WorldWideScience

Sample records for binary gx 339-4

  1. GX 339-4 approaching quiescence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Lewis; D.M. Russell

    2009-01-01

    The black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) GX 339-4 continues to fade in the optical, and has now reached its faintest optical flux since (at least) the start of its 2006-7 outburst (ATels #968, #1027). In this outburst, the source reached peak magnitude values of V ~ 15 and I ~ 14. On the decline of the ou

  2. Unsupervised spectral decomposition of X-ray binaries with application to GX 339--4

    CERN Document Server

    Koljonen, Karri I I

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore unsupervised spectral decomposition methods for distinguishing the effect of different spectral components for a set of consecutive spectra from an X-ray binary. We use well-established linear methods for the decomposition, namely principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA) and non-negative matrix factorisation (NMF). Applying these methods to a simulated dataset consisting of a variable multicolour disc black body and a cutoff power law, we find that NMF outperforms the other two methods in distinguishing the spectral components. In addition, due the non-negative nature of NMF, the resulting components may be fitted separately, revealing the evolution of individual parameters. To test the NMF method on a real source, we analyse data from the low-mass X-ray binary GX 339-4 and found the results to match those of previous studies. In addition, we found the inner radius of the accretion disc to be located at the innermost stable orbit in the intermediate sta...

  3. Thermal Iron K and Alpha: Line Emission from the X-Ray Binary GX 339-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. D.; Zhang, S. N.; Zhang, X. L.; Liu, D. B.; Chen, L.; Xu, H. G.; You, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    The accretion rate of the black hole candidate X-ray binary GX 339-4 in the 'off' state is low, and an advection dominated accretion flow (ADAF) is present. Hydrogen-like and helium-like iron Kbalpha; emission lines at 6.7 and 6.95 keV from hot plasma of ADAF can be produced by recombination-cascade processes with moderately high intensities, which are markedly distinguished from the fluorescent iron Kα line at approximately 6.4 keV. We show that the observational features of GX 339-4 can be explained by the ADAF model, if the iron abundance is more than 10 times the solar value, though the reason for such a high abundance is still unclear. We suggest that the increase of the accretion rate makes GX 339-4 change from off, low, intermediate, to high and very high states, and the line center of iron Kbalpha; will therefore shift from approximately 6.83 to approximately 6.4 keV, i.e. to the fluorescent disc-line, since the disappearance of the ADAF due to its high accretion rate.

  4. Internal shocks driven by accretion flow variability in the compact jet of the black hole binary GX 339-4

    CERN Document Server

    Drappeau, S; Belmont, J; Gandhi, P; Corbel, S

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, compact jets have been playing a growing role in the understanding of accreting black hole engines. In the case of X-ray binary systems, compact jets are usually associated with the hard state phase of a source outburst. Recent observations of GX 339-4 have demonstrated the presence of a variable synchrotron spectral break in the mid-infrared band that was associated with its compact jet. In the model used in this study, we assume that the jet emission is produced by electrons accelerated in internal shocks driven by rapid fluctuations of the jet velocity. The resulting spectral energy distribution (SED) and variability properties are very sensitive to the Fourier power spectrum density (PSD) of the assumed fluctuations of the jet Lorentz factor. These fluctuations are likely to be triggered by the variability of the accretion flow which is best traced by the X-ray emission. Taking the PSD of the jet Lorentz factor fluctuations to be identical to the observed X-ray PSD, our study finds that t...

  5. Reapproaching the Spin Estimate of GX 339-4

    CERN Document Server

    Ludlam, R M; Cackett, E M

    2015-01-01

    We systematically reanalyze two previous observations of the black hole (BH) GX 339-4 in the very high and intermediate state taken with $\\emph{XMM-Newton}$ and $\\emph{Suzaku}$. We utilize up-to-date data reduction procedures and implement the recently developed, self-consistent model for X-ray reflection and relativistic ray tracing, {\\sc relxill}. In the very high and intermediate state, the rate of accretion is high and thus the disk remains close to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO). We require a common spin parameter and inclination when fitting the two observations since these parameters should remain constant across all states. This allows for the most accurate determination of the spin parameter of this galactic black hole binary from fitting the Fe K$\\alpha$ emission line and provides a chance to test previous estimates. We find GX 339-4 to be consistent with a near maximally spinning black hole with a spin parameter $a_{*}$ $>0.97$ with an inclination of $36 \\pm 4$ degrees. This spin value ...

  6. Long-term Monitoring of the Black Hole Binary GX 339-4 in the High/Soft State during the 2010 Outburst with MAXI/GSC

    CERN Document Server

    Shidatsu, Megumi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Negoro, Hitoshi; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Hiroi, Kazuo; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Mihara, Tatehiro; Matsuoka, Masaru; Kimura, Masashi; Ishikawa, Masaki; Isobe, Naoki; Kitayama, Hiroki; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Matsumura, Takanori; Morii, Mikio; Nakagawa, Yujin E; Nakajima, Motoki; Serino, Motoko; Sootome, Tetsuya; Sugimori, Kousuke; Suwa, Fumitoshi; Toizumi, Takahiro; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yohko; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Usui, Ryuichi; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Kyohei; Yoshida, Atsumasa

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of monitoring the Galactic black hole candidate GX 339-4 with the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) / Gas Slit Camera (GSC) in the high/soft state during the outburst in 2010. All the spectra throughout the 8-month period are well reproduced with a model consisting of multi-color disk (MCD) emission and its Comptonization component, whose fraction is <= 25% in the total flux. In spite of the flux variability over a factor of 3, the innermost disk radius is constant at R_in = 61 +/- 2 km for the inclination angle of i = 46 deg and the distance of d=8 kpc. This R_in value is consistent with those of the past measurements with Tenma in the high/soft state. Assuming that the disk extends to the innermost stable circular orbit of a non-spinning black hole, we estimate the black hole mass to be M = 6.8 +/- 0.2 M_sun for i = 46 deg and d = 8 kpc, which is consistent with that estimated from the Suzaku observation of the previous low/hard state. Further combined with the mass function, w...

  7. XMM-Newton Observations of GX 339-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor); Miller, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Observations of GX 339-4 were completed in March, 2004, but processed data were only sent to the PI in the late fall of 2004. Thus, serious work on the observations only began in the winter and spring of 2005. Data from each of the instruments - the EPIC CCD cameras, the Reflection Grating Spectrometer, and the Optical Monitor have been reduced and a preliminary analysis is underway. Four days of simultaneous optical radio, and X-ray data was obtained at SAAO, the Australia Telescope, and RXTE, respectively, and preliminary work on the broad-band multi-wavelength lightcurves is also underway. This observational effort is the most extensive ever undertaken to observe a black hole in the "low/hard" state, and will provide new insights into accretion onto black holes at low mass accretion rates.

  8. Systematic spectral analysis of GX 339-4: influence of Galactic background and reflection models

    CERN Document Server

    Clavel, M; Corbel, S; Coriat, M

    2016-01-01

    Black hole X-ray binaries display large outbursts, during which their properties are strongly variable. We develop a systematic spectral analysis of the 3-40 keV RXTE/PCA data in order to study the evolution of these systems and apply it to GX 339-4. Using the low count rate observations, we provide a precise model of the Galactic background at GX 339-4's location and discuss its possible impact on the source spectral parameters. At higher fluxes, the use of a Gaussian line to model the reflection component can lead to the detection of a high-temperature disk, in particular in the high-hard state. We demonstrate that this component is an artifact arising from an incomplete modeling of the reflection spectrum.

  9. A variable mid-infrared synchrotron break associated with the compact jet in GX 339-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandhi, P.; Blain, A.W.; Russell, D.M.; Casella, P.; Malzac, J.; Corbel, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; Lewis, F.W.; Markoff, S.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Goldoni, P.; Wachter, S.; Khangulyan, D.; Mainzer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Many X-ray binaries remain undetected in the mid-infrared, a regime where emission from their compact jets is likely to dominate. Here, we report the detection of the black hole binary GX 339-4 with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) during a very bright, hard accretion state in 2010. Co

  10. Simultaneous INTEGRAL, RXTE, Swift and FT South observations of the transition of GX 339-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadolle Bel, M.; Kuulkers, E.; Ibarra, A.; Diaz Trigo, M.; Tomsick, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Prat, L.; Corbel, S.; Russell, D.M.; Altamirano, D.; Lewis, F.; Bozzo, E.; Turler, M.; Ferrigno, C.

    2010-01-01

    As GX 339-4 has started to leave the Low/Hard State (ATel #2545), we triggered the 2nd part of our INTEGRAL campaign on GX 339-4 in the declining phase of the hard X-ray band, as well as contemporaneous Swift observations. The source was observed by INTEGRAL for 158 ks between April 15 (01:57 UTC)

  11. Simultaneous INTEGRAL, RXTE, Swift and FT South observations of the transition of GX 339-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadolle Bel, M.; Kuulkers, E.; Ibarra, A.; Diaz Trigo, M.; Tomsick, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Prat, L.; Corbel, S.; Russell, D.M.; Altamirano, D.; Lewis, F.; Bozzo, E.; Turler, M.; Ferrigno, C.

    2010-01-01

    As GX 339-4 has started to leave the Low/Hard State (ATel #2545), we triggered the 2nd part of our INTEGRAL campaign on GX 339-4 in the declining phase of the hard X-ray band, as well as contemporaneous Swift observations. The source was observed by INTEGRAL for 158 ks between April 15 (01:57 UTC) a

  12. Spectro-Timing Study of GX 339-4 in a Hard Intermediate State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, F.; Grinberg, V.; Tomsick, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observations of a hard intermediate state of the transient black hole GX 339-4 taken in 2015 January. With the source softening significantly over the course of the 1.3 day long observation we split the data into 21 sub-sets and find...

  13. Radio detection of GX 339-4 in its latest outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, T. D.; Tetarenko, A. J.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.

    2017-10-01

    Following the recent detection of a new outburst from the Galactic black hole X-ray transient GX 339-4 (ATel #10797, #10798), we triggered target of opportunity radio observations of the source with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA).

  14. ATCA radio detection of GX 339-4 in the rising hard state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Maccarone, Tom J.; Deller, Adam T.; Jonker, Peter; Nelemans, Gijs; Tzioumis, Tasso; Altamirano, Diego; Pawar, Devraj; Russell, Dave

    2013-08-01

    ATCA radio detection of GX 339-4 in the rising hard state James C.A. Miller-Jones (ICRAR - Curtin), Gregory R. Sivakoff (U. Alberta), Tom J. Maccarone (TTU), Adam T. Deller (ASTRON), Peter Jonker (SRON), Gijs Nelemans (U Nijmegen), Tasso Tzioumis (CSIRO), Diego Altamirano (U Amsterdam), Devraj Pawar (U. Mumbai), Dave Russell (IAC, Tenerife)

  15. Two spectral states of the black-hole candidate GX 339-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, S. V.; Borozdin, K. N.; Aleksandrovich, N. L.; Aref'ev, V. A.; Sunyaev, R. A.; Skinner, G. K.

    1997-07-01

    We performed two series of observations of the X-ray source GX 339-4, a black-hole candidate, between 1989 and 1994 using the TTM instrument of the Roentgen Observatory. In March 1989, the source was in a soft state with a spectrum described by a multicolor accretion disk model (Shakura and Sunyaev 1973). In March 1994, a hard state with a power-law spectrum and a transition from the hard to the soft state was observed. The spectral states of the source show similarities to the spectra of other black-hole candidates. The presence of two states is considered as evidence that GX 339-4 belongs to this class of objects.

  16. VLT optical observations of V821 Ara(=GX339-4) in an extended "off" state

    CERN Document Server

    Shahbaz, T; Charles, P A

    2001-01-01

    We report on low-resolution spectroscopy of GX339-4 during its current, extended X-ray `off' state in May 2000 (r=20.1) obtained with the VLT Focal Reducer/low dispersion Spectrograph (FORS1). Although we do not positively detect the secondary star in GX339-4 we place an upper limit of 30 percent on the contribution of a ``normal'' K-type secondary star spectrum to the observed flux. Using this limit for the observed magnitude of the secondary star, we find a lower limit for the distance of GX339-4 to be 5.6 kpc.

  17. Evolution of the reverberation lag in GX 339-4 at the end of an outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, B.; Ponti, G.; Petrucci, P. O.; Clavel, M.; Corbel, S.; Belmont, R.; Chakravorty, S.; Coriat, M.; Drappeau, S.; Ferreira, J.; Henri, G.; Malzac, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Tomsick, J. A.; Ursini, F.; Zdziarski, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    We studied X-ray reverberation lags in the Black hole X-ray binary (BHXRB) GX 339-4 at the end of the 2014-2015 outburst. We analysed data from an XMM-Newton campaign covering the end of the transition from the soft to hard state, and the decrease of luminosity in the hard state. During all the observations we detected, at high frequencies, significant disc variability, responding to variations of the power-law emission with an average time delay of ∼0.009 ± 0.002 s. These new detections of disc thermal reverberation add to those previously obtained and suggest the lag to be always present in hard and hard-intermediate states. Our study reveals a net decrease of lag amplitude as a function of luminosity. We ascribe this trend to variations of the inner flow geometry. A possible scenario implies a decrease of the inner disc truncation radius as the luminosity increases at the beginning of the outburst, followed by an increase of the inner disc truncation radius as the luminosity decreases at the end of the outburst. Finally, we found hints of FeK reverberation (∼3σ significance) during the best quality observation of the XMM monitoring. The lag at the FeK energy has similar amplitude as that of the thermally reprocessed component, as expected if the same irradiated region of the disc is responsible for producing both the thermalized and reflected components. This finding suggests FeK reverberation in BHXRBs to be at the reach of current detectors provided observations of sufficiently long exposure are available.

  18. The high-energy X-ray spectrum of black hole candidate GX 339-4 during a transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Orwig, L. E.

    1987-01-01

    The X-ray emitting system GX 339-4 contains one of the prime candidates for a stellar mass-sized black hole. Determining the observational similarities and differences between the members of this group is of value in specifying which characteristics can be used to identify systems containing a black hole, especially those for which no mass determination can be made. The first observations of the E greater than 20 keV spectrum of GX 339-4 during a transition between luminosity states are reported here. The hard spectral state is the lower luminosity state of the system. GX 339-4 has a power-low spectrum above 20 keV which pivots during transitions between distinct luminosity states. The only other X-ray sources known to exhibit this behavior, Cyg XR-1 and (probably) A0620-00, are leading candidates for systems containing a black hole component based on their measured spectrocopic mass function.

  19. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton spectroscopy of GX 339-4 during hard/soft intermediate and high/soft states in the 2007 outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caballero-García, M.D.; Miller, J.M.; Díaz Trigo, M.; Kuulkers, E.; Fabian, A.C.; Mas-Hesse, J.M.; Steeghs, D.; van der Klis, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present simultaneous XMM-Newton and International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the luminous black hole transient and relativistic jet source GX 339-4. GX 339-4 started an outburst on 2006 November and our observations were undertaken from 2007 January to March. We

  20. Spectral study of GX 339-4 in the low-intensity state observed with Ginga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ebisawa, Ken; Done, Chris

    1994-01-01

    The energy spectra of the black-hole candidate GX 339-4 in the low-intensity state were observed on four occasions through 1989 to 1991 with the Large Area Counter on board the Ginga satellite. The spectra showed significant deviations from a power-law, with an iron K(sub alpha) emission line at approximetaly 6.4 keV and a broad iron K-edge structure above approximately 7 keV. The enrgy spectra above approximately 4 keV were successfully explained with a reflection model, in which part of the incident X-rays with a power-law spectrum is Compton reflected by optically thick matter, resulting in a harder continuum component with iron K-edge absorption and an iron flourescent line. The line equivalent width with respect to the reflection component decreases as the source flux increases. This is consistent with an increase in the ionization state of the material, so that resonant absorption followed by Auger ionization depletes the line. The photon-index of the power-law component was clearly variable, and it correlated with the relative amount of the reflection component. Such a correlation may be explained in the context of the anisotropic Comptonization models of Haardt et al. (1993), or by a variation of the relative geometry of the source and disk.

  1. Leptonic/hadronic models for electromagnetic emission in microquasars: the case of GX 339-4

    CERN Document Server

    Vila, Gabriela S

    2010-01-01

    We present a general self-consistent lepto/hadronic jet model for the non-thermal electromagnetic emission of microquasars. The model is applied to the low-mass microquasar (LMMQ) GX 339-4 and predicts its high-energy features. We assume that both leptons and hadrons are accelerated up to relativistic energies by diffusive shock acceleration, and calculate their contribution to the electromagnetic spectrum through all main radiative processes. The radiative contribution of secondary particles (pions, muons and electron-positron pairs) is included. We use a set of simultaneous observations in radio and X-rays to constrain the model parameters and find the best fit to the data. We obtain different spectral energy distributions that can explain the observations, and make predictions for the high-energy emission. Observations with gamma-ray instruments like Fermi can be used to test the model and determine the proton content of the jets. Finally, we estimate the positron injection in the surrounding medium. Our f...

  2. Fast infrared variability from a relativistic jet in GX 339-4

    CERN Document Server

    Casella, P; O'Brien, K; Fender, R P; Russell, D M; van der Klis, M; Pe'er, A; Maitra, D; Altamirano, D; Belloni, T; Kanbach, G; Klein-Wolt, M; Mason, E; Soleri, P; Stefanescu, A; Wiersema, K; Wijnands, R

    2010-01-01

    We present the discovery of fast infrared/X-ray correlated variability in the black-hole transient GX 339-4. The source was observed with sub-second time resolution simultaneously with VLT/ISAAC and RXTE/PCA in August 2008, during its persistent low-flux highly variable hard state. The data show a strong correlated variability, with the infrared emission lagging the X-ray emission by 100 ms. The short time delay and the nearly symmetric cross-correlation function, together with the measured brightness temperature of ~2.5 x 10^6 K, indicate that the bright and highly variable infrared emission most likely comes from a jet near the black hole. Under standard assumptions about jet physics, the measured time delay can provide us a lower limit of Gamma > 2 for the Lorentz factor of the jet. This suggests that jets from stellar-mass black holes are at least mildly relativistic near their launching region. We discuss implications for future applications of this technique.

  3. Spectro-timing study of GX 339-4 in a hard intermediate state

    CERN Document Server

    Fuerst, F; Tomsick, J A; Bachetti, M; Boggs, S E; Brightman, M; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Gandhi, P; Grefenstette, B; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Madsen, K K; Parker, M L; Pottschmidt, K; Stern, D; Walton, D J; Wilms, J; Zhang, W W

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of NuSTAR energy and power spectra of the transient accreting black hole GX 339-4 taken in January 2015. The observations took place during a hard intermediate state and the source softened significantly over the course of the 1.3 d-long observation. We perform time-resolved spectral analysis by splitting the data into 21 sub-sets and find that the energy spectrum of all of them can be well described by a power-law continuum with an additional relativistically blurred reflection component. The photon index increases from ~1.69 to ~1.77 over the course of the observation. We find that the best-fit model requires a harder power-law incident on the reflector than that observed as primary continuum. The accretion disk is truncated at around 9 gravitational radii in all spectra. We also perform timing analysis on the same 21 individual data sets, and find a strong type-C quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO), which changes in frequency from ~0.68 to ~1.05 Hz over the course of the observation. Th...

  4. Variability properties and Disk dynamics in GX 339-4 during its outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal Dutta, Broja; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    In the propagating oscillatory shock model, the evolution of QPO frequency is explained by systematic variation of Compton cloud size, i.e., steady radial movement of the shock front which is triggered by cooling of the post-shock region. Studies of energy dependent temporal properties in different variability time scales can thus diagnose dynamics and geometry of accretion flows around black holes. We study time variability properties for the low inclination black hole source GX 339-4 during its 2002, 2004, 2007 and 2010 outbursts using RXTE/PCA data. We find only hard lag (i.e., hard photon lags behind soft photons) for all outbursts (2002, 2004, 2007, 2010). We study time lag with the variation of shock location. We find that lag increases as the size of the Comptonizing region increases as in two component advective flow solution. We explain all possible mechanisms and showed that if we add up the qualitative variations of lags, then the high inclination objects could have negative time lags due to reflection and focusing effects. We explain lag behaviour within the framework of a single two component advective flow model.

  5. A variable mid-infrared synchrotron break associated with the compact jet in GX 339-4

    CERN Document Server

    Gandhi, P; Russell, D M; Casella, P; Malzac, J; Corbel, S; D'Avanzo, P; Lewis, F W; Markoff, S; Bel, M Cadolle; Goldoni, P; Wachter, S; Khangulyan, D; Mainzer, A

    2011-01-01

    Many X-ray binaries remain undetected in the mid-infrared, a regime where emission from their compact jets is likely to dominate. Here, we report the detection of the black hole binary GX 339-4 with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) during a very bright, hard accretion state in 2010. Combined with a rich contemporaneous multiwavelength dataset, clear spectral curvature is found in the infrared, associated with the peak flux density expected from the compact jet. An optically-thin slope of ~-0.7 and a jet radiative power of >6x10^{35} erg/s (d/8 kpc)^2 are measured. A ~24 h WISE light curve shows dramatic variations in mid-infrared spectral slope on timescales at least as short as the satellite orbital period ~95 mins. There is also significant change during one pair of observations spaced by only 11 s. These variations imply that the spectral break associated with the transition from self-absorbed to optically-thin jet synchrotron radiation must be varying across the full wavelength range of ~3-2...

  6. Revealing accretion onto black holes: X-ray reflection throughout three outbursts of GX 339-4

    CERN Document Server

    Plant, D S; Ponti, G; Muñoz-Darias, T; Coriat, M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics behind black hole state transitions and the changes they reflect in outbursts has become long-standing problem. The X-ray reflection spectrum describes the interaction between the hard X-ray source (the power-law continuum) and the cool accretion disc it illuminates, and thus permits an indirect view of how the two evolve. We present a systematic analysis of the reflection spectrum throughout three outbursts (500+ observations) of the black hole binary GX 339-4, representing the largest study applying a self-consistent treatment of reflection to date. Particular attention is payed to the coincident evolution of the power-law and reflection, which can be used to determine the accretion geometry. The hard state is found to be distinctly reflection weak, however the ratio of reflection to power-law gradually increases as the source luminosity rises. In contrast the reflection is found dominate the power-law throughout most of the soft state, with increasing supremacy as the source deca...

  7. Low frequency oscillations in black holes: a spectral-timing approach to the case of GX 339-4

    CERN Document Server

    Motta, S; Casella, P; Belloni, T; Homan, J

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed RXTE/PCA and HEXTE data of the transient black hole binary GX 339-4, col- lected over a time span of eight years. We studied the properties and the behavior of low frequency quasi periodic oscillations (QPOs) as a function of the integrated broad-band variability and the spectral parameters during four outbursts (2002, 2004, 2007, 2010). Most of the QPOs could be classified following the ABC classification that has been proposed before. Our results show that the ABC classification can be extended to include spectral dependencies and that the three QPO types have indeed intrinsically different properties. In terms of the relation between QPO frequency and power-law flux, type-A and -C QPOs may follow the same relation, whereas the type-B QPOs trace out a very different relation. Type-B QPO frequencies clearly correlate with the powerlaw-flux and are connected to local increases of the count rate. The frequency of all QPOs observed in the rising phase of the 2002, 2007 and 2010 outburst correlate wi...

  8. Modelling the high mass accretion rate spectra of GX 339-4: Black hole spin from reflection?

    CERN Document Server

    Kolehmainen, Mari; Trigo, Maria Diaz

    2011-01-01

    We extract all the XMM-Newton EPIC pn burst mode spectra of GX 339-4, together with simultaneous/contemporaneous RXTE data. These include three disc dominated and two soft intermediate spectra, and the combination of broad bandpass/moderate spectral resolution gives some of the best data on these bright soft states in black hole binaries. The disc dominated spectra span a factor three in luminosity, and all show that the disc emission is broader than the simplest multicolour disc model. This is consistent with the expected relativistic smearing and changing colour temperature correction produced by atomic features in the newest disc models. However, these models do not match the data at the 5 per cent level as the predicted atomic features are not present in the data, perhaps indicating that irradiation is important even when the high energy tail is weak. Whatever the reason, this means that the data have smaller errors than the best physical disc models, forcing use of more phenomenological models for the di...

  9. Exploring the Role of Jets in the Radio/X-ray Correlations of GX339-4

    CERN Document Server

    Markoff, S; Corbel, S; Fender, R P; Falcke, H

    2003-01-01

    The Galactic black hole candidate X-ray binary GX339-4 spends most of its time in the low/hard state, making it an ideal candidate for modeling the assumedly low accretion phase. The radio emission correlates very tightly with the X-rays over more than two orders of magnitude in X-ray flux density, suggesting that the jet plasma also plays a role at higher frequencies. We compare the predictions of our jet model, with and without acceleration, to thirteen broadband simultaneous or quasi-simultaneous spectra over this changing flux history. In addition, we consider a simple standard thin disk which transitions to an optically thin accretion flow, in order to account for the assumedly thermal optical data seen in some observations. A solution without acceleration cannot describe the data without unrealistic energy requirements. But because of the low disk luminosity, and possibly the assumed disk geometry, acceleration in the jet is limited only by synchrotron cooling and can extend easily into the X-rays. We p...

  10. The complex accretion geometry of GX 339-4 as seen by NuSTAR and Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Fuerst, F; Tomsick, J A; Miller, J M; Corbel, S; Bachetti, M; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Gandhi, P; Grinberg, V; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Kara, E; Kennea, J A; Madsen, K K; Pottschmidt, K; Stern, D; Walton, D J; Wilms, J; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    We present spectral analysis of five NuSTAR and Swift observations of GX 339-4 taken during a failed outburst in summer 2013. These observations cover Eddington luminosity fractions in the range ~0.9-6%. Throughout this outburst, GX 339-4 stayed in the hard state, and all five observations show similar X-ray spectra with a hard power-law with a photon index near 1.6 and significant contribution from reflection. Using simple reflection models we find unrealistically high iron abundances. Allowing for different photon indices for the continuum incident on the reflector relative to the underlying observed continuum results in a statistically better fit and reduced iron abundances. With a photon index around 1.3, the input power-law on the reflector is significantly harder than that which is directly observed. We study the influence of different emissivity profiles and geometries and consistently find an improvement when using separate photon indices. The inferred inner accretion disk radius is strongly model dep...

  11. Overview of an Extensive Multi-wavelength Study of GX 339-4 during the 2010 Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Bel, M Cadolle; D'Avanzo, P; Russell, D M; Tomsick, J; Corbel, S; Lewis, F; Rahoui, F; Buxton, M; Goldoni, P; Kuulkers, E

    2011-01-01

    The microquasar GX 339-4 experienced a new outburst in 2010: it was observed simultaneously at various wavelengths from radio up to soft gamma-rays. We focused on observations that are quasi-simultaneous with those made with the INTEGRAL and RXTE satellites: these were collected in 2010 March-April during our INTEGRAL Target of Opportunity program, and during some of the other INTEGRAL observing programs with GX 339-4 in the field-of-view. X-ray transients are extreme systems that often harbour a black hole, and are known to emit throughout the whole electromagnetic spectrum when in outburst. The goals of our program are to understand the evolution of the physical processes close to the black hole and to study the connections between the accretion and ejection. We analysed radio, NIR, optical, UV, X-ray and soft gamma-ray observations. We studied the source evolution in detail by producing light curves, hardness-intensity diagrams and spectra. We fitted the broadband data with phenomenological, then physical,...

  12. NuSTARand Swift observations of the very high state in GX 339-4: Weighing the black hole with X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, M. L.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kennea, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX 339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0.95(-0.08)(+0.02) and ......We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX 339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0...

  13. NuSTARand Swift observations of the very high state in GX 339-4: Weighing the black hole with X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, M. L.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kennea, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX 339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0.95(-0.08)(+0.02) and ......We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX 339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0...

  14. The evolution of the X-ray phase lags during the outbursts of the black hole candidate GX 339-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altamirano, Diego; Méndez, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the frequency and reproducibility of its outbursts, the black hole candidate GX 339-4 has become the standard against which the outbursts of other black hole candidate are matched up. Here we present the first systematic study of the evolution of the X-ray lags of the broad-band variability

  15. X-ray Reflection Spectroscopy of the Black Hole GX 339-4: Exploring the Hard State with Unprecedented Sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Javier A; McClintock, Jeffrey E; Remillard, Ronald A; Grinberg, Victoria; Dauser, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We analyze simultaneously six composite RXTE spectra of GX~339-4 in the hard state comprising 77 million counts collected over 196 ks.The source spectra are ordered by luminosity and span the range 1.6% to 17% of the Eddington luminosity. Crucially, using our new tool PCACORR, we re-calibrate the data to a precision of 0.1%, an order of magnitude improvement over all earlier work. Using our advanced reflection model RELXILL, we target the strong features in the component of emission reflected from the disk, namely, the relativistically-broadened Fe K emission line, the Fe K edge and the Compton hump. We report results for two joint fits to the six spectra: For the first fit, we fix the spin parameter to its maximal value ($a_*=0.998$) and allow the inner disk radius $R_{in}$ to vary. Results include (i) precise measurements of $R_{in}$, with evidence that the disk becomes slightly truncated at a few percent of Eddington; and (ii) an order-of-magnitude swing with luminosity in the high energy cutoff, which rea...

  16. Broad-band X-ray spectral evolution of GX 339-4 during a state transition

    CERN Document Server

    Del Santo, M; Homan, J; Bazzano, A; Casella, P; Fender, R P; Gallo, E; Gehrels, N; Lewin, W H G; Méndez, M; Van der Klis, M

    2008-01-01

    We report on X-ray and soft gamma-ray observations of the black-hole candidate GX 339-4 during its 2007 outburst, performed with the RXTE and INTEGRAL satellites. The hardness-intensity diagram of all RXTE/PCA data combined shows a q-shaped track similar to that observed in previous outbursts.The evolution in the diagram suggested that a transition from hard-intermediate state to soft-intermediate state occurred, simultaneously with INTEGRAL observations performed in March. The transition is confirmed by the timing analysis presented in this work, which reveals that a weak type-A quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) replaces a strong type-C QPO. At the same time, spectral analysis shows that the flux of the high-energy component shows a significant decrease in its flux. However, we observe a delay (roughly one day) between variations of the spectral parameters of the high-energy component and changes in the flux and timing properties. The changes in the high-energy component can be explained either in terms the h...

  17. The evolution of the disc variability along the hard state of the black hole transient GX 339-4

    CERN Document Server

    De Marco, B; Muñoz-Darias, T; Nandra, K

    2015-01-01

    We report on the analysis of hard-state power spectral density function (PSD) of GX 339-4 down to the soft X-ray band, where the disc significantly contributes to the total emission. At any luminosity probed, the disc in the hard state is intrinsically more variable than in the soft state. However, the fast decrease of disc variability as a function of luminosity, combined with the increase of disc intensity, causes a net drop of fractional variability at high luminosities and low energies, which reminds the well-known behaviour of disc-dominated energy bands in the soft state. The peak-frequency of the high-frequency Lorentzian (likely corresponding to the high-frequency break seen in active galactic nuclei, AGN) scales with luminosity, but we do not find evidence for a linear scaling. In addition, we observe that this characteristic frequency is energy-dependent. We find that the normalization of the PSD at the peak of the high-frequency Lorentzian decreases with luminosity at all energies, though in the so...

  18. The evolution of the disc variability along the hard state of the black hole transient GX 339-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, B.; Ponti, G.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Nandra, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the analysis of hard-state power spectral density function (PSD) of GX 339-4 down to the soft X-ray band, where the disc significantly contributes to the total emission. At any luminosity probed, the disc in the hard state is intrinsically more variable than in the soft state. However, the fast decrease of disc variability as a function of luminosity, combined with the increase of disc intensity, causes a net drop of fractional variability at high luminosities and low energies, which reminds the well-known behaviour of disc-dominated energy bands in the soft state. The peak frequency of the high-frequency Lorentzian (likely corresponding to the high-frequency break seen in active galactic nuclei, AGN) scales with luminosity, but we do not find evidence for a linear scaling. In addition, we observe that this characteristic frequency is energy dependent. We find that the normalization of the PSD at the peak of the high-frequency Lorentzian decreases with luminosity at all energies, though in the soft band this trend is steeper. Together with the frequency shift, this yields quasi-constant high-frequency (5-20 Hz) fractional rms at high energies, with less than 10 per cent scatter. This reinforces previous claims suggesting that the high-frequency PSD solely scales with black hole mass. On the other hand, this constancy breaks down in the soft band (where the scatter increases to ˜30 per cent). This is a consequence of the additional contribution from the disc component, and resembles the behaviour of optical variability in AGN.

  19. Tracking the energetics of the non-thermal disc-corona-jet in the very high state GX 339-4

    CERN Document Server

    Kubota, Aya

    2015-01-01

    The dramatic hard-soft spectral transition in Black Hole Binaries is important as it is associated with the collapse of the jet and with the strongest low frequency QPOs. These transition spectra (intermediate and very high state: VHS) are complex, with soft but distinctly non-thermal Comptonisation which merges smoothly into the disc emission. Here we develop a physical model for the accretion flow which can accommodate all these features, with an outer standard disc, which can make a transition to an energetically coupled disc-corona region, and make a further transition to a hot inner flow which can be radiatively inefficient if required. The code explicitly uses fully relativistic emissivity (Novikov-Thorne), and all Comptonisation is calculated with a hybrid (thermal and non-thermal) electron distribution. We fit this to a VHS spectrum from GX339-4. We show that the complex continuum curvature produced by a hybrid electron distribution is enough to remove the strong constraint on black hole spin derived ...

  20. Evidence for Black Hole Spin in GX 339-4: XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and RXTE Spectroscopy of the Very High State

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, J M; Reynolds, C S; Nowak, M A; Homan, J; Freyberg, M J; Ehle, M; Belloni, T; Wijnands, R; Van der Klis, M; Charles, P A; Lewin, W H G

    2004-01-01

    We have analyzed spectra of the Galactic black hole GX 339-4 obtained through simultaneous 76 ksec XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn and 9 ksec RXTE observations during a bright phase of its 2002-2003 outburst. An extremely skewed, relativistic Fe K-alpha emission line and ionized disk reflection spectrum are revealed in these spectra. Self-consistent models for the Fe K-alpha emission line profile and disk reflection spectrum rule-out an inner disk radius compatible with a Schwarzschild black hole at more than the 8 sigma level of confidence. The best-fit inner disk radius of 2-3 r_g suggests that GX 339-4 harbors a black hole with a > 0.8-0.9 (where r_g = GM/c^2 and a=cJ/GM^2, and assuming that reflection in the plunging region is relatively small). This confirms indications for black hole spin based on a Chandra spectrum obtained later in the outburst. The emission line and reflection spectrum also rule-out a standard power-law disk emissivity in GX 339-4; a broken power-law form with enhanced emissivity inside 6 r_g giv...

  1. Observations of the Black Hole candidate GX339-4 with the TTM telescope of the "KVANT" module on board the "MIR" orbital station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, S. V.; Borozdin, K. N.; Alexandrovich, N. L.

    TTM device of the "KVANT" module onboard the "MIR" russian space station had obtained two series observations of the X-ray source Black Hole candidate GX339-4 in 1989-1994. Soft state of source, in wich source spectrum (2-28 keV) was approximated by the multi-color accretion disk model with absorption, has been founded in March 1989. Hard state of source with spectrum approximated by the power law with absorption and transfer from the hard to the soft state has been observed in the March 1994. Various source spectrum states are the prove of its belonging to the Black Hole candidates class.

  2. The evolution of the X-ray phase lags during the outbursts of the black hole candidate GX 339-4

    CERN Document Server

    Altamirano, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the frequency and reproducibility of its outbursts, the black-hole candidate GX 339-4 has become the standard against which the outbursts of other black-hole candidate are matched up. Here we present the first systematic study of the evolution of the X-ray lags of the broad-band variability component (0.008-5 Hz) in GX 339-4 as a function of the position of the source in the hardness-intensity diagram. The hard photons always lag the soft ones, consistent with previous results. In the low-hard state the lags correlate with X-ray intensity, and as the source starts the transition to the intermediate/soft states, the lags first increase faster, and then appear to reach a maximum, although the exact evolution depends on the outburst and the energy band used to calculate the lags. The time of the maximum of the lags appears to coincide with a sudden drop of the Optical/NIR flux, the fractional RMS amplitude of the broadband component in the power spectrum, and the appearance of a thermal component in the...

