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Sample records for binary hm cnc

  1. CCD Photometric Study of the Contact Binary TX Cnc in the Young Open Cluster NGC 2632

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Liu; Soonthornthum, BOONRUCKSAR; Liying, Zhu; Jiajia, He; Yuan, J -Z

    2011-01-01

    TX Cnc is a member of the young open cluster NGC 2632. In the present paper, four CCD epochs of light minimum and a complete V light curve of TX Cnc are presented. A period investigation based on all available photoelectric or CCD data showed that it is found to be superimposed on a long-term increase ($dP/dt=+3.97\\times{10^{-8}}$\\,days/year), and a weak evidence suggests that it includes a small-amplitude period oscillation ($A_3=0.^{d}0028$; $T_3=26.6\\,years$). The light curves in the V band obtained in 2004 were analyzed with the 2003 version of the W-D code. It was shown that TX Cnc is an overcontact binary system with a degree of contact factor $f=24.8%(\\pm0.9%)$. The absolute parameters of the system were calculated: $M_1=1.319\\pm0.007M_{\\odot}$, $M_2=0.600\\pm0.01M_{\\odot}$; $R_1=1.28\\pm0.19R_{\\odot}$, $R_2=0.91\\pm0.13R_{\\odot}$. TX Cnc may be on the TRO-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian (2001a, b; 2003a), and may contains an invisible tertiary component ($m_3\\approx0.097M_{\\o...

  2. Computation of Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Binary and Ternary Mixtures of Methanol, Water, and Ethanoic Acid from T, p, x, and HmE Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daming Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE data for the strongly associated ternary system methanol + water + ethanoic acid and the three constituent binary systems have been determined by the total pressure-temperature-liquid-phase composition-molar excess enthalpy of mixing of the liquid phase (p, T, x, HmE for the binary systems using a novel pump ebulliometer at 101.325 kPa. The vapor-phase compositions of these binary systems had been calculated from Tpx and HmE based on the Q function of molar excess Gibbs energy through an indirect method. Moreover, the experimental T, x data are used to estimate nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL, Wilson, Margules, and van Laar model parameters, and these parameters in turn are used to calculate vapor-phase compositions. The activity coefficients of the solution were correlated with NRTL, Wilson, Margules, and van Laar models through fitting by least-squares method. The VLE data of the ternary system were well predicted from these binary interaction parameters of NRTL, Wilson, Margules, and van Laar model parameters without any additional adjustment to build the thermodynamic model of VLE for the ternary system and obtain the vapor-phase compositions and the calculated bubble points.

  3. Carney complex (CNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertherat Jérôme

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Carney complex (CNC is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD. PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A, has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65 % of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80 % of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing

  4. Engraving machine tool CNC

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, André Filipe Leal

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Engenharia Mecatrónica No panorama atual, as novas tecnologias aplicadas às máquinas ferramentas permitiram um desenvolvimento excecional. As máquinas CNC, Controlo Numérico Computadorizado, do inglês “computer numerical control”, vieram revolucionar a indústria, permitindo maior velocidade, repetibilidade e precisão. É pretendido nesta dissertação o desenvolvimento de uma máquina de comando numérico de pequenas dimensões. O projeto desenvolvido fo...

  5. H&m i Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Refsøe, Anna; Sørensen, Johan; Skytte, Josephine; Skovgaard, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Outsourcing remains an increasingly attractive strategy for many large companies. The enormous distance between the companies and its suppliers, has resulted in a hazy labor policy in the companies suppliers' production factories. Companies find it difficult to maintain ideal working conditions in developing countries due to the geographical distance. This project, focus on H&M's outsourcing to Bangladesh. Bangladesh is interesting because H&M gets 25% of their products produced in the cou...

  6. RAZVOJ IN IZDELAVA 3-OSNEGA CNC REZKALNIKA

    OpenAIRE

    Ouček, Boris

    2015-01-01

    V diplomskem delu sta podrobneje opisana razvoj in izdelava CNC rezkalnika vse od ideje za izdelavo CNC rezkalnika do delujočega in polno funkcionalnega rezkalnega stroja. Omenjeni in opisani so vsi uporabljeni konstrukcijski, elektronski in ostali elementi, uporabljeni za izdelavo CNC rezkalnika. V diplomskem delu je nekaj pozornosti namenjene tudi programskemu okolju za vodenje stroja, imenovanem Mach 3. Predstavljeno je tudi, kako nastaviti in povezati CNC-rezkalnik z računalnikom in progr...

  7. Plotter with CNC based control

    OpenAIRE

    Žavbi, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to build a plotter for printing vector graphics on paper. The plotter is computer controlled by a Mach3 program. Mach3 is a control software for CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machines. The components of the plotter software are Mach3 and a G code generating program. Mach3 has a large amount of functions because it is intended for CNC machines. However many of these functions are not needed for the plotter. Thus I have only focused on these aspects of contr...

  8. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters+α,ω-alkyl dihalides) III. HmEandVmE for 20 binary mixtures {xCu-1H2u-1CO2C4H9+(1-x)α,ω-ClCH2(CH2)v-2CH2Cl}, where u=1 to 4, α=1 and v=ω=2 to 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the experimental data of excess molar enthalpies HmE and excess molar volumes VmE are presented for a set of 20 binary mixtures comprised of the first four butyl alkanoates (methanoate to butanoate) and five α,ω-dichloroalkanes (1,2-dichloroethane to 1,6-dichlorohexane), obtained at atmospheric pressure and at a temperature of 298.15K. The results indicate the existence of specific interactions between both kinds of compounds resulting in exothermic processes for most mixtures, except for those containing butyl methanoate which give rise to net endo/exothermic effects. The VmE are positive for mixtures of (butyl esters+1,2-dichloroethane or 1,3-dichloropropane) and negative for the remaining ones. The change in HmE with the dichloroethane chain length for a same ester is regular although the VmE presents an irregular variation. It can, therefore, be deuced from this that the mixing process involves both effects, exothermic/endothermic and expansion/contraction, simultaneously. The behaviour of the mixtures is interpreted on the basis of the results observed and attributed to different effects taking place among the molecules studied. To improve application of the UNIFAC model using the version of Dang and Tassios, average values were recalculated again for parameters of the ester/chloride interaction, distinguishing, during its application, the functional group of the acid part of the ester. In spite of this, the model does not adequately reproduce the systems' behaviour.

  9. Close binary stars in the solar-age Galactic open cluster M67

    CERN Document Server

    Yakut, K; Kalomeni, B; Van Winckel, H; Waelkens, C; De Cat, P; Bauwens, E; Vuckovic, M; Saesen, S; Guillou, L Le; Parmaksizoglu, M; Uluc, K; Khamitov, I; Raskin, G; Aerts, C

    2009-01-01

    We present multi-colour time-series CCD photometry of the solar-age galactic open cluster M67 (NGC 2682). About 3600 frames spread over 28 nights were obtained with the 1.5 m Russian-Turkish and 1.2 m Mercator telescopes. High-precision observations of the close binary stars AH Cnc, EV Cnc, ES Cnc, the $\\delta$ Scuti type systems EX Cnc and EW Cnc, and some long-period variables belonging to M67 are presented. Three full multi-colour light curves of the overcontact binary AH Cnc were obtained during three observing seasons. Likewise we gathered three light curves of EV Cnc, an EB-type binary, and two light curves of ES Cnc, a blue straggler binary. Parts of the light change of long-term variables S1024, S1040, S1045, S1063, S1242, and S1264 are obtained. Period variation analysis of AH Cnc, EV Cnc, and ES Cnc were done using all times of mid-eclipse available in the literature and those obtained in this study. In addition, we analyzed multi-colour light curves of the close binaries and also determined new fre...

  10. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters + α,ω-alkyl dihalides) VI. HmE and VmE for 20 binary mixtures {xCu-1H2u-1CO2(CH2)3CH3 + (1 - x)α,ω-BrCH2(CH2)v-2CH2Br}, where u = 1 to 5, α = 1, and v = ω = 2 to 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows the experimental values obtained for HmE and VmE at the temperature of 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure, for a set of 20 binary mixtures comprised of the first four butyl esters (methanoate to butanoate) with five α,ω-dibromoalkanes (1,2-dibromoethane to 1,6-dibromohexane). The HmE are endothermic for mixtures with butyl methanoate, while for the other esters the HmE adopt a sigmoidal shape. The VmE are positive for mixtures with low molecular weight dibromoalkanes, becoming negative with contractive effects in the final mixture, as the dihalide chain increases. The results indicate that the mixtures present specific interactions, with simultaneous expansion/contraction and exothermic/endothermic effects, and an explanation is given for the different types of interaction taking place. Experimental data are correlated with a polynomial equation used in previous works with satisfactory results. Modelling of the experimental results of the mixtures is carried out on the HmE values, giving rise to an adequate definition of the different interactions taking place. Two versions of the UNIFAC method were used, and for Dang and Tassios' version different possibilities were considered for the interaction parameters of the ester (G)/dibromide (G'). The best estimations were obtained when the pair of interaction parameters, type aG/G', depended on the number of carbon atoms in the compounds constituting the mixture.

  11. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters+α,ω-alkyl dihalides) I: HmE and VmE for 25 binary mixtures {xCu-1H2u-1CO2C2H5+(1-x)α,ω-ClCH2(CH2)v-2CH2Cl}, where u=1 to 5, α=1 and v=ω=2 to 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the experimental data of HmE and VmE, obtained at atmospheric pressure and at a temperature of 298.15K, for a set of 25 binary mixtures composed of the first 5 ethyl alkanoates (methanoate to pentanoate) and five α,ω-dichloroalkanes (1,2-dichloroethane to 1,6-dichlorohexane). Quantitatively, and with only a few exceptions, small values are obtained for the excess properties and the results imply that specific interactions exist between both types of compounds, with exothermic process for most mixtures, but with the exception of some that contain ethyl methanoate and ethanoate. The change in enthalpies with increasing length of the dichloroalkane chain for the same ester is regular, and also the change in HmE with the acid portion of the ethyl ester. However, the change in excess volumes does not present such a regular variation. A behavioural structural model is established to explain the results of the excess properties. Experimental values of HmE and VmE were correlated, as a function of ester concentration, x with a new expression which uses the so-called active fraction as a variable and which, in turn, is a function of this concentration. The application of two versions of the UNIFAC group contribution models produces no good estimations of HmE.

  12. Pengontrolan Mesin Laser CNC Untuk Paint Stripping

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Desi Permata

    2016-01-01

    Paint stripping has been performed on specimen Aluminium (Al) and Ferro (Fe) using a machine laser CNC (Computer Numerical Control). Laser Nd:YAG pulse is used as an energy source for the paint stripping, which Fundamental Harmonic (1064 nm) and Second Harmonic (532 nm). Paint stripping process begins with the manufacture of laser line pattern design according to size of the specimen with Notepad++ software, then the design is up and running with USB CNC software. CNC USB software will giv...

  13. Theory and design of CNC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Suk-Hwan; Chung, Dae-Hyuk; Stroud, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Computer Numerical Control (CNC) controllers are high value-added products counting for over 30% of the price of machine tools. The development of CNC technology depends on the integration of technologies from many different industries, and requires strategic long-term support. a oeTheory and Design of CNC Systemsa covers the elements of control, the design of control systems, and modern open-architecture control systems. Topics covered include Numerical Control Kernel (NCK) design of CNC, Programmable Logic Control (PLC), and the Man-Machine Interface (MMI), as well as the major modules for t

  14. Singer CNC sewing and embroidery machine

    OpenAIRE

    Lokodi Zsolt; Alexandru Morar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the adaptation of a classic foot pedal operated Singer sewing machine to a computerized numerical control (CNC) sewing and embroidery machine. This machine is composed of a Singer sewing machine and a two-degrees-of-freedom XY stage designed specifically for this application. The whole system is controlled from a PC using adequate CNC control software.

  15. Mini lathe machine converted to CNC

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Morar; Bereczki Zsombor

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the adaptation of a mechanical mini-lathing machine to a computerized numerical control (CNC) lathing machine. This machine is composed of a ASIST mini-lathe and a two-degrees-of-freedom XZ stage designed specifically for this application. The whole system is controlled from a PC using adequate CNC control software.

  16. Singer CNC sewing and embroidery machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokodi Zsolt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the adaptation of a classic foot pedal operated Singer sewing machine to a computerized numerical control (CNC sewing and embroidery machine. This machine is composed of a Singer sewing machine and a two-degrees-of-freedom XY stage designed specifically for this application. The whole system is controlled from a PC using adequate CNC control software.

  17. Mini lathe machine converted to CNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Morar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the adaptation of a mechanical mini-lathing machine to a computerized numerical control (CNC lathing machine. This machine is composed of a ASIST mini-lathe and a two-degrees-of-freedom XZ stage designed specifically for this application. The whole system is controlled from a PC using adequate CNC control software.

  18. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters+α,ω-alkyl dihalides) V. HmEandVmE for 25 binary mixtures {xCu-1H2u-1CO2CH3+(1-x)α,ω-ClCH2(CH2)v-2CH2Cl}, where u=1 to 5, α=1 and v=ω=2 to 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental data of excess molar enthalpies HmE and excess molar volumes VmE are presented for a set of 25 binary mixtures comprised of the first five methyl esters Cu-1H2u-1COOCH3 (u=1 to 5) and five α,ω-dichloroalkanes, ClCH2(CH2)v-2CH2Cl (v=2 to 6), obtained at a temperature of 298.15K and atmospheric pressure. Except for the mixtures with u=1 and v=2 to 6, which are all endothermic and with u=5 and v=2 to 6, which are all exothermic, the others present net endo/exothermic effects and these mixing effects evolve quasiregularly, from endothermic to exothermic, depending on the dichloroalkane present. However, the VmE are positive in most mixtures except for those corresponding to u=4,5 and v=5,6, which present contraction effects. These results indicate a set of specific interactions with simultaneous effects for VmE of expansion/contraction and for exothermic/endothermic HmE for this set of mixtures. The change in VmE with the chain length of the compounds is irregular. To achieve a good application of the UNIFAC model using the version of Dang and Tassios, parameters of the ester (G)/dichloride (G') interaction were calculated again, making a distinction, during its application, dependent on the acid part of the ester u. Hence, interaction parameters are presented as a function of u, and of the dichloroalkane chain length v. The most appropriate general expression was of the type:aG/G'=φ(u,v)=Σsub(i=0)sup(n)ai-1ui-1+Σsub(i=0)sup(n)bi-1vi-1and with this proposal good estimations of enthalpies were obtained with the UNIFAC model.

  19. CNC Extruder for varied section extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Choi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The work presented in this paper might be used for basic data in the design of a lot extruded aluminum products using the variable section extrusion process.Design/methodology/approach: The capacity of a CNC extruder was calculated and decided as analyzing the FEM results performed by commercial software DEFORM-2D. CNC extruder and die set for variable section extrusion was invented by field extrusion experts.Findings: CNC extruder had a key role in variable extrusion process. Furthermore there was few die sets with mold feeding parts for aluminum extrusion. To be capable of extruding aluminum products with variable cross section are CNC extruder and the die set.Research limitations/implications: For future research of developed CNC extruder, frame structures of the extruder would be analyzed and designed using FE analysis. In addition CNC extruder would be operated by the control program for variable section as a PC version.Practical implications: Aluminum parts with variable section would increase as utilizing the CNC extruder and cost price of the parts be down. Many industrial products using the variable section extrusion process would be used in diverse fields.Originality/value: Extruded aluminum part with variable section is rarely used since extruders don’t be designed and developed for variable section extrusion. It is important that an extruder with CNC control, which could be easily handled and have accessible software to be operated by field user, are invented. As stated above, CNC extruder is needed for production of industrial products with variable section for today. Therefore design and development of CNC extruder having the die set for mold feeding parts was tackled in this paper as efficient approach using commercial FEM code.

  20. Heat loss optimisation in CNC motors

    OpenAIRE

    R.A. Mahdavinejad

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Heat loss plays very important role in CNC systems, especially in suspension systems with permanent load that are usually used for testing, detection and automatic cutting, the adjusting of motor torque in each axis is based on starting by maximum current required to overcome against resistant torque on the motion surface of the system.Design/methodology/approach: In this research a new control method is introduced for the minimization of heat loss in CNC motors. In these systems the...

  1. Improving Energy Efficiency in CNC Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanaskar, Sushrut S.

    We present our work on analyzing and improving the energy efficiency of multi-axis CNC milling process. Due to the differences in energy consumption behavior, we treat 3- and 5-axis CNC machines separately in our work. For 3-axis CNC machines, we first propose an energy model that estimates the energy requirement for machining a component on a specified 3-axis CNC milling machine. Our model makes machine-specific predictions of energy requirements while also considering the geometric aspects of the machining toolpath. Our model - and the associated software tool - facilitate direct comparison of various alternative toolpath strategies based on their energy-consumption performance. Further, we identify key factors in toolpath planning that affect energy consumption in CNC machining. We then use this knowledge to propose and demonstrate a novel toolpath planning strategy that may be used to generate new toolpaths that are inherently energy-efficient, inspired by research on digital micrography -- a form of computational art. For 5-axis CNC machines, the process planning problem consists of several sub-problems that researchers have traditionally solved separately to obtain an approximate solution. After illustrating the need to solve all sub-problems simultaneously for a truly optimal solution, we propose a unified formulation based on configuration space theory. We apply our formulation to solve a problem variant that retains key characteristics of the full problem but has lower dimensionality, allowing visualization in 2D. Given the complexity of the full 5-axis toolpath planning problem, our unified formulation represents an important step towards obtaining a truly optimal solution. With this work on the two types of CNC machines, we demonstrate that without changing the current infrastructure or business practices, machine-specific, geometry-based, customized toolpath planning can save energy in CNC machining.

  2. Review on CNC-Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z, M. Nafis O.; Y, Nafrizuan M.; A, Munira M.; J, Kartina

    2012-09-01

    This article reviewed developments of Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology in rapid prototyping process. Rapid prototyping (RP) can be classified into three major groups; subtractive, additive and virtual. CNC rapid prototyping is grouped under the subtractive category which involves material removal from the workpiece that is larger than the final part. Richard Wysk established the use of CNC machines for rapid prototyping using sets of 2½-D tool paths from various orientations about a rotary axis to machine parts without refixturing. Since then, there are few developments on this process mainly aimed to optimized the operation and increase the process capabilities to stand equal with common additive type of RP. These developments include the integration between machining and deposition process (hybrid RP), adoption of RP to the conventional machine and optimization of the CNC rapid prototyping process based on controlled parameters. The article ended by concluding that the CNC rapid prototyping research area has a vast space for improvement as in the conventional machining processes. Further developments and findings will enhance the usage of this method and minimize the limitation of current approach in building a prototype.

  3. Review on CNC-Rapid Prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviewed developments of Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology in rapid prototyping process. Rapid prototyping (RP) can be classified into three major groups; subtractive, additive and virtual. CNC rapid prototyping is grouped under the subtractive category which involves material removal from the workpiece that is larger than the final part. Richard Wysk established the use of CNC machines for rapid prototyping using sets of 2½-D tool paths from various orientations about a rotary axis to machine parts without refixturing. Since then, there are few developments on this process mainly aimed to optimized the operation and increase the process capabilities to stand equal with common additive type of RP. These developments include the integration between machining and deposition process (hybrid RP), adoption of RP to the conventional machine and optimization of the CNC rapid prototyping process based on controlled parameters. The article ended by concluding that the CNC rapid prototyping research area has a vast space for improvement as in the conventional machining processes. Further developments and findings will enhance the usage of this method and minimize the limitation of current approach in building a prototype.

  4. CNC Milling Machine Simulation in Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lo Valvo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work an effective simulator for a CNC milling machine is presented. It has been developed in EMC2, a free Opens Source NC software running in Linux environment, developed by an international community. It can be installed on a common PC and is able to: control a CNC machine; read part programs; display the tool path; send instructions to the CNC machine for the cutting process. In this work a new feature has been implemented, which can both display a 3D model of the machine and simulate all the motions of the movable parts of a real 3 axis end milling machine. This simulator lets the users not only verify the toolpath but also detect any possible collision by using the very computer which controls the milling machine. This system is very efficient and easy to use as powerful tool in Engineering education.

  5. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters+α,ω-alkyl dihalides) II: HmE and VmE for 25 binary mixtures {xCu-1H2u-1CO2C2H5+(1-x)α,ω-BrCH2(CH2)v-2CH2Br}, where u=1 to 5, α=1 and v=ω=2 to 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excess molar enthalpies HmE, and excess molar volumes VmE, have been determined experimentally at constant conditions of atmospheric pressure and a temperature of T=298.15K, for a set of 25 binary mixtures, composed of ethyl alkanoate (methanoate to pentanoate) with each of the α,ω-dibromoalkanes (1,2-dibromoethane to 1,6-dibromohexane), presenting the values of excess quantities YmE as a function of the ester composition x. Most of the mixtures presented VmE>0, except those formed by 1,5-dibromopentane and 1,6-dibromohexane with propanoate, butanoate and ethyl pentanoate, for which VmEmE are made using two versions of the UNIFAC group contribution model. The version proposed by Dang and Tassios produces unacceptable estimations, while the version of Gmehling et al. produces results closer to experimentals.

  6. Review on international cooperation of CNC-IHDP%CNC-IHDP国际合作进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛全胜; 张雪芹; 田砚宇

    2006-01-01

    Chinese National Committee for the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (CNC-IHDP) is a newly founded academic organization in China aiming at promoting the research on Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Changes (HDGEC).International cooperation is an important part of CNC-IHDP's activities. This paper makes a brief review on current international cooperation that has been developed, and introduces some aspects on which to focus in future.

  7. Development of Lathe Attachment for a CNC Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, V.; Kumar, S.

    2013-04-01

    A lathe attachment has been developed for an existing CNC machine (installed with rapid prototyping attachment) using conceptual design. The CNC machine operates on mechatronic controls and a computer interface called CAMSOFT, and is used as a CNC Lathe after installing the respective attachment to it. The conceptual design phase, starts from an idea and different components of the lathe are designed as attachment using CAD modelling and is followed by fabrication phase. The lathe attachment is successfully developed and is installed to the CNC machine. The working of the CNC Lathe attachment is checked by making some machining operation like turning and thread cutting. The machining operations are successfully done. The CNC machine becomes multifunctional with the presently developed lathe attachment and the existing RP (rapid prototyping) attachment, and can be used accordingly by installing the respective attachment to it. The CNC machine is useful for carrying research work in both the fields, when installed with the appropriate attachment.

  8. Hobby CNC frézka

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšil, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce slouží jako experimentální ověření 3D návrhu hobby CNC frézky za použití dílů vytisknutých na 3D tiskárně z materiálu ABS. Práce je pojata jako úvod širší veřejnosti do problematiky CNC frézek a 3D tisku a následně jako návod ke konstrukci vlastní frézky. Důraz byl kladen na co nejnižší cenu při zachování dostatečné přesnosti a dostupnost dílů.

  9. Heat loss optimisation in CNC motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Mahdavinejad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Heat loss plays very important role in CNC systems, especially in suspension systems with permanent load that are usually used for testing, detection and automatic cutting, the adjusting of motor torque in each axis is based on starting by maximum current required to overcome against resistant torque on the motion surface of the system.Design/methodology/approach: In this research a new control method is introduced for the minimization of heat loss in CNC motors. In these systems the misdirected current that causes magnetic misalignment and reduces the torque is converted to heat in the motor winding, thus reducing the motor continuous torque capability.Findings: This method is based on an open-architecture of a dynamic control to optimize the input current in order to dissipate the minimal heat loss. So that, it reaches the requested velocity-position condition with the lowest amount of misaligned magnetic field and current converted to heat.Research limitations/implications: The dynamic performance implications are more important than the steady-state torque disadvantage.Practical implications: An algorithm for the dynamic torque control is given and a simulation is carried out using this algorithm for a two axis CNC cutting system with two-guider bars suspension. Reaching to the actual requested motor current is practical implication. From this point of view, the enhanced free running of pulse width modulated (PWM is represented.Originality/value: Results obtained in this work show that using the proposed procedure the heat loss is minimized while the speed errors are reduced and the surface finish is improved. Finally, the results of this dynamic control method is represented on CNC two axes cutting machine and extended the results on the other systems.

  10. Time between failures model and failure analysis of CNC system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-bo; JIA Ya-zhou; ZHOU Guang-wen

    2007-01-01

    To provide basis for the reliability improvement design of CNC system, the failure data of a type of CNC system in one year are collected under field conditions in workshops. The distribution model parameters of time between failures are estimated by least square method and hypothesis testing is done by d-test method. It is proved that the time between failures of the CNC system follows Weibull distribution and the system has entered into the wear-out failure period. The failure positions and failure causes are analyzed further to indicate the weak subsystems of the CNC system. It can be found that servo unit, electrical system, detecting unit and power supply are principal failure positions and the main failure cause is breakage of components. The corresponding improvement measures are put forward. The paper provides a reference to reliability design and analysis of CNC system for the manufacturer and has great guidance to using and maintaining CNC system for the user.

  11. Automated CNC Micromachining for Integrated THz Waveguide Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Groppi, Christopher E.; Love, Brian; Underhill, Matthew; Walker, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machining of splitblock waveguide circuits has become the primary method of constructing terahertz waveguide circuits. The majority of these circuits have been made on traditional CNC machining centers or on custom-made laboratory machining systems. At both the University of Arizona and Arizona State University, we have developed techniques for machining splitblock waveguide circuits using purpose-built ultra high precision CNC mac...

  12. Functional comparison of muscarinic partial agonists at muscarinic receptor subtypes hM1, hM2, hM3, hM4 and hM5 using microphysiometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Martyn D.; Murkitt, Karen L; Ho, Michael; Watson, Jeannette M; Brown, Frank; Hunter, A Jacqueline; Middlemiss, Derek N

    1999-01-01

    This study describes the pharmacological comparison of the muscarinic partial agonists sabcomeline, xanomeline and milameline at human cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes (hM1–5).Radioligand binding studies at the hM1–5 muscarinic receptor subtypes were compared with functional studies using microphysiometry using carbachol as the standard full agonist.In binding assays none of the compounds studied displayed preferential affinity for the M1,3,4 or M5 subtypes although carbachol was less pote...

  13. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology

  14. Architecture for Direct Model-to-Part CNC Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert Poon; Paul Gray; Sanjeev Bedi; Daniel Miller

    2006-01-01

    In the traditional paradigm for Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machining, tool paths are programmed offline from the CNC machine using the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) model of the workpiece. The program is downloaded to the CNC controller and the part is then machined. Since a CAD model does not exist inside the CNC controller, it is unaware of the part to be machined and cannot predict or prevent errors. Not only is this paradigm labor intensive, it can lead to catastrophic damage if there...

  15. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Kiun; Youm, K. U.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, I. B.; Yoon, K. B.; Lee, C. K.; Youm, J. H

    2007-06-15

    The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology.

  16. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology

  17. 3-AKSELISEN JYRSIMEN CNC-OHJAUKSEN TOTEUTUS

    OpenAIRE

    Finnilä, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa erikoisvalmisteisen kolmiakselisen jyrsinkoneen CNC-ohjaus hammaspyörävalmistuksessa syntyvän jäysteen poistoa, sekä hampaan kulman viisteytystä varten. Vaatimukset jyrsimen ohjaukselle olivat nopea kappalekohtaisen asetuksen teko sekä mahdollisuus tarpeeksi monipuolisille liikkeille. Riittävän laadukkaan lopputuloksen varmistamiseksi jyrsimen liike toteutettiin servomoottoreiden sekä lineaarijohteiden ja pyöröpöydän avulla. Jy...

  18. Combining quiet- and disturbance-hmF2 models to provide a forecasting tool for hmF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaleno, Sergio; Blanch, Estefanía.; Herraiz, Miguel; Altadill, David; de La Morena, Benito

    2010-05-01

    The quiet behavior of the ionospheric electron density peak height of the F2 region, hmF2, at mid latitude has been evaluated from average electron density profiles providing more reliable hmF2 measurement than converting hmF2 from M(3000)F2. A model temporal extent has been obtained by considering the daily and seasonal variations and the solar activity influence on them. The quiet-hmF2 model provides better performance than current IRI does. A disturbance-hmF2 model has been added to the quiet-hmF2 providing a forecasting tool for hmF2 in response to the configuration and variation of the interplanetary magnetic field. The performance of this tool under particular events will be presented.

  19. HM-PAO-SPECT in complicated migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three HM-PAO-SPECT investigations have been performed in a female patient with a complicated migraine. 2.5 hours after an attack with right-sided numbness and atonic hemiparesis, at the left side a reduced blood flow was seen parietotemporally and in the subcortical structures. The cerebellum showed crossed diaschisis. During a symptom-free interval the SPECT showed a slightly increased parietotemporal blood blow and a reduced right temporooccipital blood flow. During a seizure with left-sided facial spasm, unsystematic clonic movements in all extremities and a following left-sided hemiparesis, the uptake in the visual cortex was increased by 60%. In the right frontotemporal and left temporal region a slightly increased accumulation was found. (orig.)

  20. RANCANG BANGUN CNC MILLING MACHINEHOME MADE UNTUK MEMBUAT PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dityo Pradana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kendala yang dimiliki oleh seorang penggemar elektronik untuk membuat PCB diantaranya adalah efisiensi waktu, tenaga, dan biaya. Pembuatan CNC milling machine merupakan salah satu solusi yang tepat untuk membuat PCB. CNC milling machine adalah mesin bubut otomatis yang bekerja atas dasar perintah Numerical Code. Rancang bangun CNC Milling Machine Home Made ini dikontrol oleh komputer yang akan mengontrol IC L297 melalui parallel port. IC L297 ini kemudian memberikan empat data digital a, b, c dan d untuk mengatur phase IC L298 yang menyalurkan tegangan untuk koil motor stepper unipolar. Pada akhirnya motor stepper unipolar akan memutar baut dan dapat menggerakkan meja sumbu menggunakan prinsip kerja ulir.

  1. DIAGNOSTIC OF CNC LATHE WITH QC 20 BALLBAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Józwik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of the influence of the feedmotion speed on the value of selected geometric errors of CNC lathe CTX 310 eco by DMG, indentified by QC 20 Ballbar system. Diagnostically evaluated were: the deviation of the axis squareness, reversal spike, and backlash. These errors determine the forming of the dimensional and shape accuracy of a machine tool. The article discusses the process of the CNC diagnostic test, the diagnostic evaluation and formulates guidelines on further CNC operation. The results of measurements were presented in tables and diagrams.

  2. CNC LATHE MACHINE PRODUCING NC CODE BY USING DIALOG METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup TURGUT

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an NC code generation program utilising Dialog Method was developed for turning centres. Initially, CNC lathes turning methods and tool path development techniques were reviewed briefly. By using geometric definition methods, tool path was generated and CNC part program was developed for FANUC control unit. The developed program made CNC part program generation process easy. The program was developed using BASIC 6.0 programming language while the material and cutting tool database were and supported with the help of ACCESS 7.0.

  3. Surface Roughness Prediction Techniques for CNC Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sidda Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the development of a surface roughness prediction model for machining aluminum alloys using multiple regression and artificial neural networks. The experiments have been conducted using full factorial design in the design of experiments (DOE on CNC turning machine with carbide cutting tool. A second order multiple regression model in terms of machining parameters has been developed for the prediction of surface roughness. The adequacy of the developed model is verified by using co-efficient of determination, analysis of variance (ANOVA, residual analysis and also the neural network model has been developed using multilayer perception back propagation algorithm using train data and tested using test data. To judge the efficiency and ability of the model to predict surface roughness values percentage deviation and average percentage deviation has been used. The experimental results show, artificial neural network model predicts with high accuracy compared with multiple regression model.

  4. Thermodynamic study of (alkyl esters + α,ω-alkyl dihalides) VII. HmE and VmE for 20 binary mixtures {xCu-1H2u-1CO2C3H7 + (1 - x)α,ω-ClCH2(CH2)v-2CH2Cl}, where u = 1 to 4, α = 1 and v = ω = 2 to 6. An analysis of behavior using the COSMO-RS methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: Excess enthalpies HmE and excess volumes VmE obtained at a temperature of 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure are presented for a set of 20 binary mixtures comprised of the first four propyl esters, Cu-1H2u-1COOC3H7 (u = 1 to 4), and five α,ω-dichloroalkanes, ClCH2(CH2)v-2CH2Cl (v = 2 to 6). All the mixtures are exothermic except for those corresponding to propyl methanoate with v ≥ 4. The VmE are positive in most mixtures except for those where v = 4, 5, 6, for VmEmE with v, while the increase in u produces a greater exothermicity in the mixing process, which becomes inverted for propyl butanoate. The variation in VmE with the chain length of the compounds of the mixtures studied is not regular since both the enthalpic and the volumetric effects are due to interactions of different nature, positive and negative. Interpretation of the behavior was assisted by applying the quantum-chemistry method COSMO-RS. This method describes qualitatively and quantitatively the contribution of the different types of interactions, electrostatic, van der Waals, and those due to the (Cl, Cl) bond in the dihalide, and the influence of the ester and dichloroalkane chains. This information was also useful to adequately modify the application of the UNIFAC group contribution model, proposing parameters for the Cl, Cl/carboxylate interaction that vary with the chain length of the compounds involved. With this modification, the results estimated by UNIFAC model can be considered good

  5. WEB-BASED VIRTUAL CNC MACHINE MODELING AND OPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A CNC simulation system based on internet for operation training of manufacturing facility and manufacturing process simulation is proposed. Firstly, the system framework and a rapid modeling method of CNC machine tool are studied under the virtual environment based on PolyTrans and CAD software. Then, a new method is proposed to enhance and expand the interactive ability of virtual reality modeling language(VRML) by attaining communication among VRML, JavaApplet, JavaScript and Html so as to realize the virtual operation for CNC machine tool. Moreover, the algorithm of material removed simulation based on VRML Z-map is presented. The advantages of this algorithm include less memory requirement and much higher computation. Lastly, the CNC milling machine is taken as an illustrative example for the prototype development in order to validate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  6. Design and Implementation of a Three Dimensional CNC Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Venkata Krishna Pabolu; Prof. Sri K.N.H. Srinivas

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of low cost three dimensional computerized numerical control (CNC) machines for Industrial application. The primary function of this microcontrollerbased CNC machine is to cut the metal in to required shape. This discuss is focused on communication between Personal computer (PC) and a numerical control machine. The objective to devise a computer controlled cutting machine arose from increasing demand for flexibility and cutting with respect t...

  7. Soft Compensation for CNC Crankshaft Grinding Machine Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjun Liu; Jinwei Fan; Wei Miao

    2013-01-01

    Wear and deformation CNC grinding machine tool, will be aggravated over time of which will influence the manufacturing precision. To reduce the effect, the soft compensation method by modifying NC instruction was put forward to maintain the manufacturing precision of CNC crankshaft grinding machine tool. The error sources were analyzed, the errors caused by grinding force were calculated, and the precise grinding kinematics model was deduced by the multibody kinematics. Numerical simulation a...

  8. The Post Processing Developing of Five-axis CNC Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Anjiang Cai; Bin Li; Shihong Guo; Zhaoyang Dong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have a research of the methods of the special post processing program developing of Five-axis CNC machine DMC 70ev. On the basis of analysis about the characteristics of MILLPLUS IT V530 CNumerical control system, special post processor applied to five-axis CNC machining mode based on IMSPost was developed. Special post processing program developed was proved its accuracy and reliability by put it into practice. The research results has important significance for post proces...

  9. Sizing of a Right BLDC Motor for CNC Feed Drive

    OpenAIRE

    P.Ram Kishore Kumar Reddy,; Mr. P.Nagasekhara Reddy,; M.Ramchandra Rao,; Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, KL University, Guntur-520002, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a technical aspects and design factors for selection of a right Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) motor for a CNC feed drive.To meet the most demanding requirements of CNC machine tools, robots and transfer lines in terms of productivity, accuracy and dynamic performance, brushless DC drives are very widely used. These drives employ brushless torque motors which are of high torque, low speed direct drive type. The performance and reliability of BLDC motor drivers have been i...

  10. Automated and intelligent programming of cnc machine tools

    OpenAIRE

    Gjelaj, Afrim

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, many scientists focus on increasing the level of automation, respectively flexibility in manufacturing systems. In addition, automated programming of CNC machine tools has reached a high level of machining operations. However, it is still impossible for a machine to manipulate completely in an autonomous way. Special attention in this doctoral thesis is focused on the automated programming of CNC machine tools regarding artificial intelligence. The purpose of automated programming i...

  11. ST-HM not only cranes

    CERN Document Server

    Bertone, C

    2002-01-01

    This period of LEP dismantling and LHC installation is a real challenge for the ST-HM group. The group is now following several projects to cope with the diversity of requests. Although crane design and procurement still constitutes the majority of the workload, more and more of our time is nowadays dedicated to providing alternative handling solutions. In 2001/2002, our main studies concern cranes for LHC, industrial and shielded motorised doors, the upgrade/replacement of 32 lifts and mobile cranes. The years 2002/2003 will concern mainly the study of LHC handling systems such as trailers and heavy-duty tractors, specifically tailored containers and tools. In parallel, the monorail will be extended in the injection tunnel and CNGS tunnels and a new monorail system for TOF will be installed. Since the tunnel monorail infrastructure will be used for power feed and guidance purposes only, this requires that other transport systems be studied, such as forklift trucks, industrial and telescopic hoists.

  12. Architecture for Direct Model-to-Part CNC Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Poon

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional paradigm for Computer Numerical Control (CNC machining, tool paths are programmed offline from the CNC machine using the Computer-Aided Design (CAD model of the workpiece. The program is downloaded to the CNC controller and the part is then machined. Since a CAD model does not exist inside the CNC controller, it is unaware of the part to be machined and cannot predict or prevent errors. Not only is this paradigm labor intensive, it can lead to catastrophic damage if there are errors during machining. This paper presents a new concept for CNC machine control whereby a CAD model of the workpiece exists inside the controller and the tool positions are generated in real-time by the controller using the computer's graphics hardware without human intervention. The new concept was implemented on an experimental lathe machine specifically designed to machine complicated ornamental wood workpieces with a personal computer. An example workpiece was machined and measured using a 3D camera. The measured data was registered to the CAD model to evaluate machining accuracy.

  13. Levi Strauss and H&M Announce Ban on Sandblasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a commitment to the health and safety of workers across the apparel industry, Levi Strauss & Co. and Hennes & Mauritz AB (H&M) announced plans to implement a global ban on sandblasting in all of their future product

  14. The retention mechanism of technetium-99m-HM-PAO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neirinckx, R D; Burke, J F; Harrison, R C; Forster, A M; Andersen, A R; Lassen, N A

    1988-01-01

    Preparations of d,l- and meso-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) labeled with technetium-99m were added to rat brain homogenates diluted with phosphate buffer (1:10). The conversion of d,l-HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms took place with an initial rate constant of 0.12 min-1. Incubation of the...... chromatographic characteristics as found in the brain homogenates. The rate constant for the conversion reaction of d,l-HM-PAO in GSH aqueous solution was 208 and 317 L/mol/min in two different assay systems and for meso-HM-PAO the values were 14.7 and 23.2 L/mol/min, respectively. Rat brain has a GSH...... correspondence of values supports the notion that GSH may be important for the in vivo conversion of 99mTc-labeled HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms and may be the mechanism of trapping in brain and other cells. A kinetic model for the trapping of d,l- and meso-HM-PAO in tissue is developed that is based on data of...

  15. Research advances in coupling bionic optimization design method for CNC machine tools based on ergonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Shihao LIU; Yanbin DU; Guo, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    Currently, most Chinese CNC machine tools' dynamic and static performances have large gap comparing with the similar foreign products, and the CNC machine tools users' human-centered design demand are ignored, which results in that the domestic CNC machine tools' overall competitiveness is relatively low. In order to solve the above problem, the ergonomics and coupling bionics are adopted to study collaborative optimization design method for CNC machine tools based on the domestic and foreign...

  16. IZDELAVA IN VODENJE VEČNAMENSKEGA TRIOSNEGA CNC STROJA

    OpenAIRE

    Javor, David

    2012-01-01

    V diplomskem delu smo se ukvarjali z izdelavo in vodenjem večnamenskega CNC stroja. Celoten sistem sestoji iz koračnih motorjev, senzorjev, močnostnega dela in napajalnika. Za praktičen prikaz so uporabljeni trije koračni motorji za XYZ gibanje ter model CNC stroja. Uporabljen protokol za dvosmeren prenos informacij od krmilnega do močnostnega dela je LPT port. Krmilni del predstavlja vmesnik z integriranim vezjem (TB6560HQ), ki ima integriran prožilni del za PWM regulacijo in močnostni...

  17. Complex Ornament Machining Process on a CNC Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the CNC routering possibilities for three species of wood, namely ash (Fraxinus Excelsior, lime wood (Tilia cordata and fir wood (Abies Alba, in order to obtain right surfaces of Art Nouveau sculptured ornaments. Given the complexity of the CNC tool path for getting wavy shapes of Art Nouveau decorations, the choice of processing parameters for each processed species of wood requires a laborious research work to correlate these parameters. Two Art Nouveau ornaments are proposed for the investigation. They are CNC routered using two types of cutting tools. The processed parameters namely the spindle speed, feed speed and depth of cut were the three variables of the machining process for the three species of wood, which were combined so, to provide good surface finish as a quality attribute. There were totally forty six variants of combining the processing parameter which were applied for CNC routering the samples made of the three species of wood. At the end, an optimum combination of the processed parameters is recommended for each species of wood.

  18. Fidget with Widgets: CNC Activity Introduces the Flatbed Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Daniel V.

    2006-01-01

    The computer numerical control (CNC) flatbed router is a powerful tool and a must-have piece of equipment for any technology education program in which students will produce a product--whether it involves Manufacturing, Materials Processing, or any of the vast array of Project Lead the Way courses. This article describes an activity--producing a…

  19. Research advances in coupling bionic optimization design method for CNC machine tools based on ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao LIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, most Chinese CNC machine tools' dynamic and static performances have large gap comparing with the similar foreign products, and the CNC machine tools users' human-centered design demand are ignored, which results in that the domestic CNC machine tools' overall competitiveness is relatively low. In order to solve the above problem, the ergonomics and coupling bionics are adopted to study collaborative optimization design method for CNC machine tools based on the domestic and foreign machine tool design method research achievement. The CNC machine tools' "man-machine-environment" interaction mechanism can be built by combining with ergonomic, and then the CNC ergonomic design criteria is obtained. Taking the coupling bionics as theoretical basis, the biological structures "morphology-structure-function-adaptive growth" multiple coupling mechanism can be studied, and the mechanical performance benefits structure can be extracted, then the CNC machine tools structural coupling bionic design technology is obtained by combining with the similarity principle. Combination of CNC machine tools' ergonomic design criteria and coupling bionic design technology, and considering the CNC machine tool performance's interaction and coupling mechanisms, a new multi-objective optimization design method can be obtained, which is verified through CNC machine tools' prototype experiments. The new optimization design method for CNC machine tools can not only help improve the whole machine's dynamic and static performance, but also has a bright prospect because of the "man-oriented" design concept.

  20. Levi Strauss and H&M Announce Ban on Sandblasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ As a commitment to the health and safety of workers across the apparel industry, Levi Strauss & Co. and Hennes& Mauritz AB (H&M) announced plans to implement a global ban on sandblasting in all of their future product lines. The two companies are encouraging others to join this ban in a move toward eliminating sandblasting as an industry practice.

  1. Logistique ST-HM pour le projet LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Prodon, S

    2002-01-01

    Ce papier a pour objectif de présenter la structure mise en place au sein du groupe ST-HM pour assurer la logistique d'installation du projet LHC. L'aspect traèabilité sera tout d'abord évoqué avec notamment la mise en place d'outils informatiques tels que le formulaire EDH de demande d'intervention transport-manutention et le système SIRIAC de suivi et de validation des transports réalisés. Ces développements informatiques s'intègrent dans le cadre plus général des modalités de traèabilité des équipements établies en collaboration avec le groupe SL/MR, chargé de la gestion des espaces pour le projet LHC. Les procédures proprement dites de transport des équipements feront l'objet d'un développement particulier. Leur processus d'élaboration sera détaillé : des premières réunions d'information jusqu'à la validation finale par les trois parties (demandeur, groupe ST-HM et contractant ST-HM). L'intégration de ces documents dans la logistique générale ST-HM de planification des ressou...

  2. Motion Simulation Analysis of Rail Weld CNC Fine Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huajie; Shu, Min; Li, Chao; Zhang, Baojun

    CNC fine milling machine is a new advanced equipment of rail weld precision machining with high precision, high efficiency, low environmental pollution and other technical advantages. The motion performance of this machine directly affects its machining accuracy and stability, which makes it an important consideration for its design. Based on the design drawings, this article completed 3D modeling of 60mm/kg rail weld CNC fine milling machine by using Solidworks. After that, the geometry was imported into Adams to finish the motion simulation analysis. The displacement, velocity, angular velocity and some other kinematical parameters curves of the main components were obtained in the post-processing and these are the scientific basis for the design and development for this machine.

  3. ROSSITER-MCLAUGHLIN OBSERVATIONS OF 55 Cnc e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of the transiting super-Earth 55 Cnc e collected during six transit events between 2012 January and 2013 November with HARPS and HARPS-N. We detect no radial velocity signal above 35 cm s–1 (3σ) and confine the stellar v sin i * to 0.2 ± 0.5 km s–1. The star appears to be a very slow rotator, producing a very low amplitude Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. Given such a low amplitude, the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect of 55 Cnc e is undetected in our data, and any spin-orbit angle of the system remains possible. We also performed Doppler tomography and reach a similar conclusion. Our results offer a glimpse of the capacity of future instrumentation to study low amplitude Rossiter-McLaughlin effects produced by super-Earths

  4. Design and Implementation of a Three Dimensional CNC Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Krishna Pabolu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the design and implementation of low cost three dimensional computerized numerical control (CNC machines for Industrial application. The primary function of this microcontrollerbased CNC machine is to cut the metal in to required shape. This discuss is focused on communication between Personal computer (PC and a numerical control machine. The objective to devise a computer controlled cutting machine arose from increasing demand for flexibility and cutting with respect to edge quality. The system has an 8 bit microcontroller based embedded system to achieve costeffectiveness and also maintains the required accuracy and reliability for complex shapes. The backbone of the system is a cleverly designed mechanical system along with the embedded system resulting in accuracy. The system uses C# as a programming language and .NET platform for user interface.

  5. Rossiter-McLaughlin Observations of 55 Cnc e

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Rodler, Florian; Dumusque, Xavier; Buchhave, Lars A; Harutyunyan, A; Hoyer, Sergio; Alonso, Roi; Gillon, Michael; Kaib, Nathan A; Latham, David W; Lovis, Christophe; Pepe, Francesco; Queloz, Didier; Raymond, Sean N; Segransan, Damien; Waldmann, Ingo P; Udry, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of the transiting super-Earth 55 Cnc e collected during six transit events between January 2012 and November 2013 with HARPS and HARPS-N. We detect no radial-velocity signal above 35 cm/s (3-sigma) and confine the stellar v sin i to 0.2 +/- 0.5 km/s. The star appears to be a very slow rotator, producing a very low amplitude Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. Given such a low amplitude, the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect of 55 Cnc e is undetected in our data, and any spin-orbit angle of the system remains possible. We also performed Doppler tomography and reach a similar conclusion. Our results offer a glimpse of the capacity of future instrumentation to study low amplitude Rossiter-McLaughlin effects produced by super-Earths.

  6. ROSSITER-MCLAUGHLIN OBSERVATIONS OF 55 Cnc e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Morales, Mercedes; Rodler, Florian; Dumusque, Xavier; Buchhave, Lars A.; Latham, David W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 01238 (United States); Triaud, Amaury H. M. J. [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Harutyunyan, Avet [Fundación Galileo Galilei-INAF, Rambla José Ana Fernandez Pérez, E-738712 Breña Baja, Tenerife (Spain); Hoyer, Sergio; Alonso, Roi [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gillon, Michaël [Institut d' Astrophysique et Géophysique, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 17, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Kaib, Nathan A. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Lovis, Christophe; Pepe, Francesco; Queloz, Didier; Ségransan, Damien; Udry, Stéphane [Observatoire Astronomique de l' Université de Genève, Chemin des Maillettes 51, Sauverny, CH-1290 (Switzerland); Raymond, Sean N. [Université de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, BP F-33270 Floirac (France); Waldmann, Ingo P., E-mail: mlopez-morales@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E6BT (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-10

    We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of the transiting super-Earth 55 Cnc e collected during six transit events between 2012 January and 2013 November with HARPS and HARPS-N. We detect no radial velocity signal above 35 cm s{sup –1} (3σ) and confine the stellar v sin i {sub *} to 0.2 ± 0.5 km s{sup –1}. The star appears to be a very slow rotator, producing a very low amplitude Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. Given such a low amplitude, the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect of 55 Cnc e is undetected in our data, and any spin-orbit angle of the system remains possible. We also performed Doppler tomography and reach a similar conclusion. Our results offer a glimpse of the capacity of future instrumentation to study low amplitude Rossiter-McLaughlin effects produced by super-Earths.

