Active Learning Using Arbitrary Binary Valued Queries
1990-10-01
active learning in the sense that the learner has complete choice in the information received. Specifically, we allow the learner to ask arbitrary yes...no questions. We consider both active learning under a fixed distribution and distribution-free active learning . In the case of active learning , the...a concept class is actively learnable iff it is finite, so that active learning is in fact less powerful than the usual passive learning model. We
Binary Labelings for Plane Quadrangulations and their Relatives
Felsner, Stefan; Huemer, Clemens; Kappes, Sarah; Orden, David
2006-01-01
Motivated by the bijection between Schnyder labelings of a plane triangulation and partitions of its inner edges into three trees, we look for binary labelings for quadrangulations (whose edges can be partitioned into two trees). Our labeling resembles many of the properties of Schnyder's one for triangulations: Apart from being in bijection with tree decompositions, paths in these trees allow to define the regions of a vertex such that counting faces in them yields an algorithm for embedding...
Two efficient label-equivalence-based connected-component labeling algorithms for 3-D binary images.
He, Lifeng; Chao, Yuyan; Suzuki, Kenji
2011-08-01
Whenever one wants to distinguish, recognize, and/or measure objects (connected components) in binary images, labeling is required. This paper presents two efficient label-equivalence-based connected-component labeling algorithms for 3-D binary images. One is voxel based and the other is run based. For the voxel-based one, we present an efficient method of deciding the order for checking voxels in the mask. For the run-based one, instead of assigning each foreground voxel, we assign each run a provisional label. Moreover, we use run data to label foreground voxels without scanning any background voxel in the second scan. Experimental results have demonstrated that our voxel-based algorithm is efficient for 3-D binary images with complicated connected components, that our run-based one is efficient for those with simple connected components, and that both are much more efficient than conventional 3-D labeling algorithms.
Hamers, Adrian S.
2018-05-01
We extend the formalism of a previous paper to include the effects of flybys and instantaneous perturbations such as supernovae on the long-term secular evolution of hierarchical multiple systems with an arbitrary number of bodies and hierarchy, provided that the system is composed of nested binary orbits. To model secular encounters, we expand the Hamiltonian in terms of the ratio of the separation of the perturber with respect to the barycentre of the multiple system, to the separation of the widest orbit. Subsequently, we integrate over the perturber orbit numerically or analytically. We verify our method for secular encounters and illustrate it with an example. Furthermore, we describe a method to compute instantaneous orbital changes to multiple systems, such as asymmetric supernovae and impulsive encounters. The secular code, with implementation of the extensions described in this paper, is publicly available within AMUSE, and we provide a number of simple example scripts to illustrate its usage for secular and impulsive encounters and asymmetric supernovae. The extensions presented in this paper are a next step towards efficiently modelling the evolution of complex multiple systems embedded in star clusters.
Bisimulation on Markov Processes over Arbitrary Measurable Spaces
Bacci, Giorgio; Bacci, Giovanni; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2014-01-01
We introduce a notion of bisimulation on labelled Markov Processes over generic measurable spaces in terms of arbitrary binary relations. Our notion of bisimulation is proven to coincide with the coalgebraic definition of Aczel and Mendler in terms of the Giry functor, which associates with a mea......We introduce a notion of bisimulation on labelled Markov Processes over generic measurable spaces in terms of arbitrary binary relations. Our notion of bisimulation is proven to coincide with the coalgebraic definition of Aczel and Mendler in terms of the Giry functor, which associates...
Adsorption chromatographic separation of radioiodine-labelled compounds using binary eluents
Toth, G.
1980-01-01
An adsorption chromatographic method using Sephadex LH-20 dextran gel as adsorbent and water-organic solvent binary eluents was developed for the systematic separation of low molecular weight radioiodine-labelled substances like iodothyronines, iodobenzoic acids and iodotyrosine methyl ester derivatives of prostaglandins, steroids etc. The adsorbed iodine compounds were separated by water-organic solvent mixture, and the order of the compounds is in accordance with the increasing number of iodine substituents per molecule. A method is reported which enables the calculation of the eluent strength of the water-organic solvent eluents. (author)
Lai, Ying-Chih; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Chen, Jian-Yu; He, Jr-Hau; Chang, Ting-Chang; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Yang, Ying-Jay; Chen, Yang-Fang
2013-05-21
A newly designed transferable and flexible label-like organic memory based on a graphene electrode behaves like a sticker, and can be readily placed on desired substrates or devices for diversified purposes. The memory label reveals excellent performance despite its physical presentation. This may greatly extend the memory applications in various advanced electronics and provide a simple scheme to integrate with other electronics. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Meilinger, Tobias; Schulte-Pelkum, Jörg; Frankenstein, Julia; Hardiess, Gregor; Laharnar, Naima; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Bülthoff, Heinrich H
2016-01-01
Establishing verbal memory traces for non-verbal stimuli was reported to facilitate or inhibit memory for the non-verbal stimuli. We show that these effects are also observed in a domain not indicated before-wayfinding. Fifty-three participants followed a guided route in a virtual environment. They were asked to remember half of the intersections by relying on the visual impression only. At the other 50% of the intersections, participants additionally heard a place name, which they were asked to memorize. For testing, participants were teleported to the intersections and were asked to indicate the subsequent direction of the learned route. In Experiment 1, intersections' names were arbitrary (i.e., not related to the visual impression). Here, participants performed more accurately at unnamed intersections. In Experiment 2, intersections' names were descriptive and participants' route memory was more accurate at named intersections. Results have implications for naming places in a city and for wayfinding aids.
Tobias eMeilinger
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Establishing verbal memory traces for non-verbal stimuli was reported to facilitate or inhibit memory for the non-verbal stimuli. We show that these effects are also observed in a domain not indicated before – wayfinding. Fifty-three participants followed a guided route in a virtual environment. They were asked to remember half of the intersections by relying on the visual impression only. At the other 50% of the intersections, participants additionally heard a place name, which they were asked to memorize. For testing, participants were teleported to the intersections and were asked to indicate the subsequent direction of the learned route. In Experiment 1, intersections’ names were arbitrary (i.e., not related to the visual impression. Here, participants performed more accurately at unnamed intersections. In Experiment 2, intersections’ names were descriptive and participants’ route memory was more accurate at named intersections. Results have implications for naming places in a city and for wayfinding aids.
Efficient algorithms for finding optimal binary features in numeric and nominal labeled data
Mampaey, Michael; Nijssen, Siegfried; Feelders, Adrianus; Konijn, Rob; Knobbe, Arno
2013-01-01
An important subproblem in supervised tasks such as decision tree induction and subgroup discovery is finding an interesting binary feature (such as a node split or a subgroup refinement) based on a numeric or nominal attribute, with respect to some discrete or continuous target variable. Often one
Harmonic arbitrary waveform generator
Roberts, Brock Franklin
2017-11-28
High frequency arbitrary waveforms have applications in radar, communications, medical imaging, therapy, electronic warfare, and charged particle acceleration and control. State of the art arbitrary waveform generators are limited in the frequency they can operate by the speed of the Digital to Analog converters that directly create their arbitrary waveforms. The architecture of the Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator allows the phase and amplitude of the high frequency content of waveforms to be controlled without taxing the Digital to Analog converters that control them. The Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator converts a high frequency input, into a precision, adjustable, high frequency arbitrary waveform.
Wynne, Samantha A.; Pinheiro, Vitor B.; Holliger, Philipp; Leslie, Andrew G. W.
2013-01-01
Thermophilic DNA polymerases of the polB family are of great importance in biotechnological applications including high-fidelity PCR. Of particular interest is the relative promiscuity of engineered versions of the exo- form of polymerases from the Thermo- and Pyrococcales families towards non-canonical substrates, which enables key advances in Next-generation sequencing. Despite this there is a paucity of structural information to guide further engineering of this group of polymerases. Here we report two structures, of the apo form and of a binary complex of a previously described variant (E10) of Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) polymerase with an ability to fully replace dCTP with Cyanine dye-labeled dCTP (Cy3-dCTP or Cy5-dCTP) in PCR and synthesise highly fluorescent “CyDNA” densely decorated with cyanine dye heterocycles. The apo form of Pfu-E10 closely matches reported apo form structures of wild-type Pfu. In contrast, the binary complex (in the replicative state with a duplex DNA oligonucleotide) reveals a closing movement of the thumb domain, increasing the contact surface with the nascent DNA duplex strand. Modelling based on the binary complex suggests how bulky fluorophores may be accommodated during processive synthesis and has aided the identification of residues important for the synthesis of unnatural nucleic acid polymers. PMID:23940661
Pérez-Malo, Marylaine; Szabó, Gergely; Eppard, Elisabeth; Vagner, Adrienn; Brücher, Ernő; Tóth, Imre; Maiocchi, Alessandro; Suh, Eul Hyun; Kovács, Zoltán; Baranyai, Zsolt; Rösch, Frank
2018-05-21
Typically, the synthesis of radiometal-based radiopharmaceuticals is performed in buffered aqueous solutions. We found that the presence of organic solvents like ethanol increased the radiolabeling yields of [ 68 Ga]Ga-DOTA (DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacatic acid). In the present study, the effect of organic cosolvents [ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol, and acetonitrile] on the radiolabeling yields of the macrocyclic chelator DOTA with several trivalent radiometals (gallium-68, scandium-44, and lutetium-177) was systematically investigated. Various binary water (H 2 O)/organic solvent mixtures allowed the radiolabeling of DOTA at a significantly lower temperature than 95 °C, which is relevant for the labeling of sensitive biological molecules. Simultaneously, much lower amounts of the chelators were required. This strategy may have a fundamental impact on the formulation of trivalent radiometal-based radiopharmaceuticals. The equilibrium properties and formation kinetics of [M(DOTA)] - (M III = Ga III , Ce III , Eu III , Y III , and Lu III ) complexes were investigated in H 2 O/EtOH mixtures (up to 70 vol % EtOH). The protonation constants of DOTA were determined by pH potentiometry in H 2 O/EtOH mixtures (0-70 vol % EtOH, 0.15 M NaCl, 25 °C). The log K 1 H and log K 2 H values associated with protonation of the ring N atoms decreased with an increase of the EtOH content. The formation rates of [M(DOTA)] - complexes increase with an increase of the pH and [EtOH]. Complexation occurs through rapid formation of the diprotonated [M(H 2 DOTA)] + intermediates, which are in equilibrium with the kinetically active monoprotonated [M(HDOTA)] intermediates. The rate-controlling step is deprotonation (and rearrangement) of the monoprotonated intermediate, which occurs through H 2 O ( *M(HL) k H 2 O ) and OH - ( *M(HL) k OH ) assisted reaction pathways. The rate constants are essentially independent of the EtOH concentration, but the M(HL) k H2O
Eggleton, P.P.; Pringle, J.E.
1985-01-01
This volume contains 15 review articles in the field of binary stars. The subjects reviewed span considerably, from the shortest period of interacting binaries to the longest, symbiotic stars. Also included are articles on Algols, X-ray binaries and Wolf-Rayet stars (single and binary). Contents: Preface. List of Participants. Activity of Contact Binary Systems. Wolf-Rayet Stars and Binarity. Symbiotic Stars. Massive X-ray Binaries. Stars that go Hump in the Night: The SU UMa Stars. Interacting Binaries - Summing Up
Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ
1994-01-01
This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.
The average size of ordered binary subgraphs
van Leeuwen, J.; Hartel, Pieter H.
To analyse the demands made on the garbage collector in a graph reduction system, the change in size of an average graph is studied when an arbitrary edge is removed. In ordered binary trees the average number of deleted nodes as a result of cutting a single edge is equal to the average size of a
Noll, K. S.
2017-12-01
The Jupiter Trojans, in the context of giant planet migration models, can be thought of as an extension of the small body populations found beyond Neptune in the Kuiper Belt. Binaries are a distinctive feature of small body populations in the Kuiper Belt with an especially high fraction apparent among the brightest Cold Classicals. The binary fraction, relative sizes, and separations in the dynamically excited populations (Scattered, Resonant) reflects processes that may have eroded a more abundant initial population. This trend continues in the Centaurs and Trojans where few binaries have been found. We review new evidence including a third resolved Trojan binary and lightcurve studies to understand how the Trojans are related to the small body populations that originated in the outer protoplanetary disk.
Generation of arbitrary vector beams
Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; López-Mariscal, Carlos; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C.
2017-08-01
Optical vector beams arise from point to point spatial variations of the electric component of an electromagnetic field over the transverse plane. In this work, we present a novel experimental technique to generate arbitrary vec- tor beams, and provide sufficient evidence to validate their state of polarization. This technique takes advantage of the capability of a Spatial Light Modulator to simultaneously generate two components of an electromagnetic field by halving the screen of the device and subsequently recombining them in a Sagnac interferometer. Our experimental results show the versatility and robustness of this technique for the generation of vector beams.
Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel
2006-01-01
is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...
Minority game with arbitrary cutoffs
Johnson, N. F.; Hui, P. M.; Zheng, Dafang; Tai, C. W.
1999-07-01
We study a model of a competing population of N adaptive agents, with similar capabilities, repeatedly deciding whether to attend a bar with an arbitrary cutoff L. Decisions are based upon past outcomes. The agents are only told whether the actual attendance is above or below L. For L∼ N/2, the game reproduces the main features of Challet and Zhang's minority game. As L is lowered, however, the mean attendances in different runs tend to divide into two groups. The corresponding standard deviations for these two groups are very different. This grouping effect results from the dynamical feedback governing the game's time-evolution, and is not reproduced if the agents are fed a random history.
Arbitrary Inequality in Reputation Systems
Frey, Vincenz; van de Rijt, Arnout
2016-12-01
Trust is an essential condition for exchange. Large societies must substitute the trust traditionally provided through kinship and sanctions in small groups to make exchange possible. The rise of internet-supported reputation systems has been celebrated for providing trust at a global scale, enabling the massive volumes of transactions between distant strangers that are characteristic of modern human societies. Here we problematize an overlooked side-effect of reputation systems: Equally trustworthy individuals may realize highly unequal exchange volumes. We report the results of a laboratory experiment that shows emergent differentiation between ex ante equivalent individuals when information on performance in past exchanges is shared. This arbitrary inequality results from cumulative advantage in the reputation-building process: Random initial distinctions grow as parties of good repute are chosen over those lacking a reputation. We conjecture that reputation systems produce artificial concentration in a wide range of markets and leave superior but untried exchange alternatives unexploited.
Hose instability at arbitrary conductivity
Lee, E.P.
1975-01-01
A model is developed for studying the dynamics of a low-current, highly relativistic beam propagating in a conducting medium. Here the conductivity (sigma) is of arbitrary magnitude, the usual assumption being that the scale beam radius (a) is small compared with the magnetic skin length (4 π sigma a 2 /c). A dispersion formula for the hose instability is derived for the case of uniform sigma and Bennett current profile J/sub b/(r) varies as (a 2 + r 2 ) -2 . The peak growth rate at fixed laboratory position, maximized with respect to sigma as well as driver frequency, is approximately 0.465 c/a. This growth rate is realized when 4 π sigma a/c = √12/5. (U.S.)
Trace maps for arbitrary substitution sequences
Avishai, Y.
1993-01-01
The discovery of quasi-crystals and their 1-dimensional modeling have led to a deep mathematical study of Schroedinger operators with an arbitrary deterministic potential sequence. In this work we address this problem and find trace maps for an arbitrary substitution sequence. our trace maps have lower dimensionality than those of Kolar and Nori, which make them quite attractive for actual applications. (authors)
Arbitrary protein−protein docking targets biologically relevant interfaces
Martin Juliette
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein recognition is of fundamental importance in the vast majority of biological processes. However, it has already been demonstrated that it is very hard to distinguish true complexes from false complexes in so-called cross-docking experiments, where binary protein complexes are separated and the isolated proteins are all docked against each other and scored. Does this result, at least in part, reflect a physical reality? False complexes could reflect possible nonspecific or weak associations. Results In this paper, we investigate the twilight zone of protein-protein interactions, building on an interesting outcome of cross-docking experiments: false complexes seem to favor residues from the true interaction site, suggesting that randomly chosen partners dock in a non-random fashion on protein surfaces. Here, we carry out arbitrary docking of a non-redundant data set of 198 proteins, with more than 300 randomly chosen "probe" proteins. We investigate the tendency of arbitrary partners to aggregate at localized regions of the protein surfaces, the shape and compositional bias of the generated interfaces, and the potential of this property to predict biologically relevant binding sites. We show that the non-random localization of arbitrary partners after protein-protein docking is a generic feature of protein structures. The interfaces generated in this way are not systematically planar or curved, but tend to be closer than average to the center of the proteins. These results can be used to predict biological interfaces with an AUC value up to 0.69 alone, and 0.72 when used in combination with evolutionary information. An appropriate choice of random partners and number of docking models make this method computationally practical. It is also noted that nonspecific interfaces can point to alternate interaction sites in the case of proteins with multiple interfaces. We illustrate the usefulness of arbitrary docking
Arbitrary protein−protein docking targets biologically relevant interfaces
Martin, Juliette; Lavery, Richard
2012-01-01
Protein-protein recognition is of fundamental importance in the vast majority of biological processes. However, it has already been demonstrated that it is very hard to distinguish true complexes from false complexes in so-called cross-docking experiments, where binary protein complexes are separated and the isolated proteins are all docked against each other and scored. Does this result, at least in part, reflect a physical reality? False complexes could reflect possible nonspecific or weak associations. In this paper, we investigate the twilight zone of protein-protein interactions, building on an interesting outcome of cross-docking experiments: false complexes seem to favor residues from the true interaction site, suggesting that randomly chosen partners dock in a non-random fashion on protein surfaces. Here, we carry out arbitrary docking of a non-redundant data set of 198 proteins, with more than 300 randomly chosen "probe" proteins. We investigate the tendency of arbitrary partners to aggregate at localized regions of the protein surfaces, the shape and compositional bias of the generated interfaces, and the potential of this property to predict biologically relevant binding sites. We show that the non-random localization of arbitrary partners after protein-protein docking is a generic feature of protein structures. The interfaces generated in this way are not systematically planar or curved, but tend to be closer than average to the center of the proteins. These results can be used to predict biological interfaces with an AUC value up to 0.69 alone, and 0.72 when used in combination with evolutionary information. An appropriate choice of random partners and number of docking models make this method computationally practical. It is also noted that nonspecific interfaces can point to alternate interaction sites in the case of proteins with multiple interfaces. We illustrate the usefulness of arbitrary docking using PEBP (Phosphatidylethanolamine binding
A coinductive calculus of binary trees
A.M. Silva (Alexandra); J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)
2007-01-01
htmlabstractWe study the set T_A of infinite binary trees with nodes labelled in a semiring A from a coalgebraic perspective. We present coinductive definition and proof principles based on the fact that T_A carries a final coalgebra structure. By viewing trees as formal power series, we develop a
Distance labeling schemes for trees
Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben
2016-01-01
We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...
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Engineering arbitrary pure and mixed quantum states
Pechen, Alexander
2011-01-01
Controlled manipulation by atomic- and molecular-scale quantum systems has attracted a lot of research attention in recent years. A fundamental problem is to provide deterministic methods for controlled engineering of arbitrary quantum states. This work proposes a deterministic method for engineering arbitrary pure and mixed states of a wide class of quantum systems. The method exploits a special combination of incoherent and coherent controls (incoherent and coherent radiation) and has two properties which are specifically important for manipulating by quantum systems: it realizes the strongest possible degree of their state control, complete density matrix controllability, meaning the ability to steer arbitrary pure and mixed initial states into any desired pure or mixed final state, and it is all-to-one, such that each particular control transfers all initial system states into one target state.
Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.
Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu
2018-04-01
Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.
Utomo, P.H.; Makarim, R.H.
2017-01-01
A Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0,1} {0,1}. Let n≥4 be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an n×n binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each
Eclipsing binaries in open clusters
Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.
2006-01-01
Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Mailund, Thomas
2013-01-01
), respectively, and counting how often the induced topologies in the two input trees are different. In this paper we present efficient algorithms for computing these distances. We show how to compute the triplet distance in time O(n log n) and the quartet distance in time O(d n log n), where d is the maximal......The triplet and quartet distances are distance measures to compare two rooted and two unrooted trees, respectively. The leaves of the two trees should have the same set of n labels. The distances are defined by enumerating all subsets of three labels (triplets) and four labels (quartets...... degree of any node in the two trees. Within the same time bounds, our framework also allows us to compute the parameterized triplet and quartet distances, where a parameter is introduced to weight resolved (binary) topologies against unresolved (non-binary) topologies. The previous best algorithm...
Monadic Maps and Folds for Arbitrary Datatypes
Fokkinga, M.M.
Each datatype constructor comes equiped not only with a so-called map and fold (catamorphism), as is widely known, but, under some condition, also with a kind of map and fold that are related to an arbitrary given monad. This result follows from the preservation of initiality under lifting
Factoring polynomials over arbitrary finite fields
Lange, T.; Winterhof, A.
2000-01-01
We analyse an extension of Shoup's (Inform. Process. Lett. 33 (1990) 261–267) deterministic algorithm for factoring polynomials over finite prime fields to arbitrary finite fields. In particular, we prove the existence of a deterministic algorithm which completely factors all monic polynomials of
Accelerating flight: Edge with arbitrary acceleration
Gledhill, Irvy MA
2011-11-01
Full Text Available This study concludes the possession of a theoretical framework for arbitrary manoeuvre which allows us to keep an eye on transformations. In the theory, relative frame equations are useful in guiding us in what to look for. The code...
Extending Landauer's bound from bit erasure to arbitrary computation
Wolpert, David
The minimal thermodynamic work required to erase a bit, known as Landauer's bound, has been extensively investigated both theoretically and experimentally. However, when viewed as a computation that maps inputs to outputs, bit erasure has a very special property: the output does not depend on the input. Existing analyses of thermodynamics of bit erasure implicitly exploit this property, and thus cannot be directly extended to analyze the computation of arbitrary input-output maps. Here we show how to extend these earlier analyses of bit erasure to analyze the thermodynamics of arbitrary computations. Doing this establishes a formal connection between the thermodynamics of computers and much of theoretical computer science. We use this extension to analyze the thermodynamics of the canonical ``general purpose computer'' considered in computer science theory: a universal Turing machine (UTM). We consider a UTM which maps input programs to output strings, where inputs are drawn from an ensemble of random binary sequences, and prove: i) The minimal work needed by a UTM to run some particular input program X and produce output Y is the Kolmogorov complexity of Y minus the log of the ``algorithmic probability'' of Y. This minimal amount of thermodynamic work has a finite upper bound, which is independent of the output Y, depending only on the details of the UTM. ii) The expected work needed by a UTM to compute some given output Y is infinite. As a corollary, the overall expected work to run a UTM is infinite. iii) The expected work needed by an arbitrary Turing machine T (not necessarily universal) to compute some given output Y can either be infinite or finite, depending on Y and the details of T. To derive these results we must combine ideas from nonequilibrium statistical physics with fundamental results from computer science, such as Levin's coding theorem and other theorems about universal computation. I would like to ackowledge the Santa Fe Institute, Grant No
Hydrogen equation in spaces of arbitrary dimensions
Amusia, M Ya
2015-01-01
We note that presenting Hydrogen atom Schrodinger equation in the case of arbitrary dimensions require simultaneous modification of the Coulomb potential that only in three dimensions has the form Z / r. This was not done in a number of relatively recent papers (see [1] and references therein). Therefore, some results obtained in [1] seem to be doubtful. Several required considerations in the area are mentioned. (paper)
Wavelet Radiosity on Arbitrary Planar Surfaces
Holzschuch , Nicolas; Cuny , François; Alonso , Laurent
2000-01-01
Colloque avec actes et comité de lecture. internationale.; International audience; Wavelet radiosity is, by its nature, restricted to parallelograms or triangles. This paper presents an innovative technique enabling wavelet radiosity computations on planar surfaces of arbitrary shape, including concave contours or contours with holes. This technique replaces the need for triangulating such complicated shapes, greatly reducing the complexity of the wavelet radiosity algorithm and the computati...
Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility
Boldt, Jesper
The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...
Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D
1978-01-01
Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied
Mining frequent binary expressions
Calders, T.; Paredaens, J.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Tjoa, A.M.
2000-01-01
In data mining, searching for frequent patterns is a common basic operation. It forms the basis of many interesting decision support processes. In this paper we present a new type of patterns, binary expressions. Based on the properties of a specified binary test, such as reflexivity, transitivity
Clausius entropy for arbitrary bifurcate null surfaces
Baccetti, Valentina; Visser, Matt
2014-01-01
Jacobson’s thermodynamic derivation of the Einstein equations was originally applied only to local Rindler horizons. But at least some parts of that construction can usefully be extended to give meaningful results for arbitrary bifurcate null surfaces. As presaged in Jacobson’s original article, this more general construction sharply brings into focus the questions: is entropy objectively ‘real’? Or is entropy in some sense subjective and observer-dependent? These innocent questions open a Pandora’s box of often inconclusive debate. A consensus opinion, though certainly not universally held, seems to be that Clausius entropy (thermodynamic entropy, defined via a Clausius relation dS=đQ/T) should be objectively real, but that the ontological status of statistical entropy (Shannon or von Neumann entropy) is much more ambiguous, and much more likely to be observer-dependent. This question is particularly pressing when it comes to understanding Bekenstein entropy (black hole entropy). To perhaps further add to the confusion, we shall argue that even the Clausius entropy can often be observer-dependent. In the current article we shall conclusively demonstrate that one can meaningfully assign a notion of Clausius entropy to arbitrary bifurcate null surfaces—effectively defining a ‘virtual Clausius entropy’ for arbitrary ‘virtual (local) causal horizons’. As an application, we see that we can implement a version of the generalized second law (GSL) for this virtual Clausius entropy. This version of GSL can be related to certain (nonstandard) integral variants of the null energy condition. Because the concepts involved are rather subtle, we take some effort in being careful and explicit in developing our framework. In future work we will apply this construction to generalize Jacobson’s derivation of the Einstein equations. (paper)
Learning classification models with soft-label information.
Nguyen, Quang; Valizadegan, Hamed; Hauskrecht, Milos
2014-01-01
Learning of classification models in medicine often relies on data labeled by a human expert. Since labeling of clinical data may be time-consuming, finding ways of alleviating the labeling costs is critical for our ability to automatically learn such models. In this paper we propose a new machine learning approach that is able to learn improved binary classification models more efficiently by refining the binary class information in the training phase with soft labels that reflect how strongly the human expert feels about the original class labels. Two types of methods that can learn improved binary classification models from soft labels are proposed. The first relies on probabilistic/numeric labels, the other on ordinal categorical labels. We study and demonstrate the benefits of these methods for learning an alerting model for heparin induced thrombocytopenia. The experiments are conducted on the data of 377 patient instances labeled by three different human experts. The methods are compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) score. Our AUC results show that the new approach is capable of learning classification models more efficiently compared to traditional learning methods. The improvement in AUC is most remarkable when the number of examples we learn from is small. A new classification learning framework that lets us learn from auxiliary soft-label information provided by a human expert is a promising new direction for learning classification models from expert labels, reducing the time and cost needed to label data.
Microwave power divider with arbitrary distribution ratio
Gu Pengda; Geng Zheqiao; Cui Yanyan; Syratchev, I.
2004-01-01
As is well known, the EM field of TE11 mode at the wall of the circular waveguide changes as sine (or cosine) function azimuthally. So when we attach two perpendicular waveguides to the wall of the circular waveguide and rotate them around the axis of the waveguide, authors can distribute the input power between the two waveguides with arbitrary distribution proportion. The authors have designed a new power divider following this idea. The 3D electromagnetic simulation software HFSS is used in the design. And a new type circular TE11 mode launcher is developed. (author)
Wigner Functions for Arbitrary Quantum Systems.
Tilma, Todd; Everitt, Mark J; Samson, John H; Munro, William J; Nemoto, Kae
2016-10-28
The possibility of constructing a complete, continuous Wigner function for any quantum system has been a subject of investigation for over 50 years. A key system that has served to illustrate the difficulties of this problem has been an ensemble of spins. Here we present a general and consistent framework for constructing Wigner functions exploiting the underlying symmetries in the physical system at hand. The Wigner function can be used to fully describe any quantum system of arbitrary dimension or ensemble size.
Path integrals for arbitrary canonical transformations
Oliveira, L.A.R. de.
1980-01-01
Some aspects of the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics are studied. This formalism is generalized to arbitrary canonical transformations, by means of an association between path integral probalility amplitudes and classical generators of transformations, analogous to the usual Hamiltonian time development phase space expression. Such association turns out to be equivalent to the Weyl quantization rule, and it is also shown that this formalism furnishes a path integral representation for a Lie algebra of a given set of classical generators. Some physical considerations about the path integral quantization procedure and about the relationship between classical and quantum dynamical structures are also discussed. (Author) [pt
Arbitrary layer tomographic method and apparatus
Kato, H.; Ishida, M.
1984-01-01
Many two-dimensional X-ray projection distribution images obtained by exposing an object to X-rays in various directions are once stored in positions different from one another in a stimulable phosphor sheet or respectively in many stimulable phosphor sheets. The stimulable phosphor sheet or sheets are then scanned with stimulating rays, and the light emitted thereby from the stimulable phosphor sheet or sheets is photoelectrically read out to obtain electric signals representing the X-ray projection distribution images. The electric signals are processed to obtain a tomographic image of an arbitrary tomographic layer of the object
Fabrication of longitudinally arbitrary shaped fiber tapers
Nold, J.; Plötner, M.; Böhme, S.; Sattler, B.; deVries, O.; Schreiber, T.; Eberhardt, R.; Tünnermann, A.
2018-02-01
We present our current results on the fabrication of arbitrary shaped fiber tapers on our tapering rig using a CO2-laser as heat source. Single mode excitation of multimode fibers as well as changing the fiber geometry in an LPG-like fashion is presented. It is shown that this setup allows for reproducible fabrication of single-mode excitation tapers to extract the fundamental mode (M2 < 1.1) from a 30 μm core having an NA of 0.09.
Adding control to arbitrary unknown quantum operations
Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Ralph, Timothy C.; Kalasuwan, Pruet; Zhang, Mian; Peruzzo, Alberto; Lanyon, Benjamin P.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.
2011-01-01
Although quantum computers promise significant advantages, the complexity of quantum algorithms remains a major technological obstacle. We have developed and demonstrated an architecture-independent technique that simplifies adding control qubits to arbitrary quantum operations—a requirement in many quantum algorithms, simulations and metrology. The technique, which is independent of how the operation is done, does not require knowledge of what the operation is, and largely separates the problems of how to implement a quantum operation in the laboratory and how to add a control. Here, we demonstrate an entanglement-based version in a photonic system, realizing a range of different two-qubit gates with high fidelity. PMID:21811242
Grunert, Klaus G
2013-01-01
because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...
Kolmačková, Zuzana
2013-01-01
This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....
New Hamiltonians for loop quantum cosmology with arbitrary spin representations
Ben Achour, Jibril; Brahma, Suddhasattwa; Geiller, Marc
2017-04-01
In loop quantum cosmology, one has to make a choice of SU(2) irreducible representation in which to compute holonomies and regularize the curvature of the connection. The systematic choice made in the literature is to work in the fundamental representation, and very little is known about the physics associated with higher spin labels. This constitutes an ambiguity of which the understanding, we believe, is fundamental for connecting loop quantum cosmology to full theories of quantum gravity like loop quantum gravity, its spin foam formulation, or cosmological group field theory. We take a step in this direction by providing here a new closed formula for the Hamiltonian of flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker models regularized in a representation of arbitrary spin. This expression is furthermore polynomial in the basic variables which correspond to well-defined operators in the quantum theory, takes into account the so-called inverse-volume corrections, and treats in a unified way two different regularization schemes for the curvature. After studying the effective classical dynamics corresponding to single and multiple-spin Hamiltonians, we study the behavior of the critical density when the number of representations is increased and the stability of the difference equations in the quantum theory.
The Sugawara generators at arbitrary level
Gebert, R.W.; Koepsell, K.; Nicolai, H.
1996-04-01
We construct an explicit representation of the Sugawara generators for arbitrary level in terms of the homogeneous Heisenberg subalgebra, which generalizes the well-known expression at level 1. This is achieved by employing a physical vertex operator realization of the affine algebra at arbitrary level, in contrast to the Frenkel-Kac-Segal construction which uses unphysical oscillators and is restricted to level 1. At higher level, the new operators are transcendental functions of DDF oscillators unlike the quadratic expressions for the level-1 generators. An essential new feature of our construction is the appearance, beyond level 1, of new types of poles in the operator product expansions in addition to the ones at coincident points, which entail (controllable) non-localities in our formulas. We demonstrate the utility of the new formalism by explicitly working out some higher-level examples. Our results have important implications for the problem of constructing explicit representations for higher-level root spaces of hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebras, and E 10 in particular. (orig.)
Perturbation theory for arbitrary coupling strength?
Mahapatra, Bimal P.; Pradhan, Noubihary
2018-03-01
We present a new formulation of perturbation theory for quantum systems, designated here as: “mean field perturbation theory” (MFPT), which is free from power-series-expansion in any physical parameter, including the coupling strength. Its application is thereby extended to deal with interactions of arbitrary strength and to compute system-properties having non-analytic dependence on the coupling, thus overcoming the primary limitations of the “standard formulation of perturbation theory” (SFPT). MFPT is defined by developing perturbation about a chosen input Hamiltonian, which is exactly solvable but which acquires the nonlinearity and the analytic structure (in the coupling strength) of the original interaction through a self-consistent, feedback mechanism. We demonstrate Borel-summability of MFPT for the case of the quartic- and sextic-anharmonic oscillators and the quartic double-well oscillator (QDWO) by obtaining uniformly accurate results for the ground state of the above systems for arbitrary physical values of the coupling strength. The results obtained for the QDWO may be of particular significance since “renormalon”-free, unambiguous results are achieved for its spectrum in contrast to the well-known failure of SFPT in this case.
Multiple tag labeling method for DNA sequencing
Mathies, R.A.; Huang, X.C.; Quesada, M.A.
1995-07-25
A DNA sequencing method is described which uses single lane or channel electrophoresis. Sequencing fragments are separated in the lane and detected using a laser-excited, confocal fluorescence scanner. Each set of DNA sequencing fragments is separated in the same lane and then distinguished using a binary coding scheme employing only two different fluorescent labels. Also described is a method of using radioisotope labels. 5 figs.
Dam, van Y.K.
2017-01-01
Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a
A pulse generator of arbitrary shaped waveform
Jiang Jiayou; Chen Zhihao
2011-01-01
The three bump magnets in the booster extraction system of SSRF are driven by a signal generator with an external trigger. The signal generator must have three independent and controllable outputs, and both amplitude and make-and-break should be controllable, with current state information being readable. In this paper, we describe a signal generator based on FPGA and DAC boards. It makes use of characteristics of both FPGA flex programmable and rich reconfigurable IO resources. The system has a 16-bit DAC with four outputs, using Matlab to write a GUI based on RS232 protocol for control. It was simulated in Modelsim and tested on board. The results indicate that the system is well designed and all the requirements are met. The arbitrary waveform is writable, and the pulse width and period can be controlled. (authors)
Metamaterial Electromagnetic Superabsorber with Arbitrary Geometries
Jingjing Yang
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The electromagnetic superabsorber that has larger absorption cross section than its real size may be a novel photothermal device with improved solar energy conversion rates. Based on a transformation optical approach, the material parameters for a two-dimensional (2D metamaterial-assisted electromagnetic superabsorber with arbitrary geometries are derived and validated by numerical simulation. We find that for the given geometry size, the absorption cross section of the superabsorber using nonlinear transformation is larger than that using linear transformation. These transformations can also be specialized to the designing the N-sided regular polygonal superabsorber just by changing the contour equation. All theoretical and numerical results validate the material parameters for the 2D electromagnetic superabsorber we have developed.
ABJM Wilson loops in arbitrary representations
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Honda, Masazumi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2013-06-15
We study vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of circular half BPS Wilson loops in arbitrary representations in ABJM theory. We find that those in hook representations are reduced to elementary integrations thanks to the Fermi gas formalism, which are accessible from the numerical studies similar to the partition function in the previous studies. For non-hook representations, we show that the VEVs in the grand canonical formalism can be exactly expressed as determinants of those in the hook representations. Using these facts, we can study the instanton effects of the VEVs in various representations. Our results are consistent with the worldsheet instanton effects studied from the topological string and a prescription to include the membrane instanton effects by shifting the chemical potential, which has been successful for the partition function.
4d fermionic superstrings with arbitrary twists
Antoniadis, I.; Bachas, C.