  3. Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer Spectroscopy of the Galactic Black Hole GX 339-4: A Relativistic Iron Emission Line and Evidence for a Seyfert-like Warm Absorber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.M.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A.C.; Homan, J.; Nowak, M.A.; Wijnands, R.A.D.; van der Klis, M.; Belloni, T.; Tomsick, J.A.; Smith, D.M.; Charles, P.A.; Lewin, W.H.G.

    2004-01-01

    We observed the Galactic black hole GX 339-4 with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) for 75 ks during the decline of its 2002-2003 outburst. The sensitivity of this observation provides an unprecedented glimpse of a Galactic black hole at about a tenth of the luminosit

  4. Joint spectral-timing modelling of the hard lags in GX 339-4: constraints on reflection models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassatella, P.; Uttley, P.; Wilms, J.; Poutanen, J.

    2012-01-01

    The X-ray variations of hard state black hole X-ray binaries above 2 keV show ‘hard lags’, in that the variations at harder energies follow variations at softer energies, with a time lag τ depending on frequency ν approximately as τ∝ν−0.7. Several models have so far been proposed to explain this

  5. Spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton data of GX 339-4 in the low/hard state: disc truncation and reflection

    CERN Document Server

    Basak, Rupal

    2015-01-01

    We analyse all available observations of GX 339--4 by XMM-Newton in the hard spectral state. We jointly fit the spectral data by Comptonisation and the currently best reflection code, relxill. We consider in detail a contribution from a standard blackbody accretion disc, testing whether its inner radius can be set equal to that of the reflector. However, this leads to an unphysical behaviour of the disc truncation radius, implying the soft X-ray component is not a standard blackbody disc. This is due to irradiation by the hard X-rays, which strongly dominate the total emission. We thus treat the soft component phenomenologically. We consider a large array of models, testing, e.g., the effects of the chosen energy range, the radial irradiation profile, adding unblurred reflection, and assuming a lamppost geometry. We find the effects of relativistic broadening to be relatively weak in all cases. In the coronal models, we find the inner radius to be large. In the lamppost model, the inner radius is unconstraine...

  6. Rapid optical and X-ray timing observations of GX 339-4: flux correlations at the onset of a low/hard state

    CERN Document Server

    Gandhi, P; Durant, M; Fabian, A C; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Miller, J M; Shahbaz, T; Spruit, H C

    2008-01-01

    We present the discovery of optical/X-ray flux correlations on rapid timescales in the low/hard state of the Galactic black hole GX 339-4. The source had recently emerged from outburst and was associated with a relatively-faint counterpart with mag V~17. The optical (VLT/ULTRACAM) and X-ray (RXTE/PCA) data show a clear positive cross-correlation function (CCF) signal, with the optical peak lagging X-rays by ~ 150 ms, preceded by a shallow rise and followed by a steep decline along with broad anti-correlation dips. Examination of the light curves shows that the main CCF features are reproduced in superpositions of flares and dips. The CCF peak is narrow and the X-ray auto-correlation function (ACF) is broader than the optical ACF, arguing against reprocessing as the origin for the rapid optical emission. X-ray flaring is associated with spectral hardening, but no corresponding changes are detected around optical peaks and dips. The variability may be explained in the context of synchrotron emission with intera...

  7. Chandra/HETGS Spectroscopy of the Galactic Black Hole GX 339-4: A Relativistic Iron Line and Evidence for a Seyfert-like Warm Absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, J M; Fabian, A C; Homan, J; Nowak, M A; Wijnands, R; Van der Klis, M; Belloni, T; Tomsick, J A; Smith, D M; Charles, P A; Lewin, W H G

    2004-01-01

    We observed the Galactic black hole GX 339-4 with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) for 75 ksec during the decline of its 2002-2003 outburst. The sensitivity of this observation provides an unprecedented glimpse of a Galactic black hole at about a tenth of the luminosity of the outburst peak. The continuum spectrum is well described by a model consisting of multicolor disk blackbody (kT = 0.6 keV) and power-law (Gamma = 2.5) components. X-ray reflection models yield improved fits. A strong, relativistic Fe K-alpha emission line is revealed, indicating that the inner disk extends to the innermost stable circular orbit. The line is not sufficiently broad to strongly require black hole spin. Absorption lines from H-like and He-like O, and He-like Ne and Mg are detected, as well as lines which are likely due to Ne II and Ne III. The measured line properties make it difficult to associate the absorption with the coronal phase of the interstellar medium. A scenario wherein the absorp...

  8. On the power spectra of the wind-fed X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandini, Mauro; Morfill, G. E.

    1992-01-01

    A phenomenological model of accretion which is applied to the wind-fed X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2 is developed, assuming that the accretion onto the neutron star does not occur from a continuous flux of plasma, but from blobs of matter which are threaded by the magnetic field lines onto the magnetic polar caps of the neutron star. These 'lumps' are produced at the magnetospheric limit by magnetohydrodynamical instability, introducing a 'noise' in the accretion process, due to the discontinuity in the flux of matter onto the neutron star. This model is able to describe the change of slope observed in the continuum component of the power spectra of the X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2, in the frequency range 0.01 - 0.1 Hz. The physical properties of the infalling blobs derived in the model are in agreement with the constraints imposed by observations.

  9. Discovery of the Near-infrared Counterpart to the Luminous Neutron-star Low-mass X-Ray Binary GX 3+1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.; Homan, J.; Fridriksson, J.K.; Linares, M.

    2014-01-01

    Using the High Resolution Camera on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have measured an accurate position for the bright persistent neutron star X-ray binary and atoll source GX 3+1. At a location that is consistent with this new position, we have discovered the near-infrared (NIR) counterpart

  10. Discovery of the near-infrared counterpart to the luminous neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary GX 3+1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, Maureen; Fridriksson, Joel K. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Homan, Jeroen [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Linares, Manuel, E-mail: M.C.vandenBerg@uva.nl [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna, E-38205, S/C de Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-10-01

    Using the High Resolution Camera on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have measured an accurate position for the bright persistent neutron star X-ray binary and atoll source GX 3+1. At a location that is consistent with this new position, we have discovered the near-infrared (NIR) counterpart to GX 3+1 in images taken with the PANIC and FourStar cameras on the Magellan Baade Telescope. The identification of this K{sub s} = 15.8 ± 0.1 mag star as the counterpart is based on the presence of a Br γ emission line in an NIR spectrum taken with the Folded-port InfraRed Echelette spectrograph on the Baade Telescope. The absolute magnitude derived from the best available distance estimate to GX 3+1 indicates that the mass donor in the system is not a late-type giant. We find that the NIR light in GX 3+1 is likely dominated by the contribution from a heated outer accretion disk. This is similar to what has been found for the NIR flux from the brighter class of Z sources, but unlike the behavior of atolls fainter (L{sub X} ≈ 10{sup 36}-10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}) than GX 3+1, where optically thin synchrotron emission from a jet probably dominates the NIR flux.

  11. Discovery of the Near-infrared Counterpart to the Luminous Neutron-star Low-mass X-Ray Binary GX 3+1

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Maureen; Homan, Jeroen; Fridriksson, Joel K.; Linares, Manuel

    2014-10-01

    Using the High Resolution Camera on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have measured an accurate position for the bright persistent neutron star X-ray binary and atoll source GX 3+1. At a location that is consistent with this new position, we have discovered the near-infrared (NIR) counterpart to GX 3+1 in images taken with the PANIC and FourStar cameras on the Magellan Baade Telescope. The identification of this Ks = 15.8 ± 0.1 mag star as the counterpart is based on the presence of a Br γ emission line in an NIR spectrum taken with the Folded-port InfraRed Echelette spectrograph on the Baade Telescope. The absolute magnitude derived from the best available distance estimate to GX 3+1 indicates that the mass donor in the system is not a late-type giant. We find that the NIR light in GX 3+1 is likely dominated by the contribution from a heated outer accretion disk. This is similar to what has been found for the NIR flux from the brighter class of Z sources, but unlike the behavior of atolls fainter (LX ≈ 1036-1037 erg s-1) than GX 3+1, where optically thin synchrotron emission from a jet probably dominates the NIR flux. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  12. The Complex Accretion Geometry of Gx 339–4 as Seen by Nustar and Swift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst, F.; Nowak, M. A.; Tomsick, J. A.;

    2015-01-01

    We present spectral analyses of five Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and Swift observations of GX 339-4 taken during a failed outburst during the summer of 2013. These observations cover Eddington luminosity fractions in the range approximate to 0.9%-6%. Throughout this outburst GX 339-4 st...

  13. On the origin of the near-infrared emission from the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary GX 9+1

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Maureen van den

    2016-01-01

    We have determined an improved position for the luminous persistent neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary and atoll source GX 9+1 from archival Chandra X-ray Observatory data. The new position significantly differs from a previously published Chandra position for this source. Based on the revised X-ray position we have identified a new near-infrared (NIR) counterpart to GX 9+1 in Ks-band images obtained with the PANIC and FourStar cameras on the Magellan Baade Telescope. NIR spectra of this Ks=16.5+-0.1 mag star taken with the FIRE spectrograph on the Baade Telescope show a strong Br-gamma emission line, which is a clear signature that we discovered the true NIR counterpart to GX 9+1. The mass donor in GX 9+1 cannot be a late-type giant, as such a star would be brighter than the estimated absolute Ks magnitude of the NIR counterpart. The slope of the dereddened NIR spectrum is poorly constrained due to uncertainties in the column density N_H and NIR extinction. Considering the source's distance and X-ray luminos...

  14. Discovery of the near-infrared counterpart to the luminous neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary GX 3+1

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Maureen van den; Fridriksson, Joel K; Linares, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Using the High Resolution Camera onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have measured an accurate position for the bright persistent neutron-star X-ray binary and atoll source GX 3+1. At a location that is consistent with this new position we have discovered the near-infrared (NIR) counterpart to GX 3+1 in images taken with the PANIC and FourStar cameras on the Magellan Baade Telescope. The identification of this K_s=15.8+-0.1 mag star as the counterpart is based on the presence of a Br-gamma emission line in a NIR spectrum taken with the FIRE spectrograph on the Baade Telescope. The absolute magnitude derived from the best available distance estimate to GX 3+1 indicates that the mass donor in the system is not a late-type giant. We find that the NIR light in GX 3+1 is likely dominated by the contribution from a heated outer accretion disk. This is similar to what has been found for the NIR flux from the brighter class of Z sources, but unlike the behavior of atolls fainter (Lx ~ 1e36 to 1e37 erg/s) than G...

  15. Suzaku view of Be/X-ray binary pulsar GX 304-1 during Type I X-ray outbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Jaisawal, Gaurava K; Epili, Prahlad

    2016-01-01

    We report the timing and spectral properties of Be/X-ray binary pulsar GX 304-1 by using two Suzaku observations during its 2010 August and 2012 January X-ray outbursts. Pulsations at ~275 s were clearly detected in the light curves from both the observations. Pulse profiles were found to be strongly energy-dependent. During 2010 observation, prominent dips seen in soft X-ray ($\\leq$10 keV) pulse profiles were found to be absent at higher energies. However, during 2012 observation, the pulse profiles were complex due to the presence of several dips. Significant changes in the shape of the pulse profiles were detected at high energies ($>$35 keV). A phase shift of $\\sim$0.3 was detected while comparing the phase of main dip in pulse profiles below and above $\\sim$35 keV. Broad-band energy spectrum of pulsar was well described by a partially absorbed Negative and Positive power-law with Exponential cutoff (NPEX) model with 6.4 keV iron line and a cyclotron absorption feature. Energy of cyclotron absorption line...

  16. Spectro-Timing Study of GX 339-4 in a Hard Intermediate State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, F.; Grinberg, V.; Tomsick, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    possible systematic uncertainties, in particular with the measurement of the inner accretion disk radius in the relativistic reflection model. We conclude that the combination of observed QPO frequencies and inner accretion disk radii, as obtained from spectral fitting, is difficult to reconcile...

  17. No time for dead time: timing analysis of bright black hole binaries with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time ...... techniques. We apply this technique to NuSTAR observations of the black hole binaries GX 339-4, Cyg X-1, and GRS 1915+105....

  18. On the Origin of the Near-infrared Emission from the Neutron-star Low-mass X-Ray Binary GX 9+1

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Maureen; Homan, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    We have determined an improved position for the luminous persistent neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary and atoll source GX 9+1 from archival Chandra X-ray Observatory data. The new position significantly differs from a previously published Chandra position for this source. Based on the revised X-ray position we have identified a new near-infrared (NIR) counterpart to GX 9+1 in K s -band images obtained with the PANIC and FourStar cameras on the Magellan Baade Telescope. NIR spectra of this {K}s=16.5+/- 0.1 mag star, taken with the FIRE spectrograph on the Baade Telescope, show a strong Br γ emission line, which is a clear signature that we discovered the true NIR counterpart to GX 9+1. The mass donor in GX 9+1 cannot be a late-type giant, as such a star would be brighter than the estimated absolute K s magnitude of the NIR counterpart. The slope of the dereddened NIR spectrum is poorly constrained due to uncertainties in the column density N H and NIR extinction. Considering the source’s distance and X-ray luminosity, we argue that N H likely lies near the high end of the previously suggested range. If this is indeed the case, the NIR spectrum is consistent with thermal emission from a heated accretion disk, possibly with a contribution from the secondary. In this respect, GX 9+1 is similar to other bright atolls and the Z sources, whose NIR spectra do not show the slope that is expected for a dominant contribution from optically thin synchrotron emission from the inner regions of a jet. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  19. A magnetic model for low/hard state of black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Yong-Chun; Huang, Chang-Yin; Cao, Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    A magnetic model for low/hard state (LHS) of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs),H1743-322 and GX 339-4, is proposed based on the transportation of magnetic field from a companion into an accretion disk around a black hole (BH). This model consists of a truncated thin disk with an inner advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF). The spectral profiles of the sources are fitted in agreement with the data observed at four different dates corresponding to the rising phase of the LHS. In addition, the association of the LHS with quasi-steady jet is modelled based on transportation of magnetic field, where the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) and Blandford-Payne (BP) processes are invoked to drive the jets from BH and inner ADAF. It turns out that the steep radio/X-ray correlations observed in H1743-322 and GX 339-4 can be interpreted based on our model.

  20. NuSTAR observations of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary GX 349+2 throughout its Z-track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughenour, Benjamin; Cackett, Edward; Miller, Jon M.

    2017-08-01

    Although the brightest class of neutron star low mass X-ray binaries, known as Z-sources, have been well studied, their behavior is not fully understood. In particular, what causes these sources to trace out the characteristic Z-shaped pattern on color-color or hardness-intensity diagrams is not well known. By studying the physical properties of the different spectral states of these sources, we may better understand such variability. With that goal in mind, we present a recent NuSTAR observation of the Z-source GX 349+2, which spans approximately 2 days, and covers all its spectral states. By creating a hardness-intensity diagram we were able to extract four spectra and trace the change in spectral parameters throughout the Z track. GX 349+2 shows a strong, broad Fe Kα line in all states. Through modeling of the reflection spectrum and Fe Kα line we find that in most states the inner disk radius is consistent with remaining unchanged, and being close to the neutron star. However, during the brightest flaring branch the inner disk radius from reflection is not well constrained.

  1. ARE SPECTRAL AND TIMING CORRELATIONS SIMILAR IN DIFFERENT SPECTRAL STATES IN BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalamkar, M.; Klis, M. van der [Astronomical Institute, “Anton Pannekoek,” University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reynolds, M. T.; Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Altamirano, D., E-mail: maithili@oa-roma.inaf.it [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-20

    We study the outbursts of the black hole X-ray binaries MAXI J1659-152, SWIFT J1753.5-0127, and GX 339-4 with the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT). The bandpass of the XRT has access to emission from both components of the accretion flow: the accretion disk and the corona/hot flow. This allows a correlated spectral and variability study, with variability from both components of the accretion flow. We present for the first time a combined study of the evolution of spectral parameters (disk temperature and radius) and timing parameters (frequency and strength) of all power spectral components in different spectral states. Comparison of the correlations in different spectral states shows that the frequency and strength of the power spectral components exhibit dependencies on the disk temperature that are different in the (low-)hard and the hard-intermediate states (HIMSs); most of these correlations that are clearly observed in the HIMS (in MAXI J1659-152 and GX 339-4) are not seen in the (low-)hard state (in GX 339-4 and SWIFT J1753.5-0127). Also, the responses of the individual frequency components to changes in the disk temperature are markedly different from one component to the next. Hence, the spectral-timing evolution cannot be explained by a single correlation that spans both these spectral states. We discuss our findings in the context of the existing models proposed to explain the origin of variability.

  2. A Comparison of the Variability of the Symbiotic X-ray Binaries GX 1+4, 4U 1954+31, and 4U 1700+24 from Swift/BAT and RXTE/ASM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, R. H. D.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Markwardt, C. B.; Tueller, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray variability of three symbiotic X-ray binaries, GX 1+4, 4U 1700+24, and 4U 1954+31, using observations made with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) All-Sky Monitor (ASM). Observations of 4U 1954+31 with the Swift BAT show modulation at a period near 5 hours. Models to explain this modulation are discussed including the presence of an exceptionally slow X-ray pulsar in the system and accretion instabilities. We conclude that the most likely interpretation is that 4U 1954+31 contains one of the slowest known X-ray pulsars. Unlike 4U 1954+31, neither GX 1+4 nor 4U 1700+24 show any evidence for modulation on a timescale of hours. An analysis of the RXTE ASM light curves of GX l+4, 4U 1700+24, and 4U 1954+31 does not show the presence of periodic modulation in any source, although there is considerable variability on long timescales for all three sources. There is no modulation in GX 1+4 on either the optical 1161 day orbital period or a previously reported 304 day X-ray period. For 4U 1700+24 we do not confirm the 404 day period previously proposed for this source from a shorter duration ASM light curve.

  3. GxE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vestigate the effect of site, progenies and their interaction. The performances of the ... GxE implies that the performance of a genotype ... cultivation of crops such as maize, beans, ses- ...... because'they will allow high 'density planting,.

  4. Are spectral and timing correlations similar in different spectral states in black hole X-ray binaries?

    CERN Document Server

    Kalamkar, M; van der Klis, M; Altamirano, D; Miller, J M

    2015-01-01

    We study the outbursts of the black hole X-ray binaries MAXI J1659-152, SWIFT J1753.5--0127 and GX 339-4 with the Swift X-ray Telescope. The bandpass of the X-ray Telescope has access to emission from both components of the accretion flow: the accretion disk and the corona/hot flow. This allows a correlated spectral and variability study, with variability from both components of the accretion flow. We present for the first time, a combined study of the evolution of spectral parameters (disk temperature and radius) and timing parameters (frequency and strength) of all power spectral components in different spectral states. Comparison of the correlations in different spectral states shows that the frequency and strength of the power spectral components exhibit dependencies on the disk temperature that are different in the (low-)hard and the hard-intermediate states; most of these correlations that are clearly observed in the hard-intermediate state (in MAXI J1659-152 and GX 339-4) are not seen in the (low-)hard...

  5. Mitsubishi Electric GX-730

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    三菱新款3D投影机GX-730,采用了3D Ready技术,能投射出更加逼真的3D画面,可让用户尽享3D画面带来的视觉冲击和无限魅力。具备3800流明的高亮度以及2000:1的高对比度,灯泡寿命可达5000小时,待机功耗仅为1W,并可实现25dB的超低静音运转,非常环保节能。

  6. SAS 3 observations of GX 1 + 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, J. P.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Hoffman, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    GX 1 + 4 is one of the brightest celestial sources of high-energy X-rays. It is a pulsar with a period of approximately 2 min (perhaps a multiple of 2 min), decreasing at a variable rate which, since 1971, has averaged approximately 2% per year, but which can be larger than 5% per year. This is the largest rate of decrease observed for any pulsar. The rate of decrease appears to be correlated with the luminosity, in support of the idea that the period decrease is produced by accretion torques acting upon a neutron star. No evidence is seen for a Doppler shift due to motion of the pulsar in a binary orbit; this is consistent with the results of optical observations which suggest that any orbital period is fairly long (months to years). The spectrum of GX 1 + 4 is measured as a function of pulse phase, as well as the phase-averaged total spectrum, and the average spectrum of the pulses alone. The shape of the average pulsed spectrum suggests that the pulsations may be produced by 'hot spots' which are a few hundred meters in extent, with temperatures of approximately 10 to the 8th K (kT being approximately equal to 8 keV).

  7. Resolving the hard X-ray emission of GX 5-1 with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paizis, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Tikkanen, T.;

    2005-01-01

    We present the study of one year of INTEGRAL data on the neutron star low mass X-ray binary GX 5-1. Thanks to the excellent angular resolution and sensitivity of INTEGRAL, we are able to obtain a high quality spectrum of GX 5-1 from similar to 5keV to similar to 100 keV, for the first time without...

  8. Hydrodynamical winds from two-temperature plasma in X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, D J; Taam, R E; Lin, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrodynamical winds from a spherical two-temperature plasma surrounding a compact object are constructed. The mass-loss rate is computed as a function of electron temperature, optical depth and luminosity of the sphere, the values of which can be constrained by the fitting of the spectral energy distributions for known X-ray binary systems. The sensitive dependence of the mass loss rate with these parameters leads to the identification of two distinct regions in the parameter space separating wind-dominated from non wind dominated systems. A critical optical depth, tau_c, as a function of luminosity and electron temperature, is defined which differentiates these two regions. Systems with optical depths significantly smaller than tau_c are wind-dominated. The results are applied to black hole candidate X-ray binary systems in the hard spectral state (Cyg X-1, GX 339-4 and Nova Muscae), and it is found that the inferred optical depth (tau) is similar to tau_c suggesting that they are wind regulated systems. On...

  9. Detection of the first infra-red quasi periodic oscillation in a black hole X-ray binary

    CERN Document Server

    Kalamkar, M; Uttley, P; O'Brien, K; Russell, D; Maccarone, T; van der Klis, M; Vincentelli, F

    2015-01-01

    We present analysis of fast variability of Very Large Telescope/ISAAC (infra-red), \\textit{XMM-Newton}/OM (optical) and EPIC-pn (X-ray), and RXTE/PCA (X-ray) observations of the black hole X-ray binary GX 339-4 in a rising hard state of its outburst in 2010. We report the first detection of a Quasi Periodic Oscillation (QPO) in the infra-red band (IR) of a black hole X-ray binary. The QPO is detected at 0.08 Hz in the IR as well as two optical bands (U and V). Interestingly, these QPOs are at half the X-ray QPO frequency at 0.16 Hz, which is classified as the type-C QPO; a weak sub-harmonic close to the IR and optical QPO frequency is also detected in X-rays. The broad band sub-second time scale variability is strongly correlated in IR/X-ray bands, with X-rays leading the IR by over 100 ms. This short time delay, shape of the cross correlation function and spectral energy distribution strongly indicate that this broad band variable IR emission is the synchrotron emission from the jet. A jet origin for the IR ...

  10. Probing the hard and intermediate states of X-ray binaries using short time-scale variability

    CERN Document Server

    Skipper, Chris J

    2016-01-01

    Below an accretion rate of approximately a few per cent of the Eddington accretion rate, X-ray binary systems are not usually found in the soft spectral state. However, at accretion rates a factor of a few lower still, in the hard state, there is another spectral transition which is well observed but not well understood. Below ~0.5-1 per cent of the Eddington accretion rate (m_crit), the spectral index hardens with increasing accretion rate, but above m_crit, although still in the hard state, the spectral index softens with increasing accretion rate. Here we use a combination of X-ray spectral fitting and a study of short time-scale spectral variability to examine the behaviour of three well-known X-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1, GX 339-4 and XTE J1118+480. In Cygnus X-1 we find separate hard and soft continuum components, and show using root-mean-square (rms) spectra that the soft component dominates the variability. The spectral transition at m_crit is clearly present in the hard-state hardness-intensity diagram...

  11. Repetitive Patterns in Rapid Optical Variations in the Nearby Black-hole Binary V404 Cygni

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Mariko; Kato, Taichi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Nakahira, Satoshi; Shidatsu, Megumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Hori, Takafumi; Nogami, Daisaku; Littlefield, Colin; Ishioka, Ryoko; Chen, Ying-Tung; King, Sun-Kun; Wen, Chih-Yi; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Lehner, Matthew J; Schwamb, Megan E; Wang, Jen-Hung; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Alcock, Charles; Axelrod, Tim; Bianco, Federica B; Byun, Yong-Ik; Chen, Wen-Ping; Cook, Kem H; Kim, Dae-Won; Lee, Typhoon; Marshall, Stuart L; Pavlenko, Elena P; Antonyuk, Oksana I; Antonyuk, Kirill A; Pit, Nikolai V; Sosnovskij, Aleksei A; Babina, Julia V; Baklanov, Aleksei V; Pozanenko, Alexei S; Mazaeva, Elena D; Schmalz, Sergei E; Reva, Inna V; Belan, Sergei P; Inasaridze, Raguli Ya; Tungalag, Namkhai; Volnova, Alina A; Molotov, Igor E; de Miguel, Enrique; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Stein, William; Dubovsky, Pavol A; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Miller, Ian; Richmond, Michael; Goff, William; Andreev, Maksim V; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Kojiguchi, Naoto; Sugiura, Yuki; Takeda, Nao; Yamada, Eiji; Matsumoto, Katsura; James, Nick; Pickard, Roger D; Tordai, Tamás; Maeda, Yutaka; Ruiz, Javier; Miyashita, Atsushi; Cook, Lewis M; Imada, Akira; Uemura, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    How black holes accrete surrounding matter is a fundamental, yet unsolved question in astrophysics. It is generally believed that matter is absorbed into black holes via accretion disks, the state of which depends primarily on the mass-accretion rate. When this rate approaches the critical rate (the Eddington limit), thermal instability is supposed to occur in the inner disc, causing repetitive patterns of large-amplitude X-ray variability (oscillations) on timescales of minutes to hours. In fact, such oscillations have been observed only in sources with a high mass accretion rate, such as GRS 1915+105. These large-amplitude, relatively slow timescale, phenomena are thought to have physical origins distinct from X-ray or optical variations with small amplitudes and fast ($\\lesssim$10 sec) timescales often observed in other black hole binaries (e.g., XTE J1118+480 and GX 339-4). Here we report an extensive multi-colour optical photometric data set of V404 Cygni, an X-ray transient source containing a black hol...

  12. The reverberation lag in the low mass X-ray binary H1743-322

    CERN Document Server

    De Marco, B

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the inner accretion flow of a black hole X-ray binary (BHXRB) during the outburst is still a matter of active research. X-ray reverberation lags are powerful tools to constrain the disk-corona geometry. We present a study of X-ray lags in the black hole transient H1743-322. We compared results obtained from the analysis of all the publicly available XMM-Newton observations. These observations were carried out during two different outbursts, happened in 2008 and 2014. During all the observations the source is caught in the hard state and at similar luminosities ($\\mathrm{L_{3-10\\ keV}/L_{Edd}\\sim 0.004}$). We detected a soft X-ray lag of $\\sim$60 ms, most likely due to thermal reverberation. We did not detect any significant change of the lag amplitude among the different observations, indicating a similar disk-corona geometry at the same luminosity in the hard state. On the other hand, we observe significant differences between the reverberation lag detected in H1743-322 and in GX 339-4 (at s...

  13. The Reverberation Lag in the Low-mass X-ray Binary H1743-322

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Barbara; Ponti, Gabriele

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of the inner accretion flow of a black hole X-ray binary during an outburst is still a matter of active research. X-ray reverberation lags are powerful tools for constraining disk-corona geometry. We present a study of X-ray lags in the black hole transient H1743-322. We compared the results obtained from analysis of all the publicly available XMM-Newton observations. These observations were carried out during two different outbursts that occurred in 2008 and 2014. During all the observations the source was caught in the hard state and at similar luminosities ({L}3-10{keV}/{L}{Edd}˜ 0.004). We detected a soft X-ray lag of ˜60 ms, most likely due to thermal reverberation. We did not detect any significant change of the lag amplitude among the different observations, indicating a similar disk-corona geometry at the same luminosity in the hard state. On the other hand, we observe significant differences between the reverberation lag detected in H1743-322 and in GX 339-4 (at similar luminosities in the hard state), which might indicate variations of the geometry from source to source.

  14. Burst-properties as a function of mass accretion rate in GX 3+1

    CERN Document Server

    Den Hartog, P; Kuulkers, E; Cornelisse, R; Heisse, J; Bazzano, A; Cocchi, M; Natalucci, L; Ubertini, P

    2003-01-01

    GX 3+1 is a low-mass X-ray binary that is persistently bright since its discovery in 1964. It was found to be an X-ray burster twenty years ago proving that the compact object in this system is a neutron star. The burst rate is so low that only 18 bursts were reported prior to 1996. The Wide Field Cameras on BeppoSAX have, through a dedicated monitoring program on the Galactic center region, increased the number of X-ray bursts from GX 3+1 by 61. Since GX 3+1 exhibits a slow (order of years) modulation in the persistent flux of about 50%, these observations opens up the unique possibility to study burst properties as a function of mass accretion rate for very low burst rates. This is the first time that bursts are detected from GX 3+1 in the high state. From the analysis we learn that all bursts are short with e-folding decay times smaller than 10 s. Therefore, all bursts are due to unstable helium burning. Furthermore, the burst rate drops sixfold in a fairly narrow range of 2-20 keV flux; we discuss possibl...

  15. A Possible Period for the K-band Brightening Episodes of GX 17+2

    CERN Document Server

    Bornak, Jillian; Harrison, Thomas E; Rupen, Michael P; Bandyopadhyay, Reba M; Wachter, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    The low mass X-ray binary and Z source GX 17+2 undergoes infrared K-band brightening episodes of at least 3.5 magnitudes. The source of these episodes is not known. Prior published K-band magnitudes and new K-band measurements acquired between 2006 and 2008 suggest that the episodes last at least 4 hours and have a period of 3.01254 $\\pm$ 0.00002 days. Future bright episodes can be predicted using the ephemeris JD_{max} (n) = 2454550.79829 + (3.01254 $\\pm$ 0.00002)(n) days. A growing body of evidence suggests that the GX 17+2 could have a synchrotron jet, which could cause this activity.

  16. Repetitive patterns in rapid optical variations in the nearby black-hole binary V404 Cygni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mariko; Isogai, Keisuke; Kato, Taichi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Nakahira, Satoshi; Shidatsu, Megumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Hori, Takafumi; Nogami, Daisaku; Littlefield, Colin; Ishioka, Ryoko; Chen, Ying-Tung; King, Sun-Kun; Wen, Chih-Yi; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Lehner, Matthew J; Schwamb, Megan E; Wang, Jen-Hung; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Alcock, Charles; Axelrod, Tim; Bianco, Federica B; Byun, Yong-Ik; Chen, Wen-Ping; Cook, Kem H; Kim, Dae-Won; Lee, Typhoon; Marshall, Stuart L; Pavlenko, Elena P; Antonyuk, Oksana I; Antonyuk, Kirill A; Pit, Nikolai V; Sosnovskij, Aleksei A; Babina, Julia V; Baklanov, Aleksei V; Pozanenko, Alexei S; Mazaeva, Elena D; Schmalz, Sergei E; Reva, Inna V; Belan, Sergei P; Inasaridze, Raguli Ya; Tungalag, Namkhai; Volnova, Alina A; Molotov, Igor E; de Miguel, Enrique; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Stein, William L; Dubovsky, Pavol A; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Miller, Ian; Richmond, Michael; Goff, William; Andreev, Maksim V; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Kojiguchi, Naoto; Sugiura, Yuki; Takeda, Nao; Yamada, Eiji; Matsumoto, Katsura; James, Nick; Pickard, Roger D; Tordai, Tamás; Maeda, Yutaka; Ruiz, Javier; Miyashita, Atsushi; Cook, Lewis M; Imada, Akira; Uemura, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    How black holes accrete surrounding matter is a fundamental yet unsolved question in astrophysics. It is generally believed that matter is absorbed into black holes via accretion disks, the state of which depends primarily on the mass-accretion rate. When this rate approaches the critical rate (the Eddington limit), thermal instability is supposed to occur in the inner disk, causing repetitive patterns of large-amplitude X-ray variability (oscillations) on timescales of minutes to hours. In fact, such oscillations have been observed only in sources with a high mass-accretion rate, such as GRS 1915+105 (refs 2, 3). These large-amplitude, relatively slow timescale, phenomena are thought to have physical origins distinct from those of X-ray or optical variations with small amplitudes and fast timescales (less than about 10 seconds) often observed in other black-hole binaries-for example, XTE J1118+480 (ref. 4) and GX 339-4 (ref. 5). Here we report an extensive multi-colour optical photometric data set of V404 Cygni, an X-ray transient source containing a black hole of nine solar masses (and a companion star) at a distance of 2.4 kiloparsecs (ref. 8). Our data show that optical oscillations on timescales of 100 seconds to 2.5 hours can occur at mass-accretion rates more than ten times lower than previously thought. This suggests that the accretion rate is not the critical parameter for inducing inner-disk instabilities. Instead, we propose that a long orbital period is a key condition for these large-amplitude oscillations, because the outer part of the large disk in binaries with long orbital periods will have surface densities too low to maintain sustained mass accretion to the inner part of the disk. The lack of sustained accretion--not the actual rate--would then be the critical factor causing large-amplitude oscillations in long-period systems.

  17. Application of GX Developer in Studying PLC Technology%GX Developer在学习PLC技术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦常贵

    2011-01-01

    通过在PLC实训室内和在PLC实训室外都可以利用GX Developer软件来学习PLC技术的应用实例,充分说明应用GX Developer软件,使学习PLC技术变得简单方便、清楚明了和理解深刻.

  18. Detection of the first infra-red quasi-periodic oscillation in a black hole X-ray binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamkar, M.; Casella, P.; Uttley, P.; O'Brien, K.; Russell, D.; Maccarone, T.; van der Klis, M.; Vincentelli, F.

    2016-08-01

    We present the analysis of fast variability of Very Large Telescope/ISAAC (Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera) (infra-red), XMM-Newton/OM (optical) and EPIC-pn (X-ray), and RXTE/PCA (X-ray) observations of the black hole X-ray binary GX 339-4 in a rising hard state of its outburst in 2010. We report the first detection of a quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the infra-red band (IR) of a black hole X-ray binary. The QPO is detected at 0.08 Hz in the IR as well as two optical bands (U and V). Interestingly, these QPOs are at half the X-ray QPO frequency at 0.16 Hz, which is classified as the type-C QPO; a weak sub-harmonic close to the IR and optical QPO frequency is also detected in X-rays. The band-limited sub-second time-scale variability is strongly correlated in IR/X-ray bands, with X-rays leading the IR by over 120 ms. This short time delay, shape of the cross-correlation function and spectral energy distribution strongly indicate that this band-limited variable IR emission is the synchrotron emission from the jet. A jet origin for the IR QPO is strongly favoured, but cannot be definitively established with the current data. The spectral energy distribution indicates a thermal disc origin for the bulk of the optical emission, but the origin of the optical QPO is unclear. We discuss our findings in the context of the existing models proposed to explain the origin of variability.

  19. Simultaneous independent measurements of a truncated inner accretion disc in the low/hard state of GX 399$-$4

    CERN Document Server

    Plant, D S; Fender, R P

    2014-01-01

    We present results from three recent XMM-Newton observations of GX 339$-$4 in the low/hard state, taken during the decay of a bright (peak $\\sim 0.05$ L$_{\\rm Edd}$) failed outburst. Uniquely, these are the first XMM-Newton EPIC-pn observations of this source using an imaging mode, which significantly enhances the quality of the data at hand. In particular, thanks to the larger available bandpass, this allows an unprecedented constraint of the thermal accretion disc component, and the level of photoelectric absorption. We simultaneously measured the inner radius of the accretion disc via the broadened Fe K$\\alpha$ line and the disc component. The two methods agree, and the measured radii show good consistency over the three epochs. We find that the inner radius is at 20-30 $r_{\\rm g}$, adding to the growing direct evidence for truncation of the inner accretion disc in the low/hard state.

  20. Discovery of periodic dips in the light curve of GX 13+1: the X-ray orbital ephemeris of the source

    CERN Document Server

    Iaria, R; Burderi, L; Riggio, A; D'Ai, A; Robba, N R

    2013-01-01

    The bright low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) GX 13+1 is one of the most peculiar Galactic binary systems. A periodicity of 24.27 d with a formal statistical error of 0.03 d was observed in its power spectrum density obtained with RXTE All Sky Monitor (ASM) data spanning 14 years. Starting from a recent study, indicating GX 13+1 as a possible dipping source candidate, we systematically searched for periodic dips in the X-ray light curves of GX 13+1 from 1996 up to 2013 using RXTE/ASM, and MAXI data to determine for the first time the X-ray orbital ephemeris of GX 13+1. We searched for a periodic signal in the ASM and MAXI light curves, finding a common periodicity of 24.53 d. We folded the 1.3-5 keV and 5-12.1 keV ASM light curves and the 2-4 and 4-10 keV MAXI light curves at the period of 24.53 d finding a periodic dip. To refine the value of the period we used the timing technique dividing the ASM light curve in eight intervals and the MAXI light curve in two intervals, obtaining four and two dip arrival times fr...