  7. CNC machine tool health assessment using Dynamic Bayesian Networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Tobon-Mejia, Diego; Medjaher, Kamal; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2011-01-01

    The failure of critical components in physical systems may have negative consequences on the availability, the productivity, their security and on the environment. Thus, the assessment of the critical component's health condition, which can be done in the diagnostic and prognostic framework, should be constantly ensured. In this paper, a contribution on the assessment of the health condition of the cutting tool from a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tool and the prediction of its rem...

  8. Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of 55 Cnc e

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Rodler, Florian;

    2014-01-01

    We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of the transiting super-Earth 55 Cnc e collected during six transit events between 2012 January and 2013 November with HARPS and HARPS-N. We detect no radial velocity signal above 35 cm s–1 (3σ) and confine the stellar v sin i to 0.2 ± 0.5 km s–1. The...

  9. 3D Printing device adaptable to Computer Numerical Control (CNC)

    OpenAIRE

    Gardan, Julien; DANESI, Frédéric; Roucoules, Lionel; Schneider, A

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the development of a 3D printing device for the additive manufacturing adapted to a CNC machining. The application involves the integration of a specific printing head. Additive manufacturing technology is most commonly used for modeling, prototyping, tooling through an exclusive machine or 3D printer. A global review and analysis of technologies show the additive manufacturing presents little independent solutions [6][9]. The problem studied especially the additive manu...

  10. Active Vibration Control for a CNC Milling Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Derek G.; Myers, Alan; Haase, Frerk; Lockwood, Stephen; Longstaff, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    There is a requirement for improved three-dimensional surface characterisation and reduced tool wear when modern computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools are operating at high cutting velocities, spindle speeds and feed rates. For large depths of cut and large material removal rates, there is a tendency for machines to chatter caused by selfexcited vibration in the machine tools leading to precision errors, poor surface finish quality, tool wear and possible machine damage. This s...

  11. Research on Key Technologies of Unit-Based CNC Machine Tool Assembly Design

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqi Sheng; Lei Zhang; Hualong Xie; Changchun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Assembly is the part that produces the maximum workload and consumed time during product design and manufacturing process. CNC machine tool is the key basic equipment in manufacturing industry and research on assembly design technologies of CNC machine tool has theoretical significance and practical value. This study established a simplified ASRG for CNC machine tool. The connection between parts, semantic information of transmission, and geometric constraint information were quantified to as...

  12. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(V-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology

  13. Planetpol polarimetry of the exoplanet systems 55 Cnc and tau Boo

    OpenAIRE

    P.W. Lucas; Hough, J. H.; Bailey, J.A.; Tamura, M; E. Hirst; Harrison, D.

    2008-01-01

    We present very sensitive polarimetry of 55 Cnc and tau Boo in an attempt to detect the partially polarised reflected light from the planets orbiting these two stars. 55 Cnc is orbited by a hot Neptune planet (55 Cnc e) at 0.038 AU, a hot Jupiter planet (55 Cnc b) at 0.11 AU, and at least 3 more distant planets. The polarisation of this system is very stable, showing no sign of the periodic variations that would be expected if a short period planet were detected. The measured standard deviati...

  14. 153Sm-HM for arthritic knee pain. Estimated dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthropathy and after cardiovascular diseases is the most disabling disease in developing countries. The dosimetry for the clinical application of 153-samarium-hydroxymacroaggregates (153Sm-HM) for radiation synovectomy (RSV) and palliative treatment for arthritic pain, as far as we know, has not been reported. The aim of this research was to estimate the radiation dose necessary for synovial ablation and pain palliation with minimum risk to the patient. 153Sm-HM (370 MBq) was administered intra-articularly in a patient with severe knee pain and hindered motility. Regions of interest drawn on sequential, conjugated, anterior and posterior scintigraphy images were used to obtain the respective activity. The data was entered into a knee joint histological-geometric model designed with micrometric dimensions to represent the synovial cell layers. The Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the absorbed dose in each of the 12 model-cells representing the distance from the synovial liquid to the cartilage or bone. The absorbed dose in the synovial cavity was 114 Gy which is sufficient energy for RSV. The treated patient referred little pain and higher motility with no adverse reactions. 153Sm-HM is a potentially valid radiopharmaceutical for RSV, which effectively palliates knee pain.

  15. Virtual Mission First Results Supporting the WATER HM Satellite Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D.; Andreadis, K.; Lettenmaier, D.; Moller, D.; Rodriguez, E.; Bates, P.; Mognard, N.; Participants, W.

    2007-12-01

    Surface fresh water is essential for life, yet we have surprisingly poor knowledge of its variability in space and time. Similarly, ocean circulation and ocean-atmosphere interactions fundamentally drive weather and climate variability, yet the global ocean current and eddy field (e.g., the Gulf Stream) that affects ocean circulation is poorly known. The Water And Terrestrial Elevation Recovery Hydrosphere Mapper satellite mission concept (WATER HM or SWOT per the NRC Decadal Survey) is a swath-based interferometric-altimeter designed to acquire elevations of ocean and terrestrial water surfaces at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. WATER HM will have tremendous implications for estimation of the global water cycle, water management, ocean and coastal circulation, and assessment of many water-related impacts from climate change (e.g., sea level rise, carbon evasion, etc.). We describe a hydrological "virtual mission" (VM) for WATER HM which consists of: (a) A hydrodynamic-instrument simulation model that maps variations in water levels along river channels and across floodplains. These are then assimilated to estimate discharge and to determine trade-offs between resolutions and mission costs. (b) Measurements from satellites to determine feasibility of existing platforms for measuring storage changes and estimating discharge. First results demonstrate that: (1) Ensemble Kalman filtering of VM simulations recover water depth and discharge, reducing the discharge RMSE from 23.2% to 10.0% over an 84- day simulation period, relative to a simulation without assimilation. The filter also shows that an 8-day overpass frequency produces discharge relative errors of 10.0%, while 16-day and 32-day frequencies result in errors of 12.1% and 16.9%, respectively. (2) SRTM measurements of water surfaces along the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Amazon rivers, as well as smaller tributaries, show height standard deviations of 5 meters or greater (SRTM is the

  16. Researches Regarding The Circular Interpolation Algorithms At CNC Laser Cutting Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tîrnovean, Mircea Sorin

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an integrated simulation approach for studying the circular interpolation regime of CNC laser cutting machines. The circular interpolation algorithm is studied, taking into consideration the numerical character of the system. A simulation diagram, which is able to generate the kinematic inputs for the feed drives of the CNC laser cutting machine is also presented.

  17. Cam Profile Grinding CNC System Based on Open Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies some key technologies of CNC system for cam grinding. Themathematical motion model for cam grinding is established according to the harmony of re-ciprocating motion of the grinding wheel and the rotating motion of the woorkpiece. Themethod of using the linear servomotor to accomplish the grinding wheel tracking is devel-oped and the dynamic model of the system is analyzed. Then the cross-coupled biaxial errorcompensation model is proposed. Finally,the hardware and software of the control systemare designed based on open architecture. Some algorithms, such as spline fitting and inter-polation for cam contour, velocity control and feed control, are presented to improvegrinding precision.

  18. Intellectual Control System of Processing on CNC Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasov, R. Y.; Lasukov, A. A.; Starikov, A. I.; Soloviev, I. V.; Bekareva, O. V.

    2016-04-01

    Scientific and technical progress makes great demands for quality of engineering production. The priority is to ensure metalworking equipment with required dimensional accuracy during the entire period of operation at minimum manufacturing costs. In article considered the problem of increasing of accuracy of processing products on CNC. The authors offers a solution to the problem by providing compensating adjustment in the trajectory of the cutting tool and machining mode. The necessity of creation of mathematical models of processes behavior in an automated technological system operations (OATS). Based on the research, authors have proposed a generalized diagram of diagnosis and input operative correction and approximate mathematical models of individual processes of diagnosis.

  19. Thermodynamic properties of (an ester + an alkane). XVIII. Experimental HmEandVmE values for (an alkyl butanoate + an alkane) at T = 318.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the experimental values of HmEandVmE obtained at a temperature of 318.15 K and atmospheric pressure for a group of 24 binary mixtures comprised of the first four alkyl butanoates (methyl to butyl) with six odd alkanes, from heptane to heptadecane. All the mixtures are endothermic, and present a regular increase in HmE with the molecular weight of the saturated hydrocarbon, while, for a same alkane, the enthalpic effects diminish with increasing alcoholic chain of the butanoate. The variation in VmE occurs in the same direction. In this paper the structural behaviour of these systems and the influence of temperature on excess properties are analysed. Experimental data are correlated with a suitable polynomial equation which is given as a function of concentration and temperature, that permits a simultaneous correlation to be established with other properties of the mixture, such as (vapour + liquid) equilibria; and acceptable results are obtained. Finally, an estimation of HmE is made with two known versions of the UNIFAC model. In the version by Dang and Tassios [J. Dang, D.P. Tassios, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 25 (1986) 22-31.], a method is proposed that considers the interaction parameters as a function of the butanoate alkanolic chain. The estimations obtained for HmE are good

  20. Keyboard with Universal Communication Protocol Applied to CNC Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía-Ugalde Mario

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the use of a universal communication protocol for industrial keyboard based microcontroller applied to computer numerically controlled (CNC machine. The main difference among the keyboard manufacturers is that each manufacturer has its own programming of source code, producing a different communication protocol, generating an improper interpretation of the function established. The above results in commercial industrial keyboards which are expensive and incompatible in their connection with different machines. In the present work the protocol allows to connect the designed universal keyboard and the standard keyboard of the PC at the same time, it is compatible with all the computers through the communications USB, AT or PS/2, to use in CNC machines, with extension to other machines such as robots, blowing, injection molding machines and others. The advantages of this design include its easy reprogramming, decreased costs, manipulation of various machine functions and easy expansion of entry and exit signals. The results obtained of performance tests were satisfactory, because each key has the programmed and reprogrammed facility in different ways, generating codes for different functions, depending on the application where it is required to be used.

  1. Sustainable Fashion Supply Chain: Lessons from H&M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is significantly important for fashion business due to consumers’ increasing awareness of environment. When a fashion company aims to promote sustainability, the main linkage is to develop a sustainable supply chain. This paper contributes to current knowledge of sustainable supply chain in the textile and clothing industry. We first depict the structure of sustainable fashion supply chain including eco-material preparation, sustainable manufacturing, green distribution, green retailing, and ethical consumers based on the extant literature. We study the case of the Swedish fast fashion company, H&M, which has constructed its sustainable supply chain in developing eco-materials, providing safety training, monitoring sustainable manufacturing, reducing carbon emission in distribution, and promoting eco-fashion. Moreover, based on the secondary data and analysis, we learn the lessons of H&M’s sustainable fashion supply chain from the country perspective: (1 the H&M’s sourcing managers may be more likely to select suppliers in the countries with lower degrees of human wellbeing; (2 the H&M’s supply chain manager may set a higher level of inventory in a country with a higher human wellbeing; and (3 the H&M CEO may consider the degrees of human wellbeing and economic wellbeing, instead of environmental wellbeing when launching the online shopping channel in a specific country.

  2. Initial cerebral HM-PAO distribution compared to LCBF: use of a model which considers cerebral HM-PAO trapping kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cerebral uptake of [99mTc]-d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime complex (HM-PAO) was compared to LCBF determined simultaneously with [14C]iodoantipyrine (IAP) using double radionuclide quantitative digital autoradiography. Awake male rats were given intravenous injections of a mixture of 50 microCi IAP and 15 mCi of HM-PAO and killed 20 s after tracer activity had first reached the brain. Two separate autoradiograms were produced from each 20 microns brain section. The autoradiograms were digitized, corrected for cross-contamination, and then converted into images of individual tracer concentration. The diffusible tracer model was used to convert the IAP concentration images into LCBF images. Regional HM-PAO concentration was found not to be linearly related to LCBF as determined with the IAP, and therefore a simple microsphere type model was inadequate in relating HM-PAO uptake to LCBF. A better HM-PAO uptake--LCBF correlation was obtained when the HM-PAO arterial input function was corrected for very rapidly produced, non-cerebrally extracted, metabolites and a kinetic model was used that considered the rate of intracerebral metabolism of HM-PAO to a retained metabolite. Even using this model, however, some differences between HM-PAO uptake and LCBF occurred in certain brain regions. Because these differences were small and the HM-PAO uptake pattern has been shown to be constant for many minutes, HM-PAO can probably be used to estimate LCBF in patients with single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging

  3. Intelligent manufacturing system of impeller for computer numerical control (CNC) programming based on KBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌云; 黄红辉; 王大中

    2014-01-01

    To solve the problem of advanced digital manufacturing technology in the practical application, a knowledge engineering technology was introduced into the computer numerical control (CNC) programming. The knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation and reasoning used in CNC programming were researched. The CNC programming system functional architecture of impeller parts based on knowledge based engineering (KBE) was constructed. The structural model of the general knowledge-based system (KBS) was also constructed. The KBS of CNC programming system was established through synthesizing database technology and knowledge base theory. And in the context of corporate needs, based on the knowledge-driven manufacturing platform (i.e. UG CAD/CAM), VC++6.0 and UG/Open, the KBS and UG CAD/CAM were integrated seamlessly and the intelligent CNC programming KBE system for the impeller parts was developed by integrating KBE and UG CAD/CAM system. A method to establish standard process templates was proposed, so as to develop the intelligent CNC programming system in which CNC machining process and process parameters were standardized by using this KBE system. For the impeller parts processing, the method applied in the development of the prototype system is proven to be viable, feasible and practical.

  4. CNC PART PROGRAMMING TECNIQUE AND CREATING CYLINDIRICAL PLOUGH ACTIVE SURFACE BY USING THIS TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar KARAGÖZ

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available "CNC" is an abbreviation for computer aided numerical control systems. Thanks to this system, operators can achieve a lot of work which cannot be realized by classical looms, in a short time, with higher quality in cheaperway. The term of "Part Programming" defines a group of commands to be included in the loom control unit of a loom which is designed to process a part or a certain machine element having have some certain technological methods and functions. In this work, CNC part programming and processing methods are applied to the manufacturing of active surface of a cylindirical plough on CNC loom was investigeted.

  5. Universal CNC platform motion control technology for industrial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the more scanning methods and the higher speed of industrial CT, the higher precision of the motion location and the data collection sync-control is required at present, a new motion control technology was proposed, which was established based on the universal CNC system with high precision of multi-axis control. Aiming at the second and the third generation of CT scanning motion, a control method was researched, and achieved the demands of the changeable parameters and network control, Through the simulation of the second and the third generation of CT scanning motion process, the control precision of the rotation axis reached 0.001° and the linear axis reached 0.002 mm, Practical tests showed this system can meet the requirements of the multi-axis motion integration and the sync signal control, it also have advantages in the control precision and the performance. (authors)

  6. Circular Interpolation Algorithms of 5-Axis Simultaneous CNC System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Kuijing; SHANG Bo

    2006-01-01

    Spatial circular arc can be machined conveniently by a 5-axis NC machine tool. Based on the data sampling method, circular interpolation in two-dimensional plane is discussed briefly. The key is to solve the problem of circular center expressed in the workpiece coordinate system by means of the transformation matrix. Circular interpolation in three-dimensional space is analyzed in detail. The method of undetermined coefficient is used to solve the center of the spatial circle and the method of coordinate transformation is used to transform the spatial circle into the XY_plane. Circular arc in three-dimensional space can be machined by the positional 5-axis machining and the conical surface can be machined by the continuous 5-axis machining. The velocity control is presented to avoid the feedrate fluctuation. The interpolation algorithms are tested by a simulation example and the interpolation algorithms are proved feasible. The algorithms are applied to the 5-axis CNC system software.

  7. Modeling of tool path for the CNC sheet cutting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petunin, Aleksandr A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper the problem of tool path optimization for CNC (Computer Numerical Control) cutting machines is considered. The classification of the cutting techniques is offered. We also propose a new classification of toll path problems. The tasks of cost minimization and time minimization for standard cutting technique (Continuous Cutting Problem, CCP) and for one of non-standard cutting techniques (Segment Continuous Cutting Problem, SCCP) are formalized. We show that the optimization tasks can be interpreted as discrete optimization problem (generalized travel salesman problem with additional constraints, GTSP). Formalization of some constraints for these tasks is described. For the solution GTSP we offer to use mathematical model of Prof. Chentsov based on concept of a megalopolis and dynamic programming.

  8. Prepolishing on a CNC platform with bound abrasive contour tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeffler, Adrienne E.; Gregg, Leslie L.; Schoen, John M.; Fess, Edward M.; Hakiel, Michael; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2003-05-01

    Deterministic microgrinding (DMG) of optical glasses and ceramics is the commercial manufacturing process of choice to shape glass surfaces prior to final finishing. This process employs rigid bound matrix diamond tooling resulting in surface roughness values of 3-5μm peak to valley and 100-400nm rms, as well as mid-spatial frequency tool marks that require subsequent removal in secondary finishing steps. The ability to pre-polish optical surfaces within the grinding platform would reduce final finishing process times. Bound abrasive contour wheels containing cerium oxide, alumina or zirconia abrasives were constructed with an epoxy matrix. The effects of abrasive type, composition, and erosion promoters were examined for tool hardness (Shore D), and tested with commercial optical glasses in an Optipro CNC grinding platform. Metrology protocols were developed to examine tool wear and subsequent surface roughness. Work is directed to demonstrating effective material removal, improved surface roughness and cutter mark removal.

  9. TRAJECTORY GENERATION AND CONTROL FOR NON-CIRCULAR CNC TURNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Simin; YAN Han; WANG Xiankui

    2008-01-01

    A trajectory generation method which is based on NURBS interpolation is studied to improve the fitting accuracy and smoothness of non-circular cross section and obtain higher accuracy of the final non-circular profile control. After using the NURBS, the most optimized and smooth trajectory for the linear actuator can be obtained. For the purpose of machining the non-circular cross section by CNC turning, the fast response linear actuator has been used. The control algorithm which is compound control of proportional-integral-differential (PID) and iterative learning control has been developed for non-circular profile generation. By using the NURBS interpolation and the compound control of PID and iterative learning control, the final motion accuracy of linear actuator has been improved, therefore, the machining accuracy of the non-circular turning can be improved.

  10. Distributed Control System Design for Portable PC Based CNC Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Permana Saputra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The demand on automated machining has been increased and emerges improvement research to achieve many goals such as portability, low cost manufacturability, interoperability, and simplicity in machine usage. These improvements are conducted without ignoring the performance analysis and usability evaluation. This research has designed a distributed control system in purpose to control a portable CNC machine. The design consists of main processing unit, secondary processing unit, motor control, and motor driver. A preliminary simulation has been conducted for performance analysis including linear accuracy and circular accuracy. The results achieved in the simulation provide linear accuracy up to 2 μm with total cost for the whole processing unit is up to 5 million IDR.

  11. Involvement of cell wall beta-glucan in the action of HM-1 killer toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, S; Ben Inoue, S; Mio, T; Yamada, T; Nakajima, T; Ichishima, E; Furuichi, Y; Yamada, H

    1994-07-01

    HM-1 killer toxin secreted from Hansenula mrakii inhibits the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells by interfering with beta-1,3-glucan synthesis. We found that HM-1 killer toxin killed intact cells but not protoplasts. In addition, cells lacking the functional KRE6 allele (kre6 delta) became resistant to higher concentration of HM-1 killer toxin. As reported by Roemer and Bussey [(1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 88 11295-11299], cells lacking functional KRE6 had a reduced level of the cell wall beta-1,6-glucan compared to that in cells harboring the normal KRE6. These results suggest that the cell wall beta-glucan is involved in the action of HM-1 killer toxin. Addition of HM-1 killer toxin with several kinds of oligosaccharides revealed that either beta-1,3- or beta-1,6-glucan blocked the cytocidal action of HM-1 killer toxin whereas alpha-1,4-glucan and chitin did not. Mannan also interfered with HM-1 killer toxin action, but this inhibitory effect was much weaker than that observed with beta-1,3- or beta-1,6-glucans. Thus, it appears that the cell wall beta-glucan interacts with HM-1 killer toxin, and that this toxin-beta-glucan commitment is required for the action of HM-1 killer toxin. PMID:8026578

  12. Calibration Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J.

    2011-09-01

    Two Excel Spreadsheet files are offered to help calibrate telescope or camera image scale and orientation with binary stars for any time. One is a personally selected list of fixed position binaries and binaries with well-determined orbits, and the other contains all binaries with published orbits. Both are derived from the web site of the Washington Double Star Library. The spreadsheets give the position angle and separation of the binaries for any entered time by taking advantage of Excel's built in iteration function to solve Kepler's transcendental equation.

  13. Preliminary Test of Upgraded Conventional Milling Machine into PC Based CNC Milling Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) milling machine yields a challenge to make an innovation in the field of machining. With an action job is machining quality equivalent to CNC milling machine, the conventional milling machine ability was improved to be based on PC CNC milling machine. Mechanically and instrumentally change. As a control replacing was conducted by servo drive and proximity were used. Computer programme was constructed to give instruction into milling machine. The program structure of consists GUI model and ladder diagram. Program was put on programming systems called RTX software. The result of up-grade is computer programming and CNC instruction job. The result was beginning step and it will be continued in next time. With upgrading ability milling machine becomes user can be done safe and optimal from accident risk. By improving performance of milling machine, the user will be more working optimal and safely against accident risk. (author)

  14. A Review on Real-Time Simulation of CNC Machine Tool Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Pislaru, Crinela

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an endeavour to critically appraise the existing methods used for real-time simulation of machine tool dynamics with the emphasis on modelling and simulation of the dynamic behaviour of CNC machine tool feed drives and mechatronic systems for machine tools. The actual approaches for linking the feed drive models with structural models for CNC machine tools are examined. Also the feasibility of using the multidisciplinary approach employing the concepts of virtual machine tools a...

  15. The Use of Open Source Software for Open Architecture System on CNC Milling Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmasius Ganjar Subagio; Tinton Dwi Atmaja

    2012-01-01

    Computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine system cannot be separated from the software required to follow the provisions of the Open Architecture capabilities that have portability, extend ability, interoperability, and scalability. When a prescribed period of a CNC milling machine has passed and the manufacturer decided to discontinue it, then the user will have problems for maintaining the performance of the machine. This paper aims to show that the using of open source software (OSS...

  16. Case Study Röhm GmbH & Co. KG - Consignment Depot Between Degussa Business Unit "Röhm" and BASF Coatings AG

    OpenAIRE

    Senger, Enrico; Österle, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    hm produces special plastics, for, among others, the paint industry. In collaboration with BSAF Coatings, Röhm developed an extended Vendor Managed Inventory system that operates a consignment depot, takes on the actual and exact filling of tanks at the customer locations via telemetrics as well as advance forecasts, and passes on quality-related information to designated recipients, and includes the electronic billing of deliveries. The early access to data relevant to the planning process...

  17. Stable 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) Acquisition Marks Gene Activation During Chondrogenic Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sarah Eb; Li, Ye Henry; Smeriglio, Piera; Rath, Madhusikta; Wong, Wing H; Bhutani, Nidhi

    2016-03-01

    Regulation of gene expression changes during chondrogenic differentiation by DNA methylation and demethylation is little understood. Methylated cytosines (5mC) are oxidized by the ten-eleven-translocation (TET) proteins to 5-hydroxymethylcytosines (5hmC), 5-formylcytosines (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosines (5caC), eventually leading to a replacement by unmethylated cytosines (C), ie, DNA demethylation. Additionally, 5hmC is stable and acts as an epigenetic mark by itself. Here, we report that global changes in 5hmC mark chondrogenic differentiation in vivo and in vitro. Tibia anlagen and growth plate analyses during limb development at mouse embryonic days E 11.5, 13.5, and 17.5 showed dynamic changes in 5hmC levels in the differentiating chondrocytes. A similar increase in 5hmC levels was observed in the ATDC5 chondroprogenitor cell line accompanied by increased expression of the TET proteins during in vitro differentiation. Loss of TET1 in ATDC5 decreased 5hmC levels and impaired differentiation, demonstrating a functional role for TET1-mediated 5hmC dynamics in chondrogenic differentiation. Global analyses of the 5hmC-enriched sequences during early and late chondrogenic differentiation identified 5hmC distribution to be enriched in the regulatory regions of genes preceding the transcription start site (TSS), as well as in the gene bodies. Stable gains in 5hmC were observed in specific subsets of genes, including genes associated with cartilage development and in chondrogenic lineage-specific genes. 5hmC gains in regulatory promoter and enhancer regions as well as in gene bodies were strongly associated with activated but not repressed genes, indicating a potential regulatory role for DNA hydroxymethylation in chondrogenic gene expression. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26363184

  18. Integration of CAM and CNC operation through code editing and manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IT technology for engineering design and manufacturing has gone through significant advancement for the last 30 years. It is widely acknowledged that IT would provide competitive advantage for engineering company in term of production cycle, productivity and efficiency. The recent development in this area is on the total system integration. While standard off-shelf CAD/CAM/CNC software and hardware packages would provide solution for system integration, more often than not users will stumble upon compatibility problems. Moreover, most of the integration deals with CAD and CAM systems. CNC integration has not been fully developed. Users always found problems in the integration of CAM and CNC machine due to the different level of technological development. CNC codes have not fundamentally progressed in the last 50 years, while CAD/CAM software packages have undergone massive evolution and improvement. This paper discusses a practical solution of CAM and CNC integration through code editing and manipulation within the CAM system in order to comply with the CNC machine requirements. (Author)

  19. Shared and service-oriented CNC machining system for intelligent manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Liu, Qiang; Tong, Ronglei; Cui, Xiaohong

    2015-11-01

    To improve efficiency, reduce cost, ensure quality effectively, researchers on CNC machining have focused on virtual machine tool, cloud manufacturing, wireless manufacturing. However, low level of information shared among different systems is a common disadvantage. In this paper, a machining database with data evaluation module is set up to ensure integrity and update. An online monitoring system based on internet of things and multi-sensors "feel" a variety of signal features to "percept" the state in CNC machining process. A high efficiency and green machining parameters optimization system "execute" service-oriented manufacturing, intelligent manufacturing and green manufacturing. The intelligent CNC machining system is applied in production. CNC machining database effectively shares and manages process data among different systems. The prediction accuracy of online monitoring system is up to 98.8% by acquiring acceleration and noise in real time. High efficiency and green machining parameters optimization system optimizes the original processing parameters, and the calculation indicates that optimized processing parameters not only improve production efficiency, but also reduce carbon emissions. The application proves that the shared and service-oriented CNC machining system is reliable and effective. This research presents a shared and service-oriented CNC machining system for intelligent manufacturing process.

  20. Shared and Service-oriented CNC Machining System for Intelligent Manufacturing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yao; LIU Qiang; TONG Ronglei; CUI Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    To improve efficiency, reduce cost, ensure quality effectively, researchers on CNC machining have focused on virtual machine tool, cloud manufacturing, wireless manufacturing. However, low level of information shared among different systems is a common disadvantage. In this paper, a machining database with data evaluation module is set up to ensure integrity and update. An online monitoring system based on internet of things and multi-sensors “feel” a variety of signal features to “percept” the state in CNC machining process. A high efficiency and green machining parameters optimization system “execute” service-oriented manufacturing, intelligent manufacturing and green manufacturing. The intelligent CNC machining system is applied in production. CNC machining database effectively shares and manages process data among different systems. The prediction accuracy of online monitoring system is up to 98.8% by acquiring acceleration and noise in real time. High efficiency and green machining parameters optimization system optimizes the original processing parameters, and the calculation indicates that optimized processing parameters not only improve production efficiency, but also reduce carbon emissions. The application proves that the shared and service-oriented CNC machining system is reliable and effective. This research presents a shared and service-oriented CNC machining system for intelligent manufacturing process.

  1. H&M "Finally" Lands in Beijing Fashion and quality at the best price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ On April 23rd, H&M, Hennes & Mauritz AB, opened its much anticipated first store in Beijing. This full-concept store is the only H&M store in Beijing carrying Matthew Williamson's exclusive spring collection, also launched in the same day.

  2. Introduction of serial architecture for small CNC facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Mahdavinejad

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The concept of open-architecture control, which has been used as a main method of control in many branches such as automatic systems of machining, robotics, testing and control, causes a great increment in efficiency and precision of control systems and dynamic capability to industrial control networks.Design/methodology/approach: The high execution costs in one hand and unnecessary usage of all OAC standard components on the other hand, makes the modeling of OAC concept impossible for such systems.Findings: This paper tries to represent a simple system based on elimination of unessential elements of open-architecture to reach a limited and efficient control system.Research limitations/implications: In hierarchical architecture systems, regarding to the synchronous processes of calculation and controlling, the total execution time is very low in comparison with similar serial system. In spite of this, the execution time of synchronous processes in serial architecture is lower than hierarchical one.Practical implications: The utilization of one processor instead of multiple one, merging the industrial control network layer into system management layer and omission of processor execution layer in each axis and optimized using of multi-tasking capability of processor.Originality/value: The analysis of simulated data in motions with higher degrees of freedom shows that the usage of CNC machines with serial architecture for higher than 3-degrees of freedom is unaccepted due to large increment in total machining time.

  3. Behavioral study of cnc-retrofitting kits for lathe machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project is to develop a Computerized Numerical Controlled (CNC) retrofitting kit for a lathe machine, study its behavior and compare its performance with the retrofitting kit already designed and fabricated at (Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS). Design calculations were performed assuming 100 mm work piece diameter and 800 mm length of stock using tool materials HSS, uncoated carbide, coated carbide, ceramic and cermet tools for different materials. Also cutting, thrust and radial forces on a single point cutting tool were determined. Stepper motors of torque 972 oz-in were selected to drive the carriage and cross-slide in Z and X-directions respectively. Power screws were replaced with ball screws of 0.63 inch dia. (x-direction) and 1.26 in. dia. (Z-direction) which were locally manufactured in the workshop. Deep groove and Angular contact ball bearings were used to support the ball screw shafts against axial and radial loads. Flexible and plain couplings were developed to couple encoders and motors to the ball screw shafts respectively. Panel mount optical rotary encoders are being used for feedback control. Mechanical assembly is complete but due to unavailability of wiring diagram for motors, control electronics could not be accomplished. Therefore, machine could not be evaluated in terms of accuracy, repeatability and resolution using computer software. (author)

  4. A CNC milling machine in NRG's Hot Cell Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparations are in progress to install a new milling machine in the NRG's hot cells facility in the course of this year. The milling machine is CNC controlled and adapted for use in a hot cell environment. Special arrangements are made to comply for this purpose. Since a number of components are not fully resistant to radiation, the machine is wheeled allowing it to be removed from the hot cell if not needed. Some technical specifications from the various manufacturers will be discussed which finally lead to the selected supplier. Primary, this only concerns the flexibility of the total equipment to adapt for remote control and not the general technical aspects of the equipment. The machine will be used mainly to manufacture mechanical testing samples form irradiated materials, obtained from both welding experiments and other irradiated components. Special auxiliary tools are made for this purpose to facilitate the machining of the samples. Next the convenience to program the system for machining mechanical testing samples to meet the specified requirements is also important. Before installing the equipment in the hot cell a try out is performed to evaluate the system. (Author)

  5. GRINDING OF SHAPED TOOLS ON CNC TOOL GRINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kráľ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Worm gears are special gears consisting of a worm wheel and a worm. Worm gears can be produced in different ways, depending on the size of the transmission, the number of courses, the pitch angle of worm profile, the number of units produced, the purpose of application, etc. As cylindrical worm gears we consider the cylindrical worms with globoid gears, globoid worm with globoid worm gear and globoid worm with cylindrical worm gearing. This paper deals with the evolvent worm whose curve of the tooth side in the front plane is evolvent. The production of worm with an optimal profile for optimal meshing conditions is an increasingly frequent focus of worm gear manufacturers. The problem of designing the tool cutting edge can be divided into several steps. This article deals with the problems of optimum design of a tool shape for the production of worms; and the problems of calculating the coordinates of the transition cutting edge shape, and thus the path of grinding wheel for sharpening the tool cutting edge shape are solved. By grinding tool of grinding machine we can complete the worm shape and also sharpen the cutting edges of tools for production of worm surface. The problems of calculation of the coordinates are solved with regard to the functioning of the KON 250 CNC grinding machine logic.

  6. Systematics for checking geometric errors in CNC lathes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, R. P.; Rolim, T. L.

    2015-10-01

    Non-idealities presented in machine tools compromise directly both the geometry and the dimensions of machined parts, generating distortions in the project. Given the competitive scenario among different companies, it is necessary to have knowledge of the geometric behavior of these machines in order to be able to establish their processing capability, avoiding waste of time and materials as well as satisfying customer requirements. But despite the fact that geometric tests are important and necessary to clarify the use of the machine correctly, therefore preventing future damage, most users do not apply such tests on their machines for lack of knowledge or lack of proper motivation, basically due to two factors: long period of time and high costs of testing. This work proposes a systematics for checking straightness and perpendicularity errors in CNC lathes demanding little time and cost with high metrological reliability, to be used on factory floors of small and medium-size businesses to ensure the quality of its products and make them competitive.

  7. Fatigue and Model Analysis of the CNC Cylindrical Grinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jui-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to lower deviation of workpiece by meeting high stability and rigidity to prevent the resonance in producing procedure of the CNC universal cylindrical grinding machine. Using finite element analysis software ABAQUS in grinder machine tools for numerical simulation of several analyses for the following: structural rigidity analysis, optimized design, vibration frequency analysis and fatigue damage analysis. This work aims on state of the transmission of outer diameter spindle to proceed in stress and fatigue life analysis by FE-SAFE Subroutine. The max values of equivalent stress and average amount of displacement in structural rigidity analysis are 0.67(Mpa and 0.92(µm. Optimization design effectively reducing extreme value of stress, the largest decline of about 5.43%. Modal analysis compared with the experimental, the average error percentage was less than 10% of parts. The whole structure error does not exceed 3%. The fatigue life of approximately 1,193,988 times, estimates into real life time can use more than sixty years, from the viewpoint of structural strength, spindle has a good high breaking strength is designed to be safe.

  8. Spatial augmented reality on industrial CNC-machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwal, Alex; Gustafsson, Jonny; Lindfors, Christoffer

    2008-02-01

    In this work we present how Augmented Reality (AR) can be used to create an intimate integration of process data with the workspace of an industrial CNC (computer numerical control) machine. AR allows us to combine interactive computer graphics with real objects in a physical environment - in this case, the workspace of an industrial lathe. ASTOR is an autostereoscopic optical see-through spatial AR system, which provides real-time 3D visual feedback without the need for user-worn equipment, such as head-mounted displays or sensors for tracking. The use of a transparent holographic optical element, overlaid onto the safety glass, allows the system to simultaneously provide bright imagery and clear visibility of the tool and workpiece. The system makes it possible to enhance visibility of occluded tools as well as to visualize real-time data from the process in the 3D space. The graphics are geometrically registered with the workspace and provide an intuitive representation of the process, amplifying the user's understanding and simplifying machine operation.

  9. R(o)hm Molding Compounds投资DVD设备%R(o)hm Molding Compounds Invests in DVD Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ 2001年5月,一个主要针对消费者的DVD试验工厂在德国的中部城市达姆施塔特开始运转.这个试验工厂是由Business Line R(o)hm Molding Compounds与其合作伙伴--OK Media Disc Service GmbH & Co.KG共同设立的.工厂的"心脏"是Singulus的Spaceline DVD设备,在一定的生产条件下,该设备可以用PLEXIGLAS(R)DQ501来生产DVD5和DVD9.此举的目的一方面是为了论证利用PLEXIGLAS(R)DQ501 PMMA材料进行DVD制造的可行性,同时也是对在现行条件下用于生产未来格式的模塑料的一种开发.

  10. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  11. Synthesis of the d,I-HM-PAO and formulation of nucleo-equipment for the obtention of 99m Tc-(d,I)-HM-PAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most brain imaging radiopharmaceuticals are conventional hydrophilic compounds that are excluded from entering the normal brain by an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB). Under pathologic conditions, the barrier is disrupted and radiotracer concentrates in the leisure for positive identification. 99m Tc- hexa methyl propylene amine oxime (99m Tc-HM-PAO) is a newer-type lipophilic agent that enter the normal brain through an intact BBB. Studies with this agent offer the promise of measuring cerebral perfusion in the normal and diseased brain. In this paper we present the synthesis and Tc-99m labelling of d,I-HM-PAO. The synthesis of the ligand was carried out by condensation of two molecular equivalents of butanedione monoxime with one molecular equivalent of 1,3 propanediamine provided a bis imine intermediate, which was reduced with sodium borohydride to get the meso and d,I diastereoisomers of HM-PAO. Separation of these was achieved by fractional crystallization. 99m Tc-(d,I)HM-PAO was obtained by stannous ion reduction of Mo-99/Tc-99m generator eluate in the presence of the ligand. Complex radiochemical purity was determined by instant thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography. Finally, we obtained 99m Tc-(d,I)HM-PAO with a high radiochemical yield, in excess of 90%. However, for subsequent clinical studies the preparation has to be done a few minutes before application because our product has a low stability. (Author)

  12. Retention mechanism of technetium-99m-HM-PAO: intracellular reaction with glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparations of d,l- and meso-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) labeled with technetium-99m were added to rat brain homogenates diluted with phosphate buffer (1:10). The conversion of d,l-HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms took place with an initial rate constant of 0.12 min-1. Incubation of the brain homogenate with 2% diethyl maleate for 5 h decreased the homogenate's measured glutathione (GSH) concentration from 160 to 16 microM and decreased the conversion rate to 0.012 min-1. Buffered aqueous solutions of glutathione rapidly converted the HM-PAO tracers to hydrophilic forms having the same chromatographic characteristics as found in the brain homogenates. The rate constant for the conversion reaction of d,l-HM-PAO in GSH aqueous solution was 208 and 317 L/mol/min in two different assay systems and for meso-HM-PAO the values were 14.7 and 23.2 L/mol/min, respectively. Rat brain has a GSH concentration of about 2.3 mM and the conversion of the d,l-HM-PAO due to GSH alone should proceed with a rate constant of 0.48 to 0.73 min-1 and be correspondingly 14-fold slower for meso-HM-PAO. In human brain, the in vivo data of Lassen et al. show a conversion rate constant of 0.80 min-1. This correspondence of values supports the notion that GSH may be important for the in vivo conversion of 99mTc-labeled HM-PAO to hydrophilic forms and may be the mechanism of trapping in brain and other cells. A kinetic model for the trapping of d,l- and meso-HM-PAO in tissue is developed that is based on data of GSH concentration in various organs

  13. Repurposing mainstream CNC machine tools for laser-based additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason B.

    2016-04-01

    The advent of laser technology has been a key enabler for industrial 3D printing, known as Additive Manufacturing (AM). Despite its commercial success and unique technical capabilities, laser-based AM systems are not yet able to produce parts with the same accuracy and surface finish as CNC machining. To enable the geometry and material freedoms afforded by AM, yet achieve the precision and productivity of CNC machining, hybrid combinations of these two processes have started to gain traction. To achieve the benefits of combined processing, laser technology has been integrated into mainstream CNC machines - effectively repurposing them as hybrid manufacturing platforms. This paper reviews how this engineering challenge has prompted beam delivery innovations to allow automated changeover between laser processing and machining, using standard CNC tool changers. Handling laser-processing heads using the tool changer also enables automated change over between different types of laser processing heads, further expanding the breadth of laser processing flexibility in a hybrid CNC. This paper highlights the development, challenges and future impact of hybrid CNCs on laser processing.

  14. Development of an E-maintenance System for a CNC System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Hong; HE Ling-song; TANG Li-xin

    2007-01-01

    Globalization and rapid growth of network technologies have changed the traditional patterns of device maintenance. E-maintenance has emerged and is widely used in many manufacturing systems. In this paper, a new architecture of an E-maintenance system is proposed, which consists of E-maintenance centre, embedded CNC gateway and CNG terminal. The E-maintenance centre provides the technical support and service for customers based on Internet and communication technologies. The embedded CNC gateway serves as an agent between the public and plant device network, and provides web-based access for the CNC system. A reconfigurable CNC terminal is highly desired in a signal measuring and analysing system, which is built on the top of component and software bus based models. Finally, the E-maintenance system for the CNC machine is implemented and the experiments show that the architecture of an E-maintenance system can effectively reduce the downtime of devices, the responding time of maintenance work, and increase both the quality and the productivity of enterprises.

  15. H&M – a role model for organic cotton use in textile processing?

    OpenAIRE

    Graß, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Sweden’s Hennes & Mauritz (operating as H&M) is one of the biggest multinational retail-clothing companies in the world. As a result of massive criticism from campaigning non-profit organizations and news media reports that blamed H&M for unfair and substandard working conditions in their ancillary industries, in 1997 the company began to develop a corporate social responsibility (CSR) program and a code of conduct. Today H&M has a wide-ranging, broadly integrated CSR pro-gram. As a part of i...

  16. ANN Based Tool Condition Monitoring System for CNC Milling Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota-Valtierra G.C.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the companies have as objective to manufacture high-quality products, then by optimizing costs, reducing and controlling the variations in its production processes it is possible. Within manufacturing industries a very important issue is the tool condition monitoring, since the tool state will determine the quality of products. Besides, a good monitoring system will protect the machinery from severe damages. For determining the state of the cutting tools in a milling machine, there is a great variety of models in the industrial market, however these systems are not available to all companies because of their high costs and the requirements of modifying the machining tool in order to attach the system sensors. This paper presents an intelligent classification system which determines the status of cutt ers in a Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling machine. This tool state is mainly detected through the analysis of the cutting forces drawn from the spindle motors currents. This monitoring system does not need sensors so it is no necessary to modify the machine. The correct classification is made by advanced digital signal processing techniques. Just after acquiring a signal, a FIR digital filter is applied to the data to eliminate the undesired noisy components and to extract the embedded force components. A Wavelet Transformation is applied to the filtered signal in order to compress the data amount and to optimize the classifier structure. Then a multilayer perceptron- type neural network is responsible for carrying out the classification of the signal. Achieving a reliability of 95%, the system is capable of detecting breakage and a worn cutter.

  17. The study of opened CNC system of turning-grinding composite machine tool based on UMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjun; Han, Qiushi; Wu, Guoxin; Ma, Chao

    2011-05-01

    The general function analysis of a turning-grinding composite machine tool (TGCM) is done. The structure of the TGCM based on 'process integration with one setup' theory in this paper is presented. The CNC system functions of TGCM are analyzed and the CNC framework of TGCM is discussed. Finally the opened-CNC system for this machine tool is developed based on UMAC (Universal Motion and Automation Controller) included hardware system and software system. The hardware structure layout is put forward and the software system is implemented by using VC++6.0. The hardware system was composed of IPC and UMAC. The general control system meets the requirement of integrity machining and matches the hardware structure system of TGCM. The practical machining experiment results showed that the system is valid with high accuracy and high reliability.

  18. Application Of Multilevel HM-Network At Designing Of Warehouses Squares In Logistics Transport Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kiturko, O.

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with the technique allowing to estimate and forecast expected incomes, logistics transport systems subjects warehouse squares. The technique is based on application of HM (Howard-Matalytski) - queueing networks.

  19. 99mTc HM-PAO brain perfusion SPECT in brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have easily carried out and interpreted 99mTc HM-PAO SPECT in a consecutive series of 40 comatose patients with brain damage, without discontinuing therapy. Brain death was diagnosed in 7 patients, by recognising absence of brain perfusion, as shown by no intracranial radionuclide uptake. In patients in whom perfusion was seen on brain scans, HM-PAO SPECT improved assessment of the extent of injury, which in general was larger than suggested by CT. (orig.)

  20. The application of Marketing within a company - case study of H&M

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Inna Assa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract of the bachelor thesis Title: The application of Marketing within a company: the case of H&M Name of student: Inna Assa Diallo The bachelor Thesis Supervisor: Richard Selby Department of the supervisor: department of management. Summary This thesis will show the importance and the functioning of marketing in the company. It will give an overview of how marketing works in H&M and how they practice it from the production to the sale of the goo...

  1. OpenGL Based Real Time&Inline Simulation of CNC Cams Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhanqi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OpenGL based NC machining real time simulation model is proposed in the paper, and some key techniques of the system are investigated, including input and compiling of NC program, building of display model, real time displaying procedure of machining. With this technique, operator can view the machining process at screen of CNC machining real time, without stopping machine tool, which is very convenient for operating of machining. At last of the paper, an example of CNC cams grinding machine tool is given in order to proving the algorithm.

  2. CncRNAs: RNAs with both coding and non-coding roles in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Karuna; Ephrussi, Anne

    2016-04-15

    RNAs are known to regulate diverse biological processes, either as protein-encoding molecules or as non-coding RNAs. However, a third class that comprises RNAs endowed with both protein coding and non-coding functions has recently emerged. Such bi-functional 'coding and non-coding RNAs' (cncRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in distinct developmental processes in plants and animals. Here, we discuss key examples of cncRNAs and review their roles, regulation and mechanisms of action during development. PMID:27095489

  3. Characterization and immune function of two intracellular sensors, HmTLR1 and HmNLR, in the injured CNS of an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Slomianny, Christian; Salzet, Michel; Tasiemski, Aurélie

    2011-02-01

    Unlike mammals, the CNS of the medicinal leech can regenerate damaged neurites, thus restoring neural functions. Our group recently demonstrated that the injured leech nerve cord is able to mount an immune response, which promotes the regenerative processes. This defense mechanism is microorganism-specific, suggesting that the leech CNS is able to discriminate among microbial components. We report here the characterization of two receptors potentially implicated in this detection: HmTLR1 and HmNLR. Interestingly, HmTLR1 presents an endosomal distribution in neurons and appears as a chimera combining the mammalian intraendosomal domain of TLR3 and the cytoplasmic section of TLR13, while HmNLR is cytosolic and has the highest homology to NLRC3 receptors. Both receptors show patterns of induction upon stimulation that suggest their involvement in the leech neuroimmune response. This work constitutes the first demonstration in an invertebrate of (i) an intracellular TLR and (ii) a cytosolic PRR related to the NLR family. PMID:20920526

  4. Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca2+-mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca2+-mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs

  5. Design and Implementation of 3 Axis CNC Router for Computer Aided Manufacturing Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktan Mehmet Emin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is intended to make the mechanical design of 3 axis Computer Numerical Control (CNC router with linear joints, production of electronic control interface cards and drivers and manufacturing of CNC router system which is a combination of mechanics and electronics. At the same time, interface program has been prepared to control router via USB. The router was developed for educational purpose. In some vocational schools and universities, Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM courses are though rather theoretical. This situation cause ineffective and temporary learning. Moreover, students at schools which have the opportunity to apply for these systems can face with various dangerous accidents. Because of this situation, these students start to get knowledge about this system for the first time. For the first steps of CNC education, using smaller and less dangerous systems will be easier. A new concept CNC machine and its user interface suitable and profitable for education have been completely designed and realized during this study. To test the validity of the hypothesis which the benefits that may exist on the educational life, enhanced traditional education method with the contribution of the designed machine has been practiced on CAM course students for a semester. At the end of the semester, the new method applied students were more successful in the rate of 27.36 percent both in terms of verbal comprehension and exam grades.

  6. Learning Control: Sense-Making, CNC Machines, and Changes in Vocational Training for Industrial Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Boel

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores how novices in school-based vocational training make sense of computerized numerical control (CNC) machines. Based on two ethnographic studies in Swedish schools, one from the early 1980s and one from 2006, it analyses change and continuity in the cognitive, social, and emotional processes of learning how to become a machine…

  7. Technical and Symbolic Knowledge in CNC Machining: A Study of Technical Workers of Different Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura M. W.; Beach, King

    Performances of 45 individuals with varying degrees of formal and informal training in machining and programming were compared on tasks designed to tap intellectual changes that may occur with the introduction of computer numerical control (CNC). Participants--30 machinists, 8 machine operators, and 7 engineers--were asked background questions and…

  8. Development of a QFD-based expert system for CNC turning centre selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kanika; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools are automated devices capable of generating complicated and intricate product shapes in shorter time. Selection of the best CNC machine tool is a critical, complex and time-consuming task due to availability of a wide range of alternatives and conflicting nature of several evaluation criteria. Although, the past researchers had attempted to select the appropriate machining centres using different knowledge-based systems, mathematical models and multi-criteria decision-making methods, none of those approaches has given due importance to the voice of customers. The aforesaid limitation can be overcome using quality function deployment (QFD) technique, which is a systematic approach for integrating customers' needs and designing the product to meet those needs first time and every time. In this paper, the adopted QFD-based methodology helps in selecting CNC turning centres for a manufacturing organization, providing due importance to the voice of customers to meet their requirements. An expert system based on QFD technique is developed in Visual BASIC 6.0 to automate the CNC turning centre selection procedure for different production plans. Three illustrative examples are demonstrated to explain the real-time applicability of the developed expert system.