1988-01-01
We present the rules for systematically constructing all consistent four-dimensional string theories, using free world-sheet fermions which pick up arbitrary phases when parallel transported around the string. These rules are necessary and sufficient for multi-loop modular invariance. They lead to theories with general Z N (GSO-type) projections, whose merits for model-building we discuss. We classify all boundary conditions yielding massless space-time spinors. We show that, in contrast to the case of only real 2d fermions, all possible realizations of world-sheet supersymmetry are now allowed. This opens the way for the construction of a new class of supersymmetric string models. (orig.)
ABJM Wilson loops in arbitrary representations
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Moriyama, Sanefumi; Okuyama, Kazumi
2013-06-01
We study vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of circular half BPS Wilson loops in arbitrary representations in ABJM theory. We find that those in hook representations are reduced to elementary integrations thanks to the Fermi gas formalism, which are accessible from the numerical studies similar to the partition function in the previous studies. For non-hook representations, we show that the VEVs in the grand canonical formalism can be exactly expressed as determinants of those in the hook representations. Using these facts, we can study the instanton effects of the VEVs in various representations. Our results are consistent with the worldsheet instanton effects studied from the topological string and a prescription to include the membrane instanton effects by shifting the chemical potential, which has been successful for the partition function.
Arbitrary spin fermions on the lattice
Bullinaria, J.A.
1985-01-01
Lattice actions are constructed for free Dirac and Majorana fermions of arbitrary (half-integer) spin various extensions of the spin 1/2 Kogut-Susskind, Kaehler and Wilson formalisms. In each case, the spectrum degeneracy and preservation of gauge invariance is analysed, and the equivalence or non-equivalence to previously constructed actions is determined. The Kogut-Susskind and lattice Kaehler actions are then written explicitly in terms of spinors to demonstrate how the degenerate fermions couple on the lattice and how the original spinorial actions are recovered (or to recovered) in the continuum limit. Both degenerate and non-degenerate mass terms are dealt with and the various U(1) invariances of the lattice actions are pointed out
Perceptually stable regions for arbitrary polygons.
Rocha, J
2003-01-01
Zou and Yan have recently developed a skeletonization algorithm of digital shapes based on a regularity/singularity analysis; they use the polygon whose vertices are the boundary pixels of the image to compute a constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT) in order to find local symmetries and stable regions. Their method has produced good results but it is slow since its complexity depends on the number of contour pixels. This paper presents an extension of their technique to handle arbitrary polygons, not only polygons of short edges. Consequently, not only can we achieve results as good as theirs for digital images, but we can also compute skeletons of polygons of any number of edges. Since we can handle polygonal approximations of figures, the skeletons are more resilient to noise and faster to process.
Solving stochastic inflation for arbitrary potentials
Martin, Jerome; Musso, Marcello
2006-01-01
A perturbative method for solving the Langevin equation of inflationary cosmology in the presence of backreaction is presented. In the Gaussian approximation, the method permits an explicit calculation of the probability distribution of the inflaton field for an arbitrary potential, with or without the volume effects taken into account. The perturbative method is then applied to various concrete models, namely, large field, small field, hybrid, and running mass inflation. New results on the stochastic behavior of the inflaton field in those models are obtained. In particular, it is confirmed that the stochastic effects can be important in new inflation while it is demonstrated they are negligible in (vacuum dominated) hybrid inflation. The case of stochastic running mass inflation is discussed in some details and it is argued that quantum effects blur the distinction between the four classical versions of this model. It is also shown that the self-reproducing regime is likely to be important in this case
Larsson-Leander, G.
1979-01-01
Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)
Petrov, D.A.
1986-01-01
Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced
Thebault, Ph.; Haghighipour, N.
2014-01-01
Spurred by the discovery of numerous exoplanets in multiple systems, binaries have become in recent years one of the main topics in planet formation research. Numerous studies have investigated to what extent the presence of a stellar companion can affect the planet formation process. Such studies have implications that can reach beyond the sole context of binaries, as they allow to test certain aspects of the planet formation scenario by submitting them to extreme environments. We review her...
An Arbitrary Benchmark CAPM: One Additional Frontier Portfolio is Sufficient
Ekern, Steinar
2008-01-01
First draft: July 16, 2008 This version: October 7, 2008 The benchmark CAPM linearly relates the expected returns on an arbitrary asset, an arbitrary benchmark portfolio, and an arbitrary MV frontier portfolio. The benchmark is not required to be on the frontier and may be non-perfectly correlated with the frontier portfolio. The benchmark CAPM extends and generalizes previous CAPM formulations, including the zero beta, two correlated frontier portfolios, riskless augmented frontier, an...
Projection operator and propagator for an arbitrary integral spin
Huang Shi Zhong; Wu Ning; Zheng Zhi Peng
2002-01-01
Based on the solution of the Bargmann-Wigner equation for an arbitrary integral spin, a direct derivation of the projection operator and propagator for an arbitrary integral spin is presented. The explicit form for the spin projection operators constructed by Behrends and Fronsdal is confirmed. The commutation rules and a general expression for the Feynman propagator for a free particle of arbitrary integral spin are deduced
Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.
Strudwick, R.M.
2016-01-01
This article looks at how diagnostic radiographers label their patients. An ethnographic study of the workplace culture in one diagnostic imaging department was undertaken using participant observation for four months and semi-structured interviews with ten key informants. One of the key themes; the way in which radiographers label their patients, is explored in this article. It was found from the study that within the department studied the diagnostic radiographers labelled or categorised their patients based on the information that they had. This information is used to form judgements and these judgements were used to assist the radiographers in dealing with the many different people that they encountered in their work. This categorisation and labelling of the patient appears to assist the radiographer in their decision-making processes about the examination to be carried out and the patient they are to image. This is an important aspect of the role of the diagnostic radiographer. - Highlights: • I have studied the culture in one imaging department. • Radiographers label or categorise their patients. • These labels/categories are used to manage the patient. • This is an important aspect of the way in which radiographers work.
Roseman, Mary G; Joung, Hyun-Woo; Littlejohn, Emily I
2018-05-01
Front-of-package (FOP) labels are increasing in popularity on retail products. Reductive FOP labels provide nutrient-specific information, whereas evaluative FOP labels summarize nutrient information through icons. Better understanding of consumer behavior regarding FOP labels is beneficial to increasing consumer use of nutrition labeling when making grocery purchasing decisions. We aimed to determine FOP label format effectiveness in aiding consumers at assessing nutrient density of food products. In addition, we sought to determine relationships between FOP label use and attitude toward healthy eating, diet self-assessment, self-reported health and nutrition knowledge, and label and shopping behaviors. A between-subjects experimental design was employed. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four label conditions: Facts Up Front, Facts Up Front Extended, a binary symbol, and no-label control. One hundred sixty-one US primary grocery shoppers, aged 18 to 69 years. Participants were randomly invited to the online study. Participants in one of four label condition groups viewed three product categories (cereal, dairy, and snacks) with corresponding questions. Adults' nutrition assessment of food products based on different FOP label formats, along with label use and attitude toward healthy eating, diet self-assessment, self-reported health and nutrition knowledge, and label and shopping behaviors. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, χ 2 tests, and logistical regression. Significant outcomes were set to α=.05. Participants selected the more nutrient-dense product in the snack food category when it contained an FOP label. Subjective health and nutrition knowledge and frequency of selecting food for healthful reasons were associated with FOP label use (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Both Facts Up Front (reductive) and binary (evaluative) FOP labels appear effective for nutrition assessment of snack products compared with no label. Specific
Rotation invariant deep binary hashing for fast image retrieval
Dai, Lai; Liu, Jianming; Jiang, Aiwen
2017-07-01
In this paper, we study how to compactly represent image's characteristics for fast image retrieval. We propose supervised rotation invariant compact discriminative binary descriptors through combining convolutional neural network with hashing. In the proposed network, binary codes are learned by employing a hidden layer for representing latent concepts that dominate on class labels. A loss function is proposed to minimize the difference between binary descriptors that describe reference image and the rotated one. Compared with some other supervised methods, the proposed network doesn't have to require pair-wised inputs for binary code learning. Experimental results show that our method is effective and achieves state-of-the-art results on the CIFAR-10 and MNIST datasets.
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel
2006-01-01
It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...
Arbitrariness of geometry and the aether
Browne, P.F.
1976-01-01
As emphasized by Milne, an observer ultimately depends on the transmission and reception of light signals for the measurement of natural lengths and periods remote from his world point. The laws of geometry which are obeyed when these lengths and periods are plotted on a space--time depend, inevitably, on assumptions concerning the dependence of light velocity on the spatial and temporal coordinates. A convention regarding light velocity fixes the geometry, and conversely. However, the convention of flat space--time implies nonintegrable ''radar distances'' unless the concept of coordinate-dependent units of measure is employed. Einstein's space--time has the advantage of admitting a special reference system R with respect to which the aether fluid is at rest and the total gravitational field vanishes. A holonomic transformation from R to another reference system R belonging to the same space--time introduces a nonpermanent gravitational field and holonomic aether motion. A nonholonomic transformation from R to a reference system R* which belongs to a different space--time introduces a permanent gravitational field and nonholonomic aether motion. The arbitrariness of geometry is expressed by extending covariance to include the latter transformation. By means of a nonholonomic (or units) transformation it is possible, with the aid of the principle of equivalence, to obtain the Schwarzschild and de Sitter metrics from the Newtonian fields that would arise in a flat space--time description. Some light is thrown on the interpretation of cosmological models
RF sheaths for arbitrary B field angles
D'Ippolito, Daniel; Myra, James
2014-10-01
RF sheaths occur in tokamaks when ICRF waves encounter conducting boundaries and accelerate electrons out of the plasma. Sheath effects reduce the efficiency of ICRF heating, cause RF-specific impurity influxes from the edge plasma, and increase the plasma-facing component damage. The rf sheath potential is sensitive to the angle between the B field and the wall, the ion mobility and the ion magnetization. Here, we obtain a numerical solution of the non-neutral rf sheath and magnetic pre-sheath equations (for arbitrary values of these parameters) and attempt to infer the parametric dependences of the Child-Langmuir law. This extends previous work on the magnetized, immobile ion regime. An important question is how the rf sheath voltage distributes itself between sheath and pre-sheath for various B field angles. This will show how generally previous estimates of the rf sheath voltage and capacitance were reasonable, and to improve the RF sheath BC. Work supported by US DOE grants DE-FC02-05ER54823 and DE-FG02-97ER54392.
Electron plasma oscillations at arbitrary Debye lengths
Lehnert, B.
1990-12-01
A solution is presented for electron plasma oscillation in a thermalized homogeneous plasma, at arbitrary ratios between the Debye length λ D and the perturbation wave length λ. The limit λ D D >> λ corresponds to the free-streaming limit of strong kinetic phase-mixing due to large particle excursions. A strong large Debye distance (LDD) effect already appears when λ D > approx λ. The initial amplitude of the fluid-like contribution to the macroscopic density perturbation then becomes small as compared to the contribution from the free-streaming part. As a consequence, only a small fraction of the density perturbation remains after a limited number of kinetic damping times of the free-streaming part. The analysis further shows that a representation in terms of normal model of the form exp(-iωt) leads to amplitude factors of these modes which are related to each other and which depend on the combined free-streaming and fluid behaviour of the plasma. Consequently, these modes are coupled and cannot be treated as being independent of each other. (au)
A sheath model for arbitrary radiofrequency waveforms
Turner, M. M.; Chabert, Pascal
2012-10-01
The sheath is often the most important region of a rf plasma, because discharge impedance, power absorption and ion acceleration are critically affected by the behaviour of the sheath. Consequently, models of the sheath are central to any understanding of the physics of rf plasmas. Lieberman has supplied an analytical model for a radio-frequency sheath driven by a single frequency, but in recent years interest has been increasing in radio-frequency discharges excited by increasingly complex wave forms. There has been limited success in generalizing the Lieberman model in this direction, because of mathematical complexities. So there is essentially no sheath model available to describe many modern experiments. In this paper we present a new analytical sheath model, based on a simpler mathematical framework than that of Lieberman. For the single frequency case, this model yields scaling laws that are identical in form to those of Lieberman, differing only by numerical coefficients close to one. However, the new model may be straightforwardly solved for arbitrary current waveforms, and may be used to derive scaling laws for such complex waveforms. In this paper, we will describe the model and present some illustrative examples.
Heterotic string in an arbitrary background field
Sen, A.
1985-01-01
An expression for the light-cone gauge action for the first-quantized heterotic string in the presence of arbitrary background gauge, gravitational, and antisymmetric tensor fields is derived. The result is a two-dimensional local field theory with N = 1/2 supersymmetry. The constraints imposed on the background fields in order to make this theory one-loop finite are derived. These constraints are identical to the equations of motion for the massless fields at the linearized level. Finally, it is shown that if there is no background antisymmetric tensor field, and if the gauge connection is set equal to the spin connection, the effective action is that of an N = 1 supersymmetric nonlinear and N = 2 supersymmetric Georgi-Glashow models the occurrence of the fermion fractionization is the necessity; the ignorance of it results in the inconsistency in the perturbative calculation of the mass splittings among the members of the supermultiplets. The notable feature of our result is that the degeneracy due to the Jackiw-Rebbi zero mode is not independent of the one required by the supersymmetry, suggesting a nontrivial structure in embedding the topology of Higgs fields into supersymmetric gauge theories
Rotating hairy black holes in arbitrary dimensions
Erices, Cristián; Martínez, Cristián
2018-01-01
A class of exact rotating black hole solutions of gravity nonminimally coupled to a self-interacting scalar field in arbitrary dimensions is presented. These spacetimes are asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter manifolds and have a Ricci-flat event horizon hiding a curvature singularity at the origin. The scalar field is real and regular everywhere, and its effective mass, coming from the nonminimal coupling with the scalar curvature, saturates the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound for the corresponding spacetime dimension. The rotating black hole is obtained by applying an improper coordinate transformation to the static one. Although both spacetimes are locally equivalent, they are globally different, as it is confirmed by the nonvanishing angular momentum of the rotating black hole. It is found that the mass is bounded from below by the angular momentum, in agreement with the existence of an event horizon. The thermodynamical analysis is carried out in the grand canonical ensemble. The first law is satisfied, and a Smarr formula is exhibited. The thermodynamical local stability of the rotating hairy black holes is established from their Gibbs free energy. However, the global stability analysis establishes that the vacuum spacetime is always preferred over the hairy black hole. Thus, the hairy black hole is likely to decay into the vacuum one for any temperature.
Transient potentials in dendritic systems of arbitrary geometry.
Butz, E G; Cowan, J D
1974-09-01
A simple graphical calculus is developed that generates analytic solutions for membrane potential transforms at any point on the dendritic tree of neurons with arbitrary dendritic geometries, in response to synaptic "current" inputs. Such solutions permit the computation of transients in neurons with arbitrary geometry and may facilitate analysis of the role of dendrites in such cells.
Collett, David
2002-01-01
INTRODUCTION Some Examples The Scope of this Book Use of Statistical Software STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR BINARY DATA The Binomial Distribution Inference about the Success Probability Comparison of Two Proportions Comparison of Two or More Proportions MODELS FOR BINARY AND BINOMIAL DATA Statistical Modelling Linear Models Methods of Estimation Fitting Linear Models to Binomial Data Models for Binomial Response Data The Linear Logistic Model Fitting the Linear Logistic Model to Binomial Data Goodness of Fit of a Linear Logistic Model Comparing Linear Logistic Models Linear Trend in Proportions Comparing Stimulus-Response Relationships Non-Convergence and Overfitting Some other Goodness of Fit Statistics Strategy for Model Selection Predicting a Binary Response Probability BIOASSAY AND SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS The Tolerance Distribution Estimating an Effective Dose Relative Potency Natural Response Non-Linear Logistic Regression Models Applications of the Complementary Log-Log Model MODEL CHECKING Definition of Re...
Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.
1982-01-01
The conditions of mass exchange in close binary systems with masses of components less or equal to one solar mass have been analysed for the case, when the system radiates gravitational waves. It has been shown that the mass exchange rate depends in a certain way on the mass ratio of components and on the mass of component that fills its inner critical lobe. The comparison of observed periods, masses of contact components, and mass exchange rates of observed cataclysmic binaries have led to the conclusion that the evolution of close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G 61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves [ru
Binary catalogue of exoplanets
Schwarz, Richard; Bazso, Akos; Zechner, Renate; Funk, Barbara
2016-02-01
Since 1995 there is a database which list most of the known exoplanets (The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia at http://exoplanet.eu/). With the growing number of detected exoplanets in binary and multiple star systems it became more important to mark and to separate them into a new database, which is not available in the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Therefore we established an online database (which can be found at: http://www.univie.ac.at/adg/schwarz/multiple.html) for all known exoplanets in binary star systems and in addition for multiple star systems, which will be updated regularly and linked to the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. The binary catalogue of exoplanets is available online as data file and can be used for statistical purposes. Our database is divided into two parts: the data of the stars and the planets, given in a separate list. We describe also the different parameters of the exoplanetary systems and present some applications.
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.
Lorimer, Duncan R
2008-01-01
We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 M ⊙ , a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric ( e = 0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-8.
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
Lorimer Duncan R.
2008-11-01
Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.
Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.
1998-01-01
The binary character of the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies in the exit channel has been observed under 30 MeV/n in medium and heavy systems. Measurements in light systems at energies approaching ∼ 100 MeV/nucleon as well as in very heavy systems have allowed to extend considerably the investigations of this binary process. Thus, the study of the Pb + Au system showed that the complete charge events indicated two distinct sources: the quasi-projectile and the quasi-target. The characteristics of these two sources are rather well reproduced by a trajectory computation which takes into account the Coulomb and nuclear forces and the friction appearing from the projectile-target interaction. The Wilczynski diagram is used to probe the correlation between the kinetic energy quenching and the deflecting angle. In case of the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon the diagram indicate dissipative binary collisions typical for low energies. This binary aspect was also detected in the systems Xe + Ag at 44 MeV/nucleon, 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. Thus, it was possible to reconstruct the quasi-projectile and to study its mass and excitation energy evolution as a function of the impact parameter. The dissipative binary collisions represent for the systems and energies under considerations the main contribution to the cross section. This does not implies that there are not other processes; particularly, the more or less complete fusion is also observed but with a low cross section which decreases with the increase of bombardment energy. More exclusive measurements with the INDRA detector on quasi-symmetric systems as Ar + KCl and Xe + Sn seem to confirm the importance of the binary collisions. The two source reconstruction of the Xe + Sn data at 50 MeV/nucleon reproduces the same behaviour as that observed in the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
Lorimer Duncan R.
2005-11-01
Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.
A combinatorial proof of Postnikov's identity and a generalized enumeration of labeled trees
Seo, Seunghyun
2004-01-01
In this paper, we give a simple combinatorial explanation of a formula of A. Postnikov relating bicolored rooted trees to bicolored binary trees. We also present generalized formulas for the number of labeled k-ary trees, rooted labeled trees, and labeled plane trees.
Encoding arbitrary grey-level optical landscapes for trapping and manipulation using GPC
Alonzo, Carlo Amadeo; Rodrigo, Peter John; Palima, Darwin
2007-01-01
With the aid of phase-only spatial light modulators (SLM), generalized phase contrast (GPC) has been applied with great success to the projection of binary light patterns through arbitrary-NA microscope objectives for real-time three-dimensional manipulation of microscopic particles. Here, we...... review the analysis of the GPC method with emphasis on efficiently producing speckle-free two-dimensional grey-level light Patterns. Numerical simulations are applied to construct 8-bit grey-level optical potential landscapes with high fidelity and optical throughput via the GPC method. Three types...... of patterns were constructed: geometric block patterns, multi-level optical trap arrays, and optical obstacle arrays. Non-periodic patterns were accurately projected with an average of 80% diffraction efficiency. Periodic patterns yielded even higher diffraction efficiencies, averaging 94%, by the utilization...
Huang Lujun; Zhou Daming; Wang Jian; Li Guanhai; Li Zhifeng; Chen Xiaoshuang; Lu Wei
2011-01-01
A generalized transformation is proposed to design an illusion device. The device can reshape an arbitrarily shaped perfect electrical conductor (PEC) into another dielectric object with arbitrary geometry. Such a device can evolve into an ideal invisibility cloak with non-conformal boundaries if the virtual space is filled with air. Furthermore, the validity of our proposed transformation is confirmed by two specific devices. One is to convert a regular polygonal PEC cylinder into a circular dielectric cylinder. Another one is to reshape a circular PEC cylinder into a regular polygonal dielectric cylinder.
Equational binary decision diagrams
J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)
2000-01-01
textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and
Broekhuis, H.; Verkuyl, H.J
2014-01-01
The present paper adopts as its point of departure the claim by Te Winkel (1866) and Verkuyl (2008) that mental temporal representations are built on the basis of three binary oppositions: Present/Past, Synchronous/Posterior and Imperfect/Perfect. Te Winkel took the second opposition in terms of the
Tcheng, Ping
1989-01-01
Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.
The True Ultracool Binary Fraction Using Spectral Binaries
Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle; Gelino, Chris
2018-01-01
Brown dwarfs bridge the gap between stars and giant planets. While the essential mechanisms governing their formation are not well constrained, binary statistics are a direct outcome of the formation process, and thus provide a means to test formation theories. Observational constraints on the brown dwarf binary fraction place it at 10 ‑ 20%, dominated by imaging studies (85% of systems) with the most common separation at 4 AU. This coincides with the resolution limit of state-of-the-art imaging techniques, suggesting that the binary fraction is underestimated. We have developed a separation-independent method to identify and characterize tightly-separated (dwarfs as spectral binaries by identifying traces of methane in the spectra of late-M and early-L dwarfs. Imaging follow-up of 17 spectral binaries yielded 3 (18%) resolved systems, corroborating the observed binary fraction, but 5 (29%) known binaries were missed, reinforcing the hypothesis that the short-separation systems are undercounted. In order to find the true binary fraction of brown dwarfs, we have compiled a volume-limited, spectroscopic sample of M7-L5 dwarfs and searched for T dwarf companions. In the 25 pc volume, 4 candidates were found, three of which are already confirmed, leading to a spectral binary fraction of 0.95 ± 0.50%, albeit for a specific combination of spectral types. To extract the true binary fraction and determine the biases of the spectral binary method, we have produced a binary population simulation based on different assumptions of the mass function, age distribution, evolutionary models and mass ratio distribution. Applying the correction fraction resulting from this method to the observed spectral binary fraction yields a true binary fraction of 27 ± 4%, which is roughly within 1σ of the binary fraction obtained from high resolution imaging studies, radial velocity and astrometric monitoring. This method can be extended to identify giant planet companions to young brown
Binary codes with impulse autocorrelation functions for dynamic experiments
Corran, E.R.; Cummins, J.D.
1962-09-01
A series of binary codes exist which have autocorrelation functions approximating to an impulse function. Signals whose behaviour in time can be expressed by such codes have spectra which are 'whiter' over a limited bandwidth and for a finite time than signals from a white noise generator. These codes are used to determine system dynamic responses using the correlation technique. Programmes have been written to compute codes of arbitrary length and to compute 'cyclic' autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions. Complete listings of these programmes are given, and a code of 1019 bits is presented. (author)
Tan, Zhi-Zhong
2015-05-01
We develop a general recursion-transform (R-T) method for a two-dimensional resistor network with a zero resistor boundary. As applications of the R-T method, we consider a significant example to illuminate the usefulness for calculating resistance of a rectangular m×n resistor network with a null resistor and three arbitrary boundaries, a problem never solved before, since Green's function techniques and Laplacian matrix approaches are invalid in this case. Looking for the exact calculation of the resistance of a binary resistor network is important but difficult in the case of an arbitrary boundary since the boundary is like a wall or trap which affects the behavior of finite network. In this paper we obtain several general formulas of resistance between any two nodes in a nonregular m×n resistor network in both finite and infinite cases. In particular, 12 special cases are given by reducing one of the general formulas to understand its applications and meanings, and an integral identity is found when we compare the equivalent resistance of two different structures of the same problem in a resistor network.
Wijers, R.A.M.J.
1996-01-01
Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes
Arbitrary Phase Vocoders by means of Warping
Gianpaolo Evangelista
2013-08-01
duration and/or frequency dependent bandwidth. As an example, in a constant Q frequency band allocation, the ratios of center band frequencies over bandwidth remains constant, so that the frequency bands become wider and wider as center frequency increases, similarly to the frequency distance of 12-tone scale notes or of octaves.While time-frequency allocation can be performed in an arbitrary way, the ability to reconstruct the original signal from Vocoder analysis data is essential in sound processing and transformation applications. Moreover, even the analysis or the production of spectrograms benefits from the perfect reconstruction property if one needs to be confident that no important information is hidden, which serves to completely describe the signal.
Conformal array design on arbitrary polygon surface with transformation optics
Deng, Li, E-mail: dengl@bupt.edu.cn; Hong, Weijun, E-mail: hongwj@bupt.edu.cn; Zhu, Jianfeng; Peng, Biao; Li, Shufang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Network System Architecture and Convergence, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 100876 Beijing (China); Wu, Yongle, E-mail: wuyongle138@gmail.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Work Safety Intelligent Monitoring, School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 100876 Beijing (China)
2016-06-15
A transformation-optics based method to design a conformal antenna array on an arbitrary polygon surface is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This conformal antenna array can be adjusted to behave equivalently as a uniformly spaced linear array by applying an appropriate transformation medium. An typical example of general arbitrary polygon conformal arrays, not limited to circular array, is presented, verifying the proposed approach. In summary, the novel arbitrary polygon surface conformal array can be utilized in array synthesis and beam-forming, maintaining all benefits of linear array.
Conformal array design on arbitrary polygon surface with transformation optics
Deng, Li; Hong, Weijun; Zhu, Jianfeng; Peng, Biao; Li, Shufang; Wu, Yongle
2016-01-01
A transformation-optics based method to design a conformal antenna array on an arbitrary polygon surface is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This conformal antenna array can be adjusted to behave equivalently as a uniformly spaced linear array by applying an appropriate transformation medium. An typical example of general arbitrary polygon conformal arrays, not limited to circular array, is presented, verifying the proposed approach. In summary, the novel arbitrary polygon surface conformal array can be utilized in array synthesis and beam-forming, maintaining all benefits of linear array.
Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor
Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun
2016-10-01
Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.
Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm
2012-01-01
evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...
Thermodynamics of a classical ideal gas at arbitrary temperatures
Pal, Palash B.
2002-01-01
We propose a fundamental relation for a classical ideal gas that is valid at all temperatures with remarkable accuracy. All thermodynamical properties of classical ideal gases can be deduced from this relation at arbitrary temperature.
Arbitrary Deprivation of an Unregistered Credit Provider's Right to ...
Arbitrary Deprivation of an Unregistered Credit Provider's Right to Claim Restitution of Performance Rendered Opperman v Boonzaaier (24887/2010) 2012 ZAWCHC 27 (17 April 2012) and National Credit Regulator v Opperman 2013 2 SA 1 (CC)
Hou, H. S.
1985-07-01
An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.
The gravitational-wave memory from eccentric binaries
Favata, Marc
2011-01-01
The nonlinear gravitational-wave memory causes a time-varying but nonoscillatory correction to the gravitational-wave polarizations. It arises from gravitational-waves that are sourced by gravitational-waves. Previous considerations of the nonlinear memory effect have focused on quasicircular binaries. Here I consider the nonlinear memory from Newtonian orbits with arbitrary eccentricity. Expressions for the waveform polarizations and spin-weighted spherical-harmonic modes are derived for elliptic, hyperbolic, parabolic, and radial orbits. In the hyperbolic, parabolic, and radial cases the nonlinear memory provides a 2.5 post-Newtonian (PN) correction to the leading-order waveforms. This is in contrast to the elliptical and quasicircular cases, where the nonlinear memory corrects the waveform at leading (0PN) order. This difference in PN order arises from the fact that the memory builds up over a short ''scattering'' time scale in the hyperbolic case, as opposed to a much longer radiation-reaction time scale in the elliptical case. The nonlinear memory corrections presented here complete our knowledge of the leading-order (Peters-Mathews) waveforms for elliptical orbits. These calculations are also relevant for binaries with quasicircular orbits in the present epoch which had, in the past, large eccentricities. Because the nonlinear memory depends sensitively on the past evolution of a binary, I discuss the effect of this early-time eccentricity on the value of the late-time memory in nearly circularized binaries. I also discuss the observability of large ''memory jumps'' in a binary's past that could arise from its formation in a capture process. Lastly, I provide estimates of the signal-to-noise ratio of the linear and nonlinear memories from hyperbolic and parabolic binaries.
Detecting unresolved binary stars in Euclid VIS images
Kuntzer, T.; Courbin, F.
2017-10-01
Measuring a weak gravitational lensing signal to the level required by the next generation of space-based surveys demands exquisite reconstruction of the point-spread function (PSF). However, unresolved binary stars can significantly distort the PSF shape. In an effort to mitigate this bias, we aim at detecting unresolved binaries in realistic Euclid stellar populations. We tested methods in numerical experiments where (I) the PSF shape is known to Euclid requirements across the field of view; and (II) the PSF shape is unknown. We drew simulated catalogues of PSF shapes for this proof-of-concept paper. Following the Euclid survey plan, the objects were observed four times. We propose three methods to detect unresolved binary stars. The detection is based on the systematic and correlated biases between exposures of the same object. One method is a simple correlation analysis, while the two others use supervised machine-learning algorithms (random forest and artificial neural network). In both experiments, we demonstrate the ability of our methods to detect unresolved binary stars in simulated catalogues. The performance depends on the level of prior knowledge of the PSF shape and the shape measurement errors. Good detection performances are observed in both experiments. Full complexity, in terms of the images and the survey design, is not included, but key aspects of a more mature pipeline are discussed. Finding unresolved binaries in objects used for PSF reconstruction increases the quality of the PSF determination at arbitrary positions. We show, using different approaches, that we are able to detect at least binary stars that are most damaging for the PSF reconstruction process. The code corresponding to the algorithms used in this work and all scripts to reproduce the results are publicly available from a GitHub repository accessible via http://lastro.epfl.ch/software
Reid, M. T. Homer; White, Jacob; Johnson, Steven G.
2011-01-01
We extend a recently introduced method for computing Casimir forces between arbitrarily shaped metallic objects [M. T. H. Reid et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 040401 (2009)] to allow treatment of objects with arbitrary material properties, including imperfect conductors, dielectrics, and magnetic materials. Our original method considered electric currents on the surfaces of the interacting objects; the extended method considers both electric and magnetic surface current distributions, and obtains the Casimir energy of a configuration of objects in terms of the interactions of these effective surface currents. Using this new technique, we present the first predictions of Casimir interactions in several experimentally relevant geometries that would be difficult to treat with any existing method. In particular, we investigate Casimir interactions between dielectric nanodisks embedded in a dielectric fluid; we identify the threshold surface-surface separation at which finite-size effects become relevant, and we map the rotational energy landscape of bound nanoparticle diclusters.
Closed description of arbitrariness in resolving quantum master equation
Batalin, Igor A., E-mail: batalin@lpi.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, 119 991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Kievskaya St. 60, 634061 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lavrov, Peter M., E-mail: lavrov@tspu.edu.ru [Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Kievskaya St. 60, 634061 Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin Av. 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2016-07-10
In the most general case of the Delta exact operator valued generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion operator, we present a closed solution for the transformed master action in terms of the original master action in the closed form of the corresponding path integral. We show in detail how that path integral reduces to the known result in the case of being the Delta exact generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion function.
Stadler Peter F
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Maximal Pairing Problem (MPP is the prototype of a class of combinatorial optimization problems that are of considerable interest in bioinformatics: Given an arbitrary phylogenetic tree T and weights ωxy for the paths between any two pairs of leaves (x, y, what is the collection of edge-disjoint paths between pairs of leaves that maximizes the total weight? Special cases of the MPP for binary trees and equal weights have been described previously; algorithms to solve the general MPP are still missing, however. Results We describe a relatively simple dynamic programming algorithm for the special case of binary trees. We then show that the general case of multifurcating trees can be treated by interleaving solutions to certain auxiliary Maximum Weighted Matching problems with an extension of this dynamic programming approach, resulting in an overall polynomial-time solution of complexity (n4 log n w.r.t. the number n of leaves. The source code of a C implementation can be obtained under the GNU Public License from http://www.bioinf.uni-leipzig.de/Software/Targeting. For binary trees, we furthermore discuss several constrained variants of the MPP as well as a partition function approach to the probabilistic version of the MPP. Conclusions The algorithms introduced here make it possible to solve the MPP also for large trees with high-degree vertices. This has practical relevance in the field of comparative phylogenetics and, for example, in the context of phylogenetic targeting, i.e., data collection with resource limitations.
Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution
Merritt David
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.
May, R.P.
1983-01-01
Label Triangulation (LT) with neutrons allows the investigation of the quaternary structure of biological multicomponent complexes under native conditions. Provided that the complex can be fully separated into and reconstituted from its single - protonated and deuterated - components, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) can give selective information on shapes and pair distances of these components. Following basic geometrical rules, the spatial arrangement of the components can be reconstructed from these data. LT has so far been successfully applied to the small and large ribosomal subunits and the transcriptase of E. coli. (author)
Binary optics: Trends and limitations
Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.
1993-01-01
We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.
Particle acceleration in binaries
Sinitsyna V.G.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Cygnus X-3 massive binary system is one of the powerful sources of radio and X-ray emission consisting of an accreting compact object, probably a black hole, with a Wolf-Rayet star companion. Based on the detections of ultra high energy gamma-rays by Kiel and Havera Park, Cygnus X-3 has been proposed to be one of the most powerful sources of charged cosmic ray particles in the Galaxy. The results of long-term observations of the Cyg X-3 binary at energies 800 GeV–85 TeV detected by SHALON in 1995 are presented with images, integral spectra and spectral energy distribution. The identification of source with Cygnus X-3 detected by SHALON was secured by the detection of its 4.8 hour orbital period in TeV gamma-rays. During the whole observation period of Cyg X-3 with SHALON significant flux increases were detected at energies above 0.8 TeV. These TeV flux increases are correlated with flaring activity at a lower energy range of X-ray and/or at observations of Fermi LAT as well as with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The variability of very high-energy gamma-radiation and correlation of radiation activity in the wide energy range can provide essential information on particle mechanism production up to very high energies. Whereas, modulation of very high energy emission connected to the orbital motion of the binary system, provides an understanding of the emission processes, nature and location of particle acceleration.
Simulating the binary variates for the components of a socio - economical system
Stefan V. Stefanescu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Often in practice the components Wj of a sociological or an economical system W take discrete 0-1 values. We talk about how to generate arbitrary observations from a binary 0-1 system B when is known the multidimensional distribution of the discrete random vector B. We also simulated a simplified structure of B given by the marginal distributions together with the matrix of the correlation coefficients. Different properties of the systems W are presented too.
Kent, R.D.; Schlesinger, M.
1987-01-01
For the purpose of computing matrix elements of quantum mechanical operators in complex N-particle systems it is necessary that as much of each irreducible representation be stored in high-speed memory as possible in order to achieve the highest possible rate of computations. A graph theoretic approach to the representation of N-particle systems involving arbitrary single-particle spin is presented. The method involves a generalization of a technique employed by Shavitt in developing the graphical group approach (GUGA) to electronic spin-orbitals. The methods implemented in GENDRT and DRTDIM overcome many deficiencies inherent in other approaches, particularly with respect to utilization of memory resources, computational efficiency in the recognition and evaluation of non-zero matrix elements of certain group theoretic operators and complete labelling of all the basis states of the permutation symmetry (S N ) adapted irreducible representations of SU(n) groups. (orig.)
Morales Mendoza, N.; Goyanes, S.; Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V.; Rubiolo, G.; Candal, R.
2012-01-01
Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 °C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 μm) and sample B (smaller than 50 μm). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of α-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing α-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 μm showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 μm. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.
Morales Mendoza, N. [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V. [LBT, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA. Ciudad Universitaria, Pab1, C1428EGA CABA (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Prov. de Bs As (Argentina); Candal, R., E-mail: candal@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 3iA, Universidad de Gral. San Martin, San Martin, Prov. Bs As (Argentina)
2012-08-15
Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 Degree-Sign C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 {mu}m) and sample B (smaller than 50 {mu}m). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 {mu}m showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 {mu}m. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.