  1. Hot Flow Model for Low Luminosity AGNs and Black Hole Binaries: the Role and Origin of Non-thermal Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, Andrzej; Xie, Fu-Guo; Stepnik, Agnieszka

    2014-08-01

    Optically thin, two-temperature accretion flows are widely considered as a relevant accretion mode below ~0.01 LEdd in AGNs as well as in X-ray binaries. We study spectral formation in such flows using a refined model with a fully general relativistic description of both the radiative (leptonic and hadronic) and hydrodynamic processes, and with an exact treatment of global Comptonization. We point out that basic properties of two-temperature flows determine the relative strengths of the synchrotron radiation of thermal electrons and non-thermal electrons from charged-pion decay, in a manner consistent with observations. In AGNs, the non-thermal synchrotron dominates the seed photon input down to ~10-5 LEdd and it allows to explain the X-ray spectral index-Eddington ratio relation as well as the cut-off energies measured in the best-studied AGNs; the (standard) model with the thermal synchrotron being the main source of seed photons does not agree with these observations. For stellar-mass black holes, non-thermal electrons from hadronic processes become important only above ~0.01 LEdd (and may be relevant for the non-thermal tails observed in luminous hard states of Cyg X-1 and GX 339-4) and we find that the thermal synchrotron provides a sufficient seed photon flux to explain observations of black hole transients below ~0.01 LEdd. We also note that non-thermal acceleration processes in hot flows are constrained by comparisons of the predicted gamma-ray fluxes (from neutral pion decay) with Fermi-LAT upper limits. For NGC 4151, it limits the energy content in the non-thermal component of proton distribution to at most 1 per cent.

  2. The Orbital Period of the Accreting Pulsar GX1+4

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, M G; Jablonski, F J; Pereira, Marildo G.; Braga, Joao; Jablonski, Francisco J.

    1999-01-01

    We report strong evidence for a ~304-day periodicity in the spin history of the accretion-powered pulsar GX1+4 that is most probably associated with the orbital period of the system. We have used data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory to show a clear periodic modulation of the pulsar frequency from 1991 to date, in excellent agreement with the ephemeris proposed by Cutler, Dennis & Dolan (1986). Our results indicate that the orbital period of GX1+4 is 303.8 +- 1.1 days, making it the widest known low-mass X-ray binary system by more than one order of magnitude and putting this long-standing question to rest. A likely scenario for this system is an elliptical orbit in which the neutron star decreases its spin-down rate (or even exhibits a momentary spin-up behavior) at periastron passages due to the higher torque exerted by the accretion disk onto the magnetosphere of the neutron star. These results are not inconsistent with both the X-ray pulsed flux light...

  3. Absorption and scattering by interstellar dust in the silicon K-edge of GX 5-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, S. T.; Costantini, E.; de Vries, C. P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Chihara, H.; de Groot, F.; Mutschke, H.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Zeidler, S.

    2017-03-01

    Context. We study the absorption and scattering of X-ray radiation by interstellar dust particles, which allows us to access the physical and chemical properties of dust. The interstellar dust composition is not well understood, especially on the densest sight lines of the Galactic plane. X-rays provide a powerful tool in this study. Aims: We present newly acquired laboratory measurements of silicate compounds taken at the Soleil synchrotron facility in Paris using the Lucia beamline. The dust absorption profiles resulting from this campaign were used in this pilot study to model the absorption by interstellar dust along the line of sight of the low-mass X-ray binary GX 5-1. Methods: The measured laboratory cross-sections were adapted for astrophysical data analysis and the resulting extinction profiles of the Si K-edge were implemented in the SPEX spectral fitting program. We derive the properties of the interstellar dust along the line of sight by fitting the Si K-edge seen in absorption in the spectrum of GX 5-1. Results: We measured the hydrogen column density towards GX 5-1 to be 3.40 ± 0.1 × 1022 cm-2. The best fit of the silicon edge in the spectrum of GX 5-1 is obtained by a mixture of olivine and pyroxene. In this study, our modeling is limited to Si absorption by silicates with different Mg:Fe ratios. We obtained an abundance of silicon in dust of 4.0 ± 0.3 × 10-5 per H atom and a lower limit for total abundance, considering both gas and dust of >4.4 × 10-5 per H atom, which leads to a gas to dust ratio of >0.22. Furthermore, an enhanced scattering feature in the Si K-edge may suggest the presence of large particles along the line of sight.

  4. Two-phase X-ray burst from GX 3+1 observed by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Falanga, M.F.; Brandt, Søren

    2006-01-01

    INTEGRAL detected on August 31, 2004, an unusual thermonuclear X-ray burst from the low-mass X-ray binary GX 3 3+1. Its duration was 30 min, which is between the normal burst durations for this source (less than or similar to 10 s) and the superburst observed in 1998 ( several hours). We see...... in the present case); and 3) limited carbon burning at an unusually shallow depth triggered by unstable helium ignition. Though none of these provide a satisfactory description of this uncommon event, the former one seems the most probable......., followed by a remarkable extended decay of cooling emission. We discuss three alternative schemes to explain its twofold nature: 1) unstable burning of a hydrogen hydrogen/helium layer involving an unusually large amount of hydrogen; 2) pure helium ignition at an unusually large depth ( unlikely...

  5. Impact strength of GX8CrNi12, GX5CrNi18-9 and GX5CrNiMo19-11-2 cast steel at - 30 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kalandyk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of impact tests carried out at - 30 °C on cast alloyed GX8CrNi12, GX5CrNi18-9 and GX5CrNiMo19-11-2 steel grades are reported. It has been shown that at - 30 °C, the addition of 1 % Ni to cast GX8CrNi12 steel does not provide the required impact strength of 35 J/cm2. In contrast, other tested materials containing 8 ÷ 9 % Ni can easily reach exceeding 50 J/cm2. Numerous non-metallic inclusions present in the microstructure of cast GX5CrNi-Mo19-11-2 steel resulting from, among others, the miscalculated refining process were found to be one of the main causes of reduced impact strength as compared to the cast GX5CrNi18-9 steel.

  6. 大众GX3概念车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prometheus

    2006-01-01

    在洛杉矶车展上,大众全新车款GX3首次亮相全球。GX3是由Moonraker团队以及大众加州设计中心共同设计,针对美国市场,旨在将一个振奋人心的设想转化为切实可行的概念,凭借三个车轮和独特的设计,这款大众车型开辟了一个驾驶新时代。

  7. New Results for Two Optically Faint Low Mass X-Ray Binary Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wachter, Stefanie

    1997-01-01

    We present optical photometry of the low mass X-ray binary systems GX 349+2 and Ser X-1. Extensive VRI photometry of the faint optical counterpart (V=18.4) to GX 349+2 reveals a period of 22.5 +/- 0.1 h and half-amplitude 0.2 mag. This result confirms and extends our previously reported 22 h period. No color change is detected over the orbit, although the limits are modest. We also report the discovery of two new variable stars in the field of GX 349+2, including a probable W UMa system. Ser ...

  8. Inner Accretion Disk Regions of Black Hole X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The innermost regions of accretion disks in black hole X-ray binaries dominate the observed X-ray emission, which is the main diagnostic that one uses to gain insights into the physics of black holes and accretion. The standard spectrum predicted from a geometrically thin, optically thick disk experiences non-trivial modification due to conspiring physical effects operating within the vertical disk structure such as Comptonization, free-free emission/absorption, bound-free opacities, and energy dissipation by magnetic processes. The complicated interplay of these effects cause the seed accretion disk spectrum to become hardened and it is this hardened emergent spectrum that we observe. To zeroth order, this hardening can be described by a phenomenological parameter called the spectral hardening factor.In practice, the adopted degree of spectral hardening is confined to lie within a rather restrictive range. I will discuss the following consequences of relaxing this criterion, while still requiring the spectral hardening factor to take on physically plausible values. Examining multiple state transitions of the black hole X-ray binary GX 339-4 with archival data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, I will show that appealing to a spectral hardening factor that varies during state transitions provides a viable alternative to a truncated disk model for the evolution of the inner accretion disk. Having demonstrated that moderate degrees of accretion disk spectral hardening cannot be ruled out by observations, I will explore this possibility from a theoretical standpoint. Extending previous work on radiative transfer modeling coupled to the vertical disk structure, I present the impacts on the emergent accretion disk spectrum caused by disk inclination and by allowing accretion power to be dissipated in the corona. Using magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a localized patch of the accretion disk (i.e., shearing box) performed with the Athena code, I will present the

  9. STABILITY OF THE PHOTON INDICES IN Z-SOURCE GX 340+0 FOR SPECTRAL STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifina, Elena [Moscow State University/Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetsky Prospect 13, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Titarchuk, Lev; Frontera, Filippo, E-mail: seif@sai.msu.ru, E-mail: titarchuk@fe.infn.it, E-mail: lev@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov, E-mail: frontera@fe.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2013-03-20

    We show an analysis of the spectral and timing properties of X-ray radiation from Z-source GX 340+0 during its evolution when the electron temperature of the transition layer (TL) kT{sub e} monotonically decreases from 21 to 3 keV. We analyze episodes observed with BeppoSAX and RXTE. We reveal that the X-ray broadband energy spectra during all spectral states can be reproduced by a physical model composed of a soft Blackbody component and two Comptonized components (both due to the presence of the TL that upscatters both seed photons of T{sub s1} {approx}< 1 keV coming from the disk (first component Comptb1), and seed photons of temperature T{sub s2} {approx}< 1.5 keV coming from the neutron star (second component Comptb2) and the iron-line (Gaussian) component. Spectral analysis using this model indicates that the photon power-law indices {Gamma}{sub com1} and {Gamma}{sub com2} of the Comptonized components are almost constant, {Gamma}{sub com1} and {Gamma}{sub com2} {approx} 2 when kT{sub e} changes from 3 to 21 keV along the Z-track. We interpret the detected quasi-stability of the indices of Comptonized components to be near a value of 2. Furthermore, this index stability now found for the Comptonized spectral components of Z-source GX 340+0 is similar to that previously established in the atoll sources 4U 1728-34 and GX 3+1, and earlier proposed for a number of X-ray neutron stars (NSs). This behavior of NSs both for atoll and Z-sources is essentially different from that observed in black hole binaries where {Gamma}{sub com} increases during a spectral evolution from the low state to the high state and ultimately saturates at a high mass accretion rate.

  10. The Spreading Layer of GX 9+9

    CERN Document Server

    Vilhu, Osmi; Hannikainen, Diana; Schultz, Juho; Beckmann, Volker

    2007-01-01

    The spreading layer (SL) on neutron star surface of GX 9+9 during the upper banana state was studied using INTEGRAL and RXTE observations. The SL-area becomes larger with increasing accretion rate while the SL-temperature remains close to the critical Eddington value, confirming predictions by Inogamov and Sunyaev (1999) and Suleimanov and Poutanen (2006). However, at low accretion rate the observed temperature is higher and SL-belt shallower than those predicted, requiring confirmation and theoretical explananation.

  11. X-ray bursts at extreme mass accretion rates from GX 17+2

    CERN Document Server

    Kuulkers, E; Van der Klis, M; Lewin, W H G; Méndez, M

    2002-01-01

    (abridged version) We report on ten X-ray bursts from GX 17+2 in RXTE data in 1996-2000. Three bursts were short in duration (~10 s), whereas the others lasted for ~6-25 min. Five of the long bursts showed evidence for radius expansion of the neutron star photosphere. No correlations of the burst properties with respect to the persistent X-ray spectral properties are seen, suggesting no correlation with inferred persistent mass accretion rate. The presence of short bursts in GX 17+2 and other bright X-ray sources, i.e. Cyg X-2, GX 3+1 and GX 13+1, as well as the ABSENCE of bursts in the bright X-ray sources Sco X-1, GX 5-1, GX 340+0, GX 349+2, GX 9+1 and GX 9+9 is not accounted for in the current X-ray bursts theories at the high mass accretion rates encountered in these sources. We find that in contrast to previous suggestions the persistent black-body emission does NOT arise from the same site as the burst emission. The black-body component of the persistent emission is consistent with arising in an expande...

  12. Application of GX simulator simulation software in program debugging of PLC%GX Simulator仿真软件在PLC程序调试中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭登峰

    2010-01-01

    采用GX DeveIoper编程软件及GX Simulator仿真软件可以在计算机上直接进行PLC编程及仿真调试.文中探讨了使用GX Simulator进行PLC程序调试的方法和步骤.利用仿真软件,能够使PLC程序设计与调试脱离硬件本身,给系统的开发及PLC的教学和自学提供了便利.

  13. Time Lags of Z Source GX 5-1

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, J. L.; Chen, Y.; Wu, M.; Chen, L.; Song, L. M.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the time lags and the evolution of the cross spectra of Z source GX~5-1, observed by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), when it is in the horizontal branch oscillations. We showed that the time lags of 3 horizontal branch oscillations are related to the position on the hardness intensity diagram. All of the three QPOs were shown to have hard time lags. However on the cross spectra, one is in a `dip', one in a `bump', the other has no so obvious characteristic. The time la...

  14. Simultaneous X-ray/optical observations of GX 9+9 (4U 1728-16)

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, A K H; Homer, L; Kuulkers, E; O'Donoghue, D

    2006-01-01

    We report on the results of the first simultaneous X-ray (RXTE) and optical (SAAO) observations of the luminous low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) GX 9+9 in 1999 August. The high-speed optical photometry revealed an orbital period of 4.1958 hr and confirmed previous observations, but with greater precision. No X-ray modulation was found at the orbital period. On shorter timescales, a possible 1.4-hr variability was found in the optical light curves which might be related to the mHz quasi-periodic oscillations seen in other LMXBs. We do not find any significant X-ray/optical correlation in the light curves. In X-rays, the colour-colour diagram and hardness-intensity diagram indicate that the source shows characteristics of an atoll source in the upper banana state, with a correlation between intensity and spectral hardness. Time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy suggests that two-component spectral models give a reasonable fit to the X-ray emission. Such models consist of a blackbody component which can be interpreted as ...

  15. Spin period evolution of GX 1+4

    CERN Document Server

    González-Galán, A; Kretschmar, P; Larsson, S; Postnov, K; Kochetkova, A; Finger, M H

    2011-01-01

    We report on the long-term evolution of the spin period of the symbiotic X-ray pulsar GX 1+4 and a possible interpretation within a model of quasi-spherical accretion. New period measurements from BeppoSAX/WFC, INTEGRAL/ISGRI and Fermi/GBM observations have been combined with previously published data from four decades of observations. During the 1970's GX 1+4 was spinning up with the fastest rate among the known X-ray pulsars at the time. In the mid 1980's it underwent a change during a period of low X-ray flux and started to spin down with a rate similar in magnitude to the previous spin up rate. The spin period has changed from ~110 s to ~160 s within the last three decades. Our results demonstrate that the overall spin down trend continues and is stronger than ever. We compare the observations with predictions from a model assuming quasi-spherical accretion from the slow wind of the M giant companion.

  16. 12 CFR 339.4 - Exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS... does not apply with respect to: (a) Any State-owned property covered under a policy of self-insurance satisfactory to the Director of FEMA, who publishes and periodically revises the list of States falling...

  17. Luminosity-dependent spectral and timing properties of the accreting pulsar GX 304-1 measured with INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Malacaria, Christian; Santangelo, Andrea; Staubert, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Context: Be/X-ray binaries show outbursts with peak luminosities up to a few times $10^{37}\\,$erg/s, during which they can be observed and studied in detail. Most (if not all) Be/X-ray binaries harbour accreting pulsars, whose X-ray spectra in many cases contain cyclotron resonant scattering features related to the magnetic field of the sources. Spectral variations as a function of luminosity and of the rotational phase of the neutron star are observed in many accreting pulsars. Aims: We explore X-ray spectral and timing properties of the Be/X-ray binary GX 304-1 during an outburst episode. Specifically, we investigate the behavior of the cyclotron resonant scattering feature, the continuum spectral parameters, the pulse period, and the energy- and luminosity-resolved pulse profiles. We combine the luminosity-resolved spectral and timing analysis to probe the accretion geometry and the beaming patterns of the rotating neutron star. Methods: We analyze the INTEGRAL data from the two JEM-X modules, ISGRI and SP...

  18. A model for the [C+-GxC]n triple helix derived from observation of the C+-GxC base triplet in a crystal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, C M; Trent, J O; Neidle, S

    1997-10-13

    A molecular modelling study on the [C+-GxC]n triple helix is reported. We have observed the C+-GxC base triplet in the crystal structure of an oligonucleotide-drug complex, between the minor-groove drug netropsin and the decanucleotide d(CGCAATTGCG)2. The complex was crystallised at pH 7.0, but the crystal structure, at a resolution of 2.4 A, shows that a terminal cytosine has become protonated and participates in a parallel C+-GxC base triplet. The structure of this triplet and its associated sugar-phosphate backbones have been energy-refined and then used to generate a triple helix. This has characteristics of the B-type family of DNA structures for two strands, with the third, the C+ strand, having backbone conformations closer to the A family.

  19. Spin period evolution of GX 1+4

    CERN Document Server

    González-Galán, A; Kretschmar, P; Larsson, S; Postnov, K; Kochetkova, A; Finger, M H

    2011-01-01

    We aim both to complement the existing data on the spin history of the peculiar accreting X-ray pulsar GX 1+4 with more past and current data from BeppoSAX, INTEGRAL, and Fermi and to interpret the evolution in the framework of accretion theory. We used source light curves obtained from BeppoSAX/WFC and INTEGRAL/ISGRI to derive pulse periods using an epoch-folding analysis. Fermi/GBM data were analyzed by fitting a constant plus a Fourier expansion to background-subtracted rates, and maximizing the Y2 statistic. We completed the sample with hard X-ray light curves from Swift/BAT. The data were checked for correlations between flux and changes of the pulsar spin on different timescales. The spin-down of the pulsar continues with a constant change in frequency, i.e., an apparently accelerating change in the period. Over the past three decades, the pulse period has increased by about ~50%. Short-term fluctuations on top of this long-term trend do show anti-correlation with the source flux. Possible explanations ...

  20. Study of the reflection spectrum of the accreting neutron star GX 3+1 using XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Pintore, Fabio; Bozzo, Enrico; Sanna, Andrea; Burderi, Luciano; D'Aì, Antonino; Riggio, Alessandro; Scarano, Fabiana; Iaria, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Broad emission features of abundant chemical elements, such as Iron, are commonly seen in the X-ray spectra of accreting compact objects and their studies can provide useful information about the geometry of the accretion processes. In this work, we focus our attention on GX 3+1, a bright, persistent accreting low mass X-ray binary, classified as an atoll source. Its spectrum is well described by an accretion disc plus a stable comptonizing, optically thick corona which dominates the X-ray emission in the 0.3-20 keV energy band. In addition, four broad emission lines are found and we associate them with reflection of hard photons from the inner regions of the accretion disc where doppler and relativistic effects are important. We used self-consistent reflection models to fit the spectra of the 2010 XMM-Newton observation and the stacking of the whole datasets of 2010 INTEGRAL observations. We conclude that the spectra are consistent with reflection produced at ~10 gravitational radii by an accretion disc with...

  1. The cross-correlation analysis in Z source GX 349+2

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, G. Q.; Zhang, W.Y.; Wang, Y. N.; Li, Z. B.; Qu, J. L.; Huang, C. P.

    2015-01-01

    Using all the observations from Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer for Z source GX 349+2, we systematically carry out cross-correlation analysis between its soft and hard X-ray light curves. During the observations from January 9 to January 29, 1998, GX 349+2 traced out the most extensive Z track on its hardness-intensity diagram, making a comprehensive study of cross-correlation on the track. The positive correlations and positively correlated time lags are detected throughout the Z track. Outside ...

  2. A BAC clone of MDV strain GX0101 with REV-LTR integration retained its pathogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN AiJun; LAWRENCE Petherbridge; ZHAO YuGuang; LI YanPeng; NAIR Venugopal K; CUI ZhiZhong

    2009-01-01

    The complete genome of Marek's disease virus (MDV) strain GX0101,which was integrated with the LTR sequences of REV,was cloned in Escherichia coli as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC).BAC vector sequences were introduced into the US2 locus of the MDV genome by homologous recombination.The viral DNA containing the BAC vector was used to transform Escherichia coli strain of DH10B.Then the recombinant virus was successfully rescued by transfection of the recombinant BAC DNA into primary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF).This BAC viral clone was named bac-GX0101.When the reconstituted virus was inoculated into 1-day-old birds,visceral tumors could be detected as early as 62 d post infection.There was no difference in growth ability and pathogenicity to birds between the BAC derived virus and its parental virus.The BAC derived virus maintained its oncogenicity and immunosuppressive effects.In conclusion,the complete genome of GX0101 strain was successfully cloned into BAC and the infectious clone was rescued.With the powerful BAC manipulation system,the infectious clone will provide a useful tool for further understanding the functional roles of the inserted REV-LTR sequence in the GX0101 strain of MDV.

  3. Testing GxG interactions between coinfecting microbial parasite genotypes within hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca D Schulte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Host-parasite interactions represent one of the strongest selection pressures in nature. They are often governed by genotype-specific (GxG interactions resulting in host genotypes that differ in resistance and parasite genotypes that differ in virulence depending on the antagonist’s genotype. Another type of GxG interactions, which is often neglected but which certainly influences host-parasite interactions, are those between coinfecting parasite genotypes. Mechanistically, within-host parasite interactions may range from competition for limited host resources to cooperation for more efficient host exploitation. The exact type of interaction, i.e. whether competitive or cooperative, is known to affect life-history traits such as virulence. However, the latter has been shown for chosen genotype combinations only, not considering whether the specific genotype combination per se may influence the interaction (i.e. GxG interactions. Here, we want to test for the presence of GxG interactions between coinfections of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis infecting the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by combining two non-pathogenic and five pathogenic strains in all possible ways. Furthermore, we evaluate whether the type of interaction, reflected by the direction of virulence change of multiple compared to single infections, is genotype-specific. Generally, we found no indication for GxG interactions between non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacterial strains, indicating that virulence of pathogenic strains is equally affected by both non-pathogenic strains. Specific genotype combinations, however, differ in the strength of virulence change, indicating that the interaction type between coinfecting parasite strains and thus the virulence mechanism is specific for different genotype combinations. Such interactions are expected to influence host-parasite interactions and to have strong implications for coevolution.

  4. 丽台WinFast PX7950 GX2 TDH显卡:由速度做主

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨

    2006-01-01

    NVIDIA在CES 2006上曾经推出了具备Quad SLI技术的GeForce 7900 GX2显卡,不过,当时的产品体积过于庞大。NVIDIA也迅速对此进行了改进,于近日发布了新的旗舰产品GeForce 7950 GX2显卡。作为NVIDIA全球重要的合作伙伴,丽台也在第一时间推出了WinFast PX7950 GX2TDH显卡。

  5. Study of the Many Fluorescent Lines and the Absorption Variability in GX 301-2 with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, F.; Suchy, S.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Barragan, L.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Caballero, I.; Kretschmar, P.; Ferrigno, C.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    We present an in-depth study of the High Mass X-ray Binary (HMXB) GX 301-2 during its pre-periastron flare using data from the XMM-Newton satellite. The energy spectrum shows a power law continuum absorbed by a large equivalent hydrogen column on the order of 10(exp 24)/ sq cm and a prominent Fe K-alpha fluorescent emission line. Besides the Fe K-alpha line, evidence for Fe K-Beta, Ni K-alpha, Ni K-Beta, S K-alpha, Ar K-alpha, Ca K-alpha, and Cr K-alpha fluorescent lines is found. The observed line strengths are consistent with fluorescence in a cold absorber. This is the first time that Cr K-alpha is seen in emission in the X-ray spectrum of a HMXB. In addition to the modulation by the strong pulse period of approx 685 sec the source is highly variable and shows different states of activity. We perform time-resolved as well as pulse-to-pulse resolved spectroscopy to investigate differences between these states of activity. We find that fluorescent line fluxes are strongly variable and generally follow the overall flux. The N-H value is variable by a factor of 2, but not correlated to continuum normalization. We find an interval of low flux in the light curve in which the pulsations cease almost completely, without any indication of an increasing absorption column. We investigate this dip in detail and argue that it is most likely that during the dip the accretion ceased and the afterglow of the fluorescent iron accounted for the main portion of the X-ray flux. A similar dip was found earlier in RXTE data, and we compare our findings to these results.

  6. Bounds on the degree of APN polynomials: the case of x −1 + g(x)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Gregor; Rodier, François

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider APN functions $${f:\\mathcal{F}_{2^m}\\to \\mathcal{F}_{2^m}}$$ of the form f(x) = x −1 + g(x) where g is any non $${\\mathcal{F}_{2}}$$-affine polynomial. We prove a lower bound on the degree of the polynomial g. This bound in particular implies that such a function f is AP...

  7. The LMXRB GX354-0 is flaring in the hard X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita, J.; Bazzano, A.; Brandt, Søren;

    2004-01-01

    GX 354-0 (also known as 4U 1728-34) has been monitored by INTEGRAL as part of the Galactic Center Deep Exposure almost continuously from 2004-02-16 until now. Over that period the source flux measured by IBIS/ISGRI between 20-60 keV featured a smooth increase with a maximum flux of 0.2 Crab...

  8. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  9. Correlation between radio luminosity and X-ray timing frequencies in neutron star and black hole X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migliari, S.; Fender, R.P.; van der Klis, M.

    2005-01-01

    We report on correlations between radio luminosity and X-ray timing features in X-ray binary systems containing low magnetic field neutron stars and black holes. The sample of neutron star systems consists of 4U 1728-34, 4U 1820-34, Ser X-1, MXB 1730-335, GX 13+1, the millisecond X-ray pulsars SAX J

  10. Presenilin-like GxGD membrane proteases have dual roles as proteolytic enzymes and ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ivana Y; Hu, Jian; Ha, Ya; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2015-03-06

    The GxGD proteases function to cleave protein substrates within the membrane. As these proteases contain multiple transmembrane domains typical of ion channels, we examined if GxGD proteases also function as ion channels. We tested the putative dual function by examining two archeobacterial GxGD proteases (PSH and FlaK), with known three-dimensional structures. Both are in the same GxGD family as presenilin, a protein mutated in Alzheimer Disease. Here, we demonstrate that PSH and FlaK form cation channels in lipid bilayers. A mutation that affected the enzymatic activity of FlaK rendered the channel catalytically inactive and altered the ion selectivity, indicating that the ion channel and the catalytic activities are linked. We report that the GxGD proteases, PSH and FlaK, are true "chanzymes" with interdependent ion channel and protease activity conferred by a single structural domain embedded in the membrane, supporting the proposal that higher-order proteases, including presenilin, have channel function.

  11. Considerations on Auditing and GxP Requirements along the Product Lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönninger, Stephan; Schmitt, Siegfried; Rangavajhula, Vijaya; Hough, Emily; Lyda, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the current GxP standards which need to be applied by global pharmaceutical manufacturers in order to achieve compliance with global regulatory requirements. Companies need to follow and audit against relevant global/regional and domestic laws as well as focusing on the lifecycle aspects of the product and processes involved from development through to routine commercial manufacture. This article was written under the auspices of PDA's Paradigm Change for Manufacturing Operations (PCMO(SM)) task force on risk-based auditing.

  12. A search for iron emission lines in the Chandra X-ray spectra of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Cackett, E M; Homan, J; Van der Klis, M; Lewin, W H G; Méndez, M; Raymond, J; Steeghs, D; Wijnands, R

    2008-01-01

    While iron emission lines are well studied in black hole systems, both in X-ray binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei, there has been less of a focus on these lines in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). However, recent observations with Suzaku and XMM-Newton have revealed broad asymmetric iron line profiles in 4 neutron star LMXBs, confirming an inner disk origin for these lines in neutron star systems. Here, we present a search for iron lines in 6 neutron star LMXBs. For each object we have simultaneous Chandra and RXTE observations at 2 separate epochs, allowing for both a high resolution spectrum, as well as broadband spectral coverage. Out of the six objects in the survey, we only find significant iron lines in two of the objects, GX 17+2 and GX 349+2. However, we cannot rule out that there are weak, broad lines present in the other sources. The equivalent width of the line in GX 17+2 is consistent between the 2 epochs, while in GX 349+2 the line equivalent width increases by a factor of ~3 betwe...

  13. Discovery and modelling of a flattening of the positive cyclotron line/luminosity relation in GX 304-1 with RXTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Richard E.; Kühnel, Matthias; Pottschmidt, Katja; Hemphill, Paul; Postnov, Konstantin; Gornostaev, Mikhail; Shakura, Nikolai; Fürst, Felix; Wilms, Jörn; Staubert, Rüdiger; Klochkov, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observed four outbursts of the accreting X-ray binary transient source, GX 304-1 in 2010 and 2011. We present results of detailed 3-100 keV spectral analysis of 69 separate observations, and report a positive correlation between cyclotron line parameters, as well as other spectral parameters, with power-law flux. The cyclotron line energy, width and depth versus flux, and thus luminosity, correlations show a flattening of the relationships with increasing luminosity, which are well described by quasi-spherical or disc accretion that yield the surface magnetic field to be ∼5 × 1012 Gauss. Since HEXTE (High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment) cluster A was fixed aligned with the Proportional Counter Array field of view and cluster B was fixed viewing a background region 1.5° off of the source direction during these observations near the end of the RXTE mission, the cluster A background was estimated from cluster B events using HEXTEBACKEST. This made possible the detection of the ∼55 keV cyclotron line and an accurate measurement of the continuum. Correlations of all spectral parameters with the primary 2-10 keV power-law flux reveal it to be the primary driver of the spectral shape. The accretion is found to be in the collisionless shock braking regime.

  14. Discovery and Modeling of a Flattening of the Positive Cyclotron Line/Luminosity Relation in GX 304-1 with RXTE

    CERN Document Server

    Rothschild, Richard E; Pottschmidt, Katja; Hemphill, Paul; Postnov, Konstantin; Gornostaev, Mikhail; Shakura, Nikolai; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Joern; Staubert, Ruediger; Klochkov, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    The RXTE observed four outbursts of the accreting X-ray binary transient source, GX 304-1 in 2010 and 2011. We present results of detailed 3-100 keV spectral analysis of 69 separate observations, and report a positive correlation between cyclotron line parameters, as well as other spectral parameters, with power law flux. The cyclotron line energy, width and depth versus flux, and thus luminosity, correlations show a flattening of the relationships with increasing luminosity, which are well described by quasi-spherical or disk accretion that yield the surface magnetic field to be ~60 keV. Since HEXTE cluster A was fixed aligned with the PCA field of view and cluster B was fixed viewing a background region 1.5 degrees off of the source direction during these observations near the end of the RXTE mission, the cluster A background was estimated from cluster B events using HEXTEBACKEST. This made possible the detection of the ~55 keV cyclotron line and an accurate measurement of the continuum. Correlations of all...

  15. Orbital phase resolved spectroscopy of GX 301-2 with MAXI

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Nazma

    2014-01-01

    GX 301-2, a bright HMXB with an orbital period of 41.5 days, exhibits stable periodic orbital intensity modulations with a strong pre-periastron X-ray flare. Several models have been proposed to explain the accretion at different orbital phases, invoking accretion via stellar wind, equatorial disk, and accretion stream from the companion star. We present results from exhaustive orbital phase resolved spectroscopic measurements of GX 301-2 using data from the Gas Slit Camera onboard MAXI. Using spectroscopic analysis of the MAXI data with unprecendented orbital coverage for many orbits continuously, we have found a strong orbital dependence of the absorption column density and equivalent width of the iron emission line. A very large equivalent width of the iron line along with a small value of the column density in the orbital phase range 0.10-0.30 after the periastron passage indicates presence of high density absorbing matter behind the neutron star in these orbital phase range. A low energy excess is also f...

  16. X-ray Dust Scattering at Small Angles: The Complete Halo around GX13+1

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Randall K

    2008-01-01

    The exquisite angular resolution available with Chandra should allow precision measurements of faint diffuse emission surrounding bright sources, such as the X-ray scattering halos created by interstellar dust. However, the ACIS CCDs suffer from pileup when observing bright sources, and this creates difficulties when trying to extract the scattered halo near the source. The initial study of the X-ray halo around GX13+1 using only the ACIS-I detector done by Smith, Edgar & Shafer (2002) suffered from a lack of sensitivity within 50'' of the source, limiting what conclusions could be drawn. To address this problem, observations of GX13+1 were obtained with the Chandra HRC-I and simultaneously with the RXTE PCA. Combined with the existing ACIS-I data, this allowed measurements of the X-ray halo between 2-1000''. After considering a range of dust models, each assumed to be smoothly distributed with or without a dense cloud along the line of sight, the results show that there is no evidence in this data for a ...

  17. X-Ray Dust Scattering At Small Angles: The Complete Halo Around GX13+1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall K.

    2007-01-01

    The exquisite angular resolution available with Chandra should allow precision measurements of faint diffuse emission surrounding bright sources, such as the X-ray scattering halos created by interstellar dust. However, the ACIS CCDs suffer from pileup when observing bright sources, and this creates difficulties when trying to extract the scattered halo near the source. The initial study of the X-ray halo around GX13+1 using only the ACIS-I detector done by Smith, Edgar & Shafer (2002) suffered from a lack of sensitivity within 50" of the source, limiting what conclusions could be drawn. To address this problem, observations of GX13+1 were obtained with the Chandra HRC-I and simultaneously with the RXTE PCA. Combined with the existing ACIS-I data, this allowed measurements of the X-ray halo between 2-1000". After considering a range of dust models, each assumed to be smoothly distributed with or without a dense cloud along the line of sight, the results show that there is no evidence in this data for a dense cloud near the source, as suggested by Xiang et al. (2005). In addition, although no model leads to formally acceptable results, the Weingartner & Draine (2001) and all but one of the composite grain models from Zubko, Dwek & Arendt (2004) give particularly poor fits.

  18. Spin period evolution of the X-ray pulsar GX 1+4

    CERN Document Server

    González-Galán, A; Kretschmar, P; Larsson, S; Postnov, K; Kochetkova, A; Finger, M H

    2012-01-01

    We report on the long-term evolution of the spin period of the symbiotic X-ray pulsar GX 1+4 and a possible interpretation within a model of quasi-spherical accretion. New period measurements from BeppoSAX, INTEGRAL and Fermi observations have been combined with previously published data from four decades of observations. During the 1970s GX 1+4 was spinning up with the fastest rate among the known X-ray pulsars at the time. In the mid 1980s it underwent a change during a period of low X-ray ux and started to spin down with a rate similar in magnitude to the previous spin up rate. The spin period has changed from ~110 s to ~160 s within the last three decades. Our results demonstrate that the overall spin down trend continues and is stronger than ever. We compare the observations with predictions from a model assuming quasi-spherical accretion from the slow wind of the M giant companion.

  19. A precessing Be disc as a possible model for occultation events in GX 304-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnel, M.; Rothschild, R. E.; Okazaki, A. T.; Müller, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Ballhausen, R.; Choi, J.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Fürst, F.; Marcu-Cheatham, D. M.; Hemphill, P.; Sagredo, M.; Kretschmar, P.; Martínez-Núñez, S.; Torrejón, J. M.; Staubert, R.; Wilms, J.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the RXTE detection of a sudden increase in the absorption column density, NH, during the 2011 May outburst of GX 304-1. The NH increased up to ∼16 × 1022 atoms cm-2, which is a factor of 3-4 larger than what is usually measured during the outbursts of GX 304-1 as covered by RXTE. Additionally, an increase in the variability of the hardness ratio as calculated from the energy resolved RXTE-Proportional Counter Array light curves is measured during this time range. We interpret these facts as an occultation event of the neutron star by material in the line of sight. Using a simple 3D model of an inclined and precessing Be disc around the Be-type companion, we are able to qualitatively explain the NH evolution over time. We are able to constrain the Be disc density to be of the order of 10-11 g cm-3. Our model strengthens the idea of inclined Be discs as origin of double-peaked outbursts as the derived geometry allows accretion twice per orbit under certain conditions.