  9. The Acceleration/Deceleration Control Algorithm Based on Trapezoid-Curve Jerk in CNC Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyong Zhao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose the acceleration/deceleration control algorithm based on trapezoid-curve jerk in CNC machining. In aviation and mould and die industry, it is much significant to achieve high accuracy CNC machining on complex profile parts. The unsmooth Acceleration/Deceleration (ab. Acc/Dec control in feed movement is one of the main reasons to bring about machine tools impact and vibration in practical machining. After analyzing the CNC machine tools dynamic model, an Acc/Dec control algorithm based on trapezoid-curve jerk is put forward in order to avoid step change in jerk curve in the study; Moreover, the motion profile smooth control approach based on continuous jerk is developed in details to decrease machine tools impact according to various kinematics constraint conditions, such as the maximum acceleration, the maximum jerk, the machining program segment displacement, the instruction feedrate and so on; Finally, the developed Acc/Dec approach and the traditional linear Acc/Dec approach are compared in the CNC experimental table. The results reveal that the developed approach can achieve more smooth and flexible motion profile, which is helpful to minish machine tools impact and enhance parts machining surface quality.

  10. Chemical crosslinking of acrylic acid to form biocompatible pH sensitive hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Lim Sze; Ahmad, Ishak; Lazim, Mohd Azwani Shah Mat [Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Amin, Mohd. Cairul Iqbal Mohd [Faculty of Pharmacy, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    The purpose of this study is to produce a novel pH and temperature sensitive hydrogel, composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). CNC was extracted from kenaf fiber through a series of alkali and bleaching treatments followed by acid hydrolysis. The PAA was then subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in PAA matrix. The mixture was casted onto petri dish to obtain disc shape hydrogel. The effects of reaction conditions such as the ratio of PAA and CNC on the swelling behavior of the hydrogel obtained towards pH and temperature were studied. The obtained hydrogel was further subjected to different tests such swelling test for swelling behaviour at different pH and temperature along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology analysis. The hydrogel obtained showed excellent pH sensitivity and obtained maximum swelling at pH 7. Besides that, hydrogel obtained showed significant increase in swelling ratio when temperature of swelling medium was increased from 25°C to 37°C. SEM micrograph showed that the pore size of the hydrogel decreases with increase of CNC content proving that the hydrogel structure became more rigid with addition of CNC. The PAA/CNC hydrogel with such excellent sensitivity towards pH and temperature can be developed further as drug carrier.

  11. Chemical crosslinking of acrylic acid to form biocompatible pH sensitive hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lim Sze; Ahmad, Ishak; Lazim, Mohd Azwani Shah Mat; Amin, Mohd. Cairul Iqbal Mohd

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce a novel pH and temperature sensitive hydrogel, composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). CNC was extracted from kenaf fiber through a series of alkali and bleaching treatments followed by acid hydrolysis. The PAA was then subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in PAA matrix. The mixture was casted onto petri dish to obtain disc shape hydrogel. The effects of reaction conditions such as the ratio of PAA and CNC on the swelling behavior of the hydrogel obtained towards pH and temperature were studied. The obtained hydrogel was further subjected to different tests such swelling test for swelling behaviour at different pH and temperature along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology analysis. The hydrogel obtained showed excellent pH sensitivity and obtained maximum swelling at pH 7. Besides that, hydrogel obtained showed significant increase in swelling ratio when temperature of swelling medium was increased from 25°C to 37°C. SEM micrograph showed that the pore size of the hydrogel decreases with increase of CNC content proving that the hydrogel structure became more rigid with addition of CNC. The PAA/CNC hydrogel with such excellent sensitivity towards pH and temperature can be developed further as drug carrier.

  12. Chemical crosslinking of acrylic acid to form biocompatible pH sensitive hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to produce a novel pH and temperature sensitive hydrogel, composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). CNC was extracted from kenaf fiber through a series of alkali and bleaching treatments followed by acid hydrolysis. The PAA was then subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in PAA matrix. The mixture was casted onto petri dish to obtain disc shape hydrogel. The effects of reaction conditions such as the ratio of PAA and CNC on the swelling behavior of the hydrogel obtained towards pH and temperature were studied. The obtained hydrogel was further subjected to different tests such swelling test for swelling behaviour at different pH and temperature along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology analysis. The hydrogel obtained showed excellent pH sensitivity and obtained maximum swelling at pH 7. Besides that, hydrogel obtained showed significant increase in swelling ratio when temperature of swelling medium was increased from 25°C to 37°C. SEM micrograph showed that the pore size of the hydrogel decreases with increase of CNC content proving that the hydrogel structure became more rigid with addition of CNC. The PAA/CNC hydrogel with such excellent sensitivity towards pH and temperature can be developed further as drug carrier

  13. In-situ polymerized cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)-poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) nanomaterials and applications in nanocomposite processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Chuanwei; Hamad, Wadood Y

    2016-11-20

    CNC-PLLA nanomaterials were synthesized via in-situ ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide in the presence of CNC, resulting in hydrophobic, homogeneous mixture of PLLA-grafted-CNC and free PLLA homopolymer. The free PLLA serves two useful functions: as barrier to further prevent PLLA-g-CNC from forming aggregates, and in creating improved interfacial properties when these nanomaterials are blended with other polymers, hence enhancing their performance. CNC-PLLA nanomaterials can be used for medical or engineering applications as-they-are or by compounding with suitable biopolymers using versatile techniques, such as solution casting, co-extrusion or injection molding, to form hybrid nanocomposites of tunable mechanical properties. When compounded with commercial-grade PLA, the resulting CNC-PLA nanocomposites appear transparent and have tailored (dynamic and static) mechanical and barrier properties, approaching those of poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET. The effect of reaction conditions on the properties of CNC-PLLA nanomaterials have been carefully studied and detailed throughout the paper. PMID:27561528

  14. Synthesis of the d,I-HM-PAO and formulation of nucleo-equipment for the obtention of {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)-HM-PAO; Sintesis del d,I-HM-PAO y formulacion de nucleo-equipos para la obtencion de {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)-HM-PAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezama C, J.; Ferro F, G.; Alcazar A, P

    1991-09-15

    Most brain imaging radiopharmaceuticals are conventional hydrophilic compounds that are excluded from entering the normal brain by an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB). Under pathologic conditions, the barrier is disrupted and radiotracer concentrates in the leisure for positive identification. {sup 99m} Tc- hexa methyl propylene amine oxime ({sup 99} {sup m} Tc-HM-PAO) is a newer-type lipophilic agent that enter the normal brain through an intact BBB. Studies with this agent offer the promise of measuring cerebral perfusion in the normal and diseased brain. In this paper we present the synthesis and Tc-99m labelling of d,I-HM-PAO. The synthesis of the ligand was carried out by condensation of two molecular equivalents of butanedione monoxime with one molecular equivalent of 1,3 propanediamine provided a bis imine intermediate, which was reduced with sodium borohydride to get the meso and d,I diastereoisomers of HM-PAO. Separation of these was achieved by fractional crystallization. {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)HM-PAO was obtained by stannous ion reduction of Mo-99/Tc-99m generator eluate in the presence of the ligand. Complex radiochemical purity was determined by instant thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography. Finally, we obtained {sup 99m} Tc-(d,I)HM-PAO with a high radiochemical yield, in excess of 90%. However, for subsequent clinical studies the preparation has to be done a few minutes before application because our product has a low stability. (Author)

  15. Binary Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Keegan; Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.

    2014-11-01

    Can a bound pair of similar mass terrestrial planets exist? We are interested here in bodies with a mass ratio of ~ 3:1 or less (so Pluto/Charon or Earth/Moon do not qualify) and we do not regard the absence of any such discoveries in the Kepler data set to be significant since the tidal decay and merger of a close binary is prohibitively fast well inside of 1AU. SPH simulations of equal mass “Earths” were carried out to seek an answer to this question, assuming encounters that were only slightly more energetic than parabolic (zero energy). We were interested in whether the collision or near collision of two similar mass bodies would lead to a binary in which the two bodies remain largely intact, effectively a tidal capture hypothesis though with the tidal distortion being very large. Necessarily, the angular momentum of such an encounter will lead to bodies separated by only a few planetary radii if capture occurs. Consistent with previous work, mostly by Canup, we find that most impacts are disruptive, leading to a dominant mass body surrounded by a disk from which a secondary forms whose mass is small compared to the primary, hence not a binary planet by our adopted definition. However, larger impact parameter “kissing” collisions were found to produce binaries because the dissipation upon first encounter was sufficient to provide a bound orbit that was then rung down by tides to an end state where the planets are only a few planetary radii apart. The long computational times for these simulation make it difficult to fully map the phase space of encounters for which this outcome is likely but the indications are that the probability is not vanishingly small and since planetary encounters are a plausible part of planet formation, we expect binary planets to exist and be a non-negligible fraction of the larger orbital radius exoplanets awaiting discovery.

  16. The importance of strategic management : A case study of H&M

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Huiru

    2011-01-01

    Hennes & Mauritz (H&M) is a 100 billion Sweden company,engaged in designing and retailing of fashion apparel and accessories. The company offers a range of apparel, cosmetics, footwear and accessories for men, women, children and teenagers. H&M primarily operates in Europe, North America and Asia, and has a presence in over 38 countries. The company is headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden and employs approximately 87,000 people on a full-time basis. This thesis focused on the strategic...

  17. The modelling and correction of ball-screw geometric, thermal and load errors on CNC machine tools

    OpenAIRE

    Holroyd, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    In the modern global economy, there is a demand for high precision in manufacture as competitive pressures drive businesses to seek greater productivity. This results in a demand for a reduction in the errors associated with CNC machine tools. To this end, it is useful to develop a greater understanding of the mechanisms which give rise to errors in machine tool drives. This programme of research covers the geometric, thermal and load errors commonly encountered on CNC machine tools. Sever...

  18. The Test and Analysis of the Dynamic Characteristics of the Key Parts of the High-Speed CNC Milling Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolong Shen; Hua Long; Yongxin Luo; Nanlin Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we study the modal parameters and the vibration mode through analyzing the dynamic characteristics of the modal test of the key components and understanding the inherent characteristic of the whole structure of the CNC milling machine system. Based on the hammering method, the top 10 modal parameters of the CNC milling machine below 1000 Hz are obtained by the modal test. Through analyzing each vibration mode, the weak modals and the weaknesses which have great effect on the ma...

  19. Teachers’ Attitude towards Integration of Computer Assisted Instructions in Teaching and Learning Process in CAD/CAM/CNC Module

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrasool, Salah Mahdi; Mishra, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of teachers’ attitudes, effectiveness of various teaching methods employed as well as teachers’ perceptions of the teaching experience on effectiveness of teaching-learning processes in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and computer numerical control (CAD/CAM/CNC) module used in vocational education department in Bahrain. Previous studies suggested that a part of the problem in CAD/CAM/CNC subject area is the use of inap...

  20. CNC programming system for complex components based on KBE within integrated environment of CAD/CAPP/CAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengwen ZHANG; Guicheng WANG; Liang ZHANG; Xifeng FANG

    2009-01-01

    To promote the research and development of modem digital and intelligent manufacturing technology and overcome shortcomings of computerized numerical control(CNC) programming for complex components, an innovative idea has been proposed to introduce knowledge based engineering (KBE) into the field of CNC program-ming within the integrated environment of CAD/CAPP/ CAM. This paper constructs the architecture of CNC programming based on KBE within CAD/CAPP/CAM and explores the key technology of applying KBE to CNC programming -- knowledge representation, knowledge acquisition, knowledge reasoning, and generalized knowl-edge base system of CNC programming. The integration of the CAD/CAM system and the CAPP system of enterprises has been achieved by taking the powerful CAD/CAM system of UG NX as a platform. The prototype system of CNC programming for complex components based on KBE within CAD/CAPP/CAM has been developed by means of UG/Open,VC ++ 6.0, and SQL Sever 2000. Finally, a frame example, one of the complex components of a marine diesel, is presented, and the academic production and the intelligence of the system are verified.

  1. Přátelé Jaroslava Heyrovského. Jan (Johann) Böhm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindra, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 11 (2009), s. 894-897. E-ISSN 1213-7103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA800630901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : Jaroslav Heyrovský * correspondence * correspondence between Heyrovský and Böhm Subject RIV: AB - History

  2. Wirtschaftsverfassung / Wirtschaftsdemokratie: Franz Böhm und Hugo Sinzheimer jenseits des Nationalstaates

    OpenAIRE

    Teubner, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    Die Globalisierung hat nicht, wie es sowohl ordoliberale als auch kritische Theorien einer globalen „economic constitution“ erwarten, eine einheitliche Weltwirtschaftsverfassung hervorgebracht, sondern eine fragmentierte Kollisionsverfassung, d.h. eine Metaverfassung von Verfassungskonflikten. Als deren kollidierende Einheiten fungieren nicht mehr die Nationalstaaten, sondern transnationale Produktionsregimes. Die von Böhm und Sinzheimer für den Nationalstaat formulierte Alternative von ordol...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Microbacterium sp. Strain HM58-2, Which Hydrolyzes Acylhydrazides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Tomonori; Ishige, Taichiro; Kanesaki, Yu; Ito, Shinsaku; Oinuma, Ken-Ichi; Takaya, Naoki; Sasaki, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain HM58-2, which produces hydrazidase, an enzyme hydrolyzing acylhydrazides. The estimated genome size is 3.9 Mb. Genome sequence information of this strain will help to identify an assimilating mechanism of nonnatural compounds in this strain and to develop ecological applications. PMID:27313297

  4. An Upper Limit to the Mass of rho1 Cnc's Radial Velocity Companion

    CERN Document Server

    McGrath, M A; Black, D C; Gatewood, G; Noll, K S; Schultz, A; Lubow, S H; Han, I; Stepinski, T F; Targett, T; Grath, Melissa A. Mc; Nelan, Edmund; Black, David C.; Gatewood, George; Noll, Keith; Schultz, Al; Lubow, Stephen; Han, Inwoo; Stepinski, Tomasz F.; Targett, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Doppler spectroscopy of rho1 Cnc has detected evidence of a companion with an orbital period of 14.65 days and a minimum mass of 0.88 Jupiter masses. Astrometric observations performed with the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor 1r using a novel new observing technique have placed an upper limit on the astrometric reflex motion of rho1 Cnc in a time period of only one month. These observations detected no reflex motion induced by the 14.65 day period radial velocity companion, allowing us to place a 3-sigma upper limit of \\~0.3 milliarcseconds on the semi-major axis of this motion, ruling out the preliminary Hipparcos value of 1.15 milliarcseconds. The corresponding upper limit on the true mass of the companion is ~30 Mj, confirming that it is a sub-stellar object.

  5. Application of Artificial Intelligence Methods of Tool Path Optimization in CNC Machines: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khashayar Danesh Narooei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, in most of metal machining process, Computer Numerical Control (CNC machine tools have been very popular due to their efficiencies and repeatability to achieve high accuracy positioning. One of the factors that govern the productivity is the tool path travel during cutting a work piece. It has been proved that determination of optimal cutting parameters can enhance the machining results to reach high efficiency and minimum the machining cost. In various publication and articles, scientist and researchers adapted several Artificial Intelligence (AI methods or hybrid method for tool path optimization such as Genetic Algorithms (GA, Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Artificial Immune Systems (AIS, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. This study presents a review of researches in tool path optimization with different types of AI methods that show the capability of using different types of optimization methods in CNC machining process.

  6. Neural Network for the Prediction of Retrofitting/Reconditioning/Upgradation cost of CNC Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHUPENDRA MISHRA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to predict the Retrofitting/Reconditioning/Upgradation cost of used CNC Machines in manufacturing industries so as to optimize the capital investments on these activities. I find that neural network can be used to predict these costs, as there is no known relationship between the cost underconsideration and the factors responsible for the retrofitting/reconditioning/upgradation. Although few replacement model based on depreciation value of the CNC Machine, but this model fails to account the effect of technological obsolescence, mechanical condition of the machine and the substantial change in the productiontechnology and valid only for the capital retirement, but not able to determine the Retrofitting/Reconditioning/Up-gradation projects and their costing.

  7. Desain dan Implementasi Sistem Kendali CNC Router Menggunakan PC untuk Flame Cutting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Permana Saputra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on design of router control systems based on computer numerical control (CNC using personal computer (PC implemented in flame cutting machine (FCM. NC-Code entered into the computer translated to be a command signal sent by the PC to a microcontroller to control the end effector’s movement alongthe X and Y axis simultaneously based on linear and circular interpolations calculation on the PC. This control system is implemented on FCM by connecting the output control of the microcontroller with the driver actuator of the FCM in the form of a DC motor. The obtained result is in the form of a CNC router control system prototype to be implemented in the FCM which is capable to perform linear interpolation and circular interpolation. 

  8. Vision-based on-machine measurement for CNC machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ruixue; Han, Jiang; Lu, Rongsheng; Xia, Lian

    2015-02-01

    A vision-based on-machine measurement system (OMM) was developed to improve manufacturing effectiveness. It was based on a visual probe to enable the CNC machine tool itself to act as a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) to inspect a workpiece. The proposed OMM system was composed of a visual probe and two software modules: computer-aided inspection planning (CAIP) module and measurement data processing (MDP) module. The auto-focus function of the visual probe was realized by using astigmatic method. The CAIP module was developed based on a CAD development platform with Open CASCADE as its kernel. The MDP module includes some algorithms for determination of inspection parameters, for example, the chamfered hole was measured through focus variation. The entire system was consequently verified on a CNC milling machine.

  9. An open-source distributed mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Zink, Matthias; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Cuntz, Matthias; Schäfer, David; Schrön, Martin; Musuuza, Jude; Prykhodko, Vladyslav; Dalmasso, Giovanni; Attinger, Sabine; Spieler, Diana; Rakovec, Oldrich; Craven, John; Langenberg, Ben

    2014-05-01

    The mesoscale hydrological model (mHM) is based on numerical approximations of dominant hydrological processes that have been tested in various hydrological models such as: HBV and VIC. In general, mHM simulates the following processes: canopy interception, snow accumulation and melting, soil moisture dynamics (n-horizons), infiltration and surface runoff, evapotranspiration, subsurface storage and discharge generation, deep percolation and baseflow, and discharge attenuation and flood routing. The main characteristic of mHM is the treatment of the sub-grid variability of input variables and model parameters which clearly distinguishes this model from existing precipitation-runoff models or land surface models. It uses a Multiscale Parameter Regionalization (MPR) to account for the sub-grid variability and to avoid continuous re-calibration. Effective model parameters are location and time dependent (e.g., soil porosity). They are estimated through upscaling operators that link sub-grid morphologic information (e.g., soil texture) with global transfer-function parameters, which, in turn, are found through multi-basin optimization. Global parameters estimated with the MPR technique are quasi-scale invariant and guarantee flux-matching across scales. mHM is an open source code, written in Fortran 2003 (standard), fully modular, with high computational efficiency, and parallelized. It is portable to multiple platforms (Linux, OS X, Windows) and includes a number of algorithms for sensitivity analysis, analysis of parameter uncertainty (MCMC), and optimization (DDS, SA, SCE). All simulated state variables and outputs can be stored as netCDF files for further analysis and visualization. mHM has been evaluated in all major river basins in Germany and over 80 US and 250 European river basins. The model efficiency (NSE) during validation at proxy locations is on average greater than 0.6. During last years, mHM had been used for number of hydrologic applications such as

  10. Application of Artificial Intelligence Methods of Tool Path Optimization in CNC Machines: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Khashayar Danesh Narooei; Rizauddin Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Today, in most of metal machining process, Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools have been very popular due to their efficiencies and repeatability to achieve high accuracy positioning. One of the factors that govern the productivity is the tool path travel during cutting a work piece. It has been proved that determination of optimal cutting parameters can enhance the machining results to reach high efficiency and minimum the machining cost. In various publication and articles, scien...

  11. Minimum Time Trajectory Optimization of CNC Machining with Tracking Error Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    An off-line optimization approach of high precision minimum time feedrate for CNC machining is proposed. Besides the ordinary considered velocity, acceleration, and jerk constraints, dynamic performance constraint of each servo drive is also considered in this optimization problem to improve the tracking precision along the optimized feedrate trajectory. Tracking error is applied to indicate the servo dynamic performance of each axis. By using variable substitution, the tracking error constra...

  12. Desain dan Implementasi Sistem Kendali CNC Router Menggunakan PC untuk Flame Cutting Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Roni Permana Saputra; Anwar Muqorobin; Arif Santoso; Teguh Pudji Purwanto

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on design of router control systems based on computer numerical control (CNC) using personal computer (PC) implemented in flame cutting machine (FCM). NC-Code entered into the computer translated to be a command signal sent by the PC to a microcontroller to control the end effector’s movement alongthe X and Y axis simultaneously based on linear and circular interpolations calculation on the PC. This control system is implemented on FCM by connecting the output control of th...

  13. Contouring Control for a CNC Milling Machine Driven by Direct thrust Controlled Linear Induction Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled N. Faris; Hala S. Khalil,; Khaled S. Sakkoury

    2015-01-01

    According to various advantages of linear induction motor (LIM), such as high starting thrust force, high speed operation and reduction of mechanical losses, more applications have utilized this type of motors. Direct Thrust Control (DTC) technique is considered as one of the most efficient techniques that can be used for LIM. DTC is preferable to give a fast and good dynamic thrust response. So, to improve the accuracy and robustness of contouring control for CNC mach...

  14. The Application of ANN and ANFIS Prediction Models for Thermal Error Compensation on CNC Machine Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulshahed, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Thermal errors can have significant effects on Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tool accuracy. The errors come from thermal deformations of the machine elements caused by heat sources within the machine structure or from ambient temperature change. The effect of temperature can be reduced by error avoidance or numerical compensation. The performance of a thermal error compensation system essentially depends upon the accuracy and robustness of the thermal error model and its input m...

  15. Research on Stability Prediction of the Crankshaft CNC Tangential Point Tracing Grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuoda Jiang; Yongyi He

    2015-01-01

    As the key part of internal combustion engines, crankshaft with high efficiency and accuracy processing has always been the target of the engine manufacturer’s pursuit. Grinding is used to obtain the ultimate dimensional accuracy and surface finish in the crankshaft machining. Grinding of the main journals and the pin journals can be accomplished in a single clamping operation by CNC Tangential Point Tracing grinding technology. However, the chatter in the grinding process is harmful to the p...

  16. Snap-fit Joints - CNC fabricated, Integrated Mechanical Attachment for Structural Wood Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Robeller, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This presentation presents our reserach into the design and potential applications of CNC fabricated snap-fit joints for cross-laminated veneer lumber panels (LVL). These joints are new to the building construction sector, but commonly used in other domains such as the automotive or consumer electronics industry. We explain our application of existing knowledge about the design and dimensioning of such joints, as well as several adaptations that we have made in order to optimize the connector...

  17. An Open Modular Architecture Controller Based Online Chatter Suppression System for CNC Milling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenyu Han; Hongyu Jin; Maoyue Li; Hongya Fu

    2015-01-01

    In milling processes, chatter is a kind of sudden relative vibration appearing between the cutter and the workpiece, which results in poor part quality, accelerated tool wear, and shortened spindle life. In this paper, an open modular architecture controller (OMAC) of machine tool which integrates the algorithms including chatter recognition, compensation command generation, and execution is proposed with the aim of providing an integrated solution for milling chatter suppression in CNC kerne...

  18. The Influence of Mechanical Resonance & Compensation Method in CNC Heavy Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yuguo; HUANG Yunlin; SONG Chongzhi

    2006-01-01

    In CNC heavy cutting servo system, mechanical driving system has a torture feedback on electrical speed-adjustment system, thus it's possible to generate the mechanical resonance. The mechanical resonance makes the feature parameters of mechanical driving system influence the dynamic performance of the electrical speed-adjustment system. This paper has studied the resistance ratio of ζmech and q parameters ,and put forward the compensation method to decrease the mechanical resonance influence.

  19. Design and implementation of five-axis transformation function in CNC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Feng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To implement five-axis functions in CNC system, based on domestic system Lan Tian series, an improved design method for the system software structure is proposed in this paper. The numerical control kernel of CNC system is divided into the task layer and the motion layer. A five-axis transformation unit is integrated into the motion layer. After classifying five-axis machines into different types and analyzing their geometry information, the five-axis kinematic library is designed according to the abstract factory pattern. Furthermore, by taking CA spindle-tilting machine as an example, the forward and the inverse kinematic transformations are deduced. Based on the new software architecture and the five-axis kinematic library, algorithms of RTCP (rotation tool center point control and 3D radius compensation for end-milling are designed and realized. The milling results show that, with five-axis functions based on such software structure, the instructions with respect to the cutter’s position and orientation can be directly carried out in the CNC system.

  20. Development of a PC-based Open Architecture Software-CNC System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As a key technology in the field of advanced manufacturing, an open architecture controller is studied. In order to develop an open architecture software-CNC system on personal computer (PC) according to open modular architecture controllers (OMAC). First, the software and hardware platform is chosen and software realization methodology for the CNC system is determined. Second, static modeling methods of an open architecture controller inclusive of object-oriented (OO) programming technology, dynamic link library (DLL)technology and system modules partition are investigated. Third, the dynamical behavioral modeling and the data flow representation of open architecture controller are discussed, which are both described in hierarchy finite state machine (FSM) model. Fourth, a reusable software module model is established to develop software function module library. Finally, a 3-axis milling machine tool test-bed, named for HIT-CNC, is successfully designed by means of the constructed software function module library and the system configuring method.The experimental results show that, besides increasing the degree of reusability and openness, application of above-mentioned methodology leads to significant decrease of development time as well as maintenance cost.

  1. The retention of [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO in the human brain after intracarotid bolus injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Andersen, A R; Friberg, L; Paulson, O B

    1988-01-01

    . Cerebral blood flow (F) was measured using the xenon-133 intracarotid injection method. The first-pass extraction E of HM-PAO was calculated from F using an empiric regression equation. The residue curves for the whole brain after intracarotid HM-PAO injection were analyzed to yield a retention fraction (R...

  2. Thermodynamic properties of (an ester+an alkane). XVII. Experimental HmE and VmE values for (an alkyl propanoate+an alkane) at 318.15K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we record the experimental values of HmE and VmE, obtained at a temperature of T=318.15K and atmospheric pressure for a set of 30 binary mixtures comprised of five alkyl propanoates (methyl to pentyl) with six odd alkanes (heptane to heptadecane). The net values obtained for these properties are the result of different effects of the selected compounds on the mixing process. These effects and the variation with temperature are studied. The HmE are positive in all cases and increase with the saturated hydrocarbon chain and diminish with the alkanolic portion of the ester. The variation in VmE is similar to that occurring in the HmE. For the data correlation, a new form of polynomial equation is used in which the variable is the so-called active fraction which, in turn, is a function of the concentration of the mixture, giving acceptable estimations for simultaneous correlations between the values of Gibbs function obtained in the isobaric (liquid+vapour) equilibria and the enthalpies of the mixture, for some of the mixtures studied. The results are explained with the molecular model proposed for (ester+alkane) mixtures. Finally, the application of two versions of the UNIFAC groups contribution method to estimate enthalpies of the mixtures does not give satisfactory results, although the modified UNIFAC gives somewhat better results

  3. A different method to update monthly median hmF2 values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, Claudio; Federico Conte, J.; Azpilicueta, Francisco; Bilitza, Dieter

    2013-06-01

    The height, hmF2, and the electron density, NmF2, of the F2 peak are key model parameters to characterize the actual state of the ionosphere. These parameters, or alternatively the propagation factor, M3000F2, and the critical frequency, foF2, of the F2 peak, which are related to hmF2 and NmF2, are used to anchor the electron density vertical profile computed with different models such as the International Reference Ionosphere (Bilitza, 2002), as well as for radio propagation forecast purposes. Long time series of these parameters only exist in an inhomogeneous distribution of points over the surface of Earth, where dedicated instruments (typically ionosondes) have been working for many years. A commonly used procedure for representing median values of the aforementioned parameters all over the globe is the one recommended by the ITU-R (ITU-R, 1997). This procedure, known as the Jones and Gallet mapping technique, was based on ionosondes measurements gathered from 1954 to 1958 by a global network of around 150 ionospheric stations (Jones and Gallet, 1962; Jones and Obitts, 1970). Even though several decades have passed since the development of that innovative work, only few efforts have been dedicated to establish a new mapping technique for computing hmF2 and NmF2 median values at global scale or to improve the old method using the increased observational database. Therefore, in this work three different procedures to describe the daily and global behavior of the height of the F2 peak are presented. All of them represent a different and simplified method to estimate hmF2 and are based on different mathematical expressions. The advantages and disadvantages of these three techniques are analyzed, leading to the conclusion that the recommended procedure to represent hmF2 is best characterized by a Spherical Harmonics expansion of degree and order equal to 15, since the differences between the hmF2 values obtained with the Jones and Gallet technique and those obtained

  4. Beckhoff EtherCAT 和 TwinCAT CNC在数控转塔冲床中的应用%The Application of Beckhoff EtherCAT & TwinCAT CNC in the CNC Turret Punch Press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君; 包俊杰

    2013-01-01

    全新的DMT-200型双电伺服数控转塔冲床是倍福中国与江苏金方圆数控机床有限公司的又一个成功合作开发的范例。金方圆首次决定在这台设备上使用纯软件 CNC 控制解决方案。与先前使用的解决方案相比,使用EtherCAT和TwinCAT CNC后,DMT冲床的加工性能提升了将近20%。%The new DMT-200 CNC turret punch press with gantry drive is the result of the successful cooperation of Jiangsu Jinfangyuan CNC Machine with Beckhoff China. With this advanced machine, Jinfangyuan has for the first time settled on a purely software-based CNC control solution. Through the use of EtherCAT and TwinCAT CNC it is possible to increase the processing performance of the DMT punch by around 20%compared to the previous solution.

  5. SPET with 99mTc-HM PAO in the study of classic migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five patients presenting with migraine attacks underwent Electroencephalography (EEC), Computed Tomography (CT) and Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET) with 99mTc-HM PAO. EEG qand SPET were subsequently repeated in the intercritical period. We observed that two patients only showed non-specific abnormalities in EEG; scans were in all patients; all subjects exhibited diffuse cortical hypoperfusion. A strong correlation was always found between clinical presentation and hemispheric impairment. One patient exhibited asymmetrical perfusion between cerebellum hemispheres; intercritical SPET showed homogeneous distrubution of the radio-tracer in 4 patients. In the last one minimal residual hypoperfusion was observed, although less marked than in the acute phase. Therefore SPET with 99mTc-HM PAO can be reasonably employed as the examination of choice when a migrain attack is clinically suspected, because of its reproducibility and reliability. It can be easily performed in every nuclear medical center supplied with modern tomographic cameras

  6. Clinical applications of brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HM-PAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    200 patients with central nervous system diseases were studied with 99mTc-HM-PAO and SPECT, including Parkinson's disease (PD) 47, Vascular headache 69, CVD 34, Epilepsy 26, Head truma 10, Brain tumor 5 and other 9 cases. Part of them have been compared with the results of MRI, X-CT and EEG. The positivity of SPECT in PD is 61.7% with decrease perfusion in local area of cerebram and basal ganglia and only 4 cases had lower perfusion in cerebellum; in headache is 46.4%, showing variable perfusion patterns; in CVD is 79.4% with decrease perfusion, luxury perfusion and the phenomenon of 'diaschsis'. In epilepsy, the abnormal foci mostly localize in temporal lobe and have close relation to the results of EEG. In brain tumor it also denotes decreased uptake of tracer. The clinicl singnificance of brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HM-PAO was discussed

  7. 印尼Multistrada公司将开拓1200hm2胶园

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    依计划,印度尼西亚汽车和摩托车轮胎生产商MultistradaArahSarana(MASA)上市公司,将在2012—2013年期间在面积1200hm2的土地上种植橡胶树。该企业准备好了4000亿盾资金。

  8. Mentally disordered offenders : an evaluation of the "open doors" programme at HM Prison, Barlinnie

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Katherine Louise Holman

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a programme which aims to support and manage mentally disordered offenders in HM Prison, Barlinnie. The following hypotheses were tested: 1. Significant levels of psychiatric morbidity would be found in a prison setting. 2. The 'Open Doors' participants had more mental health problems than controls. 3. Participation in the programme improved their mental health. METHODOLOGY: To assess psychiatric morbidity in the prison a...

  9. Complete genome sequence of probiotic Bacillus coagulans HM-08: A potential lactic acid producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guoqiang; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-06-20

    Bacillus coagulans HM-08 is a commercialized probiotic strain in China. Its genome contains a 3.62Mb circular chromosome with an average GC content of 46.3%. In silico analysis revealed the presence of one xyl operon as well as several other genes that are correlated to xylose utilization. The genetic information provided here may help to expand its future biotechnology potential in lactic acid production. PMID:27130497

  10. 'lkea sofas are like H&M trousers': the potential of sensuous signs

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    What makes Ikea sofas similar to H&M trousers? Clothing and furniture retail are increasingly aligned, as both follow fashion trends and seasonal change. Because of the transience that shifting trends imply, clothing is often read as a signifier of superficial or frivolous expression, masking more important realities that lie elsewhere. In this article, I follow Webb Keane in asserting that when treating clothing as a sign of surface adornment, as a mere communicator of mean...

  11. Internationalization Process of Fast Fashion Retailers: Evidence of H&M and Zara

    OpenAIRE

    Ziying Mo

    2015-01-01

    The fashion apparel industry has evolved significantly over the last two decades driven by the internationalisation and rapid rise of global fast fashion retailer brands. This research seeks to introduce and explore how two internationalization models-Incremental and Rapid Internationalization-can be applied to two representative global fast fashion retailers (Zara and H&M). It seeks to apply these models on the basis of three perspectives–“knowledge sharing, resource-based view and psych...

  12. Brain perfusion spect imaging with 99mTc-HM-PAO in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty patients with Parkinson's disease were studied using 99mTc-HM-PAO brain perfusion SPECT. 62.5% (25 cases) showed abnormal blood perfusion. Among them 55% showed local decreased blood perfusion of cerebral cortex, 22% showed asymmetric decreased blood perfusion in basal gaglia, 10% showed decreased uptake of tracer in cerebellum. The pathophysiologic basis of the abnormality of brain blood perfusion were briefly discussed

  13. Internationalization Process of Fast Fashion Retailers: Evidence of H&M and Zara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziying Mo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fashion apparel industry has evolved significantly over the last two decades driven by the internationalisation and rapid rise of global fast fashion retailer brands. This research seeks to introduce and explore how two internationalization models-Incremental and Rapid Internationalization-can be applied to two representative global fast fashion retailers (Zara and H&M. It seeks to apply these models on the basis of three perspectives–“knowledge sharing, resource-based view and psychic distance”. The result suggested that H&M and Zara do not entirely correlate with the expectations of Incremental and Rapid Internationalization Models. This appears to be significantly different from what has been covered in the literature, which concludes that Zara was a born-global fast fashion retailer and H&M was a traditional/gradual global one. Another conclusion is the adoption of the Rapid Internationalization Models by the two fast fashion retailers were not completely independently from use of the Incremental Models, especially in their early expansion stages.

  14. Design and accuracy analysis of a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine for ship manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenghai; Zhang, Manhui; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Xi; Yu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The current research of processing large size fabrication holes on complex spatial curved surface mainly focuses on the CNC flame cutting machines design for ship hull of ship manufacturing. However, the existing machines cannot meet the continuous cutting requirements with variable pass conditions through their fixed configuration, and cannot realize high-precision processing as the accuracy theory is not studied adequately. This paper deals with structure design and accuracy prediction technology of novel machine tools for solving the problem of continuous and high-precision cutting. The needed variable trajectory and variable pose kinematic characteristics of non-contact cutting tool are figured out and a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine designed through metamorphic principle is presented. To analyze kinematic accuracy of the machine, models of joint clearances, manufacturing tolerances and errors in the input variables and error models considering the combined effects are derived based on screw theory after establishing ideal kinematic models. Numerical simulations, processing experiment and trajectory tracking experiment are conducted relative to an eccentric hole with bevels on cylindrical surface respectively. The results of cutting pass contour and kinematic error interval which the position error is from-0.975 mm to +0.628 mm and orientation error is from-0.01 rad to +0.01 rad indicate that the developed machine can complete cutting process continuously and effectively, and the established kinematic error models are effective although the interval is within a `large' range. It also shows the matching property between metamorphic principle and variable working tasks, and the mapping correlation between original designing parameters and kinematic errors of machines. This research develops a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine and establishes kinematic error models for accuracy analysis of machine tools.

  15. Finger milling-cutter CNC generating hypoid pinion tooth surfaces based on modified-roll method and machining simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Genggeng; Deng, Xiaozhong; Wei, Bingyang; Lei, Baozhen

    2011-05-01

    The two coordinate systems of cradle-type hypoid generator and free-form CNC machine tool by application disc milling-cutter to generate hypoid pinion tooth surfaces based on the modified-roll method were set up, respectively, and transformation principle and method for machine-tool settings between the two coordinate systems was studied. It was presented that finger milling-cutter was mounted on imagined disc milling-cutter and its motion was controlled directly by CNC shafts to replace disc milling-cutter blades effective cutting motion. Finger milling-cutter generation accomplished by ordered circular interpolation was determined, and interpolation center, starting and ending were worked out. Finally, a hypoid pinion was virtually machined by using CNC machining simulation software VERICUT.

  16. Accurate identification and compensation of geometric errors of 5-axis CNC machine tools using double ball bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasemi, Ali; Xue, Deyi; Gu, Peihua

    2016-05-01

    Five-axis CNC machine tools are widely used in manufacturing of parts with free-form surfaces. Geometric errors of machine tools have significant effects on the quality of manufactured parts. This research focuses on development of a new method to accurately identify geometric errors of 5-axis CNC machines, especially the errors due to rotary axes, using the magnetic double ball bar. A theoretical model for identification of geometric errors is provided. In this model, both position-independent errors and position-dependent errors are considered as the error sources. This model is simplified by identification and removal of the correlated and insignificant error sources of the machine. Insignificant error sources are identified using the sensitivity analysis technique. Simulation results reveal that the simplified error identification model can result in more accurate estimations of the error parameters. Experiments on a 5-axis CNC machine tool also demonstrate significant reduction in the volumetric error after error compensation.

  17. The generation of high precision aspherical surfaces in glass by CNC machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and production of an f/l aspheric focusing lens for a high-power laser system operating at 1054 nm is described. The relevant lens design parameters and the degree of flexibility in their choice are described and these, when carefully chosen, result in an extremely versatile lens with a large wavelength cover. The manufacture of the lens is also simplified. A comparison is made between the production of an aspheric surface by high quality conventional optical manufacturing processes and one generated and polished by a computer numerically controlled (CNC) jig grinding machine. (author)

  18. Development of High-precision Micro CNC Machine with Three-dimensional Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Liang Chu; Tzu-Yao Ta; Yun-Hui Liu; Chin-Tu Lu; Cheng-Hsin Chuang; Hong-Wei Liao

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at developing a machine center consisting of high-speed micro-milling machine, micro-EDM and coordinate measuring machine. The machine center uses a commercially available PC-Based CNC controller and micro-EDM power supply. The structure design is based on an open L-shaped granite base, where a Z-axis platform is mounted on the top of an L-type base, while X and Y-axis platforms are assembled by stacking. Additionally, a fuel tank, WEDG winding mechanism and a work piece holde...

  19. OPTIMAL FEED RATE CONTROL FOR MULTIAXIS CNC MACHINING OF FREE FORM SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Considering machining efficiency,surface quality and wear of cutter and machine,it is necessary to maintain high,stable and constant surface feed rate as far as possible.The feed rate control strategy for mu ltiaxis CNC machining of freeform surfaces is presented.It comprises:①the determination of effective feed rate;② the adoption of suitable approaches to sooth feed rate.This strategy considers path geometry,actuator limitation and machine dynamics.The result shows that machining efficiency is improved effectively.

  20. The Processing of Parts with Group Technology in Individual CNC Machining Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a new machining method for part s using group technology suitable for workshop condition in China. The method divi des the parts of each product into similar kinds according to their features, an d installs each kind of parts on different working platforms. The working platfo rm, as a unit, is designed to be flexible and is interchangeable. It can be hung and fitted to the CNC working table. By changing the platforms in turn, nearly all the parts of one product can be processed with o...

  1. Comparative Study for Different Statistical Models to Optimize Cutting Parameters of CNC End Milling Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In machining operation, the quality of surface finish is an important requirement for many work pieces. Thus, that is very important to optimize cutting parameters for controlling the required manufacturing quality. Surface roughness parameter (Ra) in mechanical parts depends on turning parameters during the turning process. In the development of predictive models, cutting parameters of feed, cutting speed, depth of cut, are considered as model variables. For this purpose, this study focuses on comparing various machining experiments which using CNC vertical machining center, work pieces was aluminum 6061. Multiple regression models is used to predict the surface roughness at different experiments.

  2. CNC FLEXIBLE GENERATING SPECIFIC GEAR TOOTH PROFILE BASED ON STANDARD INVOLUTE GEAR HOB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xianying; Li Hui; Ai Xing

    2004-01-01

    A new method named orthogonal two-way link-shift here has been proposed. Based on the method and a standard involute gear hob, a specific gear tooth profile (including an arbitrary gear tooth profile and a modified involute gear tooth profile) can be generated on a CNC(computer numerical control) hobbing machine. Computer simulation has been carried out, and the results prove that the method is right and practicable. So, the fabrication costs can be greatly decreased than before. The new method has momentous significance to realize gear's optimized modification under different work conditions.

  3. NC flame pipe cutting machine tool based on open architecture CNC system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaogen NIE; Yanbing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the principle and flame movement of a pipe cutting machine tool, a retrofit NC flame pipe cutting machine tool (NFPCM) that can meet the demands of cutting various pipes is proposed. The paper deals with the design and implementation of an open architecture CNC system for the NFPCM, many of whose aspects are similar to milling machines; however, different from their machining processes and control strategies. The paper emphasizes on the NC system structure and the method for directly creating the NC file according to the cutting type and parameters. Further, the paper develops the program and sets up the open and module NC system.

  4. Comparative study for different statistical models to optimize cutting parameters of CNC end milling machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In machining operation, the quality of surface finish is an important requirement for many work pieces. Thus, that is very important to optimize cutting parameters for controlling the required manufacturing quality. Surface roughness parameter (Ra) in mechanical parts depends on turning parameters during the turning process. In the development of predictive models, cutting parameters of feed, cutting speed, depth of cut, are considered as model variables. For this purpose, this study focuses on comparing various machining experiments which using CNC vertical machining center, work pieces was aluminum 6061. Multiple regression models are used to predict the surface roughness at different experiments.

  5. The effect of the model posture on the forming quality in the CNC incremental forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H.; Zhang, W.; Bai, J. L.; Yu, C.; Xing, Y. F.

    2015-12-01

    Sheet rupture caused by a sheet metal thickness non-uniformity persists in CNC (Computer Numerical Control) incremental forming. Because the forming half cone angle is determined by the orientation of the model to be formed, so is the sheet metal's uniformity. The finite element analysis models for the two kinds of the postures of the model were established, and the digital simulation was conducted by using the ANSYS/LA-DYNA software. The effect of the model's posture on the sheet thickness distribution and the sheet thickness thinning rate were studied by comparing the simulation results of two kinds of the finite elements analyzes.

  6. Long-term hmF2 trends in the Eurasian longitudinal sector from the ground-based ionosonde observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herraiz

    Full Text Available The method earlier used for the foF2 long-term trends analysis is applied to reveal hmF2 long-term trends at 27 ionosonde stations in the European and Asian longitudinal sectors. Observed M(3000F2 data for the last 3 solar cycles are used to derive hmF2 trends. The majority of the studied stations show significant hmF2 linear trends with a confidence level of at least 95% for the period after 1965, with most of these trends being positive. No systematic variation of the trend magnitude with latitude is revealed, but some longitudinal effect does take place. The proposed geomagnetic storm concept to explain hmF2 long-term trends proceeds from a natural origin of the trends rather than an artificial one related to the thermosphere cooling due to the greenhouse effect.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interaction

  7. Układ sterowania CNC bazujący na komputerze PC z magistralą EtherCAT

    OpenAIRE

    Wawrzak, Andrzej; Erwiński, Krystian; Karwowski, Kazimierz; Paprocki, Marcin; Kłosowiak, Marek

    2016-01-01

    W artykule przedstawiono układ sterowania numerycznego maszyn zbudowany na bazie komputera PC, komunikujący się z serwonapędami i układami wejścia/wyjścia sterującymi wyposażeniem maszyny poprzez magistralę komunikacyjną EtherCAT. W komputerze zaimplementowano system operacyjny czasu rzeczywistego Linux RTAI wraz ze zmodyfikowanym oprogramowaniem sterującym LinuxCNC. Opracowano programowy moduł komunikacyjny magistrali EtherCAT i zintegrowano go z oprogramowaniem LinuxCNC. Opracowany moduł Et...

  8. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lope Pihie, Azimahtol Hawariah; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Othman, Fezah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showed that SF2Lp was able to arrest the HM3KO cell cycle at the G1 phase, while morphological findings from AO-EB nuclear staining assays along with the Apoptotic Index confirmed the induction of apoptosis by SF2Lp in HM3KO cells. Results from the mechanistic study further revealed that SF2Lp treatment was able to concurrently increase the expression level of p53 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax and also reduce the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in HM3KO cells, directly contributing to the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings, therefore, suggested that L. pumila was able to inhibit HM3KO cell growth possibly by arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase and inducing apoptosis in HM3KO cells via the up- and down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein, mediated through a p53-dependent pathway. PMID:22474490

  9. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showed that SF2Lp was able to arrest the HM3KO cell cycle at the G1 phase, while morphological findings from AO-EB nuclear staining assays along with the Apoptotic Index confirmed the induction of apoptosis by SF2Lp in HM3KO cells. Results from the mechanistic study further revealed that SF2Lp treatment was able to concurrently increase the expression level of p53 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax and also reduce the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in HM3KO cells, directly contributing to the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings, therefore, suggested that L. pumila was able to inhibit HM3KO cell growth possibly by arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase and inducing apoptosis in HM3KO cells via the up- and down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein, mediated through a p53-dependent pathway.

  10. Step-and-Repeat Nanoimprint-, Photo- and Laser Lithography from One Customised CNC Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Andrew Im; Della-Rosa, Benoit; Khokhar, Ali Z; Gadegaard, Nikolaj

    2016-12-01

    The conversion of a computer numerical control machine into a nanoimprint step-and-repeat tool with additional laser- and photolithography capacity is documented here. All three processes, each demonstrated on a variety of photoresists, are performed successfully and analysed so as to enable the reader to relate their known lithography process(es) to the findings. Using the converted tool, 1 cm(2) of nanopattern may be exposed in 6 s, over 3300 times faster than the electron beam equivalent. Nanoimprint tools are commercially available, but these can cost around 1000 times more than this customised computer numerical control (CNC) machine. The converted equipment facilitates rapid production and large area micro- and nanoscale research on small grants, ultimately enabling faster and more diverse growth in this field of science. In comparison to commercial tools, this converted CNC also boasts capacity to handle larger substrates, temperature control and active force control, up to ten times more curing dose and compactness. Actual devices are fabricated using the machine including an expanded nanotopographic array and microfluidic PDMS Y-channel mixers. PMID:26956598

  11. The multi-scale environment of RS Cnc from CO and HI observations

    CERN Document Server

    Hoai, D T; Winters, J M; Nhung, P T; Gérard, E; Libert, Y; Bertre, T Le

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the circumstellar gas distribution and kinematics of the semi-regular variable star RS Cnc on spatial scales ranging from ~1" (~150 AU) to ~6' (~0.25 pc). New modeling of CO1-0 and CO2-1 imaging observations leads to a revised characterization of RS Cnc's previously identified axisymmetric molecular outflow. Rather than a simple disk-outflow picture, we find that a gradient in velocity as a function of latitude is needed to fit the spatially resolved spectra, and in our preferred model, the density and the velocity vary smoothly from the equatorial plane to the polar axis. In terms of density, the source appears quasi-spherical, whereas in terms of velocity the source is axi-symmetric with a low expansion velocity in the equatorial plane and faster outflows in the polar directions. The flux of matter is also larger in the polar directions than in the equatorial plane. An implication of our model is that the stellar wind is still accelerated at radii larger than a few hundred AU,...

  12. Investigation on Effect of Material Hardness in High Speed CNC End Milling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Dhandapani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper analyzes the effects of material properties on surface roughness, material removal rate, and tool wear on high speed CNC end milling process with various ferrous and nonferrous materials. The challenge of material specific decision on the process parameters of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow rate, cutting tool material, and type of coating for the cutting tool for required quality and quantity of production is addressed. Generally, decision made by the operator on floor is based on suggested values of the tool manufacturer or by trial and error method. This paper describes effect of various parameters on the surface roughness characteristics of the precision machining part. The prediction method suggested is based on various experimental analysis of parameters in different compositions of input conditions which would benefit the industry on standardization of high speed CNC end milling processes. The results show a basis for selection of parameters to get better results of surface roughness values as predicted by the case study results.