Photonic arbitrary waveform generator based on Taylor synthesis method
Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji
2016-01-01
Arbitrary waveform generation has been widely used in optical communication, radar system and many other applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on chip optical arbitrary waveform generator, which is based on Taylor synthesis method. In our scheme......, a Gaussian pulse is launched to some cascaded microrings to obtain first-, second- and third-order differentiations. By controlling amplitude and phase of the initial pulse and successive differentiations, we can realize an arbitrary waveform generator according to Taylor expansion. We obtain several typical...... waveforms such as square waveform, triangular waveform, flat-top waveform, sawtooth waveform, Gaussian waveform and so on. Unlike other schemes based on Fourier synthesis or frequency-to-time mapping, our scheme is based on Taylor synthesis method. Our scheme does not require any spectral disperser or large...
Dispersion in thermal plasma including arbitrary degeneracy and quantum recoil
Mushtaq, A.; Melrose, D.B.
2012-01-01
The longitudinal response function for a thermal electron gas was calculated including two quantum effects exactly, degeneracy and the quantum recoil. The Fermi-Dirac distribution was expanded in powers of a parameter that is small in the non-degenerate limit and the response function was evaluated in terms of the conventional plasma dispersion function to arbitrary order in this parameter. The infinite sum was performed in terms of poly logarithms in the long-wavelength and quasi-static limits, giving results that apply for arbitrary degeneracy. The results were applied to the dispersion relations for Langmuir waves and to screening, reproducing known results in the non-degenerate and completely degenerate limits], and generalizing them to arbitrary degeneracy. The occupation number for the completely degenerate limit is shown. The importance of the results regarding to semiconductor plasmas were highlighted. (orig./A.B.)
Nonrelativistic equations of motion for particles with arbitrary spin
Fushchich, V.I.; Nikitin, A.G.
1981-01-01
First- and second-order Galileo-invariant systems of differential equations which describe the motion of nonrelativistic particles of arbitrary spin are derived. The equations can be derived from a Lagrangian and describe the dipole, quadrupole, and spin-orbit interaction of the particles with an external field; these interactions have traditionally been regarded as purely relativistic effects. The problem of the motion of a nonrelativistic particle of arbitrary spin in a homogeneous magnetic field is solved exactly on the basis of the obtained equations. The generators of all classes of irreducible representations of the Galileo group are found
The sewing technique and correlation functions on arbitrary Riemann surfaces
Di Vecchia, P.
1989-01-01
We describe in the case of free bosonic and fermionic theories the sewing procedure, that is a very convenient way for constructing correlation functions of these theories on an arbitrary Riemann surface from their knowledge on the sphere. The fundamental object that results from this construction is the N-point g-loop vertex. It summarizes the information of all correlation functions of the theory on an arbitrary Riemann surface. We then check explicitly the bosonization rules and derive some useful formulas. (orig.)
Stabilization at almost arbitrary points for chaotic systems
Huang, C.-S.; Lian, K.-Y.; Su, C.-H.; Wu, J.-W.
2008-01-01
We consider how to design a feasible control input for chaotic systems via a suitable input channel to achieve the stabilization at arbitrary points. Regarding the nonlinear systems without naturally defined input vectors, we propose a local stabilization controller which works for almost arbitrary points. Subsequently, according to topologically transitive property for chaotic systems, the feedback control force is activated only when the trajectory passes through the neighboring region of the regulated point. Hence the global stabilization is achieved whereas the control effort of the hybrid controller is extremely low
Probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary pure state of two atoms
Yang Zhen-Biao; Wu Huai-Zhi; Su Wan-Jun
2007-01-01
In the context of microwave cavity QED, this paper proposes a new scheme for teleportation of an arbitrary pure state of two atoms. The scheme is very different from the previous ones which achieve the integrated state measurement,it deals in a probabilistic but simplified way. In the scheme, no additional atoms are involved and thus only two atoms are required to be detected. The scheme can also be used for the teleportation of arbitrary pure states of many atoms or two-mode cavities.
Probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary three-particle state
Lin Xiu; Li Hong-Cai
2005-01-01
A scheme for teleporting an arbitrary and unknown three-particle state from a sender to either one of two receivers is proposed. The quantum channel is composed of a two-particle non-maximally entangled state and two three-particle non-maximally entangled W states. An arbitrary three-particle state can be perfectly teleported probabilistically if the sender performs three generalized Bell-state measurements and sends to the two receivers the classical result of these measurements, and either one of the two receivers adopts an appropriate unitary transformation conditioned on the suitable measurement outcomes of the other receiver. All kinds of unitary transformations are given in detail.
Hadrons of arbitrary spin and heavy quark symmetry
Hussain, F.; Thompson, G.; Koerner, J.G.
1993-11-01
We present a general construction of the spin content of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes (covariant wave functions) for heavy hadrons with arbitrary orbital excitations, using representations of l x O(3, 1). These wave functions incorporate the symmetries manifest in the heavy quark limit. In the baryonic sector we clearly differentiate between the Λ and Σ-type excited baryons. We then use the trace formalism to evaluate the weak transitions of ground state heavy hadrons to arbitrary excited heavy hadrons. The contributions of excited states to the Bjorken sum rule are also worked out in detail. (author). 21 refs
Nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour of shells of revolution under arbitrary loading
Leonard, J.W.; Arbabi-Kanjoori, F.
1975-01-01
A formulation and solution technique are presented for the creep analysis of shells of revolution subjected to arbitrary loads and temperature changes. Arbitrary creep laws are admitted in the formulation with specific attention given to the two common laws, i.e. strain hardening and time hardening. The governing equations for creep of shells of revolution are derived. The solution method requires the quasi-static linearization of the equations: linear incremental behaviour is assumed during each time step. The incremental equations are expanded in Fourier series and solved by a numerical integration technique. (Auth.)
Diffraction limited focusing with controllable arbitrary three-dimensional polarization
Chen, Weibin; Zhan, Qiwen
2010-01-01
We propose a new approach that enables full control over the three-dimensional state of polarization and the field distribution near the focus of a high numerical aperture objective lens. By combining the electric dipole radiation and a vectorial diffraction method, the input field at the pupil plane for generating arbitrary three-dimensionally oriented linear polarization at the focal point with a diffraction limited spot size is found analytically by solving the inverse problem. Arbitrary three-dimensional elliptical polarization can be obtained by introducing a second electric dipole oriented in the orthogonal plane with appropriate amplitude and phase differences
Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters
Matthew J. Benacquista
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.
Spectral properties of binary asteroids
Pajuelo, Myriam; Birlan, Mirel; Carry, Benoît; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Berthier, Jérôme
2018-04-01
We present the first attempt to characterize the distribution of taxonomic class among the population of binary asteroids (15% of all small asteroids). For that, an analysis of 0.8-2.5{μ m} near-infrared spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument on the NASA/IRTF is presented. Taxonomic class and meteorite analog is determined for each target, increasing the sample of binary asteroids with known taxonomy by 21%. Most binary systems are bound in the S-, X-, and C- classes, followed by Q and V-types. The rate of binary systems in each taxonomic class agrees within uncertainty with the background population of small near-Earth objects and inner main belt asteroids, but for the C-types which are under-represented among binaries.
Planets in Binary Star Systems
Haghighipour, Nader
2010-01-01
The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...
Linsky, J.L.
1984-01-01
The author attempts to place in context the vast amount of data obtained in the last few years as a result of X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and microwave observations of RS CVn and similar spectroscopic binary systems. He concentrates on the RS CVn systems and their long-period analogs, and restricts the scope by attempting to answer on the basis of the recent data and theory following questions: (1) Are the original defining characteristics still valid and still adequate? (2) What is the evidence for discrete active regions? (3) Have we derived any meaningful physical properties for the atmospheres of RS CVn systems? (4) What are the flare observations telling us about magnetic fields in the RS CVn systems? (5) Is there evidence for systematic trends in RS CVn systems with spectral type?
A novel asynchronous access method with binary interfaces
Torres-Solis Jorge
2008-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally synchronous access strategies require users to comply with one or more time constraints in order to communicate intent with a binary human-machine interface (e.g., mechanical, gestural or neural switches. Asynchronous access methods are preferable, but have not been used with binary interfaces in the control of devices that require more than two commands to be successfully operated. Methods We present the mathematical development and evaluation of a novel asynchronous access method that may be used to translate sporadic activations of binary interfaces into distinct outcomes for the control of devices requiring an arbitrary number of commands to be controlled. With this method, users are required to activate their interfaces only when the device under control behaves erroneously. Then, a recursive algorithm, incorporating contextual assumptions relevant to all possible outcomes, is used to obtain an informed estimate of user intention. We evaluate this method by simulating a control task requiring a series of target commands to be tracked by a model user. Results When compared to a random selection, the proposed asynchronous access method offers a significant reduction in the number of interface activations required from the user. Conclusion This novel access method offers a variety of advantages over traditionally synchronous access strategies and may be adapted to a wide variety of contexts, with primary relevance to applications involving direct object manipulation.
... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...
Concept of fractional parentage for arbitrary molecular point groups
Koenig, E.; Kremer, S.
1977-01-01
The method of fractional parentage is extended to the general case of mixed configurations in arbitrary nonsimply reducible groups, G is contained in SO(3). Particular attention is devoted to the calculation of coefficients of fractional parentage (CFP) and expressions are provided for the matrix elements of F and G type operators between N electron functions. 29 references
Effective Hamiltonian for 2-dimensional arbitrary spin Ising model
Sznajd, J.; Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw. Inst. Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych)
1983-08-01
The method of the reduction of the generalized arbitrary-spin 2-dimensional Ising model to spin-half Ising model is presented. The method is demonstrated in detail by calculating the effective interaction constants to the third order in cumulant expansion for the triangular spin-1 Ising model (the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model). (author)
Chaotic correlations in barrier billiards with arbitrary barriers
Osbaldestin, A H; Adamson, L N C
2013-01-01
We study autocorrelation functions in symmetric barrier billiards for golden mean trajectories with arbitrary barriers. Renormalization analysis reveals the presence of a chaotic invariant set and thus that, for a typical barrier, there are chaotic correlations. The chaotic renormalization set is the analogue of the so-called orchid that arises in a generalized Harper equation. (paper)
Optimal Fisher Discriminant Ratio for an Arbitrary Spatial Light Modulator
Juday, Richard D.
1999-01-01
Optimizing the Fisher ratio is well established in statistical pattern recognition as a means of discriminating between classes. I show how to optimize that ratio for optical correlation intensity by choice of filter on an arbitrary spatial light modulator (SLM). I include the case of additive noise of known power spectral density.
Simulating an arbitrary number of flavors of dynamical overlap fermions
DeGrand, T.; Schaefer, S.
2006-05-01
We present a set of related Hybrid Monte Carlo methods to simulate an arbitrary number of dynamical overlap fermions. Each fermion is represented by a chiral pseudo-fermion field. The new algorithm reduces critical slowing down in the chiral limit and for sectors of nontrivial topology. (Orig.)
Unveiling Reality of the Mind: Cultural Arbitrary of Consumerism
Choi, Su-Jin
2012-01-01
This paper discusses the cultural arbitrary of consumerism by focusing on a personal realm. That is, I discuss what consumerism appeals to and how it flourishes in relation to our minds. I argue that we need to unveil reality of the mind, be aware of ourselves in relation to the perpetuation of consumerism, in order to critically intervene in the…
On the entropy of random surfaces with arbitrary genus
Kostov, I.K.; Krzywicki, A.
1987-01-01
We calculate the susceptibility critical exponent γ for Polyakov random surfaces with arbitrary genus, using the Liouville theory to one-loop order. Some rigorous results obtained for special dimensionalities in a discrete version of the model are also noted. In all cases γ grows linearly with the genus of the surface. (orig.)
Probabilistic Teleportation of an Arbitrary n-Particle Entangled State
XI Yong-Jun; FANG Jian-Xing; ZHU Shi-Qun; GUO Zhan-Ying
2005-01-01
A scheme for teleporting an arbitrary n-particle entangled state via n pairs of non-maximally entangled states is proposed. The probability of successful teleportation is determined only by the smaller coefficients of the partially entangled pairs. The method is very easy to be realized.
Canonical Quantum Teleportation of Two-Particle Arbitrary State
HAO Xiang; ZHU Shi-Qun
2005-01-01
The canonical quantum teleportation of two-particle arbitrary state is realized by means of phase operator and number operator. The maximally entangled eigenstates between the difference of phase operators and the sum of number operators are considered as the quantum channels. In contrast to the standard quantum teleportation, the different unitary local operation of canonical teleportation can be simplified by a general expression.
Garbage-free reversible constant multipliers for arbitrary integers
Mogensen, Torben Ægidius
2013-01-01
We present a method for constructing reversible circuitry for multiplying integers by arbitrary integer constants. The method is based on Mealy machines and gives circuits whose size are (in the worst case) linear in the size of the constant. This makes the method unsuitable for large constants...
Directional Positive Selection on an Allele of Arbitrary Dominance
Teshima, Kosuke M.; Przeworski, Molly
2006-01-01
Most models of positive directional selection assume codominance of the beneficial allele. We examine the importance of this assumption by implementing a coalescent model of positive directional selection with arbitrary dominance. We find that, for a given mean fixation time, a beneficial allele has a much weaker effect on diversity at linked neutral sites when the allele is recessive.
Dynamics of number systems computation with arbitrary precision
Kurka, Petr
2016-01-01
This book is a source of valuable and useful information on the topics of dynamics of number systems and scientific computation with arbitrary precision. It is addressed to scholars, scientists and engineers, and graduate students. The treatment is elementary and self-contained with relevance both for theory and applications. The basic prerequisite of the book is linear algebra and matrix calculus. .
Pair production of arbitrary spin particles by electromagnetic fields
Kruglov, S.I.
2006-01-01
The exact solutions of the wave equation for arbitrary spin particles in the field of the soliton-like electric impulse were obtained. The differential probability of pair production of particles by electromagnetic fields has been evaluated on the basis of the exact solutions. As a particular case, the particle pair production in the constant and uniform electric field were studied
Quantum electrodynamics with arbitrary charge on a noncommutative space
Zhou Wanping; Long Zhengwen; Cai Shaohong
2009-01-01
Using the Seiberg-Witten map, we obtain a quantum electrodynamics on a noncommutative space, which has arbitrary charge and keep the gauge invariance to at the leading order in theta. The one-loop divergence and Compton scattering are reinvestigated. The noncommutative effects are larger than those in ordinary noncommutative quantum electrodynamics. (authors)
Pethö, A.; Weger, de B.M.M.
1986-01-01
We show how the Gelfond-Baker theory and diophantine approximation techniques can be applied to solve explicitly the diophantine equation [formula] (where [formula] is a binary recurrence sequence with positive discriminant), for arbitrary values of the parameters. We apply this to the equation
Optimally cloned binary coherent states
Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.
2017-10-01
Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.
Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.
2013-01-01
Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.
Mesoscopic model for binary fluids
Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.
2017-10-01
We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.
Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo
2011-01-01
Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time
Tableau Calculus for the Logic of Comparative Similarity over Arbitrary Distance Spaces
Alenda, Régis; Olivetti, Nicola
The logic CSL (first introduced by Sheremet, Tishkovsky, Wolter and Zakharyaschev in 2005) allows one to reason about distance comparison and similarity comparison within a modal language. The logic can express assertions of the kind "A is closer/more similar to B than to C" and has a natural application to spatial reasoning, as well as to reasoning about concept similarity in ontologies. The semantics of CSL is defined in terms of models based on different classes of distance spaces and it generalizes the logic S4 u of topological spaces. In this paper we consider CSL defined over arbitrary distance spaces. The logic comprises a binary modality to represent comparative similarity and a unary modality to express the existence of the minimum of a set of distances. We first show that the semantics of CSL can be equivalently defined in terms of preferential models. As a consequence we obtain the finite model property of the logic with respect to its preferential semantic, a property that does not hold with respect to the original distance-space semantics. Next we present an analytic tableau calculus based on its preferential semantics. The calculus provides a decision procedure for the logic, its termination is obtained by imposing suitable blocking restrictions.
Maarten Löffler
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.
Some properties of spectral binary stars
Krajcheva, Z.T.; Popova, E.I.; Tutukov, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)
1978-01-01
Statistical investigations of spectra binary stars are carried out. Binary systems consisting of main sequence stars are considered. For 826 binary stars masses of components, ratios of component masses, semiaxes of orbits and orbital angular momenta are calculated. The distributions of these parameters and their correlations are analyzed. The dependences of statistical properties of spectral binary stars on their origin and evolution are discussed
The arbitrary l continuum states of the hyperbolic molecular potential
Wei, Gao-Feng, E-mail: fgwei_2000@163.com [School of Physics and Mechatronics Engineering, Xi' an University of Arts and Science, Xi' an 710065 (China); Chen, Wen-Li, E-mail: physwlchen@163.com [Department of Basic Science, Xi' an Peihua University, Xi' an 710065 (China); Dong, Shi-Hai, E-mail: dongsh2@yahoo.com [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)
2014-06-27
Within the framework of partial-wave method, we study in this Letter the arbitrary l continuum states of the Schrödinger equation with the hyperbolic molecular potential in terms of an improved approximation to the centrifugal term. We present the normalized radial wave functions and obtain analytical formula of phase shifts. In addition, the corresponding bound states are also discussed by studying the analytical properties of the scattering amplitude. We calculate the energy spectra and scattering phase shifts by the improved, previous approximations and the accurate methods, respectively and find that the improved approximation is better than the previous one since the present results are in better agreement with the accurate ones. - Highlights: • The hyperbolic potential with arbitrary l state is solved. • Improved approximation to centrifugal term is used. • Phase shift formula is derived analytically. • Accurate results are compared with the present results.
Acoustic invisibility cloaks of arbitrary shapes for complex background media
Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tianning; Liang, Qingxuan; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xiong, Jie; Jiang, Ping
2016-04-01
We report on the theoretical investigation of the acoustic cloaks working in complex background media in this paper. The constitutive parameters of arbitrary-shape cloaks are derived based on the transformation acoustic theory and coordinate transformation technique. The detailed analysis of boundaries conditions and potential applications of the cloaks are also presented in our work. To overcome the difficulty of achieving the materials with ideal parameters in nature, concentric alternating layered isotropic materials is adopted to approximate the required properties of the cloak. Theoretical design and excellent invisibility are demonstrated by numerical simulations. The inhomogeneous medium and arbitrary-shape acoustic cloaks grow closer to real application and may be a new hot spot in future.
Experiments with arbitrary networks in time-multiplexed delay systems
Hart, Joseph D.; Schmadel, Don C.; Murphy, Thomas E.; Roy, Rajarshi
2017-12-01
We report a new experimental approach using an optoelectronic feedback loop to investigate the dynamics of oscillators coupled on large complex networks with arbitrary topology. Our implementation is based on a single optoelectronic feedback loop with time delays. We use the space-time interpretation of systems with time delay to create large networks of coupled maps. Others have performed similar experiments using high-pass filters to implement the coupling; this restricts the network topology to the coupling of only a few nearest neighbors. In our experiment, the time delays and coupling are implemented on a field-programmable gate array, allowing the creation of networks with arbitrary coupling topology. This system has many advantages: the network nodes are truly identical, the network is easily reconfigurable, and the network dynamics occur at high speeds. We use this system to study cluster synchronization and chimera states in both small and large networks of different topologies.
Fast RBF OGr for solving PDEs on arbitrary surfaces
Piret, Cécile; Dunn, Jarrett
2016-10-01
The Radial Basis Functions Orthogonal Gradients method (RBF-OGr) was introduced in [1] to discretize differential operators defined on arbitrary manifolds defined only by a point cloud. We take advantage of the meshfree character of RBFs, which give us a high accuracy and the flexibility to represent complex geometries in any spatial dimension. A large limitation of the RBF-OGr method was its large computational complexity, which greatly restricted the size of the point cloud. In this paper, we apply the RBF-Finite Difference (RBF-FD) technique to the RBF-OGr method for building sparse differentiation matrices discretizing continuous differential operators such as the Laplace-Beltrami operator. This method can be applied to solving PDEs on arbitrary surfaces embedded in ℛ3. We illustrate the accuracy of our new method by solving the heat equation on the unit sphere.
The arbitrary order design code Tlie 1.0
Zeijts, J. van; Neri, Filippo
1993-01-01
We describe the arbitrary order charged particle transfer map code TLIE. This code is a general 6D relativistic design code with a MAD compatible input language and among others implements user defined functions and subroutines and nested fitting and optimization. First we describe the mathematics and physics in the code. Aside from generating maps for all the standard accelerator elements we describe an efficient method for generating nonlinear transfer maps for realistic magnet models. We have implemented the method to arbitrary order in our accelerator design code for cylindrical current sheet magnets. We also have implemented a self-consistent space-charge approach as in CHARLIE. Subsequently we give a description of the input language and finally, we give several examples from productions run, such as cases with stacked multipoles with overlapping fringe fields. (Author)
Quantum optical arbitrary waveform manipulation and measurement in real time.
Kowligy, Abijith S; Manurkar, Paritosh; Corzo, Neil V; Velev, Vesselin G; Silver, Michael; Scott, Ryan P; Yoo, S J B; Kumar, Prem; Kanter, Gregory S; Huang, Yu-Ping
2014-11-17
We describe a technique for dynamic quantum optical arbitrary-waveform generation and manipulation, which is capable of mode selectively operating on quantum signals without inducing significant loss or decoherence. It is built upon combining the developed tools of quantum frequency conversion and optical arbitrary waveform generation. Considering realistic parameters, we propose and analyze applications such as programmable reshaping of picosecond-scale temporal modes, selective frequency conversion of any one or superposition of those modes, and mode-resolved photon counting. We also report on experimental progress to distinguish two overlapping, orthogonal temporal modes, demonstrating over 8 dB extinction between picosecond-scale time-frequency modes, which agrees well with our theory. Our theoretical and experimental progress, as a whole, points to an enabling optical technique for various applications such as ultradense quantum coding, unity-efficiency cavity-atom quantum memories, and high-speed quantum computing.
Quantum teleportation of an arbitrary superposition of atomic states
Chen Qiong; Fang Xi-Ming
2008-01-01
This paper proposes a scheme to teleport an arbitrary multi-particle two-level atomic state between two parties or an arbitrary zero- and one-photon entangled state of multi-mode between two high-Q cavities in cavity QED.This scheme is based on the resonant interaction between atom and cavity and does not involve Bell-state measurement.It investigates the fidelity of this scheme and find out the case of this unity fidelity of this teleportation.Considering the practical case of the cavity decay,this paper finds that the condition of the unity fidelity is also valid and obtains the effect of the decay of the cavity on the successful probability of the teleportation.
Eight equation model for arbitrary shaped pipe conveying fluid
Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.
2006-01-01
Linear eight-equation system for two-way coupling of single-phase fluid transient and arbitrary shaped one-dimensional pipeline movement is described and discussed. The governing phenomenon described with this system is also known as Fluid-Structure Interaction. Standard Skalak's four-equation model for axial coupling was improved with additional four Timoshenko's beam equations for description of flexural displacements and rotations. In addition to the conventional eight-equation system that enables coupling of straight sections, the applied mathematical model was improved for description of the arbitrary shaped pipeline located in two-dimensional plane. The applied model was solved with second-order accurate numerical method that is based on Godounov's characteristic upwind schemes. The model was successfully used for simulation of the rod impact induced transient and conventional instantaneous valve closure induced transient in the tank-pipe-valve system. (author)
Matrix superpotentials and superintegrable systems for arbitrary spin
Nikitin, A G
2012-01-01
A countable set of quantum superintegrable systems for arbitrary spin is solved explicitly using tools of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. It is shown that these systems (introduced by Pronko (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 13331)) are special cases of models with shape invariant effective potentials that have recently been classified in Nikitin and Karadzhov (2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 305204, 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 445202). (paper)
Compound words prompt arbitrary semantic associations in conceptual memory
Boutonnet, Bastien; McClain, Rhonda; Thierry, Guillaume
2014-01-01
Linguistic relativity theory has received empirical support in domains such as colour perception and object categorisation. It is unknown however, whether relations between words idiosyncratic to language impact nonverbal representations and conceptualisations. For instance, would one consider the concepts of horse and sea as related were it not for the existence of the compound seahorse? Here, we investigated such arbitrary conceptual relationships using a non-linguistic picture relatedness ...
Probabilistic Teleportation of an Arbitrary Two-particle State
顾永建; 郑亦庄; 郭光灿
2001-01-01
A scheme for the teleportation of an arbitrary two-particle state via two non-maximally entangled particle pairsis proposed. We show that teleportation can be successfully realized with a certain probability if the receiveradopts an appropriate unitary-reduction strategy. A specific strategy is provided in detail The probability of successful teleportation is determined by the smaller coefficients of the two entangled pairs.
On Babinet's principle and diffraction associated with an arbitrary particle.
Sun, Bingqiang; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W; Mishchenko, Michael I
2017-12-01
Babinet's principle is widely used to compute the diffraction by a particle. However, the diffraction by a 3-D object is not totally the same as that simulated with Babinet's principle. This Letter uses a surface integral equation to exactly formulate the diffraction by an arbitrary particle and illustrate the condition for the applicability of Babinet's principle. The present results may serve to close the debate on the diffraction formalism.
Arbitrary waveform generator to improve laser diode driver performance
Fulkerson, Jr, Edward Steven
2015-11-03
An arbitrary waveform generator modifies the input signal to a laser diode driver circuit in order to reduce the overshoot/undershoot and provide a "flat-top" signal to the laser diode driver circuit. The input signal is modified based on the original received signal and the feedback from the laser diode by measuring the actual current flowing in the laser diode after the original signal is applied to the laser diode.
Universal Quantum Computing with Arbitrary Continuous-Variable Encoding
Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B.
2016-01-01
Implementing a qubit quantum computer in continuous-variable systems conventionally requires the engineering of specific interactions according to the encoding basis states. In this work, we present a unified formalism to conduct universal quantum computation with a fixed set of operations but arbitrary encoding. By storing a qubit in the parity of two or four qumodes, all computing processes can be implemented by basis state preparations, continuous-variable exponential-swap operations, and ...
A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator.
Govorkov, S; Ivanov, B I; Il'ichev, E; Meyer, H-G
2014-05-01
A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation.
Surface waves on currents with arbitrary vertical shear
Smeltzer, Benjamin K.; Ellingsen, Simen Å.
2017-04-01
We study dispersion properties of linear surface gravity waves propagating in an arbitrary direction atop a current profile of depth-varying magnitude using a piecewise linear approximation and develop a robust numerical framework for practical calculation. The method has been much used in the past for the case of waves propagating along the same axis as the background current, and we herein extend and apply it to problems with an arbitrary angle between the wave propagation and current directions. Being valid for all wavelengths without loss of accuracy, the scheme is particularly well suited to solve problems involving a broad range of wave vectors, such as ship waves and Cauchy-Poisson initial value problems. We examine the group and phase velocities over different wavelength regimes and current profiles, highlighting characteristics due to the depth-variable vorticity. We show an example application to ship waves on an arbitrary current profile and demonstrate qualitative differences in the wake patterns between concave down and concave up profiles when compared to a constant shear profile with equal depth-averaged vorticity. We also discuss the nature of additional solutions to the dispersion relation when using the piecewise-linear model. These are vorticity waves, drifting vortical structures which are artifacts of the piecewise model. They are absent for a smooth profile and are spurious in the present context.
A compact, multichannel, and low noise arbitrary waveform generator
Govorkov, S.; Ivanov, B. I.; Il'ichev, E.; Meyer, H.-G.
2014-01-01
A new type of high functionality, fast, compact, and easy programmable arbitrary waveform generator for low noise physical measurements is presented. The generator provides 7 fast differential waveform channels with a maximum bandwidth up to 200 MHz frequency. There are 6 fast pulse generators on the generator board with 78 ps time resolution in both duration and delay, 3 of them with amplitude control. The arbitrary waveform generator is additionally equipped with two auxiliary slow 16 bit analog-to-digital converters and four 16 bit digital-to-analog converters for low frequency applications. Electromagnetic shields are introduced to the power supply, digital, and analog compartments and with a proper filter design perform more than 110 dB digital noise isolation to the output signals. All the output channels of the board have 50 Ω SubMiniature version A termination. The generator board is suitable for use as a part of a high sensitive physical equipment, e.g., fast read out and manipulation of nuclear magnetic resonance or superconducting quantum systems and any other application, which requires electromagnetic interference free fast pulse and arbitrary waveform generation
Arbitrary waveform modulated pulse EPR at 200 GHz
Kaminker, Ilia; Barnes, Ryan; Han, Songi
2017-06-01
We report here on the implementation of arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) capabilities at ∼200 GHz into an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) instrument platform operating at 7 T. This is achieved with the integration of a 1 GHz, 2 channel, digital to analog converter (DAC) board that enables the generation of coherent arbitrary waveforms at Ku-band frequencies with 1 ns resolution into an existing architecture of a solid state amplifier multiplier chain (AMC). This allows for the generation of arbitrary phase- and amplitude-modulated waveforms at 200 GHz with >150 mW power. We find that the non-linearity of the AMC poses significant difficulties in generating amplitude-modulated pulses at 200 GHz. We demonstrate that in the power-limited regime of ω1 10 MHz) spin manipulation in incoherent (inversion), as well as coherent (echo formation) experiments. Highlights include the improvement by one order of magnitude in inversion bandwidth compared to that of conventional rectangular pulses, as well as a factor of two in improvement in the refocused echo intensity at 200 GHz.
Binary collision rates of relativistic thermal plasmas. I Theoretical framework
Dermer, C. D.
1985-01-01
Binary collision rates for arbitrary scattering cross sections are derived in the case of a beam of particles interacting with a Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) plasma, or in the case of two MB plasmas interacting at generally different temperatures. The expressions are valid for all beam energies and plasma temperatures, from the nonrelativistic to the extreme relativistic limits. The calculated quantities include the reaction rate, the energy exchange rate, and the average rate of change of the squared transverse momentum component of a monoenergetic particle beam as a result of scatterings with particles of a MB plasma. Results are specialized to elastic scattering processes, two-temperature reaction rates, or the cold plasma limit, reproducing previous work.
Binary Systems and the Initial Mass Function
Malkov, O. Yu.
2017-07-01
In the present paper we discuss advantages and disadvantages of binary stars, which are important for star formation history determination. We show that to make definite conclusions of the initial mass function shape, it is necessary to study binary population well enough to correct the luminosity function for unresolved binaries; to construct the mass-luminosity relation based on wide binaries data, and to separate observational mass functions of primaries, of secondaries, and of unresolved binaries.
Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs
Michael Charles Davis
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs. Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels and edge weights to graph structure.
Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia
2001-01-01
. In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...
Synthesizing labeled compounds
London, R.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.; Unkefer, C.J.; Walker, T.E.
1983-01-01
A metabolic study is presented of the chemical reactions provided by isotopic labeling and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesis of 13 C-labeled D-glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, involves adding a labeled nitrile group to the 5-carbon sugar D-arabinose by reaction with labeled hydrogen cyanide. The product of this reaction is then reduced and hydrolyzed to a mixture of the labeled sugars. The two sugars are separated by absorption chromotography. The synthesis of 13 C-labeled L-tyrosine, an amino acid, is also presented
Hidden slow pulsars in binaries
Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh
1993-01-01
The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.
The Young Visual Binary Survey
Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian; Lindstrom, Kyle; Graham, Sean; Sullivan, Kendall; Biddle, Lauren; Skiff, Brian; Nofi, Larissa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal
2018-01-01
Differences in the stellar and circumstellar properties of the components of young binaries provide key information about star and disk formation and evolution processes. Because objects with separations of a few to a few hundred astronomical units share a common environment and composition, multiple systems allow us to control for some of the factors which play into star formation. We are completing analysis of a rich sample of about 100 pre-main sequence binaries and higher order multiples, primarily located in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions. This poster will highlight some of out recent, exciting results. All reduced spectra and the results of our analysis will be publicly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.
Electronic Submission of Labels
Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.
Robust Active Label Correction
Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian
2018-01-01
for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...
Pesticide Product Label System
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...
Semiotic labelled deductive systems
Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)
1996-12-31
We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.
Hyatt, I. Ralph
1977-01-01
Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)
Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet
Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.
Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin
Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.
Antenna Correlation From Input Parameters for Arbitrary Topologies and Terminations
Alrabadi, Osama; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Pedersen, Gert Frølund
2012-01-01
The spatial correlation between pairs of antennas in a system comprised of N RF ports is found by extending the N × N scattering matrix to (N + 1)×(N + 1) spatial scattering matrix, where the extra space dimension accounts for the reference port patterns. The lossless property of the spatial...... scattering matrix in a 3D uniform field is employed for expressing the spatial correlation between the port patterns at arbitrary complex terminations merely from the reference scattering parameters and the complex terminations without any far-field calculation....
Networked Predictive Control for Nonlinear Systems With Arbitrary Region Quantizers.
Yang, Hongjiu; Xu, Yang; Xia, Yuanqing; Zhang, Jinhui
2017-04-06
In this paper, networked predictive control is investigated for planar nonlinear systems with quantization by an extended state observer (ESO). The ESO is used not only to deal with nonlinear terms but also to generate predictive states for dealing with network-induced delays. Two arbitrary region quantizers are applied to take effective values of signals in forward channel and feedback channel, respectively. Based on a "zoom" strategy, sufficient conditions are given to guarantee stabilization of the closed-loop networked control system with quantization. A simulation example is proposed to exhibit advantages and availability of the results.
Bessel-like beams modulated by arbitrary radial functions
Herman; Wiggins
2000-06-01
An approximate method for determining the radial and axial intensity of a Bessel-like beam is presented for the general case in which a radial Bessel distribution of any order is modulated by an arbitrary function. For Bessel-Gauss, generalized Bessel-Gauss, and Bessel-super-Gauss beams, this simple approximation yields results that are very close to the exact values, while they are exact for Bessel beams. A practical beam that can be generated with a combination of simple lenses is also analyzed and illustrated.
Model for decays of boson resonances with arbitrary spins
Grigoryan, A.A.; Ivanov, N.Ya.
1985-01-01
A formula for the width of resonance with spin J decay into hadrons with arbitrary spins is derived. This width is expressed via S-channel helicity residues of Regge trajectory α J where the resonance J lies. Using the quark-gluon picture predictions for the coupling of quarks with Regge trajectories and SU(6)-classification of hadrons this formula is applied to calculate the widths of decays of resonances, which lie on the vector and tensor trajectories, into pseudoscalar and vector, two vectors and NN-bar-pair
Functional methods for arbitrary densities in curved spacetime
Basler, M.
1993-01-01
This paper gives an introduction to the technique of functional differentiation and integration in curved spacetime, applied to examples from quantum field theory. Special attention is drawn on the choice of functional integral measure. Referring to a suggestion by Toms, fields are choosen as arbitrary scalar, spinorial or vectorial densities. The technique developed by Toms for a pure quadratic Lagrangian are extended to the calculation of the generating functional with external sources. Included are two examples of interacting theories, a self-interacting scalar field and a Yang-Mills theory. For these theories the complete set of Feynman graphs depending on the weight of variables is derived. (orig.)
Teleportation of an arbitrary three-particle state
陈立冰
2002-01-01
We propose two schemes for teleporting an arbitrary three-particle state. In the first scheme, a two-particle state and a three-particle entangled state (both non-maximally entangled states) are used as quantum channels, while in the second scheme, three non-maximally entangled particle pairs are employed as quantum channels. We show that teleportation can be successfully realized with certain probability if a receiver adopts some appropriate unitary transformations. Their success probabilities and the classical communication costs are different.
Feynman propagator for a particle with arbitrary spin
Huang Shi-Zhong; Zhang Peng-Fei; Ruan Tu-Nan; Zhu Yu-Can; Zheng Zhi-Peng
2005-01-01
Based on the solution to the Rarita-Schwinger equations, a direct derivation of the projection operator and propagator for a particle with arbitrary spin is worked out. The projection operator constructed by Behrends and Fronsdal is re-deduced and confirmed, and simplified in the case of half-integral spin; the general commutation rules and Feynman propagator for a free particle of any spin are derived, and explicit expressions for the propagators for spins 3/2, 2, 5/2, 3, 7/2, 4 are provided. (orig.)
Arbitrary temporal shape pulsed fiber laser based on SPGD algorithm
Jiang, Min; Su, Rongtao; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhou, Pu
2018-06-01
A novel adaptive pulse shaping method for a pulsed master oscillator power amplifier fiber laser to deliver an arbitrary pulse shape is demonstrated. Numerical simulation has been performed to validate the feasibility of the scheme and provide meaningful guidance for the design of the algorithm control parameters. In the proof-of-concept experiment, information on the temporal property of the laser is exchanged and evaluated through a local area network, and the laser adjusted the parameters of the seed laser according to the monitored output of the system automatically. Various pulse shapes, including a rectangular shape, ‘M’ shape, and elliptical shape are achieved through experimental iterations.
