental abundance. However, because of low electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity, the total thermoelectric performance of oxide perovskites is relatively poor. Variety of methods were used to enhance the TE properties of oxide perovskite materials, such as doping, inducing oxygen vacancy, embedding crystal imperfection, and so on. Recently, hybrid perovskite materials started to draw attention for thermoelectric application. Due to the low thermal conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient feature of hybrid perovskites materials, they can be promising thermoelectric materials and hold the potential for the application of wearable energy generators and cooling devices. This mini-review will build a bridge between oxide perovskites and burgeoning hybrid halide perovskites in the research of thermoelectric properties with an aim to further enhance the relevant performance of perovskite-type materials.

  20. Impact of Ultrathin C60 on Perovskite Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianyi; Wang, Qiong; Traverse, Christopher J; Yang, Chenchen; Young, Margaret; Kuttipillai, Padmanaban S; Lunt, Sophia Y; Hamann, Thomas W; Lunt, Richard R

    2018-01-23

    Halide perovskite solar cells have seen dramatic progress in performance over the past several years. Certified efficiencies of inverted structure (p-i-n) devices have now exceeded 20%. In these p-i-n devices, fullerene compounds are the most popular electron-transfer materials. However, the full function of fullerenes in perovskite solar cells is still under investigation, and the mechanism of photocurrent hysteresis suppression by fullerene remains unclear. In previous reports, thick fullerene layers (>20 nm) were necessary to fully cover the perovskite film surface to make good contact with perovskite film and avoid large leakage currents. In addition, the solution-processed fullerene layer has been broadly thought to infiltrate into the perovskite film to passivate traps on grain boundary surfaces, causing suppressed photocurrent hysteresis. In this work, we demonstrate an efficient perovskite photovoltaic device with only 1 nm C 60 deposited by vapor deposition as the electron-selective material. Utilizing a combination of fluorescence microscopy and impedance spectroscopy, we show that the ultrathin C 60 predominately acts to extract electrons from the perovskite film while concomitantly suppressing the photocurrent hysteresis by reducing space charge accumulation at the interface. This work ultimately helps to clarify the dominant role of fullerenes in perovskite solar cells while simplifying perovskite solar cell design to reduce manufacturing costs.

  1. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Mendoza, N.; Goyanes, S.; Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V.; Rubiolo, G.; Candal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 °C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 μm) and sample B (smaller than 50 μm). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of α-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing α-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 μm showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 μm. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  2. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Mendoza, N. [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V. [LBT, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA. Ciudad Universitaria, Pab1, C1428EGA CABA (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Prov. de Bs As (Argentina); Candal, R., E-mail: candal@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 3iA, Universidad de Gral. San Martin, San Martin, Prov. Bs As (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 Degree-Sign C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 {mu}m) and sample B (smaller than 50 {mu}m). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 {mu}m showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 {mu}m. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  3. Organohalide Perovskites for Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianqian; Armin, Ardalan; Burn, Paul L; Meredith, Paul

    2016-03-15

    Lead-based organohalide perovskites have recently emerged as arguably the most promising of all next generation thin film solar cell technologies. Power conversion efficiencies have reached 20% in less than 5 years, and their application to other optoelectronic device platforms such as photodetectors and light emitting diodes is being increasingly reported. Organohalide perovskites can be solution processed or evaporated at low temperatures to form simple thin film photojunctions, thus delivering the potential for the holy grail of high efficiency, low embedded energy, and low cost photovoltaics. The initial device-driven "perovskite fever" has more recently given way to efforts to better understand how these materials work in solar cells, and deeper elucidation of their structure-property relationships. In this Account, we focus on this element of organohalide perovskite chemistry and physics in particular examining critical electro-optical, morphological, and architectural phenomena. We first examine basic crystal and chemical structure, and how this impacts important solar-cell related properties such as the optical gap. We then turn to deeper electronic phenomena such as carrier mobilities, trap densities, and recombination dynamics, as well as examining ionic and dielectric properties and how these two types of physics impact each other. The issue of whether organohalide perovskites are predominantly nonexcitonic at room temperature is currently a matter of some debate, and we summarize the evidence for what appears to be the emerging field consensus: an exciton binding energy of order 10 meV. Having discussed the important basic chemistry and physics we turn to more device-related considerations including processing, morphology, architecture, thin film electro-optics and interfacial energetics. These phenomena directly impact solar cell performance parameters such as open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, internal and external quantum efficiency

  4. Post-perovskite transitions in CaB4+O3 at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaogi, M; Shirako, Y; Kojitani, H; Takamori, S; Yamaura, K; Takayama-Muromachi, E

    2010-01-01

    High-pressure phase transitions in CaRhO 3 were examined using a multianvil apparatus up to 27 GPa and 1930 o C. CaRhO 3 perovskite transforms to post-perovskite via a monoclinic intermediate phase with increasing pressure. Volume changes for the transitions of perovskite - intermediate phase and of intermediate phase - post-perovskite are -1.1 and -0.7 %, respectively. CaRhO 3 post-perovskite is the fourth quenchable post-perovskite oxide found so far. By high-temperature calorimetric experiments, enthalpy of the perovskite - post-perovskite transition in CaRuO 3 was measured as 15.2±3.3 kJ/mol. Combining the datum with those of CaIrO 3 , it is shown that CaIrO 3 perovskite is energetically less stable than CaRuO 3 perovskite. This is consistent with the fact that orthorhombic distortion of CaIrO 3 perovskite is larger than CaRuO 3 , as indicated with the tilt-angle of octahedral framework of perovskite structure. The transition pressure from perovskite to post-perovskite in CaBO 3 (B = Ru, Rh, Ir) increases almost linearly with decreasing the tilt-angle, suggesting that the perovskite - post-perovskite transition may result from instability of the perovskite structure with pressure.

  5. Exciton-Dominated Core-Level Absorption Spectra of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorwerk, Christian [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, European Theoretical Spectroscopy; Hartmann, Claudia [Renewable Energy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin, Germany; Cocchi, Caterina [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, European Theoretical Spectroscopy; Sadoughi, Golnaz [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Habisreutinger, Severin N. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, Colorado, United States; Félix, Roberto [Renewable Energy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin, Germany; Wilks, Regan G. [Renewable Energy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin, Germany; Energy Materials In-Situ Laboratory Berlin (EMIL), Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 12489 Berlin, Germany; Snaith, Henry J. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom; Bär, Marcus [Renewable Energy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin, Germany; Energy Materials In-Situ Laboratory Berlin (EMIL), Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 12489 Berlin, Germany; Draxl, Claudia [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, European Theoretical Spectroscopy

    2018-03-23

    In a combined theoretical and experimental work, we investigate X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy of the I L3 and the Pb M5 edges of the methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) hybrid inorganic-organic perovskite and its binary phase PbI2. The absorption onsets are dominated by bound excitons with sizable binding energies of a few hundred millielectronvolts and pronounced anisotropy. The spectra of both materials exhibit remarkable similarities, suggesting that the fingerprints of core excitations in MAPbI3 are essentially given by its inorganic component, with negligible influence from the organic groups. The theoretical analysis complementing experimental observations provides the conceptual insights required for a full characterization of this complex material.

  6. What makes the difference in perovskite titanates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann-Holder, Annette; Roleder, Krystian; Ko, Jae-Hyeon

    2018-06-01

    We have investigated in detail the lattice dynamics of five different perovskite titanates ATiO3 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb, Eu) where the A sites are occupied by +2 ions. In spite of the largely ionic character of these ions, the properties of these compounds differ substantially. They range from order/disorder like, to displacive ferroelectric, quantum paraelectric, and antiferromagnetic. All compounds crystallize in the cubic structure at high temperature and undergo structural phase transitions to tetragonal symmetry, partly followed by further transitions to lower symmetries. Since the TiO6 moiety is the essential electronic and structural unit, the question arises, what makes the significant difference between them. It is shown that the lattice dynamics of these compounds are very different, and that mode-mode coupling effects give rise to many distinct properties. In addition, the oxygen ion nonlinear polarizability plays a key role since it dominates the anharmonicity of these perovskites and determines the structural instability.

  7. Elastic softness of hybrid lead halide perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, A. C.

    2018-01-26

    Much recent attention has been devoted towards unravelling the microscopic optoelectronic properties of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOP). Here we investigate by coherent inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy and Brillouin light scattering, low frequency acoustic phonons in four different hybrid perovskite single crystals: MAPbBr3, FAPbBr3, MAPbI3 and α-FAPbI3 (MA: methylammonium, FA: formamidinium). We report a complete set of elastic constants caracterized by a very soft shear modulus C44. Further, a tendency towards an incipient ferroelastic transition is observed in FAPbBr3. We observe a systematic lower sound group velocity in the technologically important iodide-based compounds compared to the bromide-based ones. The findings suggest that low thermal conductivity and hot phonon bottleneck phenomena are expected to be enhanced by low elastic stiffness, particularly in the case of the ultrasoft α-FAPbI3.

  8. Perovskite Materials: Solar Cell and Optoelectronic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid organometallic trihalide perovskites are promising candidates in the applications for next-generation, high-performance, low-cost optoelectronic devices, including photovoltaics, light emitting diodes, and photodetectors. Particularly, the solar cells based on this type of materials have reached 22% lab scale power conversion efficiency in only about seven years, comparable to the other thin film photovoltaic technologies. Hybrid perovskite materials not only exhibit superior optoelectronic properties, but also show many interesting physical properties such as ion migration and defect physics, which may allow the exploration of more device functionalities. In this article, the fundamental understanding of the interrelationships between crystal structure, electronic structure, and material properties is discussed. Various chemical synthesis and processing methods for superior device performance in solar cells and optoelectronic devices are reviewed.

  9. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  10. Formation enthalpies of LaLn'O{sub 3} (Ln'=Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) interlanthanide perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Jianqi [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Laboratory and NEAT ORU, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Guo, Xiaofeng [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Laboratory and NEAT ORU, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Mielewczyk-Gryn, Aleksandra [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Laboratory and NEAT ORU, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Department of Solid State Physics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Navrotsky, Alexandra, E-mail: anavrotsky@ucdavis.edu [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Laboratory and NEAT ORU, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    High-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry using 3Na{sub 2}O·MoO{sub 3} at 802 °C was performed for interlanthanide perovskites LaLn'O{sub 3} (Ln'=Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) and lanthanide oxides (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The enthalpies of formation of these interlanthanide perovskites from binary lanthanide oxides at room temperature (25 °C) were determined to be −8.3±3.4 kJ/mol for LaHoO{sub 3}, −9.9±3.0 kJ/mol for LaErO{sub 3}, −10.8±2.7 kJ/mol for LaTmO{sub 3} and −12.3±2.9 kJ/mol for LaYbO{sub 3}. There is a roughly linear relationships between these enthalpy values and the tolerance factor for these and for other LaM{sup 3+}O{sub 3} (M=In, Sc, Ga, Al, Fe and Cr) perovskites, confirming that the distortion of the perovskites as results from ionic radius difference of A-site and B-site cations, is the main factor determining the stability of these compounds. - Graphical abstract: A linear relationship between the enthalpy of formation and the tolerance factor for interlanthanide LaLn'O{sub 3} (Ln'=Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb) and other LaM{sup 3+}O{sub 3} (M=In, Sc, Ga, Al, Fe and Cr) perovskites. - Highlights: • Interlanthanide perovskites were synthesized by solid state reactions. • Their enthalpies of formation were measured by oxide melt solution calorimetry. • ΔH{sub f,ox} shows a linear relationship with tolerance factor.

  11. Quasiparticle Interference on Cubic Perovskite Oxide Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Shiau, Shiue-Yuan; Chang, Tay-Rong; Chang, Guoqing; Kobayashi, Masaki; Shimizu, Ryota; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Shiraki, Susumu; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Bansil, Arun; Lin, Hsin; Hitosugi, Taro

    2017-08-25

    We report the observation of coherent surface states on cubic perovskite oxide SrVO_{3}(001) thin films through spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. A direct link between the observed quasiparticle interference patterns and the formation of a d_{xy}-derived surface state is supported by first-principles calculations. We show that the apical oxygens on the topmost VO_{2} plane play a critical role in controlling the coherent surface state via modulating orbital state.

  12. Dynamics of photoinduced degradation of perovskite photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khenkin, M. V.; Anoop, K. M.; Visoly-Fischer, I.

    2018-01-01

    The operational stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) remains a limiting factor in their commercial implementation. We studied the long-term outdoor stability of ITO/SnO2/Cs0.05((CH3NH3)0.15(CH(NH2)2)0.85)0.95PbI2.55Br0.45/spiro-OMeTAD/Au cells, as well as the dynamics of their degradation...

  13. Spectral properties of binary asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Myriam; Birlan, Mirel; Carry, Benoît; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Berthier, Jérôme

    2018-04-01

    We present the first attempt to characterize the distribution of taxonomic class among the population of binary asteroids (15% of all small asteroids). For that, an analysis of 0.8-2.5{μ m} near-infrared spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument on the NASA/IRTF is presented. Taxonomic class and meteorite analog is determined for each target, increasing the sample of binary asteroids with known taxonomy by 21%. Most binary systems are bound in the S-, X-, and C- classes, followed by Q and V-types. The rate of binary systems in each taxonomic class agrees within uncertainty with the background population of small near-Earth objects and inner main belt asteroids, but for the C-types which are under-represented among binaries.

  14. Planets in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...

  15. RS CVn binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsky, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author attempts to place in context the vast amount of data obtained in the last few years as a result of X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and microwave observations of RS CVn and similar spectroscopic binary systems. He concentrates on the RS CVn systems and their long-period analogs, and restricts the scope by attempting to answer on the basis of the recent data and theory following questions: (1) Are the original defining characteristics still valid and still adequate? (2) What is the evidence for discrete active regions? (3) Have we derived any meaningful physical properties for the atmospheres of RS CVn systems? (4) What are the flare observations telling us about magnetic fields in the RS CVn systems? (5) Is there evidence for systematic trends in RS CVn systems with spectral type?

  16. Magnetotransport in doped manganate perovskites (invited) (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.Z.; Krusin-Elbaum, L.; Gupta, A.; Xiao, G.; Duncombe, P.R.; Gallagher, W.J.; Parkin, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Recent progress in oxide perovskite thin-film technology has led to the discovery of a large negative magnetoresistance at room temperature in the doped manganate perovskite thin films. For applications such as magnetic-field sensing, the saturation magnetic field for large magnetoresistance has to be significantly lowered. The magnetic and transport properties of the doped manganates involve a curious magnetic-field scale, on the order of 1 endash 10 T. Upon the application of a field on this scale, the magnetoresistance saturates, and a significant broadening of the temperature-dependent magnetization is seen. An understanding of the materials physics that underlie such behavior can point to new ways of lowering the saturation field in this class of materials. We argue that this characteristic field is suggestive of an inhomogeneous magnetic state in the system. We will discuss the basic phenomena and physics of magnetotransport in this class of materials. We will also report the successful fabrication of a trilayer thin-film pillar structure made using the doped manganate perovskites in which a magnetoresistance change by about a factor of 2 was observed at temperatures below 100 K in a field less than 200 Oe, proving that large magnetoresistance in low field can be obtained in these materials. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. Modified titanate perovskites in photocatalytic water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlodarczak, M.; Ludwiczak, M.; Laniecki, M. [A. Mickiewicz Univ. (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    Received materials have structure of perovskite, what was shown by XRD diffraction patterns. Perovskite structure is present in all samples with strontium, barium and one sample with calcium. Moreover, received barium and strontium titanate are very similar to pattern materials. XRD results show, that temperature 500 C is too low to create perovskite structure in CaTiO{sub 3}. However, it is high enough in case of SrTiO{sub 3} and BaTiO{sub 3}. One regularity is obvious, surface area increases for samples calcined in lower temperature. There is a connection between surface area and dispersion of platinum. Both of them reach the greatest value to the calcium titanate. Catalytic activity was shown by all of received samples. Measurable values were received to samples calcined in 700 C. Calcium titanate had the best catalytic activity, both an amount of hydrogen and a ratio of hydrogen to platinum. There is one regularity to all samples, the ration of hydrogen to platinum increase when amount of platinum decrease. (orig.)

  18. PbBr3 Perovskite Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Tzu-Chiao

    2018-01-31

    Researchers have recently revealed that hybrid lead halide perovskites exhibit ferroelectricity, which is often associated with other physical characteristics, such as a large nonlinear optical response. In this work, the nonlinear optical properties of single crystal inorganic–organic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3 are studied. By exciting the material with a 1044 nm laser, strong two-photon absorption-induced photoluminescence in the green spectral region is observed. Using the transmission open-aperture Z-scan technique, the values of the two-photon absorption coefficient are observed to be 8.5 cm GW−1, which is much higher than that of standard two-photon absorbing materials that are industrially used in nonlinear optical applications, such as lithium niobate (LiNbO3), LiTaO3, KTiOPO4, and KH2PO4. Such a strong two-photon absorption effect in CH3NH3PbBr3 can be used to modulate the spectral and spatial profiles of laser pulses, as well as to reduce noise, and can be used to strongly control the intensity of incident light. In this study, the superior optical limiting, pulse reshaping, and stabilization properties of CH3NH3PbBr3 are demonstrated, opening new applications for perovskites in nonlinear optics.

  19. Light-trapping in perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Guo Du

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We numerically demonstrate enhanced light harvesting efficiency in both CH3NH3PbI3 and CH(NH22PbI3-based perovskite solar cells using inverted vertical-cone photonic-crystal nanostructures. For CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells, the maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD reaches 25.1 mA/cm2, corresponding to 92% of the total available photocurrent in the absorption range of 300 nm to 800 nm. Our cell shows 6% absorption enhancement compared to the Lambertian limit (23.7 mA/cm2 and has a projected power conversion efficiency of 12.9%. Excellent solar absorption is numerically demonstrated over a broad angular range from 0 to 60 degree for both S- and P- polarizations. For the corresponding CH(NH22PbI3 based perovskite solar cell, with absorption range of 300 nm to 850 nm, we find a MAPD of 29.1 mA/cm2, corresponding to 95.4% of the total available photocurrent. The projected power conversion efficiency of the CH(NH22PbI3 based photonic crystal solar cell is 23.4%, well above the current world record efficiency of 20.1%.

  20. Resistance switching memory in perovskite oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Z.B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    The resistance switching behavior has recently attracted great attentions for its application as resistive random access memories (RRAMs) due to a variety of advantages such as simple structure, high-density, high-speed and low-power. As a leading storage media, the transition metal perovskite oxide owns the strong correlation of electrons and the stable crystal structure, which brings out multifunctionality such as ferroelectric, multiferroic, superconductor, and colossal magnetoresistance/electroresistance effect, etc. The existence of rich electronic phases, metal–insulator transition and the nonstoichiometric oxygen in perovskite oxide provides good platforms to insight into the resistive switching mechanisms. In this review, we first introduce the general characteristics of the resistance switching effects, the operation methods and the storage media. Then, the experimental evidences of conductive filaments, the transport and switching mechanisms, and the memory performances and enhancing methods of perovskite oxide based filamentary RRAM cells have been summarized and discussed. Subsequently, the switching mechanisms and the performances of the uniform RRAM cells associating with the carrier trapping/detrapping and the ferroelectric polarization switching have been discussed. Finally, the advices and outlook for further investigating the resistance switching and enhancing the memory performances are given

  1. Magnetic field effects in hybrid perovskite devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Sun, D.; Sheng, C.-X.; Zhai, Y. X.; Mielczarek, K.; Zakhidov, A.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic field effects have been a successful tool for studying carrier dynamics in organic semiconductors as the weak spin-orbit coupling in these materials gives rise to long spin relaxation times. As the spin-orbit coupling is strong in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which are promising materials for photovoltaic and light-emitting applications, magnetic field effects are expected to be negligible in these optoelectronic devices. We measured significant magneto-photocurrent, magneto-electroluminescence and magneto-photoluminescence responses in hybrid perovskite devices and thin films, where the amplitude and shape are correlated to each other through the electron-hole lifetime, which depends on the perovskite film morphology. We attribute these responses to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs with different g-factors--the Δg model. We validate this model by measuring large Δg (~ 0.65) using field-induced circularly polarized photoluminescence, and electron-hole pair lifetime using picosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

  2. Surface Restructuring of Hybrid Perovskite Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Banavoth, Murali

    2016-11-07

    Hybrid perovskite crystals have emerged as an important class of semiconductors because of their remarkable performance in optoelectronics devices. The interface structure and chemistry of these crystals are key determinants of the device\\'s performance. Unfortunately, little is known about the intrinsic properties of the surfaces of perovskite materials because extrinsic effects, such as complex microstructures, processing conditions, and hydration under ambient conditions, are thought to cause resistive losses and high leakage current in solar cells. We reveal the intrinsic structural and optoelectronic properties of both pristinely cleaved and aged surfaces of single crystals. We identify surface restructuring on the aged surfaces (visualized on the atomic-scale by scanning tunneling microscopy) that lead to compositional and optical bandgap changes as well as degradation of carrier dynamics, photocurrent, and solar cell device performance. The insights reported herein clarify the key variables involved in the performance of perovskite-based solar cells and fabrication of high-quality surface single crystals, thus paving the way toward their future exploitation in highly efficient solar cells.

  3. Light-trapping in perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Qing Guo, E-mail: duqi0001@e.ntu.edu.sg [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 ST. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Institute of High Performance Computing, A* STAR, Singapore, 138632 (Singapore); Shen, Guansheng [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 ST. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada); School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); John, Sajeev [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 ST. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Department of Physics, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2016-06-15

    We numerically demonstrate enhanced light harvesting efficiency in both CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} and CH(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PbI{sub 3}-based perovskite solar cells using inverted vertical-cone photonic-crystal nanostructures. For CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite solar cells, the maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD) reaches 25.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, corresponding to 92% of the total available photocurrent in the absorption range of 300 nm to 800 nm. Our cell shows 6% absorption enhancement compared to the Lambertian limit (23.7 mA/cm{sup 2}) and has a projected power conversion efficiency of 12.9%. Excellent solar absorption is numerically demonstrated over a broad angular range from 0 to 60 degree for both S- and P- polarizations. For the corresponding CH(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PbI{sub 3} based perovskite solar cell, with absorption range of 300 nm to 850 nm, we find a MAPD of 29.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, corresponding to 95.4% of the total available photocurrent. The projected power conversion efficiency of the CH(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PbI{sub 3} based photonic crystal solar cell is 23.4%, well above the current world record efficiency of 20.1%.

  4. Large polarons in lead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kiyoshi; Meggiolaro, Daniele; Trinh, M. Tuan; Joshi, Prakriti P.; Mosconi, Edoardo; Jones, Skyler C.; De Angelis, Filippo; Zhu, X.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Lead halide perovskites show marked defect tolerance responsible for their excellent optoelectronic properties. These properties might be explained by the formation of large polarons, but how they are formed and whether organic cations are essential remain open questions. We provide a direct time domain view of large polaron formation in single-crystal lead bromide perovskites CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3. We found that large polaron forms predominantly from the deformation of the PbBr3− frameworks, irrespective of the cation type. The difference lies in the polaron formation time, which, in CH3NH3PbBr3 (0.3 ps), is less than half of that in CsPbBr3 (0.7 ps). First-principles calculations confirm large polaron formation, identify the Pb-Br-Pb deformation modes as responsible, and explain quantitatively the rate difference between CH3NH3PbBr3 and CsPbBr3. The findings reveal the general advantage of the soft [PbX3]− sublattice in charge carrier protection and suggest that there is likely no mechanistic limitations in using all-inorganic or mixed-cation lead halide perovskites to overcome instability problems and to tune the balance between charge carrier protection and mobility. PMID:28819647

  5. Lattice effects on ferromagnetism in perovskite ruthenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J.-G.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Ferromagnetism and its evolution in the orthorhombic perovskite system Sr1–xCaxRuO3 have been widely believed to correlate with structural distortion. The recent development of high-pressure synthesis of the Ba-substituted Sr1–yBayRuO3 makes it possible to study ferromagnetism over a broader phase diagram, which includes the orthorhombic Imma and the cubic phases. However, the chemical substitutions introduce the A-site disorder effect on Tc, which complicates determination of the relationship between ferromagnetism and structural distortion. By clarifying the site disorder effect on Tc in several unique series of ruthenates in which the average bond length 〈A–O〉 remains the same but the bond-length variance varies, we are able to demonstrate a parabolic curve of Tc versus mean bond length 〈A–O〉. A much higher Tc ∼ 177 K than that found in orthorhombic SrRuO3 can be obtained from the curve at a bond length 〈A–O〉, which makes the geometric factor t = 〈A–O〉/(√2〈Ru–O〉) ∼ 1. This result reveals not only that the ferromagnetism in the ruthenates is extremely sensitive to the lattice strain, but also that it has an important implication for exploring the structure–property relationship in a broad range of oxides with perovskite or a perovskite-related structure. PMID:23904477

  6. Water-Induced Dimensionality Reduction in Metal-Halide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Turedi, Bekir; Lee, Kwangjae; Dursun, Ibrahim; Alamer, Badriah Jaber; Wu, Zhennan; Alarousu, Erkki; Mohammed, Omar F.; Cho, Namchul; Bakr, Osman

    2018-01-01

    . Here we employ water to directly transform films of the three-dimensional (3D) perovskite CsPbBr3 to stable two-dimensional (2D) perovskite-related CsPb2Br5. A sequential dissolution-recrystallization process governs this water induced transformation

  7. Progress, challenges and perspectives in flexible perovskite solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Giacomo, F.; Fakharuddin, A.; Jose, R.; Brown, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous interest since their discovery only a few years ago because they are able to combine the benefits of high efficiency and remarkable ease of processing over large areas. Whereas most of research has been carried out on glass, perovskite deposition and

  8. On the luminescence of perovskite type rare earth gallates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianmei, Y.; Qingyuan, W.; Shuzhen, L.; Lianren, S.; Mingyu, C.

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported that perovskite type lanthanum gallates may be a good host material for laser and luminescence, but in the rare earth gallates studied, the numbers of perovskite type are less than that of the garnet type and there is less report on their spectroscopic properties in the literature. In this paper synthesis and spectroscopic properties of these compounds are studied

  9. Bandgap calculations and trends of organometal halide perovskites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    Energy production from the Sun requires a stable efficient light absorber. Promising candidates in this respect are organometal perovskites (ABX3), which have been intensely investigated during the last years. Here, we have performed electronic structure calculations of 240 perovskites composed...

  10. Temperature Dependent Charge Carrier Dynamics in Formamidinium Lead Iodide Perovskite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelvez Rueda, M.C.; Renaud, N.; Grozema, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental opto-electronic properties of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are strongly affected by their structural parameters. These parameters are particularly critical in formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3), in which its large structural disorder leads to a non-perovskite

  11. NREL Research Pushes Perovskites Closer to Market | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    even get close-to the above-20% efficiencies dominated by silicon solar panels. NREL researcher Kai Zhu ; Perovskites have a couple of major benefits over silicon solar panels. The silicon technology requires a high as excellent semiconductors. This means perovskite panels are more flexible than rigid silicon panels

  12. Impact of Interfacial Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, An-Na; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2017-10-09

    Perovskite solar cells (PCSs) are composed of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite as the light harvester. Since the first report on a long-term-durable, 9.7 % efficient, solid-state perovskite solar cell, organic-inorganic halide perovskites have received considerable attention because of their excellent optoelectronic properties. As a result, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 22 % was certified. Controlling the grain size, grain boundary, morphology, and defects of the perovskite layer is important for achieving high efficiency. In addition, interfacial engineering is equally or more important to further improve the PCE through better charge collection and a reduction in charge recombination. In this Review, the type of interfacial layers and their impact on photovoltaic performance are investigated for both the normal and the inverted cell architectures. Four different interfaces of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/electron-transport layer (ETL), ETL/perovskite, perovskite/hole-transport layer (HTL), and HTL/metal are classified, and their roles are investigated. The effects of interfacial engineering with organic or inorganic materials on photovoltaic performance are described in detail. Grain-boundary engineering is also included because it is related to interfacial engineering and the grain boundary in the perovskite layer plays an important role in charge conduction, recombination, and chargecarrier life time. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. NaIrO3-A pentavalent post-perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremholm, M.; Dutton, S.E.; Stephens, P.W.; Cava, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium iridium (V) oxide, NaIrO 3, was synthesized by a high pressure solid state method and recovered to ambient conditions. It is found to be isostructural with CaIrO 3 , the much-studied structural analog of the high-pressure post-perovskite phase of MgSiO 3 . Among the oxide post-perovskites, NaIrO 3 is the first example with a pentavalent cation. The structure consists of layers of corner- and edge-sharing IrO 6 octahedra separated by layers of NaO 8 bicapped trigonal prisms. NaIrO 3 shows no magnetic ordering and resistivity measurements show non-metallic behavior. The crystal structure, electrical and magnetic properties are discussed and compared to known post-perovskites and pentavalent perovskite metal oxides. -- Graphical abstract: Sodium iridium(V) oxide, NaIrO 3 , synthesized by a high pressure solid state method and recovered to ambient conditions is found to crystallize as the post-perovskite structure and is the first example of a pentavalent ABO 3 post-perovskite. Research highlights: → NaIrO 3 post-perovskite stabilized by pressure. → First example of a pentavalent oxide post-perovskite. → Non-metallic and non-magnetic behavior of NaIrO 3 .

  14. Dissolution-recrystallization method for high efficiency perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Fei; Luo, Junsheng; Wan, Zhongquan; Liu, Xingzhao; Jia, Chunyang, E-mail: cyjia@uestc.edu.cn

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Dissolution-recrystallization method can improve perovskite crystallization. • Dissolution-recrystallization method can improve TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface. • The optimal perovskite solar cell obtains the champion PCE of 16.76%. • The optimal devices are of high reproducibility. - Abstract: In this work, a dissolution-recrystallization method (DRM) with chlorobenzene and dimethylsulfoxide treating the perovskite films during the spin-coating process is reported. This is the first time that DRM is used to control perovskite crystallization and improve the device performance. Furthermore, the DRM is good for reducing defects and grain boundaries, improving perovskite crystallization and even improving TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface. By optimizing, the DRM2-treated perovskite solar cell (PSC) obtains the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.76% under AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW cm{sup −2}) with enhanced J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} compared to CB-treated PSC.

  15. Miscellaneous Lasing Actions in Organo-Lead Halide Perovskite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zonghui; Wang, Shuai; Yi, Ningbo; Gu, Zhiyuan; Gao, Yisheng; Song, Qinghai; Xiao, Shumin

    2017-06-21

    Lasing actions in organo-lead halide perovskite films have been heavily studied in the past few years. However, due to the disordered nature of synthesized perovskite films, the lasing actions are usually understood as random lasers that are formed by multiple scattering. Herein, we demonstrate the miscellaneous lasing actions in organo-lead halide perovskite films. In addition to the random lasers, we show that a single or a few perovskite microparticles can generate laser emissions with their internal resonances instead of multiple scattering among them. We experimentally observed and numerically confirmed whispering gallery (WG)-like microlasers in polygon shaped and other deformed microparticles. Meanwhile, owing to the nature of total internal reflection and the novel shape of the nanoparticle, the size of the perovskite WG laser can be significantly decreased to a few hundred nanometers. Thus, wavelength-scale lead halide perovskite lasers were realized for the first time. All of these laser behaviors are complementary to typical random lasers in perovskite film and will help the understanding of lasing actions in complex lead halide perovskite systems.

  16. Determining the energetics of vicinal perovskite oxide surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, W.A.; Bollmann, Tjeerd Rogier Johannes; Koster, Gertjan; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The energetics of vicinal SrTiO3(001) and DyScO3(110), prototypical perovskite vicinal surfaces, has been studied using topographic atomic force microscopy imaging. The kink formation and strain relaxation energies are extracted from a statistical analysis of the step meandering. Both perovskite

  17. Structures and Phase Transitions in Ordered Double Perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Brendan; Zhou, Qingdi; Cheah, Melina

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The basic perovskite structure is ubiquitous in the study of metal oxides, yet very few oxides actually adopt the archetypal cubic structure. The perovskite structure is based on corner sharing octahedra and in most cases cooperative rotations of successive octahedra lower the symmetry of the perovskite structure. Solid State Chemists have been fascinated by these distortions for many years, not only for their intrinsic interest but also to understand how these distortions control the electronic and magnetic properties of perovskite oxides. In this presentation we will describe the use of high-resolution powder diffraction methods to unravel the temperature and composition dependence of the structures in two series of double perovskites, Sr 1-x A x NiWO 6 (A = Ba, Ca) where there is essentially complete ordering of Ni and W cations and in Sr 1-x Ca x CrNbO 6 where there is extensive disorder of the Cr and Nb cations. (authors)

  18. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-06

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  19. Self-Assembled PbSe Nanowire:Perovskite Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-12-02

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Inorganic semiconductor nanowires are of interest in nano- and microscale photonic and electronic applications. Here we report the formation of PbSe nanowires based on directional quantum dot alignment and fusion regulated by hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite surface ligands. All material synthesis is carried out at mild temperatures. Passivation of PbSe quantum dots was achieved via a new perovskite ligand exchange. Subsequent in situ ammonium/amine substitution by butylamine enables quantum dots to be capped by butylammonium lead iodide, and this further drives the formation of a PbSe nanowire superlattice in a two-dimensional (2D) perovskite matrix. The average spacing between two adjacent nanowires agrees well with the thickness of single atomic layer of 2D perovskite, consistent with the formation of a new self-assembled semiconductor nanowire:perovskite heterocrystal hybrid.

  20. Planar-integrated single-crystalline perovskite photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2015-11-09

    Hybrid perovskites are promising semiconductors for optoelectronic applications. However, they suffer from morphological disorder that limits their optoelectronic properties and, ultimately, device performance. Recently, perovskite single crystals have been shown to overcome this problem and exhibit impressive improvements: low trap density, low intrinsic carrier concentration, high mobility, and long diffusion length that outperform perovskite-based thin films. These characteristics make the material ideal for realizing photodetection that is simultaneously fast and sensitive; unfortunately, these macroscopic single crystals cannot be grown on a planar substrate, curtailing their potential for optoelectronic integration. Here we produce large-area planar-integrated films made up of large perovskite single crystals. These crystalline films exhibit mobility and diffusion length comparable with those of single crystals. Using this technique, we produced a high-performance light detector showing high gain (above 104 electrons per photon) and high gain-bandwidth product (above 108 Hz) relative to other perovskite-based optical sensors.

  1. Performance of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells under light concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaesha Alnuaimi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present 2D simulation of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells under high concentration using physics-based TCAD. The performance of planar perovskite heterojunction solar cells is examined up to 1000 suns. We analyze the effect of HTM mobility and band structure, surface recombination velocities at interfaces and the effect of series resistance under concentrated light. The simulation results revealed that the low mobility of HTM material limits the improvement in power conversation efficiency of perovskite solar cells under concentration. In addition, large band offset at perovskite/HTM interface contributes to the high series resistance. Moreover, losses due to high surface recombination at interfaces and the high series resistance deteriorate significantly the performance of perovskite solar cells under concentration.

  2. Reconditioning perovskite films in vapor environments through repeated cation doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonthum, Chirapa; Pinsuwan, Kusuma; Ponchai, Jitprabhat; Srikhirin, Toemsak; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn

    2018-06-01

    Perovskites have attracted considerable attention for application as high-efficiency photovoltaic devices owing to their low-cost and low-temperature fabrication. A good surface and high crystallinity are necessary for high-performance devices. We examine the negative effects of chemical ambiences on the perovskite crystal formation and morphology. The repeated cation doping (RCD) technique was developed to remedy these issues by gradually dropping methylammonium ions on top of about-to-form perovskite surfaces to cause recrystallization. RCD promotes pinhole-free, compact, and polygonal-like surfaces under various vapor conditions. Furthermore, it enhances the electronic properties and crystallization. The benefits of RCD extend beyond perovskites under vapor ambiences, as it can improve regular and wasted perovskites.

  3. Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes.

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jixian

    2015-05-08

    Solution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite-PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3(-) antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour.

  4. Two-Dimensional Perovskite Activation with an Organic Luminophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemli, Khaoula; Audebert, Pierre; Galmiche, Laurent; Trippé-Allard, Gaelle; Garrot, Damien; Lauret, Jean-Sébastien; Deleporte, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-07

    A great advantage of the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites is the chemical flexibility and the possibility of a molecular engineering of each part of the material (the inorganic part and the organic part respectively) in order to improve or add some functionalities. An adequately chosen organic luminophore has been introduced inside a lead bromide type organic-inorganic perovskite, while respecting the two-dimensional perovskite structure. A substantial increase of the brilliance of the perovskite is obtained. This activation of the perovskite luminescence by the adequate engineering of the organic part is an original approach, and is particularly interesting in the framework of the light-emitting devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) or lasers.