  13. Adaptation of feed rate for 3-axis CNC high-speed machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG De-li; ZHOU Lai-shui

    2009-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of CNC machining, assumptive transit circular arc is used to contour two adjacent moves together on the corner to make smooth paths. The radius of transit circular arc can be adjusted with contour accuracy, and the feed rate on the corner can be controlled through limiting the maximum feed rate of transit circular arc segment. A look-ahead algorithm for a series of moves is proposed for speed adjustment in advance, which avoids the occurrence of overload of cutting tool on the corner and reduces the servo track error of parts on the corner or of circular arc move. Equivalent trapezoidal velocity profile is used to analyze the speed of S-curve velocity profile and work out its accurate interpolation, which overcomes the disadvantage of looking up table to calculate feed rate approximately, hence high accuracy and fine surface quality can be obtained while the machining speed is high. The proposed methods can meet the requirements of real-time analysis of high-speed machining. The presented algorithm is effective and has been adopted by CNC system of newly developed high-speed milling machine.

  14. The Use of Open Source Software for Open Architecture System on CNC Milling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalmasius Ganjar Subagio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Computer numerical control (CNC milling machine system cannot be separated from the software required to follow the provisions of the Open Architecture capabilities that have portability, extend ability, interoperability, and scalability. When a prescribed period of a CNC milling machine has passed and the manufacturer decided to discontinue it, then the user will have problems for maintaining the performance of the machine. This paper aims to show that the using of open source software (OSS is the way out to maintain engine performance. With the use of OSS, users no longer depend on the software built by the manufacturer because OSS is open and can be developed independently. In this paper, USBCNC V.3.42 is used as an alternative OSS. The test result shows that the work piece is in match with the desired pattern. The test result shows that the performance of machines using OSS has similar performance with the machine using software from the manufacturer. 

  15. Overview of Sustainability Studies of CNC Machining and LAM of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamekye, Patricia; Leino, Maija; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM), known also as 3D printing, is a powder bed fusion (PBF) type of additive manufacturing (AM) technology used to fabricate metal parts out of metal powder. The development of the technology from building prototype parts to functional parts has increased remarkably in 2000s. LAM of metals is promising technology that offers new opportunities to manufacturing and to resource efficiency. However, there is only few published articles about its sustainability. Aim in this study was to create supply chain model of LAM and CNC machining and create a methodology to carry out a life cycle inventory (LCI) data collection for these techniques. The methodology of the study was literature review and scenario modeling. The acquisition of raw material, production phase and transportations were used as basis of comparison. The modelled scenarios were fictitious and created for industries, like aviation and healthcare that often require swift delivery as well as customized parts. The results of this study showed that the use of LAM offers a possibility to reduce downtime in supply chains of spare parts and reduce part inventory more effectively than CNC machining. Also the gap between customers and business is possible to be shortened with LAM thus offering a possibility to reduce emissions due to less transportation. The results also indicated weight reduction possibility with LAM due to optimized part geometry which allow lesser amount of metallic powder to be used in making parts.

  16. Contouring Control for a CNC Milling Machine Driven by Direct thrust Controlled Linear Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled N. Faris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to various advantages of linear induction motor (LIM, such as high starting thrust force, high speed operation and reduction of mechanical losses, more applications have utilized this type of motors. Direct Thrust Control (DTC technique is considered as one of the most efficient techniques that can be used for LIM. DTC is preferable to give a fast and good dynamic thrust response. So, to improve the accuracy and robustness of contouring control for CNC machine tools, linear induction motors with a direct thrust control technique are introduced for driving these machines. An industry standard motion control system is applied for reducing the tracking error and improving the desired accuracy. Different loading conditions are simulated to validate the reliability and robustness of the introduced system to match the application field. The proposed system is simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK Package; simulation results validated both tracking accuracy and robustness of the proposed motion control system for contouring control for a CNC (Computer Numerical Control milling machine.

  17. VOLUMETRIC ERROR COMPENSATION IN FIVE-AXIS CNC MACHINING CENTER THROUGH KINEMATICS MODELING OF GEOMETRIC ERROR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooyan Vahidi Pashsaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy of a five-axis CNC machine tool is affected by a vast number of error sources. This paper investigates volumetric error modeling and its compensation to the basis for creation of new tool path for improvement of work pieces accuracy. The volumetric error model of a five-axis machine tool with the configuration RTTTR (tilting head B-axis and rotary table in work piece side A΄ was set up taking into consideration rigid body kinematics and homogeneous transformation matrix, in which 43 error components are included. Volumetric error comprises 43 error components that can separately reduce geometrical and dimensional accuracy of work pieces. The machining accuracy of work piece is guaranteed due to the position of the cutting tool center point (TCP relative to the work piece. The cutting tool is deviated from its ideal position relative to the work piece and machining error is experienced. For compensation process detection of the present tool path and analysis of the RTTTR five-axis CNC machine tools geometrical error, translating current position of component to compensated positions using the Kinematics error model, converting newly created component to new tool paths using the compensation algorithms and finally editing old G-codes using G-code generator algorithm have been employed.

  18. Minimization of heat loss in CNC motors via a dynamic control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Mahdavinejad

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to optimize the input current so that it reaches the requested velocity-position condition with the lowest amount of misaligned magnetic field and current converted to heat.Design/methodology/approach: A new control method based on open architecture is introduced. Then the enhanced free running of pulse width modulated (PWM driver is represented.Findings: The actual requested motor current is reached.Practical implications: The result of this dynamic control method is represented on CNC two axes cutting machine and extended to the other systems.Originality/value: 1. Execution simple and powerful algorithms with sufficient accuracy and speed and also manufacturing a sample one. 2. The current is being controlled by data output of positioning sensors. 3. Regarding to database updating of resistance force versus to the distance of each axis, it is possible to define a periodic control method to determine resistance forces of suspension CNC systems. 4. Reduction in speed error and also increasing in machined surface quality via analysis of linear speed’s error in a system of two axes which are executed by free-running PWM driver circuit with constant and variable reference voltages. 5. Increasing in working efficiency, decreasing in energy loss and long lasting of motor drives.

  19. An Open Modular Architecture Controller Based Online Chatter Suppression System for CNC Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In milling processes, chatter is a kind of sudden relative vibration appearing between the cutter and the workpiece, which results in poor part quality, accelerated tool wear, and shortened spindle life. In this paper, an open modular architecture controller (OMAC of machine tool which integrates the algorithms including chatter recognition, compensation command generation, and execution is proposed with the aim of providing an integrated solution for milling chatter suppression in CNC kernel. To effectively identify chatter, experiments are designed to determine the optimal installation place of accelerometer and then triaxial cutting forces and acceleration signals are compared to see which are more sensitive to chatter onset. In terms of data processing, 16 sampling points in time domain are chosen to perform online fast Fourier transform (FFT in consideration of signal effectiveness and computational efficiency. To implement real-time chatter suppression in CNC kernel, a simplified dynamic model of milling system is used to obtain the relationship between chatter frequency and spindle speed. Finally, an adaptive control module which completes force signal extraction and processing by FFT and has the ability to modify related cutting parameters is designed to interact with other modules in OMAC where data acquisition thread and interpolation thread are synchronized. The proposed system is experimentally validated.

  20. Step-and-Repeat Nanoimprint-, Photo- and Laser Lithography from One Customised CNC Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Andrew IM; Della-Rosa, Benoit; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj

    2016-03-01

    The conversion of a computer numerical control machine into a nanoimprint step-and-repeat tool with additional laser- and photolithography capacity is documented here. All three processes, each demonstrated on a variety of photoresists, are performed successfully and analysed so as to enable the reader to relate their known lithography process(es) to the findings. Using the converted tool, 1 cm2 of nanopattern may be exposed in 6 s, over 3300 times faster than the electron beam equivalent. Nanoimprint tools are commercially available, but these can cost around 1000 times more than this customised computer numerical control (CNC) machine. The converted equipment facilitates rapid production and large area micro- and nanoscale research on small grants, ultimately enabling faster and more diverse growth in this field of science. In comparison to commercial tools, this converted CNC also boasts capacity to handle larger substrates, temperature control and active force control, up to ten times more curing dose and compactness. Actual devices are fabricated using the machine including an expanded nanotopographic array and microfluidic PDMS Y-channel mixers.

  1. Regional cerebrocerebellar perfusion imaging in spinocerebellar degeneration using technetium-99m-HM-PAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Makoto; Inoue, Tomio; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Hirai, Shunsaku; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    1988-07-01

    A new rediopharmaceutical, technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (/sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO), has been reported to cross the blood-brain-barrier and to distribute in brain in proportion to regional blood flow. We report brain imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 14 patients of olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), a subclass of spinocerebellar degeneration, and in 5 controls. In order to evaluate cerebellar blood flow semiquantitatively, the count ratio of cerebellar hemispheres to occipital cortex (C/O ratio) was compared to the regional blood flow ratio (PC/O ratio) obtained by quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) performed in 6 of the 14 patients. We also examined correlations between C/O ratio and clinical data such as duration of illness, clinical severity score, laterality of incoordination and atrophy score on X-ray CT. The results favored clinical usefulness of /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO. The C/O ratio in OPCA was significantly lower than in controls (p < 0.001) and close to PC/O ratio. In 7 out of 9 patients who showed constant asymmetric neurologic signs, cerebellar radioactivities were more reduced in the side where limbincoodination was more prominent. The C/O ratio and atrophic score on X-ray CT correlated significantly (p < 0.05). In a few cases, however, visible cerebellar hypoperfusion was demonstrated in spite of minimal cerebellar atrophy. There were no correlations between the C/O ratio and the other clinical data. Qualitatively the reconstructed sagittal image easily revealed cerebellar hypoactivity or hypoperfusion in OPCA because the occipital lobe and cerebellum appeared ajacently in a plane. (J.P.N.).

  2. CUSTOMER REFLECTIONS ON PROMOTIONAL TOOLS : CASE H&M IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Mengmeng

    2013-01-01

    The booming economy is lifting more and more people to the new emerging middle class. They are able to purchase more goods than in the previous years. At the same time foreign companies are expanding their business in China which results in a tougher competition. Hennes & Mauritz (H&M) has performed well in the Chinese market since they entered it seven years ago. The aim of this thesis was to find out customer reflections of the promotional tools in China. The literature review consists of t...

  3. A study of 99mTc-HM-PAO brain SPECT in the senile parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three cases of senile Parkinson's disease (PD) imaged by 99mTc-HM-PAO brain SPECT were reported. 66.7% of the patients had cortical hypoperfusion and 18.2% showed asymmetrical hypoperfusion in the basal ganglia. Such a finding was not related with the Hoehn-Yahr stage and the laterality of motor symptoms. If complicated with dementia, the SPECT brain imaging showed similar pattern in Alzheimer's disease with diffuse hypoperfusion in cortical area reflecting widespread pathological changes in tremor paralysis

  4. Precision temperature monitoring (PTM) and Humidity monitoring (HM) sensors of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A major aspect for the ECAL detector control is the monitoring of the system temperature and the verification that the required temperature stability of the crystal volume and the APDs, expected to be (18 ± 0.05)C, is achieved. The PTM is designed to read out thermistors, placed on both the front and back of the crystals, with a relative precision better than 0.01 C. In total there are ten sensors per supermodule. The humidity level in the electronics compartment is monitored by the HM system and consists of one humidity sensor per module.

  5. Effect of HM30181 mesylate salt-loaded microcapsules on the oral absorption of paclitaxel as a novel P-glycoprotein inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Cheul; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Kim, Dong Shik; Jin, Sung Giu; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Yong Il; Park, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Youn, Yu Seok; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop HM30181 mesylate salt (HM30181M)-loaded microcapsules as a novel P-glycoprotein inhibitor for enhancing the oral absorption of paclitaxel. The effect of various carriers including hydrophilic polymers and solvents on the solubility of HM30181M were evaluated. Among the hydrophilic polymers and solvents tested, HPMC and methylene chloride (and ethanol) provided the highest HM30181M solubility. Numerous HM30181M-loaded microcapsules were prepared with HPMC, silicon dioxide and acidifying agents using a spray-drying technique, and their solubility, dissolution and physicochemical properties were evaluated. Furthermore, a pharmacokinetic study was performed after oral administration of paclitaxel alone, simultaneously with HM30181M powder or HM30181M-loaded microcapsules to rats. Among the acidifying agents investigated, phosphoric acid provided the best improvement in the solubility and dissolution of HM30181M. Moreover, the microcapsule composed of HM30181M, HPMC, silicon dioxide and phosphoric acid at a weight ratio of 3:6:3:2 remarkably enhanced the solubility and dissolution of HM30181M compared with the HM30181M powder alone. The microcapsules were spherical in shape, had a reduced particle size of about 7μm, and contained HM30181M in an amorphous state. Furthermore, this microcapsule significantly enhanced HM30181M absorption, making it about 1.7-fold faster and 1.6-fold greater after simultaneous administration, leading to about 70- and 2-fold improved oral bioavailability of paclitaxel compared with paclitaxel alone and the simultaneous administration with HM30181M powder, respectively. Thus, this novel microcapsule could be a potential candidate for effective P-glycoprotein inhibition during oral administration of paclitaxel. PMID:27106527

  6. Advanced CNC and CAM Series. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry. Course Syllabi, Instructor's Handbook [and] Student Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This package consists of course syllabi, an instructor's handbook, and student laboratory manual for a 1-year vocational training program to prepare students for entry-level positions as advanced computer numerical control (CNC) and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM) technicians.. The program was developed through a modification of the DACUM…

  7. Comprehensive Reliability Allocation Method for CNC Lathes Based on Cubic Transformed Functions of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhou; ZHU Yunpeng; REN Hongrui; ZHANG Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Reliability allocation of computerized numerical controlled(CNC) lathes is very important in industry. Traditional allocation methods only focus on high-failure rate components rather than moderate failure rate components, which is not applicable in some conditions. Aiming at solving the problem of CNC lathes reliability allocating, a comprehensive reliability allocation method based on cubic transformed functions of failure modes and effects analysis(FMEA) is presented. Firstly, conventional reliability allocation methods are introduced. Then the limitations of direct combination of comprehensive allocation method with the exponential transformed FMEA method are investigated. Subsequently, a cubic transformed function is established in order to overcome these limitations. Properties of the new transformed functions are discussed by considering the failure severity and the failure occurrence. Designers can choose appropriate transform amplitudes according to their requirements. Finally, a CNC lathe and a spindle system are used as an example to verify the new allocation method. Seven criteria are considered to compare the results of the new method with traditional methods. The allocation results indicate that the new method is more flexible than traditional methods. By employing the new cubic transformed function, the method covers a wider range of problems in CNC reliability allocation without losing the advantages of traditional methods.

  8. Preparation of the CNC/Ag/beeswax composites for enhancing antibacterial and water resistance properties of paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Liang, Hunan; Nasrallah, Joseph; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Ni, Yonghao

    2016-05-20

    An effective method of preparing composites containing inorganic (Ag) and organic (beeswax) particles was established in this study. Ag nanoparticles were first immobilized on the cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) during the reduction of AgNO3 in the presence of CNC, then mixed with beeswax by high speed stirring. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images indicated that Ag and beeswax particles were uniformly dispersed and stable in the network structure formed by CNC. Upon coating on a paper surface, a layer of beeswax film was evident based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The dynamic contact angle and antibacterial activity tests indicated that the contact angle of coated paper reached 113.06° and the growth inhibition of Escherichia coli increased to 99.96%, respectively, at a coating amount of 21.53g/m(2). When applied onto paper surface by coating, the CNC/Ag/beeswax composites can impact paper with antibacterial property and improved water resistance. PMID:26917389

  9. Heats of Mixing in Binary Systems of Molten Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heat of mixing is an important thermodynamic property in binary mixtures. As a result of the recent development of high-temperature calorimetry we have been able to determine directly the heat of mixing in binary systems of molten salts. In this work we present the results of thermochemical measurements carried out in our laboratories for the systems (Rb-K)Cl; (Rb-Na)Cl; (Ag-Na)Cl; (Na-K)Br and(Br-Cl)Na for different concentrations and temperatures. In our view, the most significant components of the heat of mixing are the ionic contribution and the polarization energy of the ions. Consequently, use could be made of a relation of the form: ΔHM = Qi - Qp. The heat of mixing can then have either positive or negative values depending on the sign and the preponderance of the Qi and Qp energies. (author)

  10. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    Abstract  A social choice rule (SCR) is a collection of social choice correspondences, one for each agenda. An effectivity rule is a collection of effectivity functions, one for each agenda. We prove that every monotonic and superadditive effectivity rule is the effectivity rule of some SCR. A SCR...... is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  11. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  12. Determination of the ND,air factor of plane parallel chambers and hm values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of plane parallel ionization chambers for the dosimetry of electron beams has been recommended by most national and international dosimetry protocols. The International Code of Practice TRS-381 provides recommendations for the calibration and use in reference conditions of plane parallel chambers in radiotherapy electron beams, as well as for relative dose measurements in electron and photon beams. The present investigations focus mainly on two topics: (i) determinations of the ND,air factor for the plane parallel chambers PTW-23343 Markus and PTW-34001 Roos, using different methods proposed in TRS-381; and (ii) experimental determinations of the fluence correction factor hm in PMMA. For the Markus chamber the results show no difference between the ND,air obtained with 60Co in water and the electron beam method. The discrepancies found for the Roos chamber lead us to question the value of pwall for 60Co recommended in TRS-381. The hm values obtained are lower than those in TRS-381 for all the energies measured, and show no difference for the different chambers used. (author)

  13. Performability analysis of avionics system with multilayer HM/FM using stochastic Petri nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Jianxiong; Xiang Xudong; Bai Xiaoying; Lin Chuang; Kong Xiangzhen; Li Jianxiang

    2013-01-01

    The integrated modular avionics (IMA) architecture is an open standard in avionics industry,in which the number of functionalities implemented by software is greater than ever before.In the IMA architecture,the reliability of the avionics system is highly affected by the software applications.In order to enhance the fault tolerance feature with regard to software application failures,many industrial standards propose a layered health monitoring/fault management (HM/FM) scheme to periodically check the health status of software application processes and recover the malfunctioning software process whenever an error is located.In this paper,we make an analytical study of the HM/FM system for avionics application software.We use the stochastic Petri nets (SPN) to build a formal model of each component and present a method to combine the components together to form a complete system model with respect to three interlayer query strategies.We further investigate the effectiveness of these strategies in an illustrative system.

  14. FLOW STRESS MODEL FOR COLD-FORMED 40HM CONSTRUCTIONAL STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dziubińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research undertaken to investigate cold forming process for 40HM constructional steel suitable for heat treatment. In the first part of the paper, mechanical properties of this steel and its industrial applications are described. The second part of the paper presents the results of the analysis of flow curves for two kinds of steel specimens: those that were subjected to annealing and those that did not undergo any heat treatment. It was found that the application of heat treatment had a significant effect on improving the forming conditions for this steel at room temperature. The experimental flow curves obtained in a compression test were described by constitutive equations illustrating the dependence between flow stresses and strain value. In order to determine the equation coefficients, the Generalized Reduced Gradient method implemented in Microsoft Excel was used. Based on the obtained equations, a material model will be developed to perform numerical simulations of cold forming for 40HM steel, using FEM-based software that aids the design of metal forming technologies.

  15. Water sorption properties of HM-pectin and liposomes intended to alleviate dry mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, Małgorzata I; Martinsen, Ørjan G; Smistad, Gro; Hiorth, Marianne

    2016-06-15

    Pharmaceutical formulations intended for treatment of xerostomia (dry mouth) should be able to keep the oral mucosa hydrated for a prolonged period of time. The products already existing on the market contain water-soluble polymers, however their ability to moisturize the oral mucosa for a longer period of time seems limited. In this paper the sorption properties of water vapor of high-methoxylated pectin (HM-pectin, a hydrophilic biopolymer) and phosphatidylcholine-based (Soya-PC) liposomes have been studied and compared using a gravimetric method. The kinetics of water desorption and sorption have been recorded over the relative humidity range RH=95-0-95%, at 35°C. The obtained isotherms were found to be well described by the n-layer Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) adsorption model. The water isotherms on HM-pectin were Type II (IUPAC), while water isotherms on liposomes were Type III. The maximum water sorption capacity of liposomes (1.2mg water per mg of adsorbent at 95% RH) was found to be twice as high as for pectin. Due to the slower water release from the liposomes, as well as their high water sorption capacity, they seem to have great potential in relieving the symptoms of dry mouth syndrome. PMID:27109048

  16. Evaluation of crossing calibration of 123I-MIBG H/M ration, with the IDW scatter correction method, on different gamma camera systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) Heart-to-Mediastinum activity ratio (H/M) is commonly used as an indicator of relative myocardial 123I-MIBG uptake. H/M ratios reflect myocardial sympathetic nerve function, therefore it is a useful parameter to assess regional myocardial sympathetic denervation in various cardiac diseases. However, H/M ratio values differ by site, gamma camera system, position and size of region of interest (ROI), and collimator. In addition to these factors, 529 keV scatter component may also affect 123I-MIBG H/M ratio. In this study, we examined whether the H/M ratio shows correlation between two different gamma camera systems and that sought for H/M ratio calculation formula. Moreover, we assessed the feasibility of 123I Dual Window (IDW) method, which is a scatter correction method, and compared H/M ratios with and without IDW method. H/M ratio displayed a good correlation between two gamma camera systems. Additionally, we were able to create a new H/M calculation formula. These results indicated that the IDW method is a useful scatter correction method for calculating 123I-MIBG H/M ratios. (author)

  17. The New Method for CNC Trajectory Machining Motion Planning Based on Reference Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yongmin; XU Mingheng

    2006-01-01

    In order to make motion planning fitting practice, many characteristic of CNC trajectory motion are discussed, such as the geometric function, the motion and the time. It is found that the relation between orbit function and motional parameter, so the differential equation about the trajectory motion be set-up by the goal of trajectory motion. The actual motion process is defined as reference time to link planning and practice. Present a new movement planning method based on self-defining time. At rest state, the differential simultaneous equation can be calculated according geometric characteristic analysis, it can be get that simple function consisted of coordinate and reference time variants. At motive state, dynamic parameter can be worked out according practical value of reference time, It is proved by experiment and simulation that it is a good way to control geometry and motion comprehensively, to reduce computation times and to increase the ability of environmental adaptation for path planning

  18. Perancangan Coupled Fuzzy Logic Controller pada Prototipe Mesin Computer Numerical Control (CNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabilla Gustiviana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tingkat ketelitian mesin CNC dalam membuat suatu kontur merupakan hal yang penting. Adanya gesekan antara mata pahat dengan benda kerja saat melakukan gerakan feeding dalam membentuk suatu kontur dapat berakibat pada kesalahan bentuk kontur yang akan dihasilkan apabila di tiap sumbunya dikontrol secara individu. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut, maka dirancang kombinasi antara Fuzzy Logic Controller sebagai kontroler individu yang mengatasi permasalahan di tiap sumbu, dengan kontroler koordinasi, yaitu Cross-Coupled Controller. Algoritma dari kontroler ini dibuat dengan menggunakan software LabView 8.6. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa dengan menambahkan kontroler koordinasi, dapat memperbaiki nilai indeks performansi sebesar 37,5% untuk kontur linier dan 2,78% untuk kontur lingkaran

  19. The Structure and Principles of Work Intellectual Processing Control System on CNC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasov, R. Y.; Putilova, U. S.; Starikov, A. I.; Soloviev, I. V.; Bekareva, O. V.

    2016-04-01

    The high rate of technological progress imposes stringent quality demands of engineering production. The main requirement is dimensional accuracy of metal-cutting equipment with a minimal needed operating costs during the period of operation. The article considers the problem of increasing the accuracy of processing engineering products on CNC. The authors have proposed a solution of the problem by providing entering operational adjustment to the control of the trajectory of the executive bodies of the machine. The necessity of creation of mathematical models of processes in an automated process system operations (APSO). Based on the research, authors had proposed that a generalized scheme of diagnosis and operation input of corrections and approximate mathematical models of the individual processes of diagnosis.

  20. Návrh CNC řídicího systému

    OpenAIRE

    Sobotka, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem řídicího CNC systému pro aplikace nevyžadující synchronizovaný pohyb více os najednou. Cílem je kompatibilita s G-kódem, který umožní řídit zařízení s kartézským souřadným systémem. S užitím běžného PC pro běh systému a komunikaci pomocí sériové linky.

  1. A reliability assessment method based on support vector machines for CNC equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun; DENG Chao; SHAO XinYu; XIE S Q

    2009-01-01

    With the applications of high technology, a catastrophic failure of CNC equipment rarely occurs at normal operation conditions. So it is difficult for traditional reliability assessment methods based on time-to-failure distributions to deduce the reliability level. This paper presents a novel reliability assessment methodology to estimate the reliability level of equipment with machining performance degradation data when only a few samples are available. The least squares support vector machines(LS-SVM) are introduced to analyze the performance degradation process on the equipment. A two-stage parameter optimization and searching method is proposed to improve the LS-SVM regression performance and a reliability assessment model based on the LS-SVM is built. A machining performance degradation experiment has been carried out on an OTM650 machine tool to validate the effectiveness of the proposed reliability assessment methodology.

  2. VIRTUAL MACHINES IN EDUCATION – CNC MILLING MACHINE WITH SINUMERIK 840D CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Zagórski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Machining process nowadays could not be conducted without its inseparable element: cutting edge and frequently numerically controlled milling machines. Milling and lathe machining centres comprise standard equipment in many companies of the machinery industry, e.g. automotive or aircraft. It is for that reason that tertiary education should account for this rising demand. This entails the introduction into the curricula the forms which enable visualisation of machining, milling process and virtual production as well as virtual machining centres simulation. Siemens Virtual Machine (Virtual Workshop sets an example of such software, whose high functionality offers a range of learning experience, such as: learning the design of machine tools, their configuration, basic operation functions as well as basics of CNC.

  3. A reliability assessment method based on support vector machines for CNC equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With the applications of high technology,a catastrophic failure of CNC equipment rarely occurs at normal operation conditions.So it is difficult for traditional reliability assessment methods based on time-to-failure distributions to deduce the reliability level.This paper presents a novel reliability assessment methodology to estimate the reliability level of equipment with machining performance degradation data when only a few samples are available.The least squares support vector machines(LS-SVM) are introduced to analyze the performance degradation process on the equipment.A two-stage parameter optimization and searching method is proposed to improve the LS-SVM regression performance and a reliability assessment model based on the LS-SVM is built.A machining performance degradation experiment has been carried out on an OTM650 machine tool to validate the effectiveness of the proposed reliability assessment methodology.

  4. Geometrical Reconstruction and CNC Process of Spurious Tympanic Membrane Based on Reverse Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hong; PENG Jun; ZHOU Yongqing

    2006-01-01

    Perforation of tympanic membrane is one of the main reasons for both deafness and dyssaudia. We could improve and restore audition by restoring or replacing the tympanic membrane. So, whether you can make the spurious tympanic membrane successfully is one of the keys to a successful operation. Utilizing CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine) measurement equipment, we measured tympanic membrane model precisely and digitally. We also analysed the measured data by point to surface and we have successfully reconstructed the CAD model of the spurious tympanic membrane. Using the model we have got, we schemed out the mold of spurious tympanic membrane. In addition, we utilized MasterCAM compiling CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) code and simulating the course of working. Ultimately, we obtained the mold of spurious tympanic membrane. Our research in this article has great significance to the success of spurious tympanic membrane grafting operation.

  5. Development of High-precision Micro CNC Machine with Three-dimensional Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Liang Chu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at developing a machine center consisting of high-speed micro-milling machine, micro-EDM and coordinate measuring machine. The machine center uses a commercially available PC-Based CNC controller and micro-EDM power supply. The structure design is based on an open L-shaped granite base, where a Z-axis platform is mounted on the top of an L-type base, while X and Y-axis platforms are assembled by stacking. Additionally, a fuel tank, WEDG winding mechanism and a work piece holder were fixed to the X-axis work platform. Three-axis positioning stages use servomotors to drive lead screws for motion control. Equipped with a commercially available PC-Based CNC controller, any processing path and precision motion control can be achieved. In addition, the Z-axis platform includes a commercially available rapid adapter for the rapid assembly of C-axis rotation, high-speed micro-milling spindle and three-dimensional measuring probe. This means that the machine can quickly switch between micro-EDM, high-speed micro-milling and three-dimensional measurement. The machine center successfully produced micro probes with a front-end sphere with a diameter of less than 100 μm. Combined with a self-developed trigger circuit, it also completed a three-dimensional touch trigger probe. The measurement software was developed with Borland C++ Builder. Integrating the three-dimensional touch trigger probe with the three-axis linear scale, the three-dimensional coordinates of the measured values were calculated and processed. It has been successfully applied to the measurement of point, line, circle and angle.

  6. A Review on Experimental Investigation of Machining Parameters during CNC Machining of OHNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi Lata

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review paper aims towards the optimization of CNC turning operation when used over an OHNS material. The lathe machine was chosen because of its widespread availability and its ability to perform various tasks without much change in its structure. Also using lathe machines is very cheap and hence it is beneficial from economic point of view as well. The turning operation was specifically chosen because of the various advantages that it offers. It can be used for machining a large variety of materials and it is cheaper than milling. OHNS (Oil Hardened Non Shrinking tool was chosen due to its hardness. These materials are used only for dies so it was chosen so that its industrial usage could be exploited. To comprehend the usage, all the input and output parameters that could affect the machining process, namely input parameters like feed, cutting conditions, speed, etc. and output parameters like surface roughness, surface finish, material removal rate were analyzed using the researches that had already been done on CNC turning. After careful study of a variety of research papers on this topic, it was decided that several input as well as the output parameters would be considered which included feed, depth of cut and cutting speed were taken as the input parameters whereas Material Removal Rate (MRR and surface finish were taken as the output parameters. From the results of the research papers, it was concluded that feed, depth of cut and cutting speed could be chosen as input parameters whereas MRR and surface finish would be the output parameters.

  7. Karl Lagerfeld for H&M : En studie av Hennes & Mauritz varumärkesstrategi

    OpenAIRE

    Serrander, Oskar; Wärnåker, Ted

    2004-01-01

    A1226 Varumärket har under de senaste åren kommit att utgöra en av företagens viktigaste strategiska resurser. För att differentiera sig gentemot en allt hårdare konkurrens krävs en ständig förnyelse av marknadsföringen. Den svenska detaljhandelskedjan Hennes & Mauritz agerar på en marknad där varumärkesidentiteten har en stor betydelse för målgruppen. När företaget lanserade kollektionen Karl Lagerfeld for H&M lyckades de i varumärkesalliansen med designern Karl Lagerfeld kombinera t...

  8. Impact of recent DOT regulatory changes (HM-169A) on D ampersand D packaging and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Thursday, September 28, 1995, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) issued docket HM-169A, open-quotes Hazardous Materials Transportation Regulations; Compatibility with Regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency.close quotes In the words of the DOT, open-quotes This final rule amends the Hazardous Materials Regulations pertaining to the transportation of radioactive materials to harmonize them with those of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and, thus most of the nuclear nations of the world.close quotes This docket introduces several significant changes that will dramatically affect the packaging and transport of radioactive materials, especially the categories of waste/materials generated as a result of the extensive decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) programs under way throughout the U.S. Department of Energy and the nuclear industry as a whole, and the upcoming decommissioning of the nuclear power plants

  9. Use of (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO in the diagnosis of primary degenerative dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, H.J.; Snowden, J.S.; Neary, D.; Shields, R.A.; Burjan, A.W.; Prescott, M.C.; Northen, B.; Goulding, P.

    1988-12-01

    The clinical value of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the differential diagnosis of dementia due to cerebral atrophy was evaluated by comparing the pattern of distribution (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO in three dementing conditions. Imaging was carried out in 26 patients with suspected Alzheimer's disease, 14 with dementia of the frontal-lobe type, and 13 with progressive supranuclear palsy. Images were evaluated and reported without knowledge of clinical diagnosis with respect to regions of reduced uptake of tracer. Reduced uptake in the posterior cerebral hemispheres was characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, while selective anterior hemisphere abnormalities characterized both dementia of the frontal-lobe type and progressive supranuclear palsy. The latter conditions could be distinguished on the basis of the appearance of integrity of the rim of the frontal cortex. The technique has an important role in the differentiation of degenerative dementias.

  10. 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT of epileptic patients showing focal paroxysm on electroencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT in diagnosing epilepsy was studied. The subjects were 33 epileptic patients, ranging in age from 5 years and 5 months to 28 years and 3 months, who showed focal paroxysm on electroencephalograms. Lowered accumulation site was found on SPECT in 19 patients. Four patients with abnormal findings on X-ray CT or MRI showed lowered accumulation and focal paroxysm at the same site. Of 29 patients with normal X-ray CT or MRI findings, 15 (52%) showed lowered accumulation. Five patients showed a focal paroxysm at the site of lowered accumulation. In 8 patients the focal paroxysm site was partly coincided with the accumulation site. In some patients the focal site predicted by the findings of clinical symptoms and the lowered accumulation site coincided. SPECT is therefore a useful method in diagnosing a focal site in epilepsy and considered to reflect the severity of disease. (Y.S.)

  11. Use of [/sup 99m/Tc]-HM-PAO in the diagnosis of primary degenerative dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical value of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the differential diagnosis of dementia due to cerebral atrophy was evaluated by comparing the pattern of distribution [/sup 99m/Tc]-HM-PAO in three dementing conditions. Imaging was carried out in 26 patients with suspected Alzheimer's disease, 14 with dementia of the frontal-lobe type, and 13 with progressive supranuclear palsy. Images were evaluated and reported without knowledge of clinical diagnosis with respect to regions of reduced uptake of tracer. Reduced uptake in the posterior cerebral hemispheres was characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, while selective anterior hemisphere abnormalities characterized both dementia of the frontal-lobe type and progressive supranuclear palsy. The latter conditions could be distinguished on the basis of the appearance of integrity of the rim of the frontal cortex. The technique has an important role in the differentiation of degenerative dementias

  12. PHOEBE: PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej; Matijevic, Gal; Latkovic, Olivera; Vilardell, Francesc; Wils, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    PHOEBE (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs) is a modeling package for eclipsing binary stars, built on top of the widely used WD program (Wilson & Devinney 1971). This introductory paper overviews most important scientific extensions (incorporating observational spectra of eclipsing binaries into the solution-seeking process, extracting individual temperatures from observed color indices, main-sequence constraining and proper treatment of the reddening), numerical innovations (suggested improvements to WD's Differential Corrections method, the new Nelder & Mead's downhill Simplex method) and technical aspects (back-end scripter structure, graphical user interface). While PHOEBE retains 100% WD compatibility, its add-ons are a powerful way to enhance WD by encompassing even more physics and solution reliability.

  13. Evaluation of Brāhmī ghṛtam in children suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Bhalerao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. In view of the adverse effects associated with psycho-stimulants used for the treatment of this disorder, efficacy of Brāhmīghṛtam was evaluated in this condition. Materials and Methods: After following due ethical considerations, children of either sex between the age group of 6 and 12 years diagnosed to be suffering from mixed variety of ADHD as per The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV criteria irrespective of other co-morbid psychiatric illnesses were recruited in the study. Initially a pilot study (n = 10 was carried out to confirm the efficacy of the identified dose of Brāhmīghṛtam. Using this dose, further therapeutic confirmatory study (n = 27 was carried out, wherein Brāhmīghṛtam was compared with methylphenidate. Effect on ADHD symptoms was assessed using the Dupaul ADHD rating scale and this was the main efficacy parameter. Results: In the pilot exploratory study, Brāhmīghṛtam showed 66% decrease in total ADHD score. In the therapeutic confirmatory study, only 16% improvement was seen with Brāhmīghṛtam, which was similar to methylphenidate, standard treatment for ADHD that was used as a comparator in the present study. No side-effects were reported in both studies. Conclusion: Our study thus has adequately demonstrated efficacy and safety of Brāhmīghṛtam in ADHD.

  14. Validation of the SEPHIS Program for the Modeling of the HM Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SEPHIS computer program is currently being used to evaluate the effect of all process variables on the criticality safety of the HM 1st Uranium Cycle process in H Canyon. The objective of its use has three main purposes. (1) To provide a better technical basis for those process variables that do not have any realistic effect on the criticality safety of the process. (2) To qualitatively study those conditions that have been previously recognized to affect the nuclear safety of the process or additional conditions that modeling has indicated may pose a criticality safety issue. (3) To judge the adequacy of existing or future neutron monitors locations in the detection of the initial stages of reflux for specific scenarios.Although SEPHIS generally over-predicts the distribution of uranium to the organic phase, it is a capable simulation tool as long as the user recognizes its biases and takes special care when using the program for scenarios where the prediction bias is non-conservative. The temperature coefficient used by SEPHIS is poor at predicting effect of temperature on uranium extraction for the 7.5 percent TBP used in the HM process. Therefore, SEPHIS should not be used to study temperature related scenarios. However, within normal operating temperatures when other process variables are being studied, it may be used. Care must be is given to understanding the prediction bias and its effect on any conclusion for the particular scenario that is under consideration. Uranium extraction with aluminum nitrate is over-predicted worse than for nitric acid systems. However, the extraction section of the 1A bank has sufficient excess capability that these errors, while relatively large, still allow SEPHIS to be used to develop reasonable qualitative assessments for reflux scenarios. However, high losses to the 1AW stream cannot be modeled by SEPHIS

  15. Marketingová strategie společnosti H&M se zaměřením na retrostyl

    OpenAIRE

    Zajíčková, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the image of chosen company. The theoretical part explains the basic terms of marketing -- marketing and communications mix, strategic marketing. The examined object of the practical part is international clothing company H&M. This section analyzes what kinds of marketing instruments H&M uses. The aim is to find out, if the customers of H&M are interested in buying retro clothes inspired by 50's and 60's.

  16. Assessing the Influence of Fashion Clothing Advertising on Women's Consumer Behaviour in Finland; a case study of H&M

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Abu Adab, Sari

    2012-01-01

    This study will provide a framework for analysing the current advertising and marketing patterns in women’s consumer behaviour in Finland. Swedish clothing retailer Hennes&Mauritz (H&M) was chosen as a case study since it is considered to be well-known in Finland; in 2010 average sales were astonishingly around 243million euros (H&M 2012). As this research is considered to be a broad topic, this study will focus on women in Finland aged 16-35 and above. This study will use various research m...

  17. Encounters of binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical integrations of encounters of pairs of binaries have been used to study the class of interactions, called fly-bys, in which the two-binary configuration survives. It is shown that these typically weak interactions can be treated by means of a first-order perturbation theory. A simple simulation model for obtaining the energy transfer rate between various degrees of freedom has been constructed. The model was employed to estimate the additional energy transfer arising from impact parameters larger than those used in the numerical experiments. In the hard binary limit the total energy transfer caused by binary-binary encounters is dominated by the collisional interactions in which the two-binary configuration is destroyed. (author)

  18. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  19. Comparison of Technical and Economic Parameters of Drilling of Wood Based Panels with CNC and Traditional Woodworking Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Ymeri, Muhamet; Bajraktari, Agron; Hoxha, Sejdi Hoxha; Cukaj, Kushtrim; Thoma, Hektor; Peri, Leonidha

    2014-01-01

    Alongside other technological stages in wood processing, the technology for final wood processing has undergone positive changes, especially during the last two decades, having achieved rapid development through the application of advanced technologies €“ central, numeric-controlled machines (CNC). This technology has significantly improved technical and economic parameters, which has led to increased competitiveness of those companies that have installed it.The focus of our paper lies in the...

  20. Assessment of the arterial input curve for [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO by rapid octanol extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A R; Friberg, H; Lassen, N A;

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro conversion of the lipophilic molecule [99mTc]-d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime [( 99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO) to a hydrophilic form was studied in saline, plasma, and blood at 37 degrees C by paper chromatography and by octanol extraction. The octanol:saline ratio was 79.9. From this value...

  1. Positive allosteric modulation of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (hmGluR4) by SIB-1893 and MPEP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff; Svendsen, Nannette; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans;

    2003-01-01

    We have identified 2-methyl-6-(2-phenylethenyl)pyridine (SIB-1893) and 2-methyl-6-phenylethynyl pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP) as positive allosteric modulators for the hmGluR4. SIB-1893 and MPEP enhanced the potency and efficacy of L-2-amino-4-phophonobutyrate (L-AP4) in guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]...

  2. Geen recht de moed te verliezen. Leven en werken van dr. H.M. de Lange (1919-2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte-Rang, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    This study deals with the contribution of the Dutch economist Dr. H.M. de Lange to the ecumenical debate on social-ethics. To this end, the first part gives a description of the work of De Lange. Through the individual De Lange the study provides an insight in the worldwide ecumenical movement and t

  3. HM{sup +}–RG complexes (M = group 2 metal; RG = rare gas): Physical vs. chemical interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Joe P.; Dodson, Hannah; Wright, Timothy G., E-mail: Tim.Wright@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Breckenridge, W. H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2015-04-21

    Previous work on the HM{sup +}–He complexes (M = Be–Ra) has been extended to the cases of the heavier rare gas atoms, HM{sup +}–RG (RG = Ne–Rn). Optimized geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies have been calculated using MP2 theory and quadruple-ζ quality basis sets. Dissociation energies for the loss of the rare gas atom have been calculated at these optimized geometries using coupled cluster with single and double excitations and perturbative triples, CCSD(T)theory, extrapolating interaction energies to the basis set limit. Comparisons are made between the present data and the previously obtained helium results, as well as to those of the bare HM{sup +} molecules; furthermore, comparisons are made to the related M{sup +}–RG and M{sup 2+}–RG complexes. Partial atomic charge analyses have also been undertaken, and these used to test a simple charge-induced dipole model. Molecular orbital diagrams are presented together with contour plots of the natural orbitals from the quadratic configuration with single and double excitations (QCISD) density. The conclusion is that the majority of these complexes are physically bound, with very little sharing of electron density; however, for M = Be, and to a lesser extent M = Mg, some evidence for chemical effects is seen in HM{sup +}–RG complexes involving RG atoms with the higher atomic numbers.

  4. Development of a diagnostic schedule for a defective LC-195V5 CNC milling machine using PERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole Olayinka AGBOOLA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer Numerical Control CNC machine tools usage are more and more extensive, its fault diagnosis research is becoming more essential. Failure forms accorded these machines are diversified, and fault reasons are very complicated. It should not be left unattended to, because this could lead to further deterioration. One of the parameters used in determining the efficiency of a technician (who repairs machine tools is the time saved in locating faults, hence the development of a diagnostic schedule which shows the sequential means of troubleshooting within a possible shortest time. In this research two approaches were used to diagnose a defective LC-195V5 CNC milling machine. Forward Pass (FP, which involves the diagnosis from electrical parts through Computer (CNC to mechanical component and Backward Pass (BP which involves the diagnosis from computer component through electrical parts to mechanical parts. Three different trials were conducted for each of the mode of diagnosis and the time to diagnose each component part was recorded. Based on the interrelationship of the component parts, two separate PERT (Project Evaluation & Review Techniques network diagrams were drawn and their Critical Paths were determined. The study reveals that Foward Pass method was able to save more time.

  5. Deformation Compensation of Ram Components of Super-heavy-duty CNC Floor Type Boring and Milling Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fenghe; QIAO Lijun; XU Yaoling

    2012-01-01

    Ram is a very important component of super-heavy-duty computer numerical control (CNC) floor type boring-milling machine,and deformation of ram is a significant source causing errors in machining process.To compensate the deformation error of super-heavy-duty CNC floor type boring-milling machine,based on force analysis theory,the law and compensation measures of deformation of ram are researched.Based on the principle of torque (force) balance of the ram components,the formulas of compensation forces and compensation torques are derived,the relations between compensation forces (compensation torques)and the stroke distance of the ram are given.According to theoretical analysis results and the structural characteristics of super-heavy-duty CNC floor type boring and milling machine of TK6932,rods compensation,hydrostatic pressure compensation and wire rope compensation measures are taken to compensate the deformation error of ram.The experiments and computer simulation results show that the straightness of the ram at its overhanging end meets the national machinery industry standards.

  6. Use of technetium-99m-HM-PAO in the assessment of patients with dementia and other neuropsychiatric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred fourteen patients suffering from neuropsychiatric conditions have been studied using 99mTc-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Ninety-one patients had a firm clinical diagnosis while 23 were examined without knowledge of the clinical diagnosis. Of the 91 patients, 51 were suffering from dementia, 25 multi-infarct type and 26 Alzheimer's disease. In 19 of the Alzheimer's patients, a characteristic pattern of decreased perfusion in the parieto-occipital regions was demonstrated while those with multi-infarct type showed varying degrees of irregular uptake in the cerebral cortex. These appearances are similar to those shown with positron emission tomography (PET) and we believe that HM-PAO will provide a widely available method for identifying patients with Alzheimer's disease. Twenty-nine patients were suffering from diseases involving the basal ganglia. Fifteen patients with Parkinson's disease showed no significant abnormality in basal ganglia uptake, while 7 or 8 patients with Huntington's disease who had full examinations showed decreased uptake in the caudate nuclei. Similarly, four of six patients with other basal ganglia diseases showed impaired uptake by basal ganglia, and it is concluded that HM-PAO may be useful for the diagnosis and management of this type of patient. Twenty-three patients received HM-PAO imaging as part of their diagnostic work-up; in 19 of them, detailed follow-up was obtained, which indicated that in 7 cases the result of the HM-PAO scan altered the clinical diagnosis and in 9 cases resulted in a change in management. In the remaining 13 cases, the study was found to be helpful in confirming the diagnosis

  7. The evaluation of collateral cerebral circulation using 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT during the balloon Matas test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A balloon Matas test using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 99mTC-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HM-PAO) was performed to evaluate collateral cerebral circulation during temporary carotid occlusion in 14 patients (6 with internal carotid artery aneurysms, 2 with basilar skull tumors, 5 with neck tumors, and one with traumatic common carotid artery aneurysm). The occlusion sites were internal carotid artery in 12 patients and common carotid artery in 2 patients. The observation of the neurological state, the carotid stump pressure, cerebral angiography for assessing collateral circulation and electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring were also undertaken in all patients. In four patients, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by xenon-inhalation method and compared with the CBF image by 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT. The 99mTC-HM-PAO (20 mCi) was injected intravenously 3 minutes before balloon deflation. In all patients, the neurological state and EEG showed no abnormality during the balloon Matas test. Eight patients were considered treatable by the permanent occlusion of the carotid artery. Permanent carotid ligation was carried out in five of these 8 patients, and no neurological deficit occurred. Permanent occlusion of the carotid artery was impossible in 5 patients because of marked reduction of CBF. 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT should three-dimensional cerebral perfusion pattern. In conclusion, a balloon Matas test using 99mTC-HM-PAO SPECT is a reliable, simple and safe method of evaluating the collateral cerebral circulation. (J.P.N.)

  8. Topological investigations of thermodynamic properties of binary mixtures containing 2-pyrrolidinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excess molar volumes, VmE, excess molar enthalpies, HmE, and speeds of sound data, u, of 2-pyrrolidinone (i) + benzene or toluene or o- or p- or m-xylene (j) binary mixtures have been measured as a function of composition at 308.15 K. Isentropic compressibility changes of mixing, κSE have been determined by employing speeds of sound data. The observed data have been estimated by employing Graph theory (which involves topology of the constituents of the mixtures). It has been observed that VmE, HmE and κSE values predicted by Graph theory compare well with their corresponding experimental values. IR studies lend further credence to the nature and extent of interaction of the proposed structures of molecular species in these mixtures.

  9. 开放式CNC指令系统的研究%Study of the Open-Architecture CNC System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡占齐

    2001-01-01

    提出了面向系统的和面向用户的开放式数控指令系统的概念。对于面向系统的开放式指令,给出了基于PMAC运动控制器的应用实例。对于面向用户的开放式指令,给出了复合指令的定义、实现方法及应用实例。开放式指令系统可以使数控系统具有更大的灵活性。%The open-architecture CNC(Computer Numerical Control) system is one of the developing trends of NC technology. It is generally considered that the open CNC system consists of open- architecture hardwares and softwares. An open-architecture hardware system is made up of a personal computer, a speed control unit, a position control unit and an embedded PLC. An open architecture software system means that a CNC software is separated into some modules with standard interfaces. The open-architecture hardware and software have been reported in many papers.   Another character of the open-architecture CNC system, the open code system, is proposed in this paper. In an open architecture NC code system, the code system is independent from the compiling system, but connected to it through middle codes. The compiling system compiles only middle codes, and NC codes are defined through middle codes and are saved in NC code files. The open architecture NC code system can be adapted easily to different mechanical tools by rewriting the NC code files for different mechanical tools. Users of the open- architecture NC code system will be able to modify and configure their own NC code system easily by modifying NC code files.   Openness to systems and openness to users, two aspects of the open architecture code system, are explained, and some examples are given. Openness to systems means that manufacturers of the mechanical tools can construct different NC code systems for different mechanical tools. "Openness to users" means that users of the mechanical tools can expand their NC code system during its operation. The open architecture NC

  10. Radiopharmacokinetics and incorporation dosimetry from 99mTc-HM-PAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After intravenous injection of 185 MBq 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (HM-PAO) long-time retention measurements were made on four healthy voluntary subjects up to 72 hours. Whole body profiles as a function of time were measured with a whole body counter. From the whole body profiles in man only the total body retention and the retention in the brain could be calculated. For this reason, biokinetic animal data were collected from quantitative organ measurements in mice. The biokinetic animal data were transferred to man as the cumulative activity for the various organs. The mean absorbed dose for selected organs was calculated using the concept of absorbed fractions (MIRD method). Except the thyroid gland the absorbed dose for all selected organs is within the range from 2.8 μGy/MBq for the testes to 10.4 μGy/MBq for the upper large intestinal wall. The thyroid gland receives the highest dose of all organs considered (24.3 μGy/MBq). The absorbed dose to the brain derived from human data (10.3 μGy/MBq) exceeds that derived from animal data by a factor of about 2. (orig.)