  20. Main parameters of neutron stars from quasi-periodic oscillations in low mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Muccino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations of low-mass X-ray binaries within the Hartle-Thorne spacetime. On the basis the relativistic precession model we extract the total mass $M$, angular momentum $J$, and quadrupole moment $Q$ of a compact object in a low-mass X-ray binary by analyzing the data of the Z -source GX 5-1. In view of the recent neutron star model we compute the radius, angular velocity and other parameters of this source by imposing the observational and theoretical constraints on the mass-radius relation.

  1. VLT/UVES spectroscopy of Wray 977, the hypergiant companion to the X-ray pulsar GX301-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaper, L.; van der Meer, A.; Najarro, F.

    2006-01-01

    Model atmosphere fits to high-resolution optical spectra of Wray 977 confirm the B hypergiant classification of the massive companion to the X-ray pulsar GX301-2. The models give a radius of 62 Ro, an effective temperature of 18 100 K and a luminosity of 5 × 105 Lo. These values are somewhat reduced

  2. Characteristics of centrifugally cast GX25CrNiSi18-9 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zapała

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of microstructural examinations of the industrial heat-resistant centrifugally cast GX25CrNiSi18-9 steel characterised by increased content of Cu. The study included changes in the microstructure of base cast steel respective of the steel held at a temperature of 900 and 950°C for 48 hours. Based on the results obtained, an increase in microhardness of the examined cast steel matrix with increasing temperature was stated, which was probably caused by fine precipitates enriched in Cr, Mo, and C forming inside the matrix grains.The layer of scale formed on the tested cast steel oxidised in the atmosphere of air at 900 and 950°C was characterised by an increased tendency to degradation with increasing temperature of the conducted tests.

  3. Broadband Spectroscopy Using Two Suzaku Observations of the HMXB GX 301-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchy, Slawomir; Fuerst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Caballero, Isabel; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Wilms, Joern; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the analysis of two Suzaku observations of GX 301-2 at two orbital phases after the periastron passage. Variations in the column density of the line-of-sight absorber are observed, consistent with accretion from a clumpy wind. In addition to a CRSF, multiple fluorescence emission lines were detected in both observations. The variations in the pulse profiles and the CRSF throughout the pulse phase have a signature of a magnetic dipole field. Using a simple dipole model we calculated the expected magnetic field values for different pulse phases and were able to extract a set of geometrical angles, loosely constraining the dipole geometry in the neutron star. From the variation of the CRSF width and energy, we found a geometrical solution for the dipole, making the inclination consistent with previously published values.

  4. New Results for Two Optically Faint Low Mass X-Ray Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, S

    1997-01-01

    We present optical photometry of the low mass X-ray binary systems GX 349+2 and Ser X-1. Extensive VRI photometry of the faint optical counterpart (V=18.4) to GX 349+2 reveals a period of 22.5 +/- 0.1 h and half-amplitude 0.2 mag. This result confirms and extends our previously reported 22~h period. No color change is detected over the orbit, although the limits are modest. We also report the discovery of two new variable stars in the field of GX 349+2, including a probable W UMa system. Ser X-1 is one of the most intense persistent X-ray burst sources known. It is also one of only three burst systems for which simultaneous optical and X-ray bursts have been observed. The faint blue optical counterpart MM Ser (B~19.2) has long been known to have a companion 2.1" distant. Our images indicate that MM Ser is itself a further superposition of two stars, separated by only 1". At the very least, the ratio of inferred burst to quiescent optical flux is affected by the discovery of this additional component. In the w...

  5. An extended topological model for binary phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansen, Christian [Section of Chemistry, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark); Rodrigues, Bruno P.; Wondraczek, Lothar [Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research, University of Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Yue, Yuanzheng, E-mail: yy@bio.aau.dk [Section of Chemistry, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark); State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architecture, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2014-12-28

    We present a topological model for binary phosphate glasses that builds on the previously introduced concepts of the modifying ion sub-network and the strength of modifier constraints. The validity of the model is confirmed by the correct prediction of T{sub g}(x) for covalent polyphosphoric acids where the model reduces to classical constraint counting. The constraints on the modifying cations are linear constraints to first neighbor non-bridging oxygens, and all angular constraints are broken as expected for ionic bonding. For small modifying cations, such as Li{sup +}, the linear constraints are almost fully intact, but for larger ions, a significant fraction is broken. By accounting for the fraction of intact modifying ion related constraints, q{sub γ}, the T{sub g}(x) of alkali phosphate glasses is predicted. By examining alkali, alkaline earth, and rare earth metaphosphate glasses, we find that the effective number of intact constraints per modifying cation is linearly related to the charge-to-distance ratio of the modifying cation to oxygen.

  6. X-rays and gamma-rays from accretion flows onto black holes in Seyferts and X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Johnson, W. Neil; Poutanen, Juri; Magdziarz, Pawel; Gierlinski, Marek

    1997-01-01

    Observations and theoretical models of X-ray/gamma ray spectra of radio quiet Seyfert galaxies and Galactic black hole candidates are reviewed. The spectra from these objects share the following characteristics: an underlying power law with a high energy cutoff above 200 keV; a Compton reflection component with a Fe K alpha line, and a low energy absorption by intervening cold matter. The X-ray energy spectral index, alpha, is typically in the range between 0.8 and 1 in Seyfert spectra, and that of the hard state spectra of the black hole candidates Cygnus X-1 and GX 339-4 is typically between 0.6 and 0.8. The Compton reflection component corresponds with cold matter covering a solid angle of between 0.8pi and 2pi as seen from the X-ray source. The broadband spectra of both classes of sources are well fitted by Compton upscattering of soft photons in thermal plasma. The fits yield a thermal plasma temperature of 100 keV and the Thomson optical depth of 1. All the spectra presented are cut off before the electron rest energy 511 keV, indicating that electron/positron pair production is an important process.

  7. A novel peptide (GX1 homing to gastric cancer vasculature inhibits angiogenesis and cooperates with TNF alpha in anti-tumor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of the importance of angiogenesis in tumor growth has emphasized the need to find specific vascular targets for tumor-targeted therapies. Previously, using phage display technology, we identified the peptide GX1 as having the ability to target the gastric cancer vasculature. The present study investigated the bioactivities of GX1, as well as its potential ability to cooperate with recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (rmhTNFα, in gastric cancer therapy. Results Tetrazolium salt (MTT assay showed that GX1 could inhibit cell proliferation of both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC (44% and HUVEC with tumor endothelium characteristics, generated by culturing in tumor-conditioned medium (co-HUVEC (62%. Flow-cytometry (FCM and western blot assays showed that GX1 increased the rate of apoptosis from 11% to 31% (p in vivo, with the microvessel count decreasing from 21 to 11 (p In vitro MTT and FCM assays showed that, compared to rmhTNFα alone, GX1-rmhTNFα was more effective at suppressing co-HUVEC proliferation (45% vs. 61%, p p 3 vs. 134 mm3, p p Conclusion GX1 had both homing activity and the ability to inhibit vascular endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and neovascularization in vivo. Furthermore, when GX1 was conjugated to rmhTNFα, the fusion protein was selectively delivered to targeted tumor sites, significantly improving the anti-tumor activity of rmhTNFα and decreasing systemic toxicity. These results demonstrate the potential of GX1 as a homing peptide in vascular targeted therapy for gastric cancer.

  8. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  9. Luminosity and spin-period evolution of GX 304$-$1 during outbursts from 2009 to 2013 observed with the MAXI/GSC, RXTE/PCA, and Fermi/GBM

    CERN Document Server

    Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nakajima, Motoki; Makishima, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    A report is made on the luminosity and pulse-period evolution of the Be binary X-ray pulsar, GX 304$-$1, during a series of outbursts from 2009 to 2013 observed by MAXI/GSC, RXTE/PCA, and Fermi/GBM. In total, twelve outbursts repeated by $\\sim$ 132.2 days were observed, which is consistent with the X-ray periodicity of this object observed in the 1970s. These 12 outbursts, together with those in the 1970s, were found to all recur with a well defined period of 132.189$\\pm$0.02 d, which can be identified with the orbital period. The pulse period at $\\sim 275$ s, obtained from the RXTE/PCA and Fermi/GBM data, apparently exhibited a periodic modulation synchronized with the outburst period, suggesting the pulsar orbital motion, which is superposed on a secular spin-up trend throughout the entire active phase. The observed pulse-period changes were successfully represented by a model composed of the binary orbital modulation and pulsar spin up caused by mass accretion through an accretion disk. The orbital element...

  10. GX1-conjugated poly(lactic acid nanoparticles encapsulating Endostar for improved in vivo anticolorectal cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Y

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yang Du,1,* Qian Zhang,1,* Lijia Jing,2 Xiaolong Liang,2 Chongwei Chi,1 Yaqian Li,1 Xin Yang,1 Zhifei Dai,2 Jie Tian1 1Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, The State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tumor angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth and metastasis; thus, targeting tumor-associated angiogenesis is an important goal in cancer therapy. However, the efficient delivery of drugs to tumors remains a key issue in antiangiogenesis therapy. GX1, a peptide identified by phage-display technology, is a novel tumor vasculature endothelium-specific ligand and possesses great potential as a targeted vector and antiangiogenic agent in the diagnosis and treatment of human cancers. Endostar, a novel recombinant human endostatin, has been shown to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we developed a theranostic agent composed of GX1-conjugated poly(lactic acid nanoparticles encapsulating Endostar (GPENs and labeled with the near-infrared dye IRDye 800CW to improve colorectal tumor targeting and treatment efficacy in vivo. The in vivo fluorescence molecular imaging data showed that GPENs (IRDye 800CW more specifically targeted tumors than free IRDye 800CW in colorectal tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, the antitumor efficacy was evaluated by bioluminescence imaging and immunohistology, revealing that GPENs possessed improved antitumor efficacy on subcutaneous colorectal xenografts compared to other treatment groups. Thus, our study showed that GPENs, a novel GX1 peptide guided form of nanoscale Endostar, can be used as a theranostic agent to facilitate more efficient targeted therapy and enable real-time monitoring of therapeutic efficacy in vivo

  11. INTEGRAL hard X-ray detection of HMXB GX 304-1 and H1417-624

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manousakis, A.; Beckmann, V.; Bianchin, V.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the first detection of the Be star HMXBs GX 304-1 and H1417-624 above 20 keV with the IBIS/ISGRI X-ray imager on board INTEGRAL. From 2008-06-24 to 2008-07-09, INTEGRAL performed monitoring observations of the Galactic plane around l=305 degrees for a total exposure time of 352 ksec...

  12. A double peaked pulse profile observed in GX 1+4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B.; Agrawal, P. C.; Rao, A. R.; Manchanda, R. K.

    1997-03-01

    The hard X-ray pulsar GX 1+4 was observed several times in the last few years with a pair of balloon-borne Xenon filled Multi-cell Proportional Counters (XMPC). In a balloon flight made on 22 March 1995, the source was detected in a bright state, the average observed source count rate being 8.0+/-0.2s^-1^ per detector. X-ray pulsations with a period of 121.9+/-0.1 s were detected in the source with a broad double peak pulse feature. When observed in December 1993 with the same instrument, the pulse profile of GX 1+4 showed a single peak. This change in the pulse profile to a double pulse structure in about 15 months indicates either activation of the opposite pole of the neutron star if the magnetic field is asymmetric or possibly a change in the beam pattern, from a pencil beam to a fan beam. Assuming a fan beam configuration, the pulse profile is used to find the inclinations of the magnetic axis and the viewing axis with the spin axis. The derived angles support the GINGA observations of a dip in the pulse profile which was resolved to have a local maximum in one of the observations and was explained with resonance scattering of cyclotron line energy photons by the accretion column (Makishima et al., 1988Natur.333..746M, Dotani et al., 1989PASJ...41..427D). Compared to our previous observation of the same source with the same telescope (Rao et al., 1994A&A...289L..43R) a period change rate of 0.72 +/-0.40s/yr is obtained which is the lowest rate of change of period for this source since its discovery. Average pulse fraction in the hard X-ray range is low (30%), consistent with its anti correlation with luminosity as reported by us earlier (Rao et al., 1994A&A...289L..43R) and the observed spectrum is very hard (power law photon index 1.67+/-0.12).

  13. Gx1-conjugated endostar nanoparticle: a new drug delivery system for anti-colorectal cancer in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Du, Yang; Li, Yaqian; Liang, Xiaolong; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2014-03-01

    In this study we describe a new theranostic nanostytem to combine those functions together. GX1, the peptide identified by phage display technology, is a tumor vasculature endothelium specific ligand. Endostar, a novel recombinant human endostatin, has been proved to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. In this study, Endostar-loaded PLA nanoparticles (EPNPs) were first prepared, and then GX1 was coupled to the surface of EPNPs for targeting therapy, last a near infrared (NIR) dye IRDye 800CW was conjugated to the surface of EPNPs for monitoring the biodistributon. This GX1-EPNPs-NIR dye IRDye 800CW (GEN) multifunction drug delivery system not only facilitates efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to tumor site, while minimizing systemic toxicity and side effects, but also enables to real time monitor tumor targeting in vivo. Compare to the Endostar and EPNPs, the GEN inhibited the subcutaneous colon tumor more obviously both in tumor volume and bioluminescence imaging (BLI) light intensity during the 10 days drug treatment.

  14. 产酱香细菌GX-16的筛选及培养条件研究%Screening of the Bacteria Strain-GX-16 for Soysauce-like Aroma-producing and Research on Its Culture Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武思齐

    2011-01-01

    [目的]筛选贵州当地的产酱香细菌,并对其培养条件进行研究.[方法]从豆豉样品中分离菌株,制作种子液接种于黄豆培养基,发酵完成后,通过感官判定选取产酱香效果较好的菌株保存.选取发酵时间、培养基起始pH、培养温度作为培养条件,利用正交试验对这3个因素对菌株活力的影响进行研究.[结果]分离到产酱香菌株GX-16,培养时间对其生长活力影响最大,培养温度其次,培养基起始pH影响最小;GX-16菌株最佳培养条件为:以LB液体培养基作为种子液培养基,培养基起始pH为7.5,培养温度为35℃,在150r/min摇床中振荡培养24h.[结论]从贵州大方、黔西采取的豆豉样品中分离到产酱香菌株GX-16,为贵州产酱香细菌种质资源和产品开发及改良研究提供了参考.%[Objective] The bacteria strain form local area in Cuizhou and with the ability in the production of soysauce-like aroma was screened and its culture condition was studied. [ Method ] The bacteria strain was isolated from the fermented soybean product-Douchi, then fermented after it was inoculated in the soybean medium and finally the best one with the good effect on the production of soysauce-like aroma was preserved based on the sensory evaluation of strain sauce. The fermentation time, initial pH of medium, incubation temperature and other culture conditions was optimized through the orthogonal experiment. [ Result] The bacteria strain-GX-16 with best effect on the production of soysauce-like aroma was isolated. The order of the factor affecting the growth activity of the GX-16 was culture time > temperature > initial pH. The optimal culture condition of GX-16 strain culturing was: LB liquid medium was used as basic medium with the initial pH of 7.5, the temperature of 35 ℃ and shaking culture at 150 r/min for 24 hours. [ Conclusion] The reference for the development and improvement of soysauce-like aroma strain germ-plasm was provide

  15. Hard X-ray Emission along the Z Track in GX 17+2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. Q. Ding; C. P. Huang

    2015-09-01

    Using the data from the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) and the High-Energy X-ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE) on board Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer for Z source GX 17+2, we investigate the evolution of its PCA spectra and HEXTE spectra along a `Z’ track on its hardness-intensity diagram. A hard X-ray tail is detected in the HEXTE spectra. The detected hard X-ray tails are discontinuously scattered throughout the Z track. The found hard X-ray tail hardens from the horizontal branch, through the normal branch, to the flaring branch in principle and it contributes ∼ (20–50)% of the total flux in 20–200 keV. Our joint fitting results of the PCA+HEXTE spectra in 3–200 keV show that the portion of Comptonization in the Bulk-Motion Comptonization (BMC) model accounts for the hard X-ray tail, which indicates that the BMC process could be responsible for the detected hard tail. The temperature of the seed photons for BMC is ∼ 2.7 keV, implying that these seed photons might be emitted from the surface of the neutron star (NS) or the boundary layer between the NS and the disk and, therefore, this process could take place around the NS or in the boundary layer.

  16. Population Synthesis for Symbiotic X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, G -L; Postnov, K A; Yungelson, L R; Kuranov, A G; Wang, N

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic X-ray binaries (SyXBs) comprise a rare class of low-mass X-ray binaries. We study the Galactic SyXBs, which we consider as detached binaries composed of low-mass giants and wind-fed neutron star companions, by simulation of the interaction of a magnetized neutron star (NS) with its environment and utilizing a population synthesis code. We focus mainly on the parameters that influence observational appearance of the SyXB: the donor wind velocity (vw) and the angular momentum distribution in the shell of matter settling onto NS. We estimate the birthrate of SyXB as $\\sim 4.1\\times 10^{-5}$ yr$^{-1}$ to $ \\sim 6.6\\times 10^{-6}$ yr$^{-1}$ and their number in the Galaxy as $\\sim$(100 -- 1000). Assumed stellar wind velocity from cool giants is the input parameter that influences the model SyXBs population most. Among known SyXBs or candidate systems, 4U 1954+31 and IGR J16358-4724 in which NS have very long spin periods may host quasi-spherically accreting NSs. GX 1+4 has a peculiar long-term spin behavi...

  17. AxGxE: Using Flies to Interrogate the Complex Etiology of Neurodegenerative Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, C; Trinh, K; Nadar, V; Sanyal, S

    2017-01-01

    Progressive and late-onset neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease affect up to 50 million people globally-a number postulated to double every 20 years in a continually aging population. While predisposing allelic variants in several genes clearly confer risk, individual age and specific environmental influences are equally important discriminators of disease onset age and progression. However, none of these factors can independently predict disease with significant precision. Therefore, we must actively develop models that accommodate contributions from all factors, potentially resulting in an A × G × E (age-gene-environment) metric that reflects individual cumulative risk and reliably forecasts disease outcomes. This effort can only be enabled by a deep quantitative understanding of the contribution of these factors to neurodegenerative disease, both individually and in combination. This is also an important consideration because neuronal loss typically precedes clinical presentation and disease-modifying therapies are contingent on early diagnosis that is likely to be informed by an accurate estimation of individual risk. Although epidemiological studies continue to make strong advances in these areas with the advent of powerful "omics"-based approaches, systematic phenotypic modeling of AxGxE interactions is currently more feasible in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster where all three parameters can be manipulated with manageable experimental burden. Here, we outline the advantages of using fruit flies for investigating these complex interactions and highlight potential approaches that might help synthesize existing information from diverse fields into a cogent description of age-dependent, environmental, and genetic risk factors in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pulse Profiles, Accretion Column and a flare in Gx 1+4 During a Faint State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, A. B.; Galloway, D. K.; Greenhill, J. G.; Storey, M. C.; Wilson, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) spacecraft observed the X-ray pulsar GX 1+4 for a period of 34 hours on July 19/20 1996. The source faded from an intensity of approx. 20 mcrab to a minimum of less than or equal to 0.7 mcrab and then partially recovered towards the end of the observation. This extended minimum lasted approx. 40,000 seconds. Phase folded light curves at a barycentric rotation period of 124.36568 +/- 0.00020 seconds show that near the center of the extended minimum the source stopped pulsing in the traditional sense but retained a weak dip feature at the rotation period. Away from the extended minimum the dips are progressively narrower at higher energies and may be interpreted as obscurations or eclipses of the hot spot by the accretion column. The pulse profile changed from leading-edge bright before the extended minimum to trailing-edge bright after it. Data from the Burst and Transz'ent Source Experiment (BATSE) show that a torque reversal occurred less than 10 days after our observation. Our data indicate that the observed rotation departs from a constant period with a P/P value off approx. -5% per year at a 4.5(sigma) significance. We infer that we may have serendipitously obtained data. with high sensitivity and temporal resolution about the time of an accretion disk spin reversal. We also observed a rapid flare which had some precursor activity close to the center of the extended minimum.

  19. Anti-correlated time lags in the Z source GX 5-1: Possible evidence for a truncated accretion disk

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, K; Choi, C. S.; Rao, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the inner accretion disk in the neutron star source GX 5-1 by making a detailed study of time lags between X-rays of different energies. Using the cross-correlation analysis, we found anti-correlated hard and soft time lags of the order of a few tens to a few hundred seconds and the corresponding intensity states were mostly the horizontal branch (HB) and upper normal branch (NB). The model independent and dependent spectral analysis showed that during these time ...

  20. 低质量X射线双星的长期监测和吸积物理%Monitoring Observations of Low Mass X-ray Binary and Accretion Physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫震

    2011-01-01

    brightehard states are permitted by physics and can be observed in the Galactic X-ray binaries, and these phenomena might have been observed in ultra-luminous X-ray sources in nearby galaxies. We then have statistically studied the rise timescales of outbursts in low-mass X-ray binary transients during the past more than ten years. The results shows the rise timescales are nearly constant with large scatter in different outbursts, which supports the positive correlation between the rate-of-increase of luminosity and peak luminosity. We also found that the mean value of rise timescale is about several days and weakly correlates with the orbital period. Our results indicate that the rise timescale may correspond to the viscous timescale at some outer radius in the accretion disc, and somehow correlates with the size of the accretion disc.We have also performed the analysis of the multi-wavelength observations (including ultraviolet, optical and X-ray) cross the state transition during the 2010 outburst of GX 339-4 by Swift. We found that the UV flux positively correlates with the 0.6-10 keV X-ray in a form of fuv ∝ f0.52±0.04 X, and 10 days before the hard-to-soft state transition, UV flux shows a rapid drop, during which the X-ray flux still increases. We argued that the UV emission was dominated by jet during this outburst, and the optically thick spectrum can extend to higher frequency in a more powerful jet in a hard state. The drop in UV flux indicates the jet starts to switch off before hard-to-soft state transition, and could be used to predict the occurrence of the hard-to-soft transition.%本论文基于X射线空间卫星的多波段监测数据,研究明亮的低质量X射线双星的X射线能谱的演化和态跃迁过程,暂现源在爆发过程中的一些性质以及不同波段的光度的演化和相关关系.暂现源的爆发所涉及的光度范围很大,这对于研究吸积物理具有不可比拟的重要性,可以研究不同的吸积率下的吸积

  1. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  2. Binary mask programmable hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, T-C; Zhou, Changhe; Cheung, K W K

    2012-11-19

    We report, for the first time, the concept and generation of a novel Fresnel hologram called the digital binary mask programmable hologram (BMPH). A BMPH is comprised of a static, high resolution binary grating that is overlaid with a lower resolution binary mask. The reconstructed image of the BMPH can be programmed to approximate a target image (including both intensity and depth information) by configuring the pattern of the binary mask with a simple genetic algorithm (SGA). As the low resolution binary mask can be realized with less stringent display technology, our method enables the development of simple and economical holographic video display.

  3. Remote monitoring of Xpert® MTB/RIF testing in Mozambique: results of programmatic implementation of GxAlert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J; Michel, C; Manhiça, I; Mutaquiha, C; Monivo, C; Saize, D; Beste, J; Creswell, J; Codlin, A J; Gloyd, S

    2016-03-01

    Electronic diagnostic tests, such as the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay, are being implemented in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, timely information from these tests available via remote monitoring is underutilized. The failure to transmit real-time, actionable data to key individuals such as clinicians, patients, and national monitoring and evaluation teams may negatively impact patient care. To describe recently developed applications that allow for real-time, remote monitoring of Xpert results, and initial implementation of one of these products in central Mozambique. In partnership with the Mozambican National Tuberculosis Program, we compared three different remote monitoring tools for Xpert and selected one, GxAlert, to pilot and evaluate at five public health centers in Mozambique. GxAlert software was successfully installed on all five Xpert computers, and test results are now uploaded daily via a USB internet modem to a secure online database. A password-protected web-based interface allows real-time analysis of test results, and 1200 positive tests for tuberculosis generated 8000 SMS result notifications to key individuals. Remote monitoring of diagnostic platforms is feasible in LMICs. While promising, this effort needs to address issues around patient data ownership, confidentiality, interoperability, unique patient identifiers, and data security.

  4. Youth Appraisals of Inter-Parental Conflict and Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Examination of GxE Effects in a Twin Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolas, Molly; Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Identification of gene x environment interactions (GxE) for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a crucial component to understanding the mechanisms underpinning the disorder, as prior work indicates large genetic influences and numerous environmental risk factors. Building on prior research, children's appraisals of self-blame were…

  5. Variable Doppler shifts of the thermal wind absorption lines in low-mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Madej, O K; Trigo, M Diaz; Miskovicova, I

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we address the general applicability of the method pioneered by \\citet{Zhang2012} in which the motion of the compact object can be tracked using wind X-ray absorption lines. We present the velocity measurements of the thermal wind lines observed in the X-ray spectrum of a few low-mass X-ray binaries: GX 13+1, H 1743$-$322, GRO J1655$-$40 and GRS 1915+105. We find that the variability in the velocity of the wind lines in about all of the sources is larger than conceivable radial velocity variations of the compact object. GX 13+1 provides a potential exception, although it would require the red giant star to be massive with a mass of $\\approx 5-6\\ M_{\\odot}$. We conclude that the variability of the source luminosity occurring on a time scale of days/months can affect the outflow properties making it difficult to track the orbital motion of the compact object using current observations. Given the intrinsic variability of the outflows we suggest that low-mass X-ray binaries showing stable coronae in...

  6. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  7. Study on Pathogenicity of Newcastle Disease Virus Prevalence Strain GX-08 to Chickens and Ducks%新城疫病毒GX-08流行株对鸡和鸭的致病性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兴国; 蔡丽丽; 王俊峰; 王政富; 黄淑坚

    2012-01-01

    选取新城疫病毒(Newcastle disease virus,NDV)GX-08株对26日龄雏鸡和20日龄雏番鸭进行人工感染试验,对体外细胞培养物进行致病性试验,并进行病理组织学观察.结果表明,以105,5 EID50的攻毒剂量对26日龄雏鸡和20日龄雏番鸭通过肌注接种,雏鸡的发病率和死亡率分别为100%和100%,雏番鸭的发病率和死亡率分别为70%和70%;通过点眼、滴鼻及口服接种,雏鸡的发病率和死亡率分别为80%和30%,雏番鸭的发病率和死亡率分别为20%和20%.感染鸡消化器官和部分呼吸器官病变严重,表现出典型的嗜内脏型NDV感染的病理变化特点;感染鸭则肝脏、脾脏和胰腺等实质器官病变明显,消化器官和部分呼吸器官病变较轻微.以200 TCID50的剂量对单层鸡胚成纤维细胞(CEF)和鸭胚成纤维细胞(DEF)接种,结果CEF和DEF均于24 h左右开始出现病变,并分别于96和84 h左右细胞单层完全被破坏.与CEF相比,DEF接种病毒后,细胞坏死、裂解过程迅速,合胞体形成现象显著,合胞体的数量及合胞体平均含有的胞核数较多,病毒接种后培养物上清的HA效价峰值也较高,表明GX-08株均可致CEF和DEF病变,且对DEF有更强的细胞融合能力.%In this study. GX 08 strain was selected to perform virus infection test on 26 d chickens and 20 d tnuscovy ducks at the dose of 105.5 EID50. The morbility and mortality of chickens infected with viruses through intramuscular route were 100% and 100%, 70% and 70% for muscovy ducks. The morbility and mortality of chicken infected with viruses through both oral and oculonasal routes were 80% and 30%, 20% and 20% in muscovy ducks. Pathological changes of digestive tract and some respiratory tract of the infected chicken were severe, which was characterized as the infection of typical visceratonia ND. In comparison with slight pathological changes in digestive tract and some respiratory tract, obvious pathological

  8. A β-glucosidase from Novosphingobium sp. GX9 with high catalytic efficiency toward isoflavonoid glycoside hydrolysis and (+)-catechin transglycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liqin; Wang, Zilong; Zhao, Yingli; Huang, Jinqun; Pang, Hao; Wei, Yutuo; Lin, Lihua; Huang, Ribo

    2014-08-01

    In view of the important role of isoflavonoids and their related glycoconjugates in human health, there is considerable interest in their enzymatic conversion. SBGL, a novel β-glucosidase isolated from Novosphingobium sp. GX9, was expressed in Escherichia coli and found to have high activity for hydrolysis of daidzin and genistin. SBGL showed very low K m values for daidzin and genistin, and the k cat/K m values for these substrates were 33,300 and 19,200 s(-1) mM(-1), respectively. The SBGL glucosidase could also transglycosylate the flavanol (+)-catechin at saturating acceptor concentrations, which has not previously been reported for a β-glucosidase and is difficult to achieve synthetically.

  9. THE HOST GALAXY OF THE SUPER-LUMINOUS SN 2010gx AND LIMITS ON EXPLOSIVE {sup 56}Ni PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ting-Wan; Smartt, Stephen J.; Kotak, Rubina; McCrum, Matt; Fraser, Morgan [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Pastorello, Andrea [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Valenti, Stefano [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Super-luminous supernovae have a tendency to occur in faint host galaxies which are likely to have low mass and low metallicity. While these extremely luminous explosions have been observed from z = 0.1 to 1.55, the closest explosions allow more detailed investigations of their host galaxies. We present a detailed analysis of the host galaxy of SN 2010gx (z = 0.23), one of the best studied super-luminous type Ic supernovae. The host is a dwarf galaxy (M{sub g} = -17.42 {+-} 0.17) with a high specific star formation rate. It has a remarkably low metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.5 {+-} 0.1 dex as determined from the detection of the [O III] {lambda}4363 line. This is the first reliable metallicity determination of a super-luminous stripped-envelope supernova host. We collected deep multi-epoch imaging with Gemini + GMOS between 240 and 560 days after explosion to search for any sign of radioactive {sup 56}Ni, which might provide further insights on the explosion mechanism and the progenitor's nature. We reach griz magnitudes of m{sub AB} {approx} 26, but do not detect SN 2010gx at these epochs. The limit implies that any {sup 56}Ni production was similar to or below that of SN 1998bw (a luminous type Ic SN that produced around 0.4 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni). The low volumetric rates of these supernovae ({approx}10{sup -4} of the core-collapse population) could be qualitatively matched if the explosion mechanism requires a combination of low-metallicity (below 0.2 Z{sub Sun }), high progenitor mass (>60 M{sub Sun }) and high rotation rate (fastest 10% of rotators).

  10. Rapid variability as a probe of warped space-time around accreting black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Magnus

    2016-07-01

    The geometry of the inner accretion flow of X-ray binaries is complex, with multiple regions contributing to the observed emission. Frequency-resolved spectroscopy is a powerful tool in breaking this spectral degeneracy. We have extracted the spectra of the strong low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) and its harmonic in GX339-4 and XTE J1550-564, and compare these to the time-averaged spectrum and the spectrum of the rapid (plaguing the time-averaged spectrum and revealing the geometry of the accretion flow close to the black hole.

  11. Binary colloidal crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christova-Zdravkova, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Binary crystals are crystals composed of two types of particles having different properties like size, mass density, charge etc. In this thesis several new approaches to make binary crystals of colloidal particles that differ in size, material and charge are reported We found a variety of crystal st

  12. GX1-rmhTNFα 工程菌发酵及表达产物的纯化%Fermentation of recombinant E.coli expressing GX1-rmhTNFα and purification of expressed product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖佳佳; 吴守振; 薛晓静; 吴开春

    2012-01-01

    目的:全面检定GX1-rmhTNFα工程菌,并建立稳定的发酵及纯化工艺.方法:对GX1-rmhTNFα工程菌进行全面检定,挑取目的蛋白表达水平高的菌种扩大培养;采用5L发酵罐,32℃培养工程菌至菌体A600值达4~6时,42℃诱导约4h后收菌,发酵过程控制pH值在7.2,溶氧在30%左右,采用梯度流加的方法补料,连续发酵3批,验证发酵工艺的稳定性;发酵产物经硫酸铵分段盐析及透析处理后,经SP-Sepharose FF及Q-Sepharose FF层析纯化,收集洗脱峰进行纯度、浓度、活性及Western blot分析.结果:工程菌经全面检定,证实构建正确,目的蛋白表达量不低于10%,菌种稳定性较好,呈典型的大肠杆菌特征,适合建立工程菌菌库;连续发酵3批,湿菌收量均不低于200g,目的蛋白表达水平均在10%以上;目的蛋白经柱层析纯化,最终纯化产物蛋白含量为0.901mg/ml,活性为5.97x108IU/ml,纯度可达95%以上,Western blot分析显示,目的蛋白可与鼠抗人TNF单抗特异性结合.结论:初步建立了稳定可行的GX1-rmhTNFα融合蛋白的发酵及纯化工艺.%Objective To perform overall control tests on recombinant E. coli expressing GXl-rmhTNFa and develop a stable procedure for fermentation and purification. Methods The recombinant E. coli expressing GX1-rtnhTNFα was subjected to overall control tests,and the ones in which target protein was highly expressed were selected for scale-up culture in 5 L fermenter at 32℃,until the A600 value reached 4 ~ 6,then induced at 42℃ for about 4 h and harvested. The pH value during fermentation was controlled at 7. 2,while the DO at about 30%,and the supplements were added by gradient flow feeding. The fermentation procedure was verified for stability by fermentation of three consecutive batches of recombinant E. coli strain. The fermentation product was subjected to fractional salting out with ammonium sulfate and dialysis,then purified by SP-Sepharose FF and Q

  13. Enhancing Binary Images of Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Aman; Siegel, Paul H

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the reasons behind the superior performance of belief propagation decoding of non-binary LDPC codes over their binary images when the transmission occurs over the binary erasure channel. We show that although decoding over the binary image has lower complexity, it has worse performance owing to its larger number of stopping sets relative to the original non-binary code. We propose a method to find redundant parity-checks of the binary image that eliminate these additional stopping sets, so that we achieve performance comparable to that of the original non-binary LDPC code with lower decoding complexity.

  14. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nazzario, R C; Covington, C; Kagan, D; Hyde, T W

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction between the KBOs and the third body causes one of four effects; scattering into the Oort cloud, collisions with the growing protoplanets, formation of binary pairs, or creation of a single Kuiper belt object. Additionally, the initial location of the progenitors of the Kuiper belt objects also has a significant effect on binary formation.

  15. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Nazzario, R. C.; Orr, K.; Covington, C.; Kagan, D.; Hyde, T. W.

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction betw...

  16. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime...... mask using a directional system and a method for correcting errors in the target binary mask. The last part of the thesis, proposes a new method for objective evaluation of speech intelligibility....

  17. Study on enzymology characteristics of phytase secreted by efifcient phytate-degrading rhizobacteria Rahnella aquatilis JZ-GX1%高效植酸盐降解细菌水拉恩氏菌JZ-GX1的植酸酶特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂娥; 吴小芹

    2014-01-01

    The efficient phytate-degrading rhizobacteria Rahnella aquatilis JZ-GX1 were used as the research object to study the locating expression of phytase secreted by JZ-GX1. The results show as follews:there were significantly differences among phytase specific activities of different parts of the bacteria culture incubated for 48 hours. the phytase specific activities of extracellular supernatant, intercellular substance and inside cell were 2.5037 U/mg, 0.0015 U/mg, 0.0002 U/mg respectively, which indicated that the phyratse secreted by JZ-GX1 was a kind of extracellular enzyme. Learned from the studies on enzymology characteristics of phytase of JZ-GX1, it showed that the phytase secreted by JZ-GX1 had excellent resistance to acid, but not alkali resistance, its optimal pH value was about 5.5, optimum reaction temperature was about 37℃, when temperature was less than 50 ℃, the phytase had good thermal stability. The results of this study could provide a useful reference for using R. aquatilis JZ-GX1 as bio-fertilizer in agricultural production in the future.%以高效植酸盐降解细菌水拉恩氏菌(Rahnella aquatilis)JZ-GX1为研究对象,对其分泌的植酸酶在细胞内的定域进行研究,结果表明:在该菌48 h的培养物中,菌株细胞不同部位的植酸酶比活力存在极显著差异,分别为:胞外上清液2.5037 U/mg,胞间质0.0015 U/mg,胞内0.0002 U/mg,说明JZ-GX1菌株所产植酸酶为胞外酶;通过研究pH值和温度对该菌分泌的胞外植酸酶活性的影响表明,JZ-GX1菌株所产植酸酶为酸性植酸酶,最适pH值为5.5,具有一定的耐酸性,但不耐碱;最适温度为37℃,当温度小于50℃时,该酶具有良好的热稳定性。本研究为水拉恩氏菌JZ-GX1将来作为微生物菌肥应用于农林业生产,提供了有价值的参考依据。

  18. Eclipsing Binary Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, P C C

    2004-01-01

    The first eclipsing binary pulsar, PSR B1957+20, was discovered in 1987. Since then, 13 other eclipsing low-mass binary pulsars have been found, 12 of these are in globular clusters. In this paper we list the known eclipsing binary pulsars and their properties, with special attention to the eclipsing systems in 47 Tuc. We find that there are two fundamentally different groups of eclipsing binary pulsars; separated by their companion masses. The less massive systems (M_c ~ 0.02 M_sun) are a product of predictable stellar evolution in binary pulsars. The systems with more massive companions (M_c ~ 0.2 M_sun) were formed by exchange encounters in globular clusters, and for that reason are exclusive to those environments. This class of systems can be used to learn about the neutron star recycling fraction in the globular clusters actively forming pulsars. We suggest that most of these binary systems are undetectable at radio wavelengths.