  5. Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jixian; Buin, Andrei; Ip, Alexander H.; Li, Wei; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Yuan, Mingjian; Jeon, Seokmin; Ning, Zhijun; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Sun, Jon-Paul; Lan, Xinzheng; Quan, Li Na; Kim, Dong Ha; Hill, Ian G.; Maksymovych, Peter; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-05-01

    Solution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite-PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3- antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour.

  6. Two-Dimensional Halide Perovskites for Emerging New- Generation Photodetectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yingying; Cao, Xianyi; Chi, Qijin

    2018-01-01

    Compared to their conventional three-dimensional (3D) counterparts, two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites have attracted more interests recently in a variety of areas related to optoelectronics because of their unique structural characteristics and enhanced performances. In general, there are two...... distinct types of 2D halide perovskites. One represents those perovskites with an intrinsic layered crystal structure (i.e. MX6 layers, M = metal and X = Cl, Br, I), the other defines the perovskites with a 2D nanostructured morphology such as nanoplatelets and nanosheets. Recent studies have shown that 2D...... halide perovskites hold promising potential for the development of new-generation photodetectors, mainly arising from their highly efficient photoluminescence and absorbance, color tunability in the visible-light range and relatively high stability. In this chapter, we present the summary and highlights...

  7. Perovskite Catalysts—A Special Issue on Versatile Oxide Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chuan Lin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite-type catalysts have been prominent oxide catalysts for many years due to attributes such as flexibility in choosing cations, significant thermal stability, and the unique nature of lattice oxygen. Nearly 90% metallic elements of the Periodic Table can be stabilized in perovskite’s crystalline framework [1]. Moreover, by following the Goldschmidt rule [2], the A- and/or B-site elements can be partially substituted, making perovskites extremely flexible in catalyst design. One successful example is the commercialization of noble metal-incorporated perovskites (e.g., LaFe0.57Co0.38Pd0.05O3 for automotive emission control used by Daihatsu Motor Co. Ltd. [3]. Thus, growing interest in, and application of perovskites in the fields of material sciences, heterogeneous catalysis, and energy storage have prompted this Special Issue on perovskite catalysts. [...

  8. Self-Assembled PbSe Nanowire:Perovskite Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu; Yassitepe, Emre; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Janmohamed, Alyf; Lan, Xinzheng; Levina, Larissa; Comin, Riccardo; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Inorganic semiconductor nanowires are of interest in nano- and microscale photonic and electronic applications. Here we report the formation of PbSe nanowires based on directional quantum dot alignment and fusion regulated by hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite surface ligands. All material synthesis is carried out at mild temperatures. Passivation of PbSe quantum dots was achieved via a new perovskite ligand exchange. Subsequent in situ ammonium/amine substitution by butylamine enables quantum dots to be capped by butylammonium lead iodide, and this further drives the formation of a PbSe nanowire superlattice in a two-dimensional (2D) perovskite matrix. The average spacing between two adjacent nanowires agrees well with the thickness of single atomic layer of 2D perovskite, consistent with the formation of a new self-assembled semiconductor nanowire:perovskite heterocrystal hybrid.

  9. Group theoretical analysis of octahedral tilting in perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.J.; Stokes, H.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Structures of the perovskite family, ABX 3 , have interested crystallographers over many years, and continue to attract attention on account of their fascinating electrical and magnetic properties, for example the giant magnetoresistive effects exhibited by certain perovskite materials. The ideal perovskite (cubic, space group Pm -/3 m) is a particularly simple structure, but also a demanding one, since aside from the lattice parameter there are no variable parameters in the structure. Consequently, the majority of perovskite structures are distorted perovskites (hettotypes), the most common distortion being the corner-linked tilting of the practically rigid BX 6 octahedral units. In this work, group theoretical methods have been applied to the study of octahedral tilting in perovskites. The only irreducible representations of the parent group (Pm -/3 m) which produce octahedral tilting subject to corner-linking constraints are M + / 3 and R 4 ' + . A six-dimensional order parameter in the reducible representation space of M + / 3 + R + / 4 describes the different possible tilting patterns. The space groups for the different perovskites are then simply the isotropy subgroups, comprising those operations which leave the order parameter invariant. The isotropy subgroups are obtained from a computer program or tabulations. The analysis yields a list of fifteen possible space groups for perovskites derived through octahedral tilting. A connection is made to the (twenty-three) tilt systems given previously by Glazer. The group-subgroup relationships have been derived and displayed. It is interesting to note that all known perovskites based on octahedral tilting conform with the fifteen space groups on our list, with the exception of one perovskite at high temperature, the structure of which seems poorly determined

  10. Generalized trends in the formation energies of perovskite oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, ZhenHua; Calle-Vallejo, Federico; Mogensen, Mogens B; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2013-05-28

    Generalized trends in the formation energies of several families of perovskite oxides (ABO3) and plausible explanations to their existence are provided in this study through a combination of DFT calculations, solid-state physics analyses and simple physical/chemical descriptors. The studied elements at the A site of perovskites comprise rare-earth, alkaline-earth and alkaline metals, whereas 3d and 5d metals were studied at the B site. We also include ReO3-type compounds, which have the same crystal structure of cubic ABO3 perovskites except without A-site elements. From the observations we extract the following four conclusions for the perovskites studied in the present paper: for a given cation at the B site, (I) perovskites with cations of identical oxidation state at the A site possess close formation energies; and (II) perovskites with cations of different oxidation states at the A site usually have quite different but ordered formation energies. On the other hand, for a given A-site cation, (III) the formation energies of perovskites vary linearly with respect to the atomic number of the elements at the B site within the same period of the periodic table, and the slopes depend systematically on the oxidation state of the A-site cation; and (IV) the trends in formation energies of perovskites with elements from different periods at the B site depend on the oxidation state of A-site cations. Since the energetics of perovskites is shown to be the superposition of the individual contributions of their constituent oxides, the trends can be rationalized in terms of A-O and B-O interactions in the ionic crystal. These findings reveal the existence of general systematic trends in the formation energies of perovskites and provide further insight into the role of ion-ion interactions in the properties of ternary compounds.

  11. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.

    2017-10-01

    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  12. Improving the Morphology of the Perovskite Absorber Layer in Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Halide Perovskite MAPbI3 Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Ogundana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, perovskite solar cells have attracted tremendous attention due to their excellent power conversion efficiency, low cost, simple fabrications, and high photovoltaic performance. Furthermore, the perovskite solar cells are lightweight and possess thin film and semitransparency. However, the nonuniformity in perovskite layer constitutes a major setback to the operation mechanism, performance, reproducibility, and degradation of perovskite solar cells. Therefore, one of the main challenges in planar perovskite devices is the fabrication of high quality films with controlled morphology and least amount of pin-holes for high performance thin film perovskite devices. The poor reproducibility in perovskite solar cells hinders the accurate fabrication of practical devices for use in real world applications, and this is primarily as a result of the inability to control the morphology of perovskites, leading to large variability in the characteristics of perovskite solar cells. Hence, the focus of research in perovskites has been mostly geared towards improving the morphology and crystallization of perovskite absorber by selecting the optimal annealing condition considering the effect of humidity. Here we report a controlled ambient condition that is necessary to grow uniform perovskite crystals. A best PCE of 7.5% was achieved along with a short-circuit current density of 15.2 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.81 V, and a fill factor of 0.612 from the perovskite solar cell prepared under 60% relative humidity.

  13. Separation in 5 Msun Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.

  14. Mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  15. Some properties of spectral binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcheva, Z.T.; Popova, E.I.; Tutukov, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1978-01-01

    Statistical investigations of spectra binary stars are carried out. Binary systems consisting of main sequence stars are considered. For 826 binary stars masses of components, ratios of component masses, semiaxes of orbits and orbital angular momenta are calculated. The distributions of these parameters and their correlations are analyzed. The dependences of statistical properties of spectral binary stars on their origin and evolution are discussed

  16. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G. R.; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X. P.

    2016-01-01

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:27934924

  17. Perovskite-Based Solar Cells: Materials, Methods, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel all-solid-state, hybrid solar cell based on organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbX3 materials has attracted great attention from the researchers all over the world and is considered to be one of the top 10 scientific breakthroughs in 2013. The perovskite materials can be used not only as light-absorbing layer, but also as an electron/hole transport layer due to the advantages of its high extinction coefficient, high charge mobility, long carrier lifetime, and long carrier diffusion distance. The photoelectric power conversion efficiency of the perovskite solar cells has increased from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in 2016, making perovskite solar cells the best potential candidate for the new generation of solar cells to replace traditional silicon solar cells in the future. In this paper, we introduce the development and mechanism of perovskite solar cells, describe the specific function of each layer, and focus on the improvement in the function of such layers and its influence on the cell performance. Next, the synthesis methods of the perovskite light-absorbing layer and the performance characteristics are discussed. Finally, the challenges and prospects for the development of perovskite solar cells are also briefly presented.

  18. Perovskite Materials for Light-Emitting Diodes and Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Sjoerd A; Boix, Pablo P; Yantara, Natalia; Li, Mingjie; Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G

    2016-08-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have cemented their position as an exceptional class of optoelectronic materials thanks to record photovoltaic efficiencies of 22.1%, as well as promising demonstrations of light-emitting diodes, lasers, and light-emitting transistors. Perovskite materials with photoluminescence quantum yields close to 100% and perovskite light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiencies of 8% and current efficiencies of 43 cd A(-1) have been achieved. Although perovskite light-emitting devices are yet to become industrially relevant, in merely two years these devices have achieved the brightness and efficiencies that organic light-emitting diodes accomplished in two decades. Further advances will rely decisively on the multitude of compositional, structural variants that enable the formation of lower-dimensionality layered and three-dimensional perovskites, nanostructures, charge-transport materials, and device processing with architectural innovations. Here, the rapid advancements in perovskite light-emitting devices and lasers are reviewed. The key challenges in materials development, device fabrication, operational stability are addressed, and an outlook is presented that will address market viability of perovskite light-emitting devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G R; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X P

    2016-12-09

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  20. Random lasing actions in self-assembled perovskite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Sun, Wenzhao; Li, Jiankai; Gu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Kaiyang; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2016-05-01

    Solution-based perovskite nanoparticles have been intensively studied in the past few years due to their applications in both photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Here, based on the common ground between solution-based perovskite and random lasers, we have studied the mirrorless lasing actions in self-assembled perovskite nanoparticles. After synthesis from a solution, discrete lasing peaks have been observed from optically pumped perovskites without any well-defined cavity boundaries. We have demonstrated that the origin of the random lasing emissions is the scattering between the nanostructures in the perovskite microplates. The obtained quality (Q) factors and thresholds of random lasers are around 500 and 60 μJ/cm2, respectively. Both values are comparable to the conventional perovskite microdisk lasers with polygon-shaped cavity boundaries. From the corresponding studies on laser spectra and fluorescence microscope images, the lasing actions are considered random lasers that are generated by strong multiple scattering in random gain media. In additional to conventional single-photon excitation, due to the strong nonlinear effects of perovskites, two-photon pumped random lasers have also been demonstrated for the first time. We believe this research will find its potential applications in low-cost coherent light sources and biomedical detection.

  1. Properties of perovskites and other oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, K Alex

    2010-01-01

    In this book some 50 papers published by K A Muller as author or co-author over several decades, amplified by more recent work mainly by T W Kool with collaborators, are reproduced. The main subject is Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) applied to the study of perovskites and other oxides with related subjects. This wealth of papers is organized into eleven chapters, each with an introductory text written in the light of current understanding. The contributions of the first author on structural phase transitions have been immense, and because K A Muller and J C Fayet have published a review

  2. Superconductivity in multilayer perovskite. Weak coupling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koikegami, Shigeru; Yanagisawa, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the superconductivity of a three-dimensional d-p model with a multilayer perovskite structure on the basis of the second-order perturbation theory within the weak coupling framework. Our model has been designed with multilayer high-T c superconducting cuprates in mind. In our model, multiple Fermi surfaces appear, and the component of a superconducting gap function develops on each band. We have found that the multilayer structure can stabilize the superconductivity in a wide doping range. (author)

  3. Halide-Dependent Electronic Structure of Organolead Perovskite Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Buin, Andrei

    2015-06-23

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Organometal halide perovskites have recently attracted tremendous attention both at the experimental and theoretical levels. These materials, in particular methylammonium triiodide, are still limited by poor chemical and structural stability under ambient conditions. Today this represents one of the major challenges for polycrystalline perovskite-based photovoltaic technology. In addition to this, the performance of perovskite-based devices is degraded by deep localized states, or traps. To achieve better-performing devices, it is necessary to understand the nature of these states and the mechanisms that lead to their formation. Here we show that the major sources of deep traps in the different halide systems have different origin and character. Halide vacancies are shallow donors in I-based perovskites, whereas they evolve into a major source of traps in Cl-based perovskites. Lead interstitials, which can form lead dimers, are the dominant source of defects in Br-based perovskites, in line with recent experimental data. As a result, the optimal growth conditions are also different for the distinct halide perovskites: growth should be halide-rich for Br and Cl, and halide-poor for I-based perovskites. We discuss stability in relation to the reaction enthalpies of mixtures of bulk precursors with respect to final perovskite product. Methylammonium lead triiodide is characterized by the lowest reaction enthalpy, explaining its low stability. At the opposite end, the highest stability was found for the methylammonium lead trichloride, also consistent with our experimental findings which show no observable structural variations over an extended period of time.

  4. Binary Systems and the Initial Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, O. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper we discuss advantages and disadvantages of binary stars, which are important for star formation history determination. We show that to make definite conclusions of the initial mass function shape, it is necessary to study binary population well enough to correct the luminosity function for unresolved binaries; to construct the mass-luminosity relation based on wide binaries data, and to separate observational mass functions of primaries, of secondaries, and of unresolved binaries.

  5. Simulation design of P–I–N-type all-perovskite solar cells with high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Hui-Jing; Wang Wei-Chao; Gu Yi-Fan

    2017-01-01

    According to the good charge transporting property of perovskite, we design and simulate a p–i–n-type all-perovskite solar cell by using one-dimensional device simulator. The perovskite charge transporting layers and the perovskite absorber constitute the all-perovskite cell. By modulating the cell parameters, such as layer thickness values, doping concentrations and energy bands of n-, i-, and p-type perovskite layers, the all-perovskite solar cell obtains a high power conversion efficiency of 25.84%. The band matched cell shows appreciably improved performance with widen absorption spectrum and lowered recombination rate, so weobtain a high J sc of 32.47 mA/cm 2 . The small series resistance of the all-perovskite solar cell also benefits the high J sc . The simulation provides a novel thought of designing perovskite solar cells with simple producing process, low production cost and high efficient structure to solve the energy problem. (paper)

  6. Theoretical calculations on layered perovskites: implications for photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of first-principles calculations to the study of layered perovskites is reviewed here, with an emphasis on properties relevant to the use of these materials in photocatalysis. First, the accuracies of the theoretical methods in common use for the study of layered perovskites are compared. The main body of the article then reviews studies of the bulk atomic and electronic structures of pure and doped perovskites; first-principles thermodynamics studies; studies of surfaces and studies of adsorption on surfaces.

  7. Neutral Color Semitransparent Microstructured Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eperon, Giles E.

    2014-01-28

    Neutral-colored semitransparent solar cells are commercially desired to integrate solar cells into the windows and cladding of buildings and automotive applications. Here, we report the use of morphological control of perovskite thin films to form semitransparent planar heterojunction solar cells with neutral color and comparatively high efficiencies. We take advantage of spontaneous dewetting to create microstructured arrays of perovskite "islands", on a length-scale small enough to appear continuous to the eye yet large enough to enable unattenuated transmission of light between the islands. The islands are thick enough to absorb most visible light, and the combination of completely absorbing and completely transparent regions results in neutral transmission of light. Using these films, we fabricate thin-film solar cells with respectable power conversion efficiencies. Remarkably, we find that such discontinuous films still have good rectification behavior and relatively high open-circuit voltages due to the inherent rectification between the n- and p-type charge collection layers. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ease of "color-tinting" such microstructured perovksite solar cells with no reduction in performance, by incorporation of a dye within the hole transport medium. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Electrically Anisotropic Layered Perovskite Single Crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting-You

    2016-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs), which are promising materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications (1-10), have made into layered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (LOIHPs). These LOIHPs have been applied to thin-film transistors, solar cells and tunable wavelength phosphors (11-18). It is known that devices fabricated with single crystal exhibit the superior performance, which makes the growth of large-sized single crystals critical for future device applications (19-23). However, the difficulty in growing large-sized LOIHPs single crystal with superior electrical properties limits their practical applications. Here, we report a method to grow the centimeter-scaled LOIHP single crystal of [(HOC2H4NH3)2PbI4], demonstrating the potentials in mass production. After that, we reveal anisotropic electrical and optoelectronic properties which proved the carrier propagating along inorganic framework. The carrier mobility of in-inorganic-plane (in-plane) devices shows the average value of 45 cm2 V–1 s–1 which is about 100 times greater than the record of LOIHP devices (15), showing the importance of single crystal in device application. Moreover, the LOIHP single crystals show its ultra-short carrier lifetime of 42.7 ps and photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of 25.4 %. We expect this report to be a start of LOIHPs for advanced applications in which the anisotropic properties are needed (24-25), and meets the demand of high-speed applications and fast-response applications.

  9. Finding New Perovskite Halides via Machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam ePilania

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced materials with improved properties have the potential to fuel future technological advancements. However, identification and discovery of these optimal materials for a specific application is a non-trivial task, because of the vastness of the chemical search space with enormous compositional and configurational degrees of freedom. Materials informatics provides an efficient approach towards rational design of new materials, via learning from known data to make decisions on new and previously unexplored compounds in an accelerated manner. Here, we demonstrate the power and utility of such statistical learning (or machine learning via building a support vector machine (SVM based classifier that uses elemental features (or descriptors to predict the formability of a given ABX3 halide composition (where A and B represent monovalent and divalent cations, respectively, and X is F, Cl, Br or I anion in the perovskite crystal structure. The classification model is built by learning from a dataset of 181 experimentally known ABX3 compounds. After exploring a wide range of features, we identify ionic radii, tolerance factor and octahedral factor to be the most important factors for the classification, suggesting that steric and geometric packing effects govern the stability of these halides. The trained and validated models then predict, with a high degree of confidence, several novel ABX3 compositions with perovskite crystal structure.

  10. Magnetic and Electric Properties of , ( Layered Perovskites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric and magnetic properties of layered perovskites have been investigated systematically over the doping range . It was found that both Sr1.5Y0.5CoO4 and Sr1.4Y0.6CoO4 undergo ferromagnetic (FM transition around 145 K and 120 K, respectively. On the other hand, Sr1.3Y0.7CoO4 and Sr1.2Y0.8CoO4 compounds showed paramagnetic behavior over a wide range of temperatures. In addition, spin-glass transition ( was observed at 10 K for Sr1.3Y0.7CoO4. All investigated samples are semiconducting-like within the temperature range of 10–300 K. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity, , was described by two-dimensional variable range hopping (2D-VRH model at 50 K < ≤ 300 K. Comparison with other layered perovskites was discussed in this work.

  11. Finding New Perovskite Halides via Machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Kim, Chiho; Lookman, Turab

    2016-04-01

    Advanced materials with improved properties have the potential to fuel future technological advancements. However, identification and discovery of these optimal materials for a specific application is a non-trivial task, because of the vastness of the chemical search space with enormous compositional and configurational degrees of freedom. Materials informatics provides an efficient approach towards rational design of new materials, via learning from known data to make decisions on new and previously unexplored compounds in an accelerated manner. Here, we demonstrate the power and utility of such statistical learning (or machine learning) via building a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier that uses elemental features (or descriptors) to predict the formability of a given ABX3 halide composition (where A and B represent monovalent and divalent cations, respectively, and X is F, Cl, Br or I anion) in the perovskite crystal structure. The classification model is built by learning from a dataset of 181 experimentally known ABX3 compounds. After exploring a wide range of features, we identify ionic radii, tolerance factor and octahedral factor to be the most important factors for the classification, suggesting that steric and geometric packing effects govern the stability of these halides. The trained and validated models then predict, with a high degree of confidence, several novel ABX3 compositions with perovskite crystal structure.

  12. Local polar fluctuations in lead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang; Yaffe, Omer; Guo, Yinsheng; Brus, Louis; Rappe, Andrew; Egger, David; Kronik, Leeor

    The lead halide perovskites have recently attracted much attention because of their large and growing photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies. However, questions remain regarding the temporal and spatial correlations of the structural fluctuations, their atomistic nature, and how they affect electronic and photovoltaic properties. To address these questions, we have performed a combined ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) study on CsPbBr3. We have observed prevalent anharmonic motion in our MD trajectories, with local polar fluctuations involving head-to-head motion of A-site Cs cations coupled with Br window opening. We calculate Raman spectra from the polarizability auto-correlation functions obtained from these trajectories and show that anharmonic A-site cation motion manifests as a broad central peak in the Raman spectrum, which increases in intensity with temperature. A comparison of the experimental Raman spectrum of hybrid organometallic MAPbBr3 and fully inorganic CsPbBr3 suggests that structural fluctuations in lead-halide perovskites is more general than rotation of polar organic cations and is intimately coupled to the inorganic framework.

  13. Perovskite oxides: Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  14. Hidden slow pulsars in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.

  15. All-inorganic inverse perovskite solar cells using zinc oxide nanocolloids on spin coated perovskite layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Naoyuki; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Fukumoto, Shota; Baranwal, Ajay K.; Segawa, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu; Ito, Seigo

    2017-07-01

    We confirmed the influence of ZnO nanoparticle size and residual water on performance of all inorganic perovskite solar cells. By decreasing the size of the ZnO nanoparticles, the short-circuit current density ( Jsc) and open circuit photovoltage ( Voc) values are increased and the conversion efficiency is improved. Although the Voc value is not affected by the influence of residual water in the solution for preparing the ZnO layer, the Jsc value drops greatly. As a result, it was found that it is important to use the oxide nanoparticles with a small particle diameter and to reduce the water content in the oxide forming material in order to manufacture a highly efficient all inorganic perovskite solar cells.

  16. High pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy of perovskite iron oxide

    CERN Document Server

    Nasu, S; Morimoto, S; Kawakami, T; Kuzushita, K; Takano, M

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure sup 5 sup 7 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy using a diamond anvil cell has been performed for perovskite iron oxides SrFeO sub 3 , CaFeO sub 3 and La sub 1 sub / sub 3 Sr sub 2 sub / sub 3 O sub 3. The charge states and the magnetic dependency to pressure were determined. Pressure magnetic phase diagrams of these perovskite iron oxides are determined up to about 70 GPa. To be clear the magnetic ordered state, they are measured up to 7.8 T external magnetic fields at 4.5K. The phase transition of these perovskite oxides to ferromagnetisms with high magnetic ordered temperature is observed. In higher pressure, high spin-low spin transition of oxides besides CaFeO sub 3 is generated. The feature of Moessbauer spectroscopy, perovskite iron oxide and Moessbauer spectroscopy under high pressure are explained. (S.Y.)

  17. Double Charged Surface Layers in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmah, Smritakshi P.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding defect chemistry, particularly ion migration, and its significant effect on the surface’s optical and electronic properties is one of the major challenges impeding the development of hybrid perovskite-based devices. Here, using both experimental and theoretical approaches, we demonstrated that the surface layers of the perovskite crystals may acquire a high concentration of positively charged vacancies with the complementary negatively charged halide ions pushed to the surface. This charge separation near the surface generates an electric field that can induce an increase of optical band gap in the surface layers relative to the bulk. We found that the charge separation, electric field, and the amplitude of shift in the bandgap strongly depend on the halides and organic moieties of perovskite crystals. Our findings reveal the peculiarity of surface effects that are currently limiting the applications of perovskite crystals and more importantly explain their origins, thus enabling viable surface passivation strategies to remediate them.

  18. The Surface of Hybrid Perovskite Crystals: A Boon or Bane

    KAUST Repository

    Banavoth, Murali; Yengel, Emre; Yang, Chen; Peng, Wei; Alarousu, Erkki; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid perovskite single crystals have garnered tremendous research attention and are expected to be next-generation materials for high-efficiency photoactive devices. Therefore, it is fundamentally important to understand the 8 relationship between

  19. Single Crystals of Organolead Halide Perovskites: Growth, Characterization, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Despite their outstanding charge transport characteristics, organolead halide perovskite single crystals grown by hitherto reported crystallization methods are not suitable for most optoelectronic devices due to their small aspect ratios

  20. Present status and future prospects of perovskite photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snaith, Henry J.

    2018-05-01

    Solar cells based on metal halide perovskites continue to approach their theoretical performance limits thanks to worldwide research efforts. Mastering the materials properties and addressing stability may allow this technology to bring profound transformations to the electric power generation industry.

  1. Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes.

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jixian; Buin, Andrei; Ip, Alexander H; Li, Wei; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Yuan, Mingjian; Jeon, Seokmin; Ning, Zhijun; McDowell, Jeffrey J; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Sun, Jon-Paul; Lan, Xinzheng; Quan, Li Na; Kim, Dong Ha; Hill, Ian G; Maksymovych, Peter; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    passivates the key PbI3(-) antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar

  2. Manganites in Perovskite Superlattices: Structural and Electronic Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Jiwuer, Jilili

    2016-01-01

    Perovskite manganites are widely investigated compounds due to the discovery of the colossal magnetoresistance effect in 1994. They have a broad range of structural, electronic, magnetic properties and potential device applications in sensors

  3. Chemically Addressable Perovskite Nanocrystals for Light-Emitting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haizhu; Yang, Zhenyu; Wei, Mingyang; Sun, Wei; Li, Xiyan; Ye, Shuyang; Zhao, Yongbiao; Tan, Hairen; Kynaston, Emily L.; Schon, Tyler B.; Yan, Han; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Ozin, Geoffrey A.; Sargent, Edward H.; Seferos, Dwight S.

    2017-01-01

    Whereas organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) have remarkable potential in the development of optoelectronic materials, their relatively poor chemical and colloidal stability undermines their performance in optoelectronic devices

  4. Pyridine-induced Dimensionality Change in Hybrid Perovskite Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ghada H.; Yin, Jun; Bose, Riya; Sinatra, Lutfan; Alarousu, Erkki; Yengel, Emre; AlYami, Noktan; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Zhang, Yuhai; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Bakr, Osman; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    of pyridine during the synthesis of methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr) perovskite nanocrystals can transform three-dimensional (3D) cubes into two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that pyridine preferentially

  5. Hydrogen Bonding and Stability of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa

    2016-09-08

    In the past few years, the efficiency of solar cells based on hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has exceeded the level needed for commercialization. However, existing perovskites solar cells (PSCs) suffer from several intrinsic instabilities, which prevent them from reaching industrial maturity, and stabilizing PSCs has become a critically important problem. Here we propose to stabilize PSCs chemically by strengthening the interactions between the organic cation and inorganic anion of the perovskite framework. In particular, we show that replacing the methylammonium cation with alternative protonated cations allows an increase in the stability of the perovskite by forming strong hydrogen bonds with the halide anions. This interaction also provides opportunities for tuning the electronic states near the bandgap. These mechanisms should have a universal character in different hybrid organic–inorganic framework materials that are widely used.

  6. Metal Halide Perovskite Single Crystals: From Growth Process to Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuigen Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a strong competitor in the field of optoelectronic applications, organic-inorganic metal hybrid perovskites have been paid much attention because of their superior characteristics, which include broad absorption from visible to near-infrared region, tunable optical and electronic properties, high charge mobility, long exciton diffusion length and carrier recombination lifetime, etc. It is noted that perovskite single crystals show remarkably low trap-state densities and long carrier diffusion lengths, which are even comparable with the best photovoltaic-quality silicon, and thus are expected to provide better optoelectronic performance. This paper reviews the recent development of crystal growth in single-, mixed-organic-cation and fully inorganic halide perovskite single crystals, in particular the solution approach. Furthermore, the application of metal hybrid perovskite single crystals and future perspectives are also highlighted.

  7. Preparation of manganese-based perovskite nanoparticles using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preparation of manganese-based perovskite nanoparticles using a reverse microemulsion method: ... ted much attention in various fields of medicine and pharma- cology such as .... In addition, the SAR value of sample was calculated through ...

  8. Working Mechanism for Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells with Simplified Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobao; Chen, Qi; Hong, Ziruo; Zhou, Huanping; Liu, Zonghao; Chang, Wei-Hsuan; Sun, Pengyu; Chen, Huajun; De Marco, Nicholas; Wang, Mingkui; Yang, Yang

    2015-10-14

    In this communication, we report an efficient and flexible perovskite solar cell based on formamidinium lead trihalide (FAPbI3) with simplified configuration. The device achieved a champion efficiency of 12.70%, utilizing direct contact between metallic indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and perovskite absorber. The underlying working mechanism is proposed subsequently, via a systematic investigation focusing on the heterojunction within this device. A significant charge storage has been observed in the perovskite, which is believed to generate photovoltage and serves as the driving force for charge transferring from the absorber to ITO electrode as well. More importantly, this simplified device structure on flexible substrates suggests its compatibility for scale-up fabrication, which paves the way for commercialization of perovskite photovoltaic technology.

  9. A general approach for monodisperse colloidal perovskites, Chemistry of Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; Imhof, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel general method for synthesizing monodisperse colloidal perovskite particles at room temperature by postsynthesis addition of metal hydroxides to amorphous titania colloids. In previous work, we used titania particles to synthesize homogenously mixed silica-titania composite

  10. High pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy of perovskite iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, Saburo; Suenaga, Tomoya; Morimoto, Shotaro; Kawakami, Takateru; Kuzushita, Kaori; Takano, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy using a diamond anvil cell has been performed for perovskite iron oxides SrFeO 3 , CaFeO 3 and La 1/3 Sr 2/3 O 3 . The charge states and the magnetic dependency to pressure were determined. Pressure magnetic phase diagrams of these perovskite iron oxides are determined up to about 70 GPa. To be clear the magnetic ordered state, they are measured up to 7.8 T external magnetic fields at 4.5K. The phase transition of these perovskite oxides to ferromagnetisms with high magnetic ordered temperature is observed. In higher pressure, high spin-low spin transition of oxides besides CaFeO 3 is generated. The feature of Moessbauer spectroscopy, perovskite iron oxide and Moessbauer spectroscopy under high pressure are explained. (S.Y.)

  11. Hydrogen Bonding and Stability of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Marzouk, Asma; Bentria, El Tayeb; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Kais, Sabre; Alharbi, Fahhad H.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the efficiency of solar cells based on hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has exceeded the level needed for commercialization. However, existing perovskites solar cells (PSCs) suffer from several intrinsic instabilities, which prevent them from reaching industrial maturity, and stabilizing PSCs has become a critically important problem. Here we propose to stabilize PSCs chemically by strengthening the interactions between the organic cation and inorganic anion of the perovskite framework. In particular, we show that replacing the methylammonium cation with alternative protonated cations allows an increase in the stability of the perovskite by forming strong hydrogen bonds with the halide anions. This interaction also provides opportunities for tuning the electronic states near the bandgap. These mechanisms should have a universal character in different hybrid organic–inorganic framework materials that are widely used.

  12. The Young Visual Binary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian; Lindstrom, Kyle; Graham, Sean; Sullivan, Kendall; Biddle, Lauren; Skiff, Brian; Nofi, Larissa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Differences in the stellar and circumstellar properties of the components of young binaries provide key information about star and disk formation and evolution processes. Because objects with separations of a few to a few hundred astronomical units share a common environment and composition, multiple systems allow us to control for some of the factors which play into star formation. We are completing analysis of a rich sample of about 100 pre-main sequence binaries and higher order multiples, primarily located in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions. This poster will highlight some of out recent, exciting results. All reduced spectra and the results of our analysis will be publicly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  13. Enhanced Charge Collection with Passivation Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Hui; Luo, Jingshan; Son, Min-Kyu; Gao, Peng; Cho, Kyung Taek; Seo, Jiyoun; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-05-01

    The Al2 O3 passivation layer is beneficial for mesoporous TiO2 -based perovskite solar cells when it is deposited selectively on the compact TiO2 surface. Such a passivation layer suppressing surface recombination can be formed by thermal decomposition of the perovskite layer during post-annealing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Topological Crystalline Insulators and Dirac Octets in Anti-perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Timothy H.; Liu, Junwei; Fu, Liang

    2014-01-01

    We predict a new class of topological crystalline insulators (TCI) in the anti-perovskite material family with the chemical formula A$_3$BX. Here the nontrivial topology arises from band inversion between two $J=3/2$ quartets, which is described by a generalized Dirac equation for a "Dirac octet". Our work suggests that anti-perovskites are a promising new venue for exploring the cooperative interplay between band topology, crystal symmetry and electron correlation.

  15. Maximizing and stabilizing luminescence from halide perovskites with potassium passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba; Andaji-Garmaroudi, Zahra; Cacovich, Stefania; Stavrakas, Camille; Philippe, Bertrand; Richter, Johannes M.; Alsari, Mejd; Booker, Edward P.; Hutter, Eline M.; Pearson, Andrew J.; Lilliu, Samuele; Savenije, Tom J.; Rensmo, Håkan; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Friend, Richard H.; Stranks, Samuel D.

    2018-03-01

    Metal halide perovskites are of great interest for various high-performance optoelectronic applications. The ability to tune the perovskite bandgap continuously by modifying the chemical composition opens up applications for perovskites as coloured emitters, in building-integrated photovoltaics, and as components of tandem photovoltaics to increase the power conversion efficiency. Nevertheless, performance is limited by non-radiative losses, with luminescence yields in state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells still far from 100 per cent under standard solar illumination conditions. Furthermore, in mixed halide perovskite systems designed for continuous bandgap tunability (bandgaps of approximately 1.7 to 1.9 electronvolts), photoinduced ion segregation leads to bandgap instabilities. Here we demonstrate substantial mitigation of both non-radiative losses and photoinduced ion migration in perovskite films and interfaces by decorating the surfaces and grain boundaries with passivating potassium halide layers. We demonstrate external photoluminescence quantum yields of 66 per cent, which translate to internal yields that exceed 95 per cent. The high luminescence yields are achieved while maintaining high mobilities of more than 40 square centimetres per volt per second, providing the elusive combination of both high luminescence and excellent charge transport. When interfaced with electrodes in a solar cell device stack, the external luminescence yield—a quantity that must be maximized to obtain high efficiency—remains as high as 15 per cent, indicating very clean interfaces. We also demonstrate the inhibition of transient photoinduced ion-migration processes across a wide range of mixed halide perovskite bandgaps in materials that exhibit bandgap instabilities when unpassivated. We validate these results in fully operating solar cells. Our work represents an important advance in the construction of tunable metal halide perovskite films and interfaces that can

  16. Application of carbon nanotubes in perovskite solar cells: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Thet Tin; Debnath, Sujan

    2017-11-01

    Solar power, as alternative renewable energy source, has gained momentum in global energy generation in recent time. Solar photovoltaics (PV) systems now fulfill a significant portion of electricity demand and the capacity of solar PV capacity is growing every year. PV cells efficiency has improved significantly following decades of research, evolving into third generations of PV cells. These third generation PV cells are set out to provide low-cost and efficient PV systems, further improving the commercial competitiveness of solar energy generation. Among these latest generations of PV cells, perovskite solar cells have gained attraction due to the simple manufacturing process and the immense growth in PV efficiency in a short period of research and development. Despite these advantages, perovskite solar cells are known for the weak stability and decomposition in exposure to humidity and high temperature, hindering the possibility of commercialization. This paper will discuss the role of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in improving the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells, in various components such as perovskite layer and hole transport layer, as well as the application of CNTs in unique aspects. These includes the use of CNTs fiber in making the perovskite solar cells flexible, as well as simplification of perovskite PV production by using CNT flash evaporation printing process. Despite these advances, challenges remain in incorporation CNTs into perovskite such as lower conversion efficiency compared to rare earth metals and improvements need to be made. Thus, the paper will be also highlighting the CNTs materials suggested for further research and improvement of perovskite solar cells.

  17. Perovskite classification: An Excel spreadsheet to determine and depict end-member proportions for the perovskite- and vapnikite-subgroups of the perovskite supergroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locock, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Roger H.