  11. Hyperisampsins H-M, Cytotoxic Polycyclic Polyprenylated Acylphloroglucinols from Hypericum sampsonii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hucheng; Chen, Chunmei; Tong, Qingyi; Chen, Xintao; Yang, Jing; Liu, Junjun; Sun, Bin; Wang, Jianping; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Xue, Yongbo; Zhang, Yonghui

    2015-10-01

    Six new polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs), named hyperisampsins H-M (1-6), were isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum sampsonii, together with five known analogs (7-11). The structures of 1-6 were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including HRESIMS and NMR. In addition, the absolute configurations of these new compounds were determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1 and 2 represent the first examples of PPAPs possessing a unique γ-lactone ring at C-23, while 3-6 differed from normal PPAPs with an unprecedented 1,2-dioxane ring. Compounds 1-7 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against a panel of human cancer cell lines in vitro, of which 3, 4, and 6 exhibited significant cytotoxic activities with IC50 values ranging from 0.56 to 3.00 μM. Moreover, compound 3 induces leukemia cell apoptotic death, evidenced by activation of caspase-3, degradation of PARP, up-regulation of Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl.

  12. [/sup 99m/Tc]-HM-PAO SPECT in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-six patients affected by Parkinson's disease were studied using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and [/sup 99m/Tc]-HM-PAO as a tracer. The scanning procedure was performed 16-24 h after discontinuation of specific therapy. Tracer activity ratios were determined in 10 pairs of cerebellar, cortical, and subcortical regions. Data were compared with those of 10 age-matched controls. Most of the regions examined did not show any relevant change between parkinsonian and control subjects. Notably, mean activity in striatal regions were similar in the two groups. Increased activity in caudate-putamen was found in patients who were on chronic DOPA therapy. Side-to-side asymmetries in the basal ganglia increased with the severity of the disease. Significant reductions of tracer uptake, from control values, were observed bilaterally in the parietal cortex. These deficits were more pronounced in patients with mental deterioration and in subjects who had been chronically treated with anticholinergic drugs. Parietal perfusion deficits in parkinsonian patients resemble those described in Alzheimer's dementia. These findings suggest that the heterogeneous alterations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in parkinsonian patients reflect the multifactorial pathophysiology of the disease

  13. Virtual System Solution of CNC Machine for Spiral Bevel and Hypoid Gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; WANG Taiyong; XIONG Yuedong; LUO Jun

    2006-01-01

    A virtual computerized numerical control(CNC)processing system is built for spiral bevel and hypoid gears. The pre-designed process of the solution to locate the way of realization is investigated. A kind of combined programming method and principle of solid modeling are chosen. Multienvironmental programming thought and the inter-connected mechanisms between different environments are applied in the proposed system. The problems of data exchange and compatibility of modules are settled. Environment of the system is founded with object oriented programming thought. AutoCAD is located as the graphic environment. Matlab is used for editing the computation module. Virtual C + +6.0 is the realization environment of the main module. Windows is the platform for realizing the multi-environmental method. Through establishing the virtual system based windows message handling mechanism and the component object model, the application of multienvironmental programming is realized in the manufacture system simulation. The virtual gear product can be achieved in the accomplished software.

  14. An improved method for risk evaluation in failure modes and effects analysis of CNC lathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachieru, N.; Belu, N.; Anghel, D. C.

    2015-11-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is one of the most popular reliability analysis tools for identifying, assessing and eliminating potential failure modes in a wide range of industries. In general, failure modes in FMEA are evaluated and ranked through the risk priority number (RPN), which is obtained by the multiplication of crisp values of the risk factors, such as the occurrence (O), severity (S), and detection (D) of each failure mode. However, the crisp RPN method has been criticized to have several deficiencies. In this paper, linguistic variables, expressed in Gaussian, trapezoidal or triangular fuzzy numbers, are used to assess the ratings and weights for the risk factors S, O and D. A new risk assessment system based on the fuzzy set theory and fuzzy rule base theory is to be applied to assess and rank risks associated to failure modes that could appear in the functioning of Turn 55 Lathe CNC. Two case studies have been shown to demonstrate the methodology thus developed. It is illustrated a parallel between the results obtained by the traditional method and fuzzy logic for determining the RPNs. The results show that the proposed approach can reduce duplicated RPN numbers and get a more accurate, reasonable risk assessment. As a result, the stability of product and process can be assured.

  15. Improved precision on the radius of the nearby super-Earth 55 Cnc e

    CERN Document Server

    Gillon, M; Benneke, B; Valencia, D; Deming, D; Seager, S; Lovis, C; Mayor, M; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Segransan, Damien; Udry, S

    2011-01-01

    We report on new transit photometry for the super-Earth 55 Cnc e obtained with Warm Spitzer/IRAC at 4.5 microns. An individual analysis of these new data leads to a planet radius of 2.21-0.16+0.15 Rearth, in good agreement with the values previously derived from the MOST and Spitzer transit discovery data. A global analysis of both Spitzer transit time-series improves the precision on the radius of the planet at 4.5 microns to 2.20+-0.12 Rearth. We also performed an independent analysis of the MOST data, paying particular attention to the influence of the systematic effects of instrumental origin on the derived parameters and errors by including them in a global model instead of performing a preliminary detrending-filtering processing. We deduce from this reanalysis of MOST data an optical planet radius of 2.04+-0.15 Rearth that is consistent with our Spitzer infrared radius. Assuming the achromaticity of the transit depth, we performed a global analysis combining Spitzer and MOST data that results in a plane...

  16. On the central symmetry of the circumstellar envelope of RS Cnc

    CERN Document Server

    Nhung, Pham Tuyet; Winters, Jan Martin; Darriulat, Pierre; Gérard, Eric; Bertre, Thibaut Le

    2014-01-01

    We present a phenomenological study of CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission from the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star RS\\,Cnc. It reveals departures from central symmetry that turn out to be efficient tools for the exploration of some of the CSE properties. We use a wind model including a bipolar flow with a typical wind velocity of $\\sim$8 km\\,s$^{-1}$ decreasing to $\\sim$2 km\\,s$^{-1}$ near the equator to describe Doppler velocity spectral maps obtained by merging data collected at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and Pico Veleta single dish radio telescope. Parameters describing the wind morphology and kinematics are obtained, together with the radial dependence of the gas temperature in the domain of the circumstellar envelope probed by the CO observations. Significant north-south central asymmetries are revealed by the analysis, which we quantify using a simple phenomenological description. The origin of such asymmetries is unclear.

  17. Optimization of CNC Turning Parameters on Aluminum 7015 Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite Using Taguchi Robust Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SENTHIL KUMAR. M.P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Aluminum Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites (Al-HMMC are finding numerous applications in many areas like Automobile, Piston and Cylinder and Aerospace, etc. Adding a third element into the metal matrix composite makes it hybrid. The Reinforcement of SiC and Graphite used in this Al-HMMC improves its strength. The present investigation is to find the optimum machining parameter of CNC turning centre on Al-HMMC. The main objective is to find the optimum cutting parameters to achieve low value of surface roughness and high Material Removal Rate (MRR. The cutting parameters considered in this experimental investigation are cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Taguchi L27 orthogonal array was chosen to conduct the experiments. Signal to Noise ratio (S/N and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA were used to analyze the effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness and MRR. The contribution by each cutting parameter to surface roughness and MRR was also determined.

  18. Cost minimizing of cutting process for CNC thermal and water-jet machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaeva, Anastasia; Kurennov, Dmitry

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with optimization problem of cutting process for CNC thermal and water-jet machines. The accuracy of objective function parameters calculation for optimization problem is investigated. This paper shows that working tool path speed is not constant value. One depends on some parameters that are described in this paper. The relations of working tool path speed depending on the numbers of NC programs frames, length of straight cut, configuration part are presented. Based on received results the correction coefficients for working tool speed are defined. Additionally the optimization problem may be solved by using mathematical model. Model takes into account the additional restrictions of thermal cutting (choice of piercing and output tool point, precedence condition, thermal deformations). At the second part of paper the non-standard cutting techniques are considered. Ones may lead to minimizing of cutting cost and time compared with standard cutting techniques. This paper considers the effectiveness of non-standard cutting techniques application. At the end of the paper the future research works are indicated.

  19. A low glitch 12-bit current-steering CMOS DAC for CNC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 12-bit, 100-MHz CMOS current-steering D/A converter for CNC (computer number control) systems is presented. To reduce the glitch and increase the SFDR (spurious-free dynamic range), a low crosspoint switch driver and a special dummy switch are applied. In addition, a 4-5-3 segmental structure is used to optimize the performance and layout area. After improvement, the biggest glitch energy decreased from 6.7 pVs to 1.7 pVs, the INL decreased from 2 LSB to 0.8 LSB, the SFDR is 78 dB at a 100-MSPS clock rate and 1 MHz output frequency. This DAC can deliver up to 20.8 mA full-scale current into a 50 Ω load. The power when operating at full-scale current is 163 mW. The layout area is 1.8 × 1.8 mm2 in a standard 0.35-μm CMOS technology. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. Design of Ultra-Precision CNC Grinding Machine and Its Application in Machining Large Aspheric Mirrors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Li; Huiying Zhao; Jianpu Xi; Dongxu Ren

    2015-01-01

    Large aspheric mirrors are needed for the remote sensing and ground based telescope optical systems, these mirrors are made of hard and brittle materials which require ultra⁃precision grinding process to guarantee the high profile accuracy and machining efficiency. The ultra⁃precision aspheric CNC grinding machine (UAG900) is presented by this paper, as well as its grinding capability. The hydrostatic bearings of high accuracy and stiffness are adopted by the linear and rotary motions to guarantee the mirror accuracy, material removal rate and subsurface damage. Disk type grinding wheel with arc edge is used. The material removal rate can be up to 360 mm3/min to guarantee the machining efficiency during rough grinding using D180 diamond grinding wheel while the fine grinding is performed using D15 grinding wheel. It indicates that the grinding wheel radius measuring error is proportional to the profile error induced by the grinding path. The grinding step size is better to be 0�01 mm for the reduction of the grinding movement accelerations and program length. The grinding path is planned and expressed based on the grinding mode according to the mirror shape. One 540 mm×450 mm×100 mm zerodur mirror is ground and re⁃ground using the measuring data acquired by the Leitz CMM. The final surface accuracy of P⁃V value is less than 5 μm after compensation grinding.

  1. Development of a CNC 5-kW CO2 laser processing equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuren; Lu, Boliang; Zhang, Hongtao; Shao, Wushan

    1996-09-01

    This paper introduces the fundamental compositions and functions of a newly developed 5KW CO2 laser processing equipment CGJ-93 controlled by microcomputer in Changchun Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics. The laser processing equipment consists of a 5KW CO2 laser, multifunction beam guidance systems, modular processing machine, water cooling system and CNC systems. The equipment has the ability to heat-treat not only the internal holes and outer circular surfaces but also space holes and three dimensional curved surfaces. The equipment can heat-treat workpieces up to 3000mm length, 1500mm diameter and 3000kg weight. The longitudinal table allows moving speed of 0.8-12000mm per minute with 3600mm effective moving range and 0.069mm position accuracy. The transverse table allows moving speed of 5-12000mm per minute with 1000mm effective moving range and 0.028mm position accuracy. The laser head allows longitudinal moving speed of 0.1-12000mm per minute. Its effective moving range and position accuracy are 540mm and 0.03mm respectively.

  2. Precise gouging-free tool orientations for 5-axis CNC machining

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Yong-Joon

    2014-08-19

    We present a precise approach to the generation of optimized collision-free and gouging-free tool paths for 5-axis CNC machining of freeform NURBS surfaces using flat-end and rounded-end (bull nose) tools having cylindrical shank. To achieve high approximation quality, we employ analysis of hyper-osculating circles (HOCs) (Wang et al., 1993a,b), that have third order contact with the target surface, and lead to a locally collision-free configuration between the tool and the target surface. At locations where an HOC is not possible, we aim at a double tangential contact among the tool and the target surface, and use it as a bridge between the feasible HOC tool paths. We formulate all such possible two-contact configurations as systems of algebraic constraints and solve them. For all feasible HOCs and two-contact configurations, we perform a global optimization to find the tool path that maximizes the approximation quality of the machining, while being gouge-free and possibly satisfying constraints on the tool tilt and the tool acceleration. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach via several experimental results.

  3. Prediction and Control of Cutting Tool Vibration in Cnc Lathe with Anova and Ann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abuthakeer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Machining is a complex process in which many variables can deleterious the desired results. Among them, cutting tool vibration is the most critical phenomenon which influences dimensional precision of the components machined, functional behavior of the machine tools and life of the cutting tool. In a machining operation, the cutting tool vibrations are mainly influenced by cutting parameters like cutting speed, depth of cut and tool feed rate. In this work, the cutting tool vibrations are controlled using a damping pad made of Neoprene. Experiments were conducted in a CNC lathe where the tool holder is supported with and without damping pad. The cutting tool vibration signals were collected through a data acquisition system supported by LabVIEW software. To increase the buoyancy and reliability of the experiments, a full factorial experimental design was used. Experimental data collected were tested with analysis of variance (ANOVA to understand the influences of the cutting parameters. Empirical models have been developed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Experimental studies and data analysis have been performed to validate the proposed damping system. Multilayer perceptron neural network model has been constructed with feed forward back-propagation algorithm using the acquired data. On the completion of the experimental test ANN is used to validate the results obtained and also to predict the behavior of the system under any cutting condition within the operating range. The onsite tests show that the proposed system reduces the vibration of cutting tool to a greater extend.

  4. The ghrelin receptor agonist HM01 mimics the neuronal effects of ghrelin in the arcuate nucleus and attenuates anorexia-cachexia syndrome in tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Tito; Loi, Laura; Pietra, Claudio; Giuliano, Claudio; Lutz, Thomas A; Riediger, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The gastric hormone ghrelin positively affects energy balance by increasing food intake and reducing energy expenditure. Ghrelin mimetics are a possible treatment against cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS). This study aimed to characterize the action of the nonpeptidergic ghrelin receptor agonist HM01 on neuronal function, energy homeostasis and muscle mass in healthy rats and to evaluate its possible usefulness for the treatment of CACS in a rat tumor model. Using extracellular single-unit recordings, we tested whether HM01 mimics the effects of ghrelin on neuronal activity in the arcuate nucleus (Arc). Furthermore, we assessed the effect of chronic HM01 treatment on food intake (FI), body weight (BW), lean and fat volumes, and muscle mass in healthy rats. Using a hepatoma model, we investigated the possible beneficial effects of HM01 on tumor-induced anorexia, BW loss, muscle wasting, and metabolic rate. HM01 (10(-7)-10(-6) M) mimicked the effect of ghrelin (10(-8) M) by increasing the firing rate in 76% of Arc neurons. HM01 delivered chronically for 12 days via osmotic minipumps (50 μg/h) increased FI in healthy rats by 24%, paralleled by increased BW, higher fat and lean volumes, and higher muscle mass. Tumor-bearing rats treated with HM01 had 30% higher FI than tumor-bearing controls and were protected against BW loss. HM01 treatment resulted in higher muscle mass and fat mass. Moreover, tumor-bearing rats reduced their metabolic rate following HM01 treatment. Our studies substantiate the possible therapeutic usefulness of ghrelin receptor agonists like HM01 for the treatment of CACS and possibly other forms of disease-related anorexia and cachexia. PMID:27147616

  5. Stat5 signaling specifies basal versus stress erythropoietic responses through distinct binary and graded dynamic modalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermelinda Porpiglia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (Epo-induced Stat5 phosphorylation (p-Stat5 is essential for both basal erythropoiesis and for its acceleration during hypoxic stress. A key challenge lies in understanding how Stat5 signaling elicits distinct functions during basal and stress erythropoiesis. Here we asked whether these distinct functions might be specified by the dynamic behavior of the Stat5 signal. We used flow cytometry to analyze Stat5 phosphorylation dynamics in primary erythropoietic tissue in vivo and in vitro, identifying two signaling modalities. In later (basophilic erythroblasts, Epo stimulation triggers a low intensity but decisive, binary (digital p-Stat5 signal. In early erythroblasts the binary signal is superseded by a high-intensity graded (analog p-Stat5 response. We elucidated the biological functions of binary and graded Stat5 signaling using the EpoR-HM mice, which express a "knocked-in" EpoR mutant lacking cytoplasmic phosphotyrosines. Strikingly, EpoR-HM mice are restricted to the binary signaling mode, which rescues these mice from fatal perinatal anemia by promoting binary survival decisions in erythroblasts. However, the absence of the graded p-Stat5 response in the EpoR-HM mice prevents them from accelerating red cell production in response to stress, including a failure to upregulate the transferrin receptor, which we show is a novel stress target. We found that Stat5 protein levels decline with erythroblast differentiation, governing the transition from high-intensity graded signaling in early erythroblasts to low-intensity binary signaling in later erythroblasts. Thus, using exogenous Stat5, we converted later erythroblasts into high-intensity graded signal transducers capable of eliciting a downstream stress response. Unlike the Stat5 protein, EpoR expression in erythroblasts does not limit the Stat5 signaling response, a non-Michaelian paradigm with therapeutic implications in myeloproliferative disease. Our findings show how the

  6. Estimativa da entalpia reticular de adutos (DM Hm o utilizando-se formas modificadas da equação de Kapustinskii Estimating the value of lattice enthalpy (DM Hm o for adducts by using modified forms of Kapustinskii equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fernandes de Farias

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work are presented two modified forms of Kapustinskii equation that could be used to estimate the values of the lattice enthalphies for adducts: DM Hm o=(-n.z+ .z- .10(2/D.(1-d*/D .K and DM Hm o=(-n.z+ .z-.10(2/d.(1-d*/d.K.d. Two new parameters related with steric effects and donor power of the ligands, J anddare introduced. The proposed equations were tested for 49 adducts (mainly from the zinc group halides. The difference between experimental (calorimetric and calculated values (using the proposed equations values are less than 5% for 41 of the tested adducts.

  7. Study of the fragmentation of astrophysical interest molecules (CnHm) induced by high velocity collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows the study of atom-molecule collision processes in the high velocity domain (v=4,5 a.u). The molecules concerned by this work are small unsaturated hydrocarbons C1-4H and C3H2. Molecules are accelerated with the Tandem accelerator in Orsay and their fragmentation is analyzed by the 4π, 100% efficient detector, AGAT. Thanks to a shape analysis of the current signal from the silicon detectors in association with the well known grid method, we are able to measure all the fragmentation channels of the incident molecule. These dissociation measurements have been introduced in the modelization of two objects of the interstellar medium in which a lot of hydrocarbon molecules have been observed (TMC1, horse-head nebula). We have extended our branching ratios obtained by high velocity collision to other electronic processes included in the chemical database like photodissociation and dissociative recombination. This procedure is feasible under an assumption of the statistical point of view of the molecular fragmentation. The deviations following our modification are very small in the modelization of TMC1 but significant in the photodissociation region. The first part is dedicated to the description of the experimental setting that has enabled us to study the fragmentation of CnHm molecules: the Orsay's Tandem accelerator and the Agat detector. The second part deals with negative ion sources and particularly with the Sahat source that is based on electronic impact and has shown good features for the production of anions and correct stability for its use with accelerators. The third part is dedicated to the experimental results in terms of cross-sections, number of fragments and branching ratios, associated to the various collisional processes. The last part presents an application of our measurement of fragmentation data to astro-chemistry. In this field, the simulation codes of the inter-stellar medium require databases of chemical reactions that depend on

  8. Identification and characterization of microRNAs from Entamoeba histolytica HM1-IMSS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Mar-Aguilar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis, a disease that is a major source of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a large group of non-coding RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expression and protein translation in animals. Genome-wide identification of miRNAs is a critical step to facilitating our understanding of genome organization, genome biology, evolution, and post-transcriptional regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sequenced a small RNA library prepared from a culture of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica Strain HM1-IMSS using a deep DNA sequencing approach. Deep sequencing yielded 16 million high-quality short sequence reads containing a total of 5 million non-redundant sequence reads. Based on a bioinformatics pipeline, we found that only 0.5% of these non-redundant small RNA reads were a perfect match with the drafted E. histolytica genome. We did not find miRNA homologs in plant or animal miRNAs. We discovered 199 new potential Entamoeba histolytica miRNAs. The expression and sequence of these Ehi-miRNAs were further validated through microarray by µParaflo Microfluidic Biochip Technology. Ten potential miRNAs were additionally confirmed by real time RT-PCR analysis. Prediction of target genes matched 32 known genes and 34 hypothetical genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that there is a number of regulatory miRNAs in Entamoeba histolytica. The collection of miRNAs in this parasite could be used as a new platform to study genomic structure, gene regulation and networks, development, and host-parasite interactions.

  9. Evaluation of Brāhmī ghṛtam in children suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Supriya Bhalerao; Renuka Munshi; Tanuja Nesari; Heenal Shah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. In view of the adverse effects associated with psycho-stimulants used for the treatment of this disorder, efficacy of Brāhmī ghṛtam was evaluated in this condition. Materials and Methods: After following due ethical considerations, children of either sex between the age group of 6 and 12 years diagnosed to be suffering from mixed variety of AD...

  10. EDITORIAL: To share the fame in a fair way, hm modifies h for multi-authored manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Michael

    2008-04-01

    The h-index has been introduced by Hirsch as a useful measure to characterize the scientific output of a researcher. I suggest a simple modification in order to take multiple co-authorship appropriately into account, by counting each paper only fractionally according to (the inverse of) the number of authors. The resulting hm-indices for eight famous physicists lead to a different ranking from the original h-indices.

  11. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lope Pihie, Azimahtol Hawariah; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Othman, Fezah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showe...

  12. The binary proletariat

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, Nate

    2000-01-01

    In the endless quest to transform itself, capitalism has spawned a new working class. The proletariat was an essential product of the industrial revolution, and the lighter, more efficient capitalism of the digital revolution has created the Binary Proletariat.

  13. Comparison of technetium-99m-HM-PAO leukocytes with indium-111-oxine leukocytes for localizing intraabdominal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m-HM-PAO [(99mTc]HM-PAO) leukocyte and indium-111-oxine (111In-oxine) leukocyte scanning were carried out simultaneously in 41 patients at 4 hr and 24 hr after reinjection to determine whether the 4-hr 99mTc scan could replace the 24-hr 111In scan for detecting intraabdominal sepsis. Abdominal infection was confirmed in 12 cases. The 4-hr 99Tc-leukocyte scan, the 4-hr 111In-leukocyte scan, and the 24-hr 111In-leukocyte scan yielded a sensitivity of 100%, 67%, and 100%, respectively, and a specificity of 62%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The 24-hr 99mTc-leukocyte scan also produced a sensitivity of 100%, but it was falsely positive in all 29 cases without infection due to physiologic bowel uptake. False-positive 4-hr 99mTc-leukocyte scans were also produced by physiologic bowel uptake in seven cases all of whom had true-negative 4-hr and 24-hr 111In-leukocyte scans. Because of the high incidence of false-positive 4-hr [99mTc]HM-PAO leukocyte scans, it was concluded that they could not replace 24-hr 111In-leukocyte scans for detecting intraabdominal sepsis, and that serial 99mTc leukocyte scans starting earlier than 4 hr after reinjection must be evaluated

  14. Eclipsing Binary Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, P C C

    2004-01-01

    The first eclipsing binary pulsar, PSR B1957+20, was discovered in 1987. Since then, 13 other eclipsing low-mass binary pulsars have been found, 12 of these are in globular clusters. In this paper we list the known eclipsing binary pulsars and their properties, with special attention to the eclipsing systems in 47 Tuc. We find that there are two fundamentally different groups of eclipsing binary pulsars; separated by their companion masses. The less massive systems (M_c ~ 0.02 M_sun) are a product of predictable stellar evolution in binary pulsars. The systems with more massive companions (M_c ~ 0.2 M_sun) were formed by exchange encounters in globular clusters, and for that reason are exclusive to those environments. This class of systems can be used to learn about the neutron star recycling fraction in the globular clusters actively forming pulsars. We suggest that most of these binary systems are undetectable at radio wavelengths.

  15. Binary Evolutionary Models

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Z

    2008-01-01

    In this talk, we present the general principles of binary evolution and give two examples. The first example is the formation of subdwarf B stars (sdBs) and their application to the long-standing problem of ultraviolet excess (also known as UV-upturn) in elliptical galaxies. The second is for the progenitors of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We discuss the main binary interactions, i.e., stable Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) and common envelope (CE) evolution, and show evolutionary channels leading to the formation of various binary-related objects. In the first example, we show that the binary model of sdB stars of Han et al. (2002, 2003) can reproduce field sdB stars and their counterparts, extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars, in globular clusters. By applying the binary model to the study of evolutionary population synthesis, we have obtained an ``a priori'' model for the UV-upturn of elliptical galaxies and showed that the UV-upturn is most likely resulted from binary interactions. This has major implications...

  16. RADIAL VELOCITY PLANETS DE-ALIASED: A NEW, SHORT PERIOD FOR SUPER-EARTH 55 Cnc e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radial velocity measurements of stellar reflex motion have revealed many extrasolar planets, but gaps in the observations produce aliases, spurious frequencies that are frequently confused with the planets' orbital frequencies. In the case of Gl 581 d, the distinction between an alias and the true frequency was the distinction between a frozen, dead planet and a planet possibly hospitable to life. To improve the characterization of planetary systems, we describe how aliases originate and present a new approach for distinguishing between orbital frequencies and their aliases. Our approach harnesses features in the spectral window function to compare the amplitude and phase of predicted aliases with peaks present in the data. We apply it to confirm prior alias distinctions for the planets GJ 876 d and HD 75898 b. We find that the true periods of Gl 581 d and HD 73526 b/c remain ambiguous. We revise the periods of HD 156668 b and 55 Cnc e, which were afflicted by daily aliases. For HD 156668 b, the correct period is 1.2699 days and the minimum mass is (3.1 ± 0.4) M+. For 55 Cnc e, the correct period is 0.7365 days-the shortest of any known planet-and the minimum mass is (8.3 ± 0.3) M+. This revision produces a significantly improved five-planet Keplerian fit for 55 Cnc, and a self-consistent dynamical fit describes the data just as well. As radial velocity techniques push to ever-smaller planets, often found in systems of multiple planets, distinguishing true periods from aliases will become increasingly important.

  17. Acquired C797S Mutation upon Treatment with a T790M-Specific Third-Generation EGFR Inhibitor (HM61713) in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haa-Na; Jung, Ki Sun; Yoo, Kwai Han; Cho, Jinhyun; Lee, Ji Yun; Lim, Sung Hee; Kim, Hae Su; Sun, Jong-Mu; Lee, Se-Hoon; Ahn, Jin Seok; Park, Keunchil; Choi, Yoon-La; Park, Woongyang; Ahn, Myung-Ju

    2016-04-01

    T790M mutation is most common resistant mechanism to epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) tyrosin kinase inhibitor (TKI). Several third-generation EGFR-mutant selective TKI, such as AZD9291 (AstraZeneca), Rociletinib (Clovis), or HM61713 (Hanmi) have been developed. Acquired resistant C797S mutation was known to be one of the resistance mechanisms of AZD9291, which has not been reported for HM61713 yet. This is the first case report of C797S mutation as resistance mechanism of HM61713. PMID:26749488

  18. 先进CNC复合加工刀具和复合切削技术%Summarization of Advanced CNC Composite Cutting Tools and Composite Cutting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平亮

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics and application area of advanced CNC composite machining tools in Germany, Japan, Italy and other countries were introduced. The essential hardware, software and expected result of CNC composite cutting technology were expounded. Development of the new CNC composite processing technology in future was proposed.%介绍了德国、日本、意大利等国生产的先进的CNC复合加工刀具的特点与应用范围,阐明了CNC复合切削技术必要的硬软件及期望达到的效果,并提出今后CNC复合加工技术发展方向.

  19. Software fault location of CNC system%数控系统软件故障定位技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁修华; 王义强; 胡艳娟; 赵宏伟

    2012-01-01

    In order to quickly and accurately locate the fault of CNC software and improve the reliability of CNC system,an improved algorithm of similar path and fuzzy judgment is introduced into the fault location of CNC software. Firstly, according to the execution information recorded by monitor, the failed path is generated; secondly, the similar path set can be obtained from control flow graph and failed path; then the search scope of suspicious codes can be reduced by program slicing; finally, the fuzzy mathematics is performed to judge suspicious codes. In addition,the experiment on the NURBS interpolation injected bugs is carried out. The experiment results indicate that the proposed method is effective in locating the fault of the CNC software.%为了快速准确地对数控系统中的软件故障实施定位,提高数控系统可靠性,提出将改进的相似路径算法和模糊判断技术应用到数控系统软件故障定位领域。根据监控器记录的信息,生成失效路径;根据改进的相似路径算法,由程序控制流图和失效路径生成相似路径集;通过程序切片算法,将可疑代码的范围减少;同时采用模糊数学来判断可疑代码,进而对控制流类故障进行定位。为了验证该方法的可行性,事先在NURBS插补模块中植入故障,并对该模块进行故障定位实验。实验结果表明,该方法是一种行之有效的数控系统软件故障定位方法。

  20. NAČRTOVANJE IN IZVEDBA TRIOSNEGA REZKALNEGA STROJA CNC S KRMILNIKOM TB6560 ZA KORAČNE MOTORJE

    OpenAIRE

    Lugarič, Primož

    2016-01-01

    Diplomsko delo opisuje postopek načrtovanja in gradnje CNC-rezkalnega stroja ter pripadajoče periferije. Za krmilno elektroniko je bila izbrana kontrolna plošča TB6560, ki omogoča priključitev in vodenje do treh koračnih motorjev. Na začetku diplomske naloge je podan opis izdelave in uporabljene mehanike na stroju ter začetna ideja stroja v 3D-oblikovnem programu 3ds Max. V jedru so opisane lastnosti krmilne elektronike in njeno delovanje na podlagi meritev in preizkuševanja. Sledi nastav...

  1. 数控机床标准件产品数据库的构建%Construction of Standard Parts Database for CNC Machine Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张进华; 李占国; 李来; 洪军

    2011-01-01

    为实现数控机床标准件资源的重用、缩短开发周期,构建数控机床标准件产品的数据库.对数控机床标准件产品数据库的需求分析、实现方法以及功能构架等进行研究,以此构建数控机床标准件产品的网络化三维模型库,从而实现数控机床标准件资源的快速重用,包括标准件模型的重用及其包含的非几何信息的重用.该标准件数据库可为数字化信息集成开发数控机床奠定基础,增强企业对市场的快速应变能力,对实现标准化、通用化国产高性能数控机床的开发具有重要的意义.%In order to reuse standard parts resources of CNC machine tool, shorten the development cycle, a standard parts database for CNC machine tool was constructed. The web-based CNC machine tool standard parts 3D database was built by analyzing the design requirements, implementation method and framework structure, which could help to rapidly reuse the CNC machine tool standard parts resources, including the reuse of standard parts models and non-geometric information. The standard parts database provides foundation for CNC machine tool development of digital integrated information, and also can enhance the rapid response capacity on the market for enterprise, so it has great significance on standardization, universal development of domestic high-performance CNC machine tool.

  2. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, F. M.; Casari, A. C. A.; Mariano, M.; Yamashita, F.; Innocnentini Mei, L. H.; Soldi, V.; Martelli, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits.

  3. 对刀仪在数控机床上的应用%Self-made tool auto-checking instrument used in CNC machine tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋长双; 薛平萍; 李多祥

    2011-01-01

    为了提高数控机床加工的效率和精度,在数控系统软件支持下,增设一个相对独立的自动对刀程序模块来实现简易的自动对刀控制.%In order to improve the efficiency of CNC machine tool, the addition of a relatively independent of the automatic tool program modules achieve easy control of automatic tool on the support of CNC system software.

  4. Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Faber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.

  5. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees. For...... all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  6. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahtouh Muriel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR, which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Methods Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Results rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. Conclusions A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal

  7. Optimization in CNC end milling of UNS C34000 medium leaded brass with multiple surface roughnesses characteristics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bharat Chandra Routara; Saumya Darsan Mohanty; Saurav Datta; Asish Bandyopadhyay; Siba Sankar Mahapatra

    2010-10-01

    The present study highlights a multi-objective optimization problem by applying utility concept coupled with Taguchi method through a case study in CNC end milling of UNS C34000 medium leaded brass. The study aimed at evaluating the best process environment which could simultaneously satisfy multiple requirements of surface quality. In view of the fact, the traditional Taguchi method cannot solve a multi-objective optimization problem; to overcome this limitation, utility theory has been coupled with Taguchi method. Depending on Taguchi’s Lower-the-Better (LB) response criteria; individual surface quality characteristics has been transformed into corresponding utility values. Individual utility values have been aggregated finally to compute overall utility degree which serves as representative objective function for optimizing using Taguchi method. Utility theory has been adopted to convert a multi-response optimization problem into a single response optimization problem; in which overall utility degree serves as the representative single objective function for optimization. The study of combined utility theory and Taguchi method for predicting optimal setting. Based on Taguchi’s Signal-to-Noise ratio (S/N), analysis has been made on the overall utility degree and optimal process environment has been selected finally which corresponds to highest S/N Ratio. Optimal result has been verified through confirmatory test. The case study indicates application feasibility of the aforesaid methodology proposed for multiresponse optimization and off-line control of multiple surface quality characteristics in CNC end milling.

  8. Ultraprecision, high stiffness CNC grinding machines for ductile mode grinding of brittle materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Patrick A.; Carlisle, Keith; Shore, Paul; Read, R. F.

    1990-10-01

    Under certain controlled conditions it is now possible to machine brittle materials such as glasses and ceramics using single or multi-point diamond tools (grinding), so that material is removed by plastic flow, leaving crack-free surfaces. This process is called 'shear' or 'ductile' mode grinding. It represents a major breakthrough in modern manufacturing engineering since it promises to enable: - complex optical components, both transmission and reflecting to be generated by advanced CNC machines with very little (or even zero) subsequent polishing. - complex shaped components such as turbine blades, nozzle guide vanes, etc. to be finish machined after near net shape forming, to high precision in advanced ceramics such as silicon nitride, without inducing micro-cracking and thus lowering ultimate rupture strength and fatigue life. Ductile mode "damage free" grinding occurs when the volume of materials stressed by each grit of the grinding wheel is small enough to yield rather than exhibit brittle fracture, i.e. cracking. In practice, this means maintaining the undeformed chip thickness to below the ductile-brittle transition value; this varies from material to material but is generally in the order of 0.1 pm or 100 nm, (hence the term "nanogrinding" is sometimes used) . Thus the critical factors for operating successfully in the ductile regime are machine system accuracy and dynamic stiffness between each grit and the workpiece. In detail this means: (i) High precision 'truing' of the diamond grits, together with dressing of the wheel bond to ensure adequate ' openness'; (ii) Design and build of the grinding wheel spindle with very high dynamic stiffness; error motions, radial and axial, must be considerably less than 100 nfl. (iii) Design and build of the workpiece carriage motion system with very high dynamic stiffness; error motions, linear or rotary, must be well within 100 nm. (iv) Smooth, rumble-free, high-stiffness servo-drives controlling the motions

  9. Isolation of bovine coronavirus (BCoV in monolayers of HmLu-1 cells Isolamento de coronavírus bovino (BCoV em monocamada de cultura de células da linhagem HmLu-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Jerez

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of BCoV was performed in monolayers of HmLu-1 cells, using 20 fecal samples from clinical cases of diarrhea in calves. Samples were positive for BCoV by means of hemagglutination / hemagglutination inhibition (HA/HI. Up to the fifth serial passage, 13 of these isolates presented syncytial cytopathic effect, similar to Kakegawa standard strain. When isolates were submitted to seroneutralization with gammaglobulin anti-bovine coronavirus, 8 of them were considered to be positive, once cytopathic effect was neutralized. After titration and seroneutralization in microplates, only three of them were confirmed as positive. The lineage HmLu-1 showed higher permissivity to BCoV isolation, but the low intensity of viral replication demonstrated that new methodologies should be developed for this purpose and then submitted to confirmation of isolation by means of seroneutralization.A partir de 20 amostras fecais de bezerros, com quadro clínico de diarréia, positivas para BCoV por hemaglutinação/inibição da hemaglutinação (HA/HI, procedeu-se o isolamento viral em monocamadas de células da linhagem HmLu-1. Até a quinta passagem seriada, 13 apresentaram efeito citopático do tipo sincicial, semelhante à amostra padrão Kakegawa de BCoV. Ao serem submetidas a uma reação de soroneutralização com gamaglobulina anti-coronavírus bovino, 8 delas foram consideradas positivas, uma vez que o efeito citopático foi neutralizado. Ao serem tituladas e submetidas à reação de soroneutralização em microplacas, apenas 3 delas puderam ser confirmadas como positivas. As células da linhagem HmLu-1 mostraram-se permissivas para o isolamento de BCoV, todavia a baixa intensidade na replicação viral demonstrou ser necessário o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias para se poder alcançar esse intuito e a confirmação do isolamento por soroneutralização.

  10. Binary Popldation Synthcsis Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Zhanwen

    2011-01-01

    Binary population synthesis (BPS), an approach to evolving millions of stars (including binaries) simultaneously, plays a crucial role in our understanding of stellar physics, the structure and evolution of galaxies, and cosmology. We proposed and developed a BPS approach, and used it to investigate the formation of many peculiar stars such as hot subdwarf stars, progenitors of type la supernovae, barium stars, CH stars, planetary nebulae, double white dwarfs, blue stragglers, contact binaries, etc. We also established an evolution population synthesis (EPS) model, the Yunnan Model, which takes into account binary interactions for the first time. We applied our model for the origin of hot subdwarf stars in the study of elliptical galaxies and explained their far-UV radiation.

  11. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  12. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Lorimer, D R

    2008-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 solar masses, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e=0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion.

  13. Hypervelocity binary stars: smoking gun of massive binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Youjun; Lin, D N C

    2007-01-01

    The hypervelocity stars recently found in the Galactic halo are expelled from the Galactic center through interactions between binary stars and the central massive black hole or between single stars and a hypothetical massive binary black hole. In this paper, we demonstrate that binary stars can be ejected out of the Galactic center with velocities up to 10^3 km/s, while preserving their integrity, through interactions with a massive binary black hole. Binary stars are unlikely to attain such high velocities via scattering by a single massive black hole or through any other mechanisms. Based on the above theoretical prediction, we propose a search for binary systems among the hypervelocity stars. Discovery of hypervelocity binary stars, even one, is a definitive evidence of the existence of a massive binary black hole in the Galactic center.

  14. Milli-arcsecond Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, R M; Mioduszewki, A; Rodríguez, L F

    2008-01-01

    As part of an astrometric program, we have used the Very Long Baseline Array to measure the trigonometric parallax of several young stars in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star-forming regions with great accuracy. Additionally, we have obtained an unprecedented sample of high-resolution (~ 1 mas) images of several young stellar systems. These images revealed that about 70% of the stars in our sample are very tight binary stars (with separations of a few mas). Since it is highly unlikely that 70% of all stars are such tight binaries, we argue that selection effects are at work.

  15. Binary Cumulant Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmfels, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Algebraic statistics for binary random variables is concerned with highly structured algebraic varieties in the space of 2x2x...x2-tensors. We demonstrate the advantages of representing such varieties in the coordinate system of binary cumulants. Our primary focus lies on hidden subset models. Parametrizations and implicit equations in cumulants are derived for hyperdeterminants, for secant and tangential varieties of Segre varieties, and for certain context-specific independence models. Extending work of Rota and collaborators, we explore the polynomial inequalities satisfied by cumulants.

  16. Correlation and prediction of mixing thermodynamic properties of ester-containing systems: Ester + alkane and ester + ester binary systems and the ternary dodecane + ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Excess enthalpies and volumes were measured for ester–ester–alkane. ► Mixing behaviour for ester–ester, ester–alkane and ester–ester–alkane are analyzed. ► Correlations with a new polynomial model reproduce well the mixing properties. ► UNIFAC predictions for hE result acceptable excluding the ester–ester mixtures. - Abstract: Excess thermodynamic properties VmE and HmE, have been measured for the ternary mixture dodecane + ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate and for the corresponding binaries dodecane + ethyl pentanoate, dodecane + ethyl ethanoate, ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate at 298.15 K. All mixtures show endothermic and expansive effects. Experimental results are correlated with a suitable equation whose final form for the excess ternary quantity ME contains the particular contributions of the three binaries (i–j) and a last term corresponding to the ternary, all of them obtained considering fourth-order interactions. The fit goodness for all mixtures is good and comparable to others equations taken from the literature. In this work the dissolution model for the binaries and ternary is analyzed with a special attention to ester–ester binaries whose behaviour is discussed. The application of the UNIFAC group contribution model to estimate the HmE yields acceptable results for the binaries (with the exception of ester–ester) and for the ternary mixture.

  17. 河北省10000 kg·hm-2以上冬小麦产量构成及群个体生育特性%Yield Components and Population and Individual Characteristics of Growth and Development of Winter Wheat over 10 000 kg·hm-2 in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红光; 李东晓; 李雁鸣; 李瑞奇

    2015-01-01

    【目的】探索河北省小麦超高产水平从9000 kg·hm-2向10000 kg·hm-2突破的途径,明确河北省10000 kg·hm-2以上超高产小麦的产量结构特点和各个生育时期的群体、个体特征,以及适宜的生态条件,为进一步开展可稳定实现10000 kg·hm-2以上产量的河北省小麦超高产栽培技术体系的研究提供理论依据。【方法】于2010—2014年4个小麦生长季,在高产大田设置不同品种、氮肥基追比和追氮时期处理,结合其他超高产栽培技术措施,进行小麦超高产攻关研究。将4个生长季籽粒产量9000 kg·hm-2以上的处理分为9000—9500、9500—10000和10000 kg·hm-2以上3个水平,分析小麦产量从9000 kg·hm-2提高到10000 kg·hm-2以上,产量结构和各个生育时期群个体性状的变化,并结合土壤肥力数据和气象数据分析实现10000 kg·hm-2以上产量适宜的生态条件。【结果】通过3个产量水平处理的比较,河北省小麦产量从9000 kg·hm-2提高到10000 kg·hm-2以上,公顷穗数变化较小,穗粒数在30—35粒的概率较大,粒重显著提高。产量水平从9000—9500 kg·hm-2提高至9500—10000 kg·hm-2时,干物质积累量明显增加,进一步提高至10000 kg·hm-2以上时收获指数有所提高。穗数800万/hm2、穗粒数在30—35粒、千粒重43 g以上、成熟期干物质积累量22000 kg·hm-2、收获指数为0.46是河北省10000 kg·hm-2以上超高产小麦比较理想的产量结构和调控指标。10000 kg·hm-2以上产量水平的小麦旗叶和倒2叶叶面积均小于20 cm2,孕穗期叶面积指数为7.69—8.24,均低于9000—9500 kg·hm-2产量水平,但花后20 d叶面积指数在4以上,花后30 d在2以上,均高于后者。小麦产量从9000 kg·hm-2到10000 kg·hm-2以上,土壤基础肥力和施肥量变化较小,生育期降水量和灌水量也未增加,但小麦全生育时期特别是开花至成熟阶段的积

  18. Single photon emission tomography using sup(99m)Tc-HM-PAO in the investigation of dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single photon emission tomographic imaging of the brain using sup(99m)Tc HM-PAO was carried out in patients with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, non-Alzheimer frontal-lobe dementia, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Independent assessment of reductions in uptake revealed posterior hemisphere abnormalities in the majority of the Alzheimer group, and selective anterior hemisphere abnormalities in both other groups. The findings were consistent with observed patterns of mental impairment. The imaging technique has potential value in the differential diagnosis of primary cerebral atrophy. (author)

  19. Single photon emission tomography using sup(99m)Tc-HM-PAO in the investigation of dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, D.; Snowden, J.S.; Shields, R.A.; Burjan, A.W.I.; Northen, B.; Macdermott, N.; Prescott, M.C.; Testa, H.J.

    1987-09-01

    Single photon emission tomographic imaging of the brain using sup(99m)Tc HM-PAO was carried out in patients with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, non-Alzheimer frontal-lobe dementia, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Independent assessment of reductions in uptake revealed posterior hemisphere abnormalities in the majority of the Alzheimer group, and selective anterior hemisphere abnormalities in both other groups. The findings were consistent with observed patterns of mental impairment. The imaging technique has potential value in the differential diagnosis of primary cerebral atrophy.

  20. In Silico Modeling and Functional Interpretations of Cry1Ab15 Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis BtB-Hm-16

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhanshu Kashyap

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical homology based structural model of Cry1Ab15 δ -endotoxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis BtB-Hm-16 was predicted using the Cry1Aa template (resolution 2.25 Å). The Cry1Ab15 resembles the template structure by sharing a common three-domain extending conformation structure responsible for pore-forming and specificity determination. The novel structural differences found are the presence of β 0 and α 3, and the absence of α 7b, β 1a, α 10a, α 10b, β 12, and α 11a while α 9 is ...

  1. Penentuan Nilai pH dan Alkalinitas pada Air Filter HM. Yamin di Laboratorium PDAM Tirtanadi Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Ramahdani

    2015-01-01

    Water is a chemical compound that is essential for the process of life, a lot of water is used for cooking, washing, bathing, and so on. In the provision of drinking water, and the pH value of the water alkalintas is one factor to be considered in the drinking water quality standards. Experiment goal is to determine the pH and alkalinity of the water filter HM.Yamin used as drinking water. Sample taken from the water faucet filter derived from the production wellbore Tritanadi PDAM Medan. ...

  2. Formation of binary radio pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the standard scenario of the evolution of massive binary stars a study is made of the formation of final binary systems in which at least one of the components is a neutron star. It is found that about every fortieth radio pulsar must be a member of a close binary system. This is confirmed by observations. Radio pulsars are not formed in wide binary systems, possibly because of the very slow rotation of the presupernova stars

  3. Cloning and heterologous expression of the ftfCNC-2(1) gene from Weissella confusa MBFCNC-2(1) as an extracellular active fructansucrase in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Amarila; Hapsari, Maria Tyas; Ohtsu, Iwao; Ishikawa, Shu; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Fructan-exopolysaccharides (fructan-EPS) (inulin and levan) and their oligosaccharides (fructooligosaccharides, FOS) have drawn considerable interest in the food and pharmaceutical industries. EPS-producing lactic acid bacteria have been reported to produce β-fructans (inulin and levan), as well as α-glucans, by the function of sucrase enzymes, i.e., fructansucrase and glucansucrase. A fructansucrase ftfCNC-2(1) gene from Weissella confusa strain MBFCNC-2(1) was previously cloned in Escherichia coli. In this study, we aimed to express the ftf[CNC-2(1)] gene in Bacillus subtilis to obtain the active form of the extracellular recombinant protein FTF[CNC-2(1)]. This cloning was achieved by inserting the gene in-fusion with the signal sequence of the B. subtilis subtilisin E. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and in situ activity assay with Periodic Acid-Schiff staining revealed that the recombinant FTF[CNC-2(1)] was successfully expressed as an extracellular protein from B. subtilis DB403 in its active form, which was confirmed using sucrose and raffinose. PMID:25454699

  4. Research On Error Compensation Technology of CNC Machine Tools%数控机床误差补偿技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志

    2014-01-01

    数控机床误差动态综合补偿已列入国家科技重大专项"高档数控机床与基础制造装备"表明我国政府对数控机床误差动态综合补偿技术的高度重视。文章主要从几何误差、热误差、切削力误差三个方面研究数控机床误差补偿技术,进一步提高数控机床加工精度,提高我国的机床及制造装备技术水平,增大国产机床在市场中的份额。%Error dynamic compensation of CNC machine tools has been included in the major special projects "high grade CNC machine tools and basic manufacturing equipment" in thenational science and technology, indicatings a high emphasis on the error cynamic compensation technology of CNC machines by the our government. The article from the geometric errors, thermal errors, cutting force error studies error compensation technology of CNC machine tools, to further improve its machining precision and our level in machine tools and manufacturing equipment technology as well as increase the market shares of domestic machine tools.