Revenue comparisons for auctions when bidders have arbitrary types
Yeon-Koo Che
2006-03-01
Full Text Available This paper develops a methodology for characterizing expected revenue from auctions when bidders' types come from an arbitrary distribution. In particular, types may be multidimensional, and there may be mass points in the distribution. One application extends existing revenue equivalence results. Another application shows that first-price auctions yield higher expected revenue than second-price auctions when bidders are risk averse and face financial constraints. This revenue ranking extends to risk-averse bidders with general forms of non-expected utility preferences.
Controlling electromagnetic fields at boundaries of arbitrary geometries
Teo, Jonathon Yi Han; Wong, Liang Jie; Molardi, Carlo; Genevet, Patrice
2016-08-01
Rapid developments in the emerging field of stretchable and conformable photonics necessitate analytical expressions for boundary conditions at metasurfaces of arbitrary geometries. Here, we introduce the concept of conformal boundary optics: a design theory that determines the optical response for designer input and output fields at such interfaces. Given any object, we can realize coatings to achieve exotic effects like optical illusions and anomalous diffraction behavior. This approach is relevant to a broad range of applications from conventional refractive optics to the design of the next-generation of wearable optical components. This concept can be generalized to other fields of research where designer interfaces with nontrivial geometries are encountered.
Shrinking an arbitrary object as one desires using metamaterials
Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun; Yang, Xin Mi; Ma, Hui Feng; Cheng, Qiang
2011-05-01
Based on transformation optics, we present a shrinking device, which can transform an arbitrary object virtually into a small-size object with different material parameters as one desires. Such an illusion device will confuse the detectors or the viewers, and hence the real size and material parameters of the enclosed object cannot be perceived. We fabricated and measured a shrinking device by using metamaterials, which works at the nonresonant frequency and has low loss. The device has been validated by both numerical simulations and experiments on circular and square objects. Good shrinking performance has been demonstrated.
Grover's quantum search algorithm for an arbitrary initial mixed state
Biham, Eli; Kenigsberg, Dan
2002-01-01
The Grover quantum search algorithm is generalized to deal with an arbitrary mixed initial state. The probability to measure a marked state as a function of time is calculated, and found to depend strongly on the specific initial state. The form of the function, though, remains as it is in the case of initial pure state. We study the role of the von Neumann entropy of the initial state, and show that the entropy cannot be a measure for the usefulness of the algorithm. We give few examples and show that for some extremely mixed initial states (carrying high entropy), the generalized Grover algorithm is considerably faster than any classical algorithm
ETFOD: a point model physics code with arbitrary input
Rothe, K.E.; Attenberger, S.E.
1980-06-01
ETFOD is a zero-dimensional code which solves a set of physics equations by minimization. The technique used is different than normally used, in that the input is arbitrary. The user is supplied with a set of variables from which he specifies which variables are input (unchanging). The remaining variables become the output. Presently the code is being used for ETF reactor design studies. The code was written in a manner to allow easy modificaton of equations, variables, and physics calculations. The solution technique is presented along with hints for using the code
Electrical response of relaxing dielectrics compressed by arbitrary stress pulses
Lysne, P.C.
1983-01-01
The theoretical problem of the electric response of biased dielectrics and piezoelectrics subjected to planar stress pulse loading is considered. The materials are taken to exhibit dielectric relaxation in the sense that changes in the polarization induced by electric fields do not occur instantaneously with changes in the fields. While this paper considers arbitrary stress pulse loading of the specimen, examples that are amenable to projectile impact techniques are considered in detail. They are shock reverberation, thin pulse, and ramp loading experiments. It is anticipated that these experiments will play a role in investigations of dielectric relaxation caused by shock induced damage in insulators
Restriction Theorem for Principal bundles in Arbitrary Characteristic
Gurjar, Sudarshan
2015-01-01
The aim of this paper is to prove two basic restriction theorem for principal bundles on smooth projective varieties in arbitrary characteristic generalizing the analogues theorems of Mehta-Ramanathan for vector bundles. More precisely, let G be a reductive algebraic group over an algebraically...... closed field k and let X be a smooth, projective variety over k together with a very ample line bundle O(1). The main result of the paper is that if E is a semistable (resp. stable) principal G-bundle on X w.r.t O(1), then the restriction of E to a general, high multi-degree, complete-intersection curve...
Evolution in close binary systems
Yungel'son, L.R.; Masevich, A.G.
1983-01-01
Duality is the property most typical of stars. If one investigates how prevalent double stars are, making due allowance for selection effects, one finds that as many as 90 percent of all stars are paired. Contrary to tradition it is single stars that are out of the ordinary, and as will be shown presently even some of these may have been formed by coalescence of the members of binary systems. This review deals with the evolution of close binaries, defined as double-star systems whose evolution entails exchange of material between the two components
Tricoire, Aurélie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Laurent, Brice
This paper examines the role labelling plays in the government of the contemporary economy.1Drawing on a detailed study of BBC-Effinergy, a French label for sustainable construction, we showhow the adoption and evolution of voluntary labels can be seen as emblematic of a governmentthrough experim...
Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.
2001-01-01
Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line
ENERGY DISSIPATION THROUGH QUASI-STATIC TIDES IN WHITE DWARF BINARIES
Willems, B.; Deloye, C. J.; Kalogera, V.
2010-01-01
We present a formalism to study tidal interactions in white dwarf binaries in the limiting case of quasi-static tides, in which the tidal forcing frequencies are small, compared to the inverse of the white dwarf's dynamical timescale. The formalism is valid for arbitrary orbital eccentricities and therefore applicable to white dwarf binaries in the Galactic disk as well as globular clusters. In the quasi-static limit, the total perturbation of the gravitational potential shows a phase shift with respect to the position of the companion, the magnitude of which is determined primarily by the efficiency of energy dissipation through convective damping. We determine rates of secular evolution of the orbital elements and white dwarf rotational angular velocity for a 0.3 M sun helium white dwarf in binaries with orbital frequencies in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) gravitational wave frequency band and companion masses ranging from 0.3 M sun to 10 5 M sun . The resulting tidal evolution timescales for the orbital semimajor axis are longer than a Hubble time, so that convective damping of quasi-static tides need not be considered in the construction of gravitational wave templates of white dwarf binaries in the LISA band. Spin-up of the white dwarf, on the other hand, can occur on timescales of less than 10 Myr, provided that the white dwarf is initially rotating with a frequency much smaller than the orbital frequency. For semi-detached white dwarf binaries spin-up can occur on timescales of less than 1 Myr. Nevertheless, the timescales remain longer than the orbital inspiral timescales due to gravitational radiation, so that the degree of asynchronism in these binaries increases. As a consequence, tidal forcing eventually occurs at forcing frequencies beyond the quasi-static tide approximation. For the shortest period binaries, energy dissipation is therefore expected to take place through dynamic tides and resonantly excited g-modes.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.
Prioritization of arbitrary faces associated to self: An EEG study.
Mateusz Woźniak
Full Text Available Behavioral and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that people process preferentially self-related information such as an image of their own face. Furthermore, people rapidly incorporate stimuli into their self-representation even if these stimuli do not have an intrinsic relation to self. In the present study, we investigated the time course of the processes involved in preferential processing of self-related information. In two EEG experiments three unfamiliar faces were identified with verbal labels as either the participant, a friend, or a stranger. Afterwards, participants judged whether two stimuli presented in succession (ISI = 1500ms matched. In experiment 1, faces were followed by verbal labels and in experiment 2, labels were followed by faces. Both experiments showed the same pattern of behavioral and electrophysiological results. If the first stimulus (face or label was associated with self, reaction times were faster and the late frontal positivity following the first stimulus was more pronounced. The self-association of the second stimulus (label or face did not affect response times. However, the central-parietal P3 following presentation of the second stimulus was more pronounced when the second stimulus was preceded by self-related first stimulus. These results indicate that even unfamiliar faces that are associated to self can activate a self-representation. Once the self-representation has been activated the processing of ensuing stimuli is facilitated, irrespective of whether they are associated with the self.
Mechanics of binary and polydisperse spherical pebble assembly
Annabattula, R.K.; Gan, Y.; Kamlah, M.
2012-01-01
The micromechanical behavior of an assembly of binary and polydisperse spherical pebbles is studied using discrete element method (DEM) accounting for microscopic interactions between individual pebbles. A in-house DEM code has been used to simulate the assemblies consisting of different pebble diameters and the results of the simulations are compared with that of mono-size pebble assemblies. The effect of relative radii and volume fraction of the pebbles on the macroscopic stress–strain response is discussed. Furthermore, the effect of packing factor and coefficient of friction on the overall stress–strain behavior of the system is studied in detail. The shear (tangential) stiffness between the particles is also another influencing parameter. For a very small shear stiffness the system shows a strong dependence on the packing factor while a pebble material dependent shear stiffness shows a rather moderate dependence on the packing factor. For a similar packing factor, the mono-size assembly shows a stiff behavior during loading compared to binary assembly. However, the simulations do not show a significant difference between the two behaviors in contrast to the observations made in the experiments. The discrepancy can be attributed to (i) probable difference in packing factors for mono-size and binary assemblies in the experiments, (ii) arbitrary friction coefficient in the current model and (iii) the tangential interaction (constant shear stiffness) implemented in the present model which needs further modification as a function of the load history on the pebbles. Evolution of other micromechanical characteristics such as coordination number, contact force distribution and stored elastic energy of individual pebbles as a function of external load and system parameters is presented which can be used to estimate important macroscopic properties such as overall thermal conductivity and crushing resistance of the pebble beds.
Mechanics of binary and polydisperse spherical pebble assembly
Annabattula, R.K., E-mail: ratna.annabattula@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WBM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76344, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gan, Y., E-mail: yixiang.gan@sydney.edu.au [School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, 2006 NSW, Sydney (Australia); Kamlah, M., E-mail: marc.kamlah@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WBM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76344, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)
2012-08-15
The micromechanical behavior of an assembly of binary and polydisperse spherical pebbles is studied using discrete element method (DEM) accounting for microscopic interactions between individual pebbles. A in-house DEM code has been used to simulate the assemblies consisting of different pebble diameters and the results of the simulations are compared with that of mono-size pebble assemblies. The effect of relative radii and volume fraction of the pebbles on the macroscopic stress-strain response is discussed. Furthermore, the effect of packing factor and coefficient of friction on the overall stress-strain behavior of the system is studied in detail. The shear (tangential) stiffness between the particles is also another influencing parameter. For a very small shear stiffness the system shows a strong dependence on the packing factor while a pebble material dependent shear stiffness shows a rather moderate dependence on the packing factor. For a similar packing factor, the mono-size assembly shows a stiff behavior during loading compared to binary assembly. However, the simulations do not show a significant difference between the two behaviors in contrast to the observations made in the experiments. The discrepancy can be attributed to (i) probable difference in packing factors for mono-size and binary assemblies in the experiments, (ii) arbitrary friction coefficient in the current model and (iii) the tangential interaction (constant shear stiffness) implemented in the present model which needs further modification as a function of the load history on the pebbles. Evolution of other micromechanical characteristics such as coordination number, contact force distribution and stored elastic energy of individual pebbles as a function of external load and system parameters is presented which can be used to estimate important macroscopic properties such as overall thermal conductivity and crushing resistance of the pebble beds.
Spectroscopy of the Schwarzschild black hole at arbitrary frequencies.
Casals, Marc; Ottewill, Adrian
2012-09-14
Linear field perturbations of a black hole are described by the Green function of the wave equation that they obey. After Fourier decomposing the Green function, its two natural contributions are given by poles (quasinormal modes) and a largely unexplored branch cut in the complex frequency plane. We present new analytic methods for calculating the branch cut on a Schwarzschild black hole for arbitrary values of the frequency. The branch cut yields a power-law tail decay for late times in the response of a black hole to an initial perturbation. We determine explicitly the first three orders in the power-law and show that the branch cut also yields a new logarithmic behavior T(-2ℓ-5)lnT for late times. Before the tail sets in, the quasinormal modes dominate the black hole response. For electromagnetic perturbations, the quasinormal mode frequencies approach the branch cut at large overtone index n. We determine these frequencies up to n(-5/2) and, formally, to arbitrary order. Highly damped quasinormal modes are of particular interest in that they have been linked to quantum properties of black holes.
Duality for massive spin two theories in arbitrary dimensions
Gonzalez, B.; Urrutia, L.F.; Khoudeir, A.; Montemayor, R.
2008-01-01
Using the parent Lagrangian approach we construct a dual formulation, in the sense originally proposed by Curtright and Freund, of a massive spin two Fierz-Pauli theory in arbitrary dimensions D. This is achieved in terms of a mixed symmetry tensor T A[B 1 B 2 ...B D-2 ] , without the need of auxiliary fields. The relation of this method with an alternative formulation based on a gauge symmetry principle proposed by Zinoviev is elucidated. We show that the latter formulation in four dimensions, with a given gauge fixing together with a definite sequence of auxiliary fields elimination via their equations of motion, leads to the parent Lagrangian already considered by West completed by a Fierz-Pauli mass term, which in turns yields the Curtright-Freund action. This motivates our generalization to arbitrary dimensions leading to the corresponding extension of the four dimensional result. We identify the transverse true degrees of freedom of the dual theory and verify that their number is in accordance with those of the massive Fierz-Pauli field.
Vlasov Treatment of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from Arbitrary Planar Orbits
Warnock, R
2004-01-01
We study the influence of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on particle bunches traveling on arbitrary planar orbits between parallel conducting plates. The plates represent shielding due to the vacuum chamber. The vertical distribution of charge is an arbitrary fixed function. Our goal is to follow the time evolution of the phase space distribution by solving the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the time domain. This provides simulations with lower numerical noise than the macroparticle method, and allows one to study such issues as emittance degradation and microbunching due to CSR in bunch compressors. The fields excited by the bunch are computed in the laboratory frame from a new formula that leads to much simpler computations than the usual retarded potentials or Lienard-Wiechert potentials. The nonlinear Vlasov equation, formulated in the interaction picture, is integrated in the beam frame by approximating the Perron-Frobenius operator. The distribution function is represented by B-splines, in a scheme preserving positivity and normalization of the distribution. For application to a chicane bunch compressor we take steps to deal with energy chirp, an initial near-perfect correlation of energy with position in the bunch
Rose, Mike
2008-01-01
As any reader of "About Campus" knows, binary oppositions contribute to the definitions of institutional types--the trade school versus the liberal arts college, for example. They help define disciplines and subdisciplines and the status differentials among them: consider the difference in intellectual cachet as one moves from linguistics to…
Optimally cloned binary coherent states
Mueller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch
2017-01-01
their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal...
Armas Padilla, M.
2013-01-01
The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale
Misclassification in binary choice models
Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas
2017-01-01
Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-07603Y Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016
Misclassification in binary choice models
Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas
2017-01-01
Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016
Zapatrin, R.R.
1992-01-01
Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs
Maximum likelihood pixel labeling using a spatially variant finite mixture model
Gopal, S.S.; Hebert, T.J.
1996-01-01
We propose a spatially-variant mixture model for pixel labeling. Based on this spatially-variant mixture model we derive an expectation maximization algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of the pixel labels. While most algorithms using mixture models entail the subsequent use of a Bayes classifier for pixel labeling, the proposed algorithm yields maximum likelihood estimates of the labels themselves and results in unambiguous pixel labels. The proposed algorithm is fast, robust, easy to implement, flexible in that it can be applied to any arbitrary image data where the number of classes is known and, most importantly, obviates the need for an explicit labeling rule. The algorithm is evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively on simulated data and on clinical magnetic resonance images of the human brain
Astronomy of binary and multiple stars
Tokovinin, A.A.
1984-01-01
Various types of binary stars and methods for their observation are described in a popular form. Some models of formation and evolution of binary and multiple star systems are presented. It is concluded that formation of binary and multiple stars is a regular stage in the process of star production
Coevolution of Binaries and Circumbinary Gaseous Disks
Fleming, David; Quinn, Thomas R.
2018-04-01
The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, and how the disk and binary interact. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disk that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disk. To probe how these interactions impact both binary eccentricity and disk structure evolution, we ran N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 for 10^4 binary orbital periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disk via a parametric instability and excite disk eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk causing eccentricity growth for both the disk and binary. Disks around sufficiently eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk and develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance (EOLR). This wave corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. We find that in all simulations, the binary semi-major axis decays due to dissipation from the viscous disk.
Formation and evolution of compact binaries
Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der
2006-01-01
In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain
Explicit learning of arbitrary and non-arbitrary action-effect relations in adults and 4-year-olds
Stephan Alexander eVerschoor
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Ideomotor theories claim that carrying out a movement that produces a perceivable effect creates a bidirectional association between the two, which can be used by action control processes to retrieve the associated action by anticipating its outcome. Indeed, previous implicit-learning studies have shown that practice renders novel but action-contingent stimuli effective retrieval cues of the action they used to follow, suggesting that experiencing sequences of actions and effects creates bidirectional action-effect associations. We investigated whether action-effect associations are also acquired under explicit-learning conditions and whether familiar action-effect relations (such as between a trumpet and a trumpet sound are learned the same way as novel, arbitrary relations are. We also investigated whether these factors affect adults and 4-year-old children equally. Our findings suggest that explicit learning produces the same bidirectional action-effect associations as implicit learning does, that non-arbitrary relations improve performance without affecting learning per se, and that adults and young children show equivalent performance—apart from the common observation that children have greater difficulty to withstand stimulus-induced action tendencies.
Pulskamp, Jeffrey S; Bedair, Sarah S; Polcawich, Ronald G; Smith, Gabriel L; Martin, Joel; Power, Brian; Bhave, Sunil A
2012-05-01
This paper reports theoretical analysis and experimental results on a numerical electrode shaping design technique that permits the excitation of arbitrary modes in arbitrary geometries for piezoelectric resonators, for those modes permitted to exist by the nonzero piezoelectric coefficients and electrode configuration. The technique directly determines optimal electrode shapes by assessing the local suitability of excitation and detection electrode placement on two-port resonators without the need for iterative numerical techniques. The technique is demonstrated in 61 different electrode designs in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film on silicon RF micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) plate, beam, ring, and disc resonators for out-of-plane flexural and various contour modes up to 200 MHz. The average squared effective electromechanical coupling factor for the designs was 0.54%, approximately equivalent to the theoretical maximum value of 0.53% for a fully electroded length-extensional mode beam resonator comprised of the same composite. The average improvement in S(21) for the electrode-shaped designs was 14.6 dB with a maximum improvement of 44.3 dB. Through this piezoelectric electrodeshaping technique, 95% of the designs showed a reduction in insertion loss.
Binary Linear-Time Erasure Decoding for Non-Binary LDPC codes
Savin, Valentin
2009-01-01
In this paper, we first introduce the extended binary representation of non-binary codes, which corresponds to a covering graph of the bipartite graph associated with the non-binary code. Then we show that non-binary codewords correspond to binary codewords of the extended representation that further satisfy some simplex-constraint: that is, bits lying over the same symbol-node of the non-binary graph must form a codeword of a simplex code. Applied to the binary erasure channel, this descript...
Method of preparing mercury with an arbitrary isotopic distribution
Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.
1986-12-16
This invention provides for a process for preparing mercury with a predetermined, arbitrary, isotopic distribution. In one embodiment, different isotopic types of Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2], corresponding to the predetermined isotopic distribution of Hg desired, are placed in an electrolyte solution of HCl and H[sub 2]O. The resulting mercurous ions are then electrolytically plated onto a cathode wire producing mercury containing the predetermined isotopic distribution. In a similar fashion, Hg with a predetermined isotopic distribution is obtained from different isotopic types of HgO. In this embodiment, the HgO is dissolved in an electrolytic solution of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. The isotopic specific Hg is then electrolytically plated onto a cathode and then recovered. 1 fig.
Ionization waves of arbitrary velocity driven by a flying focus
Palastro, J. P.; Turnbull, D.; Bahk, S.-W.; Follett, R. K.; Shaw, J. L.; Haberberger, D.; Bromage, J.; Froula, D. H.
2018-03-01
A chirped laser pulse focused by a chromatic lens exhibits a dynamic, or flying, focus in which the trajectory of the peak intensity decouples from the group velocity. In a medium, the flying focus can trigger an ionization front that follows this trajectory. By adjusting the chirp, the ionization front can be made to travel at an arbitrary velocity along the optical axis. We present analytical calculations and simulations describing the propagation of the flying focus pulse, the self-similar form of its intensity profile, and ionization wave formation. The ability to control the speed of the ionization wave and, in conjunction, mitigate plasma refraction has the potential to advance several laser-based applications, including Raman amplification, photon acceleration, high-order-harmonic generation, and THz generation.
Towards the classification of conformal field theories in arbitrary dimension
Anselmi, D
2000-01-01
I identify the subclass of higher-dimensional conformal field theories that is most similar to two-dimensional conformal field theory. In this subclass the domain of validity of the recently proposed formula for the irreversibility of the renormalization-group flow is suitably enhanced. The trace anomaly is quadratic in the Ricci tensor and contains a unique central charge. This implies, in particular, a relationship between the coefficient in front of the Euler density (charge a) and the stress-tensor two-point function (charge c). I check the prediction in detail in four, six and eight dimensions, and then in arbitrary dimension. In four and six dimensions there is agreement with results from the AdS/CFT correspondence. A by-product is a mathematical algorithm to construct conformal invariants.
Multivariate η-μ fading distribution with arbitrary correlation model
Ghareeb, Ibrahim; Atiani, Amani
2018-03-01
An extensive analysis for the multivariate ? distribution with arbitrary correlation is presented, where novel analytical expressions for the multivariate probability density function, cumulative distribution function and moment generating function (MGF) of arbitrarily correlated and not necessarily identically distributed ? power random variables are derived. Also, this paper provides exact-form expression for the MGF of the instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio at the combiner output in a diversity reception system with maximal-ratio combining and post-detection equal-gain combining operating in slow frequency nonselective arbitrarily correlated not necessarily identically distributed ?-fading channels. The average bit error probability of differentially detected quadrature phase shift keying signals with post-detection diversity reception system over arbitrarily correlated and not necessarily identical fading parameters ?-fading channels is determined by using the MGF-based approach. The effect of fading correlation between diversity branches, fading severity parameters and diversity level is studied.
Stimulator with arbitrary waveform for auditory evoked potentials
Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J
2007-01-01
The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential
Stimulator with arbitrary waveform for auditory evoked potentials
Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica (DEE), Nucleo de Estudos e Pesquisa em Engenharia Biomedica NEPEB, Av. Ant. Carlos, 6627, sala 2206, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31.270-901 (Brazil)
2007-11-15
The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential.
Perfect transfer of arbitrary states in quantum spin networks
Christandl, Matthias; Kay, Alastair; Datta, Nilanjana; Dorlas, Tony C.; Ekert, Artur; Landahl, Andrew J.
2005-01-01
We propose a class of qubit networks that admit perfect state transfer of any two-dimensional quantum state in a fixed period of time. We further show that such networks can distribute arbitrary entangled states between two distant parties, and can, by using such systems in parallel, transmit the higher-dimensional systems states across the network. Unlike many other schemes for quantum computation and communication, these networks do not require qubit couplings to be switched on and off. When restricted to N-qubit spin networks of identical qubit couplings, we show that 2 log 3 N is the maximal perfect communication distance for hypercube geometries. Moreover, if one allows fixed but different couplings between the qubits then perfect state transfer can be achieved over arbitrarily long distances in a linear chain. This paper expands and extends the work done by Christandl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 187902 (2004)
Faithful teleportation with arbitrary pure or mixed resource states
Zhao Mingjing; Fei Shaoming; Wang Zhixi [School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Li Zongguo [College of Science, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Lijost Xianqing, E-mail: zhaomingjingde@126.com [Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)
2011-05-27
We study faithful teleportation systematically with arbitrary entangled states as resources. The necessary conditions of mixed states to complete perfect teleportation are proved. Based on these results, the necessary and sufficient conditions of faithful teleportation of an unknown state |{phi}) in C{sup d} with an entangled resource {rho} in C{sup m} otimes C{sup d} and C{sup d} otimes C{sup n} are derived. It is shown that for {rho} in C{sup m} otimes C{sup d}, {rho} must be a maximally entangled state, while for {rho} in C{sup d} otimes C{sup n}, {rho} must be a pure maximally entangled state. Moreover, we show that the sender's measurements must be all projectors of maximally entangled pure states. The relations between the entanglement of the formation of the resource states and faithful teleportation are also discussed.
Fatigue life of drilling bit bearings under arbitrary random loads
Talimi, M.; Farshidi, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)
2009-07-01
A fatigue analysis was conducted in order to estimate the bearing life of a roller cone rock bit under arbitrary random loads. The aim of the study was to reduce bearing failures that can interrupt well operations. Fatigue was considered as the main reason for bearing failure. The expected value of cumulative fatigue damage was used to estimate bearing life. An equation was used to express the relation between bearing life and bearing load when the bearing was subjected to a steady load and constant speed. The Palmgren-Miner hypothesis was used to determine the ultimate tensile strength of the material. The rain flow counting principle was used to determine distinct amplitude cycles. Hertzian equations were used to determine maximum stress loads. Fourier series were used to obtain simple harmonic functions for estimating stress-life relations. It was concluded that the method can be used during the well planning phase to prevent bearing failures. 6 refs.
Optimal Black-Box Secret Sharing over Arbitrary Abelian Groups
Cramer, Ronald; Fehr, Serge
2002-01-01
A black-box secret sharing scheme for the threshold access structure T t,n is one which works over any finite Abelian group G. Briefly, such a scheme differs from an ordinary linear secret sharing scheme (over, say, a given finite field) in that distribution matrix and reconstruction vectors...... are defined over ℤ and are designed independently of the group G from which the secret and the shares are sampled. This means that perfect completeness and perfect privacy are guaranteed regardless of which group G is chosen. We define the black-box secret sharing problem as the problem of devising......, for an arbitrary given T t,n , a scheme with minimal expansion factor, i.e., where the length of the full vector of shares divided by the number of players n is minimal. Such schemes are relevant for instance in the context of distributed cryptosystems based on groups with secret or hard to compute group order...
Generalized massive gravity in arbitrary dimensions and its Hamiltonian formulation
Huang, Qing-Guo; Zhang, Ke-Chao; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2013-01-01
We extend the four-dimensional de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity model to a general scalar massive-tensor theory in arbitrary dimensions, coupling a dRGT massive graviton to multiple scalars and allowing for generic kinetic and mass matrix mixing between the massive graviton and the scalars, and derive its Hamiltonian formulation and associated constraint system. When passing to the Hamiltonian formulation, two different sectors arise: a general sector and a special sector. Although obtained via different ways, there are two second class constraints in either of the two sectors, eliminating the BD ghost. However, for the special sector, there are still ghost instabilities except for the case of two dimensions. In particular, for the special sector with one scalar, there is a ''second BD ghost''
Classically exact surface diffusion constants at arbitrary temperature
Voter, A.F.; Cohen, J.M.
1989-01-01
An expression is presented for computing the classical diffusion constant of a point defect (e.g., an adatom) in an infinite lattice of binding sites at arbitrary temperature. The transition state theory diffusion constant is simply multiplied by a dynamical correction factor that is computed from short-time classical trajectories initiated at the site boundaries. The time scale limitations of direct molecular dynamics are thus avoided in the low- and middle-temperature regimes. The expression results from taking the time derivative of the particle mean-square displacement in the lattice-discretized coordinate system. Applications are presented for surface diffusion on fcc(100) and fcc(111) Lennard-Jones crystal faces
The differential equation of an arbitrary reflecting surface
Melka, Richard F.; Berrettini, Vincent D.; Yousif, Hashim A.
2018-05-01
A differential equation describing the reflection of a light ray incident upon an arbitrary reflecting surface is obtained using the law of reflection. The derived equation is written in terms of a parameter and the value of this parameter determines the nature of the reflecting surface. Under various parametric constraints, the solution of the differential equation leads to the various conic surfaces but is not generally solvable. In addition, the dynamics of the light reflections from the conic surfaces are executed in the Mathematica software. Our derivation is the converse of the traditional approach and our analysis assumes a relation between the object distance and the image distance. This leads to the differential equation of the reflecting surface.
Broadband computation of the scattering coefficients of infinite arbitrary cylinders.
Blanchard, Cédric; Guizal, Brahim; Felbacq, Didier
2012-07-01
We employ a time-domain method to compute the near field on a contour enclosing infinitely long cylinders of arbitrary cross section and constitution. We therefore recover the cylindrical Hankel coefficients of the expansion of the field outside the circumscribed circle of the structure. The recovered coefficients enable the wideband analysis of complex systems, e.g., the determination of the radar cross section becomes straightforward. The prescription for constructing such a numerical tool is provided in great detail. The method is validated by computing the scattering coefficients for a homogeneous circular cylinder illuminated by a plane wave, a problem for which an analytical solution exists. Finally, some radiation properties of an optical antenna are examined by employing the proposed technique.
COSY INFINITY, a new arbitrary order optics code
Berz, M.
1990-01-01
The new arbitrary order particle optics and beam dynamics code COSY INFINITY is presented. The code is based on differential algebraic (DA) methods. COSY INFINITY has a full structured object oriented language environment. This provides a simple interface for the casual or novice user. At the same time, it offers the advanced user a very flexible and powerful tool for the utilization of DA. The power and generality of the environment is perhaps best demonstrated by the fact that the physics routines of COSY INFINITY are written in its own input language. The approach also facilitates the implementation of new features because special code generated by a user can be readily adopted to the source code. Besides being very compact in size, the code is also very fast, thanks to efficiently programmed elementary DA operations. For simple low order problems, which can be handled by conventional codes, the speed of COSY INFINITY is comparable and in certain cases even higher
Khovanov homology for virtual knots with arbitrary coefficients
Manturov, Vassily O
2007-01-01
The Khovanov homology theory over an arbitrary coefficient ring is extended to the case of virtual knots. We introduce a complex which is well-defined in the virtual case and is homotopy equivalent to the original Khovanov complex in the classical case. Unlike Khovanov's original construction, our definition of the complex does not use any additional prescription of signs to the edges of a cube. Moreover, our method enables us to construct a Khovanov homology theory for 'twisted virtual knots' in the sense of Bourgoin and Viro (including knots in three-dimensional projective space). We generalize a number of results of Khovanov homology theory (the Wehrli complex, minimality problems, Frobenius extensions) to virtual knots with non-orientable atoms
Arbitrary function generator for APS injector synchrotron correction magnets
Despe, O.D.
1991-01-01
The APS injector synchrotron has eighty correction magnets around its circumference to provide the vernier field changes required for beam orbit correction during acceleration. The arbitrary function generator (AFG) design is based on scanning out encoded data from a semi-conductor memory, a first-in-first-out (FIFO) device. The data input consists of a maximum of 20 correction values specified within the acceleration window. Additional points between these values are then linearly interpolated to create a uniformly spaced 1000 data-point function stored in the FIFO. Each point, encoded as a 3-bit value is scanned out in synchronism with the injection pulse and used to clock the up/down counter driving the DAC. The DAC produces the analog reference voltage used to control the magnet current. 1 ref., 4 figs
Surface acoustic wave micromotor with arbitrary axis rotational capability
Tjeung, Ricky T.; Hughes, Mark S.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.
2011-11-01
A surface acoustic wave (SAW) actuated rotary motor is reported here, consisting of a millimeter-sized spherical metal rotor placed on the surface of a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric substrate upon which the SAW is made to propagate. At the design frequency of 3.2 MHz and with a fixed preload of 41.1 μN, the maximum rotational speed and torque achieved were approximately 1900 rpm and 5.37 μN-mm, respectively, producing a maximum output power of 1.19 μW. The surface vibrations were visualized using laser Doppler vibrometry and indicate that the rotational motion arises due to retrograde elliptical motions of the piezoelectric surface elements. Rotation about orthogonal axes in the plane of the substrate has been obtained by using orthogonally placed interdigital electrodes on the substrate to generate SAW impinging on the rotor, offering a means to generate rotation about an arbitrary axis in the plane of the substrate.
Electron with arbitrary pseudo-spins in multilayer graphene
Prarokijjak Worasak; Soodchomshom Bumned
2015-01-01
Using the low-energy effective Hamiltonian of the ABC-stacked multilayer graphene, the pseudo-spin coupling to real orbital angular momentum of electrons in multilayer graphene is investigated. We show that the electron wave function in N-layer graphene mimics the behavior of a particle with a spin of N × (ħ/2), where N = {1, 2, 3,…}. It is said that for N > 1 the low-energy effective Hamiltonian for ABC-stacked graphene cannot be used to describe pseudo-spin-1/2 particles. The wave function of electrons in multilayer graphene may behave like fermionic (or bosonic) particle for N being odd (or even). In this paper, we propose a theory of graphene serving as a host material of electrons with arbitrary pseudo-spins tunable by changing the number of graphene layers. (paper)
Universal Quantum Computing with Arbitrary Continuous-Variable Encoding.
Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B
2016-09-02
Implementing a qubit quantum computer in continuous-variable systems conventionally requires the engineering of specific interactions according to the encoding basis states. In this work, we present a unified formalism to conduct universal quantum computation with a fixed set of operations but arbitrary encoding. By storing a qubit in the parity of two or four qumodes, all computing processes can be implemented by basis state preparations, continuous-variable exponential-swap operations, and swap tests. Our formalism inherits the advantages that the quantum information is decoupled from collective noise, and logical qubits with different encodings can be brought to interact without decoding. We also propose a possible implementation of the required operations by using interactions that are available in a variety of continuous-variable systems. Our work separates the "hardware" problem of engineering quantum-computing-universal interactions, from the "software" problem of designing encodings for specific purposes. The development of quantum computer architecture could hence be simplified.
Electron with arbitrary pseudo-spins in multilayer graphene
Worasak Prarokijjak; Bumned Soodchomshom
2015-01-01
Using the low-energy effective Hamiltonian of the ABC-stacked multilayer graphene, the pseudo-spin coupling to real orbital angular momentum of electrons in multilayer graphene is investigated. We show that the electron wave function in N-layer graphene mimics the behavior of a particle with a spin of N × (}/2), where N={1, 2, 3, . . .}. It is said that for N>1 the low-energy effective Hamiltonian for ABC-stacked graphene cannot be used to describe pseudo-spin-1/2 particles. The wave function of electrons in multilayer graphene may behave like fermionic (or bosonic) particle for N being odd (or even). In this paper, we propose a theory of graphene serving as a host material of electrons with arbitrary pseudo-spins tunable by changing the number of graphene layers.
Efficient scheme for parametric fitting of data in arbitrary dimensions.
Pang, Ning-Ning; Tzeng, Wen-Jer; Kao, Hisen-Ching
2008-07-01
We propose an efficient scheme for parametric fitting expressed in terms of the Legendre polynomials. For continuous systems, our scheme is exact and the derived explicit expression is very helpful for further analytical studies. For discrete systems, our scheme is almost as accurate as the method of singular value decomposition. Through a few numerical examples, we show that our algorithm costs much less CPU time and memory space than the method of singular value decomposition. Thus, our algorithm is very suitable for a large amount of data fitting. In addition, the proposed scheme can also be used to extract the global structure of fluctuating systems. We then derive the exact relation between the correlation function and the detrended variance function of fluctuating systems in arbitrary dimensions and give a general scaling analysis.
Vlasov treatment of coherent synchrotron radiation from arbitrary planar orbits
Warnock, R.; Bassi, G.; Ellison, J.A.
2006-01-01
We study the influence of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on particle bunches traveling on arbitrary planar orbits between parallel conducting plates which represent the vacuum chamber. Our goal is to follow the time evolution of the phase space distribution by solving the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the time domain. This should provide simulations with lower numerical noise than the macro-particle method, and allow one to study such issues as emittance degradation and microbunching due to CSR in bunch compressors. The fields excited by the bunch are computed in the laboratory frame from a new formula that leads to much simpler computations than usual methods. The nonlinear Vlasov equation, formulated in the interaction picture, is integrated in the beam frame by approximating the Perron-Frobenius operator. For application to a chicane bunch compressor we take steps to deal with energy chirp
Exact results for Wilson loops in arbitrary representations
Fiol, Bartomeu; Torrents, Genís [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)
2014-01-08
We compute the exact vacuum expectation value of 1/2 BPS circular Wilson loops of N=4 U(N) super Yang-Mills in arbitrary irreducible representations. By localization arguments, the computation reduces to evaluating certain integrals in a Gaussian matrix model, which we do using the method of orthogonal polynomials. Our results are particularly simple for Wilson loops in antisymmetric representations; in this case, we observe that the final answers admit an expansion where the coefficients are positive integers, and can be written in terms of sums over skew Young diagrams. As an application of our results, we use them to discuss the exact Bremsstrahlung functions associated to the corresponding heavy probes.