    2018-04-01

    Perovskite mineral oxides commonly exhibit extensive solid-solution, and are therefore classified on the basis of the proportions of their ideal end-members. A uniform sequence of calculation of the end-members is required if comparisons are to be made between different sets of analytical data. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet has been programmed to assist with the classification and depiction of the minerals of the perovskite- and vapnikite-subgroups following the 2017 nomenclature of the perovskite supergroup recommended by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA). Compositional data for up to 36 elements are input into the spreadsheet as oxides in weight percent. For each analysis, the output includes the formula, the normalized proportions of 15 end-members, and the percentage of cations which cannot be assigned to those end-members. The data are automatically plotted onto the ternary and quaternary diagrams recommended by the IMA for depiction of perovskite compositions. Up to 200 analyses can be entered into the spreadsheet, which is accompanied by data calculated for 140 perovskite compositions compiled from the literature.

  18. The effect of strontium and barium doping on perovskite-structured energy materials for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Chan, Shun-Hsiang; Su, Wei-Fang

    2018-01-01

    Perovskite solar cell is a novel photovoltaic technology with the superior progress in efficiency and the simple solution processes. Develop lead-free or lead-reduced perovskite materials is a significant concern for high-performance perovskite solar cell. Among the alkaline earth metals, the Sr2+ and Ba2+ are suitable for Pb2+ replacement in perovskite film due to fitting Goldschmidt's tolerance factor. In this study, we adopted Ba-doped and Sr-doped perovskite structured materials with different doping levels, including 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mol%, to prepare perovskite solar cells. Both Ba-doped and Sr-doped perovskite structured materials have a related tendency in absorption behavior and surface morphology. At 10.0 mol% doping level, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of Sr-doped perovskite solar cells is only ∼0.5%, but the PCE of Ba-doped perovskite solar cells can be achieved to ∼9.7%. Ba-doped perovskite solar cells showed the acceptable photovoltaic characteristics than Sr-doped perovskite solar cells. Ba dopant can partially replace the amount of lead in the perovskite solar cells, and it could be a potential candidate in the field of lead-free or lead-reduced perovskite energy materials.

  19. Fabrication of Semiconducting Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Particles by Spray Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian-Yazdi, Mohammad-Reza; Eslamian, Morteza

    2018-01-01

    In this "nano idea" paper, three concepts for the preparation of methylammonium lead halide perovskite particles are proposed, discussed, and tested. The first idea is based on the wet chemistry preparation of the perovskite particles, through the addition of the perovskite precursor solution to an anti-solvent to facilitate the precipitation of the perovskite particles in the solution. The second idea is based on the milling of a blend of the perovskite precursors in the dry form, in order to allow for the conversion of the precursors to the perovskite particles. The third idea is based on the atomization of the perovskite solution by a spray nozzle, introducing the spray droplets into a hot wall reactor, so as to prepare perovskite particles, using the droplet-to-particle spray approach (spray pyrolysis). Preliminary results show that the spray technology is the most successful method for the preparation of impurity-free perovskite particles and perovskite paste to deposit perovskite thin films. As a proof of concept, a perovskite solar cell with the paste prepared by the sprayed perovskite powder was successfully fabricated.

  20. Fabrication of Semiconducting Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Particles by Spray Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian-Yazdi, Mohammad-Reza; Eslamian, Morteza

    2018-01-10

    In this "nano idea" paper, three concepts for the preparation of methylammonium lead halide perovskite particles are proposed, discussed, and tested. The first idea is based on the wet chemistry preparation of the perovskite particles, through the addition of the perovskite precursor solution to an anti-solvent to facilitate the precipitation of the perovskite particles in the solution. The second idea is based on the milling of a blend of the perovskite precursors in the dry form, in order to allow for the conversion of the precursors to the perovskite particles. The third idea is based on the atomization of the perovskite solution by a spray nozzle, introducing the spray droplets into a hot wall reactor, so as to prepare perovskite particles, using the droplet-to-particle spray approach (spray pyrolysis). Preliminary results show that the spray technology is the most successful method for the preparation of impurity-free perovskite particles and perovskite paste to deposit perovskite thin films. As a proof of concept, a perovskite solar cell with the paste prepared by the sprayed perovskite powder was successfully fabricated.

  1. Evolution in close binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yungel'son, L.R.; Masevich, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    Duality is the property most typical of stars. If one investigates how prevalent double stars are, making due allowance for selection effects, one finds that as many as 90 percent of all stars are paired. Contrary to tradition it is single stars that are out of the ordinary, and as will be shown presently even some of these may have been formed by coalescence of the members of binary systems. This review deals with the evolution of close binaries, defined as double-star systems whose evolution entails exchange of material between the two components

  2. Two-Photon Absorption in Organometallic Bromide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Walters, Grant

    2015-07-21

    Organometallic trihalide perovskites are solution processed semiconductors that have made great strides in third generation thin film light harvesting and light emitting optoelectronic devices. Recently it has been demonstrated that large, high purity single crystals of these perovskites can be synthesized from the solution phase. These crystals’ large dimensions, clean bandgap, and solid-state order, have provided us with a suitable medium to observe and quantify two-photon absorption in perovskites. When CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals are pumped with intense 800 nm light, we observe band-to-band photoluminescence at 572 nm, indicative of two-photon absorption. We report the nonlinear absorption coefficient of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites to be 8.6 cm GW-1 at 800 nm, comparable to epitaxial single crystal semiconductors of similar bandgap. We have leveraged this nonlinear process to electrically autocorrelate a 100 fs pulsed laser using a two-photon perovskite photodetector. This work demonstrates the viability of organometallic trihalide perovskites as a convenient and low-cost nonlinear absorber for applications in ultrafast photonics.

  3. Hybrid solar cells composed of perovskite and polymer photovoltaic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaometvarithorn, Apatsanan; Chuangchote, Surawut; Kumnorkaew, Pisist; Wootthikanokkhan, Jatuphorn

    2018-06-01

    Organic/inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells have recently attracted much attention in photovoltaic research, due to the devices show promising ways to achieve high efficiencies. The perovskite devices with high efficiencies, however, are typically fabricated in tandem solar cell which is complicated. In this research work, we introduce a solar cell device with the combination of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite and bulk heterojunction PCDTBT:PC70BM polymer without any tandem structure. The new integrated perovskite/polymer hybrid structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/PCDTBT:PC70BM/PC70BM/TiOx/Al provides higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices compared with conventional perovskite cell structure. With the optimized PCDTBT:PC70BM thickness of ∼70 nm, the highest PCE of 11.67% is achieved. Variation of conducting donor polymers in this new structure is also preliminary demonstrated. This study provides an attractively innovative structure and a promising design for further development of the new-generation solar cells.

  4. Thermodynamic stability and kinetic dissolution of perovskite in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, H.W.; Bancroft, G.M.; Fyfe, W.S.; Karkhanis, S.; Melling, P.; Nishijima, A.

    1981-01-01

    Ringwood and coworkers have recently proposed using titanates and zirconates as hosts for nuclear waste in the Synroc B process. Three minerals are used as hosts: perovskite (CaTiO 3 ), Ba-hollandite (BaAl 2 Ti 6 O 16 ), and zirconolite (CaZrTi 2 O 7 ). The Synroc philosophy relies heavily on geological and geochemical observations in selecting stable host minerals. Although it has been recognized that the Synroc minerals are not thermodynamically compatible with siliceous rocks, the minerals are considered to be thermodynamically stable in the presence of water, and it has been reported that these minerals are kinetically stable under high-temperature (up to 900 0 C) hydrothermal conditions. Detailed thermodynamic calculations and leach tests have been performed which demonstrate: first, that perovskite is thermodynamically unstable in all known natural waters; and second, that pervoskite leaches at a significant rate even at 100 0 C. Hydrothermal leach tests have been made on natural and synthetic perovskite and perovskite analogues between 100 0 C and 300 0 C. Weight losses and solution concentrations were monitored. The results reported previously in the literature also show that perovskite is kinetically unstable in the presence of common silicates. Our results show that perovskite may be no more stable than siliceous glasses, such as rhyolite, which have been studied previously. Geologic evidence from common alkaline rocks also indicates that hollandite and zirconolite probably will not survive in common rock matrices

  5. Two-Photon Absorption in Organometallic Bromide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Walters, Grant; Sutherland, Brandon R; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Shi, Dong; Comin, Riccardo; Sellan, Daniel P.; Bakr, Osman; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Organometallic trihalide perovskites are solution processed semiconductors that have made great strides in third generation thin film light harvesting and light emitting optoelectronic devices. Recently it has been demonstrated that large, high purity single crystals of these perovskites can be synthesized from the solution phase. These crystals’ large dimensions, clean bandgap, and solid-state order, have provided us with a suitable medium to observe and quantify two-photon absorption in perovskites. When CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals are pumped with intense 800 nm light, we observe band-to-band photoluminescence at 572 nm, indicative of two-photon absorption. We report the nonlinear absorption coefficient of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites to be 8.6 cm GW-1 at 800 nm, comparable to epitaxial single crystal semiconductors of similar bandgap. We have leveraged this nonlinear process to electrically autocorrelate a 100 fs pulsed laser using a two-photon perovskite photodetector. This work demonstrates the viability of organometallic trihalide perovskites as a convenient and low-cost nonlinear absorber for applications in ultrafast photonics.

  6. Tracking the formation of methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lijia; McLeod, John A.; Wang, Rongbin; Shen, Pengfei; Duhm, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    The formation mechanism of perovskite methylammonium lead triiodide (CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 ) was studied with in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on successive depositions of thermally evaporated methylammonium iodide (CH 3 NH 3 I) on a lead iodide (PbI 2 ) film. This deposition method mimics the “two-step” synthesis method commonly used in device fabrication. We find that several competing processes occur during the formation of perovskite CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 . Our most important finding is that during vapour deposition of CH 3 NH 3 I onto PbI 2 , at least two carbon species are present in the resulting material, while only one nitrogen species is present. This suggests that CH 3 NH 3 I can dissociate during the transition to a perovskite phase, and some of the resulting molecules can be incorporated into the perovskite. The effect of partial CH 3 NH 3 substitution with CH 3 was evaluated, and electronic structure calculations show that CH 3 defects would impact the photovoltaic performance in perovskite solar cells. The possibility that not all A sites in the APbI 3 perovskite are occupied by CH 3 NH 3 is therefore an important consideration when evaluating the performance of organometallic trihalide solar cells synthesized using typical approaches

  7. Study of transport properties of bodies with a perovskite structure: application to the MgSiO3 perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapusta, Benedicte

    1990-01-01

    After some recalls on transport in ionic solids (Nernst-Einstein relationship, variation of ionic conductivity, hybrid conduction, fast ionic conduction), this research thesis presents the physical properties of perovskites and more particularly the structure and stability of the MgSiO 3 perovskite: structure and elastic properties, electric conductivity and transport properties in compounds with a perovskite structure. Then, the author reports the experimental study of the KZnF 3 perovskite (a structural analogous of MgSiO 3 ): measurements of electric conductivity under pressure, measurements under atmospheric pressure, result discussion. The next part addresses the numerical simulation of MgSiO 3 : simulation techniques (generalities on molecular dynamics, model description), investigation of structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties, diffusion properties in quadratic phase [fr

  8. Designing pseudocubic perovskites with enhanced nanoscale polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, I. [Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, USA; Laws, W. J. [Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, USA; Wang, D. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, United Kingdom; Reaney, I. M. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, United Kingdom

    2017-11-20

    A crystal-chemical framework has been proposed for the design of pseudocubic perovskites with nanoscale ferroelectric order, and its applicability has been demonstrated using a series of representative solid solutions that combined ferroelectric (K0.5Bi0.5TiO3, BaTiO3, and PbTiO3) and antiferroelectric (Nd-substituted BiFeO3) end members. The pseudocubic structures obtained in these systems exhibited distortions that were coherent on a scale ranging from sub-nanometer to tens of nanometers, but, in all cases, the macroscopic distortion remained unresolvable even if using high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction. Different coherence lengths for the local atomic displacements account for the distinctly different dielectric, ferroelectric, and electromechanical properties exhibited by the samples. The guidelines identified provide a rationale for chemically tuning the coherence length to obtain the desired functional response.

  9. Ferroelastic Fingerprints in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite

    KAUST Repository

    Hermes, Ilka M.

    2016-02-12

    Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite materials show an outstanding performance in photovoltaic devices. However, certain material properties, especially the possible ferroic behavior, remain unclear. We observed distinct nanoscale periodic domains in the piezoresponse of MAPbI3(Cl) grains. The structure and the orientation of these striped domains indicate ferroelasticity as their origin. By correlating vertical and lateral piezoresponse force microscopy experiments performed at different sample orientations with x-ray diffraction, the preferred domain orientation was suggested to be the a1-a2-phase. The observation of these ferroelastic fingerprints appears to strongly depend on the film texture and thus the preparation route. The formation of the ferroelastic twin domains could be induced by internal strain during the cubic-tetragonal phase transition.

  10. Colour centre-free perovskite single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Pierre-Olivier; Petit, Johan; Goldner, Philippe; Viana, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Yb 3+ :YAlO 3 (YAP) and Yb 3+ :GdAlO 3 (GAP) are interesting 1 μm high-power laser media thanks to their very good thermo-mechanical properties. However, as-grown perovskite single crystals exhibit colour centres. Parasitic thermal load generated by these centres is deleterious for high-power laser action and can lead to crystal damages. Moreover these defects decrease Yb 3+ lifetime. They are related to trapped holes on the oxygen network. In the present work, several schemes to remove colour centres are presented. Attention is focused on cerium codoping, thermal annealing under reducing atmosphere and growth of non-stoechiometric compounds.

  11. Properties and applications of perovskite proton conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caetano Camilo de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview is given of the main types and principles of solid-state proton conductors with perovskite structure. Their properties are summarized in terms of the defect chemistry, proton transport and chemical stability. A good understanding of these subjects allows the manufacturing of compounds with the desired electrical properties, for application in renewable and sustainable energy devices. A few trends and highlights of the scientific advances are given for some classes of protonic conductors. Recent results and future prospect about these compounds are also evaluated. The high proton conductivity of barium cerate and zirconate based electrolytes lately reported in the literature has taken these compounds to a highlight position among the most studied conductor ceramic materials.

  12. High annealing temperature induced rapid grain coarsening for efficient perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaobing; Zhi, Lili; Jia, Yi; Li, Yahui; Cui, Xian; Zhao, Ke; Ci, Lijie; Ding, Kongxian; Wei, Jinquan

    2018-08-15

    Thermal annealing plays multiple roles in fabricating high quality perovskite films. Generally, it might result in large perovskite grains by elevating annealing temperature, but might also lead to decomposition of perovskite. Here, we study the effects of annealing temperature on the coarsening of perovskite grains in a temperature range from 100 to 250 °C, and find that the coarsening rate of the perovskite grain increase significantly with the annealing temperature. Compared with the perovskite films annealed at 100 °C, high quality perovskite films with large columnar grains are obtained by annealing perovskite precursor films at 250 °C for only 10 s. As a result, the power conversion efficiency of best solar cell increased from 12.35% to 16.35% due to its low recombination rate and high efficient charge transportation in solar cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Selective dissolution of halide perovskites as a step towards recycling solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong Jo; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kwon, Seung Lee; Park, So Yeon; Li, Zhen; Zhu, Kai; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-05-23

    Most research on perovskite solar cells has focused on improving power-conversion efficiency and stability. However, if one could refurbish perovskite solar cells, their stability might not be a critical issue. From the perspective of cost effectiveness, if failed, perovskite solar cells could be collected and recycled; reuse of their gold electrodes and transparent conducting glasses could reduce the price per watt of perovskite photovoltaic modules. Herein, we present a simple and effective method for removing the perovskite layer and reusing the mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate via selective dissolution. We find that the perovskite layer can be easily decomposed in polar aprotic solvents because of the reaction between polar aprotic solvents and Pb(2+) cations. After 10 cycles of recycling, a mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate-based perovskite solar cell still shows a constant power-conversion efficiency, thereby demonstrating the possibility of recycling perovskite solar cells.

  14. New lithium-ion conducting perovskite oxides related to (Li, La)TiO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    We describe the synthesis and lithium-ion conductivity of new perovskite-related oxides ... work on lithium-ion conducting perovskite oxides containing d0 cations. Keywords. ..... On the other hand, Nb/Ta compounds show a higher conductivity.

  15. Selective dissolution of halide perovskites as a step towards recycling solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong Jo; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kwon, Seung Lee; Park, So Yeon; Li, Zhen; Zhu, Kai; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-05-01

    Most research on perovskite solar cells has focused on improving power-conversion efficiency and stability. However, if one could refurbish perovskite solar cells, their stability might not be a critical issue. From the perspective of cost effectiveness, if failed, perovskite solar cells could be collected and recycled; reuse of their gold electrodes and transparent conducting glasses could reduce the price per watt of perovskite photovoltaic modules. Herein, we present a simple and effective method for removing the perovskite layer and reusing the mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate via selective dissolution. We find that the perovskite layer can be easily decomposed in polar aprotic solvents because of the reaction between polar aprotic solvents and Pb2+ cations. After 10 cycles of recycling, a mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate-based perovskite solar cell still shows a constant power-conversion efficiency, thereby demonstrating the possibility of recycling perovskite solar cells.

  16. Solar cells, structures including organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline films, and methods of preparation thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman; Peng, Wei; Wang, Lingfei

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for solar cells including an organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film (see fig. 1.1B), other devices including the organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, methods of making

  17. Light-Responsive Ion-Redistribution-Induced Resistive Switching in Hybrid Perovskite Schottky Junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Guan, Xinwei; Hu, Weijin; Haque, Mohammed; Wei, Nini; Liu, Zhixiong; Chen, Aitian; Wu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid Perovskites have emerged as a class of highly versatile functional materials with applications in solar cells, photodetectors, transistors, and lasers. Recently, there have also been reports on perovskite-based resistive switching (RS

  18. Growth and Characterization of PDMS-Stamped Halide Perovskite Single Microcrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoram, P.; Brittman, S.; Dzik, W.I.; Reek, J.N.H.; Garneett, E.C.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, halide perovskites have attracted considerable attention for optoelectronic applications, but further progress in this field requires a thorough understanding of the fundamental properties of these materials. Studying perovskites in their single-crystalline form provides a model system for

  19. The Binary Ties that Bind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mike

    2008-01-01

    As any reader of "About Campus" knows, binary oppositions contribute to the definitions of institutional types--the trade school versus the liberal arts college, for example. They help define disciplines and subdisciplines and the status differentials among them: consider the difference in intellectual cachet as one moves from linguistics to…

  20. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch

    2017-01-01

    their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal...

  1. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  2. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-07603Y Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  3. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  4. Binary logic is rich enough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapatrin, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure, and properties of the ordered double perovskite Sr_2CoOsO_6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Paul, Avijit; Reehuis, Manfred; Felser, Claudia; Abdala, Paula M.; Jansen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sr_2CoOsO_6, a new osmium based ordered semiconductor double perovskite was prepared by solid state synthesis from the respective binary oxides. Room temperature PXRD analysis shows the compound to be tetragonal [I4/m; a = 5.5503(1) Aa and c = 7.9320(1) Aa], whereas low temperature synchrotron data refinement has revealed a second monoclinic polymorph [I2/m; a = 5.4969(2) Aa, b = 5.4979(2) Aa, c = 8.0090(1) Aa and γ = 90.527(1) ] with a fully ordered rocksalt arrangement of cobalt and osmium atoms over the perovskite B-sites. Heat capacity and magnetic measurements indicate that Sr_2CoOsO_6 shows antiferromagnetic ordering below T_N = 108 K followed by a second magnetic transition at T_2 = 65 K. It was shown that the change from the tetragonal to the monoclinic phase occurs at T_N. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Phase transition in metastable perovskite Pb(AlNb)0,5O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhabko, T.E.; Olekhnovich, N.M.; Shilin, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Dielectric properties of metastable perovskite Pb(AlNb) 0.5 O 3 and X-ray temperature investigations of both perovskite and pyrochlore modifications of the given compound are studied. Samples with the perovskite structure are prepared from the pyrochlorephase at 4-5 GPa pressure and 1170-1270 K. Ferroelectric phase transition is shown to occur in the metastable perovskite phase Pb(AlNb) 0.5 O 3 at 170 K

  7. Astronomy of binary and multiple stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Various types of binary stars and methods for their observation are described in a popular form. Some models of formation and evolution of binary and multiple star systems are presented. It is concluded that formation of binary and multiple stars is a regular stage in the process of star production

  8. Coevolution of Binaries and Circumbinary Gaseous Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2018-04-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, and how the disk and binary interact. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disk that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disk. To probe how these interactions impact both binary eccentricity and disk structure evolution, we ran N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 for 10^4 binary orbital periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disk via a parametric instability and excite disk eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk causing eccentricity growth for both the disk and binary. Disks around sufficiently eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk and develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance (EOLR). This wave corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. We find that in all simulations, the binary semi-major axis decays due to dissipation from the viscous disk.

  9. Formation and evolution of compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain

  10. Recent Advances in Interface Engineering for Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells are considered as one of the most promising next-generation solar cells due to their advantages of low-cost precursors, high power conversion efficiency (PCE and easy of processing. In the past few years, the PCEs have climbed from a few to over 20% for perovskite solar cells. Recent developments demonstrate that perovskite exhibits ambipolar semiconducting characteristics, which allows for the construction of planar heterojunction (PHJ perovskite solar cells. PHJ perovskite solar cells can avoid the use of high-temperature sintered mesoporous metal oxides, enabling simple processing and the fabrication of flexible and tandem perovskite solar cells. In planar heterojunction materials, hole/electron transport layers are introduced between a perovskite film and the anode/cathode. The hole and electron transporting layers are expected to enhance exciton separation, charge transportation and collection. Further, the supporting layer for the perovskite film not only plays an important role in energy-level alignment, but also affects perovskite film morphology, which have a great effect on device performance. In addition, interfacial layers also affect device stability. In this review, recent progress in interfacial engineering for PHJ perovskite solar cells will be reviewed, especially with the molecular interfacial materials. The supporting interfacial layers for the optimization of perovskite films will be systematically reviewed. Finally, the challenges remaining in perovskite solar cells research will be discussed.

  11. Solar cells, structures including organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline films, and methods of preparation thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2017-03-02

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for solar cells including an organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film (see fig. 1.1B), other devices including the organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, methods of making organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, and the like.

  12. Binary Linear-Time Erasure Decoding for Non-Binary LDPC codes

    OpenAIRE

    Savin, Valentin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce the extended binary representation of non-binary codes, which corresponds to a covering graph of the bipartite graph associated with the non-binary code. Then we show that non-binary codewords correspond to binary codewords of the extended representation that further satisfy some simplex-constraint: that is, bits lying over the same symbol-node of the non-binary graph must form a codeword of a simplex code. Applied to the binary erasure channel, this descript...

  13. Computational study on oxynitride perovskites for CO_2 photoreduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, Ahmed M.; Zedan, Abdallah F.; AlQaradawi, Siham Y.; Salem, Noha M.; Allam, Nageh K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxynitride perovskites are investigated for photoelectrochemical CO_2 reduction. • They have small electron and hole effective masses, rendering higher mobility. • The effect of cation size on the band gap is investigated and discussed. • W-doping allowed the selection of specific CO_2 reduction products. - Abstract: The photocatalytic conversion of CO_2 into chemical fuels is an attractive route for recycling this greenhouse gas. However, the large scale application of such approach is limited by the low selectivity and activity of the currently used photocatalysts. Using first principles calculations, we report on the selection of optimum oxynitride perovskites as photocatalysts for photoelectrochemical CO_2 reduction. The results revealed six perovskites that perfectly straddle the carbon dioxide redox potential; namely, BaTaO_2N, SrTaO_2N, CaTaO_2N, LaTiO_2N, BaNbO_2N, and SrNbO_2N. The electronic structure and the effective mass of the selected candidates are discussed in details, the partial and total density of states illustrated the orbital hybridization and the contribution of each element in the valence and conduction band minima. The effect of cation size in the ABO_2N perovskites on the band gap is investigated and discussed. The optical properties of the selected perovskites are calculated to account for their photoactivity. Moreover, the effect of W doping on improving the selectivity of perovskites toward specific hydrocarbon product (methane) is discussed in details. This study reveals the promising optical and structural properties of oxynitride perovskite candidates for CO_2 photoreduction.

  14. Overcoming the Photovoltage Plateau in Large Bandgap Perovskite Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Adharsh; Stoddard, Ryan J; Jo, Sae Byeok; Hillhouse, Hugh W; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2018-05-09

    Development of large bandgap (1.80-1.85 eV E g ) perovskite is crucial for perovskite-perovskite tandem solar cells. However, the performance of 1.80-1.85 eV E g perovskite solar cells (PVKSCs) are significantly lagging their counterparts in the 1.60-1.75 eV E g range. This is because the photovoltage ( V oc ) does not proportionally increase with E g due to lower optoelectronic quality of conventional (MA,FA,Cs)Pb(I,Br) 3 and results in a photovoltage plateau ( V oc limited to 80% of the theoretical limit for ∼1.8 eV E g ). Here, we incorporate phenylethylammonium (PEA) in a mixed-halide perovskite composition to solve the inherent material-level challenges in 1.80-1.85 eV E g perovskites. The amount of PEA incorporation governs the topography and optoelectronic properties of resultant films. Detailed structural and spectroscopic characterization reveal the characteristic trends in crystalline size, orientation, and charge carrier recombination dynamics and rationalize the origin of improved material quality with higher luminescence. With careful interface optimization, the improved material characteristics were translated to devices and V oc values of 1.30-1.35 V were achieved, which correspond to 85-87% of the theoretical limit. Using an optimal amount of PEA incorporation to balance the increase in V oc and the decrease in charge collection, a highest power conversion efficiency of 12.2% was realized. Our results clearly overcome the photovoltage plateau in the 1.80-1.85 eV E g range and represent the highest V oc achieved for mixed-halide PVKSCs. This study provides widely translatable insights, an important breakthrough, and a promising platform for next-generation perovskite tandems.

  15. Detecting Malicious Code by Binary File Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius POPA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object, library and executable code is stored in binary files. Functionality of a binary file is altered when its content or program source code is changed, causing undesired effects. A direct content change is possible when the intruder knows the structural information of the binary file. The paper describes the structural properties of the binary object files, how the content can be controlled by a possible intruder and what the ways to identify malicious code in such kind of files. Because the object files are inputs in linking processes, early detection of the malicious content is crucial to avoid infection of the binary executable files.

  16. Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.

  17. Planar-Structure Perovskite Solar Cells with Efficiency beyond 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi; Chu, Zema; Wang, Pengyang; Yang, Xiaolei; Liu, Heng; Wang, Ye; Yin, Zhigang; Wu, Jinliang; Zhang, Xingwang; You, Jingbi

    2017-12-01

    Low temperature solution processed planar-structure perovskite solar cells gain great attention recently, while their power conversions are still lower than that of high temperature mesoporous counterpart. Previous reports are mainly focused on perovskite morphology control and interface engineering to improve performance. Here, this study systematically investigates the effect of precise stoichiometry, especially the PbI 2 contents on device performance including efficiency, hysteresis and stability. This study finds that a moderate residual of PbI 2 can deliver stable and high efficiency of solar cells without hysteresis, while too much residual PbI 2 will lead to serious hysteresis and poor transit stability. Solar cells with the efficiencies of 21.6% in small size (0.0737 cm 2 ) and 20.1% in large size (1 cm 2 ) with moderate residual PbI 2 in perovskite layer are obtained. The certificated efficiency for small size shows the efficiency of 20.9%, which is the highest efficiency ever recorded in planar-structure perovskite solar cells, showing the planar-structure perovskite solar cells are very promising. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A Direct Bandgap Copper-Antimony Halide Perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Brenda; Ramos, Estrella; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Alonso, Juan Carlos; Solis-Ibarra, Diego

    2017-07-12

    Since the establishment of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), there has been an intense search for alternative materials to replace lead and improve their stability toward moisture and light. As single-metal perovskite structures have yielded unsatisfactory performances, an alternative is the use of double perovskites that incorporate a combination of metals. To this day, only a handful of these compounds have been synthesized, but most of them have indirect bandgaps and/or do not have bandgaps energies well-suited for photovoltaic applications. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a unique mixed metal ⟨111⟩-oriented layered perovskite, Cs 4 CuSb 2 Cl 12 (1), that incorporates Cu 2+ and Sb 3+ into layers that are three octahedra thick (n = 3). In addition to being made of abundant and nontoxic elements, we show that this material behaves as a semiconductor with a direct bandgap of 1.0 eV and its conductivity is 1 order of magnitude greater than that of MAPbI 3 (MA = methylammonium). Furthermore, 1 has high photo- and thermal-stability and is tolerant to humidity. We conclude that 1 is a promising material for photovoltaic applications and represents a new type of layered perovskite structure that incorporates metals in 2+ and 3+ oxidation states, thus significantly widening the possible combinations of metals to replace lead in PSCs.

  19. Decreasing the electronic confinement in layered perovskites through intercalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew D; Pedesseau, Laurent; Kepenekian, Mikaël; Smith, Ian C; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2017-03-01

    We show that post-synthetic small-molecule intercalation can significantly reduce the electronic confinement of 2D hybrid perovskites. Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we explain structural, optical, and electronic effects of intercalating highly polarizable molecules in layered perovskites designed to stabilize the intercalants. Polarizable molecules in the organic layers substantially alter the optical and electronic properties of the inorganic layers. By calculating the spatially resolved dielectric profiles of the organic and inorganic layers within the hybrid structure, we show that the intercalants afford organic layers that are more polarizable than the inorganic layers. This strategy reduces the confinement of excitons generated in the inorganic layers and affords the lowest exciton binding energy for an n = 1 perovskite of which we are aware. We also demonstrate a method for computationally evaluating the exciton's binding energy by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the exciton, which includes an ab initio determination of the material's dielectric profile across organic and inorganic layers. This new semi-empirical method goes beyond the imprecise phenomenological approximation of abrupt dielectric-constant changes at the organic-inorganic interfaces. This work shows that incorporation of polarizable molecules in the organic layers, through intercalation or covalent attachment, is a viable strategy for tuning 2D perovskites towards mimicking the reduced electronic confinement and isotropic light absorption of 3D perovskites while maintaining the greater synthetic tunability of the layered architecture.

  20. Exciton Dynamics of 2D Hybrid Perovskite Nanocrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhu, Zhuan; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Xiao, Kai; Bao, Jiming; Yao, Yan; Li, Wenzhi

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have emerged as promising materials for applications in photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Among the perovskites, two dimensional (2D) perovskites are of great interests due to their remarkable optical and electrical properties as well as the flexibility of material selection for the organic and inorganic moieties. In this study, we demonstrate the solution-phase growth of large square-shaped single-crystalline 2D hybrid perovskites of (C6H5C2H4 NH3) 2 PbBr4 with a few unit cells thickness. Compared to the bulk crystal, a band gap shift and new photoluminescence (PL) peak are observed from the hybrid perovskite sheets. Color of the 2D crystals can be tuned by adjusting the sheet thickness. Pump-probe spectroscopy is used to investigate the exciton dynamics and exhibits a biexponential decay with an amplitude-weighted lifetime of 16.7 ps. Such high-quality (C6H5C2H4 NH3) 2 PbBr4 sheets are expected to have high PL quantum efficiency which can be adopted for light-emitting devices. National Science Foundation (Grant No. CMMI-1334417 and DMR-1506640).

  1. LSFM perovskites as cathodes for the electrochemical reduction of NO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, K.; Skou, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Six La0.6Sr0.4Fe1-xMnO3-delta (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) perovskite compounds have been synthesised by the citric-acid route. The perovskites have been characterised by powder XRD and are shown to belong to the hexagonal crystal system. The perovskites are also evaluated by TG...... degrees C on a ceria based electrolyte. Only La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.8Mn0.2O3-delta (LSFM020) and La0.6Sr0.4FeO3-delta (LSFM000) show significant activity for the reduction of NO. This can probably be related to the high redox capacity of these compounds. The activity of the perovskites for the reduction of oxygen...... increases systematically with increasing iron content. The selectivity of the perovskites towards the reduction of NO with regard to the reduction of O-2 is highest at the lowest temperatures. (c) 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V....

  2. Effect of Perovskite Film Preparation on Performance of Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxian Pei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the perovskite solar cells (PSCs, the performance of the PSCs has become the focus of the research by improving the crystallization and morphology of the perovskite absorption layer. In this thesis, based on the structure of mesoporous perovskite solar cells (MPSCs, we designed the experiments to improve the photovoltaic performance of the PSCs by improved processing technique, which mainly includes the following two aspects. Before spin-coating PbI2 solution, we control the substrate temperature to modify the crystal quality and morphology of perovskite films. On the other hand, before annealing, we keep PbI2 films for the different drying time at room temperature to optimize films morphology. In our trials, it was found that the substrate temperature is more important in determining the photovoltaic performance than drying time. These results indicate that the crystallization and morphology of perovskite films affect the absorption intensity and obviously influence the short circuit current density of MPSCs. Utilizing films prepared by mentioning two methods, MPSCs with maximum power conversion efficiency of over 4% were fabricated for the active area of 0.5 × 0.5 cm2.

  3. Magnetoresistance and magnetic properties of the double perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp, J.B.; Majewski, P.; Resinger, D.; Gepraegs, S; Opel, M.; Reb, A.; Alff, L.; Gross, R.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic double perovskite materials of composition A 2 BB'O 6 with A an alkaline earth ion and B and B' a magnetic and non-magnetic transition metal or lanthanide ions, respectively, have attracted considerable attention due to their interesting magnetic properties ranging from antiferromagnetism to geometrically frustrated spin systems and ferromagnetism. With respect to application in spin electronics, the ferromagnetic double perovskites with BB' = CrW, CrRe, FeMo or FeRe and A = Ca, Ba, Sr are highly interesting due to their in most cases high Curie temperatures well above room temperature and their half-magnetic behaviour. Here, we summarize the structural, magnetotransport, magnetic and optical properties of the ferromagnetic double perovskites and discuss the underlying physics. In particular, we discuss the impact of the steric effects resulting in a distorted perovskite structure, doping effects obtained by a partial replacing of the divalent alkaline earth ions on the A site by a trivalent lanthanide as well as B/B' cationic disorder on the Curie temperature T C , the saturation magnetization and the magnetotransport properties. Our results support the presence of a kinetic energy driven mechanism in the ferromagnetic double perovskites, where ferromagnetism is stabilised by a hybridization of states of the non-magnetic B'- site positioned in between the high spin B-sites. (author)

  4. A ROSAT Survey of Contact Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, M. T.; Gettel, S. J.; McKay, T. A.

    2006-01-01

    Contact binary stars are common variable stars that are all believed to emit relatively large fluxes of X-rays. In this work we combine a large new sample of contact binary stars derived from the ROTSE-I telescope with X-ray data from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) to estimate the X-ray volume emissivity of contact binary stars in the Galaxy. We obtained X-ray fluxes for 140 contact binaries from the RASS, as well as two additional stars observed by the XMM-Newton observatory. From these data we confirm the emission of X-rays from all contact binary systems, with typical luminosities of approximately 1.0×1030 ergs s-1. Combining calculated luminosities with an estimated contact binary space density, we find that contact binaries do not have strong enough X-ray emission to account for a significant portion of the Galactic X-ray background.

  5. Binary evolution and observational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of close binaries is discussed in connection with problems concerning mass and angular momentum losses. Theoretical and observational evidence for outflow of matter, leaving the system during evolution is given: statistics on total masses and mass ratios, effects of the accretion of the mass gaining component, the presence of streams, disks, rings, circumstellar envelopes, period changes, abundance changes in the atmosphere. The effects of outflowing matter on the evolution is outlined, and estimates of the fraction of matter expelled by the loser, and leaving the system, are given. The various time scales involved with evolution and observation are compared. Examples of non conservative evolution are discussed. Problems related to contact phases, on mass and energy losses, in connection with entropy changes are briefly analysed. For advanced stages the disruption probabilities for supernova explosions are examined. A global picture is given for the evolution of massive close binaries, from ZAMS, through WR phases, X-ray phases, leading to runaway pulsars or to a binary pulsar and later to a millisecond pulsar. (Auth.)