  19. Superhumps in Cataclysmic Binaries. XXIV. Twenty More Dwarf Novae

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, J; Kemp, J; Skillman, D R; Vanmunster, T; Harvey, D; Fried, R E; Jensen, L; Cook, L; Rea, R; Monard, B; McCormick, J; Velthuis, F; Walker, S; Martin, B; Bolt, G; Pavlenko, E P; O'Donoghue, D; Gunn, J; Novak, R; Masi, G; Garradd, G; Butterworth, N D; Krajci, T; Foote, J; Beshore, E

    2003-01-01

    We report precise measures of the orbital and superhump period in twenty more dwarf novae. For ten stars, we report new and confirmed spectroscopic periods - signifying the orbital period P_o - as well as the superhump period P_sh. These are GX Cas, HO Del, HS Vir, BC UMa, RZ Leo, KV Dra, KS UMa, TU Crt, QW Ser, and RZ Sge. For the remaining ten, we report a medley of P_o and P_sh measurements from photometry; most are new, with some confirmations of previous values. These are KV And, LL And, WX Cet, MM Hya, AO Oct, V2051 Oph, NY Ser, KK Tel, HV Vir, and RX J1155.4-5641. Periods, as usual, can be measured to high accuracy, and these are of special interest since they carry dynamical information about the binary. We still have not quite learned how to read the music, but a few things are clear. The fractional superhump excess epsilon [=(P_sh-P_o)/P_o] varies smoothly with P_o. The scatter of the points about that smooth curve is quite low, and can be used to limit the intrinsic scatter in M_1, the white dwarf ...

  20. CARAT-GxG: CUDA-Accelerated Regression Analysis Toolkit for Large-Scale Gene-Gene Interaction with GPU Computing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungyoung; Kwon, Min-Seok; Park, Taesung

    2014-01-01

    In genome-wide association studies (GWAS), regression analysis has been most commonly used to establish an association between a phenotype and genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). However, most applications of regression analysis have been restricted to the investigation of single marker because of the large computational burden. Thus, there have been limited applications of regression analysis to multiple SNPs, including gene-gene interaction (GGI) in large-scale GWAS data. In order to overcome this limitation, we propose CARAT-GxG, a GPU computing system-oriented toolkit, for performing regression analysis with GGI using CUDA (compute unified device architecture). Compared to other methods, CARAT-GxG achieved almost 700-fold execution speed and delivered highly reliable results through our GPU-specific optimization techniques. In addition, it was possible to achieve almost-linear speed acceleration with the application of a GPU computing system, which is implemented by the TORQUE Resource Manager. We expect that CARAT-GxG will enable large-scale regression analysis with GGI for GWAS data.

  1. Testing Rate Dependent corrections on timing mode EPIC-pn spectra of the accreting Neutron Star GX 13+1

    CERN Document Server

    Pintore, F; di Salvo, T; Guainazzi, M; D'Aì, A; Riggio, A; Burderi, L; Iaria, R; Robba, N R

    2014-01-01

    When the EPIC-pn instrument on board XMM-Newton is operated in Timing mode, high count rates (>100 cts/s) of bright sources may affect the calibration of the energy scale, resulting in a modification of the real spectral shape. The corrections related to this effect are then strongly important in the study of the spectral properties. Tests of these calibrations are more suitable in sources which spectra are characterised by a large number of discrete features. Therefore, in this work, we carried out a spectral analysis of the accreting Neutron Star GX 13+1, which is a dipping source with several narrow absorption lines and a broad emission line in its spectrum. We tested two different correction approaches on an XMM-Newton EPIC-pn observation taken in Timing mode: the standard Rate Dependent CTI (RDCTI or epfast) and the new, Rate Dependent Pulse Height Amplitude (RDPHA) corrections. We found that, in general, the two corrections marginally affect the properties of the overall broadband continuum, while hints...

  2. Anti-correlated time lags in the Z source GX 5-1: Possible evidence for a truncated accretion disk

    CERN Document Server

    Sriram, K; Rao, A R

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the inner accretion disk in the neutron star source GX 5-1 by making a detailed study of time lags between X-rays of different energies. Using the cross-correlation analysis, we found anti-correlated hard and soft time lags of the order of a few tens to a few hundred seconds and the corresponding intensity states were mostly the horizontal branch (HB) and upper normal branch (NB). The model independent and dependent spectral analysis showed that during these time lags the structure of accretion disk significantly varied. Both eastern and western approaches were used to unfold the X-ray continuum and systematic changes were observed in soft and hard spectral components. These changes along with a systematic shift in the frequency of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) made it substantially evident that the geometry of the accretion disk is truncated. Simultaneous energy spectral and power density spectral study shows that the production of the horizontal branch oscillations (HBOs) a...

  3. Pulse Profiles, Accretion Column Dips and a Flare in GX 1+4 During a Faint State

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, A B; Greenhill, J; Storey, M C; Wilson, C A

    1999-01-01

    The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) spacecraft observed the X-ray pulsar GX 1+4 for a period of 34 hours on July 19/20 1996. The source faded from an intensity of ~20 mCrab to a minimum of <~0.7 mCrab and then partially recovered towards the end of the observation. This extended minimum lasted ~40,000 seconds. Phase folded light curves at a barycentric rotation period of 124.36568 +/- 0.00020 seconds show that near the center of the extended minimum the source stopped pulsing in the traditional sense but retained a weak dip feature at the rotation period. Away from the extended minimum the dips are progressively narrower at higher energies and may be interpreted as obscurations or eclipses of the hot spot by the accretion column. The pulse profile changed from leading-edge bright before the extended minimum to trailing-edge bright after it. Data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) show that a torque reversal occurred <10 days after our observation. Our data indicate that the observ...

  4. Timing and spectral studies of the transient X-ray pulsar GX 304-1 during an outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Devasia, Jincy; Paul, Biswajit; Indulekha, Kavila

    2011-01-01

    We present the timing and spectral properties of the transient X-ray pulsar GX 304-1 during its recent outburst in 2010 August, using observations carried out with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) instrument on-board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite. We detected strong intensity and energy dependent variations in the pulse profiles during the outburst. The pulse profile showed significant evolution over the outburst. It showed complex structures consisting of a main peak with steps on both sides during the start of the outburst. On some days, a sharp dip like feature was seen which disappeared at the end of the outburst; when the profile evolved into a sinusoidal shape. At low energies, the pulse profiles appeared complex, consisting of multiple peaks and a narrow minimum. The amplitude of the second brightest peak in low energies decreased with energy, and above 12 keV, the shape of the pulse profile changed to a single broad peak with a dip like feature. The dip had energy dependence, bo...

  5. Pulse Profiles, Accretion Column Dips and a Flare in GX 1+4 During a Faint State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, A. B.; Galloway, D. K.; Greenhill, J. G.; Storey, M. C.; Wilson, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) spacecraft observed the X-ray GX 1+4 for it period of 34 hours on July 19/20 1996. The source faded front an intensity of approximately 20 mcrab to a minimum of <= 0.7 mcrab and then partially recovered towards the end of the observation. This extended minimum lasted approximately 40,000 seconds. Phase folded light curves at a barycentric rotation period of 124.36568 +/- 0.00020 seconds show that near the center of the extended minimum the source stopped pulsing in the traditional sense but retained a weak dip feature at the rotation period. Away from the extended minimum the dips are progressively narrower at higher energies and may be interpreted as obscurations or eclipses of the hot spot by the accretion column. The pulse profile changed from leading-edge bright before the extended minimum to trailing-edge bright after it. Data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) show that a torque reversal occurred < 10 days after our observation. Our data indicate that the observed rotation departs from a constant period with a P/P value of approximately -1.5% per year at a 4.5sigma significance. We infer that we may have serendipitously obtained data, with high sensitivity and temporal resolution about the time of an accretion disk spin reversal. We also observed a rapid flare which had some precursor activity close to the center of the extended minimum.

  6. Outburst of GX304-1 Monitored with INTEGRAL: Positive Correlation Between the Cyclotron Line Energy and Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klochkov, D.; Doroshenko, V.; Santangelo, A.; Staubert, R.; Ferrigno, C.; Kretschmar, P.; Caballero, I.; Wilms, J.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Pottschmidt, I.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Context. X-ray spectra of many accreting pulsars exhibit significant variations as a function of flux and thus of mass accretion rate. In some of these pulsars, the centroid energy of the cyclotron line(s), which characterizes the magnetic field strength at the site of the X-ray emission, has been found to vary systematically with flux. Aims. GX304-1 is a recently established cyclotron line source with a line energy around 50 keV. Since 2009, the pulsar shows regular outbursts with the peak flux exceeding one Crab. We analyze the INTEGRAL observations of the source during its outburst in January-February 2012. Methods. The observations covered almost the entire outburst, allowing us to measure the source's broad-band X-my spectrum at different flux levels. We report on the variations in the spectral parameters with luminosity and focus on the variations in the cyclotron line. Results. The centroid energy of the line is found to be positively correlated with the luminosity. We interpret this result as a manifestation of the local sub-Eddington (sub-critical) accretion regime operating in the source.

  7. Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Faber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.

  8. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  9. Binary Popldation Synthcsis Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Zhanwen

    2011-01-01

    Binary population synthesis (BPS), an approach to evolving millions of stars (including binaries) simultaneously, plays a crucial role in our understanding of stellar physics, the structure and evolution of galaxies, and cosmology. We proposed and developed a BPS approach, and used it to investigate the formation of many peculiar stars such as hot subdwarf stars, progenitors of type la supernovae, barium stars, CH stars, planetary nebulae, double white dwarfs, blue stragglers, contact binaries, etc. We also established an evolution population synthesis (EPS) model, the Yunnan Model, which takes into account binary interactions for the first time. We applied our model for the origin of hot subdwarf stars in the study of elliptical galaxies and explained their far-UV radiation.

  10. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  11. Eclipsing Binary Update, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    Contents: 1. Wrong again! The elusive period of DHK 41. 2. Stars observed and not observed. 3. Eclipsing binary chart information. 4. Eclipsing binary news and notes. 5. A note on SS Arietis. 6. Featured star: TX Ursae Majoris.

  12. N-Bit Binary Resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping

    1989-01-01

    Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.

  13. Secondary Metabolites of a Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus terreus (No. GX7-3B from the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Cheng Lin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus (No. GX7-3B was cultivated in potato dextrose liquid medium, and one rare thiophene compound (1, together with anhydrojavanicin (2, 8-O-methylbostrycoidin (3, 8-O-methyljavanicin (4, botryosphaerone D (5, 6-ethyl-5-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxynaphthoquinone (6, 3β,5α-dihydroxy-(22E,24R-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (7, 3β,5α,14α-trihydroxy-(22E,24R-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one (8, NGA0187 (9 and beauvericin (10, were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data. This is the first report of a natural origin for compound 6. Moreover, compounds 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10 were obtained from marine microorganism for the first time. In the bioactive assays in vitro, compounds 2, 3, 9 and 10 displayed remarkable inhibiting actions against α-acetylcholinesterase (AChE with IC50 values 2.01, 6.71, 1.89, and 3.09 μM, respectively. Furthermore, in the cytotoxicity assays, compounds 7 and 10 exhibited strong or moderate cytotoxic activities against MCF-7, A549, Hela and KB cell lines with IC50 values 4.98 and 2.02 (MCF-7, 1.95 and 0.82 (A549, 0.68 and 1.14 (Hela, and 1.50 and 1.10 μM (KB, respectively; compound 8 had weak inhibitory activities against these tumor cell lines; compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 9 exhibited no inhibitory activities against them.

  14. Orbits for sixteen binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper orbits for 13 binaries are recalculated and presented. The reason is that recent observations show higher residuals than the corresponding ephemerides calculated by using the orbital elements given in the Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars. The binaries studied were: WDS 00182+7257 = A 803, WDS 00335+4006 = HO 3, WDS 00583+2124 = BU 302, WDS 01011+6022 = A 926, WDS 01014+1155 = BU 867, WDS 01112+4113 = A 655, WDS 01361−2954 + HJ 3447, WDS 02333+5219 = STT 42 AB,WDS 04362+0814 = A 1840 AB,WDS 08017−0836 = A 1580, WDS 08277−0425 = A 550, WDS 17471+1742 = STF 2215 and WDS 18025+4414 = BU 1127 Aa-B. In addition, for three binaries - WDS 01532+1526 = BU 260, WDS 02563+7253 = STF 312 AB and WDS 05003+3924 = STT 92 AB - the orbital elements are calculated for the first time. In this paper the authors present not only the orbital elements, but the masses dynamical parallaxes, absolute magnitudes and ephemerides for the next five years, as well.

  15. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pol, J.C. van de

    2000-01-01

    We incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and tautology checkin

  16. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  17. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  18. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  19. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  20. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and tauto

  1. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  2. Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Bright Galactic X-Ray Binaries in Crowded Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric W.; Margon, Bruce; Wachter, Stefanie; Anderson, Scott F.

    1996-01-01

    We report high spatial resolution HST imagery and photometry of three well-studied, intense Galactic X-ray binaries, X2129+470, CAL 87, and GX 17+2. All three sources exhibit important anomalies that are not readily interpreted by conventional models. Each source also lies in a severely crowded field, and in all cases the anomalies would be removed if much of the light observed from the ground in fact came from a nearby, thus far unresolved superposed companion. For V1727 Cyg (X2129+470), we find no such companion. We also present an HST FOS spectrum and broadband photometry which is consistent with a single, normal star. The supersoft LMC X-ray source CAL 87 was already known from ground-based work to have a companion separated by O.9 minutes from the optical counterpart; our HST images clearly resolve these objects and yield the discovery of an even closer, somewhat fainter additional companion. Our photometry indicates that contamination is not severe outside eclipse, where the companions only contribute 20% of the light in V, but during eclipse more than half of the V light comes from the companions. The previously determined spectral type of the CAL 87 secondary may need to be reevaluated due to this significant contamination, with consequences on inferences of the mass of the components. We find no companions to NP Ser (= X1813-14, = GX 17+2). However, for this object we point out a small but possibly significant astrometric discrepancy between the position of the optical object and that of the radio source which is the basis for the identification. This discrepancy needs to be clarified.

  4. Radio emission from the high-mass X-ray binary BP Cru: first detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pestalozzi, M; Hobbs, G; Lopez-Sanchez, A R

    2009-01-01

    BP Cru is a well known high-mass X-ray binary composed of a late B hypergiant (Wray 977) and a neutron star, also observed as the X-ray pulsar GX 301-2. No information about emission from BP Cru in other bands than X-rays and optical has been reported to date in the literature, though massive X-ray binaries containing black holes can have radio emission from a jet. In order to assess the presence of a radio jet, we searched for radio emission towards BP Cru using the Australia Compact Array Telescope during a survey for radio emission from Be/X-ray transients. We probed the 41.5d orbit of BP Cru with the Australia Telescope Compact Array not only close to periastron but also close to apastron. BP Cru was clearly detected in our data on 4, possibly 6, of 12 occasions at 4.8 and 8.6 GHz. Our data suggest that the spectral index of the radio emission is modulated either by the X-ray flux or the orbital phase of the system. We propose that the radio emission of BP Cru probably arises from two components: a persis...

  5. Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eby, David A

    2013-01-01

    A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibb...

  6. The Binary Garrote

    CERN Document Server

    Kappen, H J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I present a new model and solution method for sparse regression. The model introduces binary selector variables $s_i$ for the features $i$ in a way that is similar to Breiman's Garrote model. I refer to this method as the binary Garrote (BG). The posterior probability for $s_i$ is computed in the variational approximation. The BG is compared numerically with the Lasso method and with ridge regression. Numerical results on synthetic data show that the BG yields more accurate predictions and more accurately reconstructs the true model than the other methods. The naive implementation of the BG requires the inversion of a modified covariance matrix which scales cubic in the number of features. We indicate how for sparse problem the solution can be computed linear in the number of features.

  7. Binary Love Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2015-01-01

    When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars imprint onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the gravitational wave model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately universal relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the gravitational wave model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between equation-of-state models, and improve tests of General Relativity and cosmology.

  8. Binary Love relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2016-07-01

    When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars get imprinted onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave (GW) observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the GW model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately equation-of-state (EoS)-insensitive relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the GW model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between EoS models, and improve tests of general relativity and cosmology.

  9. Mechanics and composition of middle cerebral arteries from simulated microgravity rats with and without 1-h/d -Gx gravitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu-Hua Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To elucidate further from the biomechanical aspect whether microgravity-induced cerebral vascular mal-adaptation might be a contributing factor to postflight orthostatic intolerance and the underlying mechanism accounting for the potential effectiveness of intermittent artificial gravity (IAG in preventing this adverse effect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Middle cerebral arteries (MCAs were isolated from 28-day SUS (tail-suspended, head-down tilt rats to simulate microgravity effect, S+D (SUS plus 1-h/d -Gx gravitation by normal standing to simulate IAG, and CON (control rats. Vascular myogenic reactivity and circumferential stress-strain and axial force-pressure relationships and overall stiffness were examined using pressure arteriography and calculated. Acellular matrix components were quantified by electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that myogenic reactivity is susceptible to previous pressure-induced, serial constrictions. During the first-run of pressure increments, active MCAs from SUS rats can strongly stiffen their wall and maintain the vessels at very low strains, which can be prevented by the simulated IAG countermeasure. The strains are 0.03 and 0.14 respectively for SUS and S+D, while circumferential stress being kept at 0.5 (106 dyn/cm2. During the second-run pressure steps, both the myogenic reactivity and active stiffness of the three groups declined. The distensibility of passive MCAs from S+D is significantly higher than CON and SUS, which may help to attenuate the vasodilatation impairment at low levels of pressure. Collagen and elastin percentages were increased and decreased, respectively, in MCAs from SUS and S+D as compared with CON; however, elastin was higher in S+D than SUS rats. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to previous myogenic constrictions seems to be a self-limiting protective mechanism in cerebral small resistance arteries to prevent undue cerebral vasoconstriction during orthostasis at 1-G

  10. Binary-Signal Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebeler, Elmer L.

    2011-01-01

    Binary communication through long cables, opto-isolators, isolating transformers, or repeaters can become distorted in characteristic ways. The usual solution is to slow the communication rate, change to a different method, or improve the communication media. It would help if the characteristic distortions could be accommodated at the receiving end to ease the communication problem. The distortions come from loss of the high-frequency content, which adds slopes to the transitions from ones to zeroes and zeroes to ones. This weakens the definition of the ones and zeroes in the time domain. The other major distortion is the reduction of low frequency, which causes the voltage that defines the ones or zeroes to drift out of recognizable range. This development describes a method for recovering a binary data stream from a signal that has been subjected to a loss of both higher-frequency content and low-frequency content that is essential to define the difference between ones and zeroes. The method makes use of the frequency structure of the waveform created by the data stream, and then enhances the characteristics related to the data to reconstruct the binary switching pattern. A major issue is simplicity. The approach taken here is to take the first derivative of the signal and then feed it to a hysteresis switch. This is equivalent in practice to using a non-resonant band pass filter feeding a Schmitt trigger. Obviously, the derivative signal needs to be offset to halfway between the thresholds of the hysteresis switch, and amplified so that the derivatives reliably exceed the thresholds. A transition from a zero to a one is the most substantial, fastest plus movement of voltage, and therefore will create the largest plus first derivative pulse. Since the quiet state of the derivative is sitting between the hysteresis thresholds, the plus pulse exceeds the plus threshold, switching the hysteresis switch plus, which re-establishes the data zero to one transition

  11. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  12. Visual binary stars: data to investigate formation of binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva,, D.; Malkov,, O.; Yungelson, L.; Chulkov, D.

    Statistics of orbital parameters of binary stars as well as statistics of their physical characteristics bear traces of star formation history. However, statistical investigations of binaries are complicated by incomplete or missing observational data and by a number of observational selection effects. Visual binaries are the most common type of observed binary stars, with the number of pairs exceeding 130 000. The most complete list of presently known visual binary stars was compiled by cross-matching objects and combining data of the three largest catalogues of visual binaries. This list was supplemented by the data on parallaxes, multicolor photometry, and spectral characteristics taken from other catalogues. This allowed us to compensate partly for the lack of observational data for these objects. The combined data allowed us to check the validity of observational values and to investigate statistics of the orbital and physical parameters of visual binaries. Corrections for incompleteness of observational data are discussed. The datasets obtained, together with modern distributions of binary parameters, will be used to reconstruct the initial distributions and parameters of the function of star formation for binary systems.

  13. Chaos in Binary Category Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Category computation theory deals with a web-based systemic processing that underlies the morphic webs, which constitute the basis of categorial logical calculus. It is proven that, for these structures, algorithmically incompressible binary patterns can be morphically compressed, with respect to the local connectivities, in a binary morphic program. From the local connectivites, there emerges a global morphic connection that can be characterized by a low length binary string, leading to the identification of chaotic categorial dynamics, underlying the algorithmically random pattern. The work focuses on infinite binary chains of C2, which is a category that implements an X-OR-based categorial logical calculus.

  14. Rotational mixing in close binaries

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Yoon, S -Ch; Brott, I; Glebbeek, E; Verkoulen, M; Pols, O R

    2008-01-01

    Rotational mixing is a very important but uncertain process in the evolution of massive stars. We propose to use close binaries to test its efficiency. Based on rotating single stellar models we predict nitrogen surface enhancements for tidally locked binaries. Furthermore we demonstrate the possibility of a new evolutionary scenario for very massive (M > 40 solar mass) close (P < 3 days) binaries: Case M, in which mixing is so efficient that the stars evolve quasi-chemically homogeneously, stay compact and avoid any Roche-lobe overflow, leading to very close (double) WR binaries.

  15. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  16. Low autocorrelation binary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.

  17. Microlensing modulation by binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dubath, F; Durrer, R; Dubath, Florian; Gasparini, Maria Alice; Durrer, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    We compute the effect of the lens quadrupole on microlensing. The time dependence of the quadrupole can lead to specific modulations of the amplification signal. We study especially binary system lenses in our galaxy. The modulation is observable if the rotation period of the system is smaller than the time over which the amplification is significant and if the impact parameter of the passing light ray is sufficiently close to the Einstein radius so that the amplification is very large. Observations of this modulation can reveal important information on the quadrupole and thus on the gravitational radiation emitted by the lens.

  18. 水稻白叶枯病菌GX1329基因组文库的构建及含编码TAL效应物基因的克隆的分离%Construction of a Genomic Library of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Strain GX1329 and Isolation of Clones Containing the Genes Encoding TAL Ef- fectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子宇; 赵帅; 莫伟兰; 罗雪梅; 玉延华; 段承杰; 冯家勋

    2011-01-01

    由革兰氏阴性细菌水稻白叶枯病菌引起的水稻白叶枯病是亚洲、北美以及非洲部分地区最严重的水稻病害之一,水稻白叶枯病可使水稻减产高达50%以上。研究表明水稻白叶枯病菌的毒力主要依靠三型分泌系统所分泌的效应物。为了解水稻白叶枯病菌广西菌株GX1329中含有avrBs3/pthA家族基因的情况,本研究应用Alu I部分酶切其基因组DNA,构建了含有736个克隆的菌株GX1329的基因组文库。BamHI酶切分析随机挑取的15个文库克隆表明,克隆的外源DNA随机性良好,克隆的最小片段为27.7kb,最大为58.5kb,平均大小为39.9kb,文库克隆容量约为2.8×10^3Mb,该文库中包含基因组中任一个基因的概率为99.4%。利用来自水稻白叶枯病菌菲律宾菌株PX086的无毒基因avrXa10的第252位~第486位核苷酸序列作为探针,通过菌落原位杂交从GX1329基因组文库中筛选到37个含avrBs3/pthA家族基因的克隆。再通过Southern杂交分析,得到了17个独立克隆。这17个克隆中至少含有13个不同的avrBs3/pthA家族基因。这些基因在GX1329基因组中有的单独存在,有的两个或两个以上串联存在。本工作基本上明确了菌株GX1329基因组中avrBs3/pthA家族基因的数量,为进一步研究菌株GX1329中avrBs3/pthA家族基因的功能奠定了基础。%Bacterial leaf blight (BLB), caused by Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is a serious threat to yield losses in the main regions of rice growth including Asia, North America and Africa. BLB could lead to a crop loss of up to 50%. It is known that the virulence of Xoo mainly relies on type BI secre- tion system (T3SS) and its secreted effectors. To know the numbers of genes encoding avrBs3/pthA family mem- bers in Guangxi Xoo strain GX1329, a genomic DNA library containing 736 clones was successfully constructed by partially

  19. 水稻白叶枯病菌GX1329基因组文库的构建及含编码TAL效应物基因的克隆的分离%Construction of a Genomic Library of Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae Strain GX1329 and Isolation of Clones Containing the Genes Encoding TAL Effectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子宇; 赵帅; 莫伟兰; 罗雪梅; 玉延华; 段承杰; 冯家勋

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial leaf blight (BLB), caused by Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo),is a serious threat to yield losses in the main regions of rice growth including Asia, North America and Africa.BLB could lead to a crop loss of up to 50%. It is known that the virulence of Xoo mainly relies on type Ⅲ secretion system (T3SS) and its secreted effectors. To know the numbers of genes encoding avrBs3/pthA family members in Guangxi Xoo strain GX1329, a genomic DNA library containing 736 clones was successfully constructed by partially digesting the genomic DNA with A lu Ⅰ . Restriction enzyme BamH Ⅰ digestion analysis of plasmids from 15 randomly chosen library clones showed that the cloned DNA in the genomic library was highly random.The size of the smallest cloned DNA in one clone was 27.7kb, the size of the biggest cloned DNA in one clone was 58.5 kb, and the average size of cloned DNA in one clone was 39.9 kb. The cloning capacity of the library is about 2.8x103 Mb with high randomness, and the probability of any one gene contained in the library was about 99.4%.Thirty-seven positive clones were screened out from the GX1329 genomic library by colony in situ hybridization using the 252th to 486th bp sequence of avrXa10 from Xoo strain PXO86 as probe. Southern hybridization analysis of the 17 clones showed that they contain at least 13 different avrBs3/pthA genes. The results also showed that the avrB.s3/pthA family genes occurred in individual or clusters in the genome of strain GX1329. This work defined the number of avrBs3/pthA family genes in the genome of GX1329, which may provide a solid basis for further studying the function of the genes.%由革兰氏阴性细菌水稻白叶枯病菌引起的水稻白叶枯病是亚洲、北美以及非洲部分地区最严重的水稻病害之一,水稻白叶枯病可使水稻减产高达50%以上.研究表明水稻白叶枯病菌的毒力主要依靠三型分泌系统所分泌的效应物.为了解

  20. Revealing accretion onto black holes through X-ray reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, D.; Fender, R.; Ponti, G.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Coriat, M.

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the dynamics behind black hole state transitions and the changes they reflect in outbursts has become long-standing problem. The X-ray reflection spectrum describes the interaction between the hard X-ray source (the power-law continuum) and the cool accretion disc it illuminates, and thus permits an indirect view of how the two evolve. We present a systematic analysis of the reflection spectrum throughout three outbursts (500+ RXTE observations) of the black hole binary GX 339-4, representing the largest study applying a self-consistent treatment of reflection to date. Particular attention is payed to the coincident evolution of the power-law and reflection, which can be used to determine the accretion geometry. The hard state is found to be distinctly reflection weak, however the ratio of reflection to power-law gradually increases as the source luminosity rises. In contrast the reflection is found dominate the power-law throughout most of the soft state, with increasing supremacy as the source decays. Using results from archival and AO-12 observations of GX 339-4 with XMM-Newton we reveal the dynamics driving this evolution and the nature of accretion onto black holes in outburst.

  1. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Mendoza, N. [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V. [LBT, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA. Ciudad Universitaria, Pab1, C1428EGA CABA (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Prov. de Bs As (Argentina); Candal, R., E-mail: candal@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 3iA, Universidad de Gral. San Martin, San Martin, Prov. Bs As (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 Degree-Sign C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 {mu}m) and sample B (smaller than 50 {mu}m). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 {mu}m showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 {mu}m. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  2. Evolution of Binaries in Dense Stellar Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanova, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the field, the binaries in dense stellar systems are frequently not primordial, and could be either dynamically formed or significantly altered from their primordial states. Destruction and formation of binaries occur in parallel all the time. The destruction, which constantly removes soft binaries from a binary pool, works as an energy sink and could be a reason for cluster entering the binary-burning phase. The true binary fraction is greater than observed, as a result, the observable binary fraction evolves differently from the predictions. Combined measurements of binary fractions in globular clusters suggest that most of the clusters are still core-contracting. The formation, on other hand, affects most the more evolutionary advanced stars, which significantly enhances the population of X-ray sources in globular clusters. The formation of binaries with a compact objects proceeds mainly through physical collisions, binary-binary and single-binary encounters; however, it is the dynamical for...

  3. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew J.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  4. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing $10^4 - 10^6$ stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct $N$-body integrations and Fokker--Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  5. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuChengqian; ZhaoXiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP)is proposed .A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP)is also proposed .The relationship between PCSP and DFP,the properties and exising conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  6. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chengqian; Zhao Xiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP) is proposed. A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP) is also proposed.The relationship between PCSP and DFP, the properties and existing conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  7. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  8. Spin Correlation in Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farbiash, N; Farbiash, Netzach; Steinitz, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    We examine the correlation of projected rotational velocities in binary systems. It is an extension of previous work (Steinitz and Pyper, 1970; Levato, 1974). An enlarged data basis and new tests enable us to conclude that there is indeed correlation between the projected rotational velocities of components of binaries. In fact we suggest that spins are already correlated.

  9. Evolutionary Memory in Binary Systems?

    CERN Document Server

    Steinitz, N F R

    2004-01-01

    Correlation between the spins (rotational velocities) in binaries has previously been established. We now continue and show that the degree of spin correlation is independent of the components' separation. Such a result might be related for example to Zhang's non-linear model for the formation of binary stars from a nebula.

  10. Observing binary inspiral with LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, L S

    1994-01-01

    Gravitational radiation from a binary neutron star or black hole system leads to orbital decay and the eventual coalescence of the binary's components. During the last several minutes before the binary components coalesce, the radiation will enter the bandwidth of the United States Laser Inteferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and the French/Italian VIRGO gravitational radiation detector. The combination of detector sensitivity, signal strength, and source density and distribution all point to binary inspiral as the most likely candidate for observation among all the anticipated sources of gravitational radiation for LIGO/VIRGO. Here I review briefly some of the questions that are posed to theorists by the impending observation of binary inspiral.

  11. Signature Visualization of Software Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panas, T

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we present work on the visualization of software binaries. In particular, we utilize ROSE, an open source compiler infrastructure, to pre-process software binaries, and we apply a landscape metaphor to visualize the signature of each binary (malware). We define the signature of a binary as a metric-based layout of the functions contained in the binary. In our initial experiment, we visualize the signatures of a series of computer worms that all originate from the same line. These visualizations are useful for a number of reasons. First, the images reveal how the archetype has evolved over a series of versions of one worm. Second, one can see the distinct changes between version. This allows the viewer to form conclusions about the development cycle of a particular worm.

  12. Pairing mechanisms for binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; Goodwin, S P; Zwart, S F Portegies; Kaper, L; 10.1002/asna.200811061

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the binary population in stellar groupings provides important information about the outcome of the star forming process in different environments. Binarity is also a key ingredient in stellar population studies and is a prerequisite to calibrate the binary evolution channels. In these proceedings we present an overview of several commonly used methods to pair individual stars into binary systems, which we refer to as the pairing function. Many pairing functions are frequently used by observers and computational astronomers, either for the mathematical convenience, or because they roughly describe the expected outcome of the star forming process. We discuss the consequences of each pairing function for the interpretation of observations and numerical simulations. The binary fraction and mass ratio distribution generally depend strongly on the selection of the range in primary spectral type in a sample. These quantities, when derived from a binary survey with a mass-limited sample of target stars, ...

  13. Magnetic activity of interacting binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Colin A.

    2017-10-01

    Interacting binaries provide unique parameter regimes, both rapid rotation and tidal distortion, in which to test stellar dynamo theories and study the resulting magnetic activity. Close binaries such as cataclysmic variables (CVs) have been found to differentially rotate, and so can provide testbeds for tidal dissipation efficiency in stellar convective envelopes, with implications for both CV and planet-star evolution. Furthermore, CVs show evidence of preferential emergence of magnetic flux tubes towards the companion star, as well as large, long-lived prominences that form preferentially within the binary geometry. Moreover, RS CVn binaries also show clear magnetic interactions between the two components in the form of coronal X-ray emission. Here, we review several examples of magnetic interactions in different types of close binaries.

  14. Métodos de coloração de Roeser (1972: modificado - e Kropp (1972 visando a substituição do azul de astra por azul de alcião 8GS ou 8GX Staining methods of modified Roeser (1972 and Kropp (1972, aiming at substituing the astra blue by alcian blue 8GS or 8GX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Luque

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Em folhas de Lychnophora ericoides, Coffea arabica e Nymphaea mexicana foram testados métodos de coloração baseados em Roeser (1972 modificado e Kropp (1972, visando a substituição do corante azul de astra por azul de alcião 8GS ou 8GX. As amostras foram fixadas em FAA, desidratadas em série butílica terciária e incluídas em parafina. Os cortes histológicos transversais foram corados segundo diferentes baterias de coloração, modificadas quanto ao tipo de corante usado, diferenciador e série de desidratação. As lâminas permanentes foram preparadas com bálsamo-do-canadá sintético. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o método de Roeser (1972 modificado é melhor que o de Kropp (1972, nas condições deste experimento. O azul de astra pode ser substituído por azul de alcião 8GX e a desidratação pode ser em série isopropílica ou etílica, sem grande diferença entre elas. São discutidos os resultados provenientes das diferentes colorações.Staining methods based on modified Roeser (1972 as well as that of Kropp (1972 were done with leaves of Lychnophora ericoides, Coffea arabica and Nymphaea mexicana aiming at substituing the astra blue stain by alcian blue 8GS or 8GX. Samples were fixed in FAA, dehydrated in teit-butyl alcohol series and embedded in paraffin. The histological transversal sections were stained in different staining batteries, modified according to the type of stains and differentiators, and the series of dehydration. Permanent slides were prepared with synthetic Canada balsam. The results obtained indicate that the modified Roeser method (1972 is better than that of Kropp (1972 under present experimental conditions. The astra blue can be substituted by alcian blue 8GX and dehydration can be isopropylic or ethylic, with little difference between them. The results obtained with the different staining techniques used are discussed.

  15. Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, Paulo C C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review the recent discovery of several millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in eccentric binary systems. Timing these MSPs we were able to estimate (and in one case precisely measure) their masses. These results suggest that, as a class, MSPs have a much wider range of masses (1.3 to > 2 solar masses) than the normal and mildly recycled pulsars found in double neutron star (DNS) systems (1.25 < Mp < 1.44 solar masses). This is very likely to be due to the prolonged accretion episode that is thought to be required to form a MSP. The likely existence of massive MSPs makes them a powerful probe for understanding the behavior of matter at densities larger than that of the atomic nucleus; in particular, the precise measurement of the mass of PSR J1903+0327 ($1.67 +/- 0.01 solar masses) excludes several "soft" equations of state for dense matter.

  16. Towards Physarum binary adders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a single cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium's foraging behaviour is interpreted in terms of computation. Input data is a configuration of nutrients, result of computation is a network of plasmodium's cytoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients. Tsuda et al. (2004) experimentally demonstrated that basic logical gates can be implemented in foraging behaviour of the plasmodium. We simplify the original designs of the gates and show - in computer models - that the plasmodium is capable for computation of two-input two-output gate x, y-->xy, x+y and three-input two-output x,y,z-->x yz,x+y+z. We assemble the gates in a binary one-bit adder and demonstrate validity of the design using computer simulation.