Photonic arbitrary waveform generation applicable to multiband UWB communications.
Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José
2010-12-06
A novel photonic structure for arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) is proposed based on the electrooptical intensity modulation of a broadband optical signal which is transmitted by a dispersive element and the optoelectrical processing is realized by combining an interferometric structure with balanced photodetection. The generated waveform can be fully reconfigured through the control of the optical source power spectrum and the interferometric structure. The use of balanced photodetection permits to remove the baseband component of the generated signal which is relevant in certain applications. We have theoretically described and experimentally demonstrated the feasibility of the system by means of the generation of different pulse shapes. Specifically, the proposed structure has been applicable to generate Multiband UWB signaling formats regarding to the FCC requirements in order to show the flexibility of the system.
Modelling magnetic laminations under arbitrary starting state and flux waveform
Bottauscio, Oriano; Chiampi, Mario; Ragusa, Carlo
2005-01-01
A numerical model able to predict the behaviour of a magnetic sheet under arbitrary supply conditions has been developed. The electromagnetic field problem is formulated in terms of an electric vector potential, which provides the magnetic field strength evolution. The hysteretic behaviour of the material is represented through the dynamic Preisach model where the activation law of the bi-state operators is modified in order to guarantee a smooth response. The problem has been solved through a time step procedure using the fixed Point technique for handling nonlinearity. The model has been validated by comparison with suitable experiments and it is applied to the investigation of the influence of the materials' starting state on the magnetic behaviour
Arbitrary digital pulse sequence generator with delay-loop timing
Hošák, Radim; Ježek, Miroslav
2018-04-01
We propose an idea of an electronic multi-channel arbitrary digital sequence generator with temporal granularity equal to two clock cycles. We implement the generator with 32 channels using a low-cost ARM microcontroller and demonstrate its capability to produce temporal delays ranging from tens of nanoseconds to hundreds of seconds, with 24 ns timing granularity and linear scaling of delay with respect to the number of delay loop iterations. The generator is optionally synchronized with an external clock source to provide 100 ps jitter and overall sequence repeatability within the whole temporal range. The generator is fully programmable and able to produce digital sequences of high complexity. The concept of the generator can be implemented using different microcontrollers and applied for controlling of various optical, atomic, and nuclear physics measurement setups.
Faithful teleportation with arbitrary pure or mixed resource states
Zhao Mingjing; Fei Shaoming; Wang Zhixi; Li Zongguo; Lijost Xianqing
2011-01-01
We study faithful teleportation systematically with arbitrary entangled states as resources. The necessary conditions of mixed states to complete perfect teleportation are proved. Based on these results, the necessary and sufficient conditions of faithful teleportation of an unknown state |φ) in C d with an entangled resource ρ in C m otimes C d and C d otimes C n are derived. It is shown that for ρ in C m otimes C d , ρ must be a maximally entangled state, while for ρ in C d otimes C n , ρ must be a pure maximally entangled state. Moreover, we show that the sender's measurements must be all projectors of maximally entangled pure states. The relations between the entanglement of the formation of the resource states and faithful teleportation are also discussed.
Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size
Lakatos, G
2003-01-01
The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or ...
Contextually in a Peres—Mermin square using arbitrary operators
Laversanne-Finot, A; Ketterer, A; Coudreau, T; Milman, P; Barros, M R; Walborn, S P; Keller, A
2016-01-01
The contextuality of quantum mechanics can be shown by the violation of inequalities based on measurements of well chosen observables. These inequalities have been designed separately for both discrete and continuous variables. Here we unify both strategies by introducing general conditions to demonstrate the contextuality of quantum mechanics from measurements of observables of arbitrary dimensions. Among the consequences of our results is the impossibility of having a maximal violation of contextuality in the Peres-Mermin scenario with discrete observables of odd dimensions. In addition, we show how to construct a large class of observables with a continuous spectrum enabling the realization of contextuality tests both in the Gaussian and non-Gaussian regimes. (paper)
Compound words prompt arbitrary semantic associations in conceptual memory
Bastien eBoutonnet
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Linguistic relativity theory has received empirical support in domains such as colour perception and object categorisation. It is unknown however, whether relations between words idiosyncratic to language impact nonverbal representations and conceptualisations. For instance, would one consider the concepts of horse and sea as related were it not for the existence of the compound seahorse? Here, we investigated such arbitrary conceptual relationships using a non-linguistic picture relatedness task in participants undergoing event-related brain potential recordings. Picture pairs arbitrarily related because of a compound and presented in the compound order elicited N400 amplitudes similar to unrelated pairs. Surprisingly, however, pictures presented in the reverse order (as in the sequence horse – sea reduced N400 amplitudes significantly, demonstrating the existence of a link in memory between these two concepts otherwise unrelated. These results break new ground in the domain of linguistic relativity by revealing predicted semantic associations driven by lexical relations intrinsic to language.
Detecting Malicious Code by Binary File Checking
Marius POPA
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The object, library and executable code is stored in binary files. Functionality of a binary file is altered when its content or program source code is changed, causing undesired effects. A direct content change is possible when the intruder knows the structural information of the binary file. The paper describes the structural properties of the binary object files, how the content can be controlled by a possible intruder and what the ways to identify malicious code in such kind of files. Because the object files are inputs in linking processes, early detection of the malicious content is crucial to avoid infection of the binary executable files.
Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences
Lingfeng Liu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.
SAMBA: Sparse Approximation of Moment-Based Arbitrary Polynomial Chaos
Ahlfeld, R., E-mail: r.ahlfeld14@imperial.ac.uk; Belkouchi, B.; Montomoli, F.
2016-09-01
A new arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC) method is presented for moderately high-dimensional problems characterised by limited input data availability. The proposed methodology improves the algorithm of aPC and extends the method, that was previously only introduced as tensor product expansion, to moderately high-dimensional stochastic problems. The fundamental idea of aPC is to use the statistical moments of the input random variables to develop the polynomial chaos expansion. This approach provides the possibility to propagate continuous or discrete probability density functions and also histograms (data sets) as long as their moments exist, are finite and the determinant of the moment matrix is strictly positive. For cases with limited data availability, this approach avoids bias and fitting errors caused by wrong assumptions. In this work, an alternative way to calculate the aPC is suggested, which provides the optimal polynomials, Gaussian quadrature collocation points and weights from the moments using only a handful of matrix operations on the Hankel matrix of moments. It can therefore be implemented without requiring prior knowledge about statistical data analysis or a detailed understanding of the mathematics of polynomial chaos expansions. The extension to more input variables suggested in this work, is an anisotropic and adaptive version of Smolyak's algorithm that is solely based on the moments of the input probability distributions. It is referred to as SAMBA (PC), which is short for Sparse Approximation of Moment-Based Arbitrary Polynomial Chaos. It is illustrated that for moderately high-dimensional problems (up to 20 different input variables or histograms) SAMBA can significantly simplify the calculation of sparse Gaussian quadrature rules. SAMBA's efficiency for multivariate functions with regard to data availability is further demonstrated by analysing higher order convergence and accuracy for a set of nonlinear test functions with 2, 5
Universal sequence map (USM of arbitrary discrete sequences
Almeida Jonas S
2002-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background For over a decade the idea of representing biological sequences in a continuous coordinate space has maintained its appeal but not been fully realized. The basic idea is that any sequence of symbols may define trajectories in the continuous space conserving all its statistical properties. Ideally, such a representation would allow scale independent sequence analysis – without the context of fixed memory length. A simple example would consist on being able to infer the homology between two sequences solely by comparing the coordinates of any two homologous units. Results We have successfully identified such an iterative function for bijective mappingψ of discrete sequences into objects of continuous state space that enable scale-independent sequence analysis. The technique, named Universal Sequence Mapping (USM, is applicable to sequences with an arbitrary length and arbitrary number of unique units and generates a representation where map distance estimates sequence similarity. The novel USM procedure is based on earlier work by these and other authors on the properties of Chaos Game Representation (CGR. The latter enables the representation of 4 unit type sequences (like DNA as an order free Markov Chain transition table. The properties of USM are illustrated with test data and can be verified for other data by using the accompanying web-based tool:http://bioinformatics.musc.edu/~jonas/usm/. Conclusions USM is shown to enable a statistical mechanics approach to sequence analysis. The scale independent representation frees sequence analysis from the need to assume a memory length in the investigation of syntactic rules.
SAMBA: Sparse Approximation of Moment-Based Arbitrary Polynomial Chaos
Ahlfeld, R.; Belkouchi, B.; Montomoli, F.
2016-01-01
A new arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC) method is presented for moderately high-dimensional problems characterised by limited input data availability. The proposed methodology improves the algorithm of aPC and extends the method, that was previously only introduced as tensor product expansion, to moderately high-dimensional stochastic problems. The fundamental idea of aPC is to use the statistical moments of the input random variables to develop the polynomial chaos expansion. This approach provides the possibility to propagate continuous or discrete probability density functions and also histograms (data sets) as long as their moments exist, are finite and the determinant of the moment matrix is strictly positive. For cases with limited data availability, this approach avoids bias and fitting errors caused by wrong assumptions. In this work, an alternative way to calculate the aPC is suggested, which provides the optimal polynomials, Gaussian quadrature collocation points and weights from the moments using only a handful of matrix operations on the Hankel matrix of moments. It can therefore be implemented without requiring prior knowledge about statistical data analysis or a detailed understanding of the mathematics of polynomial chaos expansions. The extension to more input variables suggested in this work, is an anisotropic and adaptive version of Smolyak's algorithm that is solely based on the moments of the input probability distributions. It is referred to as SAMBA (PC), which is short for Sparse Approximation of Moment-Based Arbitrary Polynomial Chaos. It is illustrated that for moderately high-dimensional problems (up to 20 different input variables or histograms) SAMBA can significantly simplify the calculation of sparse Gaussian quadrature rules. SAMBA's efficiency for multivariate functions with regard to data availability is further demonstrated by analysing higher order convergence and accuracy for a set of nonlinear test functions with 2, 5 and 10
A ROSAT Survey of Contact Binary Stars
Geske, M. T.; Gettel, S. J.; McKay, T. A.
2006-01-01
Contact binary stars are common variable stars that are all believed to emit relatively large fluxes of X-rays. In this work we combine a large new sample of contact binary stars derived from the ROTSE-I telescope with X-ray data from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) to estimate the X-ray volume emissivity of contact binary stars in the Galaxy. We obtained X-ray fluxes for 140 contact binaries from the RASS, as well as two additional stars observed by the XMM-Newton observatory. From these data we confirm the emission of X-rays from all contact binary systems, with typical luminosities of approximately 1.0×1030 ergs s-1. Combining calculated luminosities with an estimated contact binary space density, we find that contact binaries do not have strong enough X-ray emission to account for a significant portion of the Galactic X-ray background.
Labelling of equipment dispensers.
Gray, D C
1993-01-01
A new labelling system for use on medical equipment dispensers is tested. This system uses one of the objects stored in each unit of the dispenser as the 'label', by attaching it to the front of the dispenser with tape. The new system was compared to conventional written labelling by timing subjects asked to select items from two dispensers. The new system was 27% quicker than the conventional system. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8110335
Deuterium labeled cannabinoids
Driessen, R.A.
1979-01-01
Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)
Rieger, J.T.; Bryce, R.W.
1990-01-01
Ground-water samples collected for hazardous-waste and radiological monitoring have come under strict regulatory and quality assurance requirements as a result of laws such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To comply with these laws, the labeling system used to identify environmental samples had to be upgraded to ensure proper handling and to protect collection personnel from exposure to sample contaminants and sample preservatives. The sample label now used as the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is a complete sample document. In the event other paperwork on a labeled sample were lost, the necessary information could be found on the label
Binary evolution and observational constraints
Loore, C. de
1984-01-01
The evolution of close binaries is discussed in connection with problems concerning mass and angular momentum losses. Theoretical and observational evidence for outflow of matter, leaving the system during evolution is given: statistics on total masses and mass ratios, effects of the accretion of the mass gaining component, the presence of streams, disks, rings, circumstellar envelopes, period changes, abundance changes in the atmosphere. The effects of outflowing matter on the evolution is outlined, and estimates of the fraction of matter expelled by the loser, and leaving the system, are given. The various time scales involved with evolution and observation are compared. Examples of non conservative evolution are discussed. Problems related to contact phases, on mass and energy losses, in connection with entropy changes are briefly analysed. For advanced stages the disruption probabilities for supernova explosions are examined. A global picture is given for the evolution of massive close binaries, from ZAMS, through WR phases, X-ray phases, leading to runaway pulsars or to a binary pulsar and later to a millisecond pulsar. (Auth.)
Apparao, K.M.V.
1977-01-01
Reference is made to the radio binary systems CC Cas, AR Lac, β Per (Algol), β Lyr, b Per and Cyg X-1. It is stated that a thermal interpretation of the radiation from Algol requires a much larger x-ray flux than the observed value of 3.8 x 10 -11 erg/cm 2 /sec/keV in the 2 to 6 keV energy range. Observations of some non-thermal flares, together with the small size of the radio source in Algol, indicate that the radio emission is non-thermal in nature. The radio emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation and it is suggested that the observed x-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the light of the primary star by the radio electrons. The x-ray emission from other radio binaries is also calculated using this model. The energy for the radio electrons can arise from annihilation of magnetic lines connecting the binary stars, twisted by the rotation of the stars. (U.K.)
A novel measuring method for arbitrary optical vortex by three spiral spectra
Ni, Bo [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guo, Lana [School of Electronics and Information, Guangdong Polytechnic Normal University, Guangzhou 510665 (China); Yue, Chengfeng [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, Zhilie, E-mail: tangzhl@scnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)
2017-02-26
In this letter, the topological charge of non-integer vortices determined by three arbitrary spiral spectra is theoretically demonstrated for the first time. Based on the conclusion, a novel method to measure non-integer vortices is presented. This method is applicable not only to arbitrary non-integer vortex but also to arbitrary integer vortex. - Highlights: • Different non-integer vortices cannot have three spiral spectra is demonstrated. • Relationship between the non-integer topological charge and the spiral spectra is presented. • Topological charge of non-integer vortices can be determined by three arbitrary spiral spectra.
Visual search for arbitrary objects in real scenes
Alvarez, George A.; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Kuzmova, Yoana I.; Sherman, Ashley M.
2011-01-01
How efficient is visual search in real scenes? In searches for targets among arrays of randomly placed distractors, efficiency is often indexed by the slope of the reaction time (RT) × Set Size function. However, it may be impossible to define set size for real scenes. As an approximation, we hand-labeled 100 indoor scenes and used the number of labeled regions as a surrogate for set size. In Experiment 1, observers searched for named objects (a chair, bowl, etc.). With set size defined as the number of labeled regions, search was very efficient (~5 ms/item). When we controlled for a possible guessing strategy in Experiment 2, slopes increased somewhat (~15 ms/item), but they were much shallower than search for a random object among other distinctive objects outside of a scene setting (Exp. 3: ~40 ms/item). In Experiments 4–6, observers searched repeatedly through the same scene for different objects. Increased familiarity with scenes had modest effects on RTs, while repetition of target items had large effects (>500 ms). We propose that visual search in scenes is efficient because scene-specific forms of attentional guidance can eliminate most regions from the “functional set size” of items that could possibly be the target. PMID:21671156
Visual search for arbitrary objects in real scenes.
Wolfe, Jeremy M; Alvarez, George A; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Kuzmova, Yoana I; Sherman, Ashley M
2011-08-01
How efficient is visual search in real scenes? In searches for targets among arrays of randomly placed distractors, efficiency is often indexed by the slope of the reaction time (RT) × Set Size function. However, it may be impossible to define set size for real scenes. As an approximation, we hand-labeled 100 indoor scenes and used the number of labeled regions as a surrogate for set size. In Experiment 1, observers searched for named objects (a chair, bowl, etc.). With set size defined as the number of labeled regions, search was very efficient (~5 ms/item). When we controlled for a possible guessing strategy in Experiment 2, slopes increased somewhat (~15 ms/item), but they were much shallower than search for a random object among other distinctive objects outside of a scene setting (Exp. 3: ~40 ms/item). In Experiments 4-6, observers searched repeatedly through the same scene for different objects. Increased familiarity with scenes had modest effects on RTs, while repetition of target items had large effects (>500 ms). We propose that visual search in scenes is efficient because scene-specific forms of attentional guidance can eliminate most regions from the "functional set size" of items that could possibly be the target.
Been, Ken; Daiches, Eli; Yap, Chee
2006-01-01
We address the problem of filtering, selecting and placing labels on a dynamic map, which is characterized by continuous zooming and panning capabilities. This consists of two interrelated issues. The first is to avoid label popping and other artifacts that cause confusion and interrupt navigation, and the second is to label at interactive speed. In most formulations the static map labeling problem is NP-hard, and a fast approximation might have O(nlogn) complexity. Even this is too slow during interaction, when the number of labels shown can be several orders of magnitude less than the number in the map. In this paper we introduce a set of desiderata for "consistent" dynamic map labeling, which has qualities desirable for navigation. We develop a new framework for dynamic labeling that achieves the desiderata and allows for fast interactive display by moving all of the selection and placement decisions into the preprocessing phase. This framework is general enough to accommodate a variety of selection and placement algorithms. It does not appear possible to achieve our desiderata using previous frameworks. Prior to this paper, there were no formal models of dynamic maps or of dynamic labels; our paper introduces both. We formulate a general optimization problem for dynamic map labeling and give a solution to a simple version of the problem. The simple version is based on label priorities and a versatile and intuitive class of dynamic label placements we call "invariant point placements". Despite these restrictions, our approach gives a useful and practical solution. Our implementation is incorporated into the G-Vis system which is a full-detail dynamic map of the continental USA. This demo is available through any browser.
GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE
Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Khan, Fazeel Mahmood, E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu [Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad (Pakistan)
2015-09-10
Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy.
GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE
Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Khan, Fazeel Mahmood
2015-01-01
Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy
Laura Bix
Full Text Available Effective standardization of medical device labels requires objective study of varied designs. Insufficient empirical evidence exists regarding how practitioners utilize and view labeling.Measure the effect of graphic elements (boxing information, grouping information, symbol use and color-coding to optimize a label for comparison with those typical of commercial medical devices.Participants viewed 54 trials on a computer screen. Trials were comprised of two labels that were identical with regard to graphics, but differed in one aspect of information (e.g., one had latex, the other did not. Participants were instructed to select the label along a given criteria (e.g., latex containing as quickly as possible. Dependent variables were binary (correct selection and continuous (time to correct selection.Eighty-nine healthcare professionals were recruited at Association of Surgical Technologists (AST conferences, and using a targeted e-mail of AST members.Symbol presence, color coding and grouping critical pieces of information all significantly improved selection rates and sped time to correct selection (α = 0.05. Conversely, when critical information was graphically boxed, probability of correct selection and time to selection were impaired (α = 0.05. Subsequently, responses from trials containing optimal treatments (color coded, critical information grouped with symbols were compared to two labels created based on a review of those commercially available. Optimal labels yielded a significant positive benefit regarding the probability of correct choice ((P<0.0001 LSM; UCL, LCL: 97.3%; 98.4%, 95.5%, as compared to the two labels we created based on commercial designs (92.0%; 94.7%, 87.9% and 89.8%; 93.0%, 85.3% and time to selection.Our study provides data regarding design factors, namely: color coding, symbol use and grouping of critical information that can be used to significantly enhance the performance of medical device labels.
Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini
2016-03-01
A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ) with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR), cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP) and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM) were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solution crystallization. The heterosynthons in the binary cocrystals of ACZ with these coformers suggested a ternary combination for ACZ with pyridone and nicotinamide. Novel supramolecular synthons of ACZ with lactams and pyridine carboxamides are reported together with binary and ternary cocrystals for a sulfonamide drug. This crystal engineering study resulted in the first ternary cocrystal of acetazolamide with amide coformers, ACZ-NAM-2HP (1:1:1).
Geetha Bolla
2016-03-01
Full Text Available A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR, cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solution crystallization. The heterosynthons in the binary cocrystals of ACZ with these coformers suggested a ternary combination for ACZ with pyridone and nicotinamide. Novel supramolecular synthons of ACZ with lactams and pyridine carboxamides are reported together with binary and ternary cocrystals for a sulfonamide drug. This crystal engineering study resulted in the first ternary cocrystal of acetazolamide with amide coformers, ACZ–NAM–2HP (1:1:1.
Stable isotopes labelled compounds
1982-09-01
The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme
Josephson effect in SIFS junctions at arbitrary scattering
Pugach, N. G.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.; Goldobin, E.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.
2011-01-01
Full text: The interplay between dirty and clean limits in Superconductor-Ferromagnet-Superconductor (SFS) Josephson junctions is a subject of intensive theoretical studies. SIFS junctions, containing an additional insulator (I) barrier are interesting as potential logic elements in superconducting circuits, since their critical current I c can be tuned over a wide range, still keeping a high I c R N product, where R N is the normal resistance of the junction. They are also a convenient model system for a comparative study of the 0-π transitions for arbitrary relations between characteristic lengths of the F-layer: the layer thickness d, the mean free path l, the magnetic length ξ H =v F /2H, and the nonmagnetic coherence length ξ 0 =v F /2πT, where v F is the Fermi velocity, H is the exchange magnetic energy, and T is the temperature. The spatial variations of the order parameter are described by the complex coherent length in the ferromagnet ξ F -1 = ξ 1 -1 + iξ 2 -1 . It is well known, that in the dirty limit (l 1,2 ) described by the Usadel equations both ξ 1 2 = ξ 2 2 = v F l/3H. In this work the spatial distribution of the anomalous Green's functions and the Josephson current in the SIFS junction are calculated. The linearized Eilenberger equations are solved together with the Zaitsev boundary conditions. This allows comparing the dirty and the clean limits, investigating a moderate disorder, and establishing the applicability limits of the Usadel equations for such structures. We demonstrate that for an arbitrary relation between l, ξ H , and d the spatial distribution of the anomalous Green's function can be approximated by a single exponent with reasonable accuracy, and we find its effective decay length and oscillation period for several values of ξ H , l and d. The role of different types of the FS interface is analyzed. The applicability range of the Usadel equation is established. The results of calculations have been applied to the
Geometrical critical phenomena on a random surface of arbitrary genus
Duplantier, B.; Kostov, I.K.
1990-01-01
The statistical mechanics of self-avoiding walks (SAW) or of the O(n)-loop model on a two-dimensional random surface are shown to be exactly solvable. The partition functions of SAW and surface configurations (possibly in the presence of vacuum loops) are calculated by planar diagram enumeration techniques. Two critical regimes are found: a dense phase where the infinite walks and loops fill the infinite surface, the non-filled part staying finite, and a dilute phase where the infinite surface singularity on the one hand, and walk and loop singularities on the other, merge together. The configuration critical exponents of self-avoiding networks of any fixed topology G, on a surface with arbitrary genus H, are calculated as universal functions of G and H. For self-avoiding walks, the exponents are built from an infinite set of basic conformal dimensions associated with central charges c = -2 (dense phase) and c = 0 (dilute phase). The conformal spectrum Δ L , L ≥ 1 associated with L-leg star polymers is calculated exactly, for c = -2 and c = 0. This is generalized to the set of L-line 'watermelon' exponents Δ L of the O(n) model on a random surface. The divergences of the partition functions of self-avoiding networks on the random surface, possibly in the presence of vacuum loops, are shown to satisfy a factorization theorem over the vertices of the network. This provides a proof, in the presence of a fluctuating metric, of a result conjectured earlier in the standard plane. From this, the value of the string susceptibility γ str (H,c) is extracted for a random surface of arbitrary genus H, bearing a field theory of central charge c, or equivalently, embedded in d=c dimensions. Lastly, by enumerating spanning trees on a random lattice, we solve the similar problem of hamiltonian walks on the (fluctuating) Manhattan covering lattice. We also obtain new results for dilute trees on a random surface. (orig./HSI)
Edge colouring by total labellings
Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.
2010-01-01
We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...
Radioiodine and its labelled compounds
Robles, Ana Maria
1994-01-01
Chemical characteristics and their nuclear characteristics, types of labelled molecules,labelling procedures, direct labelling with various oxidizing agents, indirect labelling with various conjugates attached to protein molecules, purification and quality control. Iodination damage.Safe handling of labelling procedures with iodine radioisotopes.Bibliography
Niederhaeusern, A.
2001-01-01
This short article discusses the introduction of the 'Naturemade' two-level labelling scheme in the Swiss electricity market, which is to help provide transparency in the market for green power and promote the building of facilities for its production. In the form of an interview with the CEO of Swissolar and the president of Greenpeace Switzerland, the pros and contras of these labels are discussed. In particular, the interview partners' opinions on the possible misuse of the less stringent label and the influence of the labels on the construction of new installations for the generation of electricity from renewable sources are presented. The basic principles of the promotional model behind the labels are listed
Hereditary effects in eccentric compact binary inspirals to third post-Newtonian order
Loutrel, Nicholas; Yunes, Nicolás
2017-02-01
While there has been much success in understanding the orbital dynamics and gravitational wave emission of eccentric compact binaries in the post-Newtonian formalism, some problems still remain. The largest of these concerns hereditary effects: non-linear phenomena related to the scattering off of the background curved spacetime (tails) and to the generation of gravitational waves by gravitational waves (memory). Currently, these hereditary effects are only known numerically for arbitrary eccentricity through infinite sums of Bessel functions, with closed-form, analytic results only available in the small eccentricity limit. We here calculate, for the first time, closed-form, analytic expressions for all hereditary effects to third post-Newtonian order in binaries with arbitrary eccentricity. For the tails, we first asymptotically expand all Bessel functions in high eccentricity and find a superasymptotic series for each enhancement factor, accurate to better than 10-3 relative to post-Newtonian numerical calculations at all eccentricities. We further improve the small-eccentricity behavior of the superasymptotic series by generating hyperasymptotic expressions for each enhancement factor, typically accurate to better than 10-8 at all eccentricities. For the memory, we discuss its computation within the context of an osculating approximation of the binary’s orbit and the difficulties that arise. Our closed-form analytic expressions for the hereditary fluxes allow us to numerically compute orbital phases that are identical to those found using an infinite sum of Bessel functions to double numerical precision.
Hereditary effects in eccentric compact binary inspirals to third post-Newtonian order
Loutrel, Nicholas; Yunes, Nicolás
2017-01-01
While there has been much success in understanding the orbital dynamics and gravitational wave emission of eccentric compact binaries in the post-Newtonian formalism, some problems still remain. The largest of these concerns hereditary effects: non-linear phenomena related to the scattering off of the background curved spacetime (tails) and to the generation of gravitational waves by gravitational waves (memory). Currently, these hereditary effects are only known numerically for arbitrary eccentricity through infinite sums of Bessel functions, with closed-form, analytic results only available in the small eccentricity limit. We here calculate, for the first time, closed-form, analytic expressions for all hereditary effects to third post-Newtonian order in binaries with arbitrary eccentricity. For the tails, we first asymptotically expand all Bessel functions in high eccentricity and find a superasymptotic series for each enhancement factor, accurate to better than 10 −3 relative to post-Newtonian numerical calculations at all eccentricities. We further improve the small-eccentricity behavior of the superasymptotic series by generating hyperasymptotic expressions for each enhancement factor, typically accurate to better than 10 −8 at all eccentricities. For the memory, we discuss its computation within the context of an osculating approximation of the binary’s orbit and the difficulties that arise. Our closed-form analytic expressions for the hereditary fluxes allow us to numerically compute orbital phases that are identical to those found using an infinite sum of Bessel functions to double numerical precision. (paper)
The generation of arbitrary order, non-classical, Gauss-type quadrature for transport applications
Spence, Peter J.
2015-01-01
A method is presented, based upon the Stieltjes method (1884), for the determination of non-classical Gauss-type quadrature rules, and the associated sets of abscissae and weights. The method is then used to generate a number of quadrature sets, to arbitrary order, which are primarily aimed at deterministic transport calculations. The quadrature rules and sets detailed include arbitrary order reproductions of those presented by Abu-Shumays in [4,8] (known as the QR sets, but labelled QRA here), in addition to a number of new rules and associated sets; these are generated in a similar way, and we label them the QRS quadrature sets. The method presented here shifts the inherent difficulty (encountered by Abu-Shumays) associated with solving the non-linear moment equations, particular to the required quadrature rule, to one of the determination of non-classical weight functions and the subsequent calculation of various associated inner products. Once a quadrature rule has been written in a standard form, with an associated weight function having been identified, the calculation of the required inner products is achieved using specific variable transformations, in addition to the use of rapid, highly accurate quadrature suited to this purpose. The associated non-classical Gauss quadrature sets can then be determined, and this can be done to any order very rapidly. In this paper, instead of listing weights and abscissae for the different quadrature sets detailed (of which there are a number), the MATLAB code written to generate them is included as Appendix D. The accuracy and efficacy (in a transport setting) of the quadrature sets presented is not tested in this paper (although the accuracy of the QRA quadrature sets has been studied in [12,13]), but comparisons to tabulated results listed in [8] are made. When comparisons are made with one of the azimuthal QRA sets detailed in [8], the inherent difficulty in the method of generation, used there, becomes apparent
The generation of arbitrary order, non-classical, Gauss-type quadrature for transport applications
Spence, Peter J., E-mail: peter.spence@awe.co.uk
2015-09-01
A method is presented, based upon the Stieltjes method (1884), for the determination of non-classical Gauss-type quadrature rules, and the associated sets of abscissae and weights. The method is then used to generate a number of quadrature sets, to arbitrary order, which are primarily aimed at deterministic transport calculations. The quadrature rules and sets detailed include arbitrary order reproductions of those presented by Abu-Shumays in [4,8] (known as the QR sets, but labelled QRA here), in addition to a number of new rules and associated sets; these are generated in a similar way, and we label them the QRS quadrature sets. The method presented here shifts the inherent difficulty (encountered by Abu-Shumays) associated with solving the non-linear moment equations, particular to the required quadrature rule, to one of the determination of non-classical weight functions and the subsequent calculation of various associated inner products. Once a quadrature rule has been written in a standard form, with an associated weight function having been identified, the calculation of the required inner products is achieved using specific variable transformations, in addition to the use of rapid, highly accurate quadrature suited to this purpose. The associated non-classical Gauss quadrature sets can then be determined, and this can be done to any order very rapidly. In this paper, instead of listing weights and abscissae for the different quadrature sets detailed (of which there are a number), the MATLAB code written to generate them is included as Appendix D. The accuracy and efficacy (in a transport setting) of the quadrature sets presented is not tested in this paper (although the accuracy of the QRA quadrature sets has been studied in [12,13]), but comparisons to tabulated results listed in [8] are made. When comparisons are made with one of the azimuthal QRA sets detailed in [8], the inherent difficulty in the method of generation, used there, becomes apparent
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29
This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.
Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini
2016-01-01
A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ) with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR), cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP) and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM) were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solutio...
Coordinate transformations make perfect invisibility cloaks with arbitrary shape
Yan Wei; Yan Min; Ruan Zhichao; Qiu Min
2008-01-01
By investigating wave properties at cloak boundaries, invisibility cloaks with arbitrary shape constructed by general coordinate transformations are confirmed to be perfectly invisible to the external incident wave. The differences between line transformed cloaks and point transformed cloaks are discussed. The fields in the cloak medium are found analytically to be related to the fields in the original space via coordinate transformation functions. At the exterior boundary of the cloak, it is shown that no reflection is excited even though the permittivity and permeability do not always have a perfectly matched layer form, whereas at the inner boundary, no reflection is excited either, and in particular no field can penetrate into the cloaked region. However, for the inner boundary of any line transformed cloak, the permittivity and permeability in a specific tangential direction are always required to be infinitely large. Furthermore, the field discontinuity at the inner boundary always exists; the surface current is induced to make this discontinuity self-consistent. A point transformed cloak does not experience such problems. The tangential fields at the inner boundary are all zero, implying that no field discontinuity exists
Heat transfer from the moving heat source of arbitrary shape
Fomin, Sergei A.
2000-01-01
The present research is related to contact melting by a moving heat source of arbitrary shape. Heat conduction in the melting material is governed by 3D differential equation, where the thermal conductivity of the surrounding material is assumed to be strongly temperature dependent. By using the Green's formula, the boundary-value problem is converted to the boundary integral equation. This non-linear equation is solved numerically by interactions utilizing the boundary element method. Different shapes of heat sources are investigated. Since the obtained integral equation is the Fredholm type equation of the first kind and belongs to the family of so-called ill-posed problems, therefore, supplementary computations, that verify the stability of numerical algorithm, are provided. For the special cases associated with thermodrilling technology, some analytical estimations and solutions are obtained. Particularly, if the melting velocity is high (Pe>10), asymptotic solutions are found. In this case the integral equation is significantly reduced, that simplifies the computations. Numerical results are in good agreement with the closed-form solutions available for the elliptical shape of a solid-liquid interface. (author)
Two-Volt Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer Using Wilkinson Dividers
Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Schwall, Robert E.; Benz, Samuel P.
2016-01-01
The root-mean-square (rms) output voltage of the NIST Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) has been doubled from 1 V to a record 2 V by combining two new 1 V chips on a cryocooler. This higher voltage will improve calibrations of ac thermal voltage converters and precision voltage measurements that require state-of-the-art quantum accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise ratio. We achieved this increase in output voltage by using four on-chip Wilkinson dividers and eight inner-outer dc blocks, which enable biasing of eight Josephson junction (JJ) arrays with high-speed inputs from only four high-speed pulse generator channels. This approach halves the number of pulse generator channels required in future JAWS systems. We also implemented on-chip superconducting interconnects between JJ arrays, which reduces systematic errors and enables a new modular chip package. Finally, we demonstrate a new technique for measuring and visualizing the operating current range that reduces the measurement time by almost two orders of magnitude and reveals the relationship between distortion in the output spectrum and output pulse sequence errors. PMID:27453676
Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesis With Multilevel Pulse Biasing
Brevik, Justus A.; Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Golden, Evan B.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Benz, Samuel P.
2017-01-01
We describe the implementation of new commercial pulse-bias electronics that have enabled an improvement in the generation of quantum-accurate waveforms both with and without low-frequency compensation biases. We have used these electronics to apply a multilevel pulse bias to the Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer and have generated, for the first time, a quantum-accurate bipolar sinusoidal waveform without the use of a low-frequency compensation bias current. This uncompensated 1 kHz waveform was synthesized with an rms amplitude of 325 mV and maintained its quantum accuracy over a1.5 mA operating current range. The same technique and equipment was also used to synthesize a quantum-accurate 1 MHz sinusoid with a 1.2 mA operating margin. In addition, we have synthesized a compensated 1 kHz sinusoid with an rms amplitude of 1 V and a 2.7 mA operating margin. PMID:28736494
Discussion on massive gravitons and propagating torsion in arbitrary dimensions
Hernaski, C.A.; Vargas-Paredes, A.A.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.
2009-01-01
Full text. Massive gravity has been an issue of particular interest since the early days of Quantum Gravity. More recently, in connection with models based on brane-world scenarios, the discussion of massive gravitons is drawing a great deal of attention, in view of the possibility of their production at LHC and the feasibility of detection of quantum gravity effects at the TeV scale. In this paper, we reassess a particular R 2 -type gravity action in D dimensions, recently studied by Nakasone and Oda, taking now torsion effects into account. Considering that the vielbein and the spin connection carry independent propagating degrees of freedom, we conclude that ghosts and tachyons are absent only if torsion is non-propagating, and we also conclude that there is no room for massive gravitons. To include these excitations, we understand how to enlarge Nakasone-Oda's model by means of explicit torsion terms in the action and we discuss the unitarity of the enlarged model for arbitrary dimensions. To make this we construct a complete basis of operators that projects the degrees of freedom of the dynamical fields of the model in their irreducible spin decomposition. The outcome is that we find a set of Lagrangians with a massive graviton that, in D=4, reproduce those already studied in the literature. (author)
Modelling of subsonic COIL with an arbitrary magnetic modulation
Beránek, Jaroslav; Rohlena, Karel
2007-05-01
The concept of 1D subsonic COIL model with a mixing length was generalized to include the influence of a variable magnetic field on the stimulated emission cross-section. Equations describing the chemical kinetics were solved taking into account together with the gas temperature also a simplified mixing model of oxygen and iodine molecules. With the external time variable magnetic field the model is no longer stationary. A transformation in the system moving with the mixture reduces partial differential equations to ordinary equations in time with initial conditions given either by the stationary flow at the moment when the magnetic field is switched on combined with the boundary conditions at the injector. Advantage of this procedure is a possibility to consider an arbitrary temporal dependence of the imposed magnetic field and to calculate directly the response of the laser output. The method was applied to model the experimental data measured with the subsonic version of the COIL device in the Institute of Physics, Prague, where the applied magnetic field had a saw-tooth dependence. We found that various values characterizing the laser performance, such as the power density distribution over the active zone cross-section, may have a fairly complicated structure given by combined effects of the delayed reaction to the magnetic switching and the flow velocity. This is necessarily translated in a time dependent spatial inhomogeneity of output beam intensity profile.