  5. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  6. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pol, J.C. van de

    2000-01-01

    We incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and tautology checkin

  7. Study of Surface Roughness Characteristics of Drilled Hole in Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP by CNC Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days glass fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRP are always applicable in variety of engineering applications. It is used in aerospace, automotive and aircraft industries due to their well known properties. Milling of GFRP composite materials is very difficult due to its heterogeneity and the number of troubles like as surface delamination during machining affects uniqueness of the material and the machining parameters. Present paper focuses the experimental details to find out delamination factor on GFRP composite laminates by using Taguchi‟s DOE L9 orthogonal array. The main objective of the present work is to optimize the process parameters in the drilling of GFRP composite using Taguchi DOE and to find the significance of each process parameter using ANOVA. As far as the effect of input factors are considered, the factors drilled material and spindle speed both have nearly predominant influence on the delamination factor of drilled holes on GFRP composite by using CNC milling process.

  8. HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE CALCULATION AND OPTIMIZATION FOR DESIGN OF BEAM & SLIDE-REST GUIDEWAYS IN HEAVY DUTY CNC VERTICAL TURNING MILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming; HUANG Zhengdong; LI Bin; CHEN Liping

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the approximate error of commonly used methods on calculation of hydrostatic pressures of closed hydrostatic guideways with multiple pockets, a more accurate solution is proposed. Taking design of beam & slide-rest guideways for a heavy duty CNC vertical turning mill as an example, under an assumption that stiffnesses of guideways and their jointing structure are sufficiently large, the pressures of the pockets can be attained by adding a co-planarity equation that con strains pocket centers. Then, an optimization model is built to minimize the highest pocket pressure under additional constraints that are posed on the highest seal margin pressure, the highest levitating pressure of the pockets, and the maximum deformation of the guideways. The optimization problem is solved sequentially by using the methods of design of experiments and adaptive simulated annealing on iSIGHT software platform. The results show significant improvements to the original design. Optimized maximum hydrostatic pressure meets the requirement of hydraulic system.

  9. Computer numerical control (CNC) lithography: light-motion synchronized UV-LED lithography for 3D microfabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkwun; Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Allen, Mark G.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a computer-numerical-controlled ultraviolet light-emitting diode (CNC UV-LED) lithography scheme for three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication. The CNC lithography scheme utilizes sequential multi-angled UV light exposures along with a synchronized switchable UV light source to create arbitrary 3D light traces, which are transferred into the photosensitive resist. The system comprises a switchable, movable UV-LED array as a light source, a motorized tilt-rotational sample holder, and a computer-control unit. System operation is such that the tilt-rotational sample holder moves in a pre-programmed routine, and the UV-LED is illuminated only at desired positions of the sample holder during the desired time period, enabling the formation of complex 3D microstructures. This facilitates easy fabrication of complex 3D structures, which otherwise would have required multiple manual exposure steps as in the previous multidirectional 3D UV lithography approach. Since it is batch processed, processing time is far less than that of the 3D printing approach at the expense of some reduction in the degree of achievable 3D structure complexity. In order to produce uniform light intensity from the arrayed LED light source, the UV-LED array stage has been kept rotating during exposure. UV-LED 3D fabrication capability was demonstrated through a plurality of complex structures such as V-shaped micropillars, micropanels, a micro-‘hi’ structure, a micro-‘cat’s claw,’ a micro-‘horn,’ a micro-‘calla lily,’ a micro-‘cowboy’s hat,’ and a micro-‘table napkin’ array.

  10. Computer numerical control (CNC) lithography: light-motion synchronized UV-LED lithography for 3D microfabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a computer-numerical-controlled ultraviolet light-emitting diode (CNC UV-LED) lithography scheme for three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication. The CNC lithography scheme utilizes sequential multi-angled UV light exposures along with a synchronized switchable UV light source to create arbitrary 3D light traces, which are transferred into the photosensitive resist. The system comprises a switchable, movable UV-LED array as a light source, a motorized tilt-rotational sample holder, and a computer-control unit. System operation is such that the tilt-rotational sample holder moves in a pre-programmed routine, and the UV-LED is illuminated only at desired positions of the sample holder during the desired time period, enabling the formation of complex 3D microstructures. This facilitates easy fabrication of complex 3D structures, which otherwise would have required multiple manual exposure steps as in the previous multidirectional 3D UV lithography approach. Since it is batch processed, processing time is far less than that of the 3D printing approach at the expense of some reduction in the degree of achievable 3D structure complexity. In order to produce uniform light intensity from the arrayed LED light source, the UV-LED array stage has been kept rotating during exposure. UV-LED 3D fabrication capability was demonstrated through a plurality of complex structures such as V-shaped micropillars, micropanels, a micro-‘hi’ structure, a micro-‘cat’s claw,’ a micro-‘horn,’ a micro-‘calla lily,’ a micro-‘cowboy’s hat,’ and a micro-‘table napkin’ array. (paper)

  11. Binary MEMS gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel sensing mechanism for electrostatic MEMS that employs static bifurcation-based sensing and binary detection is demonstrated. It is implemented as an ethanol vapour sensor that exploits the static pull-in bifurcation. Sensor detection of 5 ppm of ethanol vapour in dry nitrogen, equivalent to a detectable mass of 165 pg, is experimentally demonstrated. Sensor robustness to external disturbances is also demonstrated. A closed-form expression for the sensitivity of statically detected electrostatic MEMS sensors is derived. It is shown that the sensitivity of static bifurcation-based binary electrostatic MEMS sensors represents an upper bound on the sensitivity of static detection for given sensor dimensions and material properties. (paper)

  12. Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eby, David A

    2013-01-01

    A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibb...

  13. Contributions for repositioning a regional strategy for Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HM&C): results of a pan-American survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meresman, Sergio; Rice, Marilyn; Vizzotti, Carlos; Frassia, Romina; Vizzotti, Pablo; Akerman, Marco

    2010-09-01

    This article presents the results of the 1st Regional Survey of Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HM&C) carried out in 2008 by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and ISALUD University of Argentina. It discusses the responses obtained from 12 countries in the Americas Region. Key informants in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay were selected and encouraged to answer the survey, while informants from Canada and Honduras answered voluntarily and were included in this analysis. The discussion of the results of the Survey provides insight into the current status of HM&C in the Region and suggests key topics for repositioning the Regional strategy relative to: (1) the conceptual identity and tools for HM&C; (2) challenging areas in the implementation process (scale, legal framework, and development of capacities); (3) related strategies and participatory processes such as the ways citizen empowerment in governance is supported; (4) the need to monitor and assess the impact of the HM&C strategy on the health and quality of life of the populations involved; and (5) the need for developing a strategic research and training agenda. The analysis and discussion of these results aims to provide useful input for repositioning the strategy in the Region and contributing to the emergence of a second generation of concepts and tools capable of meeting the developing priorities and needs currently faced by the HM&C strategy. PMID:20532989

  14. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances.

  15. Binary-Signal Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebeler, Elmer L.

    2011-01-01

    Binary communication through long cables, opto-isolators, isolating transformers, or repeaters can become distorted in characteristic ways. The usual solution is to slow the communication rate, change to a different method, or improve the communication media. It would help if the characteristic distortions could be accommodated at the receiving end to ease the communication problem. The distortions come from loss of the high-frequency content, which adds slopes to the transitions from ones to zeroes and zeroes to ones. This weakens the definition of the ones and zeroes in the time domain. The other major distortion is the reduction of low frequency, which causes the voltage that defines the ones or zeroes to drift out of recognizable range. This development describes a method for recovering a binary data stream from a signal that has been subjected to a loss of both higher-frequency content and low-frequency content that is essential to define the difference between ones and zeroes. The method makes use of the frequency structure of the waveform created by the data stream, and then enhances the characteristics related to the data to reconstruct the binary switching pattern. A major issue is simplicity. The approach taken here is to take the first derivative of the signal and then feed it to a hysteresis switch. This is equivalent in practice to using a non-resonant band pass filter feeding a Schmitt trigger. Obviously, the derivative signal needs to be offset to halfway between the thresholds of the hysteresis switch, and amplified so that the derivatives reliably exceed the thresholds. A transition from a zero to a one is the most substantial, fastest plus movement of voltage, and therefore will create the largest plus first derivative pulse. Since the quiet state of the derivative is sitting between the hysteresis thresholds, the plus pulse exceeds the plus threshold, switching the hysteresis switch plus, which re-establishes the data zero to one transition

  16. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  17. Die etiek van HM Kuitert na aanleiding van sy boek Suicide - wat is er tegen? Selfdoding in moreel perspectief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Naudé

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethics of HM Kuitert according to his book entitled. Suicide - wat is er tegen? Selfdoding in moreel perspektief According to several publications Kuitert is criticised as a humanist. This paper tests his view on suicide to this accusation. It is found that Kuitert accepts teleology and solidarity as norms for his ethics and uses it as a method for his arguments against suicide. His goal is to offer an ethic which is acceptable for the Christian and the non-Christian. This results in outonomy with less emphasis on the theological argument against suicide. The result of this study is that the ethics of Kuitert cannot be described as mere humanism. Outonomy is judged as a form of theonomy.

  18. Application of the Böhm chamber for reference beta dose measurements and the calibration of personal dosimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skubacz Krystian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs currently used in personal and area dosimetry are often utilized to measure doses of ionizing radiation in fields with a more complex structure and therefore they should be calibrated in relation to different radiation types. The results of such calibration presented for UD-813 TLDs allowed for evaluation of their capability in relation to different radiation types like the beta and photon radiation of different energies and neutron radiation generated by the 241Am-Be source. The detector response for 60 keV photons was 10% higher than for the 662 keV gamma radiation of 137Cs. There were also response differences in relation to photon and beta radiation between detectors with an enhanced concentration of lithium 6Li and boron 10B and detectors containing a natural level of these isotopes. Measurements of the reference beta doses were performed with the help of the Böhm chamber. This method is relatively more complicated compared to determining the reference photon and neutron doses and is described thoroughly in this paper. The corrected current measured by the Böhm chamber for the chosen parameters was a linear function for an entire available range of the chamber depths. The percentage of errors related to the evaluated reference beta doses were below 2% despite a rather large number of corrections that should be taken into account. The calibration distances varied from 11 cm to 50 cm. For this range and beta particle energy, the absorption of radiation in the air was negligible and their attenuation had a predominantly geometric character.

  19. Hydraulic-mechanical (HM) modelling of the saturation of a full-sized concrete and bentonite seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    nearby host rock. This paper presents the results from hydraulic-mechanical (HM) analyses used to simulate the saturation of the clay component. Of particular interest are the observed differences in the hydraulic pressures above and below the clay component and the development of the swelling pressure throughout the clay component, which provide information on the functionality of the shaft seal. Temperature change was limited to the first 3-month period when curing of the concrete occurred. After this period the temperature in the shaft seal remained relatively constant at 11 to 12 C. Since most of the saturation process occurred under an isothermal condition, the HM analyses alone are suitable for simulating the saturation process. A finite-element software code (COMSOL Multiphysics) is used to analyze 2D-axisymmetric and 3D geometries of the shaft seal. The components in the HM analyses include the clay, concrete, intact rock and the FZ. Their HM parameters are defined from laboratory tests and in situ measurements at the URL. The initial pore water pressure and in situ stress state of the rock are also based on their measured evolution at the URL. The results from the preliminary 2D-axisymmetric model differ from the in situ measurements, since the FZ in the model is assumed to be perfectly horizontal with a uniform thickness of 4 m. The monitoring of the ESP shows that the data vary in the axisymmetrical direction depending on the locations of the sensors with respect to the FZ. This highlights the importance of taking into account the inclination and thickness variation of the FZ in numerical modelling, which is done by analyses using a 3D geometry (Figure 2b). The results of the numerical analyses using both 2D-axisymmetric and 3D geometries are compared to the 3-year ESP monitoring data and future evolutions of the HM responses are predicted from the modelling results. The HM results from the numerical analyses are also used to advance the understanding of the

  20. CACNA1H(M1549V) Mutant Calcium Channel Causes Autonomous Aldosterone Production in HAC15 Cells and Is Inhibited by Mibefradil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Esther N; Walenda, Gudrun; Seidel, Eric; Scholl, Ute I

    2016-08-01

    We recently demonstrated that a recurrent gain-of-function mutation in a T-type calcium channel, CACNA1H(M1549V), causes a novel Mendelian disorder featuring early-onset primary aldosteronism and hypertension. This variant was found independently in five families. CACNA1H(M1549V) leads to impaired channel inactivation and activation at more hyperpolarized potentials, inferred to cause increased calcium entry. We here aimed to study the effect of this variant on aldosterone production. We heterologously expressed empty vector, CACNA1H(WT) and CACNA1H(M1549V) in the aldosterone-producing adrenocortical cancer cell line H295R and its subclone HAC15. Transfection rates, expression levels, and subcellular distribution of the channel were similar between CACNA1H(WT) and CACNA1H(M1549V). We measured aldosterone production by an ELISA and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) expression by real-time PCR. In unstimulated cells, transfection of CACNA1H(WT) led to a 2-fold increase in aldosterone levels compared with vector-transfected cells. Expression of CACNA1H(M1549V) caused a 7-fold increase in aldosterone levels. Treatment with angiotensin II or increased extracellular potassium levels further stimulated aldosterone production in both CACNA1H(WT)- and CACNA1H(M1549V)-transfected cells. Similar results were obtained for CYP11B2 expression. Inhibition of CACNA1H channels with the T-type calcium channel blocker Mibefradil completely abrogated the effects of CACNA1H(WT) and CACNA1H(M1549V) on CYP11B2 expression. These results directly link CACNA1H(M1549V) to increased aldosterone production. They suggest that calcium channel blockers may be beneficial in the treatment of a subset of patients with primary aldosteronism. Such blockers could target CACNA1H or both CACNA1H and the L-type calcium channel CACNA1D that is also expressed in the adrenal gland and mutated in patients with primary aldosteronism. PMID:27258646

  1. Diurnal and seasonal variations of hmF2 deduced from digitalionosonde over New Delhi and its comparison with IRI 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Vohra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using digital ionosonde observations at a low mid-latitude station, New Delhi (28.6°N, 77.2°E, dip 42.4°N, we have derived hourly monthly values of hmF2 (the real height corresponding to the peak electron density in the F2-region, employing both the Dudeney (1983 and Bilitza (1990 empirical formulations for the period from January 2001 to August 2002. The diurnal and seasonal variations of hmF2 are analyzed. Further, to assess the predictability of the latest available model, International Reference Ionosphere, (IRI-2001, we have obtained the median values of hmF2 derived from M(3000F2 for each hour during different seasons and compare these with the model. Our results show that both the Dudeney (1983 and Bilitza (1990 formulations reveal more or less a similar diurnal trend of hmF2, with higher values around midnight and lower during sunrise, in all the seasons. It is also noted that the hmF2 shows a larger variability around midnight than by daytime, in all the seasons. Further, the study shows that median values of observed hmF2, using both formulations, are somewhat larger than those predicted by the IRI, in all seasons and at all local times. During summer, the IRI values agree comparatively well with the observations, especially during daytime. Major discrepancies occur when the IRI underestimates observed hmF2 for local times from about 14:00 LT to 18:00 LT and 04:00 LT to 05:00 LT during winter and equinox, where the percentage deviation of the observed hmF2 values with respect to the IRI model varies from 15 to 25%. The difference between the model and observations, outside this time period, remains less than 20% during all the seasons. Key words. Ionosphere (modelling and forecasting; equatorial ionosphere

  2. Biclustering Sparse Binary Genomic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Van Uitert, M.; Meuleman, W.; Wessels, L. F. A.

    2008-01-01

    Genomic datasets often consist of large, binary, sparse data matrices. In such a dataset, one is often interested in finding contiguous blocks that (mostly) contain ones. This is a biclustering problem, and while many algorithms have been proposed to deal with gene expression data, only two algorithms have been proposed that specifically deal with binary matrices. None of the gene expression biclustering algorithms can handle the large number of zeros in sparse binary matrices. The two propos...

  3. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  4. Report IAU Comm. 42, Close Binary Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas, Ignasi; Scarfe, Colin D.; Torres, Guillermo; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Sion, Edward M.; Richards, Mercedes T.; Niarchos, Panayiotis; Olah, Katalin

    2008-01-01

    Brief summaries are given about (1) close binary research from the perspective of the Bibliography of Close Binaries, (2) low-mass binaries and model discrepancies, (3) W UMa-type binaries, (4) cataclysmic variables, (5) Algol binaries, (6) the oEA stars, (7) effects of binarity on stellar activity.

  5. Low autocorrelation binary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.

  6. Structural characterization, phase transition and dielectric properties of 4-cyanopyridynium perchlorate monohydrate: [(4-CNC 5H 4NH)][ClO 4]·H 2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupiński, O.; Wojtaś, M.; Pietraszko, A.; Jakubas, R.

    2007-01-01

    Crystal structure of 4-cyanopyridynium perchlorate monohydrate ([(4-CNC 5H 4NH)][ClO 4]·H 2O) has been determined at 293 and 240 K as orthorhombic space group, Pnma and monoclinic space group, P2 1/ c, respectively, by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. At room temperature the perchlorate anion reveals significant disorder, which is realized by the splitting of two oxygen atoms into four sites. DSC, dilatometric and dielectric spectroscopy techniques show that the crystal undergoes phase transition at 286/288 K (on cooling/heating scans). [(4-CNC 5H 4NH)][ClO 4]·H 2O appears to be an insulator with relatively high activation energy of the order of 100 kJ/mol. The phase transition in the title crystal is believed to be related to the dynamics of the perchlorate anion.

  7. PMAC-Based Open CNC System with Dual CPUs in Parallel%基于PMAC的并行双CPU开放式数控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春; 温圣; 关慧贞; 王永青

    2001-01-01

    提出了一种以PMAC运动控制器为控制系统核心、工业控制机为系统支撑单元的双CPU开放式数控系统。介绍了该系统的功能、硬件和软件设计方法。实践证明,基于PMAC的数控系统完全可以实现人机接口的定制和实时控制部件的参数化。%An open CNC system with two CPUs in paralld, in which the center is PMAC motion controller and the supporting element is industrial PC, is suggested. The system function and software and hardware design method are introduced. The practice shows that the PMAC-based CNC system has realized customerization of man-machine interface and parametrization of realtime control elements.

  8. Výroba kovového těsnicího kroužku na CNC obráběcím stroji

    OpenAIRE

    Kubíček, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Teoretický rozbor možností výroby kovového kruhového tesnenia na CNC obrábacom stroji. Výber najvhodnejšej technológie a analýza postupu výroby, zahrňujúca výber materiálu, nástrojov a nastavenia podmienok obrábania.

  9. Evaluation of Eco-efficiency and Effect on Environment of Remanufacturing—— A Case Study of CNC-remanufacturing for Used Machining Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhong-xiang; SHI Xiao-jun; SHI Lei

    2005-01-01

    A case of remanufacturing used lathes via CNC technology is introduced, whose environmental and economic benefits are evaluated respectively. The results indicate that these environmental and economic benefits are remarkable, which are directly affected by remanufacturing design, more than 90% materials in used lathes are reused. Finally, the causes of economic and environmental benefits of remanufacturing machine tools are put forward. The remanufacturing design method, implementation procedure, and evaluation method of economic and environmental benefits presented are helpful for other equipment remanufacturing.

  10. The Effect of Using Computer Technology Tools to Enhance the Teaching-Learning Process in CAD-CAM-CNC Module in Mechanical Engineering Subject Area

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrasool, Salah Mahdi; Mishra, Rakesh; Khalaf, Haifa; Al Seddiqi, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the evaluation of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) package included in the teaching and learning methodology of computer aided design- computer aided design - computer numerical control (CAD-CAM-CNC) module. Three groups of students with similar pre-abilities were exposed to three different teaching learning methodologies.The effectiveness of these three methods was determined by questionnaires completed by the students and collected by first author. Their answers were ...

  11. 经济型车床数控系统的抗干扰设计%Anti-interference design for economical lathe CNC system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐美彬; 杨艳芳; 蒋建国

    2001-01-01

    The normal running of the economical CNC system, which works in an adverse environment,is usually disturbed by the electromagnetic noise in or out of the CNC system. In this paper, the noise source and spreading way and the interfered parts of the equipment are analyzed, and some antiinterference methods are introduced such as restraining the noise source, blocking the noise spreading way and improving the anti-interference ability of the computer,the core of the economical CNC system. It has been proved that the flexible using of these methods can improve the anti-interference ability of economical CNC system effectively.%经济型车床数控系统的使用环境较为恶劣,系统内部、外部电磁噪声常常干扰数控系统的正常运行。文章从噪声源、噪声传输路径及受扰设备3方面入手,提出了提高经济型车床数控系统抗干扰能力的一些方法,即抑制噪声源、阻断噪声传输路径、提高数控系统核心部分——计算机的抗干扰能力。实践证明,根据具体情况灵活使用这些方法能有效提高经济型车床数控系统的抗干扰能力。

  12. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 °C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 μm) and sample B (smaller than 50 μm). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of α-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing α-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 μm showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 μm. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  13. Computing on Binary Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, Tian-Ming; Zhang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Many problems in Computer Science can be abstracted to the following question: given a set of objects and rules respectively, which new objects can be produced? In the paper, we consider a succinct version of the question: given a set of binary strings and several operations like conjunction and disjunction, which new binary strings can be generated? Although it is a fundamental problem, to the best of our knowledge, the problem hasn't been studied yet. In this paper, an O(m^2n) algorithm is presented to determine whether a string s is representable by a set W, where n is the number of strings in W and each string has the same length m. However, looking for the minimum subset from a set to represent a given string is shown to be NP-hard. In addition, we prove that counting the number of strings representable is #P-complete. But if the operator negation can be used, the number is some power of 2. This di?erence maybe help us understand the problem more profoundly.

  14. Setting Methods of CNC Machine Tool Origin and Fault Diagnosis%数控机床原点的设置方法与故障诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文; 高健

    2013-01-01

    机床原点是数控装置控制机床运动轨迹的基准点,也是数控机床的固定点。机床原点的建立由机床调试人员通过硬件连接、CNC参数设置、PM C程序编写等环节来实现,其位置的准确性直接影响零件的加工精度。快速诊断并排除机床回零故障,提高设备的可靠性是机床维修人员必须掌握的一项技能。%Machine tool origin is the reference point of CNC device to control machine tool motion trajectory and the fixed point of CNC machine tool .T he machine tool commissioning personnel estab-lish the machine tool origin by means of such links as hardware connection ,CNC parameter setting and PMC programming .The location accuracy directly influences the machining accuracy of the com-ponents .Diagnosing and removing return home faults rapidly and improving the equipment reliability are the skills that machine tool maintenance personnel must grasp .

  15. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew J.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  16. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  17. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuChengqian; ZhaoXiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP)is proposed .A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP)is also proposed .The relationship between PCSP and DFP,the properties and exising conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  18. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chengqian; Zhao Xiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP) is proposed. A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP) is also proposed.The relationship between PCSP and DFP, the properties and existing conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  19. Initial results of the evaluation of IRI hmF2 performance for minima 22–23 and 23–24

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Araujo-Pradere, E. A.; Burešová, Dalia; Fuller-Rowell, D. J.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2013), s. 630-638. ISSN 0273-1177 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) M100420901 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Solar minima * Ionosphere * hmF2 * IRI Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.238, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117712001093

  20. A Subject-Based Aspect Report on Provision in Scotland's Colleges by HM Inspectors on Behalf of the Scottish Funding Council: Hospitality and Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The HM Inspectorate of Education publication, "External quality arrangements for Scotland's colleges, September 2008," specifies that HMIE will produce a number of subject aspect reports over the four years 2008-12. These reports complement in a subject specific context the generic evaluations of learning and teaching in HMIE's reports of…

  1. Pairing mechanisms for binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; Goodwin, S P; Zwart, S F Portegies; Kaper, L; 10.1002/asna.200811061

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the binary population in stellar groupings provides important information about the outcome of the star forming process in different environments. Binarity is also a key ingredient in stellar population studies and is a prerequisite to calibrate the binary evolution channels. In these proceedings we present an overview of several commonly used methods to pair individual stars into binary systems, which we refer to as the pairing function. Many pairing functions are frequently used by observers and computational astronomers, either for the mathematical convenience, or because they roughly describe the expected outcome of the star forming process. We discuss the consequences of each pairing function for the interpretation of observations and numerical simulations. The binary fraction and mass ratio distribution generally depend strongly on the selection of the range in primary spectral type in a sample. These quantities, when derived from a binary survey with a mass-limited sample of target stars, ...

  2. Planets in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...

  3. FLUENT calculations of the hydrogen distribution in a containment during the OECD-NEA THAI HM-2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen may be released into the containment atmosphere of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident. Locally, high hydrogen concentrations may be reached that can possibly cause fast deflagration or even detonation and put the integrity of the containment at risk. Therefore, the distribution and mixing of hydrogen is an important safety issue for nuclear power plants. Computer codes can be applied to predict the hydrogen distribution in the containment within the course of a hypothetical severe accident and get an estimate of the local hydrogen concentration in the various zones of the containment. In this way the risk associated with the hydrogen safety issue can be determined, and safety related measurements and procedures could be assessed. In order to validate the existing computer codes in the context of hydrogen distribution in the containment of a nuclear power plant, experimental benchmark studies have been performed in the German Thermal-hydraulics, Hydrogen, Aerosols and Iodine (THAI) facility in the framework of the OECD-NEA THAI project. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT the THAI HM-2 test was simulated independently by NRG and VTT. In the first phase of the HM-2 test a stratified hydrogen rich light gas layer was established in the upper part of the THAI containment. In the second phase steam was injected at a lower position inducing a rising plume that gradually dissolved the stratified hydrogen-rich layer from below. Thermo-dynamic phenomena like natural convection, mixing, condensation, heat transfer and distribution in different zones that are expected in severe accidents are involved. The calculated results by NRG and VTT (on hydrogen concentration, temperature, pressure and flow velocity) are compared to the experimental results. The most important differences between the CFD model of NRG and VTT are the computational mesh, condensation model and treatment of the solid

  4. Towards Physarum Binary Adders

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeff; 10.1016/j.biosystems.2010.04.005

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium of \\emph{Physarum polycephalum} is a single cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium's foraging behaviour is interpreted in terms of computation. Input data is a configuration of nutrients, result of computation is a network of plasmodium's cytoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients. Tsuda et al (2004) experimentally demonstrated that basic logical gates can be implemented in foraging behaviour of the plasmodium. We simplify the original designs of the gates and show --- in computer models --- that the plasmodium is capable for computation of two-input two-output gate $ \\to $ and three-input two-output $ \\to $. We assemble the gates in a binary one-bit adder and demonstrate validity of the design using computer simulation.

  5. Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, Paulo C C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review the recent discovery of several millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in eccentric binary systems. Timing these MSPs we were able to estimate (and in one case precisely measure) their masses. These results suggest that, as a class, MSPs have a much wider range of masses (1.3 to > 2 solar masses) than the normal and mildly recycled pulsars found in double neutron star (DNS) systems (1.25 < Mp < 1.44 solar masses). This is very likely to be due to the prolonged accretion episode that is thought to be required to form a MSP. The likely existence of massive MSPs makes them a powerful probe for understanding the behavior of matter at densities larger than that of the atomic nucleus; in particular, the precise measurement of the mass of PSR J1903+0327 ($1.67 +/- 0.01 solar masses) excludes several "soft" equations of state for dense matter.

  6. Binaries and distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourbaix, D.; Arenou, F.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Siopis, C.

    2013-02-01

    Gaia's five-year observation baseline might naively lead to the expectation that it will be possible to fit the parallax of any sufficiently nearby object with the default five-parameter model (position at a reference epoch, parallax and proper motion). However, simulated Gaia observations of a `model Universe' composed of nearly 107 objects, 50% of which turn out to be multiple stars, show that the single-star hypothesis can severely affect parallax estimation and that more sophisticated models must be adopted. In principle, screening these spurious single-star solutions is rather straightforward, for example by evaluating the quality of the fits. However, the simulated Gaia observations also reveal that some seemingly acceptable single-star solutions can nonetheless lead to erroneous distances. These solutions turn out to be binaries with an orbital period close to one year. Without auxiliary (e.g., spectroscopic) data, they will remain unnoticed.

  7. Flank wears Simulation by using back propagation neural network when cutting hardened H-13 steel in CNC End Milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High speed milling has many advantages such as higher removal rate and high productivity. However, higher cutting speed increase the flank wear rate and thus reducing the cutting tool life. Therefore estimating and predicting the flank wear length in early stages reduces the risk of unaccepted tooling cost. This research presents a neural network model for predicting and simulating the flank wear in the CNC end milling process. A set of sparse experimental data for finish end milling on AISI H13 at hardness of 48 HRC have been conducted to measure the flank wear length. Then the measured data have been used to train the developed neural network model. Artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to predict the flank wear length. The neural network contains twenty hidden layer with feed forward back propagation hierarchical. The neural network has been designed with MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. The results show a high correlation between the predicted and the observed flank wear which indicates the validity of the models

  8. PERFORMANCE STUDY ON AISI316 AND AISI410 USING DIFFERENT LAYERED COATED CUTTING TOOLS IN CNC TURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RAJA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel (SS is used for many commercial and industrial applications owing to its high resistance to corrosion. It is too hard to machine due to its high strength and high work hardening property. A surface property such as surface roughness (SR is critical to the function-ability of machined components. SS is generally regarded as more difficult to machine material and poor SR is obtained during machining. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the SR produced by CNC turning on austenitic stainless steel (AISI316 and martensitic stainless steel (AISI410 by different cases of coated cutting tool used at dry conditions. Multilayered coated with TiCN/Al2O3, multilayered coated with Ti(C, N, B and single layered coated with TiAlN coated cutting tools are used. Experiments were carried out by using Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array. The effect of cutting parameters on SR is evaluated and optimum cutting conditions for minimizing the SR are determined. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is used for identifying the significant parameters affecting the responses. Confirmation experiments are conducted to validate the results obtained from optimization.

  9. Postharvest Biological Control of Colletotrichum acutatum on Apple by Bacillus subtilis HM1 and the Structural Identification of Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Min; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chae, Jong-Chan

    2015-11-28

    Bacillus subtilis HM1 was isolated from the rhizosphere region of halophytes for its antifungal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum, the causative agent of anthracnose. Treatment of postharvest apples with the cell culture or with a cell-free culture supernatant reduced disease severity 80.7% and 69.4%, respectively. Both treatments also exhibited antifungal activity against various phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. The antifungal substances were purified and analyzed by acid precipitation, gel filtration, high-performance liquid chromatography, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Three compounds were identified as fengycin, iturin, and surfactin. The MALDI-TOF/ TOF mass spectrum revealed the presence of cyclized fengycin homologs A and B, which were distinguishable on the basis of the presence of either alanine or valine, respectively, at position 6 of the peptide sequence. In addition, the cyclized structure of fengycin was shown to play a critical role in antifungal activity. PMID:26428548

  10. THE EFFECTS OF RETAIL SERVICESCAPE ON BRAND IMAGE AND PURCHASE INTENTION: P&B AND H&M EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem KARAKAŞOĞLU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Competion in the retail sector is increasing rapidly and retail brands compete not only with competitors that have physical retail shops but also with online shopping platforms. Consumers shop not only to buy products but at the same time they may desire some benefits such as being happy, or socializing. In other words, consumers want to have favorable experiences as they are shopping. Individuals tend to linger longer in environments that they like and they tend to escape from environments that they do not like. By creating and managing retail servicescapes properly it is possible to attract consumers to a retail shop and at the same time make them spend more time and money in the shop. The aim of this study is to understand the effects of retail servicescape factors on brand image and purchase intention. For the purpose of the study two retail brands were chosen (Pull and Bear and H&M and data were collected from university students using face to face surveys. Research results show that retail servicescape has a statistically significant effect on brand image and purchase intention. Additionally, brand image has a statistically significant effect on purchase intention.

  11. In Silico Modeling and Functional Interpretations of Cry1Ab15 Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis BtB-Hm-16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Kashyap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical homology based structural model of Cry1Ab15 δ-endotoxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis BtB-Hm-16 was predicted using the Cry1Aa template (resolution 2.25 Å. The Cry1Ab15 resembles the template structure by sharing a common three-domain extending conformation structure responsible for pore-forming and specificity determination. The novel structural differences found are the presence of β0 and α3, and the absence of α7b, β1a, α10a, α10b, β12, and α11a while α9 is located spatially downstream. Validation by SUPERPOSE and with the use of PROCHECK program showed folding of 98% of modeled residues in a favourable and stable orientation with a total energy Z-score of −6.56; the constructed model has an RMSD of only 1.15 Å. These increments of 3D structure information will be helpful in the design of domain swapping experiments aimed at improving toxicity and will help in elucidating the common mechanism of toxin action.

  12. Binary black hole spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study parameter estimation with post-Newtonian (PN) gravitational waveforms for the quasi-circular, adiabatic inspiral of spinning binary compact objects. In particular, the performance of amplitude-corrected waveforms is compared with that of the more commonly used restricted waveforms, in Advanced LIGO and EGO. With restricted waveforms, the properties of the source can only be extracted from the phasing. In the case of amplitude-corrected waveforms, the spectrum encodes a wealth of additional information, which leads to dramatic improvements in parameter estimation. At distances of ∼100 Mpc, the full PN waveforms allow for high-accuracy parameter extraction for total mass up to several hundred solar masses, while with the restricted ones the errors are steep functions of mass, and accurate parameter estimation is only possible for relatively light stellar mass binaries. At the low-mass end, the inclusion of amplitude corrections reduces the error on the time of coalescence by an order of magnitude in Advanced LIGO and a factor of 5 in EGO compared to the restricted waveforms; at higher masses these differences are much larger. The individual component masses, which are very poorly determined with restricted waveforms, become measurable with high accuracy if amplitude-corrected waveforms are used, with errors as low as a few per cent in Advanced LIGO and a few tenths of a per cent in EGO. The usual spin-orbit parameter β is also poorly determined with restricted waveforms (except for low-mass systems in EGO), but the full waveforms give errors that are small compared to the largest possible value consistent with the Kerr bound. This suggests a way of finding out if one or both of the component objects violate this bound. On the other hand, we find that the spin-spin parameter σ remains poorly determined even when the full waveform is used. Generally, all errors have but a weak dependence on the magnitudes and orientations of the spins. We also briefly

  13. Strong Lensing by Binary Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, E M

    2008-01-01

    We study the problem of gravitational lensing by binary galaxies, idealized as two isothermal spheres. In a wide binary, each galaxy possesses individual tangential, nearly astroidal, caustics and roundish radial caustics. As the separation of the binary is made smaller, the caustics undergo a sequence of metamorphoses. The first metamorphosis occurs when the tangential caustics merge to form a single six-cusped caustic, lying interior to the radial caustics. At still smaller separations, the six-cusped caustic undergoes the second metamorphosis and splits into a four-cusped caustic and two three-cusped caustics, which shrink to zero size (an elliptic umbilic catastrophe) before they enlarge again and move away from the origin perpendicular to the binary axis. Finally, a third metamorphosis occurs as the three-cusp caustics join the radial caustics, leaving an inner distorted astroid caustic enclosed by two outer caustics. The maximum number of images possible is 7. Classifying the multiple imaging according ...

  14. Magnetic braking in ultracompact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Angular momentum loss in ultracompact binaries, such as the AM Canum Venaticorum stars, is usually assumed to be due entirely to gravitational radiation. Motivated by the outflows observed in ultracompact binaries, we investigate whether magnetically coupled winds could in fact lead to substantial additional angular momentum losses. We remark that the scaling relations often invoked for the relative importance of gravitational and magnetic braking do not apply, and instead use simple non-empirical expressions for the braking rates. In order to remove significant angular momentum, the wind must be tied to field lines anchored in one of the binary's component stars; uncertainties remain as to the driving mechanism for such a wind. In the case of white dwarf accretors, we find that magnetic braking can potentially remove angular momentum on comparable or even shorter timescales than gravitational waves over a large range in orbital period. We present such a solution for the 17-minute binary AM CVn itself which a...

  15. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Goodwin, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-...

  16. Cryptography with DNA binary strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, A; Richter, C; Banzhaf, W; Rauhe, H

    2000-06-01

    Biotechnological methods can be used for cryptography. Here two different cryptographic approaches based on DNA binary strands are shown. The first approach shows how DNA binary strands can be used for steganography, a technique of encryption by information hiding, to provide rapid encryption and decryption. It is shown that DNA steganography based on DNA binary strands is secure under the assumption that an interceptor has the same technological capabilities as sender and receiver of encrypted messages. The second approach shown here is based on steganography and a method of graphical subtraction of binary gel-images. It can be used to constitute a molecular checksum and can be combined with the first approach to support encryption. DNA cryptography might become of practical relevance in the context of labelling organic and inorganic materials with DNA 'barcodes'. PMID:10963862

  17. AN IMPROVED DESIGN OF REVERSIBLE BINARY TO BINARY CODED DECIMAL CONVERTER FOR BINARY CODED DECIMAL MULTIPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveena Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic gates under ideal conditions produce zero power dissipation. This factor highlights the usage of these gates in optical computing, low power CMOS design, quantum optics and quantum computing. The growth of decimal arithmetic in various applications as stressed the need to propose the study on reversible binary to BCD converter which plays a greater role in decimal multiplication for providing faster results. The different parameters such as gate count,garbage output and constant input are more optimized in the proposed fixed bit binary to binary coded decimal converter than the existing design.

  18. Transient Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, T M

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...

  19. CSR, H&M

    OpenAIRE

    Krohn Bjerggaard Hansen, Thomas; Halveg Olesen, Emil; Mejdahl Jeppesen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This assignment deals with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), how the term and the interpretation of it have developed through time. Furthermore, the assignment analyze discus how to place the responsibility and in which scope it is fair to place it within. Is it the companies, the consumers or the governments’ responsibility, or is it a mix of the three characters? In the first analysis, we use already existing empirical data to describe the history of CSR, how the term theoretically ...

  20. Binary nucleation beyond capillarity approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalikmanov, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    Large discrepancies between binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) and experiments result from adsorption effects and inability of BCNT, based on the phenomenological capillarity approximation, to treat small clusters. We propose a model aimed at eliminating both of these deficiencies. Adsorption is taken into account within Gibbsian approximation. Binary clusters are treated by means of statistical-mechanical considerations: tracing out the molecular degrees of freedom of the more volatil...

  1. Clostridium difficile binary toxin CDT

    OpenAIRE

    Gerding, Dale N.; Johnson, Stuart; Rupnik, Maja; Aktories, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Binary toxin (CDT) is frequently observed in Clostridium difficile strains associated with increased severity of C. difficile infection (CDI). CDT belongs to the family of binary ADP-ribosylating toxins consisting of two separate toxin components: CDTa, the enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase which modifies actin, and CDTb which binds to host cells and translocates CDTa into the cytosol. CDTb is activated by serine proteases and binds to lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor. ADP-ribosylatio...

  2. Coalescence of Binary Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Oohara, Ken-ichi; Namamura, Takashi

    1996-01-01

    The most important sources for laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors like LIGO or VIRGO are catastrophic events such as coalescence of a neutron-star binary. The final phase, or the last three milliseconds, of coalescence is considered. We describe results of numerical simulations of coalescing binary neutron stars using Newtonian and post-Newtonian hydrodynamics code and then discuss recent development of our 3D GR code.

  3. Single photon emission computed tomography with [99Tc]-HM-PAO and [123I]-IBZM in Alzheimer's disease and dementia of frontal type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dementia of frontal type (DFT) is a fairly common degenerative disease distinct from Alzheimer's disease (AD), whose reportedly distinctive instrumental feature is frontal lobe hypoperfusion on SPECT. We evaluated the cortical dopaminergic system in 6AD, 5 DFT, and 6 control subjects with SPECT and both [99Tc]-HM-PAO, a perfusion tracer, and [123I]-IBZM, a D2 postsynaptic ligand. Both in AD and DFT patients, [99Tc]-HM-PAO SPECT showed a relative frontal hypoperfusion. On the contrary, [123I]-IBZM SPECT showed significantly reduced ligand uptake in superior frontal regions of DFT (0.89 ± 0.08 relative to control subjects) as compared to AD patients (0.97 ± 0.02; difference of means: 0.08, 95% confidence Interval 0.004 to 0.156; p = 0.041). Results suggest more marked involvement of the frontal cortical dopaminergic system in DFT than in AD patients. (au) (24 refs.)

  4. Comparative analysis of nocturnal vertical plasma drift velocities inferred from ground-based ionosonde measurements of hmF2 and h‧F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebesin, B. O.; Adeniyi, J. O.; Adimula, I. A.; Oladipo, O. A.; Olawepo, A. O.; Reinisch, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the evening/nighttime ionosonde vertical plasma drift velocities inferred from the time rate of change of both the base of the F-layer height (Vz(h‧F)) and height of the peak electron density (Vz(hmF2)) from an equatorial station were compared for better description of the E×B drifts. For better interpretation, both results were compared with the Incoherent Scatter (IS) radar observations (Vz(ISR)) which is taken to be the most accurate method of measuring drift, and therefore the data of reference level. An equinoctial maximum and June solstice minimum in post-sunset pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) was observed for Vz(hmF2), Vz(ISR), and Vz(h‧F). The percentage correlation between VzhmF2 and Vzh‧F ranges within 55-70%. While PRE for Vz(hmF2) peaked at 19 LT for all seasons, Vz(h‧F) peaked at 18 LT for September equinox and December solstice, and start earlier. The nighttime downward reversal peak magnitudes for Vz(hmF2) and Vz(h‧F) are respectively within the range of -4 to -14 and -2 to -14 m/s; whereas Vz(ISR) ranges within -12 and -34 m/s; and the peak time was reached earlier with the ionosonde observations than for the ISR. The PRE peak magnitude for Vz(hmF2), Vz(h‧F) and Vz(ISR) varies between 3-14, 2-14, and 4-14 m/s for the entire seasons. Our results revealed higher drift correlation coefficients in both Vz(hmF2) vs. Vz(ISR) (0.983) and Vz(h‧F) vs. Vz(ISR) (0.833) relationships during the equinoxes between 16-20 LT, at which time the F-layer altitude is higher than the 300 km threshold value; and lower for solstice period (0.326 and 0.410 in similar order). A better linear relationship between Vz(hmF2) and Vz(h‧F2) was observed during the reversal (19-21 LT) phase period. PRE velocity was shown to be seasonal and solar activity dependent. Both VzhmF2 and Vzh‧F compares almost equally with the ISR measurement. However, the PRE peak magnitude for the drift inferred using h‧F2 is closer to the corresponding ISR magnitude

  5. Intertextualidad en los spots de H&M: análisis de las campañas de Versace y Lana del Rey

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Pascual, Celia

    2015-01-01

    El estudio consiste en el análisis minucioso del contenido de dos spots de la marca de ropa H&M. Los spots pertenecen uno a la colaboración de la firma Versace y otro a la participación de la cantante Lana del Rey. En ellos evidenciamos las intertextualidades y analizaremos sus personajes, situaciones y estructura narrativa, tratando de descifrar la historia que nos quieren contar.

  6. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse by a Novel Brazilian Pentose Fermenting Yeast Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2: Evaluation of Fermentation Medium

    OpenAIRE

    F. A. F. Antunes; A. K. Chandel; T. S. S. Milessi; J. C. Santos; Rosa, C. A.; da Silva, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Bioconversion of hemicellulosic sugars into second generation (2G) ethanol plays a pivotal role in the overall success of biorefineries. In this study, ethanol production performance of a novel xylose-fermenting yeast, Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2, was evaluated under batch fermentation conditions using sugarcane bagasse (SB) hemicellulosic hydrolysate as carbon source. Dilute acid hydrolysis of SB was performed to obtain sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH). It was co...

  7. Contributions for Repositioning a Regional Strategy for Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HM&C): Results of a Pan-American Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Meresman, Sergio; Rice, Marilyn; Vizzotti, Carlos; Frassia, Romina; Vizzotti, Pablo; Akerman, Marco

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of the 1st Regional Survey of Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HM&C) carried out in 2008 by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and ISALUD University of Argentina. It discusses the responses obtained from 12 countries in the Americas Region. Key informants in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay were selected and encouraged to answer the survey, while informants from Canada and Hondur...

  8. Amidové deriváty HM pektinu: příprava, charakterizace a využití

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synytsya, A.; Čopíková, J.; Sihelníková, L.; Marounek, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 99, - (2005), s. 668-669. ISSN 0009-2770. [Struktura a biologické účinky polysacharidů a jejich derivátů. 11.11.2005, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/03/0358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : HM pectin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  9. 2011 HM102: DISCOVERY OF A HIGH-INCLINATION L5 NEPTUNE TROJAN IN THE SEARCH FOR A POST-PLUTO NEW HORIZONS TARGET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the discovery of a long-term stable L5 (trailing) Neptune Trojan in data acquired to search for candidate trans-Neptunian objects for the New Horizons spacecraft to fly by during an extended post-Pluto mission. This Neptune Trojan, 2011 HM102, has the highest inclination (29.°4) of any known member of this population. It is intrinsically brighter than any single L5 Jupiter Trojan at HV ∼ 8.18. We have determined its gri colors (a first for any L5 Neptune Trojan), which we find to be similar to the moderately red colors of the L4 Neptune Trojans, suggesting similar surface properties for members of both Trojan clouds. We also present colors derived from archival data for two L4 Neptune Trojans (2006 RJ103 and 2007 VL305), better refining the overall color distribution of the population. In this document we describe the discovery circumstances, our physical characterization of 2011 HM102, and this object's implications for the Neptune Trojan population overall. Finally, we discuss the prospects for detecting 2011 HM102 from the New Horizons spacecraft during its close approach in mid- to late-2013.

  10. 2011 HM{sub 102}: DISCOVERY OF A HIGH-INCLINATION L5 NEPTUNE TROJAN IN THE SEARCH FOR A POST-PLUTO NEW HORIZONS TARGET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Alex H.; Holman, Matthew J.; McLeod, Brian A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Buie, Marc W.; Borncamp, David M.; Spencer, John R.; Stern, S. Alan [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Osip, David J. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Fabbro, Sebastian; Kavelaars, J. J. [Canadian Astronomy Data Centre, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 W. Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Benecchi, Susan D.; Sheppard, Scott S. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 5251 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Binzel, Richard P.; DeMeo, Francesca E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fuentes, Cesar I.; Trilling, David E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, S San Francisco St, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Gay, Pamela L. [Center for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Research, Education, and Outreach, Southern Illinois University, 1220 Lincoln Dr, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Petit, Jean-Marc [CNRS, UTINAM, Universite de Franche Comte, Route de Gray, F-25030 Besancon Cedex, (France); Tholen, David J., E-mail: aparker@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2013-04-15

    We present the discovery of a long-term stable L5 (trailing) Neptune Trojan in data acquired to search for candidate trans-Neptunian objects for the New Horizons spacecraft to fly by during an extended post-Pluto mission. This Neptune Trojan, 2011 HM{sub 102}, has the highest inclination (29. Degree-Sign 4) of any known member of this population. It is intrinsically brighter than any single L5 Jupiter Trojan at H{sub V} {approx} 8.18. We have determined its gri colors (a first for any L5 Neptune Trojan), which we find to be similar to the moderately red colors of the L4 Neptune Trojans, suggesting similar surface properties for members of both Trojan clouds. We also present colors derived from archival data for two L4 Neptune Trojans (2006 RJ{sub 103} and 2007 VL{sub 305}), better refining the overall color distribution of the population. In this document we describe the discovery circumstances, our physical characterization of 2011 HM{sub 102}, and this object's implications for the Neptune Trojan population overall. Finally, we discuss the prospects for detecting 2011 HM{sub 102} from the New Horizons spacecraft during its close approach in mid- to late-2013.

  11. Performance-oriented packaging: A guide to identifying and designing. Identifying and designing hazardous materials packaging for compliance with post HM-181 DOT Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    With the initial publication of Docket HM-181 (hereafter referred to as HM-181), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, Transportation Management Division decided to produce guidance to help the DOE community transition to performance-oriented packagings (POP). As only a few individuals were familiar with the new requirements, elementary guidance was desirable. The decision was to prepare the guidance at a level easily understood by a novice to regulatory requirements. This document identifies design development strategies for use in obtaining performance-oriented packagings that are not readily available commercially. These design development strategies will be part of the methodologies for compliance with post HM-181 U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) packaging regulations. This information was prepared for use by the DOE and its contractors. The document provides guidance for making decisions associated with designing performance-oriented packaging, and not for identifying specific material or fabrication design details. It does provide some specific design considerations. Having a copy of the regulations handy when reading this document is recommended to permit a fuller understanding of the requirements impacting the design effort. While this document is not written for the packaging specialist, it does contain guidance important to those not familiar with the new POP requirements.