  6. X rays from radio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to the radio binary systems CC Cas, AR Lac, β Per (Algol), β Lyr, b Per and Cyg X-1. It is stated that a thermal interpretation of the radiation from Algol requires a much larger x-ray flux than the observed value of 3.8 x 10 -11 erg/cm 2 /sec/keV in the 2 to 6 keV energy range. Observations of some non-thermal flares, together with the small size of the radio source in Algol, indicate that the radio emission is non-thermal in nature. The radio emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation and it is suggested that the observed x-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the light of the primary star by the radio electrons. The x-ray emission from other radio binaries is also calculated using this model. The energy for the radio electrons can arise from annihilation of magnetic lines connecting the binary stars, twisted by the rotation of the stars. (U.K.)

  7. Quantum mechanical studies of complex ferroelectric perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Nicholas John

    In many electronic device applications, there is a need to interconvert electrical energy and other types of energy. Ferroelectric materials, which possess a voltage-dependent polarization, can enable this energy conversion process. Because of the broad interest in ferroelectric materials for these devices, there is a critical research effort, both experimental and theoretical, to understand these materials and aid in the development of materials with improved properties. This thesis presents detailed quantum mechanical investigations of the behavior of a complex ferroelectric perovskite under applied stress. In particular, we have chosen to study the solid solution PbZr1-xTix O3 (PZT). Since the study of ferroelectricity involves understanding both its structural and electronic signatures in materials, it has necessitated the development of a novel theoretical technique which improves the accuracy of the pseudopotentials used in our density functional theory calculations as well as a new method for constructing three-dimensional atomistic responses to small amounts of external stress. To examine the material's behavior under larger amounts of stress, we have studied the behavior of a composition of PZT lying near a structural phase boundary. On either side of the phase boundary, the material is characterized by a different polarization direction and may easily be switched between phases by applying external stress. In addition to stress-induced phase transitions, most ferroelectric materials also have composition dependent phase boundaries. Since different compositions of PZT would require increased computational effort, we have formulated an improved virtual crystal approach that makes tractable the study of the entire composition range. Using this method, we have been able to show for the first time via first-principles calculations, a composition dependent phase transition in a ferroelectric material. This thesis has accomplished three important goals: new

  8. Perovskite oxide SrTiO3 as an efficient electron transporter for hybrid perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Ashok

    2014-12-11

    In this work, we explored perovskite oxide SrTiO3 (STO) for the first time as the electron-transporting layer in organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells. The steady-state photoluminescence (PL) quenching and transient absorption experiments revealed efficient photoelectron transfer from CH3NH3PbI3-xClx to STO. Perovskite solar cells with meso-STO exhibit an open circuit voltage of 1.01 V, which is 25% higher than the value of 0.81 V achieved in the control device with the conventional meso-TiO2. In addition, an increase of 17% in the fill factor was achieved by tailoring the thickness of the meso-STO layer. We found that the application of STO leads to uniform perovskite layers with large grains and complete surface coverage, leading to a high shunt resistance and improved performance. These findings suggest STO as a competitive candidate as electron transport material in organometal perovskite solar cells.

  9. Paintable Carbon-Based Perovskite Solar Cells with Engineered Perovskite/Carbon Interface Using Carbon Nanotubes Dripping Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jaehoon; Lee, Kisu; Yun, Juyoung; Yu, Haejun; Lee, Jungsup; Jang, Jyongsik

    2017-10-01

    Paintable carbon electrode-based perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are of particular interest due to their material and fabrication process costs, as well as their moisture stability. However, printing the carbon paste on the perovskite layer limits the quality of the interface between the perovskite layer and carbon electrode. Herein, an attempt to enhance the performance of the paintable carbon-based PSCs is made using a modified solvent dripping method that involves dripping of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which is dispersed in chlorobenzene solution. This method allows CNTs to penetrate into both the perovskite film and carbon electrode, facilitating fast hole transport between the two layers. Furthermore, this method is results in increased open circuit voltage (V oc ) and fill factor (FF), providing better contact at the perovskite/carbon interfaces. The best devices made with CNT dripping show 13.57% power conversion efficiency and hysteresis-free performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Perovskite oxide SrTiO3 as an efficient electron transporter for hybrid perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Ashok; Wu, Kewei; Sheikh, Arif D.; Alarousu, Erkki; Mohammed, Omar F.; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we explored perovskite oxide SrTiO3 (STO) for the first time as the electron-transporting layer in organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells. The steady-state photoluminescence (PL) quenching and transient absorption experiments revealed efficient photoelectron transfer from CH3NH3PbI3-xClx to STO. Perovskite solar cells with meso-STO exhibit an open circuit voltage of 1.01 V, which is 25% higher than the value of 0.81 V achieved in the control device with the conventional meso-TiO2. In addition, an increase of 17% in the fill factor was achieved by tailoring the thickness of the meso-STO layer. We found that the application of STO leads to uniform perovskite layers with large grains and complete surface coverage, leading to a high shunt resistance and improved performance. These findings suggest STO as a competitive candidate as electron transport material in organometal perovskite solar cells.

  11. Symmetry mismatch-driven perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for perovskite/brownmillerite heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Zhicheng; Guan, Xiangxiang; Shen, Xi; Zhang, Jine; Han, Furong; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Hongrui; Yan, Xi; Zhang, Qinghua; Gu, Lin; Hu, Fengxia; Yu, Richeng; Shen, Baogen; Sun, Jirong

    2018-05-15

    Grouping different transition metal oxides together by interface engineering is an important route toward emergent phenomenon. While most of the previous works focused on the interface effects in perovskite/perovskite heterostructures, here we reported on a symmetry mismatch-driven spin reorientation toward perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in perovskite/brownmillerite heterostructures, which is scarcely seen in tensile perovskite/perovskite heterostructures. We show that alternately stacking perovskite La 2/3 Sr 1/3 MnO 3 and brownmillerite LaCoO 2.5 causes a strong interface reconstruction due to symmetry discontinuity at interface: neighboring MnO 6 octahedra and CoO 4 tetrahedra at the perovskite/brownmillerite interface cooperatively relax in a manner that is unavailable for perovskite/perovskite interface, leading to distinct orbital reconstructions and thus the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Moreover, the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is robust, with an anisotropy constant two orders of magnitude greater than the in-plane anisotropy of the perovskite/perovskite interface. The present work demonstrates the great potential of symmetry engineering in designing artificial materials on demand.

  12. Fast Postmoisture Treatment of Luminescent Perovskite Films for Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoran; Li, Xiaomin; Yuan, Mingjian; Yang, Xuyong

    2018-04-01

    Despite the recent advances in the performance of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs), the effects of water on the perovskite emissive layer and its electroluminescence are still unclear, even though it has been previously demonstrated that moisture has a significant impact on the quality of perovskite films in the fabrication process of perovskite solar cells and is a prerequisite for obtaining high-performance PeLEDs. Here, the effects of postmoisture on the luminescent CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 (MAPbBr 3 ) perovskite films are systematically investigated. It is found that postmoisture treatment can efficiently control the morphology and growth of perovskite films and only a fast moisture exposure at a 60% high relative humidity results in significantly improved crystallinity, carrier lifetime, and photoluminescence quantum yield of perovskite films. With the optimized moisture-treated perovskite films, a high-performance PeLED is fabricated, exhibiting a maximum current efficiency of 20.4 cd A -1 , which is an almost 20-fold enhancement when compared with perovskite films without moisture treatment. The results provide valuable insights into the moisture-assisted growth of luminescent perovskite films and will aid in the development of high-performance perovskite light-emitting devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Structural Versatility for Functional Materials Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparov, Bayrammurad; Mitzi, David B

    2016-04-13

    Although known since the late 19th century, organic-inorganic perovskites have recently received extraordinary research community attention because of their unique physical properties, which make them promising candidates for application in photovoltaic (PV) and related optoelectronic devices. This review will explore beyond the current focus on three-dimensional (3-D) lead(II) halide perovskites, to highlight the great chemical flexibility and outstanding potential of the broader class of 3-D and lower dimensional organic-based perovskite family for electronic, optical, and energy-based applications as well as fundamental research. The concept of a multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid, in which the organic and inorganic structural components provide intentional, unique, and hopefully synergistic features to the compound, represents an important contemporary target.

  14. Atomically thin two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Letian; Wong, Andrew B.; Yu, Yi; Lai, Minliang; Kornienko, Nikolay; Eaton, Samuel W.; Fu, Anthony; Bischak, Connor G.; Ma, Jie; Ding, Tina; Ginsberg, Naomi S.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Yang, Peidong

    2015-09-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which have proved to be promising semiconductor materials for photovoltaic applications, have been made into atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) sheets. We report the solution-phase growth of single- and few-unit-cell-thick single-crystalline 2D hybrid perovskites of (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4 with well-defined square shape and large size. In contrast to other 2D materials, the hybrid perovskite sheets exhibit an unusual structural relaxation, and this structural change leads to a band gap shift as compared to the bulk crystal. The high-quality 2D crystals exhibit efficient photoluminescence, and color tuning could be achieved by changing sheet thickness as well as composition via the synthesis of related materials.

  15. Intrinsic white-light emission from layered hybrid perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohner, Emma R; Jaffe, Adam; Bradshaw, Liam R; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2014-09-24

    We report on the second family of layered perovskite white-light emitters with improved photoluminescence quantum efficiencies (PLQEs). Upon near-ultraviolet excitation, two new Pb-Cl and Pb-Br perovskites emit broadband "cold" and "warm" white light, respectively, with high color rendition. Emission from large, single crystals indicates an origin from the bulk material and not surface defect sites. The Pb-Br perovskite has a PLQE of 9%, which is undiminished after 3 months of continuous irradiation. Our mechanistic studies indicate that the emission has contributions from strong electron-phonon coupling in a deformable lattice and from a distribution of intrinsic trap states. These hybrids provide a tunable platform for combining the facile processability of organic materials with the structural definition of crystalline, inorganic solids.

  16. Solution-Phase Synthesis of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Eaton, Samuel W; Yu, Yi; Dou, Letian; Yang, Peidong

    2015-07-29

    Halide perovskites have attracted much attention over the past 5 years as a promising class of materials for optoelectronic applications. However, compared to hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, the study of their pure inorganic counterparts, like cesium lead halides (CsPbX3), lags far behind. Here, a catalyst-free, solution-phase synthesis of CsPbX3 nanowires (NWs) is reported. These NWs are single-crystalline, with uniform growth direction, and crystallize in the orthorhombic phase. Both CsPbBr3 and CsPbI3 are photoluminescence active, with composition-dependent temperature and self-trapping behavior. These NWs with a well-defined morphology could serve as an ideal platform for the investigation of fundamental properties and the development of future applications in nanoscale optoelectronic devices based on all-inorganic perovskites.

  17. Silver copper fluoride: A novel perovskite cathode for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wei; Amatucci, Glenn G.

    2017-09-01

    An electrochemically active nanostructured silver copper fluoride (SCF) perovskite, AgCuF3, was synthesized via a mechanochemical reaction between AgF and CuF2 precursors. Phase composition and electrochemical properties of the SCF perovskites produced under various synthetic parameters were studied. The optimum SCF perovskite sample exhibited an appreciable electrochemical performance through the use of conductive carbon matrix in a primary lithium half cell. A high specific capacity of 270 mAh g-1 was achieved at a cutoff voltage of 2 V with 190 mAh g-1 above 3 V, leading to a total volumetric energy density of 3666 Wh L-1 at >3 V and 4848 Wh L-1 at >2 V.

  18. Perovskite solid electrolytes: Structure, transport properties and fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, N.; Knight, K.S.; Ellis, B.

    1995-01-01

    Doped barium cerate perovskites, first investigated by Iwahara and co-workers, have ionic conductivities of the order of 20 mS/cm at 800 degrees C making them attractive as fuel cell electrolytes for this temperature region. They have been used to construct laboratory scale fuel cells, which...... vapour transfer in a cell in which the perovskite is exposed to wet hydrogen on both sides. The evolution of transport properties with temperature is discussed in relation to structure. Neutron diffraction studies of doped and undoped barium cerate are reported, revealing a series of phase transitions...... between ambient temperature and 1000 degrees C. The available literature on chemical stability of cerate perovskites to reduction and attack by carbon dioxide is reviewed in brief....

  19. Conformal Organohalide Perovskites Enable Lasing on Spherical Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-28

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Conformal integration of semiconductor gain media is broadly important in on-chip optical communication technology. Here we deploy atomic layer deposition to create conformally deposited organohalide perovskites-an attractive semiconducting gain medium-with the goal of achieving coherent light emission on spherical optical cavities. We demonstrate the high quality of perovskite gain media fabricated with this method, achieving optical gain in the nanosecond pulse regime with a threshold for amplified spontaneous emission of 65 ± 8 μJ cm-2. Through variable stripe length measurements, we report a net modal gain of 125 ± 22 cm-1 and a gain bandwidth of 50 ± 14 meV. Leveraging the high quality of the gain medium, we conformally coat silica microspheres with perovskite to form whispering gallery mode optical cavities and achieve lasing.

  20. Local Polar Fluctuations in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Omer; Guo, Yinsheng; Tan, Liang Z.; Egger, David A.; Hull, Trevor; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Zheng, Fan; Heinz, Tony F.; Kronik, Leeor; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Owen, Jonathan S.; Rappe, Andrew M.; Pimenta, Marcos A.; Brus, Louis E.

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid lead-halide perovskites have emerged as an excellent class of photovoltaic materials. Recent reports suggest that the organic molecular cation is responsible for local polar fluctuations that inhibit carrier recombination. We combine low-frequency Raman scattering with first-principles molecular dynamics (MD) to study the fundamental nature of these local polar fluctuations. Our observations of a strong central peak in the cubic phase of both hybrid (CH3 NH3 PbBr3 ) and all-inorganic (CsPbBr3 ) lead-halide perovskites show that anharmonic, local polar fluctuations are intrinsic to the general lead-halide perovskite structure, and not unique to the dipolar organic cation. MD simulations indicate that head-to-head Cs motion coupled to Br face expansion, occurring on a few hundred femtosecond time scale, drives the local polar fluctuations in CsPbBr3 .

  1. Local Polar Fluctuations in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, Omer; Guo, Yinsheng; Tan, Liang Z.; Egger, David A.; Hull, Trevor; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Zheng, Fan; Heinz, Tony F.; Kronik, Leeor; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Owen, Jonathan S.; Rappe, Andrew M.; Pimenta, Marcos A.; Brus, Louis E.

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid lead-halide perovskites have emerged as an excellent class of photovoltaic materials. Recent reports suggest that the organic molecular cation is responsible for local polar fluctuations that inhibit carrier recombination. We combine low-frequency Raman scattering with first-principles molecular dynamics (MD) to study the fundamental nature of these local polar fluctuations. Our observations of a strong central peak in the cubic phase of both hybrid (CH3NH3PbBr3) and all-inorganic (CsPbBr3) leadhalide perovskites show that anharmonic, local polar fluctuations are intrinsic to the general lead-halide perovskite structure, and not unique to the dipolar organic cation. MD simulations indicate that head-tohead Cs motion coupled to Br face expansion, occurring on a few hundred femtosecond time scale, drives the local polar fluctuations in CsPbBr3.

  2. Research progress on organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials and solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Luis K.; Qi, Yabing

    2018-03-01

    Owing to the intensive research efforts across the world since 2009, perovskite solar cell power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) are now comparable or even better than several other photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In this topical review article, we review recent progress in the field of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials and solar cells. We associate these achievements with the fundamental knowledge gained in the perovskite research. The major recent advances in the fundamental perovskite material and solar cell research are highlighted, including the current efforts in visualizing the dynamical processes (in operando) taking place within a perovskite solar cell under operating conditions. We also discuss the existing technological challenges. Based on a survey of recently published works, we point out that to move the perovskite PV technology forward towards the next step of commercialization, what perovskite PV technology need the most in the coming next few years is not only further PCE enhancements, but also up-scaling, stability, and lead-toxicity.

  3. Ultrasmooth Perovskite Film via Mixed Anti-Solvent Strategy with Improved Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Yang, Songwang; Lei, Lei; Cao, Qipeng; Shao, Jun; Zhang, Sheng; Liu, Yan

    2017-02-01

    Most antisolvents employed in previous research were miscible with perovskite precursor solution. They always led to fast formation of perovskite even if the intermediate stage existed, which was not beneficial to obtain high quality perovskite films and made the formation process less controllable. In this work, a novel ethyl ether/n-hexane mixed antisolvent (MAS) was used to achieve high nucleation density and slow down the formation process of perovskite, producing films with improved orientation of grains and ultrasmooth surfaces. These high quality films exhibited efficient charge transport at the interface of perovskite/hole transport material and perovskite solar cells based on these films showed greatly improved performance with the best power conversion efficiency of 17.08%. This work also proposed a selection principle of MAS and showed that solvent engineering by designing the mixed antisolvent system can lead to the fabrication of high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  4. Studies of Fe-Co based perovskite cathodes with different A-site cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Iron-cobalt based perovskite cathodes with different A-site cations ((Ln(0.6)Sr(0.4))(0.99)Fe0.8Co0.2O3-delta, where Ln is La, Pr, Sm or Gd) have been synthesised, characterised by a powder XRD, dilatometry, 4-point DC conductivity measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS......) on cone shaped electrodes. In addition to this scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterise the bars. XRD revealed that only the La-containing perovskite was hexagonal. The Pr and Sm perovskites were orthorhombic. The gadolinium-based perovskite was a two phase system consisting...... of an orthorhombic and a cubic perovskite phase. The thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) increased systematically with a decrease in the size of the A-site cation until the gadoliniurn-containing perovskite where the TEC decreases abruptly. The total electric conductivity was the highest for the La-based perovskite...

  5. Excitonic Effects in Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, Matthew C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Xihan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lu, Haipeng [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Ye [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-01

    The exciton binding energy in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) is about 10 meV, around 1/3 of the available thermal energy (kBT ~ 26 meV) at room temperature. Thus, exciton populations are not stable at room temperature at moderate photoexcited carrier densities. However, excitonic resonances dominate the absorption onset. Furthermore, these resonances determine the transient absorbance and transient reflectance spectra. The exciton binding energy is a reflection of the Coulomb interaction energy between photoexcited electrons and holes. As such, it serves as a marker for the strength of electron/hole interactions and impacts a variety of phenomena, such as, absorption, radiative recombination, and Auger recombination. In this Perspective, we discuss the role of excitons and excitonic resonances in the optical properties of lead-halide perovskite semiconductors. Finally, we discuss how the strong light-matter interactions induce an optical stark effect splitting the doubly spin degenerate ground exciton states and are easily observed at room temperature.

  6. A hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chiho; Huan, Tran Doan; Krishnan, Sridevi; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) have been attracting a great deal of attention due to their versatility of electronic properties and fabrication methods. We prepare a dataset of 1,346 HOIPs, which features 16 organic cations, 3 group-IV cations and 4 halide anions. Using a combination of an atomic structure search method and density functional theory calculations, the optimized structures, the bandgap, the dielectric constant, and the relative energies of the HOIPs are uniformly prepared and validated by comparing with relevant experimental and/or theoretical data. We make the dataset available at Dryad Digital Repository, NoMaD Repository, and Khazana Repository (http://khazana.uconn.edu/), hoping that it could be useful for future data-mining efforts that can explore possible structure-property relationships and phenomenological models. Progressive extension of the dataset is expected as new organic cations become appropriate within the HOIP framework, and as additional properties are calculated for the new compounds found.

  7. Topological Oxide Insulator in Cubic Perovskite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hosub; Rhim, Sonny H.; Im, Jino; Freeman, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of topologically protected conducting states with the chiral spin texture is the most prominent feature at the surface of topological insulators. On the application side, large band gap and high resistivity to distinguish surface from bulk degrees of freedom should be guaranteed for the full usage of the surface states. Here, we suggest that the oxide cubic perovskite YBiO3, more than just an oxide, defines itself as a new three-dimensional topological insulator exhibiting both a large bulk band gap and a high resistivity. Based on first-principles calculations varying the spin-orbit coupling strength, the non-trivial band topology of YBiO3 is investigated, where the spin-orbit coupling of the Bi 6p orbital plays a crucial role. Taking the exquisite synthesis techniques in oxide electronics into account, YBiO3 can also be used to provide various interface configurations hosting exotic topological phenomena combined with other quantum phases. PMID:23575973

  8. Perovskite Solar Cells: Potentials, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heralded as a major scientific breakthrough of 2013, organic/inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells have ushered in a new era of renewed efforts at increasing the efficiency and lowering the cost of solar energy. As a potential game changer in the mix of technologies for alternate energy, it has emerged from a modest beginning in 2012 to efficiencies being claimed at 20.1% in a span of just two years. This remarkable progress, encouraging at one end, also points to the possibility that the potential may still be far from being fully realized. With greater insight into the photophysics involved and optimization of materials and methods, this technology stands to match or even exceed the efficiencies for single crystal silicon solar cells. With thin film solution processability, applicability to flexible substrates, and being free of liquid electrolyte, this technology combines the benefits of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs, Organic Photovoltaics (OPVs, and thin film solar cells. In this review we present a brief historic perspective to this development, take a cognizance of the current state of the art, and highlight challenges and the opportunities.

  9. Tracking the formation of methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lijia, E-mail: ljliu@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jmcleod@suda.edu.cn; McLeod, John A., E-mail: ljliu@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jmcleod@suda.edu.cn; Wang, Rongbin; Shen, Pengfei; Duhm, Steffen [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, 199 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2015-08-10

    The formation mechanism of perovskite methylammonium lead triiodide (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) was studied with in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on successive depositions of thermally evaporated methylammonium iodide (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I) on a lead iodide (PbI{sub 2}) film. This deposition method mimics the “two-step” synthesis method commonly used in device fabrication. We find that several competing processes occur during the formation of perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}. Our most important finding is that during vapour deposition of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I onto PbI{sub 2}, at least two carbon species are present in the resulting material, while only one nitrogen species is present. This suggests that CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I can dissociate during the transition to a perovskite phase, and some of the resulting molecules can be incorporated into the perovskite. The effect of partial CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3} substitution with CH{sub 3} was evaluated, and electronic structure calculations show that CH{sub 3} defects would impact the photovoltaic performance in perovskite solar cells. The possibility that not all A sites in the APbI{sub 3} perovskite are occupied by CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3} is therefore an important consideration when evaluating the performance of organometallic trihalide solar cells synthesized using typical approaches.

  10. Perovskite solar cells for roll-to-roll fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddin Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite solar cell (PSCs is considered as the game changer in emerging photovoltaics technology. The highest certified efficiency is 22% with high temperature processed (∼500 °C TiO2 based electron transport layer (ETL. High temperature process is a rudimentary hindrance towards roll-to-roll processing of PSCs on flexible substrates. Low temperature solution process (<150 °C ZnO based ETL is one of the most promising candidate for large scale roll-to-roll fabrication of cells as it has nearly identical electron affinity (4.2 eV of TiO2. The mixed organic perovskite (MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 devices with Al doped ZnO (AZO ETL demonstrate average cell efficiency over 16%, which is the highest ever reported efficiency for this device configuration. The energy level alignment and related interfacial charge transport dynamics at the interface of ZnO and perovskite films and the adjacent charge transport layers are investigated. Significantly improved device stability, hysteresis free device photocurrent have been observed in MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 cells. A systematic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, frequency dependent capacitance spectra, surface morphology and topography characterization have been conducted to understand the role of interfacial electronic properties between perovskite and neighbouring layers in perovskite device. A standardized degradation study, interfacial electronic property and capacitive spectra analysis of aged device, have been measured to understand the enhanced device stability in mixed MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 cells. Slow perovskite material decomposition rate and augmented device lifetime with AZO based devices have been found to be correlated with the more hydrophobic and acidic nature of AZO surface compared to pristine ZnO film.

  11. GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Khan, Fazeel Mahmood, E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu [Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-09-10

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy.

  12. GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Khan, Fazeel Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy

  13. Methods for producing single crystal mixed halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Yixin

    2017-07-11

    An aspect of the present invention is a method that includes contacting a metal halide and a first alkylammonium halide in a solvent to form a solution and maintaining the solution at a first temperature, resulting in the formation of at least one alkylammonium halide perovskite crystal, where the metal halide includes a first halogen and a metal, the first alkylammonium halide includes the first halogen, the at least one alkylammonium halide perovskite crystal includes the metal and the first halogen, and the first temperature is above about 21.degree. C.

  14. Single Crystals of Organolead Halide Perovskites: Growth, Characterization, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Wei

    2017-04-01

    With the soaring advancement of organolead halide perovskite solar cells rising from a power conversion efficiency of merely 3% to more than 22% shortly in five years, researchers’ interests on this big material family have been greatly spurred. So far, both in-depth studies on the fundamental properties of organolead halide perovskites and their extended applications such as photodetectors, light emitting diodes, and lasing have been intensively reported. The great successes have been ascribed to various superior properties of organolead halide hybrid perovskites such as long carrier lifetimes, high carrier mobility, and solution-processable high quality thin films, as will be discussed in Chapter 1. Notably, most of these studies have been limited to their polycrystalline thin films. Single crystals, as a counter form of polycrystals, have no grain boundaries and higher crystallinity, and thus less defects. These characteristics gift single crystals with superior optical, electrical, and mechanical properties, which will be discussed in Chapter 2. For example, organolead halide perovskite single crystals have been reported with much longer carrier lifetimes and higher carrier mobilities, which are especially intriguing for optoelectronic applications. Besides their superior optoelectronic properties, organolead halide perovskites have shown large composition versatility, especially their organic components, which can be controlled to effectively adjust their crystal structures and further fundamental properties. Single crystals are an ideal platform for such composition-structure-property study since a uniform structure with homogeneous compositions and without distraction from grain boundaries as well as excess defects can provide unambiguously information of material properties. As a major part of work of this dissertation, explorative work on the composition-structure-property study of organic-cation-alloyed organolead halide perovskites using their single

  15. Ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy of lead halide perovskite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, Mopelola A.; Yau, Sung H.; Varnavski, Oleg; Goodson, Theodore

    2015-09-01

    Recently, lead halide perovskites which are organic-inorganic hybrid structures, have been discovered to be highly efficient as light absorbers. Herein, we show the investigation of the excited state dynamics and emission properties of non-stoichiometric precursor formed lead halide perovskites grown by interdiffusion method using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements. The influence of the different ratios of the non-stoichiometric precursor solution was examined. The observed photoluminescence properties were correlated with the femtosecond transient absorption measurements.

  16. Vibrational spectroscopy on protons and deuterons in proton conducting perovskites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, M.; Poulsen, F.W.; Berg, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    A short review of IR-spectroscopy on protons in perovskite structure oxides is given. The nature of possible proton sites, libration and combination tones and degree of hydrogen bonding is emphasised. Three new spectroscopic experiments and/or interpretations are presented. An IR-microscopy exper......A short review of IR-spectroscopy on protons in perovskite structure oxides is given. The nature of possible proton sites, libration and combination tones and degree of hydrogen bonding is emphasised. Three new spectroscopic experiments and/or interpretations are presented. An IR...

  17. The Effect of Al on the Compressibility of Silicate Perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M. J.; Kubo, A.; Yoshino, T.; Koga, K. T.; Ohishi, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Experimental data on compressibility of aluminous silicate perovskite show widely disparate results. Several studies show that Al causes a dramatic increase in compressibility1-3, while another study indicates a mild decrease in compressibility4. Here we report new results for the effect of Al on the room-temperature compressibility of perovskite using in situ X-ray diffraction in the diamond anvil cell from 30 to 100 GPa. We studied compressibility of perovskite in the system MgSiO3-Al2O3 in compositions with 0 to 25 mol% Al. Perovskite was synthesized from starting glasses using laser-heating in the DAC, with KBr as a pressure medium. Diffraction patterns were obtained using monochromatic radiation and an imaging plate detector at beamline BL10XU, SPring8, Japan. Addition of Al into the perovskite structure causes systematic increases in orthorhombic distortion and unit cell volume at ambient conditions (V0). Compression of the perovskite unit cell is anisotropic, with the a axis about 25% and 3% more compressive than the b and c axes, respectively. The magnitude of orthorhombic distortion increases with pressure, but aluminous perovskite remains stable to at least 100 GPa. Our results show that Al causes only a mild increase in compressibility, with the bulk modulus (K0) decreasing at a rate of 0.7 GPa/0.01 XAl. This increase in compressibility is consistent with recent ab initio calculations if Al mixes into both the 6- and 8-coordinated sites by coupled substitution5, where 2 Al3+ = Mg2+ + Si4+. Our results together with those of [4] indicate that this substitution mechanism predominates throughout the lower mantle. Previous mineralogic models indicating the upper and lower mantle are compositionally similar in terms of major elements remain effectively unchanged because solution of 5 mol% Al into perovskite has a minor effect on density. 1. Zhang & Weidner (1999). Science 284, 782-784. 2. Kubo et al. (2000) Proc. Jap. Acad. 76B, 103-107. 3. Daniel et al

  18. Stable perovskite solar cells by surface modification with surfactant molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, Matheus Serra de; Nogueira, Ana Flavia, E-mail: mholandabsb@outlook.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Surface modification on organic-inorganic perovskite films using dodecylammonium chloride was done to improve the stability of the material over the air moisture, which is considered extremely harmful to these materials and complicates their application on solar cell technology. Perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} was prepared by single step method using a solution containing PbI{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I on DMF:DMSO (2:1) on a concentration of 0.88 mol L{sup -1}. The film was deposited over a planar film of TiO{sub 2}, previously deposited over FTO glass, by using spin-casting method. 25 μL of the solution was spread over the substrate which was turned at 4000 RPM for 45 s. In the last 10 s, 800 μL of monochlorobenzene was dropped. The film was submitted to a thermal treatment so the conversion of the perovskite could be completed. After the thermal treatment, the modifier was spin coated over the perovskite film from 5 and 10 mg mL{sup -1} solutions of the dodecylammonium chloride in chloroform. The perovskite films were characterized by SEM, XRD and UV-Vis spectroscopy. SEM images have shown that the modifiers agglomerate and they cover the perovskite film, forming a protection layer. XRD and UV-Vis carried out after the film preparation, 7 and 15 days after the deposition. The first results show that the protection layer is able to avoid degradation of the perovskite film. Photovoltaic devices were prepared by depositing Spiro-OMeTAD as HTM layer and gold as electrode. It was observed that the increase on the thickness of the surfactant layer causes a decrease on the short-circuit current density (JSC), which is expected since is starts to act like an insulating layer. This effect is also the cause of the reduction of the fill factor (FF). More experiments need to be carried out to improve the solar cells devices, but the present data has shown the potential of the method developed, which uses easy access surfactants and a simple

  19. Perovskite Solar Cells and Devices at EPFL Valais Wallis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-09-22

    Stability required! Perovskite solar cells have emerged as one of the most exciting fields of research, owing to their impressive rise in power conversion efficiency surpassing 22% in six short years of research. Current research is focused on ways to improve stability of perovskite-based devices, a key characteristic required to bring this technology from the lab into the market. In this Editorial, guest editor Prof. Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin describes the context of this Special Issue, and summarizes the work being performed in his research group toward this low-cost near-future photovoltaic technology. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Stable perovskite solar cells by surface modification with surfactant molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, Matheus Serra de; Nogueira, Ana Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Surface modification on organic-inorganic perovskite films using dodecylammonium chloride was done to improve the stability of the material over the air moisture, which is considered extremely harmful to these materials and complicates their application on solar cell technology. Perovskite CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 was prepared by single step method using a solution containing PbI 2 and CH 3 NH 3 I on DMF:DMSO (2:1) on a concentration of 0.88 mol L -1 . The film was deposited over a planar film of TiO 2 , previously deposited over FTO glass, by using spin-casting method. 25 μL of the solution was spread over the substrate which was turned at 4000 RPM for 45 s. In the last 10 s, 800 μL of monochlorobenzene was dropped. The film was submitted to a thermal treatment so the conversion of the perovskite could be completed. After the thermal treatment, the modifier was spin coated over the perovskite film from 5 and 10 mg mL -1 solutions of the dodecylammonium chloride in chloroform. The perovskite films were characterized by SEM, XRD and UV-Vis spectroscopy. SEM images have shown that the modifiers agglomerate and they cover the perovskite film, forming a protection layer. XRD and UV-Vis carried out after the film preparation, 7 and 15 days after the deposition. The first results show that the protection layer is able to avoid degradation of the perovskite film. Photovoltaic devices were prepared by depositing Spiro-OMeTAD as HTM layer and gold as electrode. It was observed that the increase on the thickness of the surfactant layer causes a decrease on the short-circuit current density (JSC), which is expected since is starts to act like an insulating layer. This effect is also the cause of the reduction of the fill factor (FF). More experiments need to be carried out to improve the solar cells devices, but the present data has shown the potential of the method developed, which uses easy access surfactants and a simple preparation method to improve the stability of

  1. Upscaling of Perovskite Solar Cells: Fully Ambient Roll Processing of Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells with Printed Back Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Thomas Mikael; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Carlé, Jon Eggert

    2015-01-01

    A scaling effort on perovskite solar cells is presented where the device manufacture is progressed onto fl exible substrates using scalable techniques such as slot-die roll coating under ambient conditions. The printing of the back electrode using both carbon and silver is essential to the scaling...... effort. Both normal and inverted device geometries are explored and it is found that the formation of the correct morphology for the perovskite layer depends heavily on the surface upon which it is coated and this has signifi cant implications for manufacture. The time it takes to form the desired layer...... morphology falls in the range of 5–45 min depending on the perovskite precursor, where the former timescale is compatible with mass production and the latter is best suited for laboratory work. A signifi cant loss in solar cell performance of around 50% is found when progressing to using a fully scalable...

  2. Activity coefficients of solutes in binary solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The activity coefficients in dilute ternary systems are discussed in detail by using the Margules equations. Analyses of some relevant data at high temperatures show that the sparingly dissolved solutes in binary solvents follow complex behavior even when the binary solvents are very nearly ideal. It is shown that the activity data on the solute or the binary system cannot permit computation of the remaining activities except for the regular solutions. It is also shown that a fourth-order equation is usually adequate in expressing the activity coefficient of a solute in binary solvents at high temperatures. When the activity data for a binary solvent are difficult to obtain in a certain range of composition, the activity data for a sparingly dissolved solute can be used to supplement determination of the binary activities

  3. Pulsar magnetospheres in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershkovich, A. I.; Dolan, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The criterion for stability of a tangential discontinuity interface in a magnetized, perfectly conducting inviscid plasma is investigated by deriving the dispersion equation including the effects of both gravitational and centrifugal acceleration. The results are applied to neutron star magnetospheres in X-ray binaries. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability appears to be important in determining whether MHD waves of large amplitude generated by instability may intermix the plasma effectively, resulting in accretion onto the whole star as suggested by Arons and Lea and leading to no X-ray pulsar behavior.

  4. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR

    1990-01-01

    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  5. Tomographic reconstruction of binary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Stéphane; Leclerc, Hugo; Hild, François

    2012-01-01

    A novel algorithm is proposed for reconstructing binary images from their projection along a set of different orientations. Based on a nonlinear transformation of the projection data, classical back-projection procedures can be used iteratively to converge to the sought image. A multiscale implementation allows for a faster convergence. The algorithm is tested on images up to 1 Mb definition, and an error free reconstruction is achieved with a very limited number of projection data, saving a factor of about 100 on the number of projections required for classical reconstruction algorithms.

  6. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    ADONIS Observes Low-mass Eclipsing System in Orion Summary A series of very detailed images of a binary system of two young stars have been combined into a movie . In merely 3 days, the stars swing around each other. As seen from the earth, they pass in front of each other twice during a full revolution, producing eclipses during which their combined brightness diminishes . A careful analysis of the orbital motions has now made it possible to deduce the masses of the two dancing stars . Both turn out to be about as heavy as our Sun. But while the Sun is about 4500 million years old, these two stars are still in their infancy. They are located some 1500 light-years away in the Orion star-forming region and they probably formed just 10 million years ago . This is the first time such an accurate determination of the stellar masses could be achieved for a young binary system of low-mass stars . The new result provides an important piece of information for our current understanding of how young stars evolve. The observations were obtained by a team of astronomers from Italy and ESO [1] using the ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS) on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. PR Photo 29a/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before primary eclipse PR Photo 29b/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-primary eclipse PR Photo 29c/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after primary eclipse PR Photo 29d/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before secondary eclipse PR Photo 29e/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-secondary eclipse PR Photo 29f/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after secondary eclipse PR Video Clip 06/01 : Video of the RXJ 0529.4+0041 system Binary stars and stellar masses Since some time, astronomers have noted that most stars seem to form in binary or multiple systems. This is quite fortunate, as the study of binary stars is the only way in which it is possible to measure directly one of the most fundamental quantities of a star, its mass. The mass of a

  7. Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.