Efficient Spectral Power Estimation on an Arbitrary Frequency Scale
F. Zaplata
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The Fast Fourier Transform is a very efficient algorithm for the Fourier spectrum estimation, but has the limitation of a linear frequency scale spectrum, which may not be suitable for every system. For example, audio and speech analysis needs a logarithmic frequency scale due to the characteristic of a human’s ear. The Fast Fourier Transform algorithms are not able to efficiently give the desired results and modified techniques have to be used in this case. In the following text a simple technique using the Goertzel algorithm allowing the evaluation of the power spectra on an arbitrary frequency scale will be introduced. Due to its simplicity the algorithm suffers from imperfections which will be discussed and partially solved in this paper. The implementation into real systems and the impact of quantization errors appeared to be critical and have to be dealt with in special cases. The simple method dealing with the quantization error will also be introduced. Finally, the proposed method will be compared to other methods based on its computational demands and its potential speed.
Numerical transport of an arbitrary number of components
Jaouen, S.; Lagoutiere, F.
2007-01-01
This paper deals with the numerical transport of an arbitrary number of materials having the same velocity. One difficulty is to derive numerical algorithms that are conservative for the mass of each component and that satisfy some inequality and equality constraints: each mass fraction has to stay in [0, 1] and the sum of all mass fractions should be 1. These constraints are satisfied by the classical upwind scheme (which is very dissipative) but not for most of nonlinear (high-order or anti-dissipative) schemes. Here we propose local conditions of inequality type for the finite volume fluxes of mass fractions to ensure the aforementioned constraints. More precisely, we give explicit stability intervals for each flux. This is done in the manner of Despres and Lagoutiere for hyperbolic systems, for the transport of two components, for the same type of inequality constraints for nonlinear conservation laws. Comparisons on two dimensional test-cases with the Youngs' interface reconstruction algorithm show that results are qualitatively comparable. The advantages of this approach are its simplicity, its low computational cost, and its flexibility since it can deal with interfaces as well as mixing zones. (authors)
Two-photon couplings of quarkonia with arbitrary JPC
Barnes, T.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN
1992-01-01
We present theoretical results for the two-photon widths of relativistic quarkonium states with arbitrary angular momenta. These relativistic formulas are required to obtain reasonable agreement with the absolute scale of quarkonium decay rates to two photons, and have previously only been derived for spin-singlet q bar q states. We also evaluate these formulas numerically for ell ≤3 q = u, d states in a Coulomb-plus-linear q bar q potential model. Light-quark higher-ell and radially-excited q bar q states should be observable experimentally, as their two-photon widths are typically found to be ∼1 KeV. The radially-excited 1 S 0 higher-mass quarkonium states such as c bar c and b bar b should also be observable in γγ, but orbitally-excited c bar c states with ell>1 and b bar b states with ell>0 are expected to have very small two-photon widths. The helicity structure of the higher-ell q bar q couplings is predicted to be nontrivial, with both λ=0 and λ=2γγ final states contributing significantly; these results may be useful as signatures for q bar q states
Monomial geometric programming with an arbitrary fuzzy relational inequality
E. Shivanian
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an optimization model with geometric objective function is presented. Geometric programming is widely used; many objective functions in optimization problems can be analyzed by geometric programming. We often encounter these in resource allocation and structure optimization and technology management, etc. On the other hand, fuzzy relation equalities and inequalities are also used in many areas. We here present a geometric programming model with a monomial objective function subject to the fuzzy relation inequality constraints with an arbitrary function. The feasible solution set is determined and compared with some common results in the literature. A necessary and sufficient condition and three other necessary conditions are presented to conceptualize the feasibility of the problem. In general a lower bound is always attainable for the optimal objective value by removing the components having no effect on the solution process. By separating problem to non-decreasing and non-increasing function to prove the optimal solution, we simplify operations to accelerate the resolution of the problem.
Arbitrary spin conformal fields in (A)dS
Metsaev, R.R.
2014-01-01
Totally symmetric arbitrary spin conformal fields in (A)dS space of even dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. Ordinary-derivative and gauge invariant Lagrangian formulation for such fields is obtained. Gauge symmetries are realized by using auxiliary fields and Stueckelberg fields. We demonstrate that Lagrangian of conformal field is decomposed into a sum of gauge invariant Lagrangians for massless, partial-massless, and massive fields. We obtain a mass spectrum of the partial-massless and massive fields and confirm the conjecture about the mass spectrum made in the earlier literature. In contrast to conformal fields in flat space, the kinetic terms of conformal fields in (A)dS space turn out to be diagonal with respect to fields entering the Lagrangian. Explicit form of conformal transformation which maps conformal field in flat space to conformal field in (A)dS space is obtained. Covariant Lorentz-like and de-Donder like gauge conditions leading to simple gauge-fixed Lagrangian of conformal fields are proposed. Using such gauge-fixed Lagrangian, which is invariant under global BRST transformations, we explain how the partition function of conformal field is obtained in the framework of our approach
Acoustic streaming: an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian perspective.
Nama, Nitesh; Huang, Tony Jun; Costanzo, Francesco
2017-08-25
We analyse acoustic streaming flows using an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) perspective. The formulation stems from an explicit separation of time scales resulting in two subproblems: a first-order problem, formulated in terms of the fluid displacement at the fast scale, and a second-order problem, formulated in terms of the Lagrangian flow velocity at the slow time scale. Following a rigorous time-averaging procedure, the second-order problem is shown to be intrinsically steady, and with exact boundary conditions at the oscillating walls. Also, as the second-order problem is solved directly for the Lagrangian velocity, the formulation does not need to employ the notion of Stokes drift, or any associated post-processing, thus facilitating a direct comparison with experiments. Because the first-order problem is formulated in terms of the displacement field, our formulation is directly applicable to more complex fluid-structure interaction problems in microacoustofluidic devices. After the formulation's exposition, we present numerical results that illustrate the advantages of the formulation with respect to current approaches.
Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size
Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom
2003-01-01
The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or the order of the phase transitions. However, we employ a refined mean-field approach to find apparently exact expressions for the steady-state currents, boundary densities, and phase diagrams of the d ≥ 1 TASEP. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to support our analytic, mean-field results
Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size
Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom [Department of Biomathematics and Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
2003-02-28
The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or the order of the phase transitions. However, we employ a refined mean-field approach to find apparently exact expressions for the steady-state currents, boundary densities, and phase diagrams of the d {>=} 1 TASEP. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to support our analytic, mean-field results.
Matching conditions for a brane of arbitrary codimension
Charmousis, Christos; Zegers, Robin
2005-01-01
We present matching conditions for distributional sources of arbitrary codimension in the context of Lovelock gravity. Then we give examples, treating maximally symmetric distributional p-branes, embedded in flat, de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetime. Unlike Einstein theory, distributional defects of locally smooth geometry and codimension greater than 2 are demonstrated to exist in Lovelock theories. The form of the matching conditions depends on the parity of the brane codimension. For odd codimension, the matching conditions involve discontinuities of Chern-Simons forms and are thus similar to junction conditions for hypersurfaces. For even codimension, the bulk Lovelock densities induce intrinsic Lovelock densities on the brane. In particular, this results in the appearance of the induced Einstein tensor for p>2. For the matching conditions we present, the effect of the bulk is reduced to an overall topological solid angle defect which sets the Planck scale on the brane and to extrinsic curvature terms. Moreover, for topological matching conditions and solid deficit angle, we find that the equations of motion are obtained from an exact p+1 dimensional action, which reduces to an induced Lovelock theory for large codimension. In essence, this signifies that the distributional part of the Lovelock bulk equations can naturally give rise to induced gravity terms on a brane of even co-dimension. We relate our findings to recent results on codimension 2 branes
Activity coefficients of solutes in binary solvents
Gokcen, N.A.
1982-01-01
The activity coefficients in dilute ternary systems are discussed in detail by using the Margules equations. Analyses of some relevant data at high temperatures show that the sparingly dissolved solutes in binary solvents follow complex behavior even when the binary solvents are very nearly ideal. It is shown that the activity data on the solute or the binary system cannot permit computation of the remaining activities except for the regular solutions. It is also shown that a fourth-order equation is usually adequate in expressing the activity coefficient of a solute in binary solvents at high temperatures. When the activity data for a binary solvent are difficult to obtain in a certain range of composition, the activity data for a sparingly dissolved solute can be used to supplement determination of the binary activities
Pulsar magnetospheres in binary systems
Ershkovich, A. I.; Dolan, J. F.
1985-01-01
The criterion for stability of a tangential discontinuity interface in a magnetized, perfectly conducting inviscid plasma is investigated by deriving the dispersion equation including the effects of both gravitational and centrifugal acceleration. The results are applied to neutron star magnetospheres in X-ray binaries. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability appears to be important in determining whether MHD waves of large amplitude generated by instability may intermix the plasma effectively, resulting in accretion onto the whole star as suggested by Arons and Lea and leading to no X-ray pulsar behavior.
The structures of binary compounds
Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR
1990-01-01
- Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders
Tomographic reconstruction of binary fields
Roux, Stéphane; Leclerc, Hugo; Hild, François
2012-01-01
A novel algorithm is proposed for reconstructing binary images from their projection along a set of different orientations. Based on a nonlinear transformation of the projection data, classical back-projection procedures can be used iteratively to converge to the sought image. A multiscale implementation allows for a faster convergence. The algorithm is tested on images up to 1 Mb definition, and an error free reconstruction is achieved with a very limited number of projection data, saving a factor of about 100 on the number of projections required for classical reconstruction algorithms.
Young and Waltzing Binary Stars
2001-10-01
ADONIS Observes Low-mass Eclipsing System in Orion Summary A series of very detailed images of a binary system of two young stars have been combined into a movie . In merely 3 days, the stars swing around each other. As seen from the earth, they pass in front of each other twice during a full revolution, producing eclipses during which their combined brightness diminishes . A careful analysis of the orbital motions has now made it possible to deduce the masses of the two dancing stars . Both turn out to be about as heavy as our Sun. But while the Sun is about 4500 million years old, these two stars are still in their infancy. They are located some 1500 light-years away in the Orion star-forming region and they probably formed just 10 million years ago . This is the first time such an accurate determination of the stellar masses could be achieved for a young binary system of low-mass stars . The new result provides an important piece of information for our current understanding of how young stars evolve. The observations were obtained by a team of astronomers from Italy and ESO [1] using the ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS) on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. PR Photo 29a/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before primary eclipse PR Photo 29b/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-primary eclipse PR Photo 29c/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after primary eclipse PR Photo 29d/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before secondary eclipse PR Photo 29e/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-secondary eclipse PR Photo 29f/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after secondary eclipse PR Video Clip 06/01 : Video of the RXJ 0529.4+0041 system Binary stars and stellar masses Since some time, astronomers have noted that most stars seem to form in binary or multiple systems. This is quite fortunate, as the study of binary stars is the only way in which it is possible to measure directly one of the most fundamental quantities of a star, its mass. The mass of a
Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes
Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson
2012-01-01
We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.
Quantum Logic Networks for Probabilistic Teleportation of an Arbitrary Three-Particle State
QIAN Xue-Min; FANG Jian-Xing; ZHU Shi-Qun; XI Yong-Jun
2005-01-01
The scheme for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary three-particle state is proposed. By using single qubit gate and three two-qubit gates, efficient quantum logic networks for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary three-particle state are constructed.
Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide
Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.
Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.
Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong
2015-07-28
The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.
Contact Binaries on Their Way Towards Merging
Gazeas, K.
2015-07-01
Contact binaries are the most frequently observed type of eclipsing star system. They are small, cool, low-mass binaries belonging to a relatively old stellar population. They follow certain empirical relationships that closely connect a number of physical parameters with each other, largely because of constraints coming from the Roche geometry. As a result, contact binaries provide an excellent test of stellar evolution, specifically for stellar merger scenarios. Observing campaigns by many authors have led to the cataloging of thousands of contact binaries and enabled statistical studies of many of their properties. A large number of contact binaries have been found to exhibit extraordinary behavior, requiring follow-up observations to study their peculiarities in detail. For example, a doubly-eclipsing quadruple system consisting of a contact binary and a detached binary is a highly constrained system offering an excellent laboratory to test evolutionary theories for binaries. A new observing project was initiated at the University of Athens in 2012 in order to investigate the possible lower limit for the orbital period of binary systems before coalescence, prior to merging.
Preparation and tomographic reconstruction of an arbitrary single-photon path qubit
Baek, So-Young; Kim, Yoon-Ho
2011-01-01
We report methods for preparation and tomographic reconstruction of an arbitrary single-photon path qubit. The arbitrary single-photon path qubit is prepared losslessly by passing the heralded single-photon state from spontaneous parametric down-conversion through variable beam splitter. Quantum state tomography of the single-photon path qubit is implemented by introducing path-projection measurements based on the first-order single-photon quantum interference. Using the state preparation and path-projection measurements methods for the single-photon path qubit, we demonstrate preparation and complete tomographic reconstruction of the single-photon path qubit with arbitrary purity. -- Highlights: → We report methods for preparation and tomographic reconstruction of an arbitrary single-photon path qubit. → We implement path-projection measurements based on the first-order single-photon quantum interference. → We demonstrate preparation and complete tomographic reconstruction of the single-photon path qubit with arbitrary purity.
1980-01-01
The preparation and use of radioactively labelled orgotein, i.e. water-soluble protein congeners in pure, injectable form, is described. This radiopharmaceutical is useful in scintigraphy, especially for visualization of the kidneys where the orgotein is rapidly concentrated. Details of the processes for labelling bovine orgotein with sup(99m)Tc, 60 Co, 125 I or 131 I are specified. The pharmaceutical preparation of the labelled orgotein for intravenous and parenteral administration is also described. Examples using either sup(99m)TC or 125 I-orgotein in scintiscanning dogs' kidneys are given. (UK)
On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels
Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír
2012-01-01
be necessary to change the labels of some items; such changes may be done at any time at unit cost for each change. The goal is to minimize the total cost. An alternative formulation of this problem is the file maintenance problem, in which the items, instead of being labeled, are maintained in sorted order...... in an array of length m, and we pay unit cost for moving an item. For the case m = cn for constant c > 1, there are known algorithms that use at most O(n log(n)2) relabelings in total [9], and it was shown recently that this is asymptotically optimal [1]. For the case of m = θ(nC) for C > 1, algorithms...
Clinical applications of cells labelling
Gonzalez, B.M.
1994-01-01
Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling
A Self-Stabilizing Synchronization Protocol for Arbitrary Digraphs
Malekpour, Mahyar R.
2011-01-01
This paper presents a self-stabilizing distributed clock synchronization protocol in the absence of faults in the system. It is focused on the distributed clock synchronization of an arbitrary, non-partitioned digraph ranging from fully connected to 1-connected networks of nodes while allowing for differences in the network elements. This protocol does not rely on assumptions about the initial state of the system, other than the presence of at least one node, and no central clock or a centrally generated signal, pulse, or message is used. Nodes are anonymous, i.e., they do not have unique identities. There is no theoretical limit on the maximum number of participating nodes. The only constraint on the behavior of the node is that the interactions with other nodes are restricted to defined links and interfaces. This protocol deterministically converges within a time bound that is a linear function of the self-stabilization period. We present an outline of a deductive proof of the correctness of the protocol. A bounded model of the protocol was mechanically verified for a variety of topologies. Results of the mechanical proof of the correctness of the protocol are provided. The model checking results have verified the correctness of the protocol as they apply to the networks with unidirectional and bidirectional links. In addition, the results confirm the claims of determinism and linear convergence. As a result, we conjecture that the protocol solves the general case of this problem. We also present several variations of the protocol and discuss that this synchronization protocol is indeed an emergent system.
Randomness and arbitrary coordination in the reactive ultimatum game
da Silva, Roberto; Valverde, Pablo; Lamb, Luis C.
2016-07-01
Darwin's theory of evolution - as introduced in game theory by Maynard Smith - is not the only important evolutionary aspect in an evolutionary dynamics, since complex interdependencies, competition, and growth should be modeled by, for example, reactive aspects. In the ultimatum game, the reciprocity and the fifty-fifty partition seems to be a deviation from rational behavior of the players under the light of Nash equilibrium. Such equilibrium emerges, for example, from the punishment of the responder who generally tends to refuse unfair proposals. In the iterated version of the game, the proposers are able to improve their proposals by adding a value thus making fairer proposals. Such evolutionary aspects are not properly Darwinian-motivated, but they are endowed with a fundamental aspect: they reflect their actions according to value of the offers. Recently, a reactive version of the ultimatum game where acceptance occurs with fixed probability was proposed. In this paper, we aim at exploring this reactive version of the ultimatum game where the acceptance by players depends on the offer. In order to do so, we analyze two situations: (i) mean field and (ii) we consider players inserted within the networks with arbitrary coordination. We then show that the reactive aspect, here studied, thus far not analyzed in the evolutionary game theory literature can unveil an essential feature for the convergence to fifty-fifty split. Moreover we also analyze populations under four different polices ranging from a highly conservative to a moderate one, with respect to the decision in changing the proposal based on acceptances. We show that the idea of gaining less more times added to the reciprocity of the players is highly relevant to the concept of ;healthy; societies population bargaining.
Generalization of the Ewens sampling formula to arbitrary fitness landscapes.
Pavel Khromov
Full Text Available In considering evolution of transcribed regions, regulatory sequences, and other genomic loci, we are often faced with a situation in which the number of allelic states greatly exceeds the size of the population. In this limit, the population eventually adopts a steady state characterized by mutation-selection-drift balance. Although new alleles continue to be explored through mutation, the statistics of the population, and in particular the probabilities of seeing specific allelic configurations in samples taken from the population, do not change with time. In the absence of selection, the probabilities of allelic configurations are given by the Ewens sampling formula, widely used in population genetics to detect deviations from neutrality. Here we develop an extension of this formula to arbitrary fitness distributions. Although our approach is general, we focus on the class of fitness landscapes, inspired by recent high-throughput genotype-phenotype maps, in which alleles can be in several distinct phenotypic states. This class of landscapes yields sampling probabilities that are computationally more tractable and can form a basis for inference of selection signatures from genomic data. Using an efficient numerical implementation of the sampling probabilities, we demonstrate that, for a sizable range of mutation rates and selection coefficients, the steady-state allelic diversity is not neutral. Therefore, it may be used to infer selection coefficients, as well as other evolutionary parameters from population data. We also carry out numerical simulations to challenge various approximations involved in deriving our sampling formulas, such as the infinite-allele limit and the "full connectivity" assumption inherent in the Ewens theory, in which each allele can mutate into any other allele. We find that, at least for the specific numerical examples studied, our theory remains sufficiently accurate even if these assumptions are relaxed. Thus our
Beyond rational imitation: learning arbitrary means actions from communicative demonstrations.
Király, Ildikó; Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György
2013-10-01
The principle of rationality has been invoked to explain that infants expect agents to perform the most efficient means action to attain a goal. It has also been demonstrated that infants take into account the efficiency of observed actions to achieve a goal outcome when deciding whether to reenact a specific behavior or not. It is puzzling, however, that they also tend to imitate an apparently suboptimal unfamiliar action even when they can bring about the same outcome more efficiently by applying a more rational action alternative available to them. We propose that this apparently paradoxical behavior is explained by infants' interpretation of action demonstrations as communicative manifestations of novel and culturally relevant means actions to be acquired, and we present empirical evidence supporting this proposal. In Experiment 1, we found that 14-month-olds reenacted novel arbitrary means actions only following a communicative demonstration. Experiment 2 showed that infants' inclination to reproduce communicatively manifested novel actions is restricted to behaviors they can construe as goal-directed instrumental acts. The study also provides evidence that infants' reenactment of the demonstrated novel actions reflects epistemic motives rather than purely social motives. We argue that ostensive communication enables infants to represent the teleological structure of novel actions even when the causal relations between means and end are cognitively opaque and apparently violate the efficiency expectation derived from the principle of rationality. This new account of imitative learning of novel means shows how the teleological stance and natural pedagogy--two separate cognitive adaptations to interpret instrumental versus communicative actions--are integrated as a system for learning socially constituted instrumental knowledge in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The impact of approximations and arbitrary choices on geophysical images
Valentine, Andrew P.; Trampert, Jeannot
2016-01-01
Whenever a geophysical image is to be constructed, a variety of choices must be made. Some, such as those governing data selection and processing, or model parametrization, are somewhat arbitrary: there may be little reason to prefer one choice over another. Others, such as defining the theoretical framework within which the data are to be explained, may be more straightforward: typically, an `exact' theory exists, but various approximations may need to be adopted in order to make the imaging problem computationally tractable. Differences between any two images of the same system can be explained in terms of differences between these choices. Understanding the impact of each particular decision is essential if images are to be interpreted properly-but little progress has been made towards a quantitative treatment of this effect. In this paper, we consider a general linearized inverse problem, applicable to a wide range of imaging situations. We write down an expression for the difference between two images produced using similar inversion strategies, but where different choices have been made. This provides a framework within which inversion algorithms may be analysed, and allows us to consider how image effects may arise. In this paper, we take a general view, and do not specialize our discussion to any specific imaging problem or setup (beyond the restrictions implied by the use of linearized inversion techniques). In particular, we look at the concept of `hybrid inversion', in which highly accurate synthetic data (typically the result of an expensive numerical simulation) is combined with an inverse operator constructed based on theoretical approximations. It is generally supposed that this offers the benefits of using the more complete theory, without the full computational costs. We argue that the inverse operator is as important as the forward calculation in determining the accuracy of results. We illustrate this using a simple example, based on imaging the
Massive graviton on arbitrary background: derivation, syzygies, applications
Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; Strauss, Mikael von
2015-01-01
We give the detailed derivation of the fully covariant form of the quadratic action and the derived linear equations of motion for a massive graviton in an arbitrary background metric (which were presented in arXiv:1410.8302 [hep-th]). Our starting point is the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) family of ghost free massive gravities and using a simple model of this family, we are able to express this action and these equations of motion in terms of a single metric in which the graviton propagates, hence removing in particular the need for a ''reference metric' which is present in the non perturbative formulation. We show further how 5 covariant constraints can be obtained including one which leads to the tracelessness of the graviton on flat space-time and removes the Boulware-Deser ghost. This last constraint involves powers and combinations of the curvature of the background metric. The 5 constraints are obtained for a background metric which is unconstrained, i.e. which does not have to obey the background field equations. We then apply these results to the case of Einstein space-times, where we show that the 5 constraints become trivial, and Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-times, for which we correct in particular some results that appeared elsewhere. To reach our results, we derive several non trivial identities, syzygies, involving the graviton fields, its derivatives and the background metric curvature. These identities have their own interest. We also discover that there exist backgrounds for which the dRGT equations cannot be unambiguously linearized
Lim, Meng-Hui; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin; Toh, Kar-Ann
2013-06-01
Biometric discretization is a key component in biometric cryptographic key generation. It converts an extracted biometric feature vector into a binary string via typical steps such as segmentation of each feature element into a number of labeled intervals, mapping of each interval-captured feature element onto a binary space, and concatenation of the resulted binary output of all feature elements into a binary string. Currently, the detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA) scheme is one of the most effective biometric discretization schemes in terms of its capability to assign binary bits dynamically to user-specific features with respect to their discriminability. However, we learn that DROBA suffers from potential discriminative feature misdetection and underdiscretization in its bit allocation process. This paper highlights such drawbacks and improves upon DROBA based on a novel two-stage algorithm: 1) a dynamic search method to efficiently recapture such misdetected features and to optimize the bit allocation of underdiscretized features and 2) a genuine interval concealment technique to alleviate crucial information leakage resulted from the dynamic search. Improvements in classification accuracy on two popular face data sets vindicate the feasibility of our approach compared with DROBA.
Fabricating binary optics: An overview of binary optics process technology
Stern, Margaret B.
1993-01-01
A review of binary optics processing technology is presented. Pattern replication techniques have been optimized to generate high-quality efficient microoptics in visible and infrared materials. High resolution optical photolithography and precision alignment is used to fabricate maximally efficient fused silica diffractive microlenses at lambda = 633 nm. The degradation in optical efficiency of four-phase-level fused silica microlenses resulting from an intentional 0.35 micron translational error has been systematically measured as a function of lens speed (F/2 - F/60). Novel processes necessary for high sag refractive IR microoptics arrays, including deep anisotropic Si-etching, planarization of deep topography and multilayer resist techniques, are described. Initial results are presented for monolithic integration of photonic and microoptic systems.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...
... It's also displayed in grocery stores near fresh foods, like fruits, vegetables, and fish. The nutrition facts label includes: a ... found in citrus fruits, other fruits, and some vegetables. Food companies might also list the amounts of other ...
1978-04-01
This research assesses the likely effects on UK consumers of the proposed EEC energy-efficiency labeling scheme. Unless (or until) an energy-labeling scheme is introduced, it is impossible to do more than postulate its likely effects on consumer behavior. This report shows that there are indeed significant differences in energy consumption between different brands and models of the same appliance of which consumers are unaware. Further, the report suggests that, if a readily intelligible energy-labeling scheme were introduced, it would provide useful information that consumers currently lack; and that, if this information were successfully presented, it would be used and could have substantial effects in reducing domestic fuel consumption. Therefore, it is recommended that an energy labeling scheme be introduced.
Field, Michele
2010-01-01
The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.
Dettli, R.; Markard, J.
2001-01-01
This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed
78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval
2013-11-07
... raising of animals, such as ``no antibiotics administered'' or ``vegetarian fed''; (4) instructional or... Standards and Labeling Policy Book includes animal production claims; omega fatty acid guidance; allergen... inclusion of Country of Origin Labeling on all labels; the production and sale of labels by USDA; developing...
Radial Velocities of 41 Kepler Eclipsing Binaries
Matson, Rachel A.; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao; Williams, Stephen J.
2017-12-01
Eclipsing binaries are vital for directly determining stellar parameters without reliance on models or scaling relations. Spectroscopically derived parameters of detached and semi-detached binaries allow us to determine component masses that can inform theories of stellar and binary evolution. Here we present moderate resolution ground-based spectra of stars in close binary systems with and without (detected) tertiary companions observed by NASA’s Kepler mission and analyzed for eclipse timing variations. We obtain radial velocities and spectroscopic orbits for five single-lined and 35 double-lined systems, and confirm one false positive eclipsing binary. For the double-lined spectroscopic binaries, we also determine individual component masses and examine the mass ratio {M}2/{M}1 distribution, which is dominated by binaries with like-mass pairs and semi-detached classical Algol systems that have undergone mass transfer. Finally, we constrain the mass of the tertiary component for five double-lined binaries with previously detected companions.
BHDD: Primordial black hole binaries code
Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Gaggero, Daniele; Bertone, Gianfranco
2018-06-01
BHDD (BlackHolesDarkDress) simulates primordial black hole (PBH) binaries that are clothed in dark matter (DM) halos. The software uses N-body simulations and analytical estimates to follow the evolution of PBH binaries formed in the early Universe.
Main Memory Implementations for Binary Grouping
May, Norman; Moerkotte, Guido
2005-01-01
An increasing number of applications depend on efficient storage and analysis features for XML data. Hence, query optimization and efficient evaluation techniques for the emerging XQuery standard become more and more important. Many XQuery queries require nested expressions. Unnesting them often introduces binary grouping. We introduce several algorithms implementing binary grouping and analyze their time and space complexity. Experiments demonstrate their performance.
Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries
Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd
objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...
Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion onto Binaries
Antoni, Andrea; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramírez-Ruiz, Enrico
2018-01-01
Binary stars are not rare. While only close binary stars will eventually interact with one another, even the widest binary systems interact with their gaseous surroundings. The rates of accretion and the gaseous drag forces arising in these interactions are the key to understanding how these systems evolve. This poster examines accretion flows around a binary system moving supersonically through a background gas. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion using the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH. We simulate a range of values of semi-major axis of the orbit relative to the gravitational focusing impact parameter of the pair. On large scales, gas is gravitationally focused by the center-of-mass of the binary, leading to dynamical friction drag and to the accretion of mass and momentum. On smaller scales, the orbital motion imprints itself on the gas. Notably, the magnitude and direction of the forces acting on the binary inherit this orbital dependence. The long-term evolution of the binary is determined by the timescales for accretion, slow down of the center-of-mass, and decay of the orbit. We use our simulations to measure these timescales and to establish a hierarchy between them. In general, our simulations indicate that binaries moving through gaseous media will slow down before the orbit decays.
Binary Relations as a Foundation of Mathematics
Kuper, Jan; Barendsen, E.; Capretta, V.; Geuvers, H.; Niqui, M.
2007-01-01
We describe a theory for binary relations in the Zermelo-Fraenkel style. We choose for ZFCU, a variant of ZFC Set theory in which the Axiom of Foundation is replaced by an axiom allowing for non-wellfounded sets. The theory of binary relations is shown to be equi-consistent ZFCU by constructing a
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FLASH POINTS OF SOME BINARY ...
B. S. Chandravanshi
Miscellaneous binary blends containing solvent neutral-150 (SN-150), ... viscosity, the flash point test has always been a standard part of a lubricant's specification. ... between structure and flash points of organic compounds [5-12] and fuels [13, 14]. ... in binary mixtures, the gaps between flash points would be high enough.
The origin of the RS CVn binaries
Biermann, P.
1976-01-01
Six possible origins for the RS CVn binaries are considered based on the following possibilities. RS CVn binaries might now be either pre-main-sequence or post-main-sequence. A pre-main-sequence binary might not always have been a binary but might have resulted from fission of a rapidly rotating single pre-main-sequence star. The main-sequence counterparts might be either single stars or binaries. To decide which of the six origins is possible, the following observed data for the RS CVn binaries are considered: total mass, total angular momentum, lack of observed connection with regions of star formation, large space density, kinematical age, and the visual companion of WW Dra. In addition lifetimes and space densities of single stars and other types of binaries are considered. The only origin possible is that the RS CVn binaries are in a thermal phase following fission of a main-sequence single star. In this explanation the single star had a rapidly rotating core which became unstable due to the core contraction which made it begin to evolve off the main sequence. The present Be stars might be examples of such parent single stars. (Auth.)
Mass Transfer in Mira-Type Binaries
Mohamed S.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Detached, symbiotic binaries are generally assumed to interact via Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton (BHL wind accretion. However, the accretion rates and outflow geometries that result from this mass-transfer mechanism cannot adequately explain the observations of the nearest and best studied symbiotic binary, Mira, or the formation of some post-AGB binaries, e.g. barium stars. We propose a new mass-transfer mode for Mira-type binaries, which we call ‘wind Roche-lobe overflow’ (WRLOF, and which we demonstrate with 3D hydrodynamic simulations. Importantly, we show that the circumstellar outflows which result from WRLOF tend to be highly aspherical and strongly focused towards the binary orbital plane. Furthermore, the subsequent mass-transfer rates are at least an order of magnitude greater than the analogous BHL values. We discuss the implications of these results for the shaping of bipolar (proto-planetary nebulae and other related systems.
Logistic chaotic maps for binary numbers generations
Kanso, Ali; Smaoui, Nejib
2009-01-01
Two pseudorandom binary sequence generators, based on logistic chaotic maps intended for stream cipher applications, are proposed. The first is based on a single one-dimensional logistic map which exhibits random, noise-like properties at given certain parameter values, and the second is based on a combination of two logistic maps. The encryption step proposed in both algorithms consists of a simple bitwise XOR operation of the plaintext binary sequence with the keystream binary sequence to produce the ciphertext binary sequence. A threshold function is applied to convert the floating-point iterates into binary form. Experimental results show that the produced sequences possess high linear complexity and very good statistical properties. The systems are put forward for security evaluation by the cryptographic committees.
Sharma, Amita; Rathore, R.P.S.
1992-01-01
Born-Mayer potential has been modified to account for the unpaired (three body) forces among the common nearest neighbours of the ordered binary fcc alloys i.e. Ni 3 Fe 7 , Ni 5 Fe 5 and Ni 75 Fe 25 . The three body potential is added to the two body form of Morse to formalize the total interaction potential. Measured inverse ionic compressibility, cohesive energy, lattice constant and one measured phonon frequency are used to evaluate the defining parameters of the potential. The potential seeks to bring about the binding among 140 and 132 atoms though pair wise (two body) and non-pair wise (three body) forces respectively. The phonon-dispersion relations obtained by solving the secular equation are compared with the experimental findings on the aforesaid alloys. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs
Fast Localization in Large-Scale Environments Using Supervised Indexing of Binary Features.
Youji Feng; Lixin Fan; Yihong Wu
2016-01-01
The essence of image-based localization lies in matching 2D key points in the query image and 3D points in the database. State-of-the-art methods mostly employ sophisticated key point detectors and feature descriptors, e.g., Difference of Gaussian (DoG) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT), to ensure robust matching. While a high registration rate is attained, the registration speed is impeded by the expensive key point detection and the descriptor extraction. In this paper, we propose to use efficient key point detectors along with binary feature descriptors, since the extraction of such binary features is extremely fast. The naive usage of binary features, however, does not lend itself to significant speedup of localization, since existing indexing approaches, such as hierarchical clustering trees and locality sensitive hashing, are not efficient enough in indexing binary features and matching binary features turns out to be much slower than matching SIFT features. To overcome this, we propose a much more efficient indexing approach for approximate nearest neighbor search of binary features. This approach resorts to randomized trees that are constructed in a supervised training process by exploiting the label information derived from that multiple features correspond to a common 3D point. In the tree construction process, node tests are selected in a way such that trees have uniform leaf sizes and low error rates, which are two desired properties for efficient approximate nearest neighbor search. To further improve the search efficiency, a probabilistic priority search strategy is adopted. Apart from the label information, this strategy also uses non-binary pixel intensity differences available in descriptor extraction. By using the proposed indexing approach, matching binary features is no longer much slower but slightly faster than matching SIFT features. Consequently, the overall localization speed is significantly improved due to the much faster key
Matched filtering of numerical relativity templates of spinning binary black holes
Vaishnav, Birjoo; Hinder, Ian; Herrmann, Frank; Shoemaker, Deirdre
2007-01-01
Tremendous progress has been made towards the solution of the binary-black-hole problem in numerical relativity. The waveforms produced by numerical relativity will play a role in gravitational wave detection as either test beds for analytic template banks or as template banks themselves. As the parameter space explored by numerical relativity expands, the importance of quantifying the effect that each parameter has on first the detection of gravitational waves and then the parameter estimation of their sources increases. In light of this, we present a study of equal-mass, spinning binary-black-hole evolutions through matched filtering techniques commonly used in data analysis. We study how the match between two numerical waveforms varies with numerical resolution, initial angular momentum of the black holes, and the inclination angle between the source and the detector. This study is limited by the fact that the spinning black-hole binaries are oriented axially and the waveforms only contain approximately two and a half orbits before merger. We find that for detection purposes, spinning black holes require the inclusion of the higher harmonics in addition to the dominant mode, a condition that becomes more important as the black-hole spins increase. In addition, we conduct a preliminary investigation of how well a template of fixed spin and inclination angle can detect target templates of arbitrary but nonprecessing spin and inclination for the axial case considered here
European consumers and nutrition labelling
Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández
2009-01-01
Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...
Genetic algorithms for map labeling
Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van
2001-01-01
Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic
Automatic Shape Control of Triangular B-Splines of Arbitrary Topology
Ying He; Xian-Feng Gu; Hong Qin
2006-01-01
Triangular B-splines are powerful and flexible in modeling a broader class of geometric objects defined over arbitrary, non-rectangular domains. Despite their great potential and advantages in theory, practical techniques and computational tools with triangular B-splines are less-developed. This is mainly because users have to handle a large number of irregularly distributed control points over arbitrary triangulation. In this paper, an automatic and efficient method is proposed to generate visually pleasing, high-quality triangular B-splines of arbitrary topology. The experimental results on several real datasets show that triangular B-splines are powerful and effective in both theory and practice.