  17. Towards Physarum Binary Adders

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeff; 10.1016/j.biosystems.2010.04.005

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium of \\emph{Physarum polycephalum} is a single cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium's foraging behaviour is interpreted in terms of computation. Input data is a configuration of nutrients, result of computation is a network of plasmodium's cytoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients. Tsuda et al (2004) experimentally demonstrated that basic logical gates can be implemented in foraging behaviour of the plasmodium. We simplify the original designs of the gates and show --- in computer models --- that the plasmodium is capable for computation of two-input two-output gate $ \\to $ and three-input two-output $ \\to $. We assemble the gates in a binary one-bit adder and demonstrate validity of the design using computer simulation.

  18. Monolithic high voltage AC/DC converter TOPSwitch-GX series%单片高压AC/DC转换器TOPSwitch-GX系列

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ 由Power Integration公司在最近推出的单片离线式高压开关电源I C系列TOPSwitch-GX,共包括14种型号,输出功率从5W一直到最高达250W;它除了保持TOPSwitch的基本特性:在单一CMOS芯片上集成了高压功率MOSFET、PWM控制、故障检测及其它控制电路之外,还集成了很多内置的以及用户可配置的功能,使得应用开发人员可以极其灵活地以最低的系统成本完成优化的电源设计.

  19. Dynamical Evolution of Wide Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda H. Mallada

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulate numerically encounters of wide binaries with field stars and Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs by means of the impulse approximation. We analyze the time evolution of the distributions of eccentricities and semimajor axes of wide binaries with given initial conditions, at intervals of 109 yr, up to 1010 yr (assumed age of the Galaxy. We compute the fraction of surviving binaries for stellar encounters, for GMC encounters and for a combination of both, and hence, the dynamical lifetime for different semimajor axes and different masses of binaries (0.5, 1, 1.2, 1.5, 2.5, and 3 Msolar. We find that the dynamical lifetime of wide binaries considering only GMCs is half than that considering only stars. For encounters with GMCs we analyze the influence of the initial inclination of the orbital plane of the binary with respect to the plane perpendicular to the relative velocity vector of the binary and the GMC. We find that the perturbation is maximum when the angle is minimum.

  20. Chaotic zones around gravitating binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Ivan I

    2014-01-01

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound bodies (a double star, a double black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, in function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the binary periods. The binary's mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present, is also estimated.

  1. Modified evolution of stellar binaries from supermassive black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Yi-Han; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of main-sequence binaries resided in the galactic centre is influenced a lot by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Due to this perturbation, the stars in a dense environment are likely to experience mergers or collisions through secular or non-secular interactions. In this work, we study the dynamics of the stellar binaries at galactic centre, perturbed by another distant SMBH. Geometrically, such a four-body system is supposed to be decomposed into the inner triple (SMBH-star-star) and the outer triple (SMBH-stellar binary-SMBH). We survey the parameter space and determine the criteria analytically for the stellar mergers and the tidal disruption events (TDEs). For a relative distant and equal masses SMBH binary, the stars have more opportunities to merge as a result from the Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations in the inner triple. With a sample of tight stellar binaries, our numerical experiments reveal that a significant fraction of the binaries, ∼70 per cent, experience merger eventually. Whereas the majority of the stellar TDEs are likely to occur at a close periapses to the SMBH, induced by the outer Kozai effect. The tidal disruptions are found numerically as many as ∼10 per cent for a close SMBH binary that is enhanced significantly than the one without the external SMBH. These effects require the outer perturber to have an inclined orbit (≥40°) relatively to the inner orbital plane and may lead to a burst of the extremely astronomical events associated with the detection of the SMBH binary.

  2. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Electrophoresis has long been recognized as an effective analytic technique for the separation of proteins and other charged species, however attempts at scaling up to accommodate commercial volumes have met with limited success. In this report we describe a novel electrophoretic separation technique - Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis (BOCE). Numerical simulations indicate that the technique has the potential for preparative scale throughputs with high resolution, while simultaneously avoiding many problems common to conventional electrophoresis. The technique utilizes the interaction of an oscillatory electric field and a transverse oscillatory shear flow to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged protein species. An oscillatory electric field is applied across the narrow gap of a rectangular channel inducing a periodic motion of charged protein species. The amplitude of this motion depends on the dimensionless electrophoretic mobility, alpha = E(sub o)mu/(omega)d, where E(sub o) is the amplitude of the electric field oscillations, mu is the dimensional mobility, omega is the angular frequency of oscillation and d is the channel gap width. An oscillatory shear flow is induced along the length of the channel resulting in the separation of species with different mobilities. We present a model that predicts the oscillatory behavior of charged species and allows estimation of both the magnitude of the induced convective velocity and the effective diffusivity as a function of a in infinitely long channels. Numerical results indicate that in addition to the mobility dependence, the steady state behavior of solute species may be strongly affected by oscillating fluid into and out of the active electric field region at the ends of the cell. The effect is most pronounced using time dependent shear flows of the same frequency (cos((omega)t)) flow mode) as the electric field oscillations. Under such conditions, experiments indicate that

  3. Stability of binaries. Part II: Rubble-pile binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ishan

    2016-10-01

    We consider the stability of the binary asteroids whose members are granular aggregates held together by self-gravity alone. A binary is said to be stable whenever both its members are orbitally and structurally stable to both orbital and structural perturbations. To this end, we extend the stability analysis of Sharma (Sharma [2015] Icarus, 258, 438-453), that is applicable to binaries with rigid members, to the case of binary systems with rubble members. We employ volume averaging (Sharma et al. [2009] Icarus, 200, 304-322), which was inspired by past work on elastic/fluid, rotating and gravitating ellipsoids. This technique has shown promise when applied to rubble-pile ellipsoids, but requires further work to settle some of its underlying assumptions. The stability test is finally applied to some suspected binary systems, viz., 216 Kleopatra, 624 Hektor and 90 Antiope. We also see that equilibrated binaries that are close to mobilizing their maximum friction can sustain only a narrow range of shapes and, generally, congruent shapes are preferred.

  4. Binary star database: binaries discovered in non-optical bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, Oleg Yu.; Tessema, Solomon B.; Kniazev, Alexei Yu.

    The Binary star Database (BDB) is the world's principal database of binary and multiple systems of all observational types. In particular, it should contain data on binaries discovered in non-optical bands, X-ray binaries (XRBs) and radio pulsars in binaries. The goal of the present study was to compile complete lists of such objects. Due to the lack of a unified identification system for XRBs, we had to select them from five principal catalogues of X-ray sources. After cross-identification and positional cross-matching, a general catalogue of 373 XRBs was constructed for the first time. It contains coordinates, indication of photometric and spectroscopic binarity, and extensive cross-identification. In the preparation of the catalogue, a number of XRB classification disagreements were resolved, some catalogued identifiers and coordinates were corrected, and duplicated entries in the original catalogues were found. We have also compiled a general list of 239 radio pulsars in binary systems. The list is supplied with indication of photometric, spectroscopic or X-ray binarity, and with cross-identification data.

  5. An adaptable binary entropy coder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, A.; Klimesh, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel entropy coding technique which is based on recursive interleaving of variable-to-variable length binary source codes. We discuss code design and performance estimation methods, as well as practical encoding and decoding algorithms.

  6. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Goodwin, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-...

  7. Simulating relativistic binaries with Whisky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiotti, L.

    We report about our first tests and results in simulating the last phase of the coalescence and the merger of binary relativistic stars. The simulations were performed using our code Whisky and mesh refinement through the Carpet driver.

  8. Magnetic braking in ultracompact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Angular momentum loss in ultracompact binaries, such as the AM Canum Venaticorum stars, is usually assumed to be due entirely to gravitational radiation. Motivated by the outflows observed in ultracompact binaries, we investigate whether magnetically coupled winds could in fact lead to substantial additional angular momentum losses. We remark that the scaling relations often invoked for the relative importance of gravitational and magnetic braking do not apply, and instead use simple non-empirical expressions for the braking rates. In order to remove significant angular momentum, the wind must be tied to field lines anchored in one of the binary's component stars; uncertainties remain as to the driving mechanism for such a wind. In the case of white dwarf accretors, we find that magnetic braking can potentially remove angular momentum on comparable or even shorter timescales than gravitational waves over a large range in orbital period. We present such a solution for the 17-minute binary AM CVn itself which a...

  9. Binary nucleation beyond capillarity approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalikmanov, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    Large discrepancies between binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) and experiments result from adsorption effects and inability of BCNT, based on the phenomenological capillarity approximation, to treat small clusters. We propose a model aimed at eliminating both of these deficiencies. Adsorption

  10. Cryptography with DNA binary strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, A; Richter, C; Banzhaf, W; Rauhe, H

    2000-06-01

    Biotechnological methods can be used for cryptography. Here two different cryptographic approaches based on DNA binary strands are shown. The first approach shows how DNA binary strands can be used for steganography, a technique of encryption by information hiding, to provide rapid encryption and decryption. It is shown that DNA steganography based on DNA binary strands is secure under the assumption that an interceptor has the same technological capabilities as sender and receiver of encrypted messages. The second approach shown here is based on steganography and a method of graphical subtraction of binary gel-images. It can be used to constitute a molecular checksum and can be combined with the first approach to support encryption. DNA cryptography might become of practical relevance in the context of labelling organic and inorganic materials with DNA 'barcodes'.

  11. AN IMPROVED DESIGN OF REVERSIBLE BINARY TO BINARY CODED DECIMAL CONVERTER FOR BINARY CODED DECIMAL MULTIPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveena Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic gates under ideal conditions produce zero power dissipation. This factor highlights the usage of these gates in optical computing, low power CMOS design, quantum optics and quantum computing. The growth of decimal arithmetic in various applications as stressed the need to propose the study on reversible binary to BCD converter which plays a greater role in decimal multiplication for providing faster results. The different parameters such as gate count,garbage output and constant input are more optimized in the proposed fixed bit binary to binary coded decimal converter than the existing design.

  12. Transient Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, T M

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...

  13. Residue arithmetic in binary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Barsi, Ferruccio

    1988-01-01

    A natural approach to the problem of performing mod m computations in a binary system is presented and a solution is suggested which is based upon a straightforward relation between the residues of a same integer X with respect to different moduli. The proposed solution proves fruitful in various applications, such as converting binary integers to residue notation and mod m addition or multiplication. Even if the most usual implementation approach for mod m processors is based on look-up tabl...

  14. Coevolution of Binaries and Gaseous Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, David P

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by $\\it Kepler$ raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc, and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for $10^4$ binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentri...

  15. Study of luminosity and spin-up relation in X-ray binary pulsars with long-term monitoring by MAXI/GSC and Fermi/GBM

    CERN Document Server

    Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Nakajima, Motoki; Yamaoka, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    We study the relation between luminosity and spin-period change in X-ray binary pulsars using long-term light curve obtained by the MAXI/GSC all-sky survey and pulse period data from the Fermi/GBM pulsar project. X-ray binaries, consisting of a highly magnetized neutron star and a stellar companion, originate X-ray emission according to the energy of the accretion matter onto the neutron star. The accretion matter also transfers the angular momentum at the Alfven radius, and then spin up the neutron star. Therefore, the X-ray luminosity and the spin-up rate are supposed to be well correlated. We analyzed the luminosity and period-change relation using the data taken by continuous monitoring of MAXI/GSC and Fermi/GBM for Be/X-ray binaries, GX 304$-$1, A 0535$+$26, GRO J1008$-$57, KS 1947$+$300, and 2S 1417$-$624, which occurred large outbursts in the last four years. We discuss the results comparing the obtained observed relation with that of the theoretical model by Ghosh \\& Lamb (1979).

  16. Unsupervised learning of binary vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelli Lopes da Silva, Mauro

    In this thesis, unsupervised learning of binary vectors from data is studied using methods from Statistical Mechanics of disordered systems. In the model, data vectors are distributed according to a single symmetry-breaking direction. The aim of unsupervised learning is to provide a good approximation to this direction. The difference with respect to previous studies is the knowledge that this preferential direction has binary components. It is shown that sampling from the posterior distribution (Gibbs learning) leads, for general smooth distributions, to an exponentially fast approach to perfect learning in the asymptotic limit of large number of examples. If the distribution is non-smooth, then first order phase transitions to perfect learning are expected. In the limit of poor performance, a second order phase transition ("retarded learning") is predicted to occur if the data distribution is not biased. Using concepts from Bayesian inference, the center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble is shown to have maximal average (Bayes-optimal) performance. This upper bound for continuous vectors is extended to a discrete space, resulting in the clipped center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble having maximal average performance among the binary vectors. To calculate the performance of this best binary vector, the geometric properties of the center of mass of binary vectors are studied. The surprising result is found that the center of mass of infinite binary vectors which obey some simple constraints, is again a binary vector. When disorder is taken into account in the calculation, however, a vector with continuous components is obtained. The performance of the best binary vector is calculated and shown to always lie above that of Gibbs learning and below the Bayes-optimal performance. Making use of a variational approach under the replica symmetric ansatz, an optimal potential is constructed in the limits of zero temperature and mutual overlap 1. Minimization of this potential

  17. Binary Encodings of Non-binary Constraint Satisfaction Problems: Algorithms and Experimental Results

    CERN Document Server

    Samaras, N; 10.1613/jair.1776

    2011-01-01

    A non-binary Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) can be solved directly using extended versions of binary techniques. Alternatively, the non-binary problem can be translated into an equivalent binary one. In this case, it is generally accepted that the translated problem can be solved by applying well-established techniques for binary CSPs. In this paper we evaluate the applicability of the latter approach. We demonstrate that the use of standard techniques for binary CSPs in the encodings of non-binary problems is problematic and results in models that are very rarely competitive with the non-binary representation. To overcome this, we propose specialized arc consistency and search algorithms for binary encodings, and we evaluate them theoretically and empirically. We consider three binary representations; the hidden variable encoding, the dual encoding, and the double encoding. Theoretical and empirical results show that, for certain classes of non-binary constraints, binary encodings are a competitive op...

  18. 广西牛病毒性腹泻病毒GX4分离株全基因测序及序列分析%Identification and sequence analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Guangxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晴; 谢芝勋; 谢志勤; 刘加波; 庞耀珊; 邓显文; 谢丽基; 罗思思

    2015-01-01

    牛病毒性腹泻病毒(bovine viral diarrhea virus,BVDV)属于瘟病毒属,是养牛业中常见的病原体.通过MDBK细胞首次从广西分离获得1株牛源牛病毒性腹泻病毒,命名为GX4.设计引物对其全基因组进行扩增,获得其全基因序列,测序结果表明,GX4全基因组为12 218 bp,编码3 898个氨基酸,GenBank登录号JN704144.1.对全基因序列进行分析,根据其5'-UTR,确定GX4属于BVDV-1b基因亚型;与BVDV其他参考毒株的比对发现,GX4与巴西分离株IBSP4ncp同源性最高,核苷酸同源性为94.4%,推导氨基酸同源性为96.2%,并且P125基因无外源序列插入,属于非细胞病变型.分子流行病学的结果,揭示了目前流行株的差异性,为该病的防控措施的制定提供参考.

  19. 二进制流模式提取在CPU/GPU下的实现框架%IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK FOR BINARY STREAM PATTERN EXTRACTION UNDER CPU/GPU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章一超; 陈凯; 梁阿磊; 白英彩; 管海兵

    2012-01-01

    As a stream processor, GPU is widely used in general high-performance computation, and no longer limited to the image processing area only. NVDIA CUDA and AMD Stream SDK are popular stream programming environments for General-Purpose computation on GPU ( GPGPU). However both of them have shortcomings and limitations. The biggest problems are the shortage of binary compatibility which is confronting different GPUs and the large cost in rewriting existing source codes. By using binary analysis and dynamic binary translation technology the article implements an automatic execution framework,GxBit, which offers a method to extract stream patterns from x86 binary programs to be mapped into NVIDIA CUDA programming environment. Validated by multiple programs from CUDA SDK Sample and Parboil Benchmark Suite,the framework upgrades the performance to an average level of 10 times.%图形处理单元(GPU)作为一种流体系结构的处理器,现已被广泛地用于通用高性能计算,而不仅仅局限于图像处理领域了.NVIDIA的CUDA和AMD的Stream SDK都是现在比较流行的针对GPU通用计算(GPGPU)的流编程环境.然而,它们有自身的缺陷和限制,其中最主要的便是缺乏面对不同GPU的二进制兼容性问题和重写已有程序源代码代价大的问题.通过利用二进制分析和动态二进制翻译技术,实现一个自动化执行框架GxBit,它提供一种从x86二进制程序中提取流模式,并映射到NVIDIACUDA编程环境的方法.该框架经过CUDA SDK Sample和Parboil Benchmark Suite中若干程序的验证,平均取得10倍以上的性能提升.

  20. Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Goldreich, P; Sari, R; Goldreich, Peter; Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re'em

    2002-01-01

    It appears that at least several percent of large Kuiper belt objects are members of wide binaries. Physical collisions are too infrequent to account for their formation. Collisionless gravitational interactions are more promising. These provide two channels for binary formation. In each, the initial step is the formation of a transient binary when two large bodies penetrate each other's Hill spheres. Stabilization of a transient binary requires that it lose energy. Either dynamical friction due to small bodies or the scattering of a third large body can be responsible. Our estimates favor the former, albeit by a small margin. We predict that most objects of size comparable to those currently observed in the Kuiper belt are members of multiple systems. More specifically, we derive the probability that a large body is a member of a binary with semi-major axis of order a. The probability depends upon sigma, the total surface density, Sigma, the surface density of large bodies having radius R, and theta=10^-4, t...

  1. Exoplanets Bouncing Between Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckel, Nickolas

    2012-01-01

    Exoplanetary systems are found not only among single stars, but also binaries of widely varying parameters. Binaries with separations of 100--1000 au are prevalent in the Solar neighborhood; at these separations planet formation around a binary member may largely proceed as if around a single star. During the early dynamical evolution of a planetary system, planet--planet scattering can eject planets from a star's grasp. In a binary, the motion of a planet ejected from one star has effectively entered a restricted three-body system consisting of itself and the two stars, and the equations of motion of the three body problem will apply as long as the ejected planet remains far from the remaining planets. Depending on its energy, escape from the binary as a whole may be impossible or delayed until the three-body approximation breaks down, and further close interactions with its planetary siblings boost its energy when it passes close to its parent star. Until then this planet may be able to transition from the ...

  2. Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.

  3. Marangoni Convection in Binary Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Oron, A; Behringer, Robert P.; Oron, Alexander; Zhang, Jie

    2006-01-01

    Marangoni instabilities in binary mixtures are different from those in pure liquids. In contrast to a large amount of experimental work on Marangoni convection in pure liquids, such experiments in binary mixtures are not available in the literature, to our knowledge. Using binary mixtures of sodium chloride/water, we have systematically investigated the pattern formation for a set of substrate temperatures and solute concentrations in an open system. The flow patterns evolve with time, driven by surface-tension fluctuations due to evaporation and the Soret effect, while the air-liquid interface does not deform. A shadowgraph method is used to follow the pattern formation in time. The patterns are mainly composed of polygons and rolls. The mean pattern size first decreases slightly, and then gradually increases during the evolution. Evaporation affects the pattern formation mainly at the early stage and the local evaporation rate tends to become spatially uniform at the film surface. The Soret effect becomes i...

  4. Evaporative Instability in Binary Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ranga; Uguz, Erdem

    2012-11-01

    In this talk we depict the physics of evaporative convection for binary systems in the presence of surface tension gradient effects. Two results are of importance. The first is that a binary system, in the absence of gravity, can generate an instability only when heated from the vapor side. This is to be contrasted with the case of a single component where instability can occur only when heated from the liquid side. The second result is that a binary system, in the presence of gravity, will generate an instability when heated from either the vapor or the liquid side provided the heating is strong enough. In addition to these results we show the conditions at which interfacial patterns can occur. Support from NSF OISE 0968313, Partner Univ. Fund and a Chateaubriand Fellowship is acknowledged.

  5. Black Hole Binaries in Quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Bailyn, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    I discuss some of what is known and unknown about the behavior of black hole binary systems in the quiescent accretion state. Quiescence is important for several reasons: 1) the dominance of the companion star in the optical and IR wavelengths allows the binary parameters to be robustly determined - as an example, we argue that the longer proposed distance to the X-ray source GRO J1655-40 is correct; 2) quiescence represents the limiting case of an extremely low accretion rate, in which both accretion and jets can be observed; 3) understanding the evolution and duration of the quiescent state is a key factor in determining the overall demographics of X-rary binaries, which has taken on a new importance in the era of gravitational wave astronomy.

  6. Coupled HBO and NBO variations in the Z source GX 5-1: inner accretion disk as the location of QPOs

    CERN Document Server

    Sriram, K; Choi, C S

    2011-01-01

    The simultaneous and coupled evolution of horizontal branch oscillation (HBO) and normal branch oscillation (NBO) in Z-type sources suggests that the production of HBO is connected to NBO and is caused by changes in the physical/radiative properties of the inner accretion disk, although there is a lack of substantial spectral evidence to support this. In this {\\it Letter}, we present the results of an analysis of a RXTE observation of a Z source GX~5-1, where the 6 Hz NBO is simultaneously detected along with a HBO at 51 Hz. The variations in the intensity and the associated power density spectrum indicate that the HBO and NBO are strongly coupled, originating from the same location in the inner accretion disk. The absence of HBO and NBO in the lower energy bands, an increase in the rms amplitude with energy and a smooth transition among them suggest that they are produced in the hot inner regions of the accretion disk. Based on a spectral analysis, we found a signature of changing or physically modified inne...

  7. 韩流袭夏三星GX-1S数码单反相机试用报告(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴双桐

    2006-01-01

    @@ 仅仅在一年前,在竞争激烈的数码单反相机市场上,广大摄影爱好者所能选择的数码单反相机,也许只能局限在日系产品范围中.但随着三星正式进入专业相机市场,这种选择的局限性,已经开始悄悄地打破.因为不久前,三星与宾得合作推出的新型DSLR-GX-1S,这个带有韩系标记的新生混血儿已经正式上市了.那么,这款韩系DSLR相机与其他DSLR到底有什么区别呢?其实际性能和所拍摄的图片质量到底怎样,且让我们与其亲密接触之后再进行一番评论吧.

  8. Monitoring Tumor Targeting and Treatment Effects of IRDye 800CW and GX1-Conjugated Polylactic Acid Nanoparticles Encapsulating Endostar on Glioma by Optical Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqian; Du, Yang; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Qian; Jing, Lijia; Liang, Xiaolong; Chi, Chongwei; Dai, Zhifei; Tian, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging used in cancer diagnosis and therapeutic response monitoring is important for glioblastoma (GBM) research. Antiangiogenic therapy currently is one of the emerging approaches for GBM treatment. In this study, a multifunctional nanoparticle was fabricated that can facilitate the fluorescence imaging of tumor and deliver a therapeutic agent to the tumor region in vivo and therefore possesses broad application in cancer diagnosis and treatment. This particle was polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles encapsulating Endostar, which was further conjugated with GX1 peptide and the near-infrared (NIR) dye IRDye 800CW (IGPNE). We demonstrated noninvasive angiogenesis targeting and therapy of IGPNE on U87MG xenografts in vivo using dual-modality optical molecular imaging including NIR fluorescence molecular imaging (FMI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI). The NIR FMI results demonstrated that IGPNE had more accumulation to the tumor site compared to free IRDye 800CW. To further evaluate the antitumor treatment efficacy of IGPNE, BLI and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed on tumor-bearing mice. With the aid of molecular imaging, the results confirmed that IGPNE enhanced antitumor treatment efficacy compared to free Endostar. In conclusion, IGPNE realizes real-time imaging of U87MG tumors and improves the antiangiogenic therapeutic efficacy in vivo.

  9. Influence of stress relief annealing on the microstructure and properties of GX12CrMoVNbN9-1(GP91 cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Golański

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an effect of stress relief annealing, applied to casts after the repair by welding, on the microstructure and mechanical properties of quenched and tempered martensitic GX12CrMoVNbN9 – 1 cast steel (called GP91. The test pieces being the subject of research were taken out from a test coupon. Heat treatment of GP91 cast steel was carried out at the parameters of temperature and time appropriate for the treatment of multi-ton steel casts, while stress relief annealing was performed at the temperatures of 730 and 750oC.After quenching and tempering GP91 cast steel was characterized by the microstructure of high-tempered martensite with numerousprecipitations of carbides of diverse size. Mechanical properties of the investigated cast steel after heat treatment fulfilled the standard requirements. Stress relief annealing contributes to the processes of recovery and recrystallization of the matrix as well as the privileged precipitation of M23C6 carbides on grain boundaries. Changes in the microstructure of the examined cast steel cause deterioration in mechanical properties – the higher the temperature of stress relief annealing, the greater the deterioration.

  10. Influence of heat treatment on microstructure and properties of GX12CrMoVNbN9-1 cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Golański

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on the influence of multistage heat treatment on microstructure and properties of high-chromiummartensitic GX12CrMoVNbN9 – 1 (GP91 steel. The material under investigation were samples taken out from a test coupon. Heattreatment of GP91 cast steel was performed at the parameters of temperature and time typical of treatment for multi-ton steel casts. The research has proved that in the as-received condition (as-cast state GP91 cast steel was characterized by a coarse grain, martensitic microstructure which provided the required standard mechanical properties. The heat treatment of GP91 cast steel contributed to obtainment of a fine grain microstructure of high tempered martensite with numerous precipitations of carbides of diverse size. The GP91 cast steel structure received through heat treatment made it possible to obtain high plastic properties, particularly impact strength, maintaining strength properties on the level of the required minimum.

  11. Practical Binary Adaptive Block Coder

    CERN Document Server

    Reznik, Yuriy A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low-complexity algorithm for adaptive encoding/ decoding of binary sequences produced by memoryless sources. The algorithm implements universal block codes constructed for a set of contexts identified by the numbers of non-zero bits in previous bits in a sequence. We derive a precise formula for asymptotic redundancy of such codes, which refines previous well-known estimate by Krichevsky and Trofimov, and provide experimental verification of this result. In our experimental study we also compare our implementation with existing binary adaptive encoders, such as JBIG's Q-coder, and MPEG AVC (ITU-T H.264)'s CABAC algorithms.

  12. Statistical Study of Visual Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Rahman, H I; Elsanhoury, W H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, some statistical distributions of wide pairs included in Double Star Catalogue are investigated. Frequency distributions and testing hypothesis are derived for some basic parameters of visual binaries. The results reached indicate that, it was found that the magnitude difference is distributed exponentially, which means that the majority of the component of the selected systems is of the same spectral type. The distribution of the mass ratios is concentrated about 0.7 which agree with Salpeter mass function. The distribution of the linear separation appears to be exponentially, which contradict with previous studies for close binaries.

  13. Several tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs of FANCG are required for assembly of the BRCA2/D1-D2-G-X3 complex, FANCD2 monoubiquitylation and phleomycin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James B; Blom, Eric; Cunningham, Ryan; Xiao, Yuxuan; Kupfer, Gary M; Jones, Nigel J

    2010-07-01

    The Fanconi anaemia (FA) FANCG protein is an integral component of the FA nuclear core complex that is required for monoubiquitylation of FANCD2. FANCG is also part of another protein complex termed D1-D2-G-X3 that contains FANCD2 and the homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA2 (FANCD1) and XRCC3. Formation of the D1-D2-G-X3 complex is mediated by serine-7 phosphorylation of FANCG and occurs independently of the FA core complex and FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. FANCG contains seven tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs that mediate protein-protein interactions and here we show that mutation of several of the TPR motifs at a conserved consensus residue ablates the in vivo binding activity of FANCG. Expression of mutated TPR1, TPR2, TPR5 and TPR6 in Chinese hamster fancg mutant NM3 fails to functionally complement its hypersensitivities to mitomycin C (MMC) and phleomycin and fails to restore FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Using co-immunoprecipitation analysis, we demonstrate that these TPR-mutated FANCG proteins fail to interact with BRCA2, XRCC3, FANCA or FANCF. The interactions of other proteins in the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are also absent, including the interaction of BRCA2 with both the monoubiquitylated (FANCD2-L) and non-ubiquitylated (FANCD2-S) isoforms of FANCD2. Interestingly, a mutation of TPR7 (R563E), that complements the MMC and phleomycin hypersensitivity of human FA-G EUFA316 cells, fails to complement NM3, despite the mutated FANCG protein co-precipitating with FANCA, BRCA2 and XRCC3. Whilst interaction of TPR7-mutated FANCG with FANCF does appear to be reduced in NM3, FANCD2 is monoubiquitylated suggesting that sub-optimal interactions of FANCG in the core complex and the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are responsible for the observed MMC- and phleomycin-hypersensitivity, rather than a defect in FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Our data demonstrate that FANCG functions as a mediator of protein-protein interactions and is vital for the assembly of multi-protein complexes

  14. Several tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs of FANCG are required for assembly of the BRCA2/D1-D2-G-X3 complex, FANCD2 monoubiquitylation and phleomycin resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, James B. [Molecular Oncology and Stem Cell Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Biosciences Building, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Blom, Eric [Department of Clinical Genetics and Human Genetics, VU University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cunningham, Ryan; Xiao, Yuxuan [Molecular Oncology and Stem Cell Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Biosciences Building, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Kupfer, Gary M. [Departments of Pediatrics and Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 0652 (United States); Jones, Nigel J., E-mail: njjones@liv.ac.uk [Molecular Oncology and Stem Cell Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Biosciences Building, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-07

    The Fanconi anaemia (FA) FANCG protein is an integral component of the FA nuclear core complex that is required for monoubiquitylation of FANCD2. FANCG is also part of another protein complex termed D1-D2-G-X3 that contains FANCD2 and the homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA2 (FANCD1) and XRCC3. Formation of the D1-D2-G-X3 complex is mediated by serine-7 phosphorylation of FANCG and occurs independently of the FA core complex and FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. FANCG contains seven tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs that mediate protein-protein interactions and here we show that mutation of several of the TPR motifs at a conserved consensus residue ablates the in vivo binding activity of FANCG. Expression of mutated TPR1, TPR2, TPR5 and TPR6 in Chinese hamster fancg mutant NM3 fails to functionally complement its hypersensitivities to mitomycin C (MMC) and phleomycin and fails to restore FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Using co-immunoprecipitation analysis, we demonstrate that these TPR-mutated FANCG proteins fail to interact with BRCA2, XRCC3, FANCA or FANCF. The interactions of other proteins in the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are also absent, including the interaction of BRCA2 with both the monoubiquitylated (FANCD2-L) and non-ubiquitylated (FANCD2-S) isoforms of FANCD2. Interestingly, a mutation of TPR7 (R563E), that complements the MMC and phleomycin hypersensitivity of human FA-G EUFA316 cells, fails to complement NM3, despite the mutated FANCG protein co-precipitating with FANCA, BRCA2 and XRCC3. Whilst interaction of TPR7-mutated FANCG with FANCF does appear to be reduced in NM3, FANCD2 is monoubiquitylated suggesting that sub-optimal interactions of FANCG in the core complex and the D1-D2-G-X3 complex are responsible for the observed MMC- and phleomycin-hypersensitivity, rather than a defect in FANCD2 monoubiquitylation. Our data demonstrate that FANCG functions as a mediator of protein-protein interactions and is vital for the assembly of multi-protein complexes

  15. Binary stars in the RAVE survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwitter T.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We searched the sample of RAVE survey spectra for both types of spectroscopic binary stars in order to estimate their number in the sample and perform a study on newly discovered binaries.

  16. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARIES WITH STELLAR COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.; Guo, Z.; Lester, K. V. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States); Orosz, J. A. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-1221 (United States); Peters, G. J., E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: rmatson@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: guo@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: lester@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jorosz@mail.sdsu.edu, E-mail: gjpeters@mucen.usc.edu [Space Sciences Center and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1341 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Many short-period binary stars have distant orbiting companions that have played a role in driving the binary components into close separation. Indirect detection of a tertiary star is possible by measuring apparent changes in eclipse times of eclipsing binaries as the binary orbits the common center of mass. Here we present an analysis of the eclipse timings of 41 eclipsing binaries observed throughout the NASA Kepler mission of long duration and precise photometry. This subset of binaries is characterized by relatively deep and frequent eclipses of both stellar components. We present preliminary orbital elements for seven probable triple stars among this sample, and we discuss apparent period changes in seven additional eclipsing binaries that may be related to motion about a tertiary in a long period orbit. The results will be used in ongoing investigations of the spectra and light curves of these binaries for further evidence of the presence of third stars.

  17. Binary/BCD-to-ASCII data converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    Converter inputs multiple precision binary words, converts data to multiple precision binary-coded decimal, and routes data back to computer. Converter base can be readily changed without need for new gate structure for each base changeover.

  18. Eccentricity distribution of wide binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 477 solar-type binaries within 67pc with projected separations larger than 50AU is studied by a new statistical method. Speed and direction of the relative motion are determined from the short observed arcs or known orbits, and their joint distribution is compared to the numerical simulations. By inverting the observed distribution with the help of simulations, we find that average eccentricity of wide binaries is 0.59+-0.02 and the eccentricity distribution can be modeled as f(e) ~= 1.2 e + 0.4. However, wide binaries containing inner subsystems, i.e. triple or higher-order multiples, have significantly smaller eccentricities with the average e = 0.52+-0.05 and the peak at e ~ 0.5. We find that the catalog of visual orbits is strongly biased against large eccentricities. A marginal evidence of eccentricity increasing with separation (or period) is found for this sample. Comparison with spectroscopic binaries proves the reality of the controversial period-eccentricity relation. The average eccentr...

  19. The Meritfactor of Binary Seqences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Binary sequences with small aperiodic correlations play an important role in many applications ranging from radar to modulation and testing of systems. Golay(1977) introduced the merit factor as a measure of the goodness of the sequence and conjectured an upper bound for this. His conjecture is s...

  20. Binary typing of staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes the development. application and validation of straindifferentiating DNA probes for the characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains in a system. that yields a binary output. By comparing the differential hybridization of these DNA probes to staphylococcal geno

  1. CHAOTIC ZONES AROUND GRAVITATING BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchenko, Ivan I., E-mail: iis@gao.spb.ru [Pulkovo Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pulkovskoje ave. 65, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-20

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound primaries of comparable masses (a binary star, a binary black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, as a function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges (above a threshold in the primaries' mass ratio) due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the central binary periods. In this zone, the unlimited chaotic orbital diffusion of the tertiary takes place, up to its ejection from the system. The primaries' mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present at all initial eccentricities of the tertiary, is estimated. The diversity of the observed orbital configurations of biplanetary and circumbinary exosystems is shown to be in accord with the existence of the primaries' mass parameter threshold.

  2. Bayesian analysis of binary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torney, David C.

    2005-03-01

    This manuscript details Bayesian methodology for "learning by example", with binary n-sequences encoding the objects under consideration. Priors prove influential; conformable priors are described. Laplace approximation of Bayes integrals yields posterior likelihoods for all n-sequences. This involves the optimization of a definite function over a convex domain--efficiently effectuated by the sequential application of the quadratic program.

  3. Coevolution of binaries and circumbinary gaseous discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc which drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for 104 binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentric binaries which strongly couple to the disc develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance which corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. All systems display binary semimajor axis decay due to dissipation from the viscous disc.

  4. Formation and evolution of compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain

  5. Binary Linear-Time Erasure Decoding for Non-Binary LDPC codes

    CERN Document Server

    Savin, Valentin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce the extended binary representation of non-binary codes, which corresponds to a covering graph of the bipartite graph associated with the non-binary code. Then we show that non-binary codewords correspond to binary codewords of the extended representation that further satisfy some simplex-constraint: that is, bits lying over the same symbol-node of the non-binary graph must form a codeword of a simplex code. Applied to the binary erasure channel, this description leads to a binary erasure decoding algorithm of non-binary LDPC codes, whose complexity depends linearly on the cardinality of the alphabet. We also give insights into the structure of stopping sets for non-binary LDPC codes, and discuss several aspects related to upper-layer FEC applications.

  6. Evidence for a change in the X-ray radiation mechanism in the hard state of Galactic black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Sobolewska, M A; Done, C; Malzac, J

    2011-01-01

    We present results on spectral variability of two Galactic black hole X-ray binaries, GRO J1655-40 and GX 339-4, in the hard state. We confirm a transition in behaviour of the photon index with luminosity, such that the well known decrease in X-ray photon index with decreasing luminosity only continues down to L_bol ~ 0.01 L_Edd . Below this point the photon index increases again. For Comptonisation models, this implies that the ratio of the Compton luminosity to seed photon luminosity, lh/ls, changes with bolometric luminosity, consistent with a scenario where seed photons change from cyclo-synchrotron at the lowest luminosities to those from a truncated disc. Alternatively, the transition could mark the point below which the non-thermal jet starts to dominate, or where reprocessed photons replace the viscous ones in an outflowing corona model.