  8. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong

    2015-07-28

    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.

  9. Contact Binaries on Their Way Towards Merging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeas, K.

    2015-07-01

    Contact binaries are the most frequently observed type of eclipsing star system. They are small, cool, low-mass binaries belonging to a relatively old stellar population. They follow certain empirical relationships that closely connect a number of physical parameters with each other, largely because of constraints coming from the Roche geometry. As a result, contact binaries provide an excellent test of stellar evolution, specifically for stellar merger scenarios. Observing campaigns by many authors have led to the cataloging of thousands of contact binaries and enabled statistical studies of many of their properties. A large number of contact binaries have been found to exhibit extraordinary behavior, requiring follow-up observations to study their peculiarities in detail. For example, a doubly-eclipsing quadruple system consisting of a contact binary and a detached binary is a highly constrained system offering an excellent laboratory to test evolutionary theories for binaries. A new observing project was initiated at the University of Athens in 2012 in order to investigate the possible lower limit for the orbital period of binary systems before coalescence, prior to merging.

  10. Photoluminescence properties of perovskite multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macario, Leilane Roberta; Longo, Elson, E-mail: leilanemacario@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Mazzo, Tatiana Martelli [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil); Bouquet, Valerie; Deputier, Stephanie; Ollivier, Sophie; Guilloux-Viry, Maryline [Universite de Rennes (France)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the optical properties of thin films is important in many scientific, technological and industrial applications of thin films such as photoconductivity, solar energy, photography, and numerous other applications [1]. In this study, perovskite type oxides were grown by pulsed laser deposition [2] in order to obtain thin films with applicable optical properties. The LaNiO{sub 3} (LN), BaTiO{sub 3} (BT) and KNbO{sub 3} (KNb) targets were prepared by solid-state reaction. The X-ray Diffraction revealed the presence of the desired phases, containing the elements of interest in the targets and in the thin films that were produced. The LN, BT and KNb thin films were polycrystalline and the corresponding diffraction peaks were indexed in the with JCPDS cards n. 00-033-0711, n. 00-005-0626, and n. 00-009-0156, respectively. The multilayers films were polycrystalline. The majority of the micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy presented films with a thickness from 100 to 400 nm. The photoluminescent (PL) emission spectra of thin films show different broad bands that occupies large region of the visible spectrum, ranging from about 300-350 to 600-650 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. The PL emission is associated with the order-disorder structural, even small structural changes can modify the interactions between electronic states. The structural disorder results in formation of new energy levels in the forbidden region. The proximity or distance of these new energy levels formed in relation to valence band and to the conduction band results in PL spectra located at higher or lower energies. These interactions change the electronic states which can be influenced by defects, particularly the interface defects between the layers of the thin films. The presence of defects results in changes in the broad band matrix intensity and in displacement of the PL emission maximum. (author)

  11. Enhancement of photoresponse property of perovskite solar cell by aluminium chloride (AlCl3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S. S.; Sil, A.

    2018-05-01

    The fabrication of a three layer solar cell device is a new area of research. The formation of perovskite phase is evident from x-ray diffraction and its particle size is observed by microstructural analysis. A thin layer of gold coating over the device increases the surface conductivity. Direct contact between a SnCl2 or AlCl3 based perovskite with the gold coating increases the durability of the film but decreases the hole transport properties due to absence of an organic hole transport material. The absorbance spectroscopy analysis gives characteristic peaks showing the evidence of ITO, TiO2 (rutile) and Sn2+ complexes present in the Sn-perovskite film or Al3+ complexes present within the Al-perovskite cell. The desired absorbance near 550 nm due to Al3+ complexes causes a much higher flow of current on illumination and thus is also evidenced by the presence of comparatively high intensity PL spectra in the Al-perovskite system which occurred due to free exciton formation near band edge excitation. The fill factor of the devices is estimated as ∼0.83 and ∼0.65 for Sn-perovskite and Al-perovskite devices respectively. The PCE values of Sn-perovskite and Al-perovskite devices are calculated 0.39% and 0.96% respectively, which establish Al-perovskite film as a useful component for future solar cell device manufacturing.

  12. Quantum Dots in Two-Dimensional Perovskite Matrices for Efficient Near-Infrared Light Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu

    2017-03-13

    Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids are excellent candidates for infrared light-emitting applications. The first generation of dot-in-perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has shown bright infrared electroluminescence with tunable emission wavelength; however, their performance has been limited by degradation of the active layer at practical operating voltages. This arises from the instability of the three-dimensional (3D) organolead halide perovskite matrix. Herein we report the first dot-in-perovskite solids that employ two-dimensional (2D) perovskites as the matrix. 2D perovskite passivation is achieved via an in situ alkylammonium/alkylamine substitution carried out during the quantum dot (QD) ligand exchange process. This single-step film preparation process enables deposition of the QD/perovskite active layers with thicknesses of 40 nm, over seven times thinner than the first-generation dot-in-perovskite thin films that relied on a multistep synthesis. The dot-in-perovskite film roughness improved from 31 nm for the first-generation films to 3 nm for films as a result of this new approach. The best devices exhibit external quantum efficiency peaks exceeding 2% and radiances of ∼1 W sr–1 m–2, with an improved breakdown voltage up to 7.5 V. Compared to first-generation dot-in-perovskites, this new process reduces materials consumptions 10-fold and represents a promising step toward manufacturable devices.

  13. Quantum Dots in Two-Dimensional Perovskite Matrices for Efficient Near-Infrared Light Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhenyu; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Walters, Grant; Fan, James Z.; Liu, Min; Kinge, Sachin; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids are excellent candidates for infrared light-emitting applications. The first generation of dot-in-perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has shown bright infrared electroluminescence with tunable emission wavelength; however, their performance has been limited by degradation of the active layer at practical operating voltages. This arises from the instability of the three-dimensional (3D) organolead halide perovskite matrix. Herein we report the first dot-in-perovskite solids that employ two-dimensional (2D) perovskites as the matrix. 2D perovskite passivation is achieved via an in situ alkylammonium/alkylamine substitution carried out during the quantum dot (QD) ligand exchange process. This single-step film preparation process enables deposition of the QD/perovskite active layers with thicknesses of 40 nm, over seven times thinner than the first-generation dot-in-perovskite thin films that relied on a multistep synthesis. The dot-in-perovskite film roughness improved from 31 nm for the first-generation films to 3 nm for films as a result of this new approach. The best devices exhibit external quantum efficiency peaks exceeding 2% and radiances of ∼1 W sr–1 m–2, with an improved breakdown voltage up to 7.5 V. Compared to first-generation dot-in-perovskites, this new process reduces materials consumptions 10-fold and represents a promising step toward manufacturable devices.

  14. Low-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite: Structure, Properties, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ravi K; Cohen, Bat-El; Iagher, Lior; Etgar, Lioz

    2017-10-09

    Three-dimensional (3 D) perovskite has attracted a lot of attention owing to its success in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. However, one of its major crucial issues lies in its stability, which has limited its commercialization. An important property of organic-inorganic perovskite is the possibility of forming a layered material by using long organic cations that do not fit into the octahedral cage. These long organic cations act as a "barrier" that "caps" 3 D perovskite to form the layered material. Controlling the number of perovskite layers could provide a confined structure with chemical and physical properties that are different from those of 3 D perovskite. This opens up a whole new batch of interesting materials with huge potential for optoelectronic applications. This Minireview presents the synthesis, properties, and structural orientation of low-dimensional perovskite. It also discusses the progress of low-dimensional perovskite in PV solar cells, which, to date, have performance comparable to that of 3 D perovskite but with enhanced stability. Finally, the use of low-dimensional perovskite in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors is discussed. The low-dimensional perovskites are promising candidates for LED devices, mainly because of their high radiative recombination as a result of the confined low-dimensional quantum well. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Fabrication of single phase 2D homologous perovskite microplates by mechanical exfoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junze; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yingjun; Wang, Haizhen; Lin, Gaoming; Xiong, Xuan; Zhou, Weihang; Luo, Hongmei; Li, Dehui

    2018-04-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) Ruddlesden-Popper type perovskites have attracted intensive interest for their great environmental stability and various potential optoelectronic applications. Fundamental understanding of the photophysical and electronic properties of the 2D perovskites with pure single phase is essential for improving the performance of the optoelectronic devices and designing devices with new architectures. Investigating the optical and electronic properties of these materials with pure single phase is required to obtain pure single phase 2D perovskites. Here, we report on an alternative approach to fabricate (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3) n-1Pb n I3n+1 microplates with pure single n-number perovskite phase for n  >  2 by mechanical exfoliation. Micro-photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy studies reveal that the as-synthesized 2D perovskite plates for n  >  2 are comprised by dominant n-number phase and small inclusions of hybrid perovskite phases with different n values, which is supported by excitation power dependent photoluminescence. By mechanical exfoliation method, 2D perovskite microplates with the thickness of around 20 nm are obtained, which surprisingly have single n-number perovskite phase for n  =  2-5. In addition, we have demonstrated that the exfoliated 2D perovskite microplates can be integrated with other 2D layered materials such as boron nitride, and are able to be transferred to prefabricated electrodes for photodetections. Our studies not only provide a strategy to prepare 2D perovskites with a single n-number perovskite phase allowing us to extract the basic optical and electronic parameters of pure phase perovskites, but also demonstrate the possibility to integrate the 2D perovskites with other 2D layered materials to extend the device’s functionalities.

  16. Dielectric properties of hybrid perovskites and drift-diffusion modeling of perovskite cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedesseau, L.; Kepenekian, M.; Sapori, D.; Huang, Y.; Rolland, A.; Beck, A.; Cornet, C.; Durand, O.; Wang, S.; Katan, C.; Even, J.

    2016-03-01

    A method based on DFT is used to obtained dielectric profiles. The high frequency Ɛ∞(z) and the static Ɛs(z) dielectric profiles are compared for 3D, 2D-3D and 2D Hybrid Organic Perovskites (HOP). A dielectric confinement is observed for the 2D materials between the high dielectric constant of the inorganic part and the low dielectric constant of the organic part. The effect of the ionic contribution on the dielectric constant is also shown. The quantum and dielectric confinements of 3D HOP nanoplatelets are then reported. Finally, a numerical simulation based on the SILVACO code of a HOP based solar cell is proposed for various permittivity of MAPbI3.

  17. Electrical and Optical Properties of Nanosized Perovskite-type La ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical and Optical Properties of Nanosized Perovskite-type La 0.5 Ca 0.5 MO 3 (M=Co,Ni) ... In addition, the TEM images show that the average particle size of ... of both compounds decreases exponentially by increasing the temperature.

  18. Field-emission from quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Gong, Xiwen; Sabatini, Randy P; Liu, Min; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Sutherland, Brandon R; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Xu, Jixian; Pang, Yuangjie; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sinton, David; Sargent, Edward

    2017-03-24

    Quantum dot and well architectures are attractive for infrared optoelectronics, and have led to the realization of compelling light sensors. However, they require well-defined passivated interfaces and rapid charge transport, and this has restricted their efficient implementation to costly vacuum-epitaxially grown semiconductors. Here we report solution-processed, sensitive infrared field-emission photodetectors. Using quantum-dots-in-perovskite, we demonstrate the extraction of photocarriers via field emission, followed by the recirculation of photogenerated carriers. We use in operando ultrafast transient spectroscopy to sense bias-dependent photoemission and recapture in field-emission devices. The resultant photodiodes exploit the superior electronic transport properties of organometal halide perovskites, the quantum-size-tuned absorption of the colloidal quantum dots and their matched interface. These field-emission quantum-dot-in-perovskite photodiodes extend the perovskite response into the short-wavelength infrared and achieve measured specific detectivities that exceed 10 12 Jones. The results pave the way towards novel functional photonic devices with applications in photovoltaics and light emission.

  19. Composite perovskite materials, methods of making, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili; Amassian, Aram

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide materials, devices and systems including a composite of halide perovskite single crystals and nanotubes, and the like. Embodiments of the composite can be used in devices such as detectors, solar panels, transistors, sensors, and the like.

  20. Extraordinary Interfacial Stitching between Single All-Inorganic Perovskite Nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, Leyre; Lin, Junhao; De Weerd, Chris; Poirier, Lucas; Boehme, Simon C.; Von Hauff, Elizabeth; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Gregorkiewicz, Tom

    2018-01-01

    All-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals are extensively studied because of their outstanding optoelectronic properties. Being of a cubic shape and typically featuring a narrow size distribution, CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, and I) nanocrystals are the ideal starting material for the

  1. Multifunctional MgO Layer in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xudong; Dong, Haopeng; Li, Wenzhe; Li, Nan; Wang, Liduo

    2015-06-08

    A multifunctional magnesium oxide (MgO) layer was successfully introduced into perovskite solar cells (PSCs) to enhance their performance. MgO was coated onto the surface of mesoporous TiO(2) by the decomposition of magnesium acetate and, therefore, could block contact between the perovskite and TiO(2). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy showed that the amount of H(2)O/hydroxyl absorbed on the TiO(2) decreased after MgO modification. The UV/Vis absorption spectra of the perovskite with MgO modification revealed an enhanced photoelectric performance compared with that of unmodified perovskite after UV illumination. In addition to the photocurrent, the photovoltage and fill factor also showed an enhancement after modification, which resulted in an increase in the overall efficiency of the cell from 9.6 to 13.9 %. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) confirmed that MgO acts as an insulating layer to reduce charge recombination. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Excitations Partition into Two Distinct Populations in Bulk Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lili [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Brawand, Nicholas P. [The Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Vörös, Márton [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Dahlberg, Peter D. [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Otto, John P. [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Williams, Nicholas E. [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Tiede, David M. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Galli, Giulia [The Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Engel, Gregory S. [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA

    2018-01-09

    Organolead halide perovskites convert optical excitations to charge carriers with remarkable efficiency in optoelectronic devices. Previous research predominantly documents dynamics in perovskite thin films; however, extensive disorder in this platform may obscure the observed carrier dynamics. Here, carrier dynamics in perovskite single-domain single crystals is examined by performing transient absorption spectroscopy in a transmissive geometry. Two distinct sets of carrier populations that coexist at the same radiation fluence, but display different decay dynamics, are observed: one dominated by second-order recombination and the other by third-order recombination. Based on ab initio simulations, this observation is found to be most consistent with the hypothesis that free carriers and localized carriers coexist due to polaron formation. The calculations suggest that polarons will form in both CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbI3 crystals, but that they are more pronounced in CH3NH3PbBr3. Single-crystal CH3NH3PbBr3 could represent the key to understanding the impact of polarons on the transport properties of perovskite optoelectronic devices.

  3. Improving Perovskite Solar Cells: Insights From a Validated Device Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherkar, Tejas S.; Momblona, Cristina; Gil-Escrig, Lidon; Bolink, Henk J.; Koster, L. Jan Anton

    2017-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of existing perovskite solar cells (PSCs), a detailed understanding of the underlying device physics during their operation is essential. Here, a device model has been developed and validated that describes the operation of PSCs and quantitatively explains the role of

  4. Metal Halide Perovskite Polycrystalline Films Exhibiting Properties of Single Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenes, Roberto; Guo, D.; Osherov, Anna; Noel, Nakita K.; Eames, Christopher; Hutter, E.M.; Pathak, Sandeep K.; Niroui, Farnaz; Friend, Richard H.; Islam, M. Saiful; Snaith, Henry J.; Bulović, Vladimir; Savenije, T.J.; Stranks, Samuel D.

    2017-01-01

    Metal halide perovskites are generating enormous excitement for use in solar cells and light-emission applications, but devices still show substantial non-radiative losses. Here, we show that by combining light and atmospheric treatments, we can increase the internal luminescence quantum

  5. Synthesis of new perovskite and ''tetragonal bronze'' materials with thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Launay, Suzanne; Erb, Alfred; Freundlich, William

    1982-01-01

    Disclosure and crystal chemistry study of the solid solutions Th(NbO 3 ) 4 , NaNbO 3 or AgNbO 3 with perovskite structure and Th(Nb, TaO 3 ) 4 , K(Nb,Ta)O 3 with ''tetragonal tungstene bronze'' structure, ''Banana'' type [fr

  6. Classification of perovskites with supervised self-organizing maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmanovski, Igor; Dimitrovska-Lazova, Sandra; Aleksovska, Slobotka

    2007-01-01

    In this work supervised self-organizing maps were used for structural classification of perovskites. For this purpose, structural data for total number of 286 perovskites, belonging to ABO 3 and/or A 2 BB'O 6 types, were collected from literature: 130 of these are cubic, 85 orthorhombic and 71 monoclinic. For classification purposes, the effective ionic radii of the cations, electronegativities of the cations in B-position, as well as, the oxidation states of these cations, were used as input variables. The parameters of the developed models, as well as, the most suitable variables for classification purposes were selected using genetic algorithms. Two-third of all the compounds were used in the training phase. During the optimization process the performances of the models were checked using cross-validation leave-1/10-out. The performances of obtained solutions were checked using the test set composed of the remaining one-third of the compounds. The obtained models for classification of these three classes of perovskite compounds show very good results. Namely, the classification of the compounds in the test set resulted in small number of discrepancies (4.2-6.4%) between the actual crystallographic class and the one predicted by the models. All these results are strong arguments for the validity of supervised self-organizing maps for performing such types of classification. Therefore, the proposed procedure could be successfully used for crystallographic classification of perovskites in one of these three classes

  7. Perovskite Solar Cells for High-Efficiency Tandems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGehee, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Buonassisi, Tonio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The first monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem was made with a diffused silicon p-n junction, a tunnel junction made of n++ hydrogenated amorphous silicon, a titania electron transport layer, a methylammonium lead iodide absorber, and a Spiro-OMeTAD hole transport layer (HTL). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) was only 13.7% due to excessive parasitic absorption of light in the HTL, limiting the matched current density to 11.5 mA/cm2. Werner et al.15 raised the PCE to a record 21.2% by switching to a silicon heterojunction bottom cell and carefully tuning layer thicknesses to achieve lower optical loss and a higher current density of 15.9 mA/cm2. It is clear from these reports that minimizing parasitic absorption in the window layers is crucial to achieving higher current densities and efficiencies in monolithic tandems. To this end, the window layers through which light first passes before entering the perovskite and silicon absorber materials must be highly transparent. The front electrode must also be conductive to carry current laterally across the top of the device. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is widely utilized as a transparent electrode in optoelectronic devices such as flat-panel displays, smart windows, organic light-emitting diodes, and solar cells due to its high conductivity and broadband transparency. ITO is typically deposited through magnetron sputtering; however, the high kinetic energy of sputtered particles can damage underlying layers. In perovskite solar cells, a sputter buffer layer is required to protect the perovskite and organic carrier extraction layers from damage during sputter deposition. The ideal buffer layer should also be energetically well aligned so as to act as a carrier-selective contact, have a wide bandgap to enable high optical transmission, and have no reaction with the halides in the perovskite. Additionally, this buffer layer should act as a diffusion barrier layer to prevent both

  8. Dynamic and Impure Perovskite Structured Metal Oxide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karin Vels; Norrman, Kion; Traulsen, Marie Lund

    2017-01-01

    Surfaces of LSF and LSCF perovskite model electrodes were investigated using a variety of analytical methods on flat model electrodes that were prepared as either pellets or as thin films on top of YSZ pellets in other to throw more light on the widely discussed segregation of layers and particles...

  9. Performance of genetic algorithms in search for water splitting perovskites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, A.; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Hautier, G.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the performance of genetic algorithms (GAs) in uncovering solar water light splitters over a space of almost 19,000 perovskite materials. The entire search space was previously calculated using density functional theory to determine solutions that fulfill constraints on stability, band...

  10. A Monolithic Perovskite Structure for Use as a Magnetic Regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Clemens, Frank; Menon, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    A La0.67Ca0.26Sr0.07Mn1.05O3 (LCSM) perovskite was prepared for the first time as a ceramic monolithic regenerator used in a regenerative magnetic refrigeration device. The parameters influencing the extrusion process and the performance of the regenerator, such as the nature of the monolith paste...

  11. Structural relationships in rhombohedral perovskites with R-3C symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogush, A K; Pavlov, V I [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk. Inst. Fiziki Tverdogo Tela i Poluprovodnikov

    1982-05-01

    In rhombohedral perovskites the structure parameters, e.g. the interaxial angle alpha/sub rh/ or the hexagonal lattice parameters a/sub H/ and c/sub H/ are completely determined by the tilt angle omega. The geometrical relations between these structural parameters and the tilt angle omega are reported.

  12. Emission Enhancement and Intermittency in Polycrystalline Organolead Halide Perovskite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic-organic halide organometal perovskites have demonstrated very promising performance for opto-electronic applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, lasers, single-photon sources, etc. However, the little knowledge on the underlying photophysics, especially on a microscopic scale, hampers the further improvement of devices based on this material. In this communication, correlated conventional photoluminescence (PL characterization and wide-field PL imaging as a function of time are employed to investigate the spatially- and temporally-resolved PL in CH3NH3PbI3−xClx perovskite films. Along with a continuous increase of the PL intensity during light soaking, we also observe PL blinking or PL intermittency behavior in individual grains of these films. Combined with significant suppression of PL blinking in perovskite films coated with a phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM layer, it suggests that this PL intermittency is attributed to Auger recombination induced by photoionized defects/traps or mobile ions within grains. These defects/traps are detrimental for light conversion and can be effectively passivated by the PCBM layer. This finding paves the way to provide a guideline on the further improvement of perovskite opto-electronic devices.

  13. Advances and Promises of Layered Halide Hybrid Perovskite Semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedesseau, Laurent; Sapori, Daniel; Traore, Boubacar; Robles, Roberto; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Tsai, Hsinhan; Nie, Wanyi; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Neukirch, Amanda; Tretiak, Sergei; Mohite, Aditya D.; Katan, Claudine; Even, Jacky; Kepenekian, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Layered halide hybrid organic inorganic perovskites (HOP) have been the subject of intense investigation before the rise of three-dimensional (3D) HOP and their impressive performance in solar cells. Recently, layered HOP have also been proposed as attractive alternatives for photostable solar cells

  14. Synthesis of new perovskite and ''tetragonal bronze'' materials with thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launay, S; Erb, A; Freundlich, W [Universite Paris-VI (France)

    1982-03-22

    Disclosure and crystal chemistry study of the solid solutions Th(NbO/sub 3/)/sub 4/, NaNbO/sub 3/ or AgNbO/sub 3/ with perovskite structure and Th(Nb, TaO/sub 3/)/sub 4/, K(Nb,Ta)O/sub 3/ with ''tetragonal tungstene bronze'' structure, ''Banana'' type.

  15. On the possibility of excitonic magnetism in Ir double perovskites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pajskr, K.; Novák, Pavel; Pokorný, Vladislav; Kolorenč, Jindřich; Arita, R.; Kuneš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 3 (2016), 1-6, č. článku 035129. ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25251S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spin-orbit coupling * double perovskite * excitonic magnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  16. Metal Oxides as Efficient Charge Transporters in Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, Mohammed

    2017-07-10

    Over the past few years, hybrid halide perovskites have emerged as a highly promising class of materials for photovoltaic technology, and the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has accelerated at an unprecedented pace, reaching a record value of over 22%. In the context of PSC research, wide-bandgap semiconducting metal oxides have been extensively studied because of their exceptional performance for injection and extraction of photo-generated carriers. In this comprehensive review, we focus on the synthesis and applications of metal oxides as electron and hole transporters in efficient PSCs with both mesoporous and planar architectures. Metal oxides and their doped variants with proper energy band alignment with halide perovskites, in the form of nanostructured layers and compact thin films, can not only assist with charge transport but also improve the stability of PSCs under ambient conditions. Strategies for the implementation of metal oxides with tailored compositions and structures, and for the engineering of their interfaces with perovskites will be critical for the future development and commercialization of PSCs.

  17. Low-cost electrodes for stable perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João P.; Manghooli, Sara; Jaysankar, Manoj; Tait, Jeffrey G.; Qiu, Weiming; Gehlhaar, Robert; De Volder, Michael; Uytterhoeven, Griet; Poortmans, Jef; Paetzold, Ulrich W.

    2017-06-01

    Cost-effective production of perovskite solar cells on an industrial scale requires the utilization of exclusively inexpensive materials. However, to date, highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells rely on expensive gold electrodes since other metal electrodes are known to cause degradation of the devices. Finding a low-cost electrode that can replace gold and ensure both efficiency and long-term stability is essential for the success of the perovskite-based solar cell technology. In this work, we systematically compare three types of electrode materials: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), alternative metals (silver, aluminum, and copper), and transparent oxides [indium tin oxide (ITO)] in terms of efficiency, stability, and cost. We show that multi-walled carbon nanotubes are the only electrode that is both more cost-effective and stable than gold. Devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes present remarkable shelf-life stability, with no decrease in the efficiency even after 180 h of storage in 77% relative humidity (RH). Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes to achieve high efficiencies. These developments are an important step forward to mass produce perovskite photovoltaics in a commercially viable way.

  18. Towards the scaling up of perovskite solar cells and modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.; Coenen, E.W.C.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Andriessen, R.

    2016-01-01

    A direct current (DC) simulation for perovskite solar cells with different dimensions was performed. The theoretical results demonstrate a good agreement with experimental data, indicating the reliability of the performed simulation. A theoretical model was applied for the investigation of large

  19. Thermodynamic origin of instability in hybrid halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenuta, E.; Zheng, C.; Rubel, O.

    2016-11-01

    Degradation of hybrid halide perovskites under the influence of environmental factors impairs future prospects of using these materials as absorbers in solar cells. First principle calculations can be used as a guideline in search of new materials, provided we can rely on their predictive capabilities. We show that the instability of perovskites can be captured using ab initio total energy calculations for reactants and products augmented with additional thermodynamic data to account for finite temperature effects. Calculations suggest that the instability of CH3NH3PbI3 in moist environment is linked to the aqueous solubility of the CH3NH3I salt, thus making other perovskite materials with soluble decomposition products prone to degradation. Properties of NH3OHPbI3, NH3NH2PbI3, PH4PbI3, SbH4PbI3, CsPbBr3, and a new hypothetical SF3PbI3 perovskite are studied in the search for alternative solar cell absorber materials with enhanced chemical stability.

  20. Strong Carrier-Phonon Coupling in Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iaru, Claudiu M; Geuchies, Jaco J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370526090; Koenraad, Paul M; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829137; Silov, Andrei Yu

    2017-01-01

    We highlight the importance of carrier-phonon coupling in inorganic lead halide perovskite nanocrystals. The low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of CsPbBr3 has been investigated under a nonresonant and a nonstandard, quasi-resonant excitation scheme, and phonon replicas of the main PL

  1. Krypton irradiation damage in Nd-doped zirconolite and perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoisne, C.; Stennett, M.C.; Hyatt, N.C.; Peng, N.; Jeynes, C.; Lee, W.E.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the effect of radiation damage and noble gas accommodation in potential ceramic hosts for plutonium disposition is necessary to evaluate their long-term behaviour during geological disposal. Polycrystalline samples of Nd-doped zirconolite and Nd-doped perovskite were irradiated ex situ with 2 MeV Kr + at a dose of 5 x 10 15 ions cm -2 to simulate recoil of Pu nuclei during alpha decay. The feasibility of thin section preparation of both pristine and irradiated samples by Focused Ion Beam sectioning was demonstrated. After irradiation, the Nd-doped zirconolite revealed a well defined amorphous region separated from the pristine material by a thin (40-60 nm) damaged interface. The zirconolite lattice was lost in the damaged interface, but the fluorite sublattice was retained. The Nd-doped perovskite contained a defined irradiated layer composed of an amorphous region surrounded by damaged but still crystalline layers. The structural evolution of the damaged regions is consistent with a change from orthorhombic to cubic symmetry. In addition in Nd-doped perovskite, the amorphisation dose depended on crystallographic orientation and possibly sample configuration (thin section or bulk). Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy revealed Ti remained in the 4+ oxidation state but there was a change in Ti coordination in both Nd-doped perovskite and Nd-doped zirconolite associated with the crystalline to amorphous transition.

  2. Composite perovskite materials, methods of making, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili

    2017-12-14

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide materials, devices and systems including a composite of halide perovskite single crystals and nanotubes, and the like. Embodiments of the composite can be used in devices such as detectors, solar panels, transistors, sensors, and the like.

  3. Materials Processing Routes to Trap-Free Halide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Buin, Andrei

    2014-11-12

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Photovoltaic devices based on lead iodide perovskite films have seen rapid advancements, recently achieving an impressive 17.9% certified solar power conversion efficiency. Reports have consistently emphasized that the specific choice of growth conditions and chemical precursors is central to achieving superior performance from these materials; yet the roles and mechanisms underlying the selection of materials processing route is poorly understood. Here we show that films grown under iodine-rich conditions are prone to a high density of deep electronic traps (recombination centers), while the use of a chloride precursor avoids the formation of key defects (Pb atom substituted by I) responsible for short diffusion lengths and poor photovoltaic performance. Furthermore, the lowest-energy surfaces of perovskite crystals are found to be entirely trap-free, preserving both electron and hole delocalization to a remarkable degree, helping to account for explaining the success of polycrystalline perovskite films. We construct perovskite films from I-poor conditions using a lead acetate precursor, and our measurement of a long (600 ± 40 nm) diffusion length confirms this new picture of the importance of growth conditions.

  4. Architecture of the Interface between the Perovskite and Hole-Transport Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Masahiro; Hirotani, Daisuke; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Ogomi, Yuhei; Shen, Qing; Ripolles, Teresa S; Yoshino, Kenji; Toyoda, Taro; Minemoto, Takashi; Hayase, Shuzi

    2016-09-22

    The interface between the perovskite (PVK, CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 ) and hole-transport layers in perovskite solar cells is discussed. The device architecture studied is as follows: F-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass/compact TiO 2 /mesoporous TiO 2 /PVK/2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-MeOTAD)/Au. After a thin layer of 4,4,4-trifluorobutylammonium iodide (TFBA) was inserted at the interface between PVK and Spiro-MeOTAD, the photovoltaic efficiency increased from 11.6-14.5 % to 15.1-17.6 %. TFBA (10 ppm) was added in the PVK solution before coating. Owing to the low surface tension of TFBA, TFBA rose to the surface of the PVK layer spontaneously during spin-coating to make a thin organic layer. The PVK grain boundaries also seemed to be passivated with the addition of TFBA. However, large differences in Urbach energies and valence band energy level were not observed for the PVK layer with and without the addition of TFBA. The charge recombination time constant between the PVK and the Spiro-MeOTAD became slower (from 8.4 to 280 μsec) after 10 ppm of TFBA was added in the PVK. The experimental results using TFBA conclude that insertion of a very thin layer at the interface between PVK and Spiro-MeOTAD is effective for suppressing charge recombination and increasing photovoltaic performances. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Fabricating binary optics: An overview of binary optics process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Margaret B.

    1993-01-01

    A review of binary optics processing technology is presented. Pattern replication techniques have been optimized to generate high-quality efficient microoptics in visible and infrared materials. High resolution optical photolithography and precision alignment is used to fabricate maximally efficient fused silica diffractive microlenses at lambda = 633 nm. The degradation in optical efficiency of four-phase-level fused silica microlenses resulting from an intentional 0.35 micron translational error has been systematically measured as a function of lens speed (F/2 - F/60). Novel processes necessary for high sag refractive IR microoptics arrays, including deep anisotropic Si-etching, planarization of deep topography and multilayer resist techniques, are described. Initial results are presented for monolithic integration of photonic and microoptic systems.

  6. Stoichiometry control of complex oxides by sequential pulsed-laser deposition from binary-oxide targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herklotz, A. [ORNL, Materials Science and Technology Division, Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6056 (United States); Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute for Physics, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Dörr, K. [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute for Physics, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Ward, T. Z.; Eres, G. [ORNL, Materials Science and Technology Division, Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6056 (United States); Christen, H. M.; Biegalski, M. D. [ORNL, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6496 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    To have precise atomic layer control over interfaces, we examine the growth of complex oxides through the sequential deposition from binary targets by pulsed laser deposition. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is used to control the growth and achieve films with excellent structural quality. The growth from binary oxide targets is fundamentally different from single target growth modes and shows more similarities to shuttered growth by molecular beam epitaxy. The RHEED intensity oscillations of non-stoichiometric growth are consistent with a model of island growth and accumulation of excess material on the surface that can be utilized to determine the correct stoichiometry for growth. Correct monolayer doses can be determined through an envelope frequency in the RHEED intensity oscillations. In order to demonstrate the ability of this growth technique to create complex heterostructures, the artificial n = 2 and 3 Sr{sub n+1}Ti{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} Ruddlesden-Popper phases are grown with good long-range order. This method enables the precise unit-cell level control over the structure of perovskite-type oxides, and thus the growth of complex materials with improved structural quality and electronic functionality.

  7. Modeling organohalide perovskites for photovoltaic applications: From materials to interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, Filippo

    2015-03-01

    The field of hybrid/organic photovoltaics has been revolutionized in 2012 by the first reports of solid-state solar cells based on organohalide perovskites, now topping at 20% efficiency. First-principles modeling has been widely applied to the dye-sensitized solar cells field, and more recently to perovskite-based solar cells. The computational design and screening of new materials has played a major role in advancing the DSCs field. Suitable modeling strategies may also offer a view of the crucial heterointerfaces ruling the device operational mechanism. I will illustrate how simulation tools can be employed in the emerging field of perovskite solar cells. The performance of the proposed simulation toolbox along with the fundamental modeling strategies are presented using selected examples of relevant materials and interfaces. The main issue with hybrid perovskite modeling is to be able to accurately describe their structural, electronic and optical features. These materials show a degree of short range disorder, due to the presence of mobile organic cations embedded within the inorganic matrix, requiring to average their properties over a molecular dynamics trajectory. Due to the presence of heavy atoms (e.g. Sn and Pb) their electronic structure must take into account spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in an effective way, possibly including GW corrections. The proposed SOC-GW method constitutes the basis for tuning the materials electronic and optical properties, rationalizing experimental trends. Modeling charge generation in perovskite-sensitized TiO2 interfaces is then approached based on a SOC-DFT scheme, describing alignment of energy levels in a qualitatively correct fashion. The role of interfacial chemistry on the device performance is finally discussed. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007 2013] under Grant Agreement No. 604032 of the MESO project.

  8. Dilution-Induced Formation of Hybrid Perovskite Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yu; Ehrat, Florian; Vanderlinden, Willem; Cardenas-Daw, Carlos; Stolarczyk, Jacek K; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Urban, Alexander S

    2016-12-27

    Perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are an important extension to the fascinating field of hybrid halide perovskites. Showing significantly enhanced photoluminescence (PL) efficiency and emission wavelengths tunable through halide content and size, they hold great promise for light-emitting applications. Despite the rapid advancement in this field, the physical nature and size-dependent excitonic properties have not been well investigated due to the challenges associated with their preparation. Herein we report the spontaneous formation of highly luminescent, quasi-2D organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoplatelets (NPls) upon dilution of a dispersion of bulk-like NCs. The fragmentation of the large NCs is attributed to osmotic swelling induced by the added solvent. An excess of organic ligands in the solvent quickly passivates the newly formed surfaces, stabilizing the NPls in the process. The thickness of the NPls can be controlled both by the dilution level and by the ligand concentration. Such colloidal NPls and their thin films were found to be extremely stable under continuous UV light irradiation. Full tunability of the NPl emission wavelength is achieved by varying the halide ion used (bromide, iodide). Additionally, time-resolved PL measurements reveal an increasing radiative decay rate with decreasing thickness of the NPls, likely due to an increasing exciton binding energy. Similarly, measurements on iodide-containing NPls show a transformation from biexponential to monoexponential PL decay with decreasing thickness, likely due to an increasing fraction of excitonic recombination. This interesting phenomenon of change in fluorescence upon dilution is a result of the intricate nature of the perovskite material itself and is uncommon in inorganic materials. Our findings enable the synthesis of halide perovskite NCs with high quantum efficiency and good stability as well as a tuning of both their optical and morphological properties.

  9. Temperature-independent sensors based on perovskite-type oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaza, F.; Frangini, S.; Masci, A.; Leoncini, J.; Pasquali, M.; Luisetto, I.; Tuti, S.