  12. Performance-oriented packaging: A guide to identifying and designing. Identifying and designing hazardous materials packaging for compliance with post HM-181 DOT Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the initial publication of Docket HM-181 (hereafter referred to as HM-181), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, Transportation Management Division decided to produce guidance to help the DOE community transition to performance-oriented packagings (POP). As only a few individuals were familiar with the new requirements, elementary guidance was desirable. The decision was to prepare the guidance at a level easily understood by a novice to regulatory requirements. This document identifies design development strategies for use in obtaining performance-oriented packagings that are not readily available commercially. These design development strategies will be part of the methodologies for compliance with post HM-181 U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) packaging regulations. This information was prepared for use by the DOE and its contractors. The document provides guidance for making decisions associated with designing performance-oriented packaging, and not for identifying specific material or fabrication design details. It does provide some specific design considerations. Having a copy of the regulations handy when reading this document is recommended to permit a fuller understanding of the requirements impacting the design effort. While this document is not written for the packaging specialist, it does contain guidance important to those not familiar with the new POP requirements

  13. pH-regulated metal-ligand switching in the HM loop of ATP7A: a new paradigm for metal transfer chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Chelsey D; Gambill, Benjamin F; Mayfield, Mary; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Blackburn, Ninian J

    2016-08-01

    Cuproproteins such as PHM and DBM mature in late endosomal vesicles of the mammalian secretory pathway where changes in vesicle pH are employed for sorting and post-translational processing. Colocation with the P1B-type ATPase ATP7A suggests that the latter is the source of copper and supports a mechanism where selectivity in metal transfer is achieved by spatial colocation of partner proteins in their specific organelles or vesicles. In previous work we have suggested that a lumenal loop sequence located between trans-membrane helices TM1 and TM2 of the ATPase, and containing five histidines and four methionines, acts as an organelle-specific chaperone for metallation of the cuproproteins. The hypothesis posits that the pH of the vesicle regulates copper ligation and loop conformation via a mechanism which involves His to Met ligand switching induced by histidine protonation. Here we report the effect of pH on the HM loop copper coordination using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and show via selenium substitution of the Met residues that the HM loop undergoes similar conformational switching to that found earlier for its partner PHM. We hypothesize that in the absence of specific chaperones, HM motifs provide a template for building a flexible, pH-sensitive transfer site whose structure and function can be regulated to accommodate the different active site structural elements and pH environments of its partner proteins. PMID:27242196

  14. Combination with a defucosylated anti-HM1.24 monoclonal antibody plus lenalidomide induces marked ADCC against myeloma cells and their progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Harada

    Full Text Available The immunomodulatory drug lenalidomide (Len has drawn attention to potentiate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC-mediated immunotherapies. We developed the defucosylated version (YB-AHM of humanized monoclonal antibody against HM1.24 (CD317 overexpressed in multiple myeloma (MM cells. In this study, we evaluated ADCC by YB-AHM and Len in combination against MM cells and their progenitors. YB-AHM was able to selectively kill via ADCC MM cells in bone marrow samples from patients with MM with low effector/target ratios, which was further enhanced by treatment with Len. Interestingly, Len also up-regulated HM1.24 expression on MM cells in an effector-dependent manner. HM1.24 was found to be highly expressed in a drug-resistant clonogenic "side population" in MM cells; and this combinatory treatment successfully reduced SP fractions in RPMI 8226 and KMS-11 cells in the presence of effector cells, and suppressed a clonogenic potential of MM cells in colony-forming assays. Collectively, the present study suggests that YB-AHM and Len in combination may become an effective therapeutic strategy in MM, warranting further study to target drug-resistant MM clonogenic cells.

  15. Binary Encodings of Non-binary Constraint Satisfaction Problems: Algorithms and Experimental Results

    CERN Document Server

    Samaras, N; 10.1613/jair.1776

    2011-01-01

    A non-binary Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) can be solved directly using extended versions of binary techniques. Alternatively, the non-binary problem can be translated into an equivalent binary one. In this case, it is generally accepted that the translated problem can be solved by applying well-established techniques for binary CSPs. In this paper we evaluate the applicability of the latter approach. We demonstrate that the use of standard techniques for binary CSPs in the encodings of non-binary problems is problematic and results in models that are very rarely competitive with the non-binary representation. To overcome this, we propose specialized arc consistency and search algorithms for binary encodings, and we evaluate them theoretically and empirically. We consider three binary representations; the hidden variable encoding, the dual encoding, and the double encoding. Theoretical and empirical results show that, for certain classes of non-binary constraints, binary encodings are a competitive op...

  16. Metodología para la manufactura de implantes craneales a partir de imágenes DICOM y tecnologías CAD/CAM/CNC Metodología para la manufactura de implantes craneales a partir de imágenes DICOM y tecnologías CAD/CAM/CNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván López

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo propone una metodología para el diseño y la fabricación de implantes craneales a partir de imágenes DICOM y tecnologías CAD/CAM/CNC. Esta metodología parte de las Tomografías Axiales Computarizadas (TAC de la cabeza del paciente, con las cuales se lleva a cabo la reconstrucción tridimensional del cráneo. Luego, en el sistema CAD se reconstruye el implante variando la técnica empleada dependiendo de la región del cráneo con defecto o trauma. Una vez obtenido el modelo, se diseña el montaje y se fabrica el implante con soporte en tecnología CAM/CNC.It’s proposed a methodology in order to design and manufacture cranial implants using DICOM and CAD/CAM/CNC technologies. This methodology begins when the designer makes a three-dimensional cranial reconstruction using the Axial Computer Tomographies (ACT of the patient’s cranium. Next, using a CAD system, the designer rebuilds the implant varying the used technique depending on the affected region. Finally, the designer builds the assembling and manufactures the implant.

  17. 刀具半径补偿值在数控加工中的灵活运用%Elastic Use of Tool Radius Compensation Value in the CNC Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云

    2011-01-01

    Tool radius compensation is an important function for CNC machine, the rational use of the tool radius compensation in CNC Machining plays a very important role. How to make flexible use of the tool radius compensation values for CNC machining and ensure the efficiency and accuracy issues were also discussed in this article.%刀具半径补偿是数控机床重要的功能,合理使用刀具半径补偿功能在数控加工中有着非常重要的作用.本文就如何灵活运用刀具半径补值进行数控加工,保证数控加工的高效性和准确性等问题进行了阐述.

  18. The Use of NURBS in CNC Curve Interpolation%数控系统中的NURBS曲线插补技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 马跃

    2007-01-01

    本文详细介绍数控系统的NURBS(Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline)曲线插补技术.首先给出数控插补原理和曲线插补算法基础,进而讨论比较了传统的CNC(Computerized Numerical Control)机床加工方法和采用了NURBS曲线插补技术的加工方法,说明了后者的优越性.

  19. Development of large tonnage spotting tryout CNC hydraulic press%大吨位研配试模数控液压机的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广玉; 陈春明

    2012-01-01

    The development necessity of spotting tryout CNC hydraulic press has been expounded. The property, parameters, and basis structure of the press have been introduced, as well as the application of proportional servo control technology.%论述了对研配试模数控液压机开发研制的必要性,介绍了研配试模数控液压机的性能、参数、基本结构以及比例伺服控制技术的应用.

  20. Pembuatan Model Poros Roda Depan Vespa pada Mesin Bubut CNC EMCOTURN 242 Menggunakan Software AutoCAD 2004 dan Program Simulasi Mastercam X

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to make product in the form of vespa front axle model using CNC lathe ET 242. AutoCAD 2004 software is used for making of engineering drawings of vespa front axle model and Mastercam X software has also been used for the machining process planning. The result of design using AutoCAD 2004 software is obtained the technical drawing of vespa front axle model then transferred to the software Mastercam X. In Mastercam X is done through the machining process planning by creating ...

  1. Excess molar volumes and excess molar enthalpies of binary mixtures for 1,2-dichloropropane + 2-alkoxyethanol acetates at 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excess molar volumes VmE and excess molar enthalpies HmE over the whole range of composition have been measured for the binary mixtures formed by 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) with three 2-alkoxyethanol acetates at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure using a digital vibrating-tube densimeter and an isothermal calorimeter with flow-mixing cell, respectively. The 2-alkoxyethanol acetates are ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA), ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA), and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate (EGBEA). The VmE of the mixture has been shown positive for EGMEA, 'S-shaped' for EGEEA, being negative at low and positive at high mole fraction of 1,2-DCP, and negative for EGBEA. All the HmE values for the above mixtures showed an exothermic effect (negative values) which increase with increase in carbon number of the 2-alkoxyethanol acetates, showing minimum values varying from -374 J mol-1 (EGMEA) to -428 J mol-1 (EGBEA) around 0.54-0.56 mol fraction of 1,2-DCP. The experimental results of HmE and VmE were fitted to Redlich-Kister equation to correlate the composition dependence of both excess properties. In this work, the experimental excess enthalpy data have been also correlated using thermodynamic models (Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC) and have been qualitatively discussed

  2. Binaries and Globular Cluster Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rasio, F A; Joshi, K J; Rasio, Frederic A.; Fregeau, John M.; Joshi, Kriten J.

    2001-01-01

    We summarize the results of recent theoretical work on the dynamical evolution of globular clusters containing primordial binaries. Even a very small initial binary fraction (e.g., 10%) can play a key role in supporting a cluster against gravothermal collapse for many relaxation times. Inelastic encounters between binaries and single stars or other binaries provide a very significant energy source for the cluster. These dynamical interactions also lead to the production of large numbers of exotic systems such as ultracompact X-ray binaries, recycled radio pulsars, double degenerate systems, and blue stragglers. Our work is based on a new parallel supercomputer code implementing Henon's Monte Carlo method for simulating the dynamical evolution of dense stellar systems in the Fokker-Planck approximation. This new code allows us to calculate very accurately the evolution of a cluster containing a realistic number of stars (N ~ 10^5 - 10^6) in typically a few hours to a few days of computing time. The discrete, s...

  3. Exoplanets Bouncing Between Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckel, Nickolas

    2012-01-01

    Exoplanetary systems are found not only among single stars, but also binaries of widely varying parameters. Binaries with separations of 100--1000 au are prevalent in the Solar neighborhood; at these separations planet formation around a binary member may largely proceed as if around a single star. During the early dynamical evolution of a planetary system, planet--planet scattering can eject planets from a star's grasp. In a binary, the motion of a planet ejected from one star has effectively entered a restricted three-body system consisting of itself and the two stars, and the equations of motion of the three body problem will apply as long as the ejected planet remains far from the remaining planets. Depending on its energy, escape from the binary as a whole may be impossible or delayed until the three-body approximation breaks down, and further close interactions with its planetary siblings boost its energy when it passes close to its parent star. Until then this planet may be able to transition from the ...

  4. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de uma tecnologia de baixo custo para programação CNC em pequenas empresas Development and evaluation of a low cost technology for CNC programming in small companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalberto Dias da Costa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do grande desenvolvimento e disseminação da tecnologia de Comando Numérico (CN, a programação de máquinas-ferrramenta ainda é uma tarefa difícil em algumas empresas. Este fato é confirmado pela baixa usabilidade de algumas interfaces CN e pela dificuldade de integrá-las aos sistemas a montante, por exemplo o CAD. Neste artigo, esse problema é tratado tendo como cenário pequenas empresas que ainda empregam a programação manual na fabricação de peças de baixa complexidade. Um protótipo de um software de baixo custo foi desenvolvido para possibilitar a programação CN baseada em microcomputadores. A implementação foi fundamentada em features de programação e dedicada à sintaxe de um comando comercial. Demonstrou-se que essa alternativa propicia uma grande redução de tempo quando comparada à programação manual. Além disso, sua curva de aprendizagem é extremamente reduzida em relação às tecnologias de ponta para manufatura, como por exemplo os sistemas CAM.Despite of the high development and dissemination of Numerical Control (NC, the programming of machine tools remains a hard task in some companies. This fact is confirmed by a low usability of some NC interfaces and the difficulty to integrate them to an upstream system, such a CAD one. In this paper we address this problem, taking with scenario small companies which still use manual programming and supply low complexity geometrical parts. For this group was developed a low cost software that allows a PC-based programming, instead of a direct one. This software was based on programming features and directed to a specific CNC syntax. It was demonstrated that the proposed alternative leads to a significant time reduction when compared to manual programming. Furthermore, its learning curve is smaller than that observed in high-end CAM's.

  5. Using Binary Code Instrumentation in Computer Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius POPA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the low-level details of the code generated by compilers whose format permits outside actions. Binary code modifications are manually done when the internal format is known and understood, or automatically by certain tools developed to process the binary code. The binary code instrumentation goals may be various from security increasing and bug fixing to development of malicious software. The paper highlights the binary code instrumentation techniques by code injection to increase the security and reliability of a software application. Also, the paper offers examples for binary code formats understanding and how the binary code injection may be applied.

  6. The structure of contact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kaehler, H

    2003-01-01

    In radiative layers of rotating stars the luminosity carried by circulation currents through a surface of constant entropy (circulation luminosity) is shown to be positive. The corresponding decrease in the temperature gradient is important in the secondary of contact binaries. This result removes the deadlock in the theory of contact binaries. The resulting treatment of contact binaries is investigated, assuming thermal equilibrium. If the circulation luminosity is adjusted to give a prescribed temperature difference between the components, details turn out to be unimportant. The temperature difference is bound to be positive. The fractional extent of radiative regions is larger in the secondary than in the primary. In the course of evolution the period increases and the mass ratio decreases. A survey of unevolved and evolved contact configurations is presented. Observational tests are passed. In stable systems the degree of contact is small. Stable systems in the period-colour diagram, unevolved and evolved...

  7. The Development of New CNC Grinding Wheel Dresser System%新型数控砂轮修整系统的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓; 刘丰林; 徐晓刚; 陈就

    2012-01-01

    To aim the forming grinding of gears parts, a new Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) of grinding wheel dressing is developed. The calculation of the section profile of grinding wheel, for the grinding of gears parts, is achieved by surface meshing theory, based on the software arithmetic with special parameters. With diamond dressing wheel, the grinding wheel is auto-trimming by CNC dressing system. As the proceeding of the grinding and dressing experiment of a practical worm the accuracy of the worm tooth shape reaches level 6 and above, satisfying the practical applicability of the dressing system.%针对齿轮类零件的成形磨削,研制了一种成形砂轮的新型数控修整系统。系统选用金刚石修整轮作为修整工具,在软件算法中设置特殊的修整参数,依据曲面啮合原理计算目标工件磨削所需的砂轮截形,利用数控修整系统进行砂轮的自动修整。选取一种生产中的修缘蜗杆进行磨削和修整实验,检测蜗杆齿形的精度达到6级以上,证明了该修整系统的实用性。

  8. Obrobení náboje kola formulového vozu na CNC obráběcím centru

    OpenAIRE

    Jelínek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem a výrobou pravého zadního náboje kola formulového vozu na CNC obráběcím centru s využitím moderních technologií CAD/CAM. V teoretické části je uveden popis a charakteristika technologie frézování společně s obrobitelností hliníkových slitin. Praktická část se zabývá konstrukcí náboje kola v CAD programu Pro/Engineer, návrhem obráběcích strategií za pomoci CAM programu PowerMILL a samotnou realizací výroby na CNC obráběcím stroji. Práce je ukončena technicko-e...

  9. Effect of machining conditions on MRR and surface roughness during CNC Turning of different Materials Using TiN Coated Cutting Tools – A Taguchi approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Raval

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents on experimental investigation of the machining characteristics of different grades of EN materials in CNC turning process using TiN coated cutting tools. In machining operation, the quality of surface finish is an important requirement for many turned work pieces. Thus, the choice of optimized cutting parameters is very important for controlling the required surface quality. The purpose of this research paper is focused on the analysis of optimum cutting conditions to get the lowest surface roughness and maximum material removal rate in CNC turning of different grades of EN materials by Taguchi method. Optimal cutting parameters for each performance measure were obtained employing Taguchi techniques. The orthogonal array, signal to noise ratio and analysis of variance were employed to study the performance characteristics in dry turning operation. ANOVA has shown that the depth of cut has significant role to play in producing higher MRR and insert has significant role to play for producing lower surface roughness. Thus, it is possible to increase machine utilization and decrease production cost in an automated manufacturing environment.

  10. 一种全电伺服数控折弯机的创新设计%Innovative Design of A New Type of CNC Press Brakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金龙; 佘健; 吴正刚

    2014-01-01

    设计了一种基于连杆机构的全电伺服数控折弯机,它采用伺服电机作为主传动系统的动力源,节能环保、柔性好、速度快、精度高。通过将折弯力在连杆机构内部传导而产生的分力作为补偿力,节省了补偿动力源,具有自适应挠度补偿能力和抗偏载能力。该设计能够为新型数控折弯机的研发提供参考。%A new type of electric servo CNC press brakes based on linkage mechanism is designed .The power source of the main driving system is a servo motor ,which is flexible ,productive and accurate .The flexibility compensation force is the component force of the linkage mechanism as the result of the transmission of the press force .This technology removes the power source of the com-pensation system ,furthermore ,has the capability of adaptive flexibility compensation and anti-deviation .The technical scheme could provide an important reference for the R & D of the model of CNC press brakes .

  11. Study on maintenance of CNC machine tool used in lean manufacturing%精益生产下的数控机床维护维修研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李攀峰; 高云婷

    2011-01-01

    The paper studied the distribution of NC machine tool failure, discussed the causes and preventive measures, analyzed the contradiction between the need of lean manufacturing system and the maintenance of CNC machine tools.Then, a basic method to solve this problem was given by author.Finally, it pointed out that the key for implementation of lean production management is to explore the effective way in maintenance of CNC machine tools by enterprise itself.%介绍了数控机床常见故障的分布特征和故障的起因,分析了精益制造与数控机床故障维护维修之间的矛盾,提出了在精益生产方式下解决这一矛盾的基本方法.最后,指出精益生产企业探索出一条适合于企业自身、有效的维护维修途径是保证落实精益生产的关键.

  12. Practical Binary Adaptive Block Coder

    CERN Document Server

    Reznik, Yuriy A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low-complexity algorithm for adaptive encoding/ decoding of binary sequences produced by memoryless sources. The algorithm implements universal block codes constructed for a set of contexts identified by the numbers of non-zero bits in previous bits in a sequence. We derive a precise formula for asymptotic redundancy of such codes, which refines previous well-known estimate by Krichevsky and Trofimov, and provide experimental verification of this result. In our experimental study we also compare our implementation with existing binary adaptive encoders, such as JBIG's Q-coder, and MPEG AVC (ITU-T H.264)'s CABAC algorithms.

  13. Coalescing binaries and Doppler experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Vecchio, A.; Bertotti, B.; Iess, L.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the sensitivity of the CASSINI experiments to gravitational waves emitted by the in-spiral of compact binaries. We show that the maximum distance reachable by the instrument is $\\sim 100$ Mpc. In particular, CASSINI can detect massive black hole binaries with chirp mass $\\simgt 10^6 \\Ms$ in the Virgo Cluster with signal-to-noise ratio between 5 and 30 and possible compact objects of mass $\\simgt 30 \\Ms$ orbiting the massive black hole that our Galactic Centre is likely to harbour.

  14. Rectangular Decomposition of Binary Images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suk, Tomáš; Höschl, Cyril; Flusser, Jan

    Berlin : Springer, 2012 - (Blanc-Talon, J.; Popescu, D.; Philips, W.; Scheunders, P.), s. 213-224 ISBN 978-3-642-33139-8. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7517). [Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (Acivs 2012). Brno (CZ), 04.09.2012-07.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : binary image decomposition * generalized delta-method * distance transformation * quadtree * bipartite graph * image compression * fast convolution Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/suk-rectangular decomposition of binary images.pdf

  15. Tour of the stands at the UK@CERN industrial exhibition with the Director-General and H.E. Mr Simon Featherstone, HM Ambassador to Switzerland, hosted by Mrs. Jan Fillingham MBE, Head of Exhibitions, BEAMA

    CERN Document Server

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Tour of the stands at the UK@CERN industrial exhibition with the Director-General and H.E. Mr Simon Featherstone, HM Ambassador to Switzerland, hosted by Mrs. Jan Fillingham MBE, Head of Exhibitions, BEAMA

  16. Kepler Eclipsing Binaries with Stellar Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, D R; Guo, Z; Lester, K V; Orosz, J A; Peters, G J

    2015-01-01

    Many short-period binary stars have distant orbiting companions that have played a role in driving the binary components into close separation. Indirect detection of a tertiary star is possible by measuring apparent changes in eclipse times of eclipsing binaries as the binary orbits the common center of mass. Here we present an analysis of the eclipse timings of 41 eclipsing binaries observed throughout the NASA Kepler mission of long duration and precise photometry. This subset of binaries is characterized by relatively deep and frequent eclipses of both stellar components. We present preliminary orbital elements for seven probable triple stars among this sample, and we discuss apparent period changes in seven additional eclipsing binaries that may be related to motion about a tertiary in a long period orbit. The results will be used in ongoing investigations of the spectra and light curves of these binaries for further evidence of the presence of third stars.

  17. Frame theory for binary vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bodmann, Bernhard G.; Le, My; Reza, Letty; Tobin, Matthew; Tomforde, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We develop the theory of frames and Parseval frames for finite-dimensional vector spaces over the binary numbers. This includes characterizations which are similar to frames and Parseval frames for real or complex Hilbert spaces, and the discussion of conceptual differences caused by the lack of a proper inner product on binary vector spaces. We also define switching equivalence for binary frames, and list all equivalence classes of binary Parseval frames in lowest dimensions, excluding cases...

  18. Using Binary Code Instrumentation in Computer Security

    OpenAIRE

    Marius POPA; Sergiu Marin CAPISIZU

    2013-01-01

    The paper approaches the low-level details of the code generated by compilers whose format permits outside actions. Binary code modifications are manually done when the internal format is known and understood, or automatically by certain tools developed to process the binary code. The binary code instrumentation goals may be various from security increasing and bug fixing to development of malicious software. The paper highlights the binary code instrumentation techniques by code injection to...

  19. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Hubber, David A.; Goodwin, Simon P.

    2016-08-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-alignment processes, which tend to misalign the components. The alignment process dominates in systems with misalignment angle near 90°, while the anti-alignment process dominates in systems with the misalignment angle near 0° or 180°. This means that highly misaligned systems will become more aligned but slightly misaligned systems will become more misaligned.

  20. A Galactic Binary Detection Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littenberg, Tyson B.

    2011-01-01

    The Galaxy is suspected to contain hundreds of millions of binary white dwarf systems, a large fraction of which will have sufficiently small orbital period to emit gravitational radiation in band for space-based gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). LISA's main science goal is the detection of cosmological events (supermassive black hole mergers, etc.) however the gravitational signal from the galaxy will be the dominant contribution to the data - including instrumental noise over approximately two decades in frequency. The catalogue of detectable binary systems will serve as an unparalleled means of studying the Galaxy. Furthermore, to maximize the scientific return from the mission, the data must be "cleansed" of the galactic foreground. We will present an algorithm that can accurately resolve and subtract 2:: 10000 of these sources from simulated data supplied by the Mock LISA Data Challenge Task Force. Using the time evolution of the gravitational wave frequency, we will reconstruct the position of the recovered binaries and show how LISA will sample the entire compact binary population in the Galaxy.

  1. CFD Simulations of Binary Nucleation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herrmann, E.; Brus, David; Hyvärinen, A-P.; Kulmala, M.

    Helsinki : -, 2010, P3U16. ISBN N. [International Aerosol Conference IAC 2010. Helsinki (FI), 29.08.2010-03.09.2010] Grant ostatní: FCR(FI) 1118615 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nucleation * binary * parameterization Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry www.iac2010.fi

  2. Eccentricity distribution of wide binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 477 solar-type binaries within 67pc with projected separations larger than 50AU is studied by a new statistical method. Speed and direction of the relative motion are determined from the short observed arcs or known orbits, and their joint distribution is compared to the numerical simulations. By inverting the observed distribution with the help of simulations, we find that average eccentricity of wide binaries is 0.59+-0.02 and the eccentricity distribution can be modeled as f(e) ~= 1.2 e + 0.4. However, wide binaries containing inner subsystems, i.e. triple or higher-order multiples, have significantly smaller eccentricities with the average e = 0.52+-0.05 and the peak at e ~ 0.5. We find that the catalog of visual orbits is strongly biased against large eccentricities. A marginal evidence of eccentricity increasing with separation (or period) is found for this sample. Comparison with spectroscopic binaries proves the reality of the controversial period-eccentricity relation. The average eccentr...

  3. A Redundant Binary Algorithm for RSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施荣华

    1996-01-01

    The normal form and modified normal form for binary redundant representation are defined.A redundant binary algorithm to compute modular exponentiation for very large integers is proposed.It is shown that the proposed algorithm requires the minimum number of basic operations(modular multiplications)among all possible binary redundant representations.

  4. Competitive learning for binary valued data

    OpenAIRE

    Leisch, Friedrich; Weingessel, Andreas; Dimitriadou, Evgenia

    1998-01-01

    We propose a new approach for using online competitive learning on binary data. The usual Euclidean distance is replaced by binary distance measures, which take possible asymmetries of binary data into account and therefore provide a "different point of view" for looking at the data. The method is demonstrated on two artificial examples and applied on tourist marketing research data. (author's abstract)

  5. CBF tomograms with (/sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in patients with dementia (Alzheimer type and HIV) and Parkinson's disease--initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, D.C.; Ell, P.J.; Burns, A.; Philpot, M.; Levy, R.

    1988-12-01

    We present preliminary data on the utility of functional brain imaging with (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the study of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), HIV-related dementia syndrome, and the on-off syndrome of Parkinson's disease. In comparison with a group of age-matched controls, the DAT patients revealed distinctive bilateral temporal and posterior parietal deficits, which correlate with detailed psychometric evaluation. Patients with amnesia as the main symptom (group A) showed bilateral mesial temporal lobe perfusion deficits (p less than 0.02). More severely affected patients (group B) with significant apraxia, aphasia, or agnosia exhibited patterns compatible with bilateral reduced perfusion in the posterior parietal cortex, as well as reduced perfusion to both temporal lobes, different from the patients of the control group (p less than 0.05). SPECT studies of HIV patients with no evidence of intracraneal space occupying pathology showed marked perfusion deficits. Patients with Parkinson's disease and the on-off syndrome studied during an on phase (under levodopa therapy) and on another occasion after withdrawal of levodopa (off) demonstrated a significant change in the uptake of (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO in the caudate nucleus (lower on off) and thalamus (higher on off). These findings justify the present interest in the functional evaluation of the brain of patients with dementia. (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)/SPECT appear useful and highlight individual disorders of flow in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions.

  6. Cerebral tomo-scintigraphy with HmPAO Tc: Differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and the disease of diffuse Lewy's bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lewy bodies disease (LBD) brings together a Parkinson syndrome and a cortical dementia. The clinical diagnosis is sometimes difficult, since there are numerous common points with Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (IPD) and the Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The goal of this work is to determine the place of SPECT with HmPAO-Tc in the differential diagnosis of these three entities. We have studied 19 patients with an IPD (Hughes' criterion), 19 patients with an AD (NINCDS-ADRDA), 14 patients with a LBD (criteria of Byrne and Mc Keith). The three groups do not differ either as age, duration of disease or MMS. The SPECT was achieved by using the Tomomatic 564 (555 MBq of HmPAO Tc). The fixation of HmPAO was measured in 10 pairs of regions of predetermined interest (OM + 5 cm), and the results were expressed by the fixation indices (reference: the mean cerebellar values). The statistical analysis was based on the Mann and Withney Test and a posteriori ad-hoc comparisons. A significant difference in the value of fixation indices was found between IPD and LBD: lower values for LBD at the level of occipital and temporo-parietal regions and at the level of left T.P.O. cortex. There exists a significant difference for the posterior cortical regions: AD < IPD. The differences between AD and LBD occur in the fronto-lateral and fronto-posterior regions in a bilateral way: LBD < AD. The aspect observed by SPECT may therefore contribute to diagnosis due to the loco-regional differences evidenced in this study

  7. CBF tomograms with [/sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in patients with dementia (Alzheimer type and HIV) and Parkinson's disease--initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present preliminary data on the utility of functional brain imaging with [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the study of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), HIV-related dementia syndrome, and the on-off syndrome of Parkinson's disease. In comparison with a group of age-matched controls, the DAT patients revealed distinctive bilateral temporal and posterior parietal deficits, which correlate with detailed psychometric evaluation. Patients with amnesia as the main symptom (group A) showed bilateral mesial temporal lobe perfusion deficits (p less than 0.02). More severely affected patients (group B) with significant apraxia, aphasia, or agnosia exhibited patterns compatible with bilateral reduced perfusion in the posterior parietal cortex, as well as reduced perfusion to both temporal lobes, different from the patients of the control group (p less than 0.05). SPECT studies of HIV patients with no evidence of intracraneal space occupying pathology showed marked perfusion deficits. Patients with Parkinson's disease and the on-off syndrome studied during an on phase (under levodopa therapy) and on another occasion after withdrawal of levodopa (off) demonstrated a significant change in the uptake of [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO in the caudate nucleus (lower on off) and thalamus (higher on off). These findings justify the present interest in the functional evaluation of the brain of patients with dementia. [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)/SPECT appear useful and highlight individual disorders of flow in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions

  8. Excess molar enthalpies and volumes of binary mixtures of nonafluorobutylmethylether with ethylene glycol ethers at T=298.15K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excess molar enthalpies, HmE and volumes, VmE were reported for binary mixtures of {nonafluorobutylmethylether (NFBME, C4F9-O-CH3)}+[five ethylene glycol ethers, EGEn,m-R, {CmH2m+1-(OCH2CH2)n-R, n=1 and 2, m=1 to 4, R=OH and OCH3}] at 298.15K. Results of excess molar enthalpies and volumes were positive over whole range of concentrations for all the mixtures. The magnitude was in order: EGE1,4-OH>EGE1,3-OH>EGE1,2-OH>EGE1,1-OH>EGE2,1-OH>EGE2,1-OCH3 for HmE and EGE2,1-OCH3>EGE1,4-OH>EGE1,3-OH>EGE1,2-OH>EGE1,1-OH>EGE2,1-OH for VmE at the maximum point. The curves of HmE and VmE for the EGE2,1-OH system were depressed in the middle mole fraction of NFBME, x1 suggesting a quasi-stable state in the solution. We observed occurrences of the stable emulsification state in solutions in concentrations range of 0.351m,2E,∞, and volumes, Vm,2E,∞, of EGEn,m-R at infinite dilution, apparent molar enthalpies of solvation, ΔsolvH2, of the EGEn,m-R in NFBME were evaluated. The dependence of these thermodynamic quantities on the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group, m, the number of the ethylene oxide group, n, and the difference of R group were discussed in consideration of various kinds of intermolecular interactions in pure component liquids and solutions

  9. The Effectiveness of Problem-based Learning Approach on Students’ Skills in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Specifically on Programming Course Using a Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamad, Hasim Bin; de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    using a Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) simulator. The study will use data from the German-Malaysian Institute in Malaysia. The findings of this study will provide a general guideline for educators in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) institutions in implementing Problem...

  10. Empleo de metodos numericos para el ajuste de los coeficientes de difusividad (D) y convectivo de transferencia de masa (hm) en el secado de alimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Arranz Saiz, Francisco Javier; Correa Hernando, Eva Cristina; Jiménez Ariza, Heidi Tatiana; Diezma Iglesias, Belen; Garcia-Herrero, Javier; Robla Villalba, José Ignacio; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Los modelos matemáticos de transferencia de humedad desde el alimento al medio circundante durante el proceso de secado dependen de dos parámetros: coeficiente de difusividad efectiva D y coeficiente convectivo de transferencia de masa hm, cuya determinación experimental se basa en la consideración de un sistema difusivo sencillo de solución analítica bien conocida. Para el caso, que aquí nos ocupa, de difusión monodimensional en una lámina infinita de grosor 2l, la solución analítica de ...

  11. Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.

  12. Response surface methodology for optimization of culture conditions for dye decolorization by a fungus, Aspergillus niger HM11 isolated from dye affected soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Lakshmanaperumalsamy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Discharge of wastewater from textile dyeing industries has been a problem in terms of pollution and treatment of these waters is a great task. Keeping this in mind, the aim of our current research is to study the effect of various bioprocess variables on decolorization of an azo dye, Congo red, by a fungal isolate, Aspergillus niger HM11."nMaterials and Methods: Central composite design (CCD and response surface methodology (RSM have been applied to design experiments to evaluate the interactive effects of the operating variables: on the decolorization of Congo red. A total of 30 experiments were conducted in the present study and a regression coefficient between the variables was generated."nResults: The RSM indicated that pH 6.0, 150 rpm agitation, incubation time of 36 hrs and a glucose concentration of 1.0% were optimal for maximum decolorization of Congo red and the response indicated excellent evaluation of experimental data."nConclusion: From this study, it is very obvious that the fungal isolate, Aspergillus niger HM11 can be used as a promising microbial strain for decolorization of textile dyeing effluent containing similar dyes.

  13. Purificación y caracterización parcial de una toxina (Hm3 del veneno de Hadruroides mauryi (Francke y Soleglad, 1980 (Scorpiones, Iuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Velásquez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha purificado una toxina (Hm3 del veneno del escorpión Hadruroides mauryi, por cromatografía de intercambio iónico en CM-Sephadex C-25 con buffer acetato de amonio 0,05M, pH 7. La toxina produce contracción y parálisis en la extremidad inoculada de ratones albinos y se caracteriza por ser de naturaleza básica y tener un peso molecular de 4,5 kDa. Después de 45 minutos de ser inoculada en el músculo gastrocnemius de ratones albinos, Hm3 (30,4 µg aumenta los niveles plasmáticos de creatina kinasa desde 252,6 UI/L hasta 3779,3 UI/L y de lactato deshidrogenasa, desde 142,7 UI/L hasta 248,2 UI/L; igualmente incrementa los niveles de calcio intramuscular desde 34,1 nmoles hasta 69,3 nmoles. Esta toxina carece de actividad proteolítica y fosfolipásica.

  14. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse by a Novel Brazilian Pentose Fermenting Yeast Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2: Evaluation of Fermentation Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. F. Antunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of hemicellulosic sugars into second generation (2G ethanol plays a pivotal role in the overall success of biorefineries. In this study, ethanol production performance of a novel xylose-fermenting yeast, Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2, was evaluated under batch fermentation conditions using sugarcane bagasse (SB hemicellulosic hydrolysate as carbon source. Dilute acid hydrolysis of SB was performed to obtain sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH. It was concentrated, detoxified, and supplemented with nutrients in different formulations to prepare the fermentation medium to the yeast evaluation performance. S. shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2 (isolated from Brazilian Atlantic rain forest ecosystem was used in fermentations carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks maintained in a rotator shaker at 30°C and 200 rpm for 72 h. The use of a fermentation medium composed of SBHH supplemented with 5 g/L ammonium sulfate, 3 g/L yeast extract, and 3 g/L malt extract resulted in 0.38 g/g of ethanol yield and 0.19 g L.h of volumetric productivity after 48 h of incubation time.

  15. Remnants of compact binary mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Domainko, W

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution and observability of remnants originating from the merger of compact binary systems and discuss the differences to supernova remnants. Compact binary mergers expel much smaller amounts of mass at much higher velocities, as compared to supernovae, which will affect the dynamical evolution of their remnants. The ejecta of mergers consist of very neutron rich nuclei. Some of these neutron rich nuclei will produce observational signatures in form of gamma ray lines during their decay. The composition of the ejecta might even give interesting constraints about the internal structure of the neutron star. We further discuss the possibility that merger remnants appear as recently discovered 'dark accelerators' which are extended TeV sources which lack emission in other bands.

  16. Event Rates for Binary Inspiral

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogera, V

    2001-01-01

    Double compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) found in binaries with small orbital separations are known to spiral in and are expected to coalesce eventually because of the emission of gravitational waves. Such inspiral and merger events are thought to be primary sources for ground based gravitational-wave interferometric detectors (such as LIGO). Here, we present a brief review of estimates of coalescence rates and we examine the origin and relative importance of uncertainties associated with the rate estimates. For the case of double neutron star systems, we compare the most recent rate estimates to upper limits derived in a number of different ways. We also discuss the implications of the formation of close binaries with two non-recycled pulsars.

  17. Modified binary particle swam optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sangwook Lee; Sangmoon Soak; Sanghoun Oh; Witold Pedrycz; Moongu Jeon

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a modified binary particle swarm optimization(BPSO)which adopts concepts of the genotype-phenotype rep-resentation and the mutation operator of genetic algorithms.Its main feature is that the BPSO can be treated as a continuous PSO.The proposed BPSO algorithm is tested on various benchmark functions,and its performance is compared with that of the original BPSO.Experimental results show that the modified BPSO outperforms the original BPSO algorithm.

  18. Tides in asynchronous binary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Toledano, Oswaldo; Moreno, Edmundo; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Detmers, R.; Langer, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Stellar oscillations are excited in non-synchronously rotating stars in binary systems due to the tidal forces. Tangential components of the tides can drive a shear flow which behaves as a differentially forced rotating structure in a stratified outer medium. In this paper we show that our single-layer approximation for the calculation of the forced oscillations yields results that are consistent with the predictions for the synchronization timescales in circular orbits. In addition, calibrat...

  19. 数控轴承磨床故障模式及其原因%Failure mode and cause analysis of CNC bearing grinding machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈宝杰; 张强; 何立淮; 刘树军

    2004-01-01

    通过对25台国产数控(Computerized Numerical Control,CNC)轴承磨床的故障数据两年多的跟踪记录,获得了较为丰富准确的CNC轴承磨床可靠性数据,并基于大型关系型数据库技术建立了CNC轴承磨床可靠性数据库,对国产数控轴承磨床的故障部位、故障模式及故障原因进行了详细的统计分析,指出了数控轴承磨床的薄弱环节及其潜在弱点,为CNC轴承磨床进行可靠性分析和设计提供了依据.

  20. 对数控铣削加工中刀具补偿的探讨%Tool Compensation Study to CNC Milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁增众

    2011-01-01

    合理设置刀具半径补偿值,灵活应用刀具半径补偿功能,对简化数控铣削编程有着非常重要的意义。文章分析常用的刀具半径补偿方式,以FANUCOi系统为例,探讨C刀具半径补偿。%Set a reasonable value for tool radius compensation,tool radius compensation and flexible application,to simplify the programming of CNC milling has very important significance.This paper analyzes the common tool radius compensation,FANUC 0i system as an example to explore the C tool radius compensation.

  1. Development of a stereolithography (STL input and computer numerical control (CNC output algorithm for an entry-level 3-D printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a prototype Stereolithography (STL file format slicing and tool-path generation algorithm, which serves as a data front-end for a Rapid Prototyping (RP entry- level three-dimensional (3-D printer. Used mainly in Additive Manufacturing (AM, 3-D printers are devices that apply plastic, ceramic, and metal, layer by layer, in all three dimensions on a flat surface (X, Y, and Z axis. 3-D printers, unfortunately, cannot print an object without a special algorithm that is required to create the Computer Numerical Control (CNC instructions for printing. An STL algorithm therefore forms a critical component for Layered Manufacturing (LM, also referred to as RP. The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm that is capable of processing and slicing an STL file or multiple files, resulting in a tool-path, and finally compiling a CNC file for an entry-level 3- D printer. The prototype algorithm was implemented for an entry-level 3-D printer that utilises the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM process or Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF process; an AM technology. Following an experimental method, the full data flow path for the prototype algorithm was developed, starting with STL data files, and then processing the STL data file into a G-code file format by slicing the model and creating a tool-path. This layering method is used by most 3-D printers to turn a 2-D object into a 3-D object. The STL algorithm developed in this study presents innovative opportunities for LM, since it allows engineers and architects to transform their ideas easily into a solid model in a fast, simple, and cheap way. This is accomplished by allowing STL models to be sliced rapidly, effectively, and without error, and finally to be processed and prepared into a G-code print file.

  2. Galaxy Rotation and Rapid Supermassive Binary Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Khan, Fazeel Mahmood

    2015-09-01

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy.

  3. Visual Binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Reipurth, Bo; Connelley, Michael S; Bally, John

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out a major survey for visual binaries towards the Orion Nebula Cluster using HST images obtained with an H-alpha filter. Among 781 likely ONC members more than 60" from theta-1 Ori C, we find 78 multiple systems (75 binaries and 3 triples), of which 55 are new discoveries, in the range from 0.1" to 1.5". About 9 binaries are likely line-of-sight associations. We find a binary fraction of 8.8%+-1.1% within the limited separation range from 67.5 to 675 AU. The field binary fraction in the same range is a factor 1.5 higher. Within the range 150 AU to 675 AU we find that T Tauri associations have a factor 2.2 more binaries than the ONC. The binary separation distribution function of the ONC shows unusual structure, with a sudden steep decrease in the number of binaries as the separation increases beyond 0.5", corresponding to 225 AU. We have measured the ratio of binaries wider than 0.5" to binaries closer than 0.5" as a function of distance from the Trapezium, and find that this ratio is signifi...

  4. Formal Framework for Designing and Verifying Reliable Software for Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) Systems%一种验证数控系统软件安全可靠性的建模方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宇男; 张辉; 叶佩青; 王田苗

    2011-01-01

    As a distributed computing system, a CNC system needs to be operated reliably, dependably and safely. How to design reliable and dependable software and perform effective verification for CNC systems becomes an important research problem. A new modeling method called TTM/ATRTTL (Timed Transition Models/All-Time Real-Time Temporal Logics) for specifying CNC systems was proposed. TTM/ATRTTL provided full support for specifying hard real-time and feedback that were needed for modeling CNC systems. A verification framework was proposed with verification rules and theorems and it was implemented with STeP and SF2STeP. The proposed verification framework could check reliability, dependability and safety of systems specified by the TTM/ATRTTL method. The modeling and verification techniques on an open architecture CNC (OAC) system were applied and comprehensive studies on modeling and verifying a logical controller were conducted that was the key part of OAC. The results show that the method can effectively model and verify CNC systems and generate CNC software that can satisfy system requirements in reliability, dependability and safety.%作为一个典型的离散计算机控制系统,CNC(数字控制)系统在运行中需要满足可靠性和安全性.因此如何设计出安全可靠的系统软件以及如何有效地对CNC系统的安全性和可靠性进行验证成为一个非常重要的问题.基于此给出一个新的建模方法TTM/ATRTTL (时间转化模型/全时轴实时时态逻辑)来描述和验证CNC系统.TTM/ATRTTL提供了一整套方法用于描述CNC系统建模的硬实时特性和反馈特性,也提供了一个包括一整套验征规则和定理的验证模型并且应用工具STeP和SF2STeP来实现之.这个验证模型可以用于对TTM/ATRTTL表达的系统的可靠性,安全性进行验证.使用该建模和验证方法可以对OAC(开放式体系结构CNC)系统进行分析和验证,并设计出OAC的逻辑控制器,该控制器是OAC系

  5. Evolution of binary stars in multiple-population globular clusters - II. Compact binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jongsuk; Vesperini, Enrico; Sollima, Antonio; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; D'Antona, Franca; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of a survey of N-body simulations aimed at exploring the evolution of compact binaries in multiple-population globular clusters. We show that as a consequence of the initial differences in the structural properties of the first-generation (FG) and the second-generation (SG) populations and the effects of dynamical processes on binary stars, the SG binary fraction decreases more rapidly than that of the FG population. The difference between the FG and SG binary fraction is qualitatively similar to but quantitatively smaller than that found for wider binaries in our previous investigations. The evolution of the radial variation of the binary fraction is driven by the interplay between binary segregation, ionization and ejection. Ionization and ejection counteract in part the effects of mass segregation but for compact binaries the effects of segregation dominate and the inner binary fraction increases during the cluster evolution. We explore the variation of the difference between the FG and the SG binary fraction with the distance from the cluster centre and its dependence on the binary binding energy and cluster structural parameters. The difference between the binary fraction in the FG and the SG populations found in our simulations is consistent with the results of observational studies finding a smaller binary fraction in the SG population.

  6. Orbital eccentricities in primordial black holes binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cholis, Ilias; Kovetz, Ely D.; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc; Muñoz, Julian B.; Raccanelli, Alvise

    2016-01-01

    It was recently suggested that the merger of $\\sim30\\,M_\\odot$ primordial black holes (PBHs) may provide a significant number of events in gravitational-wave observatories over the next decade, if they make up an appreciable fraction of the dark matter. Here we show that measurement of the eccentricities of the inspiralling binary black holes can be used to distinguish these binaries from those produced by more traditional astrophysical mechanisms. These PBH binaries are formed on highly ecce...

  7. Asteroid Systems: Binaries, Triples, and Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Taylor, Patrick; Carry, Benoît; Jacobson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of known binary near-Earth asteroids has more than quadrupled and the number of known large main belt asteroids with satellites has doubled. Half a dozen triple asteroids have been discovered, and the previously unrecognized populations of asteroid pairs and small main belt binaries have been identified. The current observational evidence confirms that small (20 km) binaries with small satellites are most likely created during large collisions.

  8. Relativistic Gravity and Binary Radio Pulsars

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspi, V. M.

    1999-01-01

    Following a summary of the basic principles of pulsar timing, we present a review of recent results from timing observations of relativistic binary pulsars. In particular, we summarize the status of timing observations of the much celebrated original binary pulsar PSR B1913+16, draw attention to the recent confirmation of strong evidence for geodetic precession in this system, review the recent measurement of multiple post-Keplerian binary parameters for PSR B1534+12, and describe the Parkes ...

  9. Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.

  10. Detection of unresolved binaries with multicolor photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chulkov, D; Malkov, O; Sichevskij, S; Krussanova, N; Mironov, A; Zakharov, A; Kniazev, A

    2016-01-01

    The principal goal of this paper is to specify conditions of detection of unresolved binaries by multicolor photometry. We have developed a method for estimating the critical distance at which an unresolved binary of given mass and age can be detected. The method is applied to the photometric system of the planned Lyra-B spaceborne experiment. We have shown that some types of unresolved binary stars can be discovered and distinguished from single stars solely by means of photometric observations.

  11. Relativistic Gravity and Binary Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspi, V M

    1999-01-01

    Following a summary of the basic principles of pulsar timing, we present a review of recent results from timing observations of relativistic binary pulsars. In particular, we summarize the status of timing observations of the much celebrated original binary pulsar PSR B1913+16, draw attention to the recent confirmation of strong evidence for geodetic precession in this system, review the recent measurement of multiple post-Keplerian binary parameters for PSR B1534+12, and describe the Parkes Multibeam survey, a major survey of the Galactic Plane which promises to discover new relativistic binary pulsar systems.

  12. Speech perception of noise with binary gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, DeLiang; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind;

    2008-01-01

    For a given mixture of speech and noise, an ideal binary time-frequency mask is constructed by comparing speech energy and noise energy within local time-frequency units. It is observed that listeners achieve nearly perfect speech recognition from gated noise with binary gains prescribed by the i...... by the ideal binary mask. Only 16 filter channels and a frame rate of 100 Hz are sufficient for high intelligibility. The results show that, despite a dramatic reduction of speech information, a pattern of binary gains provides an adequate basis for speech perception....

  13. Řízení CNC obráběcích strojů se zaměřením na tříosé frézování - tříosá frézka EMCO a její řídicí systémy

    OpenAIRE

    TETOUR, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The first section of this thesis describes the problem of programming computer numerical control (CNC) machines and the way how they are currently used in industry. The next section compares current control systems of the CNC machines, the general principles of programming with the possibility of using workroom oriented milling. Then the EMCO machine is described, its operation, setup, practical advices and also examples of the Sinumerik 840D control system by Siemens. The final section intro...