  7. Gravitational Microlensing of Binary and Binary and Multiple Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    1995-08-01

    Recent observations of the effect of microlensing of stars of large Magellanic Clouds by dark bodies of Galactic Halo have led to the discovery of new population in our galaxy - dark bodies with amsses ~ 0.1 M(sun). As a consequence, astronomers have gained a unique possibility of using gravitational microlensing as an effective extraterestrial telescope with extremely high angular resolution. Application of this to binary stars is discussed. of particular interest is to apply microlensing to search for planetary stars . Planets and stars move about the center of gravity of the system , so the appaarent motion of a star in nonuniform and the light curve is asymetrical and colour dependent. This allows to determin basic parameters of binary system

  8. Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.

  9. A relationship between pathogenicity of different passage virus of vvIBDV GX8/ 99 strain and VP5 gene%超强毒IBDV GX8/99株不同传代毒致病性与VP5基因的关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昌亮; 朱瑞良; 王尊民; 王军委; 赵庆友; 杨世发; 左雪梅

    2012-01-01

    ELD50 of the original virus(chicken virus), embryo virus, virus of adapted to cells, cloned virus in cells, the 10th passage virus returned SPF chickens(chicken virus) ,and the 20th passage virus of cloned cells of vvIBDV GX8/ 99 strains were detected. By inoculating SPF chicken with virus led the same ELDs0 ,we observed pathogenic changes of vvIBDV GX8/99 strains during the course of passage. RNA was extracted from the certain passage strains of the above virus. By RT PCR,PCR amplification, gene cloning, nucleotide sequence analysis, we compared the VP5 gene of the virus IBDV of the 32 different passages,and we obtained their homology were between 94 % and 100 %. How- ever,there are 15 sites prone to mutation,and the base variation in the sites bp 2,8,52,145,232,272,310,364,385 and 409 caused the changes of corresponding amino acid,but the base variation in the site bp 18,285,331,354 and 397 did not cause changes of corresponding amino acid. By comparison, when the death rate reduced from 86.7% of the original virus to 43.0% of GXE10, four sites of the VP5 nucleotide mutated, and when the death rate reduced from 43.0% of GXC23 to 3.3% of GXE10,10 sites of the VP5 nucleotide mutated. But the pathogenicity have little change in the four strains of the cloned GXC23,and only the sites bp 8 of GXCI.1 1,364 of GXCL2- 1 and GXCL4 1 mutated;the mortality have some degree of recovery after the four strains of cloned virus returned SPF chickens passage 10 generations,and there were two sites mutated;in four cloned virus strains in the cells after 20 generations of continuous passage,its death rate dropped to 0,and cloned 5 strains did not change nucleotide, and cloned 1,2,4 strains has only one nucleotide site mutated. Therefore,we can ascertain that the majority variation of amino acid of VP5 may have a certain relationship with the pathogenicity of the virus, especially with the cell culture and tissue affinity.%将vvIBDV GX8/99株原代毒、鸡胚

  10. Populating the Galaxy with close Be binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kiel, P D; Murray, J R; Hayasaki, K

    2007-01-01

    Be/X-ray binaries comprise roughly two-thirds of the high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), which is a class of X-ray binaries that results from the high mass of the companion or donor star (> 10 solar masses). Currently the formation and evolution of X-ray producing Be binaries is a matter of great debate. Modelling of these systems requires knowledge of Be star evolution and also consideration of how the evolution changes when the star is in close proximity to a companion. Within this work we complete a full population synthesis study of Be binaries for the Galaxy. The results for the first time match aspects of the observational data, most notably the observed upper limit to the period distribution. We conclude that greater detailed studies on the evolution of Be stars within X-ray binaries needs to be completed, so that rapid binary evolution population synthesis packages may best evolve these systems.

  11. Slim Sets of Binary Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Grünewald, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    A classical problem in phylogenetic tree analysis is to decide whether there is a phylogenetic tree $T$ that contains all information of a given collection $\\cP$ of phylogenetic trees. If the answer is "yes" we say that $\\cP$ is compatible and $T$ displays $\\cP$. This decision problem is NP-complete even if all input trees are quartets, that is binary trees with exactly four leaves. In this paper, we prove a sufficient condition for a set of binary phylogenetic trees to be compatible. That result is used to give a short and self-contained proof of the known characterization of quartet sets of minimal cardinality which are displayed by a unique phylogenetic tree.

  12. Desktop setup for binary holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Olaf; Rothe, Hendrik

    1996-08-01

    Binary gratings as holograms itself or as photographic masking tools for further fabrication steps can fulfill a lot of applications. The commonly used semiconductor technologies for direct writing of high resolution structures are often too expensive. On the other hand computer plots at a reasonable price with photographic reduction do not meet the needs of precision e.g. for interferometric inspection. The lack of cheap and reliable instruments for direct writing in an appropriate resolution is still a problem in fabricating synthetic holograms. Using off-the-shelf components a direct writing plotter for binary patterns can be built at moderate costs. Typical design rules as well as experimental results are given and the final setup is introduced.

  13. Mass transfer between binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modisette, J. L.; Kondo, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of mass from one component of a binary system to another by mass ejection is analyzed through a stellar wind mechanism, using a model which integrates the equations of motion, including the energy equation, with an initial static atmosphere and various temperature fluctuations imposed at the base of the star's corona. The model is applied to several situations and the energy flow is calculated along the line of centers between the two binary components, in the rotating frame of the system, thereby incorporating the centrifugal force. It is shown that relatively small disturbances in the lower chromosphere or photosphere can produce mass loss through a stellar wind mechanism, due to the amplification of the disturbance propagating into the thinner atmosphere. Since there are many possible sources of the disturbance, the model can be used to explain many mass ejection phenomena.

  14. Information graphs for binary predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, G; McRoberts, N; Burnett, F J

    2015-01-01

    Binary predictors are used in a wide range of crop protection decision-making applications. Such predictors provide a simple analytical apparatus for the formulation of evidence related to risk factors, for use in the process of Bayesian updating of probabilities of crop disease. For diagrammatic interpretation of diagnostic probabilities, the receiver operating characteristic is available. Here, we view binary predictors from the perspective of diagnostic information. After a brief introduction to the basic information theoretic concepts of entropy and expected mutual information, we use an example data set to provide diagrammatic interpretations of expected mutual information, relative entropy, information inaccuracy, information updating, and specific information. Our information graphs also illustrate correspondences between diagnostic information and diagnostic probabilities.

  15. Close supermassive binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, C. Martin

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that when the peaks of the broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are significantly blueshifted or redshifted from the systemic velocity of the host galaxy, this could be a consequence of orbital motion of a supermassive blackhole binary (SMB). The AGN J1536+0441 (=SDSS J153636.22+044127.0) has recently been proposed as an example of this phenomenon. It is proposed here instead that 1536+044 is an example of line emission from a disc. If this is correct, the lack of clear optical spectral evidence for close SMBs is significant and argues either that the merging of close SMBs is much faster than has generally been hitherto thought, or if the approach is slow, that when the separation of the binary is comparable to the size of the torus and broad-line region, the feeding of the black holes is disrupted.

  16. Binary neuron with optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeratu, Vasile; Degeratu, Ştefania; Şchiopu, Paul; Şchiopu, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the authors present a model of binary neuron, a model of McCulloch-Pitts neuron with optical devices. This model of neuron can be implemented not only in the optic integrated circuits but also in the classic optical circuits it being cheap and immune not only into electromagnetic fields but also into any kind of radiation. The transfer speed of information through the neuron is very higher, it being limited only by the light speed from the received medium.

  17. Classification with binary gene expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Tuna, Salih; Niranjan, Mahesan

    2009-01-01

    Microarray gene expression measurements are reported, used and archived usually to high numerical precision. However, properties of mRNA molecules, such as their low stability and availability in small copy numbers, and the fact that measurements correspond to a population of cells, rather than a single cell, makes high precision meaningless. Recent work shows that reducing measurement precision leads to very little loss of information, right down to binary levels. In this paper we show how p...

  18. Be/X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to review the observational properties of Be/X-ray binaries. The open questions in Be/X-ray binaries include those related to the Be star companion, that is, the so-called "Be phenomenon", such as, timescales associated to the formation and dissipation of the equatorial disc, mass-ejection mechanisms, V/R variability, and rotation rates; those related to the neutron star, such as, mass determination, accretion physics, and spin period evolution; but also, those that result from the interaction of the two constituents, such as, disc truncation and mass transfer. Until recently, it was thought that the Be stars' disc was not significantly affected by the neutron star. In this review, I present the observational evidence accumulated in recent years on the interaction between the circumstellar disc and the compact companion. The most obvious effect is the tidal truncation of the disc. As a result, the equatorial discs in Be/X-ray binaries are smaller and denser than those around isolat...

  19. Close Binaries, Triples, and Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Jason; Zavala, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the variable radio source b Per (HR1324) are part of an ongoing survey of close binary systems using the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer. Historical observations of b Per include sparse photometric and spectroscopic observations dating back to 1923, clearly showing this object to be a non-eclipsing, single-lined ellipsoidal variable. This is where the story for b Per stopped until recent inclusion of optical interferometric data which led to the detection of a third, long-period component. As the interferometric observations continue to build up so to is the understanding of this binary system, with the modeled orbital parameters pointing to an edge-on orientation that may allow for the detection of an eclipse by the long-period component. These types of eclipse events are quite rare for long-period binaries due to the nearly edge-on orientation required for their detection, leaving open the opportunity for more traditional methods of observation to add to the body of knowledge concerning this understudied system. Here we present the latest observational data of the b Per system along with an introduction to the best fit orbital parameters governing the eclipsing nature of this complex triple-system.

  20. 核电机组用铸钢GX4CrNi13-4车削加工表面质量研究%Experimental Study on Turning Surface Integrity of Nuclear Power Cast Steel GX4CrNi13-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛春新; 陈群涛

    2013-01-01

    针对百万千瓦核电机组用铸钢GX4CrNi13-4材料进行车削试验,主要从表面粗糙度和加工变质层两方面分析其加工表面质量.采用正交试验方法,选取切削速度、进给量、切削深度和切削宽度,并考量了刀具刀尖圆弧半径和后刀面磨损等因素,以表面粗糙度(Ra和Rz值)为试验目标,研究了加工表面粗糙度的变化.在最优切削参数下Rz值可达0.792μm.最后,选取加工表面加工硬化、金相组织变化和残余应力特性三项指标研究了铸钢加工表面变质层的变化规律.%In order to obtain the optimized cutting parameters and tool parameters which meets the need of the surface quality,this paper studied the turning process of materials GX4CrNi13-4 of one million kilowatts nuclear power unit.Orthogonal test and single factor test methods are used.Choose cutting speed,feed rate,cutting depth and cutting width,cutting tool nose radius and flank wear as the changing parameters,with the surface roughness (Ra and Rz) as the test target,surface roughness of the feed direction are studied.The Rz value under the optimal cutting parameters is 0.792μm.In addition,machining surface hardening,microstructure changes and residual stress are selected as three main indicators of cast steel turning surface metamorphic layer.

  1. Visual Binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Reipurth, Bo; Connelley, Michael S; Bally, John

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out a major survey for visual binaries towards the Orion Nebula Cluster using HST images obtained with an H-alpha filter. Among 781 likely ONC members more than 60" from theta-1 Ori C, we find 78 multiple systems (75 binaries and 3 triples), of which 55 are new discoveries, in the range from 0.1" to 1.5". About 9 binaries are likely line-of-sight associations. We find a binary fraction of 8.8%+-1.1% within the limited separation range from 67.5 to 675 AU. The field binary fraction in the same range is a factor 1.5 higher. Within the range 150 AU to 675 AU we find that T Tauri associations have a factor 2.2 more binaries than the ONC. The binary separation distribution function of the ONC shows unusual structure, with a sudden steep decrease in the number of binaries as the separation increases beyond 0.5", corresponding to 225 AU. We have measured the ratio of binaries wider than 0.5" to binaries closer than 0.5" as a function of distance from the Trapezium, and find that this ratio is signifi...

  2. 高+Gx过载后恒河猴脑组织损伤的病理学研究%A Study on Pathological Changes of Brain after High +Gx Exposure in Rhesus Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝俊峰; 吴斌; 赵德明; 宁章勇; 王传武; 由广兴

    2004-01-01

    目的研究实验动物恒河猴在经受抛物线型高+Gx过载后,大脑顶叶皮层和海马区在光镜和电镜下的病理形态学变化,以期深入了解不同高+Gx与脑组织的病理性损伤程度的关系.方法实验选用健康恒河猴于清醒状态下,在动物离心机上经受相应峰值(实验组:+15 Gx/200 s、+18 Gx/165 s、+21 Gx/140 s和对照组+1 Gx/200 s)的抛物线型过载作用后,取材、进行病理形态学研究.结果 1)在光镜下,可见大脑顶叶皮层和海马区锥体细胞均表现为不同程度的缺血性萎缩,而星形胶质细胞核周出现空晕,这种病变随着+Gx值的增加而逐渐加重,此外,海马区较大脑顶叶皮层的病变表现的更为明显;2)电镜下随着+Gx值的增加,可见锥体细胞核染色质聚集形成团块状、染色质边集,核膜皱缩,最后形成凋亡小体;胞浆内线粒体由肿胀、嵴模糊不清最后到空泡化;内质网池逐渐扩张.结论 +15~+21 G的高+Gx值可以导致恒河猴脑组织出现急性损伤性病理变化,而且损伤的程度随+Gx的增加而加重.

  3. Detection of unresolved binaries with multicolor photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chulkov, D; Malkov, O; Sichevskij, S; Krussanova, N; Mironov, A; Zakharov, A; Kniazev, A

    2016-01-01

    The principal goal of this paper is to specify conditions of detection of unresolved binaries by multicolor photometry. We have developed a method for estimating the critical distance at which an unresolved binary of given mass and age can be detected. The method is applied to the photometric system of the planned Lyra-B spaceborne experiment. We have shown that some types of unresolved binary stars can be discovered and distinguished from single stars solely by means of photometric observations.

  4. Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.

  5. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Harrison, Martínez-Correa and Swarthout [2013] found that the binary lottery procedure works robustly to induce risk neutrality when subjects are given one risk task defined over...... objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...... of subjective probabilities in subjects with certain Non-Expected Utility preference representations that satisfy weak conditions that we identify....

  6. Multiplicatively Repeated Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Kasai, Kenta; Poulliat, Charly; Sakaniwa, Kohichi

    2010-01-01

    We propose non-binary LDPC codes concatenated with multiplicative repetition codes. By multiplicatively repeating the (2,3)-regular non-binary LDPC mother code of rate 1/3, we construct rate-compatible codes of lower rates 1/6, 1/9, 1/12,... Surprisingly, such simple low-rate non-binary LDPC codes outperform the best low-rate binary LDPC codes so far. Moreover, we propose the decoding algorithm for the proposed codes, which can be decoded with almost the same computational complexity as that of the mother code.

  7. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong

    2015-07-28

    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.

  8. Risks vs Return with Binary Option Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Kiiskinen, Eemi

    2016-01-01

    Binary options are derivative instruments associated with high risks and high profits. A binary option is similar to a normal “vanilla” option where the value of the derivative is based on the value of the underlying asset. The main difference to a vanilla option is the payout of the trades. As binary trading is a relatively new way of investing, it is still uncommon for many private investors. The purpose of the thesis is to introduce the binary option as an investment method for novice ...

  9. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR

    1990-01-01

    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  10. R144 : a very massive binary likely ejected from R136 through a binary-binary encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Seungkyung; Banerjee, Sambaran

    2013-01-01

    R144 is a recently confirmed very massive, spectroscopic binary which appears isolated from the core of the massive young star cluster R136. The dynamical ejection hypothesis as an origin for its location is claimed improbable by Sana et al. due to its binary nature and high mass. We demonstrate here by means of direct N-body calculations that a very massive binary system can be readily dynamically ejected from a R136-like cluster, through a close encounter with a very massive system. One out of four N-body cluster models produces a dynamically ejected very massive binary system with a mass comparable to R144. The system has a system mass of $\\approx$ 355 Msun and is located at 36.8 pc from the centre of its parent cluster, moving away from the cluster with a velocity of 57 km/s at 2 Myr as a result of a binary-binary interaction. This implies that R144 could have been ejected from R136 through a strong encounter with an other massive binary or single star. In addition, we discuss all massive binaries and sin...

  11. Interacting Jets from Binary Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, G C; O'Sullivan, S; Spicer, D; Bacciotti, F; Rosén, A

    2007-01-01

    We investigate potential models that could explain why multiple proto-stellar systems predominantly show single jets. During their formation, stars most frequently produce energetic outflows and jets. However, binary jets have only been observed in a very small number of systems. We model numerically 3D binary jets for various outflow parameters. We also model the propagation of jets from a specific source, namely L1551 IRS 5, known to have two jets, using recent observations as constraints for simulations with a new MHD code. We examine their morphology and dynamics, and produce synthetic emission maps. We find that the two jets interfere up to the stage where one of them is almost destroyed or engulfed into the second one. We are able to reproduce some of the observational features of L1551 such as the bending of the secondary jet. While the effects of orbital motion are negligible over the jets dynamical timeline, their interaction has significant impact on their morphology. If the jets are not strictly pa...

  12. Millisecond Pulsars in Close Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    In this Habilitationsschrift (Habilitation thesis) I present my research carried out over the last four years at the Argelander Institute for Astronomy (AIfA) and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR). The thesis summarizes my main findings and has been written to fulfill the requirements for the Habilitation qualification at the University of Bonn. Although my work is mainly focused on the topic of millisecond pulsars (MSPs), there is a fairly broad spread of research areas ranging from the formation of neutron stars (NSs) in various supernova (SN) events, to their evolution, for example, via accretion processes in binary and triple systems, and finally to their possible destruction in merger events. The thesis is organized in the following manner: A general introduction to neutron stars and millisecond pulsars is given in Chapter 1. A selection of key papers published in 2011-2014 are presented in Chapters 2-10, ordered within five main research areas (ultra-stripped SNe in close binaries, ma...

  13. The Young Visual Binary Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa A.; Avilez, Ian; Allen, Thomas; Zoonematkermani, Saeid; Biddle, Lauren; Muzzio, Ryan; Wittal, Matthew; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

    2017-01-01

    We have obtained adaptive optics imaging and high-resolution H-band and in some cases K-band spectra of each component in close to 100 young multiple systems in the nearby star forming regions of Taurus, Ophiuchus, TW Hya, and Orion. The binary separations for the pairs in our sample range from 30 mas to 3 arcseconds. The imaging and most of our spectra were obtained with instruments behind adaptive optics systems in order to resolve even the closest companions. We are in the process of determining fundamental stellar and circumstellar properties, such as effective temperature, Vsin(i), veiling, and radial velocity, for each component in the entire sample. The beta version of our database includes systems in the Taurus region and provides plots, downloadable ascii spectra, and values of the stellar and circumstellar properties for both stars in each system. This resource is openly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. In this poster we describe initial results from our analysis of the survey data. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  14. Planets transiting non-eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David V.; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.

    2014-10-01

    The majority of binary stars do not eclipse. Current searches for transiting circumbinary planets concentrate on eclipsing binaries, and are therefore restricted to a small fraction of potential hosts. We investigate the concept of finding planets transiting non-eclipsing binaries, whose geometry would require mutually inclined planes. Using an N-body code we explore how the number and sequence of transits vary as functions of observing time and orbital parameters. The concept is then generalised thanks to a suite of simulated circumbinary systems. Binaries are constructed from radial-velocity surveys of the solar neighbourhood. They are then populated with orbiting gas giants, drawn from a range of distributions. The binary population is shown to be compatible with the Kepler eclipsing binary catalogue, indicating that the properties of binaries may be as universal as the initial mass function. These synthetic systems produce transiting circumbinary planets occurring on both eclipsing and non-eclipsing binaries. Simulated planets transiting eclipsing binaries are compared with published Kepler detections. We find 1) that planets transiting non-eclipsing binaries are probably present in the Kepler data; 2) that observational biases alone cannot account for the observed over-density of circumbinary planets near the stability limit, which implies a physical pile-up; and 3) that the distributions of gas giants orbiting single and binary stars are likely different. Estimating the frequency of circumbinary planets is degenerate with the spread in mutual inclination. Only a minimum occurrence rate can be produced, which we find to be compatible with 9%. Searching for inclined circumbinary planets may significantly increase the population of known objects and will test our conclusions. Their presence, or absence, will reveal the true occurrence rate and help develop circumbinary planet formation theories.

  15. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungelson, Lev R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA. Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars -- compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.

  16. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Postnov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  17. Bayesian analysis of exoplanet and binary orbits

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze-Hartung, Tim; Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We introduce BASE (Bayesian astrometric and spectroscopic exoplanet detection and characterisation tool), a novel program for the combined or separate Bayesian analysis of astrometric and radial-velocity measurements of potential exoplanet hosts and binary stars. The capabilities of BASE are demonstrated using all publicly available data of the binary Mizar A.

  18. Binaries with the eyes of CTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredes, J.M.; Bednarek, W.; Bordas, P.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; Dubus, G.; Funk, S.; Hadasch, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Markoff, S.; Moldón, J.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nagataki, S.; Naito, T.; de Naurois, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Reimer, O.; Ribó, M.; Szostek, A.; Terada, Y.; Torres, D.F.; Zabalza, V.; Zdziarski, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The binary systems that have been detected in gamma rays have proven very useful to study high-energy processes, in particular particle acceleration, emission and radiation reprocessing, and the dynamics of the underlying magnetized flows. Binary systems, either detected or potential gamma-ray

  19. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...... of subjective probabilities in subjects with certain Non-Expected Utility preference representations that satisfy weak conditions that we identify....

  20. Helium in atmospheres of binary stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leushin, V.V. (Rostovskij-na-Donu Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Fiziki)

    The helium abundances were obtained for 25 bright components of binary stars by model atmosphere analysis. The helium abundance for binary stars that lie on the main sequence are larger in the average than in single normal stars. The stars on the Hertzsppung - russel diagram lie at a larger distance from the zero age line than those with normal helium abundance.

  1. Measurement system analysis for binary tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerhuis, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    Binary tests classify items into two categories such as reject/accept, positive/negative or guilty/innocent. A binary test’s proneness to measurement error is usually expressed in terms of the misclassification probabilities FAP (false acceptance probability) and FRP (false rejection probability).

  2. Cosmological distance indicators by coalescing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; De Martino, Ivan; Formisano, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational waves detected from well-localized inspiraling binaries would allow to determine, directly and independently, both binary luminosity and redshift. In this case, such systems could behave as "standard candles" providing an excellent probe of cosmic distances up to z < 0.1 and thus complementing other indicators of cosmological distance ladder.

  3. Binary Relations as a Foundation of Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Jan; Barendsen, E.; Capretta, V.; Geuvers, H.; Niqui, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a theory for binary relations in the Zermelo-Fraenkel style. We choose for ZFCU, a variant of ZFC Set theory in which the Axiom of Foundation is replaced by an axiom allowing for non-wellfounded sets. The theory of binary relations is shown to be equi-consistent ZFCU by constructing a mo

  4. Binary Relations as a Foundation of Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, J.; Barendsen, E.; Capretta, V.; Geuvers, H.; Niqui, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a theory for binary relations in the Zermelo-Fraenkel style. We choose for ZFCU, a variant of ZFC Set theory in which the Axiom of Foundation is replaced by an axiom allowing for non-wellfounded sets. The theory of binary relations is shown to be equi-consistent ZFCU by constructing a mo

  5. Speech perception of noise with binary gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, DeLiang; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    2008-01-01

    For a given mixture of speech and noise, an ideal binary time-frequency mask is constructed by comparing speech energy and noise energy within local time-frequency units. It is observed that listeners achieve nearly perfect speech recognition from gated noise with binary gains prescribed...

  6. Binary Structure in David Lodge's Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高萍

    2008-01-01

    David Lodge is one of the most renowned modern English writers.He is known for the binary structure in his novels.In this paper,the writer will try to the binary structure in some of his novels to show his reflections on Catholicism and culture conflicts.

  7. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  8. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnov, Konstantin A; Yungelson, Lev R

    2014-01-01

    We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  9. Binary Relations as a Foundation of Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Jan; Barendsen, E.; Capretta, V.; Geuvers, H.; Niqui, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a theory for binary relations in the Zermelo-Fraenkel style. We choose for ZFCU, a variant of ZFC Set theory in which the Axiom of Foundation is replaced by an axiom allowing for non-wellfounded sets. The theory of binary relations is shown to be equi-consistent ZFCU by constructing a

  10. Binary Representations of Fingerprint Spectral Minutiae Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Haiyun; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2010-01-01

    A fixed-length binary representation of a fingerprint has the advantages of a fast operation and a small template storage. For many biometric template protection schemes, a binary string is also required as input. The spectral minutiae representation is a method to represent a minutiae set as a fixe

  11. Binary Planetary Nebulae Nuclei towards the Galactic Bulge. I. Sample Discovery, Period Distribution and Binary Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Moffat, A F J; Parker, Q A; Udalski, A

    2009-01-01

    Binarity has been hypothesised to play an important, if not ubiquitous, role in the formation of planetary nebulae (PNe). Yet there remains a severe paucity of known binary central stars required to test the binary hypothesis and to place strong constraints on the physics of the common-envelope (CE) phase of binary stellar evolution. Large photometric surveys offer an unrivalled opportunity to efficiently discover many binary central stars. We have combined photometry from the OGLE microlensing survey with the largest sample of PNe towards the Galactic Bulge to systematically search for new binaries. A total of 21 periodic binaries were found thereby more than doubling the known sample. The orbital period distribution was found to be best described by CE population synthesis models when no correlation between primary and secondary masses is assumed for the initial mass ratio distribution. A comparison with post-CE white dwarf binaries indicates both distributions are representative of the true post-CE period ...

  12. Evolution of non-synchronized binary systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A model for binary evolution is introduced which can determine whether the rotation of components is synchronized with the orbital motion, and can calculate the evolution of both the synchronized and non-synchronized binary systems. With this model, the evolution of a binary system consisting of a 9 M⊙ star and a 6 M⊙ star is studied with mass transfer Case B. The result shows that the synchronization of the rotational and orbital periods can be reached when the binary system is a detached system and before the occurrence of the first mass transfer. After the onset of the first mass transfer, the binary system becomes non-synchronized. The mass accepted component (the secondary) rotates faster with a period much smaller than that of the orbital motion.

  13. Evolution of non-synchronized binary systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄润乾; 曾艺蓉

    2000-01-01

    A model for binary evolution is introduced which can determine whether the rotation of components is synchronized with the orbital motion, and can calculate the evolution of both the synchronized and non-synchronized binary systems. With this model, the evolution of a binary system consisting of a 9 M star and a 6 M star is studied with mass transfer Case B. The result shows that the synchronization of the rotational and orbital periods can be reached when the binary system is a detached system and before the occurrence of the first mass transfer. After the onset of the first mass transfer, the binary system becomes non-synchronized. The mass accepted component (the secondary) rotates faster with a period much smaller than that of the orbital motion.

  14. Simulations of binary black hole mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Advanced LIGO's observations of merging binary black holes have inaugurated the era of gravitational wave astronomy. Accurate models of binary black holes and the gravitational waves they emit are helping Advanced LIGO to find as many gravitational waves as possible and to learn as much as possible about the waves' sources. These models require numerical-relativity simulations of binary black holes, because near the time when the black holes merge, all analytic approximations break down. Following breakthroughs in 2005, many research groups have built numerical-relativity codes capable of simulating binary black holes. In this talk, I will discuss current challenges in simulating binary black holes for gravitational-wave astronomy, and I will discuss the tremendous progress that has already enabled such simulations to become an essential tool for Advanced LIGO.

  15. Planet Scattering Around Binaries: Ejections, Not Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Smullen, Rachel A; Shannon, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically effects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Asid...

  16. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, J. J.; Quintana, E. V.; Adams, F. C.; Chambers, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Most stars reside in binary/multiple star systems; however, previous models of planet formation have studied growth of bodies orbiting an isolated single star. Disk material has been observed around one or both components of various young close binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such disks, they can remain dynamically stable for very long times. We have simulated the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets in both circumbinary disks around 'close' binary star systems with stellar separations ($a_B$) in the range 0.05 AU $\\le a_B \\le$ 0.4 AU and binary eccentricities in the range $0 \\le e \\le 0.8$ and circumstellar disks around individual stars with binary separations of tens of AU. The initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet growth within our Solar System and around individual stars in the Alpha Centauri system (Quintana et al. 2002, A.J., 576, 982); giant planets analogous to Jupiter and Saturn are included if their orbits are stable. The planetary systems formed around close binaries with stellar apastron distances less than or equal to 0.2 AU with small stellar eccentricities are very similar to those formed in the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn, whereas planetary systems formed around binaries with larger maximum separations tend to be sparser, with fewer planets, especially interior to 1 AU. Likewise, when the binary periastron exceeds 10 AU, terrestrial planets can form over essentially the entire range of orbits allowed for single stars with Jupiter-like planets, although fewer terrestrial planets tend to form within high eccentricity binary systems. As the binary periastron decreases, the radial extent of the terrestrial planet systems is reduced accordingly. When the periastron is 5 AU, the formation of Earth-like planets near 1 AU is compromised.

  17. Binary Cepheids from optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gallenne, A; Mérand, A; Monnier, J D; Pietrzyński, J Breitfelder G; Gieren, W

    2013-01-01

    Classical Cepheid stars have been considered since more than a century as reliable tools to estimate distances in the universe thanks to their Period-Luminosity (P-L) relationship. Moreover, they are also powerful astrophysical laboratories, providing fundamental clues for studying the pulsation and evolution of intermediate-mass stars. When in binary systems, we can investigate the age and evolution of the Cepheid, estimate the mass and distance, and constrain theoretical models. However, most of the companions are located too close to the Cepheid (1-40 mas) to be spatially resolved with a 10-meter class telescope. The only way to spatially resolve such systems is to use long-baseline interferometry. Recently, we have started a unique and long-term interferometric program that aims at detecting and characterizing physical parameters of the Cepheid companions, with as main objectives the determination of accurate masses and geometric distances.

  18. Binary mixtures of chiral gases

    CERN Document Server

    Presilla, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    A possible solution of the well known paradox of chiral molecules is based on the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking. At low pressure the molecules are delocalized between the two minima of a given molecular potential while at higher pressure they become localized in one minimum due to the intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions. Evidence for such a phase transition is provided by measurements of the inversion spectrum of ammonia and deuterated ammonia at different pressures. In particular, at pressure greater than a critical value no inversion line is observed. These data are well accounted for by a model previously developed and recently extended to mixtures. In the present paper, we discuss the variation of the critical pressure in binary mixtures as a function of the fractions of the constituents.

  19. Record-Breaking Eclipsing Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    A new record holder exists for the longest-period eclipsing binary star system: TYC-2505-672-1. This intriguing system contains a primary star that is eclipsed by its companion once every 69 years with each eclipse lasting several years!120 Years of ObservationsIn a recent study, a team of scientists led by Joseph Rodriguez (Vanderbilt University) characterizes the components of TYC-2505-672-1. This binary star system consists of an M-type red giant star that undergoes a ~3.45-year-long, near-total eclipse with a period of ~69.1 years. This period is more than double that of the previous longest-period eclipsing binary!Rodriguez and collaborators combined photometric observations of TYC-2505-672-1 by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) with a variety of archival data, including observations by the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) network and historical data from the Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard (DASCH) program.In the 120 years spanned by these observations, two eclipses are detected: one in 1942-1945 and one in 2011-2015. The authors use the observations to analyze the components of the system and attempt to better understand what causes its unusual light curve.Characterizing an Unusual SystemObservations of TYC-2505-672-1 plotted from 1890 to 2015 reveal two eclipses. (The blue KELT observations during the eclipse show upper limits only.) [Rodriguez et al. 2016]By modeling the systems emission, Rodriguez and collaborators establish that TYC-2505-672-1 consists of a 3600-K primary star thats the M giant orbited by a small, hot, dim companion thats a toasty 8000 K. But if the companion is small, why does the eclipse last several years?The authors argue that the best model of TYC-2505-672-1 is one in which the small companion star is surrounded by a large, opaque circumstellar disk. Rodriguez and collaborators suggest that the companion could be a former red giant whose atmosphere was stripped from it, leaving behind

  20. Truncation of the Inner Accretion Disk Around a Black Hole at Low Luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsick, John A.; Yamoka, Kazutaka; Corbel, Stephane; Kaaret, Philip; Kalemci, Emrah; Migliari, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Most black hole binaries show large changes in X-ray luminosity caused primarily by variations in mass accretion rate. An important question for understanding black hole accretion and jet production is whether the inner edge of the accretion disk recedes at low accretion rate. Measurements of the location of the inner edge (R(sub in)) can be made using iron emission lines that arise due to fluorescence of iron in the disk, and these indicate that R(sub in) is very close to the black hole at high and moderate luminosities (greater than or equal to 1% of the Eddington luminosity, L(sub Edd). Here, we report on X-ray observations of the black hole GX 339-4 in the hard state by Suzaku and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer that extend iron line studies to 0.14% L(sub Edd) and show that R(sub in) increases by a factor of greater than 27 over the value found when GX 339-4 was bright. The exact value of R(sub in) depends on the inclination of the inner disk (i), and we derive 90% confidence limits of R(sub in) greater than 35 R(sub g) at i = 0 degrees and R(sub in) greater than 175 R(sub g) at i = 30 degrees. This provides direct evidence that the inner portion of the disk is not present at low luminosity, allowing for the possibility that the inner disk is replaced by advection- or magnetically dominated accretion flows.

  1. Stability of multiplanet systems in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzari, F.; Gallina, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. When exploring the stability of multiplanet systems in binaries, two parameters are normally exploited: the critical semimajor axis ac computed by Holman & Wiegert (1999, AJ, 117, 621) within which planets are stable against the binary perturbations, and the Hill stability limit Δ determining the minimum separation beyond which two planets will avoid mutual close encounters. Both these parameters are derived in different contexts, i.e. Δ is usually adopted for computing the stability limit of two planets around a single star while ac is computed for a single planet in a binary system. Aims: Our aim is to test whether these two parameters can be safely applied in multiplanet systems in binaries or if their predictions fail for particular binary orbital configurations. Methods: We have used the frequency map analysis (FMA) to measure the diffusion of orbits in the phase space as an indicator of chaotic behaviour. Results: First we revisited the reliability of the empirical formula computing ac in the case of single planets in binaries and we find that, in some cases, it underestimates by 10-20% the real outer limit of stability and it does not account for planets trapped in resonance with the companion star well beyond ac. For two-planet systems, the value of Δ is close to that computed for planets around single stars, but the level of chaoticity close to it substantially increases for smaller semimajor axes and higher eccentricities of the binary orbit. In these configurations ac also begins to be unreliable and non-linear secular resonances with the stellar companion lead to chaotic behaviour well within ac, even for single planet systems. For two planet systems, the superposition of mean motion resonances, either mutual or with the binary companion, and non-linear secular resonances may lead to chaotic behaviour in all cases. We have developed a parametric semi-empirical formula determining the minimum value of the binary semimajor axis, for a given

  2. 模拟失重后高+Gx暴露对猴腮腺组织唾液淀粉酶表达的影响%Effects of the high + Gx exposure after simulated weightlessness on the expression of salivary alpha-amylase in parotid gland of monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭杨; 牛忠英; 汤楚华; 张建中; 郑燕华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of the high + Gx exposure after 30-d simulated weightlessness on salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) expression in rhesus monkey parotid,in order to provide experimental reference for maintaining astronauts' oral health and health care.Methods According to the literature review and the actual situation of spaceflight,twenty-three healthy male rhesus monkeys were randomly divided into four groups:①control group (n=3);②30-d simulated weightlessness group (n=3);③+ 13 Gx/230 s group (n=3);④group D:high +Gx after 30 d simulated weightlessness exposure group (n =14).The group D was further divided into four subgroups according to the +Gx peak load:-+-11 Gx/270 s (group D1,n=3),+13 Gx/230 s (group D2,n=4),+15 Gx/200 s (group D3,n=4),+-13 Gx/230 s and 9 d's recovery (group D4,n=3).For building weightlessness model,the rhesus monkeys were put on bed with-10° head down tilt position to simulate the microgravity environment.The rhesus monkeys were fixed in Model-58 animal centrifuge exposing to high +Gx environment that was built by computer controlled para-hypergravity profile.Salivary glands were collected at the second day of experimental operation.The expression of a-amylase on protein and mRNA level was separately detected by Western blot and quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).All of the statistical analysis data were performed by using SPSS 17.0.Results On protein level,Western blot analysis showed that sAA expression in other experimental groups decreased significantly as compared with that in control group (F=80.381,P<0.01).In groups of high +Gx exposure after simulated weightlessness,sAA expression showed a decreasing trend with the +Gx increase.However it rose again by 9-d recovery.On mRNA level,it displayed a conformably trend with that of protein level.Conclusions High +Gx exposure after 30-d simulated weightlessness can down-regulate sAA expression in parotid gland of rhesus monkey,and may cause the

  3. The origin of very wide binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; Davies, Melvyn B; Parker, Richard J; Kroupa, P; Malmberg, D

    2011-01-01

    A large population of fragile, wide (> 1000 AU) binary systems exists in the Galactic field and halo. These wide binary stars cannot be primordial because of the high stellar density in star forming regions, while formation by capture in the Galactic field is highly improbable. We propose that these binary systems were formed during the dissolution phase of star clusters (see Kouwenhoven et al. 2010, for details). Stars escaping from a dissolving star cluster can have very similar velocities, which can lead to the formation of a wide binary systems. We carry out N-body simulations to test this hypothesis. The results indicate that this mechanism explains the origin of wide binary systems in the Galaxy. The resulting wide binary fraction and semi-major axis distribution depend on the initial conditions of the dissolving star cluster, while the distributions in eccentricity and mass ratio are universal. Finally, since most stars are formed in (relatively tight) primordial binaries, we predict that a large fract...