    2013-01-01

    The need of energy security and environment sustainability drives toward the development of energy technology in order to enhance the performance of internal combustion engines. Gas sensors play a key role for controlling the fuel oxygen ratio and monitoring the pollution emissions. The perovskite-type oxides can be synthesized for an extremely wide variety of combinations of chemical elements, allowing to design materials with suitable properties for sensing application. Lanthanum strontium ferrites, such as La 0.7 Sr 0.3 FeO 3 , are suitable oxygen sensing materials with temperature-independence conductivity, but they have low chemical stability under reducing conditions. The addition of aluminum into the perovskite structure improves the material properties in order to develop suitable oxygen sensing probes for lean burn engine control systems. Perovskite-type oxides with formula (La 0.7 Sr 0.3 )(Al x Fe 1−x )O 3 was synthesized by the citrate-nitrate combustion synthesis method. XRD analyses, show that it was synthesized a phase-pure powder belonging to the perovskite structure. Aluminum affects both the unit cell parameters, by shrinking the unit cell, and the powder morphology, by promoting the synthesis of particles with small crystallite size and large specific surface area. The partial substitution of iron with aluminum improves the chemical stability under reducing gas conditions and modulates the oxygen sensitivity by affecting the relative amount of Fe 4+ and Fe 3+ , as confirmed from TPR profiles. In the same time, the addition of aluminum does not affects the temperature-independent properties of lanthanum strontium ferrites. Indeed, the electrical measurements show that (La 0.7 Sr 0.3 )(Al x Fe 1−x )O 3 perovskites have temperature-independence conductivity from 900 K

  10. Temperature-independent sensors based on perovskite-type oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaza, F.; Frangini, S.; Masci, A. [ENEA-Casaccia R.C., Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S.Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Leoncini, J.; Pasquali, M. [University La Sapienza, Piazza Via del Castro Laurenziano 7, 00161 Rome (Italy); Luisetto, I.; Tuti, S. [University RomaTre, Rome 00146 (Italy)

    2014-06-19

    The need of energy security and environment sustainability drives toward the development of energy technology in order to enhance the performance of internal combustion engines. Gas sensors play a key role for controlling the fuel oxygen ratio and monitoring the pollution emissions. The perovskite-type oxides can be synthesized for an extremely wide variety of combinations of chemical elements, allowing to design materials with suitable properties for sensing application. Lanthanum strontium ferrites, such as La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3}, are suitable oxygen sensing materials with temperature-independence conductivity, but they have low chemical stability under reducing conditions. The addition of aluminum into the perovskite structure improves the material properties in order to develop suitable oxygen sensing probes for lean burn engine control systems. Perovskite-type oxides with formula (La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3})(Al{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x})O{sub 3} was synthesized by the citrate-nitrate combustion synthesis method. XRD analyses, show that it was synthesized a phase-pure powder belonging to the perovskite structure. Aluminum affects both the unit cell parameters, by shrinking the unit cell, and the powder morphology, by promoting the synthesis of particles with small crystallite size and large specific surface area. The partial substitution of iron with aluminum improves the chemical stability under reducing gas conditions and modulates the oxygen sensitivity by affecting the relative amount of Fe{sup 4+} and Fe{sup 3+}, as confirmed from TPR profiles. In the same time, the addition of aluminum does not affects the temperature-independent properties of lanthanum strontium ferrites. Indeed, the electrical measurements show that (La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3})(Al{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x})O{sub 3} perovskites have temperature-independence conductivity from 900 K.

  11. Interplay of Cation Ordering and Ferroelectricity in Perovskite Tin Iodides: Designing a Polar Halide Perovskite for Photovoltaic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Gaoyang; Young, Joshua; Liu, Xian; Rondinelli, James M.

    2016-09-28

    Owing to its ideal semiconducting band gap and good carrier transport properties, the fully inorganic perovskite CsSnI3 has been proposed as a visible-light absorber for photovoltaic (PV) applications. However, compared to the organic inorganic lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3, CsSnI3 solar cells display very low energy conversion efficiency. In this work, we propose a potential route to improve the PV properties of CsSnI3. Using first-principles calculations, we examine the crystal structures and electronic properties of CsSnI3, including its structural polymorphs. Next, we purposefully order Cs and Rb cations on the A site to create the double perovskite (CsRb)Sn2I6. We find that a stable ferroelectric polarization arises from the nontrivial coupling between polar displacements and octahedral rotations of the SnI6 network. These ferroelectric double perovskites are predicted to have energy band gaps and carrier effective masses similar to those of CsSnI3. More importantly, unlike nonpolar CsSnI3, the electric polarization present in ferroelectric (CsRb)Sn2I6 can effectively separate the photoexcited carriers, leading to novel ferroelectric PV materials with,potentially enhanced energy conversion efficiency.

  12. Radial Velocities of 41 Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Rachel A.; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao; Williams, Stephen J.

    2017-12-01

    Eclipsing binaries are vital for directly determining stellar parameters without reliance on models or scaling relations. Spectroscopically derived parameters of detached and semi-detached binaries allow us to determine component masses that can inform theories of stellar and binary evolution. Here we present moderate resolution ground-based spectra of stars in close binary systems with and without (detected) tertiary companions observed by NASA’s Kepler mission and analyzed for eclipse timing variations. We obtain radial velocities and spectroscopic orbits for five single-lined and 35 double-lined systems, and confirm one false positive eclipsing binary. For the double-lined spectroscopic binaries, we also determine individual component masses and examine the mass ratio {M}2/{M}1 distribution, which is dominated by binaries with like-mass pairs and semi-detached classical Algol systems that have undergone mass transfer. Finally, we constrain the mass of the tertiary component for five double-lined binaries with previously detected companions.

  13. BHDD: Primordial black hole binaries code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Gaggero, Daniele; Bertone, Gianfranco

    2018-06-01

    BHDD (BlackHolesDarkDress) simulates primordial black hole (PBH) binaries that are clothed in dark matter (DM) halos. The software uses N-body simulations and analytical estimates to follow the evolution of PBH binaries formed in the early Universe.

  14. Main Memory Implementations for Binary Grouping

    OpenAIRE

    May, Norman; Moerkotte, Guido

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of applications depend on efficient storage and analysis features for XML data. Hence, query optimization and efficient evaluation techniques for the emerging XQuery standard become more and more important. Many XQuery queries require nested expressions. Unnesting them often introduces binary grouping. We introduce several algorithms implementing binary grouping and analyze their time and space complexity. Experiments demonstrate their performance.

  15. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  16. Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion onto Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Andrea; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramírez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    Binary stars are not rare. While only close binary stars will eventually interact with one another, even the widest binary systems interact with their gaseous surroundings. The rates of accretion and the gaseous drag forces arising in these interactions are the key to understanding how these systems evolve. This poster examines accretion flows around a binary system moving supersonically through a background gas. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion using the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH. We simulate a range of values of semi-major axis of the orbit relative to the gravitational focusing impact parameter of the pair. On large scales, gas is gravitationally focused by the center-of-mass of the binary, leading to dynamical friction drag and to the accretion of mass and momentum. On smaller scales, the orbital motion imprints itself on the gas. Notably, the magnitude and direction of the forces acting on the binary inherit this orbital dependence. The long-term evolution of the binary is determined by the timescales for accretion, slow down of the center-of-mass, and decay of the orbit. We use our simulations to measure these timescales and to establish a hierarchy between them. In general, our simulations indicate that binaries moving through gaseous media will slow down before the orbit decays.

  17. Binary Relations as a Foundation of Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Jan; Barendsen, E.; Capretta, V.; Geuvers, H.; Niqui, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a theory for binary relations in the Zermelo-Fraenkel style. We choose for ZFCU, a variant of ZFC Set theory in which the Axiom of Foundation is replaced by an axiom allowing for non-wellfounded sets. The theory of binary relations is shown to be equi-consistent ZFCU by constructing a

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FLASH POINTS OF SOME BINARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    Miscellaneous binary blends containing solvent neutral-150 (SN-150), ... viscosity, the flash point test has always been a standard part of a lubricant's specification. ... between structure and flash points of organic compounds [5-12] and fuels [13, 14]. ... in binary mixtures, the gaps between flash points would be high enough.

  19. The origin of the RS CVn binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, P.

    1976-01-01

    Six possible origins for the RS CVn binaries are considered based on the following possibilities. RS CVn binaries might now be either pre-main-sequence or post-main-sequence. A pre-main-sequence binary might not always have been a binary but might have resulted from fission of a rapidly rotating single pre-main-sequence star. The main-sequence counterparts might be either single stars or binaries. To decide which of the six origins is possible, the following observed data for the RS CVn binaries are considered: total mass, total angular momentum, lack of observed connection with regions of star formation, large space density, kinematical age, and the visual companion of WW Dra. In addition lifetimes and space densities of single stars and other types of binaries are considered. The only origin possible is that the RS CVn binaries are in a thermal phase following fission of a main-sequence single star. In this explanation the single star had a rapidly rotating core which became unstable due to the core contraction which made it begin to evolve off the main sequence. The present Be stars might be examples of such parent single stars. (Auth.)

  20. Enhancing Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells to Moisture by the Facile Hydrophobic Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Insung; Jeong, Inyoung; Lee, Jinwoo; Ko, Min Jae; Yong, Kijung

    2015-08-12

    In this study, a novel and facile passivation process for a perovskite solar cell is reported. Poor stability in ambient atmosphere, which is the most critical demerit of a perovskite solar cell, is overcome by a simple passivation process using a hydrophobic polymer layer. Teflon, the hydrophobic polymer, is deposited on the top of a perovskite solar cell by a spin-coating method. With the hydrophobic passivation, the perovskite solar cell shows negligible degradation after a 30 day storage in ambient atmosphere. Suppressed degradation of the perovskite film is proved in various ways: X-ray diffraction, light absorption spectrum, and quartz crystal microbalance. This simple but effective passivation process suggests new kind of approach to enhance stability of perovskite solar cells to moisture.

  1. Development of High Efficiency Four-Terminal Perovskite-Silicon Tandems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, The Duc

    This thesis is concerned with the development of high efficiency four-terminal perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells with the potential to reduce the cost of solar energy. The work focuses on perovskite top cells and can be divided into three main parts: developing low parasitic absorption and efficient semi-transparent perovskite cells, doping perovskite materials with rubidium, and optimizing perovskite material's bandgap with quadruple-cation and mixed-halide. A further section investigates the light stability of optimized bandgap perovskite cells. In a four-terminal mechanically stacked tandem, the perovskite top cell requires two transparent contacts at both the front and rear sides. Through detailed optical and electrical power loss analysis of the tandem efficiency due to non-ideal properties of the two transparent contacts, optimal contact parameters in term of sheet resistance and transparency are identified. Indium doped tin oxide by sputtering is used for both two transparent contacts and their deposition parameters are optimized separately. The semi-transparent perovskite cell using MAPbI3 has an efficiency of more than 12% with less than 12% parasitic absorption and up to 80% transparency in the long wavelength region. Using a textured foil as anti-reflection coating, an outstanding average transparency of 84% in the long wavelength is obtained. The low parasitic absorption allows an opaque version of the semi-transparent perovskite cell to operate efficiently in a filterless spectrum splitting perovskite-silicon tandem configuration. To further enhance the performance of perovskite cells, it is essential to improve the quality of perovskite films. This can be achieved with mixed-perovskite FAPbI3/MAPbBr3. However, mixed-perovskite films normally contain small a small amount of a non-perovskite phase, which is detrimental for the cell performance. Rb-doping is found to eliminate the formation of the non-perovskite phase and enhance the crystallinity of

  2. Solvent engineering for high-quality perovskite solar cell with an efficiency approaching 20%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongyue; Wu, Jihuai; Tu, Yongguang; He, Xin; Lan, Zhang; Huang, Miaoliang; Lin, Jianming

    2017-10-01

    The perovskite layer is the most crucial factor for the high performance perovskite solar cells. Based on solvent engineering, we develop a ternary-mixed-solvent method for the growth of high-quality [Cs0.05(MA0.17FA0.83)0.95Pb(I0.83Br0.17)3] cation-anion-mixed perovskite films by introducing N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) into the precursor mixed solution. By controlling rapid nucleation and retarding crystal growth via intermediate phase PbI2-NMP (Lewis acid-base adduct), a dense, large grain, pinhole-free and long charge carrier lifetime perovskite film is obtained. By optimizing the precursor solvent composition, the perovskite solar cell achieves an impressive power conversion efficiency of 19.61% under one-sun illumination. The research presented here provides a facile, low-cost and highly efficient way for the preparation of perovskite solar cells.

  3. Photoconducting hybrid perovskite containing carbazole moiety as the organic layer: Fabrication and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Meng; Wu Gang; Cheng Siyuan; Wang Mang; Borghs, Gustaaf; Chen Hongzheng

    2008-01-01

    PbCl 2 -based thin films of perovskite structure with hole-transporting carbazole derivatives as the organic layer were successfully prepared by spin-coating from dimethylformamide solution containing stoichiometric amounts of organic and inorganic moieties. The crystal structure and optical property of the hybrid perovskite were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL). FT-IR spectra confirmed the formation of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite structure. UV-vis spectra of hybrid perovskite thin films exhibited a wide absorption band in ultraviolet region as well as a sharp peak at 330 nm characteristic of PbCl 2 -based layered perovskite. X-ray diffraction profiles indicated that the layered structure was oriented parallel to the silica glass slide plane. Meanwhile, double-layer photoreceptors of the hybrid perovskite were also fabricated, which showed the enhancement of photoconductivity by carbazole chromophore

  4. Quantum confinement effect and exciton binding energy of layered perovskite nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the preparation of monolayer (n = 1, few-layer (n = 2–5 and 3D (n = ∞ organic lead bromide perovskite nanoplatelets (NPLs by tuning the molar ratio of methylammonium bromide (MABr and hexadecammonium bromide (HABr. The absorption spectrum of the monolayer (HA2PbBr4 perovskite NPLs shows about 138 nm blue shift from that of 3D MAPbBr3 perovskites, which is attributed to strong quantum confinement effect. We further investigate the two-photon photoluminescence (PL of the NPLs and measure the exciton binding energy of monolayer perovskite NPLs using linear absorption and two-photon PL excitation spectroscopy. The exciton binding energy of monolayer perovskite NPLs is about 218 meV, which is far larger than tens of meV in 3D lead halide perovskites.

  5. Material Exchange Property of Organo Lead Halide Perovskite with Hole-Transporting Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Using X-ray diffraction (XRD, it was confirmed that the deposition of hole-transporting materials (HTM on a CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite layer changed the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite crystal, which was due to the material exchanging phenomena between the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite and HTM layers. The solvent for HTM also changed the perovskite crystal. In order to suppress the crystal change, doping by chloride ion, bromide ion and 5-aminovaleric acid was attempted. However, the doping was unable to stabilize the perovskite crystal against HTM deposition. It can be concluded that the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite crystal is too soft and flexible to stabilize against HTM deposition.

  6. Doping Lanthanide into Perovskite Nanocrystals: Highly Improved and Expanded Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Gencai; Bai, Xue; Yang, Dongwen; Chen, Xu; Jing, Pengtao; Qu, Songnan; Zhang, Lijun; Zhou, Donglei; Zhu, Jinyang; Xu, Wen; Dong, Biao; Song, Hongwei

    2017-12-13

    Cesium lead halide (CsPbX 3 ) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have demonstrated extremely excellent optical properties and great application potentials in various optoelectronic devices. However, because of the anion exchange, it is difficult to achieve white-light and multicolor emission for practical applications. Herein, we present the successful doping of various lanthanide ions (Ce 3+ , Sm 3+ , Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ , Dy 3+ , Er 3+ , and Yb 3+ ) into the lattices of CsPbCl 3 perovskite NCs through a modified hot-injection method. For the lanthanide ions doped perovskite NCs, high photoluminescence quantum yield (QY) and stable and widely tunable multicolor emissions spanning from visible to near-infrared (NIR) regions are successfully obtained. This work indicates that the doped perovskite NCs will inherit most of the unique optical properties of lanthanide ions and deliver them to the perovskite NC host, thus endowing the family of perovskite materials with excellent optical, electric, or magnetic properties.

  7. Mass Transfer in Mira-Type Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Detached, symbiotic binaries are generally assumed to interact via Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton (BHL wind accretion. However, the accretion rates and outflow geometries that result from this mass-transfer mechanism cannot adequately explain the observations of the nearest and best studied symbiotic binary, Mira, or the formation of some post-AGB binaries, e.g. barium stars. We propose a new mass-transfer mode for Mira-type binaries, which we call ‘wind Roche-lobe overflow’ (WRLOF, and which we demonstrate with 3D hydrodynamic simulations. Importantly, we show that the circumstellar outflows which result from WRLOF tend to be highly aspherical and strongly focused towards the binary orbital plane. Furthermore, the subsequent mass-transfer rates are at least an order of magnitude greater than the analogous BHL values. We discuss the implications of these results for the shaping of bipolar (proto-planetary nebulae and other related systems.

  8. Logistic chaotic maps for binary numbers generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanso, Ali; Smaoui, Nejib

    2009-01-01

    Two pseudorandom binary sequence generators, based on logistic chaotic maps intended for stream cipher applications, are proposed. The first is based on a single one-dimensional logistic map which exhibits random, noise-like properties at given certain parameter values, and the second is based on a combination of two logistic maps. The encryption step proposed in both algorithms consists of a simple bitwise XOR operation of the plaintext binary sequence with the keystream binary sequence to produce the ciphertext binary sequence. A threshold function is applied to convert the floating-point iterates into binary form. Experimental results show that the produced sequences possess high linear complexity and very good statistical properties. The systems are put forward for security evaluation by the cryptographic committees.

  9. Phonons in fcc binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Amita; Rathore, R.P.S.

    1992-01-01

    Born-Mayer potential has been modified to account for the unpaired (three body) forces among the common nearest neighbours of the ordered binary fcc alloys i.e. Ni 3 Fe 7 , Ni 5 Fe 5 and Ni 75 Fe 25 . The three body potential is added to the two body form of Morse to formalize the total interaction potential. Measured inverse ionic compressibility, cohesive energy, lattice constant and one measured phonon frequency are used to evaluate the defining parameters of the potential. The potential seeks to bring about the binding among 140 and 132 atoms though pair wise (two body) and non-pair wise (three body) forces respectively. The phonon-dispersion relations obtained by solving the secular equation are compared with the experimental findings on the aforesaid alloys. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs

  10. Adsorption of molecular additive onto lead halide perovskite surfaces: A computational study on Lewis base thiophene additive passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yu, Fengxi; Chen, Lihong; Li, Jingfa

    2018-06-01

    Organic additives, such as the Lewis base thiophene, have been successfully applied to passivate halide perovskite surfaces, improving the stability and properties of perovskite devices based on CH3NH3PbI3. Yet, the detailed nanostructure of the perovskite surface passivated by additives and the mechanisms of such passivation are not well understood. This study presents a nanoscopic view on the interfacial structure of an additive/perovskite interface, consisting of a Lewis base thiophene molecular additive and a lead halide perovskite surface substrate, providing insights on the mechanisms that molecular additives can passivate the halide perovskite surfaces and enhance the perovskite-based device performance. Molecular dynamics study on the interactions between water molecules and the perovskite surfaces passivated by the investigated additive reveal the effectiveness of employing the molecular additives to improve the stability of the halide perovskite materials. The additive/perovskite surface system is further probed via molecular engineering the perovskite surfaces. This study reveals the nanoscopic structure-property relationships of the halide perovskite surface passivated by molecular additives, which helps the fundamental understanding of the surface/interface engineering strategies for the development of halide perovskite based devices.

  11. Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells employing graphene oxide as hole conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongwei; Bai, Sai; Xiang, Jian; Yuan, Zhongcheng; Yang, Yingguo; Cui, Wei; Gao, Xingyu; Liu, Zhuang; Jin, Yizheng; Sun, Baoquan

    2014-09-21

    Graphene oxide (GO) is employed as a hole conductor in inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells, and the devices with CH₃NH₃PbI₃-xClx as absorber achieve an efficiency of over 12%. The perovskite film grown on GO exhibits enhanced crystallization, high surface coverage ratio as well as preferred in-plane orientation of the (110) plane. Efficient hole extraction from the perovskite to GO is demonstrated.

  12. Hybrid Perovskite Thin-Film Photovoltaics: In Situ Diagnostics and Importance of the Precursor Solvate Phases

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, Rahim

    2016-11-07

    Solution-processed hybrid perovskite semiconductors attract a great deal of attention, but little is known about their formation process. The one-step spin-coating process of perovskites is investigated in situ, revealing that thin-film formation is mediated by solid-state precursor solvates and their nature. The stability of these intermediate phases directly impacts the quality and reproducibility of thermally converted perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance.

  13. Hybrid Perovskite Thin-Film Photovoltaics: In Situ Diagnostics and Importance of the Precursor Solvate Phases

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, Rahim; Sheikh, Arif D.; Abdelsamie, Maged; Hu, Hanlin; Yu, Liyang; Zhao, Kui; Kim, Taesoo; El Tall, Omar; Li, Ruipeng; Smilgies, Detlef M.; Amassian, Aram

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed hybrid perovskite semiconductors attract a great deal of attention, but little is known about their formation process. The one-step spin-coating process of perovskites is investigated in situ, revealing that thin-film formation is mediated by solid-state precursor solvates and their nature. The stability of these intermediate phases directly impacts the quality and reproducibility of thermally converted perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance.

  14. Activity and stability trends of perovskite oxides for oxygen evolution catalysis at neutral pH

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Chen; Jia, Hongfei; Han, Binghong; Risch, Marcel; Lee, Yueh Lin; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite oxides (ABO[subscript 3]) have been studied extensively to promote the kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolytes. However, developing highly active catalysts for OER at near-neutral pH is desirable for many photoelectrochemical/electrochemical devices. In this paper, we systematically studied the activity and stability of well-known perovskite oxides for OER at pH 7. Previous activity descriptors established for perovskite oxides at pH 13, such as hav...

  15. A New Lead Iodide Perovskite based on Large Organic Cation for Solar Cell Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunqing; Shen, Dong; Lo, Ming Fai; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2018-06-06

    Methylammonium (CH3NH3+) and formamidinium ((NH2)2CH+) based lead iodide perovskites are currently the two commonly used organic-inorganic lead iodide perovskites for solar cell application. Till now, there is still no alternative organic cations, which can produce perovskites with bandgaps spanning the visible spectrum (i.e. solar cell application. Here, a new perovskite using large propane-1,3-diammonium cation (n-Pr(NH3)22+) with a chemical structure of (n-Pr(NH3)2)0.5PbI3 is demonstrated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result shows that the new perovskite exhibits a three-dimensional (3D), tetragonal phase. The bandgap of the new perovskite is ~ 1.6 eV, which is desirable for photovoltaic application. A (n-Pr(NH3)2)0.5PbI3 perovskite solar cell (PSC) yields a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.1%. More importantly, this new perovskite is composed of larger hydrophobic cation that provides a better moisture resistance compared to CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Method for single crystal growth of photovoltaic perovskite material and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinsong; Dong, Qingfeng

    2017-11-07

    Systems and methods for perovskite single crystal growth include using a low temperature solution process that employs a temperature gradient in a perovskite solution in a container, also including at least one small perovskite single crystal, and a substrate in the solution upon which substrate a perovskite crystal nucleates and grows, in part due to the temperature gradient in the solution and in part due to a temperature gradient in the substrate. For example, a top portion of the substrate external to the solution may be cooled.

  17. Light-Responsive Ion-Redistribution-Induced Resistive Switching in Hybrid Perovskite Schottky Junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Guan, Xinwei

    2017-11-23

    Hybrid Perovskites have emerged as a class of highly versatile functional materials with applications in solar cells, photodetectors, transistors, and lasers. Recently, there have also been reports on perovskite-based resistive switching (RS) memories, but there remain open questions regarding device stability and switching mechanism. Here, an RS memory based on a high-quality capacitor structure made of an MAPbBr3 (CH3NH3PbBr3) perovskite layer sandwiched between Au and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes is reported. Such perovskite devices exhibit reliable RS with an ON/OFF ratio greater than 103, endurance over 103 cycles, and a retention time of 104 s. The analysis suggests that the RS operation hinges on the migration of charged ions, most likely MA vacancies, which reversibly modifies the perovskite bulk transport and the Schottky barrier at the MAPbBr3/ITO interface. Such perovskite memory devices can also be fabricated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates with high bendability and reliability. Furthermore, it is found that reference devices made of another hybrid perovskite MAPbI3 consistently exhibit filament-type switching behavior. This work elucidates the important role of processing-dependent defects in the charge transport of hybrid perovskites and provides insights on the ion-redistribution-based RS in perovskite memory devices.

  18. Planar versus bulk heterojunction perovskite microstructures: Impact of morphology on photovoltaic properties and recombination dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranbir; Shukla, Vivek Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we compare the planar and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) perovskite thin films for their morphologies, photovoltaic properties, and recombination dynamics. The BHJ perovskite thin films were prepared with the addition of fullerene derivative [6, 6]-Phenyl-C60 butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM). The addition of PC60BM in perovskite provides a pinhole free film with high absorption coefficient and better charge transfer. The solar cells fabricated with BHJ perovskite exhibits power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.5%, with remarkably increased short-circuit current density (JSC) of 20.1 mAcm-2 and reduced recombination rate.

  19. A New Generation of Luminescent Materials Based on Low-Dimensional Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2017-06-02

    Low-dimensional perovskites with high luminescence properties are promising materials for optoelectronic applications. In this article, properties of two emerging types of low-dimensional perovskites are discussed, including perovskite quantum dots CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br or I) and zero-dimensional perovskite Cs4PbBr6. Moreover, their application for light down conversion in LCD backlighting systems and in visible light communication are also presented. With their superior optical properties, we believe that further development of these materials will potentially open more prospective applications, especially for optoelectronics devices.

  20. The influence of additives in the stoichiometry of hybrid lead halide perovskites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Burgués-Ceballos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the employment of carefully selected solvent additives in the processing of a commercial perovskite precursor ink and analyze their impact on the performance of organometal trihalide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3−xClx photovoltaic devices. We provide evidence that the use of benzaldehyde can be used as an effective method to preserve the stoichiometry of the perovskite precursors in solution. Benzaldehyde based additive engineering shows to improve perovskite solid state film morphology and device performance of CH3NH3PbI3−xClx based solar cells.

  1. Interspace modification of titania-nanorod arrays for efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Jin, Zhixin; Wang, Yinglin; Wang, Meiqi; Chen, Shixin; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Xintong; Liu, Yichun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The fabrication of perovskite solar cells utilizing TiO_2 NR arrays. • Investigation of the interspace effect of TiO_2 NR on perovskite layer. • Understanding of the balance between perovskite capping layer and pore filling. - Abstract: Morphology of electron transport layers (ETLs) has an important influence on the device architecture and electronic processes of mesostructured solar cells. In this work, we thoroughly investigated the effect of the interspace of TiO_2 nanorod (NR) arrays on the photovoltaic performance of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Along with the interspace in TiO_2-NR arrays increasing, the thickness as well as the crystal size of perovskite capping layer are reduced accordingly, and the filling of perovskite in the channel becomes incomplete. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that this variation of perovskite absorber layer, induced by interspace of TiO_2 NR arrays, causes the change of charge recombination process at the TiO_2/perovskite interface, suggesting that a balance between capping layer and the perovskite filling is critical to obtain high charge collection efficiency of PSCs. A power conversion efficiency of 10.3% could be achieved through careful optimization of interspace in TiO_2-NR arrays. Our research will shed light on the morphology control of ETLs with 1D structure for heterojunction solar cells fabricated by solution-deposited method.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Titania Perovskite Solar Cell Technology for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyi; Gao, Xianfeng; Deng, Yelin; Li, Bingbing; Yuan, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous attention in recent years due to their low cost and superior technical performance. However, the use of toxic metals, such as lead, in the perovskite dye and toxic chemicals in perovskite solar cell manufacturing causes grave concerns for its environmental performance. To understand and facilitate the sustainable development of perovskite solar cell technology from its design to manufacturing, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment has been conducted on titanium dioxide nanotube based perovskite solar cells by using an attributional life cycle assessment approach, from cradle to gate, with manufacturing data from our laboratory-scale experiments and upstream data collected from professional databases and the literature. The results indicate that the perovskite dye is the primary source of environmental impact, associated with 64.77% total embodied energy and 31.38% embodied materials consumption, contributing to more than 50% of the life cycle impact in almost all impact categories, although lead used in the perovskite dye only contributes to about 1.14% of the human toxicity potential. A comparison of perovskite solar cells with commercial silicon and cadmium-tellurium solar cells reveals that perovskite solar cells could be a promising alternative technology for future large-scale industrial applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Interspace modification of titania-nanorod arrays for efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Peng; Jin, Zhixin; Wang, Yinglin, E-mail: wangyl100@nenu.edu.cn; Wang, Meiqi; Chen, Shixin; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Xintong, E-mail: xtzhang@nenu.edu.cn; Liu, Yichun, E-mail: ycliu@nenu.edu.cn

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • The fabrication of perovskite solar cells utilizing TiO{sub 2} NR arrays. • Investigation of the interspace effect of TiO{sub 2} NR on perovskite layer. • Understanding of the balance between perovskite capping layer and pore filling. - Abstract: Morphology of electron transport layers (ETLs) has an important influence on the device architecture and electronic processes of mesostructured solar cells. In this work, we thoroughly investigated the effect of the interspace of TiO{sub 2} nanorod (NR) arrays on the photovoltaic performance of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Along with the interspace in TiO{sub 2}-NR arrays increasing, the thickness as well as the crystal size of perovskite capping layer are reduced accordingly, and the filling of perovskite in the channel becomes incomplete. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that this variation of perovskite absorber layer, induced by interspace of TiO{sub 2} NR arrays, causes the change of charge recombination process at the TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface, suggesting that a balance between capping layer and the perovskite filling is critical to obtain high charge collection efficiency of PSCs. A power conversion efficiency of 10.3% could be achieved through careful optimization of interspace in TiO{sub 2}-NR arrays. Our research will shed light on the morphology control of ETLs with 1D structure for heterojunction solar cells fabricated by solution-deposited method.

  4. Research Update: Physical and electrical characteristics of lead halide perovskites for solar cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Bretschneider

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of thin-film photovoltaics has been recently enriched by the introduction of lead halide perovskites as absorber materials, which allow low-cost synthesis of solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 16%. The exact impact of the perovskite crystal structure and composition on the optoelectronic properties of the material are not fully understood. Our progress report highlights the knowledge gained about lead halide perovskites with a focus on physical and optoelectronic properties. We discuss the crystal and band structure of perovskite materials currently implemented in solar cells and the impact of the crystal properties on ferroelectricity, ambipolarity, and the properties of excitons.

  5. Investigating the Effect of Pyridine Vapor Treatment on Perovskite Solar Cells - Oral Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Alison J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-25

    Perovskite photovoltaics have recently come to prominence as a viable alternative to crystalline silicon based solar cells. In an effort to create consistent and high-quality films, we studied the effect of various annealing conditions as well as the effect of pyridine vapor treatment on mixed halide methylammonium lead perovskite films. Of six conditions tested, we found that annealing at 100 degree Celsius for 90 minutes followed by 120 degree Celsius for 15 minutes resulted in the purest perovskite. Perovskite films made using that condition were treated with pyridine for various amounts of time, and the effects on perovskite microstructure were studied using x-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence lifetime analysis (TRPL). A previous study found that pyridine vapor caused perovskite films to have higher photoluminescence intensity and become more homogenous. In this study we found that the effects of pyridine are more complex: while films appeared to become more homogenous, a decrease in bulkphotoluminescence lifetime was observed. In addition, the perovskite bandgap appeared to decrease with increased pyridine treatment time. Finally, X-ray diffraction showed that pyridine vapor treatment increased the perovskite (110) peak intensity but also often gave rise to new unidentified peaks, suggesting the formation of a foreign species. It was observed that the intensity of this unknown species had an inverse correlation with the increase in perovskite peak intensity, and also seemed to be correlated with the decrease in TRPL lifetime.

  6. Investigating the Effect of Pyridine Vapor Treatment on Perovskite Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Alison [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Perovskite photovoltaics have recently come to prominence as a viable alternative to crystalline silicon based solar cells. In an effort to create consistent and high-quality films, we studied the effect of various annealing conditions as well as the effect of pyridine vapor treatment on mixed halide methylammonium lead perovskite films. Of six conditions tested, we found that annealing at 100°C for 90 minutes followed by 120°C for 15 minutes resulted in the purest perovskite. Perovskite films made using that condition were treated with pyridine for various amounts of time, and the effects on perovskite microstructure were studied using x-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence lifetime analysis (TRPL). A previous study found that pyridine vapor caused perovskite films to have higher photoluminescence intensity and become more homogenous. In this study we found that the effects of pyridine are more complex: while films appeared to become more homogenous, a decrease in bulk photoluminescence lifetime was observed. In addition, the perovskite bandgap appeared to decrease with increased pyridine treatment time. Finally, X-ray diffraction showed that pyridine vapor treatment increased the perovskite (110) peak intensity but also often gave rise to new unidentified peaks, suggesting the formation of a foreign species. It was observed that the intensity of this unknown species had an inverse correlation with the increase in perovskite peak intensity, and also seemed to be correlated with the decrease in TRPL lifetime.

  7. Understanding and Tailoring Grain Growth of Lead-Halide Perovskite for Solar Cell Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongchao; Liu, Yanliang; Shin, Insoo; Hwang, In-Wook; Jung, Yun Kyung; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Park, Sung Heum; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2017-10-04

    The fundamental mechanism of grain growth evolution in the fabrication process from the precursor phase to the perovskite phase is not fully understood despite its importance in achieving high-quality grains in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which are strongly affected by processing parameters. In this work, we investigate the fundamental conversion mechanism from the precursor phase of perovskite to the complete perovskite phase and how the intermediate phase promotes growth of the perovskite grains during the fabrication process. By monitoring the morphological evolution of the perovskite during the film fabrication process, we observed a clear rod-shaped intermediate phase in the highly crystalline perovskite and investigated the role of the nanorod intermediate phase on the growth of the grains of the perovskite film. Furthermore, on the basis of these findings, we developed a simple and effective method to tailor grain properties including the crystallinity, size, and number of grain boundaries, and then utilized the film with the tailored grains to develop perovskite solar cells.

  8. The influence of morphology on charge transport/recombination dynamics in planar perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Man; Wang, Yi; Wang, Hao-Yi; Han, Jun; Qin, Yujun; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Ai, Xi-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    The photovoltaic performance of planar perovskite solar cell is significantly influenced by the morphology of perovskite film. In this work, five kinds of devices with different perovskite film morphologies were prepared by varying the concentration of CH3NH3Cl in precursor solutions. We found that best morphology of perovskite film results in the excellent photovoltaic performance with an average efficiency of 15.52% and a champion efficiency of 16.38%. Transient photovoltage and photocurrent measurements are performed to elucidate the mechanism of photoelectric conversion processes, which shows that the charge recombination is effectively suppressed and the charge transport is obviously promoted by optimized morphology.

  9. Understanding perovskite formation through the intramolecular exchange method in ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Rodrigo; Castro, Jhon A. P.; Marques, Adriano S.; Nogueira, Ana F.

    2017-04-01

    Among the methods to prepare hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite films, the intramolecular exchange method was the first one that made possible to prepare perovskite solar cells with efficiencies higher than 20%. However, perovskite formation by this method is not completely understood, especially in ambient conditions. In this work, perovskite films were prepared by the intramolecular exchange method in ambient conditions. The spin coating speed and the frequency of the MAI solution dripping onto PbI2(DMSO) were varied during the deposition steps. With the combination of these two parameters, a rigid control of the solvent drying was possible. Thus, depending on the chosen conditions, the intermediate MAPb3I8·2DMSO was formed with residual PbI2. Otherwise, direct formation of perovskite film was attained. A mechanism for the direct formation of bulk perovskite was proposed. We also investigated how the posterior thermal annealing affects the crystallinity and defects in perovskite films. With prolonged thermal annealing, the excess of MAI can be avoided, increasing the efficiency and decreasing the hysteresis of the solar cells. The best perovskite solar cell achieved a stabilized power output of 12.9%. The findings of this work pave the way for realizing the fabrication of efficient perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere, a very desirable condition for cost-efficient large scale manufacturing of this technology.