  14. The equations for binary density and the binary stream of particles of electro conducting magnetic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In work on the basis of a method of the kinetic equations it is output the differential equations for binary density and a binary stream of particles of electro conducting magnetic liquids. These equations are the nonuniform equations of parabolic type. The solution of these equations completely feature existential behaviour of binary density and a binary stream of particles of electro conducting magnetic liquids, i.e. process of a structural relaxation. (author)

  15. Massive Stars in Interactive Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    Massive stars start their lives above a mass of ~8 time solar, finally exploding after a few million years as core-collapse or pair-production supernovae. Above ~15 solar masses, they also spend most of their lives driving especially strong, hot winds due to their extreme luminosities. All of these aspects dominate the ecology of the Universe, from element enrichment to stirring up and ionizing the interstellar medium. But when they occur in close pairs or groups separated by less than a parsec, the interaction of massive stars can lead to various exotic phenomena which would not be seen if there were no binaries. These depend on the actual separation, and going from wie to close including colliding winds (with non-thermal radio emission and Wolf-Rayet dust spirals), cluster dynamics, X-ray binaries, Roche-lobe overflow (with inverse mass-ratios and rapid spin up), collisions, merging, rejuventation and massive blue stragglers, black-hole formation, runaways and gamma-ray bursts. Also, one wonders whether the fact that a massive star is in a binary affects its parameters compared to its isolated equivalent. These proceedings deal with all of these phenomena, plus binary statistics and determination of general physical properties of massive stars, that would not be possible with their single cousins. The 77 articles published in these proceedings, all based on oral talks, vary from broad revies to the lates developments in the field. About a third of the time was spent in open discussion of all participants, both for ~5 minutes after each talk and 8 half-hour long general dialogues, all audio-recorded, transcribed and only moderately edited to yield a real flavour of the meeting. The candid information in these discussions is sometimes more revealing than the article(s) that preceded them and also provide entertaining reading. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in stellar astrophysics and in various physical processes involved when

  16. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    ADONIS Observes Low-mass Eclipsing System in Orion Summary A series of very detailed images of a binary system of two young stars have been combined into a movie . In merely 3 days, the stars swing around each other. As seen from the earth, they pass in front of each other twice during a full revolution, producing eclipses during which their combined brightness diminishes . A careful analysis of the orbital motions has now made it possible to deduce the masses of the two dancing stars . Both turn out to be about as heavy as our Sun. But while the Sun is about 4500 million years old, these two stars are still in their infancy. They are located some 1500 light-years away in the Orion star-forming region and they probably formed just 10 million years ago . This is the first time such an accurate determination of the stellar masses could be achieved for a young binary system of low-mass stars . The new result provides an important piece of information for our current understanding of how young stars evolve. The observations were obtained by a team of astronomers from Italy and ESO [1] using the ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS) on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. PR Photo 29a/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before primary eclipse PR Photo 29b/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-primary eclipse PR Photo 29c/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after primary eclipse PR Photo 29d/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before secondary eclipse PR Photo 29e/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-secondary eclipse PR Photo 29f/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after secondary eclipse PR Video Clip 06/01 : Video of the RXJ 0529.4+0041 system Binary stars and stellar masses Since some time, astronomers have noted that most stars seem to form in binary or multiple systems. This is quite fortunate, as the study of binary stars is the only way in which it is possible to measure directly one of the most fundamental quantities of a star, its mass. The mass of a

  17. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR

    1990-01-01

    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  18. Hennes & Mauritz. En studie av varumärket H&M och företagets historia på Island

    OpenAIRE

    Margrét Óda Ingimarsdóttir 1983

    2010-01-01

    Jag kommer att begränsa den här undersökningen till att behandla H&M:s historia och bakgrund för att vidare kunna undersöka vad företagets varumärke står för och hur det har lyckats nå sina framgångar. Efter att ha hört debatten om den omtalade boken No Logo (2000) av Naomi Klein, en kanadensisk författare och journalist, blev jag intresserad av att veta vad det är som gör ett varumärke framgångsrikt. Jag tänker också undersöka H&M:s historia på Island och försöka få svar på varför H&M inte l...

  19. Cranial MR imaging and cerebral 99mTc HM-PAO-SPECT in patients with subacute or chronic severe closed head injury and normal CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen patients in the subacute or chronic state following severe closed head injury with normal cranial CT scans were examined by MR and 99mTc HM-PAO SPECT. Correlations were sought between these 2 imaging modalities and the clinical outcome, as defined by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOX) score. Both MR and SPECT revealed cerebral damage in all patients examined but structural and functional alterations did not coincide topographically in 64.9% of lesions. Nevertheless, complementary injury patterns suggesting poor recovery were found; cortical contusions and diffuse axonal injury (MR) in conjunction with cortical and thalamic hypoperfusion (SPECT) were noticed in 8 out of 12 patients with unfavorable outcome (GOS = III and IV). The synthesis of MR and SPECT information clearly enhanced the ability both to accurately assess posttraumatic brain damage and to improve patients' outcome prediction. (au) (18 refs.)

  20. Cranial MR imaging and cerebral 99mTc HM-PAO-SPECT in patients with subacute or chronic severe closed head injury and normal CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen patients in the subacute or chronic state following severe closed head injury with normal cranial CT scans were examined by MR and 99mTc HM-PAO SPECT. Correlations were sought between these 2 imaging modalities and the clinical outcome, as defined by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score. Both MR and SPECT revealed cerebral damage in all patients examined but structural and functional alterations did not coincide topographically in 64.9% of lesions. Nevertheless, complementary injury patterns suggesting poor recovery were found; cortical contusions and diffuse axonal injury (MR) in conjunction with cortical and thalamic hypoperfusion (SPECT) were noticed in 8 out of 12 patients with unfavorable outcome (GOS=III and IV). The synthesis of MR and SPECT information clearly enhanced the ability both to accurately assess posttraumatic brain damage and to improve patients' outcome prediction. (orig.)

  1. R144 : a very massive binary likely ejected from R136 through a binary-binary encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Seungkyung; Banerjee, Sambaran

    2013-01-01

    R144 is a recently confirmed very massive, spectroscopic binary which appears isolated from the core of the massive young star cluster R136. The dynamical ejection hypothesis as an origin for its location is claimed improbable by Sana et al. due to its binary nature and high mass. We demonstrate here by means of direct N-body calculations that a very massive binary system can be readily dynamically ejected from a R136-like cluster, through a close encounter with a very massive system. One out of four N-body cluster models produces a dynamically ejected very massive binary system with a mass comparable to R144. The system has a system mass of $\\approx$ 355 Msun and is located at 36.8 pc from the centre of its parent cluster, moving away from the cluster with a velocity of 57 km/s at 2 Myr as a result of a binary-binary interaction. This implies that R144 could have been ejected from R136 through a strong encounter with an other massive binary or single star. In addition, we discuss all massive binaries and sin...

  2. Millisecond Pulsars in Close Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    In this Habilitationsschrift (Habilitation thesis) I present my research carried out over the last four years at the Argelander Institute for Astronomy (AIfA) and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR). The thesis summarizes my main findings and has been written to fulfill the requirements for the Habilitation qualification at the University of Bonn. Although my work is mainly focused on the topic of millisecond pulsars (MSPs), there is a fairly broad spread of research areas ranging from the formation of neutron stars (NSs) in various supernova (SN) events, to their evolution, for example, via accretion processes in binary and triple systems, and finally to their possible destruction in merger events. The thesis is organized in the following manner: A general introduction to neutron stars and millisecond pulsars is given in Chapter 1. A selection of key papers published in 2011-2014 are presented in Chapters 2-10, ordered within five main research areas (ultra-stripped SNe in close binaries, ma...

  3. Polarization in binary microlensing events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light received by source stars in microlensing events may be significantly polarized if both an efficient photon-scattering mechanism is active in the source stellar atmosphere and a differential magnification is therein induced by the lensing system. The best candidate events for observing polarization are highly magnified events with source stars belonging to the class of cool, giant stars in which the stellar light is polarized by photon scattering on dust grains contained in their envelopes. The presence in the stellar atmosphere of an internal cavity devoid of dust produces polarization profiles with a two peaks structure. Hence, the time interval between them gives an important observable quantity directly related to the size of the internal cavity and to the model parameters of the lens system. We show that, during a microlensing event, the expected polarization variability can solve an ambiguity that arises in some cases, related to the binary or planetary lensing interpretation of the perturbations observed near the maximum of the event light-curve. We consider a specific event case for which the parameter values corresponding to the two solutions are given. Then, assuming a polarization model for the source star, we compute the two expected polarization profiles. The position of the two peaks appearing in the polarization curves and the characteristic time interval between them allow us to distinguish between the binary and planetary lens solutions. (paper)

  4. Cerebral tomo-scintigraphy with HmPAO Tc: Differential diagnosis between Parkinson`s disease, Alzheimer`s disease and the disease of diffuse Lewy`s bodies; Tomoscintigraphie cerebrale au HmPAO Tc: diagnostic differenntiel entre Parkinson, Alzheimer et maladie a corps de Lewy diffus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, V. [Departament de Neurologie, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France); Lecouffe, P. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, CHR and U Lille (France); Defebvre, L.; Pasquier, F. [Departament de Neurologie, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France); Pham, T.; Lamy, C. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, CHR and U Lille (France); Destee, A. [Departament de Neurologie, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France); Steinling, M. [Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, CHR and U 59037 Lille (France)

    1997-12-31

    The Lewy bodies disease (LBD) brings together a Parkinson syndrome and a cortical dementia. The clinical diagnosis is sometimes difficult, since there are numerous common points with Idiopathic Parkinson`s Disease (IPD) and the Alzheimer`s Disease (AD). The goal of this work is to determine the place of SPECT with HmPAO-Tc in the differential diagnosis of these three entities. We have studied 19 patients with an IPD (Hughes` criterion), 19 patients with an AD (NINCDS-ADRDA), 14 patients with a LBD (criteria of Byrne and Mc Keith). The three groups do not differ either as age, duration of disease or MMS. The SPECT was achieved by using the Tomomatic 564 (555 MBq of HmPAO Tc). The fixation of HmPAO was measured in 10 pairs of regions of predetermined interest (OM + 5 cm), and the results were expressed by the fixation indices (reference: the mean cerebellar values). The statistical analysis was based on the Mann and Withney Test and a posteriori ad-hoc comparisons. A significant difference in the value of fixation indices was found between IPD and LBD: lower values for LBD at the level of occipital and temporo-parietal regions and at the level of left T.P.O. cortex. There exists a significant difference for the posterior cortical regions: AD < IPD. The differences between AD and LBD occur in the fronto-lateral and fronto-posterior regions in a bilateral way: LBD < AD. The aspect observed by SPECT may therefore contribute to diagnosis due to the loco-regional differences evidenced in this study

  5. Modeling of transport of Cs(I) through hollow fiber supported liquid membrane using Calix(4)arene-bis-2,3-naphtho-crown-6 (CNC) as the carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport of cesium through hollow fiber supported liquid membrane by Calix(4)arene-bis-2,3-naphtho-crown-6 (CNC) is studied. About 99% cesium was transported in about 6 hours at tracer level. A simple mathematical model has been developed to simulate the mass transport of Cs(I) from feed phase to strip phase. A good level of match between simulated result and experimentally obtained data was seen. (author)

  6. Pulsating Components in Binary and Multiple Stellar Systems --- A Catalog of Oscillating Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, A. -Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present an up-to-date catalog of pulsating binaries, i.e. the binary and multiple stellar systems containing pulsating components, along with a statistics on them. Compared to the earlier compilation by Soydugan et al.(2006a) of 25 delta Scuti-type `oscillating Algol-type eclipsing binaries' (oEA), the recent collection of 74 oEA by Liakos et al.(2012), and the collection of Cepheids in binaries by Szabados (2003a), the numbers and types of pulsating variables in binaries are now extended....

  7. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungelson, Lev R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA. Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars -- compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.

  8. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Postnov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  9. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Harrison, Martínez-Correa and Swarthout [2013] found that the binary lottery procedure works robustly to induce risk neutrality when subjects are given one risk task defined over o...

  10. Pulsed Accretion onto Eccentric and Circular Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, Diego J

    2016-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of circumbinary accretion onto eccentric and circular binaries using the moving-mesh code AREPO. This is the first set of simulations to tackle the problem of binary accretion using a finite-volume scheme on a freely moving mesh, which allows for accurate measurements of accretion onto individual stars for arbitrary binary eccentricity. While accretion onto a circular binary shows bursts with period of ~5 times the binary period P_b,accretion onto an eccentric binary is predominantly modulated at the period ~1P_b. For an equal-mass circular binary, the accretion rates onto individual stars are quite similar to each other, following the same variable pattern in time. By contrast, for eccentric binaries, one of the stars can accrete at a rate 10-20 times larger than its companion. This "symmetry breaking" between the stars, however, alternates over timescales of order 200 P_b, and can be attributed to a slowly precessing, eccentric circumbinary disk. Over longer timescales, the ...

  11. ECCENTRIC EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent numerical simulations, it has been found that the eccentricity of supermassive black hole (SMBH)-intermediate black hole (IMBH) binaries grows toward unity through interactions with the stellar background. This increase of eccentricity reduces the merging timescale of the binary through the gravitational radiation to a value well below the Hubble time. It also gives a theoretical explanation of the existence of eccentric binaries such as that in OJ287. In self-consistent N-body simulations, this increase of eccentricity is always observed. On the other hand, the result of the scattering experiment between SMBH binaries and field stars indicated that the eccentricity dose not change significantly. This discrepancy leaves the high eccentricity of the SMBH binaries in N-body simulations unexplained. Here, we present a stellar-dynamical mechanism that drives the increase of the eccentricity of an SMBH binary with a large mass ratio. There are two key processes involved. The first one is the Kozai mechanism under a non-axisymmetric potential, which effectively randomizes the angular momenta of surrounding stars. The other is the selective ejection of stars with prograde orbits. Through these two mechanisms, field stars extract the orbital angular momentum of the SMBH binary. Our proposed mechanism causes the increase in the eccentricity of most of SMBH binaries, resulting in the rapid merger through gravitational wave radiation. Our result has given a definite solution to the 'last-parsec problem'.

  12. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  13. Gravitational radiation, inspiraling binaries, and cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, David F.; Finn, Lee S.

    1993-01-01

    We show how to measure cosmological parameters using observations of inspiraling binary neutron star or black hole systems in one or more gravitational wave detectors. To illustrate, we focus on the case of fixed mass binary systems observed in a single Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)-like detector. Using realistic detector noise estimates, we characterize the rate of detections as a function of a threshold SNR Rho(0), H0, and the binary 'chirp' mass. For Rho(0) = 8, H0 = 100 km/s/Mpc, and 1.4 solar mass neutron star binaries, the sample has a median redshift of 0.22. Under the same assumptions but independent of H0, a conservative rate density of coalescing binaries implies LIGO will observe about 50/yr binary inspiral events. The precision with which H0 and the deceleration parameter q0 may be determined depends on the number of observed inspirals. For fixed mass binary systems, about 100 observations with Rho(0) = 10 in the LIGO will give H0 to 10 percent in an Einstein-DeSitter cosmology, and 3000 will give q0 to 20 percent. For the conservative rate density of coalescing binaries, 100 detections with Rho(0) = 10 will require about 4 yrs.

  14. Gravitational waves from inspiralling binary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binary black holes are the most promising candidate sources for the first generation of earth-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. We summarize and discuss the state-of-the-art analytical techniques developed during the last few years to better describe the late dynamical evolution of binary black holes of comparable masses

  15. Bayesian analysis of exoplanet and binary orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze-Hartung, Tim; Henning, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We introduce BASE (Bayesian astrometric and spectroscopic exoplanet detection and characterisation tool), a novel program for the combined or separate Bayesian analysis of astrometric and radial-velocity measurements of potential exoplanet hosts and binary stars. The capabilities of BASE are demonstrated using all publicly available data of the binary Mizar A.

  16. WORKPIECE LOCATING AND POST PROCESSING SYSTEMS ON 6-DOF CNC MILLING MACHINE%六自由度数控铣床工件定位及后置处理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞; 钟诗胜; 王知行

    2006-01-01

    对传统3轴立式铣床进行了改造,安装了六自由度并联机构形成了一种新型数控铣床.本文介绍了其结构,推导了该铣床的工件定位和刀位文件后置处理两个子系统.该铣床具有造价低,结构简单,刚性好,精度高及易改造等优点,适合加工复杂曲面工件.%A conventional non-computerized numerical control (CNC) machine is updated by mounting a six degree-of-free (DOF) parallel mechanism on it, thus obtaining a new CNC one. The structure of this CNC milling machine is introduced, and the workpiece locating system and the post processing system of the cutter location (CL) data file are analyzed. The new machine has advantages of low costs, simple structure, good rigidity, and high precision. It is easy to be transformed and used to process the workpiece with a complex surface.

  17. 转子磨床CNC砂轮修整器的砂轮初始修形方法研究%Research on initial dressing method of CNC grinding wheel dresser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永强; 李志峰; 魏伟锋; 侯红玲; 赵甲宝; 周斌

    2012-01-01

    It is possible of grinding precision workpieces with complex spiral surface by use of CNC grinding wheel dresser, the key of dressing grinding wheel is initial dressing new grinding wheel using CNC grinding wheel dresser. In the paper, three methods of grinding wheel initial dressing are founded, then compared advantages and disadvantages of them, so, it can provide theoretical basis for initial design of CNC dresser, in addition, it can provide the operating specification for user.%采用CNC砂轮修整器使复杂螺旋面工件的精密磨削成为可能,利用CNC砂轮修整器对新砂轮进行初始修形是砂轮修整的关键步骤.提出了3种砂轮的初始修形方法,对比了各自的优缺点,为CNC砂轮修整器的初始设计提供了理论基础,为用户实际加工提供了操作依据.

  18. Planet Scattering Around Binaries: Ejections, Not Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Smullen, Rachel A; Shannon, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically effects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Asid...

  19. Orbital dynamics of binary boson star systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend our previous studies of head-on collisions of boson stars by considering orbiting binary boson stars. We concentrate on equal-mass binaries and study the dynamical behavior of boson/boson and boson/antiboson pairs. We examine the gravitational wave output of these binaries and compare with other compact binaries. Such a comparison lets us probe the apparent simplicity observed in gravitational waves produced by black hole binary systems. In our system of interest however, there is an additional internal freedom which plays a significant role in the system's dynamics, namely, the phase of each star. Our evolutions show rather simple behavior at early times, but large differences occur at late times for the various initial configurations

  20. Logistic chaotic maps for binary numbers generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two pseudorandom binary sequence generators, based on logistic chaotic maps intended for stream cipher applications, are proposed. The first is based on a single one-dimensional logistic map which exhibits random, noise-like properties at given certain parameter values, and the second is based on a combination of two logistic maps. The encryption step proposed in both algorithms consists of a simple bitwise XOR operation of the plaintext binary sequence with the keystream binary sequence to produce the ciphertext binary sequence. A threshold function is applied to convert the floating-point iterates into binary form. Experimental results show that the produced sequences possess high linear complexity and very good statistical properties. The systems are put forward for security evaluation by the cryptographic committees.

  1. Polarization in binary microlensing events

    CERN Document Server

    Ingrosso, G; Nucita, A A; Strafella, F; Novati, S Calchi; Jetzer, Ph; Liuzzi, G; Zakharov, A

    2013-01-01

    The light received by source stars in microlensing events may be significantly polarized if both an efficient photon scattering mechanism is active in the source stellar atmosphere and a differential magnification is therein induced by the lensing system. The best candidate events for observing polarization are highly magnified events with source stars belonging to the class of cool, giant stars {in which the stellar light is polarized by photon scattering on dust grains contained in their envelopes. The presence in the stellar atmosphere of an internal cavity devoid of dust produces polarization profiles with a two peaks structure. Hence, the time interval between them gives an important observable quantity directly related to the size of the internal cavity and to the model parameters of the lens system.} We show that {during a microlensing event} the expected polarization variability can solve an ambiguity, that arises in some cases, related to the binary or planetary lensing interpretation of the perturba...

  2. Binary Cepheids from optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gallenne, A; Mérand, A; Monnier, J D; Pietrzyński, J Breitfelder G; Gieren, W

    2013-01-01

    Classical Cepheid stars have been considered since more than a century as reliable tools to estimate distances in the universe thanks to their Period-Luminosity (P-L) relationship. Moreover, they are also powerful astrophysical laboratories, providing fundamental clues for studying the pulsation and evolution of intermediate-mass stars. When in binary systems, we can investigate the age and evolution of the Cepheid, estimate the mass and distance, and constrain theoretical models. However, most of the companions are located too close to the Cepheid (1-40 mas) to be spatially resolved with a 10-meter class telescope. The only way to spatially resolve such systems is to use long-baseline interferometry. Recently, we have started a unique and long-term interferometric program that aims at detecting and characterizing physical parameters of the Cepheid companions, with as main objectives the determination of accurate masses and geometric distances.

  3. Binary theory of electronic stopping

    CERN Document Server

    Sigmund, P

    2002-01-01

    Binary stopping theory has been developed to characterize the electronic stopping of swift heavy ions in matter. It is an extension of Bohr's classical theory of 1913 incorporating screening, higher-order-Z sub 1 and shell corrections, high-speed quantum and relativity corrections as well as projectile excitation and ionization. The main numerical input comes from optical properties. The computation of shell corrections involves orbital velocity distributions of target and projectile electrons. Calculated stopping parameters depend on ion charge. Equilibrium stopping forces may be computed by adoption of a suitable model for the equilibrium charge state. This paper summarizes the current status of the theory, in particular the sensitivity of its predictions to pertinent input. Charge-dependent stopping forces have been calculated for selected systems and compared to experimental results. Equilibrium stopping forces calculated for a wide variety of ion-target combinations are compared with experimental data fr...

  4. Binary mixtures of chiral gases

    CERN Document Server

    Presilla, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    A possible solution of the well known paradox of chiral molecules is based on the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking. At low pressure the molecules are delocalized between the two minima of a given molecular potential while at higher pressure they become localized in one minimum due to the intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions. Evidence for such a phase transition is provided by measurements of the inversion spectrum of ammonia and deuterated ammonia at different pressures. In particular, at pressure greater than a critical value no inversion line is observed. These data are well accounted for by a model previously developed and recently extended to mixtures. In the present paper, we discuss the variation of the critical pressure in binary mixtures as a function of the fractions of the constituents.

  5. Perfil bioquímico do soro de frangos de corte alimentados com dieta suplementada com alfa-amilase de Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003 Biochemichal serum profile of broilers fed diets suplemented with alfa-amylase from Cryptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Silva Minafra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o perfil bioquímico do soro de frangos de corte alimentados com a enzima α-amilase produzida por dois microrganismos. Produziram-se dois extratos, um com a-amilase obtida a partir de Cryptococcus flavus em meio de levedura comercial e outro com Aspergillus niger HM2003 em meio de proteína de soja e amido comercial, com atividade de 9,58 U/mL e 10,0 U/mL, respectivamente. Utilizaram-se 360 pintos de corte Cobb 500 de 1 dia de idade e com 49,72 ± 0,68 g de peso vivo inicial. As aves foram alojadas em baterias e foram criadas até os 21 dias de idade. Foram utilizados três dietas, cada uma com cinco repetições de 12 aves, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. A primeira dieta (basal foi formulada sem adição de enzima e as outras duas receberam a suplementação de a-amilase produzida por cultivo de Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003. Dietas à base de milho e soja foram formuladas em duas fases: pré-inicial (1-7 dias e inicial (8-21 dias. Na fase pré-inicial, foram observados os seguintes valores médios para cálcio (6,90 e 5,99 mg/dL, proteína plasmática (2,0 e 2,50 g/dL e fosfatase alcalina (979,98 e 974,66 UI/L, respectivamente para Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003. A dieta acrescida de a-amilase obtida a partir de Aspergillus niger HM2003 determinou maior concentração sérica de fósforo. Na fase inicial, os resultados significativos relacionaram-se a potássio quando avaliadas dietas com adição de a-amilase pelas duas fontes. A incorporação das enzimas testadas não proporciona alterações metabólicas ou toxicidade nos animais.It was evaluated the biochemical serum profile of broilers fed rations supplemented with α-amylase produced by two microorganisms. Two extracts were produced, one was produced with a-amylase obtained from Cryptococcus flavus in a commercial yeast-based medium and the other with Aspergillus niger HM2003 produced in soybean protein and commercial starch medium

  6. Metodología para la manufactura de implantes craneales a partir de imágenes DICOM y tecnologías CAD/CAM/CNC Metodología para la manufactura de implantes craneales a partir de imágenes DICOM y tecnologías CAD/CAM/CNC

    OpenAIRE

    Iván López; Carlos Rodríguez López; Jairo Maya; Alejandro Sierra

    2005-01-01

    El presente artículo propone una metodología para el diseño y la fabricación de implantes craneales a partir de imágenes DICOM y tecnologías CAD/CAM/CNC. Esta metodología parte de las Tomografías Axiales Computarizadas (TAC) de la cabeza del paciente, con las cuales se lleva a cabo la reconstrucción tridimensional del cráneo. Luego, en el sistema CAD se reconstruye el implante variando la técnica empleada dependiendo de la región del cráneo con defecto o trauma. Una vez obtenido el modelo, se...

  7. Comparison of peak height of the F2-layer (hmF2) measurements with IRI-2012, IRI-2007 and IRI-2001 models predictions above Roquetes station (Spain) during the ascending phase of the solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Fahmi A.

    2015-09-01

    This research aims to validate IRI-2012 program and examine its accuracy in predicting peak height of the F2- layer (hmF2) above Roquetes. The seasonal hourly means of the ionosphere F2 peak height parameter (hmF2) above Roquetes station, Spain, (located at latitude close to the latitude of Iraq, 41°N) were analyzed and the results were compared with IRI-2012, IRI-2007 and IRI-2001, using CCIR (Comite´ Consultatif International des Radio Communications) option. The analysis covered quiet and disturbed days during various seasons of 2013 (the ascending phase of the solar cycle 24). In general, it is found that the predicted values of hmF2 overestimate the observed ones during all seasons, except Summer, whereas it underestimate at day hours. Also, it is found that the maximum percentage relative deviation of hmF2 occurred during Winter at 8 LT, while the minimum occurred during Autumnat 22 LT.

  8. 基于IM Spost五轴数控加工后置处理器的研发%Development on postprocessor for five-axis CNC machining based on IMSpost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮; 蔡安江; 郭师虹

    2012-01-01

    为实现编程自动化,有效利用高性能数控设备,笔者针对DMC70eV五轴数控加工中心,研究了专用后置处理器的开发方法,在分析MILLPLUSITV530数控系统指令代码和输出格式特点的基础上,基于IMSpost开发了五轴数控加工生产模式的专用后置处理器。经生产验证,新开发的专用后置处理器性能可靠,所生成的数控加工程序可在加工中心进行有效加工。该研究成果对其他类型五轴数控机床后置处理器的开发具有一定的借鉴意义,并为开发其他CAD/CAM软件的后置处理程序提供了思路。%In order to achieve automatic programming and use high-performance numerical control equipment effectively, the paper studied the method of developing the postprocessor for DMC 70eV five-axis computerized numerical control (CNC) machining center. After analyzing the characteristics of CNC instruction codes and the output format of MILLPLUS IT V530 CNC system, the specific postprocessor for five-axis CNC machining mode was developed based on IMSpost. Production proved that the developed postproceasor was reliable and the CNC machining program generated by the postproc, essor could operate in the machining center and then put into part machining. The results had some references for the development of the postprocessor for other type of five-axis CNC machining tools, and offered thinking for the development of postprocessing program of other CAD/CAM software.

  9. Study on the Reliability of CNC Machine Tools and Key Function Units%数控机床及其关键功能部件可靠性研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李南; 卢晓红; 韩鹏卓; 武文毅

    2012-01-01

    At present, the reliability of CNC machine tools and their key function units has a significant gap with that of abroad. The reliability has been an important index to judge the performance of CNC machine tools and their key function units. Therefore, the study on their reliability is extremely urgent. Based on the large quantities of reliability researches of home and abroad, the paper summarizes the analysis and processing method of the failure data, the reliability evaluation methodology, the reliability growth technology and the reliability testing technology of CNC machine tools. Additionally, the paper explains the difference between the reliability study of the key function units of CNC machine tools and the complete machines. Finally, the paper presents the reliability research scheme and prospect of CNC machine tools and their key function units.%目前我国数控机床及其关键功能部件的可靠性水平与国外差距明显.而可靠性已经成为衡量数控机床及其关键功能部件性能好坏的重要指标之一,因此,数控机床及其关键功能部件可靠性研究迫在眉睫.文章在国内外大量相关可靠性研究的基础上,归纳总结了数控机床可靠性故障数据的分析及处理方法、可靠性评价方法、可靠性增长技术及可靠性试验技术;分析了数控机床关键功能部件可靠性研究与整机可靠性研究的不同之处,提出了数控机床整机及关键功能部件可靠性研究方案及展望.

  10. 经编机数控系统关键技术及其发展%Development of Key Technologies for Warp-knitting Machine CNC System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琦; 蒋高明; 夏风林

    2013-01-01

    As the most productive knitting machine, warp knitting machine has become one focus of the national"NC generation"mechanical product innovation project. This paper gives a detailed description of the high-speed data-bus, electronic gear, electronic cam, piezoelectric ceramic fast driving, which are the key technologies used in modern warp knitting machine CNC system. It also analyses the present situation and developing trend of warp knitting machine numerical control system systematically.%  经编机作为生产效率最高的织造机械,是国家“数控一代”项目重点发展的纺织装备之一。本文对应用在现代经编机数控系统中的高速总线、电子齿轮、电子凸轮、压电陶瓷快速驱动等关键技术进行了详细描述,并对经编机数控系统的发展现状以及发展趋势进行了系统分析。

  11. 数控车床液压卡盘夹紧控制系统的研究%Research of CNC lathe chuck clamping hydraulic control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文亭

    2014-01-01

    主要研究数控车床液压卡盘夹紧控制系统,建立了动力卡盘的夹紧力和转速之间的关系模型,分析了基于供油压力随速度变化的夹紧力补偿,设计了动力卡盘的夹紧控制系统的油路,通过试验验证了采用液压压力补偿的卡盘控制系统具有较好的高速性能。%This paper studies the CNC lathe chuck clamping hydraulic control system, established the model of the relationship between a power chuck clamping force and speed, analysis of the speed change based on the oil pressure with a clamping force compensation, designed chuck clamping force control system hydraulic circuit, verified by experiment using a pressure compensated hydraulic chuck control system has good high speed performance.

  12. Analysis and modeling on the error synthesis for CNC machine tools%数控机床综合误差分析与建模研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志荣; 封志明

    2012-01-01

    The source error and the theory of kinematics of the error motion for machine tools were analyzed. Taken a three-axis machine tools as study object, the number arrays of low-order body were used to describe the topological structures which are taken to generalize and refine MBS, and the characteristic matrices were employed to represent the relative positions and gestures between any two bodies in MBS. The comprehensive error mathematical model was established. In the model components of not only the geometric errors but also the thermal errors and cutting force error were covered. It can be for the reference of the error modeling analysis and the error compensation on other types CNC machine tools.%分析了影响机床精度的误差来源及运动副的误差运动学原理.以一台三轴数控机床为研究对象,利用低序体阵列描述多体系统拓扑结构,用特征矩阵表示多体系统中间体的相对位置和姿态,建立误差综合数学模型,模型中不仅包含了几何误差且包含了热误差和切削力误差,可为其他类型的机床误差综合建模及补偿提供参考.

  13. Gamma-ray binaries and related systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dubus, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    After initial claims and a long hiatus, it is now established that several binary stars emit high (0.1-100 GeV) and very high energy (>100 GeV) gamma rays. A new class has emerged called 'gamma-ray binaries', since most of their radiated power is emitted beyond 1 MeV. Accreting X-ray binaries, novae and a colliding wind binary (eta Car) have also been detected - 'related systems' that confirm the ubiquity of particle acceleration in astrophysical sources. Do these systems have anything in common ? What drives their high-energy emission ? How do the processes involved compare to those in other sources of gamma rays: pulsars, active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants ? I review the wealth of observational and theoretical work that have followed these detections, with an emphasis on gamma-ray binaries. I present the current evidence that gamma-ray binaries are driven by rotation-powered pulsars. Binaries are laboratories giving access to different vantage points or physical conditions on a regular timescale as ...

  14. Interrupted Binary Mass Transfer in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Nathan W C; Toonen, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Binary mass transfer is at the forefront of some of the most exciting puzzles of modern astrophysics, including Type Ia supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and the formation of most observed exotic stellar populations. Typically, the evolution is assumed to proceed in isolation, even in dense stellar environments such as star clusters. In this paper, we test the validity of this assumption via the analysis of a large grid of binary evolution models simulated with the SeBa code. For every binary, we calculate analytically the mean time until another single or binary star comes within the mean separation of the mass-transferring binary, and compare this time-scale to the mean time for stable mass transfer to occur. We then derive the probability for each respective binary to experience a direct dynamical interruption. The resulting probability distribution can be integrated to give an estimate for the fraction of binaries undergoing mass transfer that are expected to be disrupted as a function of the host cluster pro...

  15. NmF2 and hmF2 measurements at 95° E and 127° E around the EIA northern crest during 2010-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Bitap Raj; Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar; Yoshikawa, Akimasa

    2015-11-01

    The characteristics of the F2 layer parameters NmF2 and hmF2 over Dibrugarh (27.5° N, 95° E, 17° N geomagnetic, 43° dip) measured by a Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) for the period of August 2010 to July 2014 are reported for the first time from this low mid-latitude station lying within the daytime peak of the longitudinal wave number 4 structure of equatorial anomaly (EIA) around the northern edge of anomaly crest. Equinoctial asymmetry is clearly observed at all solar activity levels whereas the midday winter anomaly is observed only during high solar activity years and disappears during the temporary dip in solar activity in 2013 but forenoon winter anomaly can be observed even at moderate solar activity. The NmF2/hmF2 variations over Dibrugarh are compared with that of Okinawa (26.5° N, 127° E, 17° N geomagnetic), and the eastward propagation speed of the wave number 4 longitudinal structure from 95° E to 127° E is estimated. The speed is found to be close to the theoretical speed of the wave number 4 (WN4) structure. The correlation of daily NmF2 over Dibrugarh and Okinawa with solar activity exhibits diurnal and seasonal variations. The highest correlation in daytime is observed during the forenoon hours in equinox. The correlation of daily NmF2 (linear or non-linear) with solar activity exhibits diurnal variation. A tendency for amplification with solar activity is observed in the forenoon and late evening period of March equinox and the postsunset period of December solstice. NmF2 saturation effect is observed only in the midday period of equinox. Non-linear variation of neutral composition at higher altitudes and variation of recombination rates with solar activity via temperature dependence may be related to the non-linear trend. The noon time maximum NmF2 over Dibrugarh exhibits better correlation with equatorial electrojet (EEJ) than with solar activity and, therefore, new low-latitude NmF2 index is proposed taking both solar

  16. Pd-Si binary bulk metallic glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO KeFu; CHEN Na

    2008-01-01

    Pd80+xSi20-x (x=0, 1, and 2) binary metallic glasses with the diameter ranging from 7 to 8 mm were prepared by a combination of fluxing and water quenching or air cooling. Thermal analysis results show that with increasing Si content, the glass transition temperature Tg, the initial crystallization temperature Tx and the onset crystalliza-tion temperature Tp of Pd-Si binary glassy alloys increase. Moreover, the super-cooled liquid region reaches 61 K. It indicates that Pd-Si binary alloys possess large glass forming ability, which can be greatly improved by fluxing treatment.

  17. Pd-Si binary bulk metallic glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Pd80+xSi20-x (x=0,1,and 2) binary metallic glasses with the diameter ranging from 7 to 8 mm were prepared by a combination of fluxing and water quenching or air cooling. Thermal analysis results show that with increasing Si content,the glass transition temperature Tg,the initial crystallization temperature Tx and the onset crystalliza-tion temperature Tp of Pd-Si binary glassy alloys increase. Moreover,the super-cooled liquid region reaches 61 K. It indicates that Pd-Si binary alloys possess large glass forming ability,which can be greatly improved by fluxing treatment.

  18. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the...... same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects with...

  19. Cassini states for black hole binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Alexandre C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cassini states correspond to the equilibria of the spin axis of a body when its orbit is perturbed. They were initially described for planetary satellites, but the spin axes of black hole binaries also present this kind of equilibria. In previous works, Cassini states were reported as spin-orbit resonances, but actually the spin of black hole binaries is in circulation and there is no resonant motion. Here we provide a general description of the spin dynamics of black hole binary systems base...

  20. Fast algorithms for generating binary holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Dustin; Kuhn, Axel

    2014-01-01

    We describe three algorithms for generating binary-valued holograms. Our methods are optimised for producing large arrays of tightly focussed optical tweezers for trapping particles. Binary-valued holograms allow us to use a digital mirror device (DMD) as the display element, which is much faster than other alternatives. We describe how our binary amplitude holograms can be used to correct for phase errors caused by optical aberrations. Furthermore, we compare the speed and accuracy of the algorithms for both periodic and arbitrary arrangements of traps, which allows one to choose the ideal scheme depending on the circumstances.

  1. Determination of thermodynamic properties of aluminum based binary and ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the Gibbs–Thomson coefficient, solid–liquid and solid–solid interfacial energies and grain boundary energy of a solid Al solution in the Al–Cu–Si eutectic system were determined from the observed grain boundary groove shapes by measuring the thermal conductivity of the solid and liquid phases and temperature gradient. Some thermodynamic properties such as the enthalpy of fusion, entropy of fusion, the change of specific heat from liquid to solid and the electrical conductivity of solid phases at their melting temperature were also evaluated by using the measured values of relevant data for Al–Cu, Al–Si, Al–Mg, Al–Ni, Al–Ti, Al–Cu–Ag, Al–Cu–Si binary and ternary alloys. - Highlights: • The microstructure of the Al–Cu–Si eutectic alloy was observed through SEM. • The three eutectic phases (α-Al, Si, CuAl2) have been determined by EDX analysis. • Solid–liquid and solid–solid interfacial energies of α-Al solution were determined. • ΔSf,ΔHM, ΔCP, electrical conductivity of solid phases for solid Al solutions were determined. • G–T coefficient and grain boundary energy of solid Al solution were determined

  2. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results

  3. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  4. Hemicellulosic Ethanol Production by Immobilized Wild Brazilian Yeast Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2: Effects of Cell Concentration and Stirring Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, F A F; Santos, J C; Chandel, A K; Milessi, T S S; Peres, G F D; da Silva, S S

    2016-02-01

    The use of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates presents an interesting alternative to second generation (2G) ethanol production. Techniques to enhance the fermentation process, e.g., the use of immobilized cells, is one of the key factors for efficient production. Here, the effect of two important parameters (cell concentration in immobilized system and stirring rate) on the 2G ethanol production using the wild Brazilian yeast S. shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2 immobilized in calcium alginate matrix are presented. A 2(2) full factorial design of experiments was carried out to evaluate the effect of cell concentrations in sodium alginate solution for immobilized bead production (3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 g/L) and stirring rate (150, 200, and 250 rpm) for 2G ethanol production. Statistical analysis showed that the use of both variables at low levels enhanced ethanol yield (YP/S). Under these process conditions, YP/S of 0.31 g/g and ethanol productivity (Qp) of 0.12 g/L h were achieved. Results showed the potential of this immobilized yeast in 2G ethanol production from C5 sugars and demonstrate the importance of adequate cell concentration in immobilized systems, a finding that stands to increase bioprocesses yields and productivity. PMID:26507335

  5. Evaluation of the Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Aloe Fermentation Supernatant Containing Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meixiu; Deng, Kan; Jiang, Chunling; Fu, Mingui; Guo, Chunlan; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Xin; Meng, Fanjing; Yang, Shaoguo; Deng, Keyu; Chen, Tingtao; Xin, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Little work is done to develop Aloe vera (AV) using probiotics. To explore the potential benefits, the antioxidant effects and the antibacterial effects on foodborne pathogens of Aloe fermentation supernatant were evaluated in vitro. Our results indicated that the Aloe fermentation supernatant fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1 had very strong scavenging capacities of the DPPH (86%), O2 (•-) (85%), (•)OH (76%), and Fe(2+) chelation (82%) and reducing powers (242.5 mg/L), and the inhibition zones for Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, S. dysenteriae 301, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan1, and Propionibacterium acnes were 16, 15, 19, 20, 21, 20, and 27 mm. Moreover, the low concentration of Aloe fermentation supernatant had significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in both mRNA and protein levels (P Aloe fermentation supernatant can be used as functional beverage or cosmetic ingredients to guard human intestinal health, delaying senescence, and prevent chronic diseases. PMID:27493450

  6. Raman Scattered O VI $\\lambda$ 6825 and the Accretion Disk Emission Model in the Symbiotic Stars V1016 Cygni and HM Sagittae

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hee-Won

    2007-01-01

    We present the high resolution spectra of the D type symbiotic stars V1016 Cygni and HM Sagittae obtained with the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph (BOES), and investigate the double-peaked asymmetric profiles of the Raman scattered O VI 6825. By adopting a wind accretion disk model, we assume that the O VI emission region is described by a Keplerian thin disk. The Raman scattering occurs in a neutral region near the giant, taking in the form of a slow stellar wind, part of which is ionized by the strong UV radiation from the hot white dwarf. Using a Monte Carlo technique, we compute the line profiles that are modulated by the slow spherical stellar wind from the giant component with the ionization front approximated by a hyperboloid. In order to account for the asymmetry and the existence of a central dip in the profiles, we add an O VI resonance scattering region between the hot white dwarf and the giant star which hinders the incidence of slightly blue O VI photons upon the H I region. Overall good f...

  7. Compact Binaries in Star Clusters I - Black Hole Binaries Inside Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, J. M. B.; Benacquista, M. J.; Giersz, M.; Spurzem, R.

    2009-01-01

    We study the compact binary population in star clusters, focusing on binaries containing black holes, using a self-consistent Monte Carlo treatment of dynamics and full stellar evolution. We find that the black holes experience strong mass segregation and become centrally concentrated. In the core the black holes interact strongly with each other and black hole-black hole binaries are formed very efficiently. The strong interactions, however, also destroy or eject the black hole-black hole bi...

  8. Properties of planets in binary systems. The role of binary separation

    OpenAIRE

    Desidera, S.; Barbieri, M.

    2006-01-01

    The statistical properties of planets in binaries were investigated. Any difference to planets orbiting single stars can shed light on the formation and evolution of planetary systems. As planets were found around components of binaries with very different separation and mass ratio, it is particularly important to study the characteristics of planets as a function of the effective gravitational influence of the companion. A compilation of planets in binary systems was made; a search for compa...

  9. Binaries in the Hipparcos data: Keep digging

    CERN Document Server

    Pourbaix, D; Jorissen, A

    2004-01-01

    Among the 120 000 objects in the Hipparcos catalogue, only 235 were fitted with an orbital model. Besides these 235 original astrometric binaries, most Hipparcos entries with a known spectroscopic orbit (extrasolar planet or stellar companion) have now been re-processed, as part of the on-going construction of the 9th Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binary Orbits (SB9, available at http://sb9.astro.ulb.ac.be). The pitfalls and successes of this re-processing are discussed in various contexts, like (i) orbital inclinations: the holy grail for extrasolar planets (ii) searching for binaries without a priori knowledge of their spectroscopic orbital elements, and application to barium stars (iii) why not all SB9 entries yield acceptable astrometric solutions? The lessons learned from this study are useful to devise the best possible binary-detection and orbit-determination algorithms for future astrometric missions like GAIA.

  10. A mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Echeverria, C; Alvarez-Llamoza, O; Orozco-Guillén, E E; Morales, M; Cosenza, M G

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model to study symmetric binary fluids, based in the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where space and state variables are continuous while time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require the calculation of the interaction forces between particles, thus allowing the description of binary fluids at a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple, computationally efficient, maintains Galilean invariance, and conserves the mass and the energy in the system at micro and macro scales; while momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as density profile, width of the interface, phase separation and phase growth. We also apply the model to study binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  11. Red-giant stars in eccentric binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck P. G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has led to improved understanding of red-giant stars and binary stars. We discuss the characterization of known eccentric system, containing a solar-like oscillating red-giant primary component. We also report several new binary systems that are candidates for hosting an oscillating companion. A powerful approach to study binary stars is to combine asteroseimic techniques with light curve fitting. Seismology allows us to deduce the properties of red giants. In addition, by modeling the ellipsoidal modulations we can constrain the parameters of the binary system. An valuable independent source are ground-bases, high-resolution spectrographs.

  12. Evolution of Binary Stars in Multiple-Population Globular Clusters - II. Compact Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jongsuk; Sollima, Antonio; McMillan, Stephen L W; D'Antona, Franca; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a survey of N-body simulations aimed at exploring the evolution of compact binaries in multiple-population globular clusters.We show that as a consequence of the initial differences in the structural properties of the first-generation (FG) and the second-generation (SG) populations and the effects of dynamical processes on binary stars, the SG binary fraction decreases more rapidly than that of the FG population. The difference between the FG and SG binary fraction is qualitatively similar to but quantitatively smaller than that found for wider binaries in our previous investigations.The evolution of the radial variation of the binary fraction is driven by the interplay between binary segregation, ionization and ejection. Ionization and ejection counteract in part the effects of mass segregation but for compact binaries the effects of segregation dominate and the inner binary fraction increases during the cluster evolution. We explore the variation of the difference between the FG an...

  13. Tidal capture formation of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries from wide binaries in the field

    CERN Document Server

    Michaely, Erez

    2015-01-01

    We present a potentially efficient dynamical formation scenario for Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) in the field, focusing on black-hole (BH) LMXBs. In this formation channel LMXBs are formed from wide binaries $(>1000$ AU) with a BH component and a stellar companion. The wide binary is perturbed by fly-by's of field stars and its orbit random-walks and changes over time. This diffusion process can drive the binary into a sufficiently eccentric orbit such that the binary components tidally interact at peri-center and the binary evolves to become a short period binary, which eventually evolves into an LMXB. The formation rate of LMXBs through this channel mostly depends on the number of such BH wide binaries progenitors, which in turn depends on the velocity kicks imparted to BHs (or NSs) at birth. We consider several models for the formation and survival of such wide binaries, and calculate the LMXB formation rates for each model. We find that models where BHs form through direct collapse with no/little natal...

  14. Binary is Good: A Binary Inference Framework for Primary User Separation in Cognitive Radio Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Huy; Han, Zhu

    2010-01-01

    Primary users (PU) separation concerns with the issues of distinguishing and characterizing primary users in cognitive radio (CR) networks. We argue the need for PU separation in the context of collaborative spectrum sensing and monitor selection. In this paper, we model the observations of monitors as boolean OR mixtures of underlying binary latency sources for PUs, and devise a novel binary inference algorithm for PU separation. Simulation results show that without prior knowledge regarding PUs' activities, the algorithm achieves high inference accuracy. An interesting implication of the proposed algorithm is the ability to effectively represent n independent binary sources via (correlated) binary vectors of logarithmic length.

  15. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  16. Structure of simple (binary) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal structures of different simple and binary oxides of M3O, M2O, MO, MO2, MO4, MO3, M2O3, M3O4, M2O5, M2O7 composition as well as lowest cesium oxides (Cs7O, Cs4O, Cs11O3) are considered. Cs3O crystals are constructed out of the colomns of the Cs3O composition consisting of octahedrals OCs6 jointed through the opposite faces. This is the ZrI3 ''antistructure''. Cs2O has the CdCl2 antistructure. ZrO2, HfO2, CeO2, ThO2, UO2, NpO2, PuO2, AmO2, CmO2, PoO2 oxides have the structural type of fluorite of rutile - VO2, NbO2, TaO2, MoO2, ReO2 oxides, of wurtzite - BeO. The NbO oxide is unique, in its structure the oxygen and niobium atoms form four complanar bonds. A three-dimensional skeleton constructed out of the octahedral structural units Nb6 (Nb-Nb 2.98 A) is separated. ZrO2 is a polymorphous, at 1100 grad. the monoclinic modification transfers to tetragonal. M2O7 oxides are Re2O7, Tc2O7

  17. Detecting Eccentric Globular Cluster Binaries with LISA

    OpenAIRE

    Benacquista, M.

    2001-01-01

    The energy carried in the gravitational wave signal from an eccentric binary is spread across several harmonics of the orbital frequency. The inclusion of the harmonics in the analysis of the gravitational wave signal increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected signal for binaries whose fundamental frequency is below the galactic confusion-limited noise cut-off. This can allow for an improved angular resolution for sources whose orbital period is greater than 2000 s. Globular cluster ...

  18. Copula-based bivariate binary response models

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelmann, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    The bivariate probit model is frequently used for estimating the effect of an endogenous binary regressor on a binary outcome variable. This paper discusses simple modifications that maintain the probit assumption for the marginal distributions while introducing non-normal dependence among the two variables using copulas. Simulation results and evidence from two applications, one on the effect of insurance status on ambulatory expenditure and one on the effect of completing high school on sub...

  19. Binary compact object inspiral: Detection expectations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vassiliki Kalogera

    2004-10-01

    We review the current estimates of binary compact object inspiral rates in particular in view of the recently discovered highly relativistic binary pulsar J0737-3039. One of the robust results is that, because of this discovery, the rate estimates for binary neutron stars have increased by a factor of 6-7 independent of any uncertainties related to the pulsar population properties. This rate increase has dramatic implications for gravitational wave detectors. For initial LIGO, the most probable detection rates for double neutron star (DNS) inspirals is 1 event/(5{250) yr; at 95% confidence we obtain rates up to 1/1.5 yr. For advanced LIGO, the most probable rates are 20-1000 events/yr. These predictions, for the first time, bring the expectations for DNS detections by initial LIGO to the astrophysically relevant regime. We also use our models to predict that the large-scale Parkes multibeam pulsar survey with acceleration searches could detect an average of three to four binary pulsars similar to those known at present. In comparison, rate estimates for binaries with black holes are derived based on binary evolution calculation, and based on the optimistic ends of the ranges, remain an important candidate for inspiral detection in the next few years. We also consider another aspect of the detectability of binary inspiral: the effect of precession on the detection efficiency of astrophysically relevant binaries. Based on our current astrophysical expectations, large tilt angles are not favored. As a result the decrease in detection rate varies rather slowly with black hole spin magnitude and is within 20-30% of the maximum possible values.

  20. Planet Scattering Around Binaries: Ejections, Not Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Smullen, Rachel A.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Shannon, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in...