Tian, Yuzhen; Guo, Jin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Tingfeng
2011-09-12
In order to research the statistical properties of Gaussian beam propagation through an arbitrary thickness random phase screen for adaptive optics and laser communication application in the laboratory, we establish mathematic models of statistical quantities, which are based on the Rytov method and the thin phase screen model, involved in the propagation process. And the analytic results are developed for an arbitrary thickness phase screen based on the Kolmogorov power spectrum. The comparison between the arbitrary thickness phase screen and the thin phase screen shows that it is more suitable for our results to describe the generalized case, especially the scintillation index.
Jack, B.; Leach, J.; Franke-Arnold, S.; Ireland, D. G.; Padgett, M. J.; Yao, A. M.; Barnett, S. M.; Romero, J.
2010-01-01
We use spatial light modulators (SLMs) to measure correlations between arbitrary superpositions of orbital angular momentum (OAM) states generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our technique allows us to fully access a two-dimensional OAM subspace described by a Bloch sphere, within the higher-dimensional OAM Hilbert space. We quantify the entanglement through violations of a Bell-type inequality for pairs of modal superpositions that lie on equatorial, polar, and arbitrary great circles of the Bloch sphere. Our work shows that SLMs can be used to measure arbitrary spatial states with a fidelity sufficient for appropriate quantum information processing systems.
Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones
Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.
1976-01-01
The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts
Anton Bourdine
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This work presents fast and simple method for evaluation of polarization correction to scalar propagation constant of arbitrary order guided modes propagating over weakly guiding optical fibers. Proposed solution is based on earlier on developed modified Gaussian approximation extended for analysis of weakly guiding optical fibers with arbitrary refractive index profile in the core region bounded by single solid outer cladding. Some results are presented that illustrate the decreasing of computational error during the estimation of propagation constant when polarization corrections are taken into account. Analytical expressions for the first and second derivatives of polarization correction are derived and presented.
Radiopharmaceutical labeling research
Anon.
1985-01-01
The objective of this research is to develop methods of attaching radionuclides to monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments for use in tumor imaging and internal radiation therapy. Monoclonal antibodies and their fragments are of interest because they enable the selective targeting of tumors. The labeled antibodies could be employed as carriers to transport radioisotopes to tumors, thus minimizing total-body radiation dose and radiation damage to normal tissue. Because the time required for labeled antibodies to find the tumor antigen and deliver the dose to the tumor is estimated to be about 1-3 days, radionuclides with a l- to 3-day half-life would be optimum for this purpose. Two of the radionuclides produced at LAMPF, 67 Cu and 77 Br, have the suitable half-life and nuclear-decay properties for use in tumor imaging or therapy with radiolabeled antibodies. These radionuclides and the efforts to prepare radiolabeled antibodies with them are described. We have used three different approaches to meet this objective of labeling antibodies: (1) labeling chelating agents with metal radionuclides, then conjugating the labeled chelating agents to antibodies; (2) conjugating activated chelating agents to antibodies, followed by metalation with metal radionuclides; and (3) radiobrominating small molecules that can be conjugated to antibodies
Prediction and generation of binary Markov processes: Can a finite-state fox catch a Markov mouse?
Ruebeck, Joshua B.; James, Ryan G.; Mahoney, John R.; Crutchfield, James P.
2018-01-01
Understanding the generative mechanism of a natural system is a vital component of the scientific method. Here, we investigate one of the fundamental steps toward this goal by presenting the minimal generator of an arbitrary binary Markov process. This is a class of processes whose predictive model is well known. Surprisingly, the generative model requires three distinct topologies for different regions of parameter space. We show that a previously proposed generator for a particular set of binary Markov processes is, in fact, not minimal. Our results shed the first quantitative light on the relative (minimal) costs of prediction and generation. We find, for instance, that the difference between prediction and generation is maximized when the process is approximately independently, identically distributed.
PERIODIC SIGNALS IN BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS
Guo, Xinyi; Stefano, Rosanne Di; Esin, Ann; Taylor, Jeffrey
2015-01-01
Gravitational microlensing events are powerful tools for the study of stellar populations. In particular, they can be used to discover and study a variety of binary systems. A large number of binary lenses have already been found through microlensing surveys and a few of these systems show strong evidence of orbital motion on the timescale of the lensing event. We expect that more binary lenses of this kind will be detected in the future. For binaries whose orbital period is comparable to the event duration, the orbital motion can cause the lensing signal to deviate drastically from that of a static binary lens. The most striking property of such light curves is the presence of quasi-periodic features, which are produced as the source traverses the same regions in the rotating lens plane. These repeating features contain information about the orbital period of the lens. If this period can be extracted, then much can be learned about the lensing system even without performing time-consuming, detailed light-curve modeling. However, the relative transverse motion between the source and the lens significantly complicates the problem of period extraction. To resolve this difficulty, we present a modification of the standard Lomb–Scargle periodogram analysis. We test our method for four representative binary lens systems and demonstrate its efficiency in correctly extracting binary orbital periods
Topological and categorical properties of binary trees
H. Pajoohesh
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Binary trees are very useful tools in computer science for estimating the running time of so-called comparison based algorithms, algorithms in which every action is ultimately based on a prior comparison between two elements. For two given algorithms A and B where the decision tree of A is more balanced than that of B, it is known that the average and worst case times of A will be better than those of B, i.e., ₸A(n ≤₸B(n and TWA (n≤TWB (n. Thus the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees play a main role. Here we consider them as semilattices and characterize the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees by topological and categorical properties. Also we define the composition of binary trees as a commutative binary operation, *, such that for binary trees A and B, A * B is the binary tree obtained by attaching a copy of B to any leaf of A. We show that (T,* is a commutative po-monoid and investigate its properties.
Waveguide-type optical circuits for recognition of optical 8QAM-coded label
Surenkhorol, Tumendemberel; Kishikawa, Hiroki; Goto, Nobuo; Gonchigsumlaa, Khishigjargal
2017-10-01
Optical signal processing is expected to be applied in network nodes. In photonic routers, label recognition is one of the important functions. We have studied different kinds of label recognition methods so far for on-off keying, binary phase-shift keying, quadrature phase-shift keying, and 16 quadrature amplitude modulation-coded labels. We propose a method based on waveguide circuits to recognize an optical eight quadrature amplitude modulation (8QAM)-coded label by simple passive optical signal processing. The recognition of the proposed method is theoretically analyzed and numerically simulated by the finite difference beam propagation method. The noise tolerance is discussed, and bit-error rate against optical signal-to-noise ratio is evaluated. The scalability of the proposed method is also discussed theoretically for two-symbol length 8QAM-coded labels.
Fluorine-18 labelled compounds
Kleijn, J.P. de
1978-01-01
The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)
Synthesis of labeled compounds
Whaley, T.W.
1977-01-01
Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C
RECTC/RECTCF, 2. Order Elliptical Partial Differential Equation, Arbitrary Boundary Conditions
Hackbusch, W.
1983-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: A general linear elliptical second order partial differential equation on a rectangle with arbitrary boundary conditions is solved. 2 - Method of solution: Multi-grid iteration
Symmetric multiparty-controlled teleportation of an arbitrary two-particle entanglement
Deng Fuguo; Zhou Hongyu; Li Chunyan; Wang Yan; Li Yansong
2005-01-01
We present a way for symmetric multiparty-controlled teleportation of an arbitrary two-particle entangled state based on Bell-basis measurements by using two Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, i.e., a sender transmits an arbitrary two-particle entangled state to a distant receiver, an arbitrary one of the n+1 agents, via the control of the others in a network. It will be shown that the outcomes in the cases that n is odd or is even are different in principle as the receiver has to perform a controlled-NOT operation on his particles for reconstructing the original arbitrary entangled state in addition to some local unitary operations in the former. Also we discuss the applications of this controlled teleporation for quantum secret sharing of classical and quantum information. As all the instances can be used to carry useful information, its efficiency for qubit approaches the maximal value
Multi-scale graphene patterns on arbitrary substrates via laser-assisted transfer-printing process
Park, J. B.; Yoo, J.-H.; Grigoropoulos, C. P.
2012-01-01
A laser-assisted transfer-printing process is developed for multi-scale graphene patterns on arbitrary substrates using femtosecond laser scanning on a graphene/metal substrate and transfer techniques without using multi-step patterning processes
Caratelli, Diego; Mescia, Luciano; Bia, Pietro; Stukach, Oleg V.
2016-01-01
A novel finite-difference time-domain algorithm for modeling ultrawideband electromagnetic pulse propagation in arbitrary multirelaxed dispersive media is presented. The proposed scheme is based on a general, yet computationally efficient, series representation of the fractional derivative operators
Hardware in the loop simulation of arbitrary magnitude shaped correlated radar clutter
Strydom, JJ
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a simple process for the generation of arbitrary probability distributions of complex data with correlation from sample to sample, optimized for hardware in the loop radar environment simulation. Measured radar clutter is used...
Numerical solution for multi-term fractional (arbitrary) orders differential equations
El-Sayed, A. M. A.; El-Mesiry, A. E. M.; El-Saka, H. A. A.
2004-01-01
Our main concern here is to give a numerical scheme to solve a nonlinear multi-term fractional (arbitrary) orders differential equation. Some results concerning the existence and uniqueness have been also obtained.
High energy pair production in arbitrary configuration of intense electromagnetic fields
Ayasli, S.; Hacinliyan, A.
1978-01-01
The photon attenuation coefficient for pair production in intense electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary confiquration is derived. The results are applied to a cascade calculation of electromagnetic processes in pulsars. (author)
Distillation of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state from arbitrary tripartite states
Mo Yina; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan
2002-01-01
We present a method of distillation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states from arbitrary tripartite pure states by local operations and classical communication. We go further to discuss the various results we get and calculate the efficiency of the protocol
Isochronous Liénard-type nonlinear oscillators of arbitrary dimensions
Hamiltonian method, defining isochronous constant and identifying .... (7) exhibits isochronous properties provided the arbitrary functions f (x) and g(x) ...... we have focussed our attention on the progress made in the identification/generation.
Theoretical studies of binaries in astrophysics
Dischler, Johann Sebastian
This thesis introduces and summarizes four papers dealing with computer simulations of astrophysical processes involving binaries. The first part gives the rational and theoretical background to these papers. In paper I and II a statistical approach to studying eclipsing binaries is described. By using population synthesis models for binaries the probabilities for eclipses are calculated for different luminosity classes of binaries. These are compared with Hipparcos data and they agree well if one uses a standard input distribution for the orbit sizes. If one uses a random pairing model, where both companions are independently picked from an IMF, one finds too feclipsing binaries by an order of magnitude. In paper III we investigate a possible scenario for the origin of the stars observed close to the centre of our galaxy, called S stars. We propose that a cluster falls radially cowards the central black hole. The binaries within the cluster can then, if they have small impact parameters, be broken up by the black hole's tidal held and one of the components of the binary will be captured by the black hole. Paper IV investigates how the onset of mass transfer in eccentric binaries depends on the eccentricity. To do this we have developed a new two-phase SPH scheme where very light particles are at tire outer edge of our simulated star. This enables us to get a much better resolution of the very small mass that is transferred in close binaries. Our simulations show that the minimum required distance between the stars to have mass transfer decreases with the eccentricity.
Environmental Labels and Declarations
Frydendal, Jeppe; Hansen, Lisbeth; Bonou, Alexandra
2018-01-01
Based on the terminology and structure developed by the International Organization for Standardization, a description is given on the types of ecolabels that build on life cycle assessments. Focus is on type I labels that point out products and services with an overall environmental preferability...... of labelling, the use of ecolabels in marketing, and the way ecolabels help build a market for “greener products”. Type III labels—or Environmental Product Declarations—are also briefly described with indicative examples from the building sector, a declaration for office furniture, and an introduction is given...... to the European Commission’s programme for product—and organisational environmental footprints ....
Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen
2011-01-01
This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin
Binary neutron star merger simulations
Bruegmann, Bernd [Jena Univ. (Germany)
2016-11-01
Our research focuses on the numerical tools necessary to solve Einstein's equations. In recent years we have been particularly interested in spacetimes consisting of two neutron stars in the final stages of their evolution. Because of the emission of gravitational radiation, the objects are driven together to merge; the emitted gravitational wave signal is visualized. This emitted gravitational radiation carries energy and momentum away from the system and contains information about the system. Late last year the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) began searches for these gravitational wave signals at a sensitivity at which detections are expected. Although such systems can radiate a significant amount of their total mass-energy in gravitational waves, the gravitational wave signals one expects to receive on Earth are not strong, since sources of gravitational waves are often many millions of light years away. Therefore one needs accurate templates for the radiation one expects from such systems in order to be able to extract them out of the detector's noise. Although analytical models exist for compact binary systems when the constituents are well separated, we need numerical simulation to investigate the last orbits before merger to obtain accurate templates and validate analytical approximations. Due to the strong nonlinearity of the equations and the large separation of length scales, these simulations are computationally demanding and need to be run on large supercomputers. When matter is present the computational cost as compared to pure black hole (vacuum) simulations increases even more due to the additional matter fields. But also more interesting astrophysical phenomena can happen. In fact, there is the possibility for a strong electromagnetic signal from the merger (e.g., a short gamma-ray burst or lower-energy electromagnetic signatures from the ejecta) and significant neutrino emission. Additionally, we can expect that
Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars
Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.
2017-07-01
The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other
Exact solution of the one-dimensional Hubbard model with arbitrary boundary magnetic fields
Li, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Junpeng [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Wen-Li [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xian 710069 (China); Beijing Center for Mathematics and Information Interdisciplinary Sciences, Beijing, 100048 (China); Shi, Kangjie [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xian 710069 (China); Wang, Yupeng, E-mail: yupeng@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-02-15
The one-dimensional Hubbard model with arbitrary boundary magnetic fields is solved exactly via the Bethe ansatz methods. With the coordinate Bethe ansatz in the charge sector, the second eigenvalue problem associated with the spin sector is constructed. It is shown that the second eigenvalue problem can be transformed into that of the inhomogeneous XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary fields which can be solved via the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method.
ON PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL AND DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS WITH SYMMETRIES DEPENDING ON ARBITRARY FUNCTIONS
Giorgio Gubbiotti
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this note we present some ideas on when Lie symmetries, both point and generalized, can depend on arbitrary functions. We show a few examples, both in partial differential and partial difference equations where this happens. Moreover we show that the infinitesimal generators of generalized symmetries depending on arbitrary functions, both for continuous and discrete equations, effectively play the role of master symmetries.
Probabilistic Teleportation of an Arbitrary Two-Atom State in Cavity QED
LIU Jin-Ming
2007-01-01
We propose a scheme for the teleportation of an arbitrary two-atom state by using two pairs of two-atom nonmaximally entangled states as the quantum channel in cavity QED.It is shown that no matter whether the arbitrary two-atom pure state to be teleported is entangled or not,our teleportation scheme can always be probabilistically realized.The success probability of teleportation is determined by the smaller coefficients of the two initially entangled atom pairs.
Ke, Yougang; Liu, Yachao; He, Yongli; Zhou, Junxiao; Luo, Hailu, E-mail: hailuluo@hnu.edu.cn; Wen, Shuangchun [Laboratory for Spin Photonics, School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)
2015-07-27
We report the realization of spin-dependent splitting with arbitrary intensity patterns based on all-dielectric metasurfaces. Compared with the plasmonic metasurfaces, the all-dielectric metasurface exhibits more high transmission efficiency and conversion efficiency, which makes it possible to achieve the spin-dependent splitting with arbitrary intensity patterns. Our findings suggest a way for generation and manipulation of spin photons, and thereby offer the possibility of developing spin-based nanophotonic applications.
Variance in binary stellar population synthesis
Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.
2016-03-01
In the years preceding LISA, Milky Way compact binary population simulations can be used to inform the science capabilities of the mission. Galactic population simulation efforts generally focus on high fidelity models that require extensive computational power to produce a single simulated population for each model. Each simulated population represents an incomplete sample of the functions governing compact binary evolution, thus introducing variance from one simulation to another. We present a rapid Monte Carlo population simulation technique that can simulate thousands of populations in less than a week, thus allowing a full exploration of the variance associated with a binary stellar evolution model.
Proposed experiment to test fundamentally binary theories
Kleinmann, Matthias; Vértesi, Tamás; Cabello, Adán
2017-09-01
Fundamentally binary theories are nonsignaling theories in which measurements of many outcomes are constructed by selecting from binary measurements. They constitute a sensible alternative to quantum theory and have never been directly falsified by any experiment. Here we show that fundamentally binary theories are experimentally testable with current technology. For that, we identify a feasible Bell-type experiment on pairs of entangled qutrits. In addition, we prove that, for any n , quantum n -ary correlations are not fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary. For that, we introduce a family of inequalities that hold for fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary theories but are violated by quantum n -ary correlations.
Nelemans, G.
2013-01-01
I review what eLISA will see from Galactic binaries -- double stars with orbital periods less than a few hours and white dwarf (or neutron star/black hole) components. I discuss the currently known binaries that are guaranteed (or verification) sources and explain why the expected total number of eLISA Galactic binaries is several thousand, even though there are large uncertainties in our knowledge of this population, in particular that of the interacting AM CVn systems. I very briefly sketch...
Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit
McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)
2014-12-21
This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.
The symbiotics as binary stars
Plavec, M.J.
1982-01-01
The author envisages at least three models that can give a symbiotic object: He has called them, respectively, the PN symbiotic, the Algol symbiotic, and the novalike symbiotic. Their properties are briefly discussed. The most promising model is one of a binary system in the second stage of mass transfer, actually at the beginning of it: The cool component is a red giant ascending the asymptotic branch, expanding but not yet filling its critical lobe. The hot star is a subdwarf located in the same region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram as the central stars of planetary nebulae. It may be closely related to them, or it may be a helium star, actually a remnant of an Algol primary which underwent the first stage of mass transfer. In these cases, accretion on this star may not play a significant role (PN symbiotic). Perhaps more often, the subdwarf is a ''rejuvenated'' degenerate dwarf whose nuclear burning shells were ignited and are maintained by accretion of material coming from the red giant in the form of a stellar wind. Eruptions are often inevitable: this is the novalike symbiotic. A third alternative is a system in the first stage of mass transfer, where the photons needed for ionization of the nebula come from an accretion disk surrounding a main sequence star: an Algol symbiotic. In spite of considerable observational effort, the symbiotics are known so poorly that it is hard to decide between the models, or even decide if all three can actually exist. (Auth.)
Pulsars in binary systems: probing binary stellar evolution and general relativity.
Stairs, Ingrid H
2004-04-23
Radio pulsars in binary orbits often have short millisecond spin periods as a result of mass transfer from their companion stars. They therefore act as very precise, stable, moving clocks that allow us to investigate a large set of otherwise inaccessible astrophysical problems. The orbital parameters derived from high-precision binary pulsar timing provide constraints on binary evolution, characteristics of the binary pulsar population, and the masses of neutron stars with different mass-transfer histories. These binary systems also test gravitational theories, setting strong limits on deviations from general relativity. Surveys for new pulsars yield new binary systems that increase our understanding of all these fields and may open up whole new areas of physics, as most spectacularly evidenced by the recent discovery of an extremely relativistic double-pulsar system.
CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES
Haghighipour, Nader; Kaltenegger, Lisa
2013-01-01
We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results
CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES
Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)
2013-11-10
We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.
Object-Location-Aware Hashing for Multi-Label Image Retrieval via Automatic Mask Learning.
Huang, Chang-Qin; Yang, Shang-Ming; Pan, Yan; Lai, Han-Jiang
2018-09-01
Learning-based hashing is a leading approach of approximate nearest neighbor search for large-scale image retrieval. In this paper, we develop a deep supervised hashing method for multi-label image retrieval, in which we propose to learn a binary "mask" map that can identify the approximate locations of objects in an image, so that we use this binary "mask" map to obtain length-limited hash codes which mainly focus on an image's objects but ignore the background. The proposed deep architecture consists of four parts: 1) a convolutional sub-network to generate effective image features; 2) a binary "mask" sub-network to identify image objects' approximate locations; 3) a weighted average pooling operation based on the binary "mask" to obtain feature representations and hash codes that pay most attention to foreground objects but ignore the background; and 4) the combination of a triplet ranking loss designed to preserve relative similarities among images and a cross entropy loss defined on image labels. We conduct comprehensive evaluations on four multi-label image data sets. The results indicate that the proposed hashing method achieves superior performance gains over the state-of-the-art supervised or unsupervised hashing baselines.
Competing Environmental Labels
Fischer, Carolyn; Lyon, Thomas P.
2014-01-01
We study markets in which consumers prefer green products but cannot determine the environmental quality of any given firm's product on their own. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) can establish a voluntary standard and label products that comply with it. Alternatively, industry can create its
Markham, Darcy
2005-01-01
The author describes how the language of labels and her own cultural biases affect how she approaches teaching her students with disabilities. The author examines how the mythopoetic narratives of our past force us to examine the underlying assumptions of our culture that are expressed within our language and how understanding our own linguistic…
Nicola Lionetti
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics.
General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes.
Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico
2017-02-01
The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.
General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes
Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico
2017-02-01
The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.
Observations of new Wolf-Rayet binaries
Niemela, V.S.
1982-01-01
The author reports here preliminary results of spectrographic observations for three southern WR stars, whose binary nature had not been previously verified: HDE 320102, CD -45 0 4482, HD 62910. The observations were carried out at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile, mostly with the Cassegrain spectrograph with IT attached to the 1-m reflector. These spectrograms were secured on Kodak IIIaJ emulsion, and have a dispersion of 45 A/mm. The results suggest that HDE 320102 must be a double-lined 05-7 + WN3 spectroscopic binary, that CD -45 0 4482 appears to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary and that HD 62910 may be a binary. (Auth.)
Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7
Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he
Diffusion in ordered binary solid systems
Stolwijk, N.A.
1980-01-01
This thesis contains contributions to the field of diffusion in ordered binary solid systems. An extensive experimental investigation of the self diffusion in CoGa is presented. The results of these diffusion measurements strongly suggest that a substantial part of the atomic migration is caused by a new type of defect. A quantitative description of the atomic displacements via this defect is given. Finally computer simulations are presented of diffusion and ordering in binary solid systems. (Auth.)
An Introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams
Andersen, Henrik Reif
1996-01-01
This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996.......This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996....
Asteroseismic effects in close binary stars
Springer, Ofer M.; Shaviv, Nir J.
2013-09-01
Turbulent processes in the convective envelopes of the Sun and stars have been shown to be a source of internal acoustic excitations. In single stars, acoustic waves having frequencies below a certain cut-off frequency propagate nearly adiabatically and are effectively trapped below the photosphere where they are internally reflected. This reflection essentially occurs where the local wavelength becomes comparable to the pressure scale height. In close binary stars, the sound speed is a constant on equipotentials, while the pressure scale height, which depends on the local effective gravity, varies on equipotentials and may be much greater near the inner Lagrangian point (L1). As a result, waves reaching the vicinity of L1 may propagate unimpeded into low-density regions, where they tend to dissipate quickly due to non-linear and radiative effects. We study the three-dimensional propagation and enhanced damping of such waves inside a set of close binary stellar models using a WKB approximation of the acoustic field. We find that these waves can have much higher damping rates in close binaries, compared to their non-binary counterparts. We also find that the relative distribution of acoustic energy density at the visible surface of close binaries develops a ring-like feature at specific acoustic frequencies and binary separations.
Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.
Zhenhua Guo
Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.
Origin of very-short orbital-period binary systems
Miyaji, S.
1983-01-01
Recent observations of four close binaries have established that there is a group of very-short orbital-period (VSOP) binaries whose orbital periods are less than 60 minutes. The VSOP binaries consist of both X-ray close binaries and cataclysmic variables. Their orbital periods are too short to have a main-sequence companion. However, four binaries, none of which belongs to any globular cluster, are too abundant to be explained by the capturing mechanism of a white dwarf. Therefore it seemed to be worthwhile to present an evolutionary scenario from an original binary system which can be applied for all VSOP binaries. (Auth.)
Gas dynamics of semidetached binaries
Lubow, S.H.; Shu, F.H.
1975-01-01
We analyze the gas dynamics of semidetached binary systems within the context of the Rohce model. With the adoption of the assumptions that the contact component rotates synchronously and that the flow occurs isothermally with the thermal speed being a small fraction epsilon of the relative orbital speed, Ωd, of the two stars, we show that the steady flow can be formulated in terms of a problem with multiple length scales. Using this concept, we demonstrate the following by semianalytical methods. (1) The escape of material from the surface of the contact component is accomplished by a highly nonisotropic stellar wind which reaches sonic velocities in a neighborhood of the inner Lagrangian point, L1, of size epsilon in comparison with the orbit separation d. (2) This wind throttles into a narrow stram of material which makes a prescribed angle with respect to the line joining the stellar centers ranging from 19 0 5 to 28 0 4 for the full range of possible stellar mass ratios. (3) The width of the stream scales epsilond while its density scales with epsilon -2 M-dot/Ωd 3 , where M-dot is the mass transfer rate. (4) The stream width remains nearly constant over the part of the stream which is nearly straight, and narrows somewhat as the stream curves toward the detached component. (5) If the detached component is smaller than a certain specified size, the stream results in the formation of a disk of material of prescribed size orbiting the detached component in a direct sense. A subsidi []ry issue examined briefly in this paper is the flow mechanism responsible for moving material to the equator of the contact component, and from there to the L1 region where it is lost by the directed stellar wind. Comparisons of our work are made with previous theoretical studies, and some applications are indicated
Spin labels. Applications in biology
Frangopol, T.P.; Frangopol, M.; Ionescu, S.M.; Pop, I.V.; Benga, G.
1980-11-01
The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)
Efficiently enclosing the compact binary parameter space by singular-value decomposition
Cannon, Kipp; Hanna, Chad; Keppel, Drew
2011-01-01
Gravitational-wave searches for the merger of compact binaries use matched filtering as the method of detecting signals and estimating parameters. Such searches construct a fine mesh of filters covering a signal parameter space at high density. Previously it has been shown that singular-value decomposition can reduce the effective number of filters required to search the data. Here we study how the basis provided by the singular-value decomposition changes dimension as a function of template-bank density. We will demonstrate that it is sufficient to use the basis provided by the singular-value decomposition of a low-density bank to accurately reconstruct arbitrary points within the boundaries of the template bank. Since this technique is purely numerical, it may have applications to interpolating the space of numerical relativity waveforms.
Binaries and triples among asteroid pairs
Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Galád, Adrián
2015-08-01
Despite major achievements obtained during the past two decades, our knowledge of the population and properties of small binary and multiple asteroid systems is still far from advanced. There is a numerous indirect evidence for that most small asteroid systems were formed by rotational fission of cohesionless parent asteroids that were spun up to the critical frequency presumably by YORP, but details of the process are lacking. Furthermore, as we proceed with observations of more and more binary and paired asteroids, we reveal new facts that substantially refine and sometimes change our understanding of the asteroid systems. One significant new finding we have recently obtained is that primaries of many asteroid pairs are actually binary or triple systems. The first such case found is (3749) Balam (Vokrouhlický, ApJL 706, L37, 2009). We have found 9 more binary systems among asteroid pairs within our ongoing NEOSource photometric project since October 2012. They are (6369) 1983 UC, (8306) Shoko, (9783) Tensho-kan, (10123) Fideoja, (21436) Chaoyichi, (43008) 1999 UD31, (44620) 1999 RS43, (46829) 1998 OS14 and (80218) 1999 VO123. We will review their characteristics. These paired binaries as we call them are mostly similar to binaries in the general ("background") population (of unpaired asteroids), but there are a few trends. The paired binaries tend to have larger secondaries with D_2/D_1 = 0.3 to 0.5 and they also tend to be wider systems with 8 of the 10 having orbital periods between 30 and 81 hours, than average among binaries in the general population. There may be also a larger fraction of triples; (3749) Balam is a confirmed triple, having a larger close and a smaller distant satellite, and (8306) Shoko and (10123) Fideoja are suspect triples as they show additional rotational lightcurve components with periods of 61 and 38.8 h that differ from the orbital period of 36.2 and 56.5 h, respectively. The unbound secondaries tend to be of the same size or
Close-binary central stars of planetary nebulae
Bond, H.E.; Grauer, A.D.
1987-01-01
Recent observations of PN central stars identified as binary systems are reviewed. The theoretical significance of binary central stars is discussed, and the characteristics of UU Sge, V 477 Lyr, MT Ser, LSS 2018, VW Pyx, and the central star of HFG 1 are briefly summarized. All of these binaries are shown to have periods less than 1 day, and it is estimated that about 10 percent of all binary central stars are close binaries. 27 references
Modeling the effects of labeling
Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig
A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...
Isotopically labelled benzodiazepines
Liebman, A.A.
1987-01-01
This paper reports on the benzodiazepines which are a class of therapeutic agents. Improvements in the analytical methodology in the areas of biochemistry and pharmacology were significant, particularly in the application of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the discovery and subsequent development of tritium and carbon-14 as an analytical tool in the biological sciences were essentially post-world war II phenomena. Thus, as these new chemical entities were found to be biologically active, they could be prepared in labeled form for metabolic study, biological half-life determination (pharmacokinetics), tissue distribution study, etc. This use of tracer methodology has been liberally applied to the benzodiazepines and also more recently to the study of receptor-ligand interactions, in which tritium, carbon-11 or fluorine-18 isotopes have been used. The history of benzodiazepines as medicinal agents is indeed an interesting one; an integral part of that history is their use in just about every conceivable labeled form
Reiter, Megan
2017-08-01
Fewer wide-separation binaries are found in dense stellar clusters than in looser stellar associations. It is therefore unclear whether feedback in clusters prevents the formation of multiple systems or dynamical interactions destroy them. Measuring the prevalence of close, bound binary systems provide a key test to distinguish between these possibilities. Systems with separations of 10-50 AU will survive interactions in the cluster environment, and therefore are more representative of the natal population of multiple systems. By fitting a double-star PSF, we will identify visual binaries in the Orion Nebula with separations as small as 0.03. At the distance of Orion, this corresponds to a physical separation of 12 AU, effectively closing the observational gap in the binary separation distribution left between known visual and spectroscopic binaries (>65 AU or PhD thesis.
Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.
Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao
2013-01-01
Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.
Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction
Xiang eWu
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.
Beyond binaries : a way forward for comparativeeducation
Marianne Larsen
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Binary discourses shape and produce the stories we construct about the field of comparative education. In the first part of this article, I review a set of binary discourses that have characterized social science research since the Enlightenment, including: quantitative-qualitative, nomotheticidiographic, inductive-deductive, and practice-theory. We can think of each of these binaries at opposite ends of a set of spectrums. In the second section of the paper, I show some of the ways in which these binaries have influenced the ways that we write and talk about research within the field of comparative education. I refer to the notion of binary discourses and the productive capacity of these discourses to shape our field. I then outline some critiques of these binaries to demonstrate the inherent limitations of binary discourses, and why we need to move beyond binaries in our research, and in the histories about our field. Finally, I present some tentative conclusions on ways to get ourselves out of the trap of binary thinking.Los discursos binarios moldean y producen los argumentos que construimos sobre la disciplina de la Educación Comparada. En la primera parte de este artículo, analizo un conjunto de discursos binarios que han caracterizado la investigación en Ciencias Sociales desde la Ilustración, incluyendo la cuantitativa-cualitativa, nomotética-idiográfica, inductivadeductiva, y la práctica-teoría. Podemos pensar sobre cada uno de estos discursos binarios como argumentos en los polos de un conjunto de posibilidades. En la segunda sección del artículo, revelo algunos modos en los que estos discursos binarios han influenciado las formas a través de las cuales escribimos y analizamos la investigación en el ámbito de la Educación Comparada. Analizo la noción de discursos binarios y la capacidad productiva de estos discursos de impactar nuestra ciencia. Seguidamente expongo algunas críticas de estos discursos binarios con el
Review of nutrition labeling formats.
Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G
1991-07-01
This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.
The binary white dwarf LHS 3236
Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Canzian, Blaise; Guetter, Harry H.; Levine, Stephen E.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Monet, Alice K. B.; Stone, Ronald C.; Subasavage, John P.; Tilleman, Trudy; Walker, Richard L. [US Naval Observatory, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hartkopf, William I. [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109 (Australia); Leggett, S. K., E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)
2013-12-10
The white dwarf LHS 3236 (WD1639+153) is shown to be a double-degenerate binary, with each component having a high mass. Astrometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory gives a parallax and distance of 30.86 ± 0.25 pc and a tangential velocity of 98 km s{sup –1}, and reveals binary orbital motion. The orbital parameters are determined from astrometry of the photocenter over more than three orbits of the 4.0 yr period. High-resolution imaging at the Keck Observatory resolves the pair with a separation of 31 and 124 mas at two epochs. Optical and near-IR photometry give a set of possible binary components. Consistency of all data indicates that the binary is a pair of DA stars with temperatures near 8000 and 7400 K and with masses of 0.93 and 0.91 M {sub ☉}; also possible is a DA primary and a helium DC secondary with temperatures near 8800 and 6000 K and with masses of 0.98 and 0.69 M {sub ☉}. In either case, the cooling ages of the stars are ∼3 Gyr and the total ages are <4 Gyr. The combined mass of the binary (1.66-1.84 M {sub ☉}) is well above the Chandrasekhar limit; however, the timescale for coalescence is long.
Investigating Dark Energy with Black Hole Binaries
Mersini-Houghton, Laura; Kelleher, Adam
2009-01-01
The accelerated expansion of the universe is ascribed to the existence of dark energy. Black holes accrete dark energy. The accretion induces a mass change proportional to the energy density and pressure of the background dark energy fluid. The time scale during which the mass of black holes changes considerably is long relative to the age of the universe, thus beyond detection possibilities. We propose to take advantage of the modified black hole masses for exploring the equation of state w[z] of dark energy, by investigating the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries on a dark energy background. Deriving the signatures of dark energy accretion on the evolution of binaries, we find that dark energy imprints on the emitted gravitational radiation and on the changes in the orbital radius of the binary can be within detection limits for certain supermassive black hole binaries. This talk describes how binaries can provide a useful tool in obtaining complementary information on the nature of dark energy.
Star formation history: Modeling of visual binaries
Gebrehiwot, Y. M.; Tessema, S. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sytov, A. Yu.; Tutukov, A. V.
2018-05-01
Most stars form in binary or multiple systems. Their evolution is defined by masses of components, orbital separation and eccentricity. In order to understand star formation and evolutionary processes, it is vital to find distributions of physical parameters of binaries. We have carried out Monte Carlo simulations in which we simulate different pairing scenarios: random pairing, primary-constrained pairing, split-core pairing, and total and primary pairing in order to get distributions of binaries over physical parameters at birth. Next, for comparison with observations, we account for stellar evolution and selection effects. Brightness, radius, temperature, and other parameters of components are assigned or calculated according to approximate relations for stars in different evolutionary stages (main-sequence stars, red giants, white dwarfs, relativistic objects). Evolutionary stage is defined as a function of system age and component masses. We compare our results with the observed IMF, binarity rate, and binary mass-ratio distributions for field visual binaries to find initial distributions and pairing scenarios that produce observed distributions.
Xu, Danfeng; Gu, Bing; Rui, Guanghao; Zhan, Qiwen; Cui, Yiping
2016-02-22
We present an arbitrary vector field with hybrid polarization based on the combination of a pair of orthogonal elliptically polarized base vectors on the Poincaré sphere. It is shown that the created vector field is only dependent on the latitude angle 2χ but is independent on the longitude angle 2ψ on the Poincaré sphere. By adjusting the latitude angle 2χ, which is related to two identical waveplates in a common path interferometric arrangement, one could obtain arbitrary type of vector fields. Experimentally, we demonstrate the generation of such kind of vector fields and confirm the distribution of state of polarization by the measurement of Stokes parameters. Besides, we investigate the tight focusing properties of these vector fields. It is found that the additional degree of freedom 2χ provided by arbitrary vector field with hybrid polarization allows one to control the spatial structure of polarization and to engineer the focusing field.
On the Face of it: Exploring the Interaction Between Racial and Arbitrary Group Recognition
Eva Berlot
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The cross-race effect – enhanced recognition of racial ingroup faces – has been justified to exist in other categories, such as arbitrary groups. This study aimed to investigate the effect of crossing racial (black/white and arbitrary (blue/yellow categories, in addition to the role of facial expressions in this phenomenon. 120 Caucasian students (from the UK, Macedonia, and Portugal performed a discrimination task (judging faces as new vs. previously seen. Using a within-subjects design, reaction times and accuracy were measured. We hypothesized that (1 the arbitrary group membership of faces would moderate the cross-race effect and (2 the racial group membership of faces would moderate the usual recognition advantage for happy faces.
Dispersion in a thermal plasma including arbitrary degeneracy and quantum recoil.