  10. The influence of additives in the stoichiometry of hybrid lead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgués-Ceballos, Ignasi; Savva, Achilleas; Georgiou, Efthymios; Kapnisis, Konstantinos; Papagiorgis, Paris; Mousikou, Androniki; Itskos, Grigorios; Othonos, Andreas; Choulis, Stelios A.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the employment of carefully selected solvent additives in the processing of a commercial perovskite precursor ink and analyze their impact on the performance of organometal trihalide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3-xClx) photovoltaic devices. We provide evidence that the use of benzaldehyde can be used as an effective method to preserve the stoichiometry of the perovskite precursors in solution. Benzaldehyde based additive engineering shows to improve perovskite solid state film morphology and device performance of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx based solar cells.

  11. Superior stability for perovskite solar cells with 20% efficiency using vacuum co-evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuejie; Yang, Dong; Yang, Ruixia; Yang, Bin; Yang, Zhou; Ren, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jian; Niu, Jinzhi; Feng, Jiangshan; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2017-08-31

    Chemical composition and film quality are two key figures of merit for large-area high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. To date, all studies on mixed perovskites have used solution-processing, which results in imperfect surface coverage and pin-holes generated during solvent evaporation, execrably influencing the stability and efficiency of perovskite solar cells. Herein, we report our development using a vacuum co-evaporation deposition method to fabricate pin-hole-free cesium (Cs)-substituted perovskite films with complete surface coverage. Apart from the simplified procedure, the present method also promises tunable band gap, reduced trap-state density and longer carrier lifetime, leading to solar cell efficiency as high as 20.13%, which is among the highest reported for planar perovskite solar cells. The splendid performance is attributed to superior merits of the Cs-substituted perovskite film including tunable band gap, reduced trap-state density and longer carrier lifetime. Moreover, the Cs-substituted perovskite device without encapsulation exhibits significantly higher stability in ambient air compared with the single-component counterpart. When the Cs-substituted perovskite solar cells are stored in dark for one year, the PCE remains at 19.25%, degrading only 4.37% of the initial efficiency. The excellent stability originates from reduced lattice constant and relaxed strain in perovskite lattice by incorporating Cs cations into the crystal lattice, as demonstrated by the positive peak shifts and reduced peak width in X-ray diffraction analysis.

  12. Perovskites as electrodes of solid cells in sensitive elements of oxygen ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandurska, J.; Sniezynska, I.; Marek, A.; Szwagierczak, D.; Kulawik, J.

    1997-01-01

    The perovskite family comprises many compounds used in electronic applications. In this work perovskite materials based on LaCrO 3 were investigated, destined for electrodes of solid electrolyte oxygen sensors. lanthanum chromite powders modified by calcium, strontium and aluminium were prepared by the coprecipitation-calcination technique. The powders were examined using thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Introductory studies of electromotive force of oxygen cells with yttria stabilized zirconia as solid electrolyte and perovskite-based electrodes proved that it is possible to replace expensive Pt electrodes by much cheaper perovskite ones. (author)

  13. Magnetic properties of rare earth oxides with perovskite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinatsu, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    A perovskite composite oxide is represented by the general formula of ABO 3 . Cations at the B site characterize magnetic properties of the oxide. Many studies have been accumulated for transition metal elements at the B sites. In this report the studies of rare earth elements at the B sites are reviewed. In rare elements, tetravalent ions such as Ce 4+ , Pr 4+ and Tb 4+ can occupy the B sites with Ba and Sr ions at the A sites. Both the SrTbO 3 and BaTbO 3 have an orthorhombic structure and show the antiferromagnetic transition at about 33 K, which is originated from terbium ions coupled antiferromagnetically with the six neighboring terbium ions. A tetravalent praseodymium perovskite SrPrO 3 shows no existence of the magnetic ordering down to 2.0 K. This is in contrast to the result of isomorphous BaPrO 3 , which shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 11.5 K. A double perovskite structure is represented by the formula A 2 LnMO 6 (A=Ba, Sr, Ca; M=Ru, Ir). In a double perovskite compound Ba 2 PrRuO 6 , the Pr 3+ and Ru 5+ ions are arranged with regularity over the six-coordinate B sites. This compound transforms to an antiferromagnetic state below 117 K. Antiferromagnetic transition temperatures T N for isomorphous Sr and Ca show a clear tendency, T N (A=Ba)>T N (Sr)>T N (Ca), in the compounds with the same rare earth elements (Ln). The 6H-perovskite structure Ba 3 LnRu 2 O 9 consists of linkages between LnO 6 octahedra and Ru 2 O 9 dimers made from face-shared RuO 6 octahedra. The 6H-perovskite structure Ba 3 MRu 2 O 9 (M=Sc, Y, La, Nd-Gd, Dy-Lu) have the valence state of Ba 3 M 3+ Ru 2 4.5+ O 9 . The magnetic susceptibilities show a broad maximum at 135-370 K. This magnetic behavior is ascribed to the antiferromagnetic coupling between two Ru ions in a Ru 2 O 9 dimer and to the magnetic interaction between the Ru 2 O 9 dimers. (author)

  14. Meniscus-assisted solution printing of large-grained perovskite films for high-efficiency solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming; Li, Bo; Cui, Xun; Jiang, Beibei; He, Yanjie; Chen, Yihuang; O'Neil, Daniel; Szymanski, Paul; Ei-Sayed, Mostafa A.; Huang, Jinsong; Lin, Zhiqun

    2017-07-01

    Control over morphology and crystallinity of metal halide perovskite films is of key importance to enable high-performance optoelectronics. However, this remains particularly challenging for solution-printed devices due to the complex crystallization kinetics of semiconductor materials within dynamic flow of inks. Here we report a simple yet effective meniscus-assisted solution printing (MASP) strategy to yield large-grained dense perovskite film with good crystallization and preferred orientation. Intriguingly, the outward convective flow triggered by fast solvent evaporation at the edge of the meniscus ink imparts the transport of perovskite solutes, thus facilitating the growth of micrometre-scale perovskite grains. The growth kinetics of perovskite crystals is scrutinized by in situ optical microscopy tracking to understand the crystallization mechanism. The perovskite films produced by MASP exhibit excellent optoelectronic properties with efficiencies approaching 20% in planar perovskite solar cells. This robust MASP strategy may in principle be easily extended to craft other solution-printed perovskite-based optoelectronics.

  15. Raman spectra of MgSiO3 . 10% Al2O3-perovskite at various pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lingun; Irifune, T.

    1995-01-01

    Variations of Raman spectra of MgSiO 3 . 10% Al 2 O 3 -perovskite were investigated up to about 270 kbar at room temperature and in the range 108-425 K at atmospheric pressure. Like MgSiO 3 -perovskite, the Raman frequencies of MgSiO 3 . 10% Al 2 O 3 -perovskite increase nonlinearly with increasing pressure and decrease linearly with increasing temperature within the experimental uncertainties and the range investigated. A comparison of these data with those of MgSiO 3 -perovskite suggests that MgSiO 3 . 10% Al 2 O 3 -perovskite is slightly more compressible than MgSiO 3 -perovskite, and that the volume thermal expansion for MgSiO 3 . 10% Al 2 O 3 -perovskite is also slightly greater than that for MgSiO 3 -perovskite. (orig.)

  16. PERIODIC SIGNALS IN BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xinyi; Stefano, Rosanne Di; Esin, Ann; Taylor, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing events are powerful tools for the study of stellar populations. In particular, they can be used to discover and study a variety of binary systems. A large number of binary lenses have already been found through microlensing surveys and a few of these systems show strong evidence of orbital motion on the timescale of the lensing event. We expect that more binary lenses of this kind will be detected in the future. For binaries whose orbital period is comparable to the event duration, the orbital motion can cause the lensing signal to deviate drastically from that of a static binary lens. The most striking property of such light curves is the presence of quasi-periodic features, which are produced as the source traverses the same regions in the rotating lens plane. These repeating features contain information about the orbital period of the lens. If this period can be extracted, then much can be learned about the lensing system even without performing time-consuming, detailed light-curve modeling. However, the relative transverse motion between the source and the lens significantly complicates the problem of period extraction. To resolve this difficulty, we present a modification of the standard Lomb–Scargle periodogram analysis. We test our method for four representative binary lens systems and demonstrate its efficiency in correctly extracting binary orbital periods

  17. Topological and categorical properties of binary trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pajoohesh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Binary trees are very useful tools in computer science for estimating the running time of so-called comparison based algorithms, algorithms in which every action is ultimately based on a prior comparison between two elements. For two given algorithms A and B where the decision tree of A is more balanced than that of B, it is known that the average and worst case times of A will be better than those of B, i.e., ₸A(n ≤₸B(n and TWA (n≤TWB (n. Thus the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees play a main role. Here we consider them as semilattices and characterize the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees by topological and categorical properties. Also we define the composition of binary trees as a commutative binary operation, *, such that for binary trees A and B, A * B is the binary tree obtained by attaching a copy of B to any leaf of A. We show that (T,* is a commutative po-monoid and investigate its properties.

  18. Theoretical studies of binaries in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dischler, Johann Sebastian

    This thesis introduces and summarizes four papers dealing with computer simulations of astrophysical processes involving binaries. The first part gives the rational and theoretical background to these papers. In paper I and II a statistical approach to studying eclipsing binaries is described. By using population synthesis models for binaries the probabilities for eclipses are calculated for different luminosity classes of binaries. These are compared with Hipparcos data and they agree well if one uses a standard input distribution for the orbit sizes. If one uses a random pairing model, where both companions are independently picked from an IMF, one finds too feclipsing binaries by an order of magnitude. In paper III we investigate a possible scenario for the origin of the stars observed close to the centre of our galaxy, called S stars. We propose that a cluster falls radially cowards the central black hole. The binaries within the cluster can then, if they have small impact parameters, be broken up by the black hole's tidal held and one of the components of the binary will be captured by the black hole. Paper IV investigates how the onset of mass transfer in eccentric binaries depends on the eccentricity. To do this we have developed a new two-phase SPH scheme where very light particles are at tire outer edge of our simulated star. This enables us to get a much better resolution of the very small mass that is transferred in close binaries. Our simulations show that the minimum required distance between the stars to have mass transfer decreases with the eccentricity.

  19. Binary neutron star merger simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruegmann, Bernd [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Our research focuses on the numerical tools necessary to solve Einstein's equations. In recent years we have been particularly interested in spacetimes consisting of two neutron stars in the final stages of their evolution. Because of the emission of gravitational radiation, the objects are driven together to merge; the emitted gravitational wave signal is visualized. This emitted gravitational radiation carries energy and momentum away from the system and contains information about the system. Late last year the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) began searches for these gravitational wave signals at a sensitivity at which detections are expected. Although such systems can radiate a significant amount of their total mass-energy in gravitational waves, the gravitational wave signals one expects to receive on Earth are not strong, since sources of gravitational waves are often many millions of light years away. Therefore one needs accurate templates for the radiation one expects from such systems in order to be able to extract them out of the detector's noise. Although analytical models exist for compact binary systems when the constituents are well separated, we need numerical simulation to investigate the last orbits before merger to obtain accurate templates and validate analytical approximations. Due to the strong nonlinearity of the equations and the large separation of length scales, these simulations are computationally demanding and need to be run on large supercomputers. When matter is present the computational cost as compared to pure black hole (vacuum) simulations increases even more due to the additional matter fields. But also more interesting astrophysical phenomena can happen. In fact, there is the possibility for a strong electromagnetic signal from the merger (e.g., a short gamma-ray burst or lower-energy electromagnetic signatures from the ejecta) and significant neutrino emission. Additionally, we can expect that

  20. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.

    2017-07-01

    The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other

  1. Variance in binary stellar population synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.

    2016-03-01

    In the years preceding LISA, Milky Way compact binary population simulations can be used to inform the science capabilities of the mission. Galactic population simulation efforts generally focus on high fidelity models that require extensive computational power to produce a single simulated population for each model. Each simulated population represents an incomplete sample of the functions governing compact binary evolution, thus introducing variance from one simulation to another. We present a rapid Monte Carlo population simulation technique that can simulate thousands of populations in less than a week, thus allowing a full exploration of the variance associated with a binary stellar evolution model.

  2. Proposed experiment to test fundamentally binary theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmann, Matthias; Vértesi, Tamás; Cabello, Adán

    2017-09-01

    Fundamentally binary theories are nonsignaling theories in which measurements of many outcomes are constructed by selecting from binary measurements. They constitute a sensible alternative to quantum theory and have never been directly falsified by any experiment. Here we show that fundamentally binary theories are experimentally testable with current technology. For that, we identify a feasible Bell-type experiment on pairs of entangled qutrits. In addition, we prove that, for any n , quantum n -ary correlations are not fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary. For that, we introduce a family of inequalities that hold for fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary theories but are violated by quantum n -ary correlations.

  3. Galactic binaries with eLISA

    OpenAIRE

    Nelemans, G.

    2013-01-01

    I review what eLISA will see from Galactic binaries -- double stars with orbital periods less than a few hours and white dwarf (or neutron star/black hole) components. I discuss the currently known binaries that are guaranteed (or verification) sources and explain why the expected total number of eLISA Galactic binaries is several thousand, even though there are large uncertainties in our knowledge of this population, in particular that of the interacting AM CVn systems. I very briefly sketch...

  4. Parity-Forbidden Transitions and Their Impact on the Optical Absorption Properties of Lead-Free Metal Halide Perovskites and Double Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaoming; Xiao, Zewen; Wang, Jianbo; Mitzi, David B; Yan, Yanfa

    2017-07-06

    Using density functional theory calculations, we analyze the optical absorption properties of lead (Pb)-free metal halide perovskites (AB 2+ X 3 ) and double perovskites (A 2 B + B 3+ X 6 ) (A = Cs or monovalent organic ion, B 2+ = non-Pb divalent metal, B + = monovalent metal, B 3+ = trivalent metal, X = halogen). We show that if B 2+ is not Sn or Ge, Pb-free metal halide perovskites exhibit poor optical absorptions because of their indirect band gap nature. Among the nine possible types of Pb-free metal halide double perovskites, six have direct band gaps. Of these six types, four show inversion symmetry-induced parity-forbidden or weak transitions between band edges, making them not ideal for thin-film solar cell applications. Only one type of Pb-free double perovskite shows optical absorption and electronic properties suitable for solar cell applications, namely, those with B + = In, Tl and B 3+ = Sb, Bi. Our results provide important insights for designing new metal halide perovskites and double perovskites for optoelectronic applications.

  5. Full coverage of perovskite layer onto ZnO nanorods via a modified sequential two-step deposition method for efficiency enhancement in perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruankham, Pipat; Wongratanaphisan, Duangmanee; Gardchareon, Atcharawon; Phadungdhitidhada, Surachet; Choopun, Supab; Sagawa, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    Full coverage of perovskite layer onto ZnO nanorod substrates with less pinholes is crucial for achieving high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. In this work, a two-step sequential deposition method is modified to achieve an appropriate property of perovskite (MAPbI3) film. Surface treatment of perovskite layer and its precursor have been systematically performed and their morphologies have been investigated. By pre-wetting of lead iodide (PbI2) and letting it dry before reacting with methylammonium iodide (MAI) provide better coverage of perovskite film onto ZnO nanorod substrate than one without any treatment. An additional MAI deposition followed with toluene drop-casting technique on the perovskite film is also found to increase the coverage and enhance the transformation of PbI2 to MAPbI3. These lead to longer charge carrier lifetime, resulting in an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 1.21% to 3.05%. The modified method could been applied to a complex ZnO nanorods/TiO2 nanoparticles substrate. The enhancement in PCE to 3.41% is observed. These imply that our introduced method provides a simple way to obtain the full coverage and better transformation to MAPbI3 phase for enhancement in performances of perovskite solar cells.

  6. Growth of MAPbBr3 perovskite crystals and its interfacial properties with Al and Ag contacts for perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Mansoor Ani; Ahmad, Zubair; Shakoor, R. A.; Alashraf, Abdulla; Bhadra, Jolly; Al-Thani, N. J.; Al-Muhtaseb, Shaheen A.; Mohamed, A. M. A.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the MAPbBr3 perovskite crystals were grown and the interfacial properties of the poly-crystalline MAPbBr3 with Aluminum (Al) and Silver (Ag) contacts has been investigated. MAPbBr3 crystals are turned into the poly-crystalline pellets (PCP) using compaction technique and the Al/PCP, Al/interface layer/PCP, Ag/PCP, and Ag/interface layer/PCP contacts were investigated. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristic technique were used to have an insight of the degradation mechanism happening at the Metal/perovskite interface. The Ag/PCP contact appears to be stable, whereas Al is found to be highly reactive with the MAPbBr3 perovskite crystals due to the infiltration setback of Al in to the perovskite crystals. The interface layer showed a slight effect on the penetration of Al in to the perovskite crystals however it does not seem to be an appropriate solution. It is noteworthy that the stability of the underlying metal/perovskite contact is very crucial towards the perovskite solar cells with extended device lifetime.

  7. Thermochemical and thermophysical properties of alkaline-earth perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Kurosaki, Ken; Maekawa, Takuji; Matsuda, Tetsushi; Kobayashi, Shin-ichi; Uno, Masayoshi

    2005-01-01

    In order to contribute to safety evaluation of high burnup oxide fuels, we studied the thermochemical and thermophysical properties of alkaline-earth perovskites known as oxide inclusions. Polycrystalline samples of alkaline-earth perovskites, BaUO 3 , BaZrO 3 , BaCeO 3 , BaMoO 3 , SrTiO 3 , SrZrO 3 , SrCeO 3 , SrMoO 3 , SrHfO 3 and SrRuO 3 , were prepared and the thermal expansion coefficient, melting temperature, elastic moduli, Debye temperature, microhardness, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity were measured. The relationship between some physical properties was studied

  8. The Surface of Hybrid Perovskite Crystals: A Boon or Bane

    KAUST Repository

    Banavoth, Murali

    2017-03-03

    Hybrid perovskite single crystals have garnered tremendous research attention and are expected to be next-generation materials for high-efficiency photoactive devices. Therefore, it is fundamentally important to understand the 8 relationship between the optoelectronic properties of these materials and the marginally exploited surface chemistry in ambient air. For instance, a strong surface disorder, including hydration and ion migration, can possibly lead to extremely different optical and electronic properties at the surface compared to the bulk of the single crystal (SC). From this perspective, we evaluate the key variables that underlie the perovskite SC surface restructuring in ambient air and discuss their merits and limitations. In addition, a comprehensive picture of surface disordering, the remarkable change in the charge carrier dynamics and carrier mobility, surface hydration, and the effect of ion migration on the surface behavior will be discussed. Finally, surface passivation methods are highlighted to resolve or overcome the challenges for device integration.

  9. The lanthanum gallate-based mixed conducting perovskite ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politova, E. D.; Stefanovich, S. Yu.; Aleksandrovskii, V. V.; Kaleva, G. M.; Mosunov, A. V.; Avetisov, A. K.; Sung, J. S.; Choo, K. Y.; Kim, T. H.

    2005-01-01

    The structure, microstructure, dielectric, and transport properties of the anion deficient perovskite solid solutions (La,Sr)(Ga,Mg,M)O3- with M=Fe, Ni have been studied. Substitution of iron and nickel for gallium up to about 20 and 40 at.% respectively, leads to the perovskite lattice contraction due to the cation substitutions by the transition elements. The transition from pure ionic to mixed ionic-electronic conductivity was observed for both the systems studied. Both the enhancement of total conductivity and increasing in the thermal expansion coefficient values has been proved to correlate with the increasing amount of weakly bounded oxygen species in the Fe or Ni-doped ceramics. The oxygen ionic conductivity has been estimated from the kinetic experiments using the dc-conductivity and dilatometry methods under the condition of the stepwise change of the atmosphere from nitrogen to oxygen.

  10. Solar cells with perovskite-based light sensitization layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Chang, Robert P.H.; Stoumpos, Konstantinos; Lee, Byunghong

    2018-05-08

    Solar cells are provided which comprise an electron transporting layer and a light sensitizing layer of perovskite disposed over the surface of the electron transporting layer. The perovskite may have a formula selected from the group consisting of A2MX6, Z2MX6 or YMX6, wherein A is an alkali metal, M is a metal or a metalloid, X is a halide, Z is selected from the group consisting of a primary ammonium, an iminium, a secondary ammonium, a tertiary ammonium, and a quaternary ammonium, and Y has formula Mb(L)3, wherein Mb is a transition metal in the 2+ oxidation state L is an N--N neutral chelating ligand. Methods of making the solar cells are also provided, including methods based on electrospray deposition.

  11. Distributed Feedback Laser Based on Single Crystal Perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shang; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a single crystal perovskite based, with grating-structured photoresist on top, highly polarized distributed feedback laser. A lower laser threshold than the Fabry-Perot mode lasers from the same single crystal CH3NH3PbBr3 microplate was obtained. Single crystal CH3NH3PbBr3 microplates was synthesized with one-step solution processed precipitation method. Once the photoresist on top of the microplate was patterned with electron beam, the device was realized. This one-step fabrication process utilized the advantage of single crystal to the greatest extend. The ultra-low defect density in single crystalline microplate offer an opportunity for lower threshold lasing action compare with poly-crystal perovskite films. In the experiment, the lasing action based on the distributed feedback grating design was found with lower threshold and higher intensity than the Fabry-Perot mode lasers supported by the flat facets of the same microplate.

  12. Oxygen-perovskites with fourvalent rare earth metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristen, H R

    1978-01-01

    The quadrivalent oxidation stage of the elements praseodymium and terbium can be easily prepared as oxides BaPrO/sub 3/ and BaTbO/sub 3/ crystallizing with the Perovskite structure. From this observation one has tried to stabilize the elements neodymium and dysprosium in the lanthanide series by including a host lattice with Perovskite structure. BaCeO/sub 3/, BaPrO/sub 3/, BaZrO/sub 3/, BaThO/sub 3/, BaTbO/sub 3/, SrCeO/sub 3/ and SrTbO/sub 3/ are used as host lattices. The preparation was carried out by simple annealing of the corresponding oxides with BaCO/sub 3/ or SrCO/sub 3/ in air at 1350/sup 0/C. X-ray and analytical characterization showed that Nd(IV) and Dy(IV) were partly taken up by a few host lattices.

  13. Photostability of 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the behavior of a series of newly synthesized (R-NH32PbX4 perovskites and, in particular, discuss the possible reasons which cause their degradation under UV illumination. Experimental results show that the degradation process depends a lot on their molecular components: not only the inorganic part, but also the chemical structure of the organic moieties play an important role in bleaching and photo-chemical reaction processes which tend to destroy perovskites luminescent framework. In addition, we find the spatial arrangement in crystal also influences the photostability course. Following these trends, we propose a plausible mechanism for the photodegradation of the films, and also introduced options for optimized stability.

  14. Perovskite Oxide Thin Film Growth, Characterization, and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Andrew

    Studies into a class of materials known as complex oxides have evoked a great deal of interest due to their unique magnetic, ferroelectric, and superconducting properties. In particular, materials with the ABO3 perovskite structure have highly tunable properties because of the high stability of the structure, which allows for large scale doping and strain. This also allows for a large selection of A and B cations and valences, which can further modify the material's electronic structure. Additionally, deposition of these materials as thin films and superlattices through techniques such as pulsed laser deposition (PLD) results in novel properties due to the reduced dimensionality of the material. The novel properties of perovskite oxide heterostructures can be traced to a several sources, including chemical intermixing, strain and defect formation, and electronic reconstruction. The correlations between microstructure and physical properties must be investigated by examining the physical and electronic structure of perovskites in order to understand this class of materials. Some perovskites can undergo phase changes due to temperature, electrical fields, and magnetic fields. In this work we investigated Nd0.5Sr 0.5MnO3 (NSMO), which undergoes a first order magnetic and electronic transition at T=158K in bulk form. Above this temperature NSMO is a ferromagnetic metal, but transitions into an antiferromagnetic insulator as the temperature is decreased. This rapid transition has interesting potential in memory devices. However, when NSMO is deposited on (001)-oriented SrTiO 3 (STO) or (001)-oriented (LaAlO3)0.3-(Sr 2AlTaO6)0.7 (LSAT) substrates, this transition is lost. It has been reported in the literature that depositing NSMO on (110)-oriented STO allows for the transition to reemerge due to the partial epitaxial growth, where the NSMO film is strained along the [001] surface axis and partially relaxed along the [11¯0] surface axis. This allows the NSMO film enough

  15. Photoinduced surface voltage mapping study for large perovskite single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaojing; Liu, Yucheng; Gao, Fei; Yang, Zhou [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Liu, Shengzhong, E-mail: liusz@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, iChEM, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-05-02

    Using a series of illumination sources, including white light (tungsten-halogen lamp), 445-nm, 532-nm, 635-nm, and 730-nm lasers, the surface photovoltage (SPV) images were mapped for centimeter-sized CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbX{sub 3} (X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite single crystals using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The significant SPV signals were observed to be wavelength-dependent. We attribute the appreciable SPV to the built-in electric field in the space charge region. This study shines light into the understanding of photoinduced charge generation and separation processes at nanoscale to help advance the development of perovskite solar cells, optoelectronics, laser, photodetector, and light-emitting diode (LED).

  16. Cation-Dependent Light-Induced Halide Demixing in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter-Fella, Carolin M; Ngo, Quynh P; Cefarin, Nicola; Gardner, Kira L; Tamura, Nobumichi; Stan, Camelia V; Drisdell, Walter S; Javey, Ali; Toma, Francesca M; Sharp, Ian D

    2018-06-13

    Mixed cation metal halide perovskites with increased power conversion efficiency, negligible hysteresis, and improved long-term stability under illumination, moisture, and thermal stressing have emerged as promising compounds for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we shed light on photoinduced halide demixing using in situ photoluminescence spectroscopy and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) to directly compare the evolution of composition and phase changes in CH(NH 2 ) 2 CsPb-halide (FACsPb-) and CH 3 NH 3 Pb-halide (MAPb-) perovskites upon illumination, thereby providing insights into why FACs-perovskites are less prone to halide demixing than MA-perovskites. We find that halide demixing occurs in both materials. However, the I-rich domains formed during demixing accumulate strain in FACsPb-perovskites but readily relax in MA-perovskites. The accumulated strain energy is expected to act as a stabilizing force against halide demixing and may explain the higher Br composition threshold for demixing to occur in FACsPb-halides. In addition, we find that while halide demixing leads to a quenching of the high-energy photoluminescence emission from MA-perovskites, the emission is enhanced from FACs-perovskites. This behavior points to a reduction of nonradiative recombination centers in FACs-perovskites arising from the demixing process and buildup of strain. FACsPb-halide perovskites exhibit excellent intrinsic material properties with photoluminescence quantum yields that are comparable to MA-perovskites. Because improved stability is achieved without sacrificing electronic properties, these compositions are better candidates for photovoltaic applications, especially as wide bandgap absorbers in tandem cells.

  17. Universal phase diagram for high-piezoelectric perovskite systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, D.E.; Noheda, B.; Shirane, G.; Uesu, Y.; Fujishiro, K.; Yamada, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Strong piezoelectricity in perovskite-type PbZn1-xTixO3 (PZT) and Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 (PZN–PT) systems is generally associated with the existence of a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) separating regions with rhombohedral and tetragonal symmetry. An x-ray study of PZN–9% PT has revealed the

  18. Bandgap Optimization of Perovskite Semiconductors for Photovoltaic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zewen; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Hosono, Hideo; Kamiya, Toshio; Padture, Nitin P

    2018-02-16

    The bandgap is the most important physical property that determines the potential of semiconductors for photovoltaic (PV) applications. This Minireview discusses the parameters affecting the bandgap of perovskite semiconductors that are being widely studied for PV applications, and the recent progress in the optimization of the bandgaps of these materials. Perspectives are also provided for guiding future research in this area. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with crosslinked PCBM interlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, W.

    2017-01-09

    Commercially available phenyl-C-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is crosslinked with 1,6-diazidohexane (DAZH), resulting in films resistant to common solvents used in perovskite solar cell processing. By using crosslinked PCBM as an interlayer and (HC(NH))(CHNH)PbIBr as the active layer, we achieve small area devices and modules with a maximum steady-state power conversion efficiency of 18.1% and 14.9%, respectively.

  20. A new route of synthesizing perovskite nanotubes by templating approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiballah, Anisah Shafiqah; Osman, Nafisah; Jani, Abdul Mutalib Md

    2017-09-01

    A perovskite oxide for example Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) has attracted growing attention due to its high catalytic activity and mixed ionic/electronic conductivity. Recent research of BSCF is more comprehensively based on a remarkable trajectory of innovation, in particular with regards to the synthesis of perovskite structures in one-dimensional (1-D) nanometric scales as they promote not only to increase an active electrode area for the oxygen reduction reaction, but also allow the tailoring of electrode's architecture. Nevertheless, achieving the desired 1-D structure by a conventional method such as hydrothermal, solvothermal, or sonochemical are far from satisfactory. Herein, the aim of this work is to synthesize the BSCF perovskite nanotubes via soft templating approach, particularly using anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) as a template, focusing on the morphology, composition and structural properties were demonstrated. After the AAO template was anodized at 80 V, the fabricated template was clamped between apair of spectroscopic cells containing BSCF sol and deionized water (with a hole of both sides) for 24 hours. After that, the sample was removed from the cells followed by heat treatment process. The FESEM images showed that BSCF nanotubes were successfully achieved, with the diameter of the nanotubes' approximately 80 nm. The EDX result also confirmed the nominal stoichiometry of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ. Meanwhile, the XRD pattern confirmed a single crystalline phase of BSCF nanotubes was successfully obtained and congruent to a cubic perovskite structure of BSCF. Possible formation mechanism,as well as the schematic illustration of BSCF nanotubes inside the template was also discussed in this paper.

  1. Raman spectroscopy of organic-inorganic halide perovskites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ledinský, Martin; Löper, P.; Niesen, B.; Holovský, Jakub; Moon, S.J.; Yum, J. H.; De Wolf, S.; Fejfar, Antonín; Ballif, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2015), 401-406 ISSN 1948-7185 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15357S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : mixed iodide and bromide lead perovskites * micro-Raman mapping * local chemical sensitivity * moisture-induced degradation * lead iodide * photoluminesce Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.539, year: 2015

  2. New ternary oxides with rhenium(4) of the perovskite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, B; Nowakowski, T; Mrozinski, J [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland)

    1978-01-01

    A series of ternary oxides described by general formula CaIrsub(x)Resub(1-x)O/sub 3/, where x 0.25; 0.33; 0.66; 0.75, has been obtained. The X-ray investigations have shown, that these compounds have a distorted perovskite structure. The proximal coordination sphere of Re/sup 4 +/ and Ir/sup 4 +/ ions constituted by an octahedron of oxide ions was confirmed by the IR spectra.

  3. Perovskite nanoparticles: Preparation by reactive milling and magnetic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuc, N.X.; Nguyen, Ha M.; Manh, D.H.; Hung, L.T.; Tuong, L.T.C.; Hong, L.V.; Yao, Yeong-Der

    2006-01-01

    La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 and La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by reactive milling method. Grain size determined from XRD, TEM, and magnetization measurements show an average diameter ≤18 nm and decreasing with increasing milling time. DC and AC magnetic measurements evidenced an interacting superparamagnetism due to clustering of perovskite nanoferromagnets with spin dynamic time in range of 10 -9 -10 -10 s

  4. Energy transfer mechanisms in layered 2D perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olivia F; Guo, Zhenkun; Hu, Jun; Yan, Liang; You, Wei; Moran, Andrew M

    2018-04-07

    Two-dimensional (2D) perovskite quantum wells are generating broad scientific interest because of their potential for use in optoelectronic devices. Recently, it has been shown that layers of 2D perovskites can be grown in which the average thicknesses of the quantum wells increase from the back to the front of the film. This geometry carries implications for light harvesting applications because the bandgap of a quantum well decreases as its thickness increases. The general structural formula for the 2D perovskite systems under investigation in this work is (PEA) 2 (MA) n-1 [Pb n I 3n+1 ] (PEA = phenethyl ammonium, MA = methyl ammonium). Here, we examine two layered 2D perovskites with different distributions of quantum well thicknesses. Spectroscopic measurements and model calculations suggest that both systems funnel electronic excitations from the back to the front of the film through energy transfer mechanisms on the time scales of 100's of ps (i.e., energy transfer from thinner to thicker quantum wells). In addition, the model calculations demonstrate that the transient absorption spectra are composed of a progression of single exciton and biexciton resonances associated with the individual quantum wells. We find that exciton dissociation and/or charge transport dynamics make only minor contributions to the transient absorption spectra within the first 1 ns after photo-excitation. An analysis of the energy transfer kinetics indicates that the transitions occur primarily between quantum wells with values of n that differ by 1 because of the spectral overlap factor that governs the energy transfer rate. Two-dimensional transient absorption spectra reveal a pattern of resonances consistent with the dominance of sequential energy transfer dynamics.

  5. Energy transfer mechanisms in layered 2D perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olivia F.; Guo, Zhenkun; Hu, Jun; Yan, Liang; You, Wei; Moran, Andrew M.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) perovskite quantum wells are generating broad scientific interest because of their potential for use in optoelectronic devices. Recently, it has been shown that layers of 2D perovskites can be grown in which the average thicknesses of the quantum wells increase from the back to the front of the film. This geometry carries implications for light harvesting applications because the bandgap of a quantum well decreases as its thickness increases. The general structural formula for the 2D perovskite systems under investigation in this work is (PEA)2(MA)n-1[PbnI3n+1] (PEA = phenethyl ammonium, MA = methyl ammonium). Here, we examine two layered 2D perovskites with different distributions of quantum well thicknesses. Spectroscopic measurements and model calculations suggest that both systems funnel electronic excitations from the back to the front of the film through energy transfer mechanisms on the time scales of 100's of ps (i.e., energy transfer from thinner to thicker quantum wells). In addition, the model calculations demonstrate that the transient absorption spectra are composed of a progression of single exciton and biexciton resonances associated with the individual quantum wells. We find that exciton dissociation and/or charge transport dynamics make only minor contributions to the transient absorption spectra within the first 1 ns after photo-excitation. An analysis of the energy transfer kinetics indicates that the transitions occur primarily between quantum wells with values of n that differ by 1 because of the spectral overlap factor that governs the energy transfer rate. Two-dimensional transient absorption spectra reveal a pattern of resonances consistent with the dominance of sequential energy transfer dynamics.

  6. Stability of perovskite solar cells on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Ho Won; Chen, Wei; Liu, Fangzhou; He, Yanling; Leung, Tik Lun; Wang, Yushu; Wong, Man Kwong; Djurišić, Aleksandra B.; Ng, Alan Man Ching; He, Zhubing; Chan, Wai Kin; Tang, Jinyao

    2018-02-01

    Perovskite solar cells are emerging photovoltaic technology with potential for low cost, high efficiency devices. Currently, flexible devices efficiencies over 15% have been achieved. Flexible devices are of significant interest for achieving very low production cost via roll-to-roll processing. However, the stability of perovskite devices remains a significant challenge. Unlike glass substrate which has negligible water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), polymeric flexible film substrates suffer from high moisture permeability. As PET and PEN flexible substrates exhibit higher water permeability then glass, transparent flexible backside encapsulation should be used to maximize light harvesting in perovskite layer while WVTR should be low enough. Wide band gap materials are transparent in the visible spectral range low temperature processable and can be a moisture barrier. For flexible substrates, approaches like atomic layer deposition (ALD) and low temperature solution processing could be used for metal oxide deposition. In this work, ALD SnO2, TiO2, Al2O3 and solution processed spin-on-glass was used as the barrier layer on the polymeric side of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated PEN substrates. The UV-Vis transmission spectra of the prepared substrates were investigated. Perovskite solar cells will be fabricated and stability of the devices were encapsulated with copolymer films on the top side and tested under standard ISOS-L-1 protocol and then compared to the commercial unmodified ITO/PET or ITO/PEN substrates. In addition, devices with copolymer films laminated on both sides successfully surviving more than 300 hours upon continuous AM1.5G illumination were demonstrated.

  7. Perovskite electrodes and method of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.

    2005-09-20

    The invention relates to perovskite oxide electrode materials in which one or more of the elements Mg, Ni, Cu, and Zn are present as minority components that enhance electrochemical performance, as well as electrode products with these compositions and methods of making the electrode materials. Such electrodes are useful in electrochemical system applications such as solid oxide fuel cells, ceramic oxygen generation systems, gas sensors, ceramic membrane reactors, and ceramic electrochemical gas separation systems.

  8. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  9. The symbiotics as binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plavec, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The author envisages at least three models that can give a symbiotic object: He has called them, respectively, the PN symbiotic, the Algol symbiotic, and the novalike symbiotic. Their properties are briefly discussed. The most promising model is one of a binary system in the second stage of mass transfer, actually at the beginning of it: The cool component is a red giant ascending the asymptotic branch, expanding but not yet filling its critical lobe. The hot star is a subdwarf located in the same region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram as the central stars of planetary nebulae. It may be closely related to them, or it may be a helium star, actually a remnant of an Algol primary which underwent the first stage of mass transfer. In these cases, accretion on this star may not play a significant role (PN symbiotic). Perhaps more often, the subdwarf is a ''rejuvenated'' degenerate dwarf whose nuclear burning shells were ignited and are maintained by accretion of material coming from the red giant in the form of a stellar wind. Eruptions are often inevitable: this is the novalike symbiotic. A third alternative is a system in the first stage of mass transfer, where the photons needed for ionization of the nebula come from an accretion disk surrounding a main sequence star: an Algol symbiotic. In spite of considerable observational effort, the symbiotics are known so poorly that it is hard to decide between the models, or even decide if all three can actually exist. (Auth.)

  10. The Effect of the Microstructure on Trap-Assisted Recombination and Light Soaking Phenomenon in Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Shuyan; Abdu-Aguye, Mustapha; Sherkar, Tejas S.; Fang, Hong-Hua; Adjokatse, Sampson; ten Brink, Gert; Kooi, Bart J.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rich experience gained in controlling the microstructure of perovskite films over the past several years, little is known about how the microstructure affects the device properties of perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). In this work, the effects of the perovskite film microstructure on the

  11. Pulsars in binary systems: probing binary stellar evolution and general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs, Ingrid H

    2004-04-23

    Radio pulsars in binary orbits often have short millisecond spin periods as a result of mass transfer from their companion stars. They therefore act as very precise, stable, moving clocks that allow us to investigate a large set of otherwise inaccessible astrophysical problems. The orbital parameters derived from high-precision binary pulsar timing provide constraints on binary evolution, characteristics of the binary pulsar population, and the masses of neutron stars with different mass-transfer histories. These binary systems also test gravitational theories, setting strong limits on deviations from general relativity. Surveys for new pulsars yield new binary systems that increase our understanding of all these fields and may open up whole new areas of physics, as most spectacularly evidenced by the recent discovery of an extremely relativistic double-pulsar system.

  12. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results

  13. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  14. Slow hot carrier cooling in cesium lead iodide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Ripolles, Teresa S.; Even, Jacky; Ogomi, Yuhei; Nishinaka, Koji; Izuishi, Takuya; Nakazawa, Naoki; Zhang, Yaohong; Ding, Chao; Liu, Feng; Toyoda, Taro; Yoshino, Kenji; Minemoto, Takashi; Katayama, Kenji; Hayase, Shuzi

    2017-10-01

    Lead halide perovskites are attracting a great deal of interest for optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, LEDs, and lasers because of their unique properties. In solar cells, heat dissipation by hot carriers results in a major energy loss channel responsible for the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. Hot carrier solar cells offer the possibility to overcome this limit and achieve energy conversion efficiency as high as 66% by extracting hot carriers. Therefore, fundamental studies on hot carrier relaxation dynamics in lead halide perovskites are important. Here, we elucidated the hot carrier cooling dynamics in all-inorganic cesium lead iodide (CsPbI3) perovskite using transient absorption spectroscopy. We observe that the hot carrier cooling rate in CsPbI3 decreases as the fluence of the pump light increases and the cooling is as slow as a few 10 ps when the photoexcited carrier density is 7 × 1018 cm-3, which is attributed to phonon bottleneck for high photoexcited carrier densities. Our findings suggest that CsPbI3 has a potential for hot carrier solar cell applications.

  15. One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujwal K. Thakur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The electron diffusion length (Ln is smaller than the hole diffusion length (Lp in many halide perovskite semiconductors meaning that the use of ordered one-dimensional (1D structures such as nanowires (NWs and nanotubes (NTs as electron transport layers (ETLs is a promising method of achieving high performance halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs. ETLs consisting of oriented and aligned NWs and NTs offer the potential not merely for improved directional charge transport but also for the enhanced absorption of incoming light and thermodynamically efficient management of photogenerated carrier populations. The ordered architecture of NW/NT arrays affords superior infiltration of a deposited material making them ideal for use in HPSCs. Photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs as high as 18% have been demonstrated for HPSCs using 1D ETLs. Despite the advantages of 1D ETLs, there are still challenges that need to be overcome to achieve even higher PCEs, such as better methods to eliminate or passivate surface traps, improved understanding of the hetero-interface and optimization of the morphology (i.e., length, diameter, and spacing of NWs/NTs. This review introduces the general considerations of ETLs for HPSCs, deposition techniques used, and the current research and challenges in the field of 1D ETLs for perovskite solar cells.

  16. Persistent photovoltage in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baumann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We herein perform open circuit voltage decay (OCVD measurements on methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells to increase the understanding of the charge carrier recombination dynamics in this emerging technology. Optically pulsed OCVD measurements are conducted on CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells and compared to results from another type of thin-film photovoltaics, namely, the two reference polymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cell devices based on P3HT:PC60BM and PTB7:PC70BM blends. We observe two very different time domains of the voltage transient in the perovskite solar cell with a first drop on a short time scale that is similar to the decay in the studied organic solar cells. However, 65%–70% of the maximum photovoltage persists on much longer timescales in the perovskite solar cell than in the organic devices. In addition, we find that the recombination dynamics in all time regimes are dependent on the starting illumination intensity, which is also not observed in the organic devices. We then discuss the potential origins of these unique behaviors.

  17. Size of oxide vacancies in fluorite and perovskite structured oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Norby, Poul; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the effective radii of vacancies and the stoichiometric expansion coefficient is performed on metal oxides with fluorite and perovskite structures. Using the hard sphere model with Shannon ion radii we find that the effective radius of the oxide vacancy in fluorites increases...... with increasing ion radius of the host cation and that it is significantly smaller than the radius of the oxide ion in all cases, from 37% smaller for HfO2 to 13 % smaller for ThO2. The perovskite structured LaGaO3 doped with Sr or Mg or both is analyzed in some detail. The results show that the effective radius...... of an oxide vacancy in doped LaGaO3 is only about 6 % smaller than the oxide ion. In spite of this the stoichiometric expansion coefficient (a kind of chemical expansion coefficient) of the similar perovskite, LaCrO3, is significantly smaller than the stoichiometric expansion coefficient of the fluorite...

  18. Sensitive, Fast, and Stable Perovskite Photodetectors Exploiting Interface Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2015-08-19

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Organometallic halide perovskites are a class of solution-processed semiconductors exhibiting remarkable optoelectronic properties. They have seen rapid strides toward enabling efficient third-generation solar cell technologies. Here, we report the first material-tailoring of TiO2/perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD junction-based photodiodes toward applications in photodetection, a field in need of fast, sensitive, low-cost, spectrally tunable materials that offer facile integration across a broad range of substrates. We report photodetection that exhibits 1 μs temporal response, and we showcase stable operation in the detection of over 7 billion transient light pulses through a continuous pulsed-illumination period. The perovskite diode photodetector has a peak responsivity approaching 0.4 A W-1 at 600 nm wavelength, which is superior to red light detection in crystalline silicon photodiodes used in commercial image sensors. Only by developing a composite Al2O3/PCBM front contact interface layer were we able to stabilize device operation in air, reduce dark current, and enhance the responsivity in the low-bias regime to achieve an experimentally measured specific detectivity of 1012 Jones.

  19. Recent advances in interfacial engineering of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Meidan; He, Chunfeng; Iocozzia, James; Liu, Xueqin; Cui, Xun; Meng, Xiangtong; Rager, Matthew; Hong, Xiaodan; Liu, Xiangyang; Lin, Zhiqun

    2017-09-01

    Due to recent developments, organometallic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted even greater interest owing to their impressive photovoltaic properties and simple device manufacturing processes with the potential for commercial applications. The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of PSCs have surged from 3.8% for methyl ammonium lead halide-sensitized liquid solar cells, CH3NH3PbX3 (X  =  Cl, Br, I), in 2009, to more than 22% for all-solid-state solar cells in 2016. Over the past few years, significant effort has been dedicated to realizing PSCs with even higher performance. In this review, recent advances in the interfacial engineering of PSCs are addressed. The specific strategies for the interfacial engineering of PSCs fall into two categories: (1) solvent treatment and additives to improve the light-harvesting capabilities of perovskite films, and (2) the incorporation of various functional materials at the interfaces between the active layers (e.g. electron transporting layer, perovskite layer, and hole transporting layer). This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of strategies for the interfacial engineering of PSCs with potential benefits including enhanced light harvesting, improved charge separation and transport, improved device stability, and elimination of photocurrent hysteresis.

  20. Recent progress in stabilizing hybrid perovskites for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqing; Cai, Xin; Yang, Donghui; Song, Dan; Wang, Jiajia; Jiang, Jinghua; Ma, Aibin; Lv, Shiquan; Hu, Michael Z.; Ni, Chaoying

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites have quickly evolved as a promising group of materials for solar cells and optoelectronic applications mainly owing to the inexpensive materials, relatively simple and versatile fabrication and high power conversion efficiency (PCE). The certified energy conversion efficiency for perovskite solar cell (PSC) has reached above 20%, which is compatible to the current best for commercial applications. However, long-term stabilities of the materials and devices remain to be the biggest challenging issue for realistic implementation of the PSCs. This article discusses the key issues related to the stability of perovskite absorbing layer including crystal structural stability, chemical stability under moisture, oxygen, illumination and interface reaction, effects of electron-transporting materials (ETM), hole-transporting materials (HTM), contact electrodes, ion migration and preparation conditions. Towards the end, prospective strategies for improving the stability of PSCs are also briefly discussed and summarized. We focus on recent understanding of the stability of materials and devices and our perspectives about the strategies for the stability improvement.

  1. Perovskite phase thin films and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Rodriguez, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention comprises perovskite-phase thin films, of the general formula A.sub.x B.sub.y O.sub.3 on a substrate, wherein A is selected from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium or a combination thereof; B is selected from niobium and tantalum or a combination thereof; and x and y are mole fractions between approximately 0.8 and 1.2. More particularly, A is strontium or barium or a combination thereof and B is niobium or tantalum or a combination thereof. Also provided is a method of making a perovskite-phase thin film, comprising combining at least one element-A-containing compound, wherein A is selected from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium or barium, with at least one element-B-containing compound, wherein B niobium or tantalum, to form a solution; adding a solvent to said solution to form another solution; spin-coating the solution onto a substrate to form a thin film; and heating the film to form the perovskite-phase thin film.

  2. One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ujwal K.; Kisslinger, Ryan; Shankar, Karthik

    2017-01-01

    The electron diffusion length (Ln) is smaller than the hole diffusion length (Lp) in many halide perovskite semiconductors meaning that the use of ordered one-dimensional (1D) structures such as nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) as electron transport layers (ETLs) is a promising method of achieving high performance halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). ETLs consisting of oriented and aligned NWs and NTs offer the potential not merely for improved directional charge transport but also for the enhanced absorption of incoming light and thermodynamically efficient management of photogenerated carrier populations. The ordered architecture of NW/NT arrays affords superior infiltration of a deposited material making them ideal for use in HPSCs. Photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs) as high as 18% have been demonstrated for HPSCs using 1D ETLs. Despite the advantages of 1D ETLs, there are still challenges that need to be overcome to achieve even higher PCEs, such as better methods to eliminate or passivate surface traps, improved understanding of the hetero-interface and optimization of the morphology (i.e., length, diameter, and spacing of NWs/NTs). This review introduces the general considerations of ETLs for HPSCs, deposition techniques used, and the current research and challenges in the field of 1D ETLs for perovskite solar cells. PMID:28468280

  3. General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico

    2017-02-01

    The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.

  4. General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico

    2017-02-01

    The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.

  5. Observations of new Wolf-Rayet binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemela, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    The author reports here preliminary results of spectrographic observations for three southern WR stars, whose binary nature had not been previously verified: HDE 320102, CD -45 0 4482, HD 62910. The observations were carried out at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile, mostly with the Cassegrain spectrograph with IT attached to the 1-m reflector. These spectrograms were secured on Kodak IIIaJ emulsion, and have a dispersion of 45 A/mm. The results suggest that HDE 320102 must be a double-lined 05-7 + WN3 spectroscopic binary, that CD -45 0 4482 appears to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary and that HD 62910 may be a binary. (Auth.)

  6. Synthesis and luminescence properties of KMgF{sub 3}:Tm{sup 3+} fluoro perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez C, L.; Cruz Z, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Marcazzo, J. [UNICEN, Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco, Gral. Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina); Hernandez A, J. M.; Murrieta S, H., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.mx [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents the thermoluminescent (Tl) and radio luminescent (Rl) properties of the KMgF{sub 3} doped with Tm{sup 3+} ions at different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mol %). The KMgF{sub 3} binary compound was synthesized by solid state reaction. The characterization of the powder material was carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and by semiquantitative EDS analysis. The luminescence property of the powder and chips with Teflon samples was studied by thermoluminescence and radioluminescence phenomena. The Tl response as a function of the given dose was analyzed in the range between 0.5 Gy and 2500 Gy and a good linear response was obtained. Tl glow curves of KMgF{sub 3}:Tm show two overlapped peaks with maximums about 101, 146 degrees C and resolved peaks at 313 and 397 degrees C. The reproducibility of the Tl signal was tested and less than 5 % was obtained. The Tl signal decay was analyzed during a period of 33 days. Furthermore, the glow curve structure was studied by the thermal bleaching and the kinetics parameters values were obtained by a deconvolution process. On the other hand, the Rl response of different concentrations of thulium under beta irradiation was studied and the maximum of light output has been obtained for KMgF{sub 3} fluoro perovskite doped with 0.5 mol % of Tm{sup 3+} . The Rl spectrum showed the emission peaks at 455 and 360 nm, which can be ascribed to the {sup 1}D{sub 2}-{sup 3} F{sub 4} and {sup 1}D{sub 2}-{sup 3}H{sub 6} transitions of the Tm{sup 3+} ions. (Author)

  7. Diffusion in ordered binary solid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolwijk, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis contains contributions to the field of diffusion in ordered binary solid systems. An extensive experimental investigation of the self diffusion in CoGa is presented. The results of these diffusion measurements strongly suggest that a substantial part of the atomic migration is caused by a new type of defect. A quantitative description of the atomic displacements via this defect is given. Finally computer simulations are presented of diffusion and ordering in binary solid systems. (Auth.)

  8. An Introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1996-01-01

    This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996.......This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996....

  9. Asteroseismic effects in close binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Ofer M.; Shaviv, Nir J.

    2013-09-01

    Turbulent processes in the convective envelopes of the Sun and stars have been shown to be a source of internal acoustic excitations. In single stars, acoustic waves having frequencies below a certain cut-off frequency propagate nearly adiabatically and are effectively trapped below the photosphere where they are internally reflected. This reflection essentially occurs where the local wavelength becomes comparable to the pressure scale height. In close binary stars, the sound speed is a constant on equipotentials, while the pressure scale height, which depends on the local effective gravity, varies on equipotentials and may be much greater near the inner Lagrangian point (L1). As a result, waves reaching the vicinity of L1 may propagate unimpeded into low-density regions, where they tend to dissipate quickly due to non-linear and radiative effects. We study the three-dimensional propagation and enhanced damping of such waves inside a set of close binary stellar models using a WKB approximation of the acoustic field. We find that these waves can have much higher damping rates in close binaries, compared to their non-binary counterparts. We also find that the relative distribution of acoustic energy density at the visible surface of close binaries develops a ring-like feature at specific acoustic frequencies and binary separations.

  10. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Guo

    Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.

  11. Pure Cs4PbBr6: Highly Luminescent Zero-Dimensional Perovskite Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Almutlaq, Jawaher; Sarmah, Smritakshi P.; Dursun, Ibrahim; Zhumekenov, Ayan A.; Begum, Raihana; Pan, Jun; Cho, Nam Chul; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman

    2016-01-01

    more than 2 orders of magnitude lower PLQY. Such a PLQY of Cs4PbBr6 is significantly higher than that of other solid forms of lower-dimensional metal halide perovskite derivatives and perovskite nanocrystals. We attribute this dramatic increase in PL

  12. Ultrathin Cu2O as an efficient inorganic hole transporting material for perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili; Li, Feng; Wang, Hong; Alarousu, Erkki; Chen, Yin; Lin, Bin; Wang, Lingfei; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Li, Yangyang; Wu, Kewei; Wang, Xianbin; Mohammed, Omar F.; Wu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that ultrathin P-type Cu2O thin films fabricated by a facile thermal oxidation method can serve as a promising hole-transporting material in perovskite solar cells. Following a two-step method, inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite

  13. Robust and Air-Stable Sandwiched Organo-Lead Halide Perovskites for Photodetector Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Omar F.

    2016-02-25

    We report the simplest possible method to date for fabricating robust, air-stable, sandwiched perovskite photodetectors. Our proposed sandwiched structure is devoid of electron or hole transporting layers and also the expensive electrodes. These simpler architectures may have application in the perovskite-only class of solar cells scaling up towards commercialization.

  14. Metal-organic frameworks at interfaces of hybrid perovskite solar cells for enhanced photovoltaic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Deli; Pang, Aiying; Li, Yafeng; Dou, Jie; Wei, Mingdeng

    2018-01-31

    In this study, metal-organic frameworks, as an interfacial layer, were introduced into perovskite solar cells (PSCs) for the first time. An interface modified with the metal-organic framework ZIF-8 efficiently enhanced perovskite crystallinity and grain sizes, and the photovoltaic performance of the PSCs was significantly improved, resulting in a maximum PCE of 16.99%.

  15. Perovskites in the comb roof base of hornets : Their possible function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishay, JS; Joseph, Z; Galushko, D; Ermakov, N; Bergman, DJ; Barkay, Z; Stokroos, [No Value; Van der Want, J

    2005-01-01

    On the ceiling of the Oriental hornet comb cell, there are mineral granules of poly-crystalline material known to belong to the group of perovskites. In a comb cell intended to house a worker hornet, the roof base usually carries one or several such perovskite granules containing titanium (Ti),

  16. Reversible modulation of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystal/gold nanoparticle heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Lyu, Danya; Ling, Tao; Guo, Weiwei

    2018-04-19

    A facile strategy is illustrated to reversibly modulate CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystal/Au nanoparticle heterostructures with the reversible formation and fragmentation of gold nanoparticles anchored to the corners and surface of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals. The modulation process was performed under ambient conditions and could be conducted for cycles.

  17. Advancement on Lead-Free Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Faruk; Shafie, Suhaidi; Lim, Hong Ngee; Musa, Abubakar Ohinoyi

    2018-06-14

    Remarkable attention has been committed to the recently discovered cost effective and solution processable lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells. Recent studies have reported that, within five years, the reported efficiency has reached 9.0%, which makes them an extremely promising and fast developing candidate to compete with conventional lead-based perovskite solar cells. The major challenge associated with the conventional perovskite solar cells is the toxic nature of lead (Pb) used in the active layer of perovskite material. If lead continues to be used in fabricating solar cells, negative health impacts will result in the environment due to the toxicity of lead. Alternatively, lead free perovskite solar cells could give a safe way by substituting low-cost, abundant and non toxic material. This review focuses on formability of lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite, alternative metal cations candidates to replace lead (Pb), and possible substitutions of organic cations, as well as halide anions in the lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite architecture. Furthermore, the review gives highlights on the impact of organic cations, metal cations and inorganic anions on stability and the overall performance of lead free perovskite solar cells.

  18. Can Ferroelectric Polarization Explain the High Performance of Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherkar, Tejas; Koster, L. Jan Anton

    The power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells based on the use of hybrid halide perovskites, CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), now exceeds 20%. Recently, it was suggested that this high performance originates from the presence of ferroelectricity in the perovskite, which is hypothesized to lower

  19. Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells Using Non-Toxic Industry Compatible Solvent System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Giacomo, F. Di; Brüls, J.; Gorter, H.; Katsouras, I.; Groen, P.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Andriessen, R.; Galagan, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells attract a lot attention as alternative energy sources for the future energy market. With the remarkable lab-scale achievements, the investigations into a high-throughput large-scale production of perovskite devices are now on the agenda. The first step towards mass

  20. Chromite/titanate based perovskites for application as anodes in solid oxide fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudmich, G.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Gonzalez Cuenca, M.M.; Jungen, W.; Zipprich, W.M.; Tietz, F.

    2000-01-01

    Perovskites containing lanthanides, partially substituted by alkaline-earth elements and transition metals like Cr, Ti, Fe or Co show a very broad range of physical properties. Therefore several perovskite materials, based on lanthanum chromite and strontium titanate were synthesised and

  1. Selective self-assembly and light emission tuning of layered hybrid perovskites on patterned graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Valentino L P; Kovaříček, Petr; Valeš, Václav; Drogowska, Karolina; Verhagen, Tim; Vejpravova, Jana; Horák, Lukáš; Listorti, Andrea; Colella, Silvia; Kalbáč, Martin

    2018-02-15

    The emission of light in two-dimensional (2-D) layered hybrid organic lead halide perovskites, namely (R-NH 3 ) 2 PbX 4 , can be effectively tuned using specific building blocks for the perovskite formation. Herein this behaviour is combined with a non-covalent graphene functionalization allowing excellent selectivity and spatial resolution of the perovskite film growth, promoting the formation of hybrid 2-D perovskite : graphene heterostructures with uniform coverage of up to centimeter scale graphene sheets and arbitrary shapes down to 5 μm. Using cryo-Raman microspectroscopy, highly resolved spectra of the perovskite phases were obtained and the Raman mapping served as a convenient spatially resolved technique for monitoring the distribution of the perovskite and graphene constituents on the substrate. In addition, the stability of the perovskite phase with respect to the thermal variation was inspected in situ by X-ray diffraction. Finally, time-resolved photoluminescence characterization demonstrated that the optical properties of the perovskite films grown on graphene are not hampered. Our study thus opens the door to smart fabrication routes for (opto)-electronic devices based on 2-D perovskites in contact with graphene with complex architectures.

  2. Interconversion between Free Charges and Bound Excitons in 2D Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelvez Rueda, M.C.; Hutter, E.M.; Cao, Duyen H.; Renaud, N.; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Savenije, T.J.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Grozema, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    The optoelectronic properties of hybrid perovskites can be easily tailored by varying their components. Specifically, mixing the common short organic cation (methylammonium (MA)) with a larger one (e.g., butyl ammonium (BA)) results in 2-dimensional perovskites with varying thicknesses of

  3. Polarized emission from CsPbX3 perovskite quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Wu, Dan; Dong, Di; Chen, Wei; Hao, Junjie; Qin, Jing; Xu, Bing; Wang, Kai; Sun, Xiaowei

    2016-06-01

    Compared to organic/inorganic hybrid perovskites, full inorganic perovskite quantum dots (QDs) exhibit higher stability. In this study, full inorganic CsPbX3 (X = Br, I and mixed halide systems Br/I) perovskite QDs have been synthesized and interestingly, these QDs showed highly polarized photoluminescence which is systematically studied for the first time. Furthermore, the polarization of CsPbI3 was as high as 0.36 in hexane and 0.40 as a film. The CsPbX3 perovskite QDs with high polarization properties indicate that they possess great potential for application in new generation displays with wide colour gamut and low power consumption.Compared to organic/inorganic hybrid perovskites, full inorganic perovskite quantum dots (QDs) exhibit higher stability. In this study, full inorganic CsPbX3 (X = Br, I and mixed halide systems Br/I) perovskite QDs have been synthesized and interestingly, these QDs showed highly polarized photoluminescence which is systematically studied for the first time. Furthermore, the polarization of CsPbI3 was as high as 0.36 in hexane and 0.40 as a film. The CsPbX3 perovskite QDs with high polarization properties indicate that they possess great potential for application in new generation displays with wide colour gamut and low power consumption. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01915c

  4. Photoexcitation dynamics in solution-processed formamidinium lead iodide perovskite thin films for solar cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Wang, Feng; Adjokatse, Sampson; Zhao, Ni; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    Formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI(3)) is a newly developed hybrid perovskite that potentially can be used in high-efficiency solution-processed solar cells. Here, the temperature-dependent dynamic optical properties of three types of FAPbI(3) perovskite films (fabricated using three different

  5. Investigation on CO catalytic oxidation reaction kinetics of faceted perovskite nanostructures loaded with Pt

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, S. M.

    2017-01-18

    Perovskite lead titanate nanostructures with specific {111}, {100} and {001} facets exposed, have been employed as supports to investigate the crystal facet effect on the growth and CO catalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles. The size, distribution and surface chemical states of Pt on the perovskite supports have been significantly modified, leading to a tailored conversion temperature and catalytic kinetics towards CO catalytic oxidation.

  6. Broadly tunable metal halide perovskites for solid-state light-emission applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjokatse, Sampson; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-01-01

    The past two years have witnessed heightened interest in metal-halide perovskites as promising optoelectronic materials for solid-state light emitting applications beyond photovoltaics. Metal-halide perovskites are low-cost solution-processable materials with excellent intrinsic properties such as

  7. Field-induced resistance switching at metal/perovskite manganese oxide interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, I.; Tsubouchi, K.; Harada, T.; Kumigashira, H.; Itaka, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Ohnishi, T.; Lippmaa, M.; Koinuma, H.; Oshima, M.

    2008-01-01

    Planar type metal/insulator/metal structures composed of an epitaxial perovskite manganese oxide layer and various metal electrodes were prepared for electric-field-induced resistance switching. Only the electrode pairs including Al show good resistance switching and the switching ratio reaches its maximum of 1000. This resistance switching occurs around the interface between Al electrodes and epitaxial perovskite manganese oxide thin films

  8. High-efficiency humidity-stable planar perovskite solar cells based on atomic layer architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koushik, D.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Kuang, Y.; Veenstra, S.; Zhang, D.; Verheijen, M.A.; Creatore, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite materials are drawing tremendous interest for photovoltaic solar cell applications, but are hampered by intrinsic material and device instability issues. Such issues can arise from environmental influences as well as from the chemical incompatibility of the perovskite layer with charge

  9. Investigation on CO catalytic oxidation reaction kinetics of faceted perovskite nanostructures loaded with Pt

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, S. M.; Duanmu, J. J.; Zhu, Yihan; Yuan, Y. F.; Guo, S. Y.; Yang, J. L.; Ren, Z. H.; Han, G. R.

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite lead titanate nanostructures with specific {111}, {100} and {001} facets exposed, have been employed as supports to investigate the crystal facet effect on the growth and CO catalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles. The size, distribution and surface chemical states of Pt on the perovskite supports have been significantly modified, leading to a tailored conversion temperature and catalytic kinetics towards CO catalytic oxidation.

  10. Continuous-wave Optically Pumped Lasing of Hybrid Perovskite VCSEL at Green Wavelength

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2017-05-08

    We demonstrate the lasing of a perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at green wavelengths, which operates under continuous-wave optical pumping at room-temperature by embedding hybrid perovskite between dielectric mirrors deposited at low-temperature.

  11. Continuous-wave Optically Pumped Lasing of Hybrid Perovskite VCSEL at Green Wavelength

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Liu, Zhixiong; Alatawi, Abdullah; Ng, Tien Khee; Wu, Tao; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the lasing of a perovskite vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at green wavelengths, which operates under continuous-wave optical pumping at room-temperature by embedding hybrid perovskite between dielectric mirrors deposited at low-temperature.

  12. Hydrophobic Polystyrene Passivation Layer for Simultaneously Improved Efficiency and Stability in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghua; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Huan, Yahuan; Li, Yong; Zhang, Ruxiao; Zhang, Yue

    2018-06-06

    The major restraint for the commercialization of the high-performance hybrid metal halide perovskite solar cells is the long-term stability, especially at the infirm interface between the perovskite film and organic charge-transfer layer. Recently, engineering the interface between the perovskite and spiro-OMeTAD becomes an effective strategy to simultaneously improve the efficiency and stability in the perovskite solar cells. In this work, we demonstrated that introducing an interfacial polystyrene layer between the perovskite film and spiro-OMeTAD layer can effectively improve the perovskite solar cells photovoltaic performance. The inserted polystyrene layer can passivate the interface traps and defects effectively and decrease the nonradiative recombination, leading to enhanced photoluminescence intensity and carrier lifetime, without compromising the carrier extraction and transfer. Under the optimized condition, the perovskite solar cells with the polystyrene layer achieve an enhanced average power efficiency of about 19.61% (20.46% of the best efficiency) from about 17.63% with negligible current density-voltage hysteresis. Moreover, the optimized perovskite solar cells with the hydrophobic polystyrene layer can maintain about 85% initial efficiency after 2 months storage in open air conditions without encapsulation.

  13. Degradation of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Structures through Light and Electron Beam Driven Ion Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Organometal halide perovskites show promising features for cost-effective application in photovoltaics. The material instability remains a major obstacle to broad application because of the poorly understood degradation pathways. Here, we apply simultaneous luminescence and electron microscopy on perovskites for the first time, allowing us to monitor in situ morphology evolution and optical properties upon perovskite degradation. Interestingly, morphology, photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence of perovskite samples evolve differently upon degradation driven by electron beam (e-beam) or by light. A transversal electric current generated by a scanning electron beam leads to dramatic changes in PL and tunes the energy band gaps continuously alongside film thinning. In contrast, light-induced degradation results in material decomposition to scattered particles and shows little PL spectral shifts. The differences in degradation can be ascribed to different electric currents that drive ion migration. Moreover, solution-processed perovskite cuboids show heterogeneity in stability which is likely related to crystallinity and morphology. Our results reveal the essential role of ion migration in perovskite degradation and provide potential avenues to rationally enhance the stability of perovskite materials by reducing ion migration while improving morphology and crystallinity. It is worth noting that even moderate e-beam currents (86 pA) and acceleration voltages (10 kV) readily induce significant perovskite degradation and alter their optical properties. Therefore, attention has to be paid while characterizing such materials using scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy techniques. PMID:26804213

  14. Synthesis and characterization of a-site doped LaTiO3 nano perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradha, M.; Ashok, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Nano-sized lanthanum titanate perovskites (La (1-x) A x TiO 3 ) (A= Ba, Sr, Ca) were prepared by sol-gel method and calcined at 800℃. The synthesised perovskites were characterized by Thermogravimetry/ Differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) etc. LaTiO 3 is a perovskite having prominent interest for a variety of applications such as dielectric, insulators, charge-transport properties etc. It is a defect perovskite, with transport properties varying from insulating to metallic based on oxygen stoichiometry. In a quest to observe the effect of the nano size on its properties, lanthanum titanate (LaTiO 3 ) nano perovskites with different dopants on the A-site were prepared by using sol-gel method. In the present work we discuss the synthesis and structural analysis of (La 0.8 A 0.2 TiO 3 ). Phase purity and structural analysis of the calcined samples were performed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, with CuKα radiation). In addition to this, morphology and crystal structure was examined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) using a JEOL JEM 2100 HRTEM. HRTEM studies indicate that the nano perovskites are of size around 20 nm. Ring pattern in SAED also confirms that the perovskite is polycrystalline/nanocrystalline. More detailed study on high resolution images and crystal structure shed light on the reason for the properties exhibited by this perovskites

  15. Photoinduced Coherent Spin Fluctuation in Primary Dynamics of Insulator to Metal Transition in Perovskite Cobalt Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arima T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Coherent spin fluctuation was detected in the photoinduced Mott insulator-metal transition in perovskite cobalt oxide by using 3 optical-cycle infrared pulse. Such coherent spin fluctuation is driven by the perovskite distortion changing orbital gap.

  16. Broadband enhancement of photoluminance from colloidal metal halide perovskite nanocrystals on plasmonic nanostructured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si; Liang, Yuzhang; Jing, Qiang; Lu, Zhenda; Lu, Yanqing; Xu, Ting

    2017-11-07

    Metal halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) as a new kind of promising optoelectronic material have attracted wide attention due to their high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield, narrow emission linewidth and wideband color tunability. Since the PL intensity always has a direct influence on the performance of optoelectronic devices, it is of vital importance to improve the perovskite NCs' fluorescence emission efficiency. Here, we synthesize three inorganic perovskite NCs and experimentally demonstrate a broadband fluorescence enhancement of perovskite NCs by exploiting plasmonic nanostructured surface consisting of nanogrooves array. The strong near-field optical localization associated with surface plasmon polariton-coupled emission effect generated by the nanogrooves array can significantly boost the absorption of perovskite NCs and tailor the fluorescence emissions. As a result, the PL intensities of perovskite NCs are broadband enhanced with a maximum factor higher than 8-fold achieved in experimental demonstration. Moreover, the high efficiency PL of perovskite NCs embedded in the polymer matrix layer on the top of plasmonic nanostructured surface can be maintained for more than three weeks. These results imply that plasmonic nanostructured surface is a good candidate to stably broadband enhance the PL intensity of perovskite NCs and further promote their potentials in the application of visible-light-emitting devices.

  17. Highly efficient Perovskite solar cells using non-toxic industry compatible solvent system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Di Giacomo, F.; Bruls, J.; Gorter, H.H.; Katsouras, I.; Groen, W.A.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Andriessen, R.; Galagan, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells attract a lot attention as alternative energy sources for the future energy market. With the remarkable lab-scale achievements, the investigations into a high-throughput large-scale production of perovskite devices are now on the agenda. The first step towards mass

  18. Effect of the Microstructure of the Functional Layers on the Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuzhi; Pascoe, Alexander R; Wu, Wu-Qiang; Ku, Zhiliang; Peng, Yong; Zhong, Jie; Caruso, Rachel A; Cheng, Yi-Bing

    2017-05-01

    The efficiencies of the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells have been rapidly approaching the benchmarks held by the leading thin-film photovoltaic technologies. Arguably, one of the most important factors leading to this rapid advancement is the ability to manipulate the microstructure of the perovskite layer and the adjacent functional layers within the device. Here, an analysis of the nucleation and growth models relevant to the formation of perovskite films is provided, along with the effect of the perovskite microstructure (grain sizes and voids) on device performance. In addition, the effect of a compact or mesoporous electron-transport-layer (ETL) microstructure on the perovskite film formation and the optical/photoelectric properties at the ETL/perovskite interface are overviewed. Insight into the formation of the functional layers within a perovskite solar cell is provided, and potential avenues for further development of the perovskite microstructure are identified. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Chitosan-Assisted Crystallization and Film Forming of Perovskite Crystals through Biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Chen; Yip, Hin-Lap; Sun, Runcang; Wang, Xiaohui

    2016-03-18

    Biomimetic mineralization is a powerful approach for the synthesis of advanced composite materials with hierarchical organization and controlled structure. Herein, chitosan was introduced into a perovskite precursor solution as a biopolymer additive to control the crystallization and to improve the morphology and film-forming properties of a perovskite film by way of biomineralization. The biopolymer additive was able to control the size and morphology of the perovskite crystals and helped to form smooth films. The mechanism of chitosan-mediated nucleation and growth of the perovskite crystals was explored. As a possible application, the chitosan-perovskite composite film was introduced into a planar heterojunction solar cell and increased power conversion efficiency relative to that observed for the pristine perovskite film was achieved. The biomimetic mineralization method proposed in this study provides an alternative way of preparing perovskite crystals with well-controlled morphology and properties and extends the applications of perovskite crystals in photoelectronic fields, including planar-heterojunction solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Formability of ABX3 (X=F,Cl,Br,I) halide perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chonghea; Lu Xionggang; Ding Weizhong; Feng Liming; Gao Yonghui; Guo Ziming

    2008-01-01

    In this study a total of 186 complex halide systems were collected; the formabilities of ABX 3 (X = F, Cl, Br and I) halide perovskites were investigated using the empirical structure map, which was constructed by Goldschmidt's tolerance factor and the octahedral factor. A model for halide perovskite formability was built up. In this model obtained, for all 186 complex halides systems, only one system (CsF-MnF 2 ) without perovskite structure and six systems (RbF-PbF 2 , CsF- BeF 2 , KCl-FeCl 2 , TlI-MnI 2 , RbI-SnI 2 , TlI-PbI 2 ) with perovskite structure were wrongly classified, so its predicting accuracy reaches 96%. It is also indicated that both the tolerance factor and the octahedral factor are a necessary but not sufficient condition for ABX 3 halide perovskite formability, and a lowest limit of the octahedral factor exists for halide perovskite formation. This result is consistent with our previous report for ABO 3 oxide perovskite, and may be helpful to design novel halide materials with the perovskite structure. (orig.)