Melrose, D B; Mushtaq, A
2010-11-01
The longitudinal response function for a thermal electron gas is calculated including two quantum effects exactly, degeneracy, and the quantum recoil. The Fermi-Dirac distribution is expanded in powers of a parameter that is small in the nondegenerate limit and the response function is evaluated in terms of the conventional plasma dispersion function to arbitrary order in this parameter. The infinite sum is performed in terms of polylogarithms in the long-wavelength and quasistatic limits, giving results that apply for arbitrary degeneracy. The results are applied to the dispersion relations for Langmuir waves and to screening, reproducing known results in the nondegenerate and completely degenerate limits, and generalizing them to arbitrary degeneracy.
Electromagnetic complementary media with arbitrary geometries and non-conformal boundaries
Liu, Guochang; Li, Chao; Chen, Chao; Fang, Guangyou
2014-06-01
A generalized folded transformation procedure is presented for the space with arbitrary shapes. General expressions for the constitute parameters of complementary media are deduced, which can be readily applied to design complementary media based transformation optics devices (CMTOD) with arbitrary shapes. It's no longer limited to the situation when the inner and outer boundaries of the CMTOD are conformal or similar shapes, and can be available for the non-conformal situations. Three kinds of CMTOD are designed and studied, which involves a super-lens, an external cloak that hides object outside the cloaking shell, and an illusion optics device that transforms one object to another. Full-wave simulations are carried out to validate the proposed approach. The generalization introduced here makes a step forward for the flexible design of CMTOD with arbitrary geometries.
Entanglement of a two-atom system driven by the quantum vacuum in arbitrary cavity size
Flores-Hidalgo, G., E-mail: gfloreshidalgo@unifei.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Química, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, 37500-903, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Rojas, M., E-mail: moises.leyva@dfi.ufla.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Lavras, CP 3037, 37200-000, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Rojas, Onofre, E-mail: ors@dfi.ufla.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Lavras, CP 3037, 37200-000, Lavras, MG (Brazil)
2017-05-10
We study the entanglement dynamics of two distinguishable atoms confined into a cavity and interacting with a quantum vacuum field. As a simplified model for this system, we consider two harmonic oscillators linearly coupled to a massless scalar field which are inside a spherical cavity of radius R. Through the concurrence, the entanglement dynamics for the two-atom system is discussed for a range of initial states composed of a superposition of atomic states. Our results reveal how the entanglement of the two atoms behaves through the time evolution, in a precise way, for arbitrary cavity size and for arbitrary coupling constant. All our computations are analytical and only the final step is numerical. - Highlights: • Entanglement time evolution in arbitrary cavity size is considered. • In free space concurrence approaches a fixed value at large time. • For finite cavity, concurrence behaves almost as a periodic function of time.
Development of a 2-D Simplified P3 FEM Solver for Arbitrary Geometry Applications
Ryu, Eun Hyun; Joo, Han Gyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2010-10-15
In the calculation of power distributions and multiplication factors in a nuclear reactor, the Finite Difference Method (FDM) and the nodal methods are primarily used. These methods are, however, limited to particular geometries and lack general application involving arbitrary geometries. The Finite Element Method (FEM) can be employed for arbitrary geometry application and there are numerous FEM codes to solve the neutron diffusion equation or the Sn transport equation. The diffusion based FEM codes have the drawback of inferior accuracy while the Sn based ones require a considerable computing time. This work here is to seek a compromise between these two by employing the simplified P3 (SP3) method for arbitrary geometry applications. Sufficient accuracy with affordable computing time and resources would be achieved with this choice of approximate transport solution when compared to full FEM based Pn or Sn solutions. For now only 2-D solver is considered
Linerless label device and method
Binladen, Abdulkari
2016-01-14
This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.
DNA-directed self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into binary and ternary nanostructures
Yao Hui; Yi Changqing; Tzang Chihung; Zhu Junjie; Yang Mengsu
2007-01-01
The assembly and characterization of gold nanoparticle-based binary and ternary structures are reported. Two strategies were used to assemble gold nanoparticles into ordered nanoscale architectures: in strategy 1, gold nanoparticles were functionalized with single-strand DNA (ssDNA) first, and then hybridized with complementary ssDNA-labelled nanoparticles to assemble designed architectures. In strategy 2, the designed architectures were constructed through hybridization between complementary ssDNA first, then by assembling gold nanoparticles to the scaffolding through gold-sulfur bonds. Both TEM measurements and agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed that the latter strategy is more efficient in generating the designed nanostructures
EVOLUTION OF THE BINARY FRACTION IN DENSE STELLAR SYSTEMS
Fregeau, John M.; Ivanova, Natalia; Rasio, Frederic A.
2009-01-01
Using our recently improved Monte Carlo evolution code, we study the evolution of the binary fraction in globular clusters. In agreement with previous N-body simulations, we find generally that the hard binary fraction in the core tends to increase with time over a range of initial cluster central densities for initial binary fractions ∼<90%. The dominant processes driving the evolution of the core binary fraction are mass segregation of binaries into the cluster core and preferential destruction of binaries there. On a global scale, these effects and the preferential tidal stripping of single stars tend to roughly balance, leading to overall cluster binary fractions that are roughly constant with time. Our findings suggest that the current hard binary fraction near the half-mass radius is a good indicator of the hard primordial binary fraction. However, the relationship between the true binary fraction and the fraction of main-sequence stars in binaries (which is typically what observers measure) is nonlinear and rather complicated. We also consider the importance of soft binaries, which not only modify the evolution of the binary fraction, but can also drastically change the evolution of the cluster as a whole. Finally, we briefly describe the recent addition of single and binary stellar evolution to our cluster evolution code.
Multipole expansion of acoustical Bessel beams with arbitrary order and location.
Gong, Zhixiong; Marston, Philip L; Li, Wei; Chai, Yingbin
2017-06-01
An exact solution of expansion coefficients for a T-matrix method interacting with acoustic scattering of arbitrary order Bessel beams from an obstacle of arbitrary location is derived analytically. Because of the failure of the addition theorem for spherical harmonics for expansion coefficients of helicoidal Bessel beams, an addition theorem for cylindrical Bessel functions is introduced. Meanwhile, an analytical expression for the integral of products including Bessel and associated Legendre functions is applied to eliminate the integration over the polar angle. Note that this multipole expansion may also benefit other scattering methods and expansions of incident waves, for instance, partial-wave series solutions.
Analysis of high aspect ratio jet flap wings of arbitrary geometry.
Lissaman, P. B. S.
1973-01-01
Paper presents a design technique for rapidly computing lift, induced drag, and spanwise loading of unswept jet flap wings of arbitrary thickness, chord, twist, blowing, and jet angle, including discontinuities. Linear theory is used, extending Spence's method for elliptically loaded jet flap wings. Curves for uniformly blown rectangular wings are presented for direct performance estimation. Arbitrary planforms require a simple computer program. Method of reducing wing to equivalent stretched, twisted, unblown planform for hand calculation is also given. Results correlate with limited existing data, and show lifting line theory is reasonable down to aspect ratios of 5.
CHENG Min; TANG Tiantong; YAO Zhenhua; ZHU Jingping
2001-01-01
Differential algebraic method is apowerful technique in computer numerical analysisbased on nonstandard analysis and formal series the-ory. It can compute arbitrary high order derivativeswith excellent accuracy. The principle of differentialalgebraic method is applied to calculate high orderaberrations of combined electromagnetic focusing sys-tems. As an example, third-order geometric aberra-tion coefficients of an actual combined electromagneticfocusing system were calculated. The arbitrary highorder aberrations are conveniently calculated by dif-ferential algebraic method and the fifth-order aberra-tion diagrams are given.
Goel, Narendra S.; Rozehnal, Ivan; Thompson, Richard L.
1991-01-01
A computer-graphics-based model, named DIANA, is presented for generation of objects of arbitrary shape and for calculating bidirectional reflectances and scattering from them, in the visible and infrared region. The computer generation is based on a modified Lindenmayer system approach which makes it possible to generate objects of arbitrary shapes and to simulate their growth, dynamics, and movement. Rendering techniques are used to display an object on a computer screen with appropriate shading and shadowing and to calculate the scattering and reflectance from the object. The technique is illustrated with scattering from canopies of simulated corn plants.
Nonlocal electron heat relaxation in a plasma shock at arbitrary ionization number
Ramirez, J.; Sanmartin, J.R.; Fernandez-Feria, R.
1993-01-01
A recently obtained nonlocal expression for the electron heat flux valid for arbitrary ionization numbers Z is used to study the structure of a plane shock wave in a fully ionized plasma. Nonlocal effects are only important in the foot of the electronic preheating region, where the electron temperature gradient is the steepest. The results are quantified as a function of a characteristic Knudsen number of that region. This work also generalizes to arbitrary values of Z previous results on plasma shock wave structure
An algorithm for solving an arbitrary triangular fully fuzzy Sylvester matrix equations
Daud, Wan Suhana Wan; Ahmad, Nazihah; Malkawi, Ghassan
2017-11-01
Sylvester matrix equations played a prominent role in various areas including control theory. Considering to any un-certainty problems that can be occurred at any time, the Sylvester matrix equation has to be adapted to the fuzzy environment. Therefore, in this study, an algorithm for solving an arbitrary triangular fully fuzzy Sylvester matrix equation is constructed. The construction of the algorithm is based on the max-min arithmetic multiplication operation. Besides that, an associated arbitrary matrix equation is modified in obtaining the final solution. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the proposed algorithm.
DAIHong-Yi; KUANGLe-Man; LICheng-Zu
2005-01-01
We propose a scheme to probabilistically teleport an unknown arbitrary three-level two-particle state by using two partial entangled two-particle states of three-level as the quantum channel. The classical communication cost required in the ideal probabilistic teleportation process is also calculated. This scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown and arbitrary three-level K-particle state by using K partial entangled two-particle states of three-level as the quantum channel.
Non-Bell-pair quantum channel for teleporting an arbitrary two-qubit state
Zha Xinwei; Song Haiyang
2007-01-01
Recently, Yeo and Chua [Y. Yeo, W.K. Chua, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 060502] gave a protocol for faithfully teleporting an arbitrary two-qubit state via a genuine four-qubit entangled state, which is not reducible to a pair of Bell state. Here, we present a 'transformation operator' to give a criterion for faithful teleportation of an arbitrary two-qubit state via a four-qubit entangled state. The theoretical explanations of some quantum channels are given in term of transformation operators. The relation between the transformation operators and the Bell base measurement is also obtained. Furthermore, a new four-qubit entangled state quantum channel is presented
Cheng Min; Tang Tiantong; Lu Yilong; Yao Zhenhua
2003-01-01
The principle of differential algebra is applied to analyse and calculate arbitrary order curvilinear-axis combined geometric-chromatic aberrations of electron optical systems. Expressions of differential algebraic form of high order combined aberrations are obtained and arbitrary order combined aberrations can be calculated numerically. As an example, a typical wide electron beam focusing system with curved optical axes named magnetic immersion lens has been studied. All the second-order and third-order combined geometric-chromatic aberrations of the lens have been calculated, and the patterns of the corresponding geometric aberrations and combined aberrations have been given as well
He, Xiao; Wu, Linzhi
2014-01-01
The previously reported magical thermal devices, such as the thermal invisible cloak and the thermal concentrator, are generalized into one general case named here thermal illusion device. The thermal illusion device is displayed by the design of a thermal reshaper which can reshape an arbitrary thermal object into another one with arbitrary cross section. General expressions of the material parameters for the thermal reshaper are derived unambiguously to greatly facilitate the design of general thermal illusion device. We believe that this work will broaden the current research and pave a path to the thermal invisibility. Numerical simulations show good agreement with the analytical results of the thermal illusion device
He, Xiao; Wu, Linzhi, E-mail: wlz@hit.edu.cn [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)
2014-12-01
The previously reported magical thermal devices, such as the thermal invisible cloak and the thermal concentrator, are generalized into one general case named here thermal illusion device. The thermal illusion device is displayed by the design of a thermal reshaper which can reshape an arbitrary thermal object into another one with arbitrary cross section. General expressions of the material parameters for the thermal reshaper are derived unambiguously to greatly facilitate the design of general thermal illusion device. We believe that this work will broaden the current research and pave a path to the thermal invisibility. Numerical simulations show good agreement with the analytical results of the thermal illusion device.
Hybrid Black-Hole Binary Initial Data
Mundim, Bruno C.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela
2010-01-01
"Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class. Quantum Grav. 27:114005 (2010)], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculations was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features."
Optimized reversible binary-coded decimal adders
Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Glück, Robert
2008-01-01
Abstract Babu and Chowdhury [H.M.H. Babu, A.R. Chowdhury, Design of a compact reversible binary coded decimal adder circuit, Journal of Systems Architecture 52 (5) (2006) 272-282] recently proposed, in this journal, a reversible adder for binary-coded decimals. This paper corrects and optimizes...... their design. The optimized 1-decimal BCD full-adder, a 13 × 13 reversible logic circuit, is faster, and has lower circuit cost and less garbage bits. It can be used to build a fast reversible m-decimal BCD full-adder that has a delay of only m + 17 low-power reversible CMOS gates. For a 32-decimal (128-bit....... Keywords: Reversible logic circuit; Full-adder; Half-adder; Parallel adder; Binary-coded decimal; Application of reversible logic synthesis...
A binary mixture operated heat pump
Hihara, E.; Saito, T.
1991-01-01
This paper evaluates the performance of possible binary mixtures as working fluids in high- temperature heat pump applications. The binary mixtures, which are potential alternatives of fully halogenated hydrocarbons, include HCFC142b/HCFC22, HFC152a/HCFC22, HFC134a/HCFC22. The performance of the mixtures is estimated by a thermodynamic model and a practical model in which the heat transfer is considered in heat exchangers. One of the advantages of binary mixtures is a higher coefficient of performance, which is caused by the small temperature difference between the heat-sink/-source fluid and the refrigerant. The mixture HCFC142b/HCFC22 is promising from the stand point of thermodynamic performance
TIDAL NOVAE IN COMPACT BINARY WHITE DWARFS
Fuller, Jim; Lai Dong
2012-01-01
Compact binary white dwarfs (WDs) undergoing orbital decay due to gravitational radiation can experience significant tidal heating prior to merger. In these WDs, the dominant tidal effect involves the excitation of outgoing gravity waves in the inner stellar envelope and the dissipation of these waves in the outer envelope. As the binary orbit decays, the WDs are synchronized from outside in (with the envelope synchronized first, followed by the core). We examine the deposition of tidal heat in the envelope of a carbon-oxygen WD and study how such tidal heating affects the structure and evolution of the WD. We show that significant tidal heating can occur in the star's degenerate hydrogen layer. This layer heats up faster than it cools, triggering runaway nuclear fusion. Such 'tidal novae' may occur in all WD binaries containing a CO WD, at orbital periods between 5 minutes and 20 minutes, and precede the final merger by 10 5 -10 6 years.
Compact binary hashing for music retrieval
Seo, Jin S.
2014-03-01
With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.
Reconciliation with non-binary species trees.
Vernot, Benjamin; Stolzer, Maureen; Goldman, Aiton; Durand, Dannie
2008-10-01
Reconciliation extracts information from the topological incongruence between gene and species trees to infer duplications and losses in the history of a gene family. The inferred duplication-loss histories provide valuable information for a broad range of biological applications, including ortholog identification, estimating gene duplication times, and rooting and correcting gene trees. While reconciliation for binary trees is a tractable and well studied problem, there are no algorithms for reconciliation with non-binary species trees. Yet a striking proportion of species trees are non-binary. For example, 64% of branch points in the NCBI taxonomy have three or more children. When applied to non-binary species trees, current algorithms overestimate the number of duplications because they cannot distinguish between duplication and incomplete lineage sorting. We present the first algorithms for reconciling binary gene trees with non-binary species trees under a duplication-loss parsimony model. Our algorithms utilize an efficient mapping from gene to species trees to infer the minimum number of duplications in O(|V(G) | x (k(S) + h(S))) time, where |V(G)| is the number of nodes in the gene tree, h(S) is the height of the species tree and k(S) is the size of its largest polytomy. We present a dynamic programming algorithm which also minimizes the total number of losses. Although this algorithm is exponential in the size of the largest polytomy, it performs well in practice for polytomies with outdegree of 12 or less. We also present a heuristic which estimates the minimal number of losses in polynomial time. In empirical tests, this algorithm finds an optimal loss history 99% of the time. Our algorithms have been implemented in NOTUNG, a robust, production quality, tree-fitting program, which provides a graphical user interface for exploratory analysis and also supports automated, high-throughput analysis of large data sets.
Buncel, E.; Jones, J.R.
1991-01-01
Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs
Microlensing Binaries Discovered through High-magnification Channel
Shin, I.-G.; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, S.-Y.
2012-01-01
Microlensing can provide a useful tool to probe binary distributions down to low-mass limits of binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of eight binary-lensing events detected through the channel of high-magnification events during the seasons from 2007 to 2010. The perturba......Microlensing can provide a useful tool to probe binary distributions down to low-mass limits of binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of eight binary-lensing events detected through the channel of high-magnification events during the seasons from 2007 to 2010...
Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya
2013-01-01
because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use......This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...
Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states
Kish, Laszlo B. [Texas A and M University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College Station, TX 77843-3128 (United States)], E-mail: laszlo.kish@ece.tamu.edu
2009-03-02
A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case (N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also non-existent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinusoidal signals (different frequency or orthogonal phase) however that has an extra 1/N type slowdown compared to the noise-based logic system with increasing number of N furthermore it is less robust against time delay effects than the noise-based counterpart.
Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states
Kish, Laszlo B.
2009-01-01
A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case (N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also non-existent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinusoidal signals (different frequency or orthogonal phase) however that has an extra 1/N type slowdown compared to the noise-based logic system with increasing number of N furthermore it is less robust against time delay effects than the noise-based counterpart
Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states
Kish, Laszlo B.
2009-03-01
A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case ( N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also non-existent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinusoidal signals (different frequency or orthogonal phase) however that has an extra 1/N type slowdown compared to the noise-based logic system with increasing number of N furthermore it is less robust against time delay effects than the noise-based counterpart.
Inducing Risk Neutral Preferences with Binary Lotteries
Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd
2013-01-01
validity of any strategic equilibrium behavior, or even the customary independence axiom. We show that subjects sampled from our population are generally risk averse when lotteries are defined over monetary outcomes, and that the binary lottery procedure does indeed induce a statistically significant shift......We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior. We strip the experimental implementation down to bare bones, taking care to avoid any potentially confounding assumptions about behavior having to be made. In particular, our evaluation does not rely on the assumed...... toward risk neutrality. This striking result generalizes to the case in which subjects make several lottery choices and one is selected for payment....
A simple model for binary star evolution
Whyte, C.A.; Eggleton, P.P.
1985-01-01
A simple model for calculating the evolution of binary stars is presented. Detailed stellar evolution calculations of stars undergoing mass and energy transfer at various rates are reported and used to identify the dominant physical processes which determine the type of evolution. These detailed calculations are used to calibrate the simple model and a comparison of calculations using the detailed stellar evolution equations and the simple model is made. Results of the evolution of a few binary systems are reported and compared with previously published calculations using normal stellar evolution programs. (author)
Non-binary or genderqueer genders
Richards, Christina; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Seal, Leighton; Barker, Meg John; Nieder, Timo O; T'Sjoen, Guy
2016-01-01
Some people have a gender which is neither male nor female and may identify as both male and female at one time, as different genders at different times, as no gender at all, or dispute the very idea of only two genders. The umbrella terms for such genders are genderqueer' or non-binary' genders. Such gender identities outside of the binary of female and male are increasingly being recognized in legal, medical and psychological systems and diagnostic classifications in line with the emerging ...
Applications Of Binary Image Analysis Techniques
Tropf, H.; Enderle, E.; Kammerer, H. P.
1983-10-01
After discussing the conditions where binary image analysis techniques can be used, three new applications of the fast binary image analysis system S.A.M. (Sensorsystem for Automation and Measurement) are reported: (1) The human view direction is measured at TV frame rate while the subject's head is free movable. (2) Industrial parts hanging on a moving conveyor are classified prior to spray painting by robot. (3) In automotive wheel assembly, the eccentricity of the wheel is minimized by turning the tyre relative to the rim in order to balance the eccentricity of the components.
Sputtering yield calculation for binary target
Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Rodriguez-Vidal, M.; Valles-Abarca, J.A.
1979-01-01
The generalization for binary targets, of the ideas proposed by Sigmund for monoatomic targets, leads to a set of coupled intergrodifferential equations for the sputtering functions. After moment decomposition, the final formulae are obtained by the standard method based on the Laplace Transform, where the inverse transform is made with the aid of asymptotic expansions in the limit of very high projectile energy as compared to the surface binding energy. The possible loss of stoichiometry for binary targets is analyzed. Comparison of computed values of sputtering yield for normal incidence, with experimental results shows good agreement. (author)
Binary Sparse Phase Retrieval via Simulated Annealing
Wei Peng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the Simulated Annealing Sparse PhAse Recovery (SASPAR algorithm for reconstructing sparse binary signals from their phaseless magnitudes of the Fourier transform. The greedy strategy version is also proposed for a comparison, which is a parameter-free algorithm. Sufficient numeric simulations indicate that our method is quite effective and suggest the binary model is robust. The SASPAR algorithm seems competitive to the existing methods for its efficiency and high recovery rate even with fewer Fourier measurements.
Testing the Binary Black Hole Nature of a Compact Binary Coalescence.
Krishnendu, N V; Arun, K G; Mishra, Chandra Kant
2017-09-01
We propose a novel method to test the binary black hole nature of compact binaries detectable by gravitational wave (GW) interferometers and, hence, constrain the parameter space of other exotic compact objects. The spirit of the test lies in the "no-hair" conjecture for black holes where all properties of a Kerr black hole are characterized by its mass and spin. The method relies on observationally measuring the quadrupole moments of the compact binary constituents induced due to their spins. If the compact object is a Kerr black hole (BH), its quadrupole moment is expressible solely in terms of its mass and spin. Otherwise, the quadrupole moment can depend on additional parameters (such as the equation of state of the object). The higher order spin effects in phase and amplitude of a gravitational waveform, which explicitly contains the spin-induced quadrupole moments of compact objects, hence, uniquely encode the nature of the compact binary. Thus, we argue that an independent measurement of the spin-induced quadrupole moment of the compact binaries from GW observations can provide a unique way to distinguish binary BH systems from binaries consisting of exotic compact objects.
The fate of close encounters between binary stars and binary supermassive black holes
Wang, Yi-Han; Leigh, Nathan; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Perna, Rosalba
2018-04-01
The evolution of main-sequence binaries that reside in the Galactic Centre can be heavily influenced by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Due to these perturbative effects, the stellar binaries in dense environments are likely to experience mergers, collisions, or ejections through secular and/or non-secular interactions. More direct interactions with the central SMBH are thought to produce hypervelocity stars (HVSs) and tidal disruption events (TDEs). In this paper, we use N-body simulations to study the dynamics of stellar binaries orbiting a central SMBH primary with an outer SMBH secondary orbiting this inner triple. The effects of the secondary SMBH on the event rates of HVSs, TDEs, and stellar mergers are investigated, as a function of the SMBH-SMBH binary mass ratio. Our numerical experiments reveal that, relative to the isolated SMBH case, the TDE and HVS rates are enhanced for, respectively, the smallest and largest mass ratio SMBH-SMBH binaries. This suggests that the observed event rates of TDEs and HVSs have the potential to serve as a diagnostic of the mass ratio of a central SMBH-SMBH binary. The presence of a secondary SMBH also allows for the creation of hypervelocity binaries. Observations of these systems could thus constrain the presence of a secondary SMBH in the Galactic Centre.
CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES
Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Haghighipour, Nader, E-mail: kaltenegger@mpia.de [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)
2013-11-10
We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries α Cen AB and HD 196886.
CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES
Kaltenegger, Lisa; Haghighipour, Nader
2013-01-01
We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries α Cen AB and HD 196886
Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays
Amir Syahir
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano‑biological events.
BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS
Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo
2015-01-01
Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to
BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS
Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Mikkola, Seppo, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Seppo.Mikkola@utu.fi [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, Piikkiö (Finland)
2015-04-15
Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to
3-D analysis of Maxwell's equations for cavities of arbitrary shape
Whealton, J.H.; Chen, G.L.; McGaffey, R.W.; Raridon, R.J.; Jaeger, E.F.; Bell, M.A.; Hoffman, D.J.
1986-03-01
A three-dimensional analysis of cavity antennas is presented. The analysis is based on the finite difference method with a successive overrelaxation convergence scheme. This method permits the calculation of resonance frequencies and corresponding electric and magnetic fields of eigenmodes in a cavity antenna with an arbitrary shape. 12 refs., 8 figs
The Arbitrariness of the Sign: Learning Advantages from the Structure of the Vocabulary
Monaghan, Padraic; Christiansen, Morten H.; Fitneva, Stanka A.
2011-01-01
Recent research has demonstrated that systematic mappings between phonological word forms and their meanings can facilitate language learning (e.g., in the form of sound symbolism or cues to grammatical categories). Yet, paradoxically from a learning viewpoint, most words have an arbitrary form-meaning mapping. We hypothesized that this paradox…
The entropy of Garfinkle-Horne dilaton black hole due to arbitrary spin fields
SHEN; Yougen(沈有根)
2002-01-01
Using the membrane model which is based on brick wall model, we calculated the free energy and entropy of Garfinkle-Horne dilatonic black hole due to arbitrary spin fields. The result shows that the entropy of scalar field and the entropy of Fermionic field have similar formulas. There is only a coefficient between them.
Wavefronts, light rays and caustic of a circular wave reflected by an arbitrary smooth curve
Marciano-Melchor, Magdalena; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Montiel-Piña, Enrique; Román-Hernández, Edwin; Santiago-Santiago, José Guadalupe; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Rosado, Alfonso; Suárez-Xique, Román
2011-01-01
The aim of the present work is to obtain expressions for both the wavefront train and the caustic associated with the light rays reflected by an arbitrary smooth curve after being emitted by a point light source located at an arbitrary position in the two-dimensional free space. To this end, we obtain an expression for the k-function associated with the general integral of Stavroudis to the eikonal equation that describes the evolution of the reflected light rays. The caustic is computed by using the definitions of the critical and caustic sets of the two-dimensional map that describes the evolution of an arbitrary wavefront associated with the general integral. The general results are applied to circular and parabolic mirrors. The main motivation to carry out this research is to establish, in future work, the caustic touching theorem in a two-dimensional optical medium and to study the diffraction problem by using the k-function concept. Both problems are important in the computation of the image of an arbitrary object under reflection and refraction
On the integration of the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian concept and non-equilibrium thermodynamics
Knobbe, E.M.
2010-01-01
The aim of this treatise is to present a harmonious mathematical formulation of an explicit moving mesh method that can be used as a basis for many numerical techniques. In most cases a moving mesh is only used to include arbitrary motions and deformations of a geometry into the simulation of a
Partial wave expansions for arbitrary spin and the role of non-central forces
Johnson, R.C.
1976-09-01
The partial wave expansion of the amplitudes used by Hooton and Johnson for the scattering of particles of arbitrary spin is derived. A discussion is given of the extent to which effects arising from transition matrix elements that are diagonal and nondiagonal in orbital angular momentum can be distinguished in observables
Mescia, L.; Bia, P.; Caratelli, D.
2017-01-01
A novel two-dimensional (2-D) finite-difference timedomain algorithm for modeling ultrawideband pulse propagation in arbitrary dispersive soils is presented. The soil dispersion is modeled by general power law series representation, accounting for multiple higher order dispersive relaxation
44 CFR 5.60 - Disciplinary action against employees for “arbitrary or capricious” denial.
2010-10-01
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disciplinary action against... INFORMATION Described Records § 5.60 Disciplinary action against employees for “arbitrary or capricious... Protection Board is required to initiate a proceeding to determine whether disciplinary action is warranted...
Magnetic properties and thermodynamics of decorated Ising chain with pendants of arbitrary spin
Li Wei, E-mail: liwei-b09@mails.gucas.ac.c [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 4588, Beijing 100049 (China); Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Gong Shoushu [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 4588, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen Ziyu [Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhao Yang [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 4588, Beijing 100049 (China); Su Gang, E-mail: gsu@gucas.ac.c [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 4588, Beijing 100049 (China)
2010-05-31
The decorated Ising chain with pendants of arbitrary spin and the single-ion anisotropy is exactly solved by the transfer matrix method. The solutions reveal abundant novel properties than the conventional one-dimensional Ising model. It is compared with the experimental data of a necklace-like molecule-based magnet, that gives a qualitative consistency.
Magnetic properties and thermodynamics of decorated Ising chain with pendants of arbitrary spin
Li Wei; Gong Shoushu; Chen Ziyu; Zhao Yang; Su Gang
2010-01-01
The decorated Ising chain with pendants of arbitrary spin and the single-ion anisotropy is exactly solved by the transfer matrix method. The solutions reveal abundant novel properties than the conventional one-dimensional Ising model. It is compared with the experimental data of a necklace-like molecule-based magnet, that gives a qualitative consistency.
Generation of Arbitrary Pure States for Three-dimensional Motion of a Trapped Ion
Li Dachuang; Dong Ping; Cao Zhuoliang; Wang Xianping; Yang Ming
2010-01-01
In this paper, we propose a scheme for generating an arbitrary three-dimensional pure state of vibrational motion of a trapped ion. Our scheme is based on a sequence of laser pulses, which are tuned to the appropriate vibrational sidebands with respect to the appropriate electronic transition. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Conditional generation of arbitrary multimode entangled states of light with linear optics
Fiurasek, J.; Massar, S.; Cerf, N. J.
2003-01-01
We propose a universal scheme for the probabilistic generation of an arbitrary multimode entangled state of light with finite expansion in Fock basis. The suggested setup involves passive linear optics, single-photon sources, strong coherent laser beams, and photodetectors with single-photon resolution. The efficiency of this setup may be greatly enhanced if, in addition, a quantum memory is available
Quaternion based generalization of Chern–Simons theories in arbitrary dimensions
Alessandro D'Adda
2017-08-01
Full Text Available A generalization of Chern–Simons gauge theory is formulated in any dimension and arbitrary gauge group where gauge fields and gauge parameters are differential forms of any degree. The quaternion algebra structure of this formulation is shown to be equivalent to a three Z2-gradings structure, thus clarifying the quaternion role in the previous formulation.
Classification of cosmology with arbitrary matter in the Horava-Lifshitz model
Minamitsuji, Masato
2010-01-01
In this work, we discuss the cosmological evolutions in the nonrelativistic and possibly renormalizable gravitational theory, called the Horava-Lifshitz (HL) theory. We consider the original HL model (type I), and the modified version obtained by an analytic continuation of parameters (type II). We classify the possible cosmological evolutions with arbitrary matter. We will find a variety of cosmology.
Phase diagram of the Hubbard model with arbitrary band filling: renormalization group approach
Cannas, Sergio A.; Cordoba Univ. Nacional; Tsallis, Constantino.
1991-01-01
The finite temperature phase diagram of the Hubbard model in d = 2 and d = 3 is calculated for arbitrary values of the parameter U/t and chemical potential μ using a quantum real space renormalization group. Evidence for a ferromagnetic phase at low temperatures is presented. (author). 15 refs., 5 figs
Off-diagonal Bethe ansatz solution of the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary conditions
Cao, Junpeng [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Wen-Li, E-mail: wlyang@nwu.edu.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xian 710069 (China); Shi, Kangjie [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xian 710069 (China); Wang, Yupeng, E-mail: yupeng@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2013-10-01
Employing the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method proposed recently by the present authors, we exactly diagonalize the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary fields. By constructing a functional relation between the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and the quantum determinant, the associated T–Q relation and the Bethe ansatz equations are derived.
Off-diagonal Bethe ansatz solution of the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary conditions
Cao, Junpeng; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng
2013-01-01
Employing the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method proposed recently by the present authors, we exactly diagonalize the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary fields. By constructing a functional relation between the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and the quantum determinant, the associated T–Q relation and the Bethe ansatz equations are derived
Partial wave expansions for arbitrary spin and the role of non-central forces
Johnson, R.C.
1977-01-01
The partial wave expansion of the amplitudes used by Hooton and Johnson for the scattering of particles of arbitrary spin is derived. A discussion is given of the extent to which effects arising from transition matrix elements that are diagonal and non-diagonal in orbital angular momentum can be distinguished in observables. (Auth.)
A covariant form of the Maxwell's equations in four-dimensional spaces with an arbitrary signature
Lukac, I.
1991-01-01
The concept of duality in the four-dimensional spaces with the arbitrary constant metric is strictly mathematically formulated. A covariant model for covariant and contravariant bivectors in this space based on three four-dimensional vectors is proposed. 14 refs
A probability measure for random surfaces of arbitrary genus and bosonic strings in 4 dimensions
Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krohn, R.; Paycha, S.; Scarlatti, S.
1989-01-01
We define a probability measure describing random surfaces in R D , 3≤D≤13, parametrized by compact Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus. The measure involves the path space measure for scalar fields with exponential interaction in 2 space time dimensions. We show that it gives a mathematical realization of Polyakov's heuristic measure for bosonic strings. (orig.)
Arbitrary waveform generator and differentiator employing an integrated optical pulse shaper
Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji
2015-01-01
We propose and demonstrate an optical arbitrary waveformgenerator and high-order photonic differentiator based on a four-tap finiteimpulse response (FIR) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) on-chip circuit. Based onamplitude and phase modulation of each tap controlled by thermal heaters,we obtain several...
Is there a benefit of using an arbitrary facebow for the fabrication of a stabilization appliance?
Shodadai, S P; Türp, J C; Gerds, T; Strub, J R
2001-01-01
The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate if an arbitrary facebow registration and transfer provides significant advantages for the fabrication of an occlusal appliance in comparison with the omission of such a procedure. For 20 fully dentate adult patients diagnosed with bruxism, two Michigan occlusal splints were constructed. One of the two upper dental casts was transferred to the articulator with an arbitrary earpiece facebow; the other maxillary cast was mounted arbitrarily using a flat occlusal plane indicator. Upon splint delivery, the number of intraoral occlusal contacts and the time needed for chairside occlusal adjustment were recorded. The number of occlusal contacts on the appliance fabricated with or without facebow was similar in most cases both in the articulator and in the mouth. The one-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test showed with high probability that the use of an arbitrary facebow does not yield a clinically relevant improvement with regard to the number of occlusal contacts or the chairside adjustment time. From this pilot study, it appears that for the fabrication of an occlusal appliance, registration and transfer with an arbitrary earpiece facebow does not yield clinically relevant benefits. Of course, this conclusion cannot be transferred to other facebows and is restricted to the levels of clinical relevance defined in the study.
Diluted Ising spin 1/2 lattice with an arbitrary coordination number
Bach Thanh Cong; El Amraoui, Y.
1993-01-01
A useful representation for the Callen identity in the case of spin 1/2 is introduced by a simple technique. The phase diagrams, percolation problems of the diluted Ising lattice with arbitrary coordination number z are also discussed. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs
On existence of soliton solutions of arbitrary-order system of nonlinear Schrodinger equations
Zhestkov, S.V.
2003-01-01
The soliton solutions are constructed for the system of arbitrary-order coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations . The necessary and sufficient conditions of existence of these solutions are obtained. It is shown that the maximum number of solitons in nondegenerate case is 4L, where L is order of the system. (author)
On the electromagnetic field and the Teukolsky relations in arbitrary space-times
Coll, B.; Ferrando, J.J.
1985-01-01
The relations on the electromagnetic field obtained by Teukolsky for type D, vacuum space-times are studied. The role played by the maxwellian geometry of the basic tetrad is shown. It is proved that Teukolsky relations are, generically, incomplete. Once completed, their generalization to arbitrary space-times is given [fr
TaylUR 3, a multivariate arbitrary-order automatic differentiation package for Fortran 95
Hippel, G.M. von
2009-09-01
The new version of TaylUR is based on a completely new core, which now is able to compute the numerical values of all of a complex-valued function's partial derivatives up to an arbitrary order, including mixed partial derivatives. (orig.)
Teleportation of an Arbitrary Two-Atom Entangled State via Thermal Cavity
WANG Dong; LIU Yi-Min; GAO Gan; SHI Shou-Hua; ZHANG Zhan-Jun
2007-01-01
We present an experimentally feasible scheme for teleportation of an arbitrary unknown two-atom entangled state by using two-atom Bell states in driven thermal cavities.In this scheme,the effects of thermal field and cavity decay can be all eliminated.Moreover,the present scheme is feasible according to current technologies.