  4. Formation of wide binaries by turbulent fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Seokho; Dunham, Michael M.; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Choi, Minho; Bergin, Edwin A.; Evans, Neal J.

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the formation of wide-binary systems of very low-mass stars (M ≤ 0.1 solar masses, M⊙) is challenging 1,2,3 . The most obvious route is through widely separated low-mass collapsing fragments produced by turbulent fragmentation of a molecular core4,5. However, close binaries or multiples from disk fragmentation can also evolve to wide binaries over a few initial crossing times of the stellar cluster through tidal evolution6. Finding an isolated low-mass wide-binary system in the earliest stage of formation, before tidal evolution could occur, would prove that turbulent fragmentation is a viable mechanism for (very) low-mass wide binaries. Here we report high-resolution ALMA observations of a known wide-separation protostellar binary, showing that each component has a circumstellar disk. The system is too young7 to have evolved from a close binary, and the disk axes are misaligned, providing strong support for the turbulent fragmentation model. Masses of both stars are derived from the Keplerian rotation of the disks; both are very low-mass stars.

  5. Binary dynamics near a massive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Hopman, Clovis

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the dynamical evolution of binary stars that interact with a static background of single stars in the environment of a massive black hole (MBH). All stars are considered to be single mass, Newtonian point particles. We follow the evolution of the energy E and angular momentum J of the center of mass of the binaries with respect to the MBH, as well as their internal semi-major axis a, using a Monte Carlo method. For a system like the Galactic center, the main conclusions are the following: (1) The binary fraction can be of the order of a few percent outside 0.1 pc, but decreases quickly closer to the MBH. (2) Within ~0.1 pc, binaries can only exist on eccentric orbits with apocenters much further away from the MBH. (3) Far away from the MBH, loss-cone effects are the dominant mechanism that disrupts binaries with internal velocities close to the velocity dispersion. Closer to the MBH, three-body encounters are more effective in disrupting binaries. (4) The rate at which hard binaries become tighter ...

  6. Interrupted Binary Mass Transfer in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Nathan W C; Toonen, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Binary mass transfer is at the forefront of some of the most exciting puzzles of modern astrophysics, including Type Ia supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and the formation of most observed exotic stellar populations. Typically, the evolution is assumed to proceed in isolation, even in dense stellar environments such as star clusters. In this paper, we test the validity of this assumption via the analysis of a large grid of binary evolution models simulated with the SeBa code. For every binary, we calculate analytically the mean time until another single or binary star comes within the mean separation of the mass-transferring binary, and compare this time-scale to the mean time for stable mass transfer to occur. We then derive the probability for each respective binary to experience a direct dynamical interruption. The resulting probability distribution can be integrated to give an estimate for the fraction of binaries undergoing mass transfer that are expected to be disrupted as a function of the host cluster pro...

  7. Interrupted Binary Mass Transfer in Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Geller, Aaron M.; Toonen, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    Binary mass transfer (MT) is at the forefront of some of the most exciting puzzles of modern astrophysics, including SNe Ia, gamma-ray bursts, and the formation of most observed exotic stellar populations. Typically, the evolution is assumed to proceed in isolation, even in dense stellar environments such as star clusters. In this paper, we test the validity of this assumption via the analysis of a large grid of binary evolution models simulated with the SeBa code. For every binary, we calculate analytically the mean time until another single or binary star comes within the mean separation of the mass-transferring binary, and compare this timescale to the mean time for stable MT to occur. We then derive the probability for each respective binary to experience a direct dynamical interruption. The resulting probability distribution can be integrated to give an estimate for the fraction of binaries undergoing MT that are expected to be disrupted as a function of the host cluster properties. We find that for lower-mass clusters (≲ {10}4 {M}⊙ ), on the order of a few to a few tens of percent of binaries undergoing MT are expected to be interrupted by an interloping single, or more often binary, star, over the course of the cluster lifetime, whereas in more massive globular clusters we expect \\ll 1% to be interrupted. Furthermore, using numerical scattering experiments performed with the FEWBODY code, we show that the probability of interruption increases if perturbative fly-bys are considered as well, by a factor ˜2.

  8. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from...... the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects...... with popular non-expected utility preference representations that satisfy weak conditions....

  9. Dynamical mass transfer in cataclysmic binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Fulvio; Lamb, D. Q.

    1987-01-01

    When a binary comes into contact and mass transfer begins, orbital angular momentum is stored in the accretion disk until the disk couples tidally to the binary system. Taam and McDermott (1987) have suggested that this leads to unstable dynamical mass transfer in many cataclysmic variables in which mass transfer would otherwise be stable, and that it explains the gap between 2 and 3 h in the orbital period distribution of these systems. Here the consequences of this hypothesis for the evolution of cataclysmic binaries are explored. It is found that systems coming into contact longward of the period gap undergo one or more episodes of dynamical mass transfer.

  10. Blind iterative deconvolution of binary star images

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S K

    1997-01-01

    The technique of Blind Iterative De-convolution (BID) was used to remove the atmospherically induced point spread function (PSF) from short exposure images of two binary stars, HR 5138 and HR 5747 obtained at the cassegrain focus of the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu Telescope(VBT), situated at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur. The position angles and separations of the binary components were seen to be consistent with results of the auto-correlation technique, while the Fourier phases of the reconstructed images were consistent with published observations of the binary orbits.

  11. Binary Cu-Zr Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Mei-Bo; ZHAO De-Qian; PAN Ming-Xiang; WANG Wei-Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ We report that bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) can be produced up to 2 mm by a copper mould casting in Cux Zr1-x binary alloy with a wide glass forming composition range (45 < x < 60 at.%). We find that the formation mechanism for the binary Cu-Zr binary BMG-forming alloy is obviously different from that of the intensively studied multicomponent BMGs. Our results demonstrate that the criteria for the multicomponent alloys with composition near deep eutectic and strong liquid behaviour are no longer the major concern for designing BMGs.

  12. Fast algorithms for generating binary holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Dustin; Kuhn, Axel

    2014-01-01

    We describe three algorithms for generating binary-valued holograms. Our methods are optimised for producing large arrays of tightly focussed optical tweezers for trapping particles. Binary-valued holograms allow us to use a digital mirror device (DMD) as the display element, which is much faster than other alternatives. We describe how our binary amplitude holograms can be used to correct for phase errors caused by optical aberrations. Furthermore, we compare the speed and accuracy of the algorithms for both periodic and arbitrary arrangements of traps, which allows one to choose the ideal scheme depending on the circumstances.

  13. Discovery of a 2 Kpc Binary Quasar

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, G. A.; Junkkarinen, V.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Cohen, R. D.; Hamann, F.; Lyons, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    LBQS 0103$-$2753 is a binary quasar with a separation of only 0.3 arcsec. The projected spacing of 2.3 kpc at the distance of the source (z = 0.848) is much smaller than that of any other known binary QSO. The binary nature is demonstrated by the very different spectra of the two components and the low probability of a chance pairing. LBQS 0103$-$2753 presumably is a galaxy merger with a small physical separation between the two supermassive black holes. Such objects may provide important con...

  14. Division Unit for Binary Integer Decimals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    -recurrence algorithm to BID representation and implement the division unit in standard cell technology. The implementation of the proposed BID division unit is compared to that of a BCD based unit implementing the same algorithm. The comparison shows that for normalized operands the BID unit has the same latency......In this work, we present a radix-10 division unit that is based on the digit-recurrence algorithm and implements binary encodings (binary integer decimal or BID) for significands. Recent decimal division designs are all based on the binary coded decimal (BCD) encoding. We adapt the radix-10 digit...

  15. Binary neutron star merger simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruegmann, Bernd [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Our research focuses on the numerical tools necessary to solve Einstein's equations. In recent years we have been particularly interested in spacetimes consisting of two neutron stars in the final stages of their evolution. Because of the emission of gravitational radiation, the objects are driven together to merge; the emitted gravitational wave signal is visualized. This emitted gravitational radiation carries energy and momentum away from the system and contains information about the system. Late last year the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) began searches for these gravitational wave signals at a sensitivity at which detections are expected. Although such systems can radiate a significant amount of their total mass-energy in gravitational waves, the gravitational wave signals one expects to receive on Earth are not strong, since sources of gravitational waves are often many millions of light years away. Therefore one needs accurate templates for the radiation one expects from such systems in order to be able to extract them out of the detector's noise. Although analytical models exist for compact binary systems when the constituents are well separated, we need numerical simulation to investigate the last orbits before merger to obtain accurate templates and validate analytical approximations. Due to the strong nonlinearity of the equations and the large separation of length scales, these simulations are computationally demanding and need to be run on large supercomputers. When matter is present the computational cost as compared to pure black hole (vacuum) simulations increases even more due to the additional matter fields. But also more interesting astrophysical phenomena can happen. In fact, there is the possibility for a strong electromagnetic signal from the merger (e.g., a short gamma-ray burst or lower-energy electromagnetic signatures from the ejecta) and significant neutrino emission. Additionally, we can expect that

  16. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.

    2017-07-01

    The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other

  17. Non binary LDPC codes over the binary erasure channel: density evolution analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Savin, Valentin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a thorough analysis of non binary LDPC codes over the binary erasure channel. First, the decoding of non binary LDPC codes is investigated. The proposed algorithm performs on-the-fly decoding, i.e. it starts decoding as soon as the first symbols are received, which generalizes the erasure decoding of binary LDPC codes. Next, we evaluate the asymptotical performance of ensembles of non binary LDPC codes, by using the density evolution method. Density evolution equations are derived by taking into consideration both the irregularity of the bipartite graph and the probability distribution of the graph edge labels. Finally, infinite-length performance of some ensembles of non binary LDPC codes for different edge label distributions are shown.

  18. Busting Up Binaries: Encounters Between Compact Binaries and a Supermassive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Addison, Eric; Larson, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Given the stellar density near the galactic center, close encounters between compact object binaries and the supermassive black hole are a plausible occurrence. We present results from a numerical study of close to 13 million such encounters. Consistent with previous studies, we corroborate that, for binary systems tidally disrupted by the black hole, the component of the binary remaining bound to the hole has eccentricity ~ 0.97 and circularizes dramatically by the time it enters the classical LISA band. Our results also show that the population of surviving binaries merits attention. These binary systems experience perturbations to their internal orbital parameters with potentially interesting observational consequences. We investigated the regions of parameter space for survival and estimated the distribution of orbital parameters post-encounter. We found that surviving binaries harden and their eccentricity increases, thus accelerating their merger due gravitational radiation emission and increasing the p...

  19. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  20. New Insights into X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Casares, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    X-ray binaries are excellent laboratories to study collapsed objects. On the one hand, transient X-ray binaries contain the best examples of stellar-mass black holes while persistent X-ray binaries mostly harbour accreting neutron stars. The determination of stellar masses in persistent X-ray binaries is usually hampered by the overwhelming luminosity of the X-ray heated accretion disc. However, the discovery of high-excitation emission lines from the irradiated companion star has opened new routes in the study of compact objects. This paper presents novel techniques which exploits these irradiated lines and summarises the dynamical masses obtained for the two populations of collapsed stars: neutron stars and black holes.

  1. Red-giant stars in eccentric binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck P. G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has led to improved understanding of red-giant stars and binary stars. We discuss the characterization of known eccentric system, containing a solar-like oscillating red-giant primary component. We also report several new binary systems that are candidates for hosting an oscillating companion. A powerful approach to study binary stars is to combine asteroseimic techniques with light curve fitting. Seismology allows us to deduce the properties of red giants. In addition, by modeling the ellipsoidal modulations we can constrain the parameters of the binary system. An valuable independent source are ground-bases, high-resolution spectrographs.

  2. Enhanced parametric processes in binary metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Gorkunov, Maxim V.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2005-01-01

    We suggest double-resonant (binary) metamaterials composed of two types of magnetic resonant elements, and demonstrate that in the nonlinear regime such metamaterials provide unique possibilities for phase-matched parametric interaction and enhanced second-harmonic generation.

  3. Computer controlled evaluation of binary images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Th.E.; van den Broek, Egon

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to computer controlled image processing and, in particular, to computer controlled evaluation of two dimensional, 2D, and three dimensional, 3D, binary images including sequences of images using a distance map.

  4. X-ray reprocessing in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Biswajit

    2016-07-01

    We will discuss several aspects of X-ray reprocessing into X-rays or longer wavelength radiation in different kinds of binary systems. In high mass X-ray binaries, reprocessing of hard X-rays into emission lines or lower temperature black body emission is a useful tool to investigate the reprocessing media like the stellar wind, clumpy structures in the wind, accretion disk or accretion stream. In low mass X-ray binaries, reprocessing from the surface of the companion star, the accretion disk, warps and other structures in the accretion disk produce signatures in longer wavelength radiation. X-ray sources with temporal structures like the X-ray pulsars and thermonuclear burst sources are key in such studies. We will discuss results from several new investigations of X-ray reprocessing phenomena in X-ray binaries.

  5. A mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Echeverria, C; Alvarez-Llamoza, O; Orozco-Guillén, E E; Morales, M; Cosenza, M G

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model to study symmetric binary fluids, based in the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where space and state variables are continuous while time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require the calculation of the interaction forces between particles, thus allowing the description of binary fluids at a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple, computationally efficient, maintains Galilean invariance, and conserves the mass and the energy in the system at micro and macro scales; while momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as density profile, width of the interface, phase separation and phase growth. We also apply the model to study binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  6. Binary Biometric Representation through Pairwise Polar Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chun; Veldhuis, Raymond; Tistarelli, M.; Nixon, M.

    2009-01-01

    Binary biometric representations have great significance for data compression and template protection. In this paper, we introduce pairwise polar quantization. Furthermore, aiming to optimize the discrimination between the genuine Hamming distance (GHD) and the imposter Hamming distance (IHD), we pr

  7. Searching for Pulsars in Close Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jouteux, S; Stappers, B W; Jonker, P; Van der Klis, M

    2001-01-01

    We present a detailed mathematical analysis of the Fourier response of binary pulsar signals whose frequencies are modulated by circular orbital motion. The fluctuation power spectrum of such signals is found to be \

  8. General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico

    2017-02-01

    The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.

  9. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  10. Binary module test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, J.R.; Colley, T.C.; Pundyk, J.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of this project was to design and test a binary loop module representative of and scaleable to commercial size units. The design was based on state-of-the-art heat exchanger technology, and the purpose of the tests was to confirm performance of a supercritical boiling cycle using isobutane and a mixture of isobutane and isopentane as the secondary working fluid. The module was designed as one percent of a 50 MW unit. It was installed at Magma Power's East Mesa geothermal field and tested over a period of approximately 4 months. Most of the test runs were with isobutane but some data were collected for hydrocarbon mixtures. The results of the field tests are reported. In general these results indicate reasonably good heat balances and agreement with overall heat transfer coefficients calculated by current stream analysis methods and available fluid property data; however, measured pressure drops across the heat exchangers were 20 percent higher than estimated. System operation was stable under all conditions tested.

  11. Tidal capture formation of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries from wide binaries in the field

    CERN Document Server

    Michaely, Erez

    2015-01-01

    We present a potentially efficient dynamical formation scenario for Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) in the field, focusing on black-hole (BH) LMXBs. In this formation channel LMXBs are formed from wide binaries $(>1000$ AU) with a BH component and a stellar companion. The wide binary is perturbed by fly-by's of field stars and its orbit random-walks and changes over time. This diffusion process can drive the binary into a sufficiently eccentric orbit such that the binary components tidally interact at peri-center and the binary evolves to become a short period binary, which eventually evolves into an LMXB. The formation rate of LMXBs through this channel mostly depends on the number of such BH wide binaries progenitors, which in turn depends on the velocity kicks imparted to BHs (or NSs) at birth. We consider several models for the formation and survival of such wide binaries, and calculate the LMXB formation rates for each model. We find that models where BHs form through direct collapse with no/little natal...

  12. Binary compact object inspiral: Detection expectations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vassiliki Kalogera

    2004-10-01

    We review the current estimates of binary compact object inspiral rates in particular in view of the recently discovered highly relativistic binary pulsar J0737-3039. One of the robust results is that, because of this discovery, the rate estimates for binary neutron stars have increased by a factor of 6-7 independent of any uncertainties related to the pulsar population properties. This rate increase has dramatic implications for gravitational wave detectors. For initial LIGO, the most probable detection rates for double neutron star (DNS) inspirals is 1 event/(5{250) yr; at 95% confidence we obtain rates up to 1/1.5 yr. For advanced LIGO, the most probable rates are 20-1000 events/yr. These predictions, for the first time, bring the expectations for DNS detections by initial LIGO to the astrophysically relevant regime. We also use our models to predict that the large-scale Parkes multibeam pulsar survey with acceleration searches could detect an average of three to four binary pulsars similar to those known at present. In comparison, rate estimates for binaries with black holes are derived based on binary evolution calculation, and based on the optimistic ends of the ranges, remain an important candidate for inspiral detection in the next few years. We also consider another aspect of the detectability of binary inspiral: the effect of precession on the detection efficiency of astrophysically relevant binaries. Based on our current astrophysical expectations, large tilt angles are not favored. As a result the decrease in detection rate varies rather slowly with black hole spin magnitude and is within 20-30% of the maximum possible values.

  13. Near-Optimal Compressive Binary Search

    OpenAIRE

    Malloy, Matthew L.; Nowak, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a simple modification to the recently proposed compressive binary search. The modification removes an unnecessary and suboptimal factor of log log n from the SNR requirement, making the procedure optimal (up to a small constant). Simulations show that the new procedure performs significantly better in practice as well. We also contrast this problem with the more well known problem of noisy binary search.

  14. Statistical pattern classification with binary variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, T Y; Liu, P S; Rondon, R J

    1981-02-01

    Binary random variables are regarded as random vectors in a binary-field (modulo-2) linear vector space. A characteristic function is defined and related results derived using this formulation. Minimax estimation of probability distributions using an entropy criterion is investigated, which leads to an A-distribution and bilinear discriminant functions. Nonparametric classification approaches using Hamming distances and their asymptotic properties are discussed. Experimental results are presented.

  15. An Introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1996-01-01

    This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996.......This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996....

  16. The DEBCat detached eclipsing binary catalogue

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Detached eclipsing binary star systems are our primary source of measured physical properties of normal stars. I introduce DEBCat: a catalogue of detached eclipsing binaries with mass and radius measurements to the 2% precision necessary to put useful constraints on theoretical models of stellar evolution. The catalogue was begun in 2006, as an update of the compilation by Andersen (1991). It now contains over 170 systems, and new results are added on appearance in the refereed literature. DE...

  17. An improved catalog of halo wide binary candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Christine

    2014-01-01

    We present an improved catalog of halo wide binaries, compiled from an extensive literature search. Most of our binaries stem from the common proper motion binary catalogs by Allen et al. (2004), and Chanam\\'e \\& Gould. (2004) but we have also included binaries from the lists of Ryan (1992) and Zapatero-Osorio \\& Martin (2004). All binaries were carefully checked and their distances and systemic radial velocities are included, when available. Probable membership to the halo population was tested by means of reduced proper motion diagrams for 251 candidate halo binaries. After eliminating obvious disk binaries we ended up with 211 probable halo binaries, for 150 of which radial velocities are available. We compute galactic orbits for these 150 binaries and calculate the time they spend within the galactic disk. Considering the full sample of 251 candidate halo binaries as well as several subsamples, we find that the distribution of angular separations (or expected major semiaxes) follows a power law $f...

  18. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Guo

    Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.

  19. Coronal activity from the ASAS eclipsing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Szczygiel, D M; Paczynski, B; Pojmanski, G; Pilecki, B

    2008-01-01

    We combine the catalogue of eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) with the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS). The combination results in 836 eclipsing binaries that display coronal activity and is the largest sample of active binary stars assembled to date. By using the (V-I) colors of the ASAS eclipsing binary catalogue, we are able to determine the distances and thus bolometric luminosities for the majority of eclipsing binaries that display significant stellar activity. A typical value for the ratio of soft X-ray to bolometric luminosity is L_X/L_bol ~ a few x 10^-4, similar to the ratio of soft X-ray to bolometric flux F_X/F_bol in the most active regions of the Sun. Unlike rapidly rotating isolated late-type dwarfs -- stars with significant outer convection zones -- a tight correlation between Rossby number and activity of eclipsing binaries is absent. We find evidence for the saturation effect and marginal evidence for the so-called "super-saturation" phenomena. Our work shows that wide-...

  20. Spectroscopic subsystems in nearby wide binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Radial velocity (RV) monitoring of solar-type visual binaries has been conducted at the CTIO/SMARTS 1.5-m telescope to study short-period systems. Data reduction is described, mean and individual RVs of 163 observed objects are given. New spectroscopic binaries are discovered or suspected in 17 objects, for some of them orbital periods could be determined. Subsystems are efficiently detected even in a single observation by double lines and/or by the RV difference between the components of visual binaries. The potential of this detection technique is quantified by simulation and used for statistical assessment of 96 wide binaries within 67pc. It is found that 43 binaries contain at least one subsystem and the occurrence of subsystems is equally probable in either primary or secondary components. The frequency of subsystems and their periods match the simple prescription proposed by the author (2014, AJ, 147, 87). The remaining 53 simple wide binaries with a median projected separation of 1300AU have the distri...

  1. Bowen fluorescence from companion stars in x-ray Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Casares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este art culo examina una nueva t ecnica para detectar estrellas compa~neras en los LMXB y las transitorias de rayos X durante la transferencia de masa utilizando las l neas NIII uorescentes de Bowen en 4634-4640. Estas l neas se reprocesan muy e cientemente en las atm osferas de las estrellas compa~neras proporcionando estimaciones de las velocidades K2 y funciones de masas. Este m etodo se aplic o a Sco X-1, X 822-371 y GB339-4 el cual, en este ultimo caso, proporciona una evidencia din amica de la presencia de un agujero negro acreciente. Tambi en se presentan resultados preliminares de una campa~na VLT sobre V801 Ara, V926 Sco y XTE J1814-338.

  2. 高+Gx环境对猴舌黏膜上皮热休克蛋白质70表达的影响%Effect of high + Gx load on heat-shock protein 70 expression of tongue mucous membrane epithelium in rhesus macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤楚华; 张建中; 牛忠英; 施生根; 张铭

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究模拟高+Gx环境中猴舌黏膜上皮热休克蛋白质70(HSP-70)的表达. 方法 以9只雄性猕猴为对象,随机分为4组,对照组+1 Gx/300 s;实验1、2、3组,分别为+15 Gx/200 s、+18 Gx/165 s、+21 Gx/140 s.采用免疫组织化学方法 ,研究模拟高+Gx环境作用下猴舌黏膜上皮细胞组织病理学改变及HSP-70基因的表达情况,探讨其表达水平的改变与高+Gx环境的关系. 结果 组织病理学观察:实验组和对照组猴舌黏膜上皮细胞无明显变化;免疫组织化学观察:对照组舌黏膜上皮细胞核HSP-70呈阴性表达或弱阳性表达.实验组舌黏膜上皮细胞核HSP-70着色明显,呈强阳性表达,不同高+Gx组之间无明显差别. 结论 本研究表明模拟高+Gx环境可引起猴舌黏膜上皮细胞HSP-70基因表达增强.%Objective To observe the expression of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP-70) in tongue mucous membrane epithelium in the stress reaction of rhesus macaque under+Gx loads. Methods Nine male rhesus macaques were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group was exposed to +1 Gx/300 s load, and experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 were exposed to + 15 Gx/200 s,+21 Gx/165 s and + 21 Gx/140 s respectively. Tongue tissue was fixed with 10% buffered formaldehyde and embedded with paraffin, and histopathological changes were observed under microscope. The expression of HSP-70 was detected by immunohistochemical PicTureTM method in the mucous membrane epithelium of tongue. Results Gross and histological analyses showed that no significant pathological changes were observed in the membrane of tongue mucous epithelium in different experimental groups of the animals. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that overexpression of HSP-70 was detected in the nuclei of the epithelium in the experimental groups, but no or slight positive staining was also observed in the nuclei of the epithelium in control animals. There was no significant difference in HSP-70 expression in

  3. Selective dissolution in binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Carol Rene

    Corrosion is an important issue in the design of engineering alloys. De-alloying is an aspect of alloy corrosion related to the selective dissolution of one or more of the components in an alloy. The work reported herein focuses on the topic of de-alloying specific to single-phase binary noble metal alloy systems. The alloy systems investigated were gold-silver and gold-copper. The onset of a bulk selective dissolution process is typically marked by a critical potential whereby the more reactive component in the alloy begins dissolving from the bulk, leading to the formation of a bi-continuous solid-void morphology. The critical potential was investigated for the entire composition range of gold-silver alloys. The results presented herein include the formulation of an expression for critical potential as a function of both alloy and electrolyte composition. Results of the first investigation of underpotential deposition (UPD) on alloys are also presented herein. These results were implemented as an analytical tool to provide quantitative measurements of the surface evolution of gold during de-alloying. The region below the critical potential was investigated in terms of the compositional evolution of the alloy surface. Below the critical potential, there is a competition between the dissolution of the more reactive alloying constituent (either silver or copper) and surface diffusion of gold that serves to cover dissolution sites and prevent bulk dissolution. By holding the potential at a prescribed value below the critical potential, a time-dependent gold enrichment occurs on the alloy surface leading to passivation. A theoretical model was developed to predict the surface enrichment of gold based on the assumption of layer-by-layer dissolution of the more reactive alloy constituent. The UPD measurements were used to measure the time-dependent surface gold concentration and the results agreed with the predictions of the theoretical model.

  4. Exploring the Birth of Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    More than half of all stars are thought to be in binary or multiple star systems. But how do these systems form? The misaligned spins of some binary protostars might provide a clue.Two Formation ModelsIts hard to tell how multiple-star systems form, since these systems are difficult to observe in their early stages. But based on numerical simulations, there are two proposed models for the formation of stellar binaries:Turbulent fragmentationTurbulence within a single core leads to multiple dense clumps. These clumps independently collapse to form stars that orbit each other.Disk fragmentationGravitational instabilities in a massive accretion disk cause the formation of a smaller, secondary disk within the first, resulting in two stars that orbit each other.Log column density for one of the authors simulated binary systems, just after the formation of two protostars. Diamonds indicate the protostar positions. [Adapted from Offner et al. 2016]Outflows as CluesHow can we differentiate between these formation mechanisms? Led by Stella Offner (University of Massachusetts), a team of scientists has suggested that the key isto examine the alignment of the stars protostellar outflows jets that are often emitted from the poles of young, newly forming stars.Naively, wed expect that disk fragmentation would produce binary stars with common angular momentum. As the stars spins would be aligned, they would therefore also launch protostellar jets that were aligned with each other. Turbulent fragmentation, on the other hand, would cause the stars to have independent angular momentum. This would lead to randomly oriented spins, so the protostellar jets would be misaligned.Snapshots from the authors simulations. Left panel of each pair: column density; green arrows giveprotostellar spin directions. Right panel: synthetic observations produced from the simulations; cyan arrows giveprotostellar outflow directions. [Offner et al. 2016]Simulations of FragmentationIn order to better

  5. Absolute dimensions of eclipsing binaries XXVIII. BK pegasi and other F-type binaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens Viggo; Frandsen, S.; Bruntt, H.

    2010-01-01

     stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / binaries: eclipsing / stars: individual: BK¿Peg / stars: individual: BW¿Aqr / techniques: spectroscopic Udgivelsesdato: June 24...... stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / binaries: eclipsing / stars: individual: BK¿Peg / stars: individual: BW¿Aqr / techniques: spectroscopic Udgivelsesdato: June 24...

  6. Towards the field binary population: Influence of orbital decay on close binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Korntreff, Christina; Pfalzner, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Surveys of the binary populations in the solar neighbourhood have shown that the periods of G- and M-type stars are log-normally distributed. However, observations of young binary populations suggest a log-uniform distribution. Clearly some process(es) change the period distribution over time. Most stars form in star clusters, in which two important dynamical processes occur: i) gas-induced orbital decay of embedded binary systems and ii) destruction of soft binaries in three-body interactions. The emphasis here is on orbital decay which has been largely neglected so far. Using a combination of Monte-Carlo and dynamical nbody modelling it is demonstrated here that the cluster dynamics destroys the number of wide binaries, but leaves short-period binaries basically undisturbed even for a initially log-uniform distribution. By contrast orbital decay significantly reduces the number and changes the properties of short-period binaries, but leaves wide binaries largely uneffected. Until now it was unclear whether ...

  7. Encryption of Binary and Non-Binary Data Using Chained Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Rohith Singi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new chaining technique for the use of Hadamard transforms for encryption of both binary and non-binary data. The lengths of the input and output sequence need not be identical. The method may be used also for hashing.

  8. On the reconstruction of binary and permutation matrices under (binary) tomographic constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunetti, S.; Del Lungo, A.; Gritzmann, P.; de Vries, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper studies the problem of reconstructing binary matrices constrained by binary tomographic information. We prove new NP-hardness results that sharpen previous complexity results in the realm of discrete tomography but also allow applications to related problems for permutation matrices. Hence

  9. New spectroscopic binary companions of giant stars and updated metallicity distribution for binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bluhm, P; Vanzi, L; Soto, M G; Vos, J; Wittenmyer, R A; Olivares, F; Drass, H; Mennickent, R E; Vuckovic, M; Rojo, P; Melo, C H F

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of 24 spectroscopic binary companions to giant stars. We fully constrain the orbital solution for 6 of these systems. We cannot unambiguously derive the orbital elements for the remaining stars because the phase coverage is incomplete. Of these stars, 6 present radial velocity trends that are compatible with long-period brown dwarf companions.The orbital solutions of the 24 binary systems indicate that these giant binary systems have a wide range in orbital periods, eccentricities, and companion masses. For the binaries with restricted orbital solutions, we find a range of orbital periods of between $\\sim$ 97-1600 days and eccentricities of between $\\sim$ 0.1-0.4. In addition, we studied the metallicity distribution of single and binary giant stars. We computed the metallicity of a total of 395 evolved stars, 59 of wich are in binary systems. We find a flat distribution for these binary stars and therefore conclude that stellar binary systems, and potentially brown dwarfs, have a diffe...

  10. Birth of Massive Black Hole Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colpi, M.; /Milan Bicocca U.; Dotti, M.; /Insubria U., Como; Mayer, L.; /Zurich, ETH; Kazantzidis, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-11-19

    If massive black holes (BHs) are ubiquitous in galaxies and galaxies experience multiple mergers during their cosmic assembly, then BH binaries should be common albeit temporary features of most galactic bulges. Observationally, the paucity of active BH pairs points toward binary lifetimes far shorter than the Hubble time, indicating rapid inspiral of the BHs down to the domain where gravitational waves lead to their coalescence. Here, we review a series of studies on the dynamics of massive BHs in gas-rich galaxy mergers that underscore the vital role played by a cool, gaseous component in promoting the rapid formation of the BH binary. The BH binary is found to reside at the center of a massive self-gravitating nuclear disc resulting from the collision of the two gaseous discs present in the mother galaxies. Hardening by gravitational torques against gas in this grand disc is found to continue down to sub-parsec scales. The eccentricity decreases with time to zero and when the binary is circular, accretion sets in around the two BHs. When this occurs, each BH is endowed with it own small-size ({approx}< 0.01 pc) accretion disc comprising a few percent of the BH mass. Double AGN activity is expected to occur on an estimated timescale of {approx}< 1 Myr. The double nuclear point-like sources that may appear have typical separation of {approx}< 10 pc, and are likely to be embedded in the still ongoing starburst. We note that a potential threat of binary stalling, in a gaseous environment, may come from radiation and/or mechanical energy injections by the BHs. Only short-lived or sub-Eddington accretion episodes can guarantee the persistence of a dense cool gas structure around the binary necessary for continuing BH inspiral.

  11. Massive gaseous discs around SMBH binaries: Binary decay and tidal disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brem P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the evolution of black hole binaries embedded within geometrically thin gas discs. Our results imply that such discs can produce black hole mergers for relatively low-mass binaries, and that a significant population of eccentric binaries might exist at separations of a few 0.01 pc. These binaries may be detectable due to the time-variable accretion on to the black holes. If the disc fragments, then the newly-born stars will continue driving the binary to its coalescence, although at a slower rate. Interestingly, our preliminary analysis shows that these stars will be disrupted at a rate of ∼10−4–2 · 10−5 events per year per system.

  12. Nonconservative Mass Transfer in Massive Binaries and the Formation of Wolf-Rayet+O Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The mass transfer efficiency during the evolution of massive binaries is still uncertain. We model the mass transfer processes in a grid of binaries to investigate the formation of Wolf-Rayet+O (WR+O) binaries, taking into account two kinds of non-conservative mass transfer models: Model I with rotation-dependent mass accretion and Model II of half mass accretion. Generally the mass transfer in Model I is more inefficient, with the average efficiency in a range of $\\sim0.2-0.7$ and $ \\lesssim0.2 $ for Case A and Case B mass transfer, respectively. We present the parameter distributions for the descendant WR+O binaries. By comparing the modeled stellar mass distribution with the observed Galactic WR+O binaries, we find that highly non-conservative mass transfer is required.

  13. Beyond binaries : a way forward for comparativeeducation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Larsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Binary discourses shape and produce the stories we construct about the field of comparative education. In the first part of this article, I review a set of binary discourses that have characterized social science research since the Enlightenment, including: quantitative-qualitative, nomotheticidiographic, inductive-deductive, and practice-theory. We can think of each of these binaries at opposite ends of a set of spectrums. In the second section of the paper, I show some of the ways in which these binaries have influenced the ways that we write and talk about research within the field of comparative education. I refer to the notion of binary discourses and the productive capacity of these discourses to shape our field. I then outline some critiques of these binaries to demonstrate the inherent limitations of binary discourses, and why we need to move beyond binaries in our research, and in the histories about our field. Finally, I present some tentative conclusions on ways to get ourselves out of the trap of binary thinking.Los discursos binarios moldean y producen los argumentos que construimos sobre la disciplina de la Educación Comparada. En la primera parte de este artículo, analizo un conjunto de discursos binarios que han caracterizado la investigación en Ciencias Sociales desde la Ilustración, incluyendo la cuantitativa-cualitativa, nomotética-idiográfica, inductivadeductiva, y la práctica-teoría. Podemos pensar sobre cada uno de estos discursos binarios como argumentos en los polos de un conjunto de posibilidades. En la segunda sección del artículo, revelo algunos modos en los que estos discursos binarios han influenciado las formas a través de las cuales escribimos y analizamos la investigación en el ámbito de la Educación Comparada. Analizo la noción de discursos binarios y la capacidad productiva de estos discursos de impactar nuestra ciencia. Seguidamente expongo algunas críticas de estos discursos binarios con el

  14. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  15. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  16. Stacking Analysis of Binary Systems with HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Chad; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Detecting binary systems at TeV energies is an important problem because only a handful of such systems are currently known. The nature of such systems is typically thought to be composed of a compact object and a massive star. The TeV emission from these systems does not obviously correspond to emission in GeV or X-ray, where many binary systems have previously been found. This study focuses on a stacking method to detect TeV emission from LS 5039, a known TeV binary, to test its efficacy in HAWC data. Stacking is a widely employed method for increasing signal to noise ratio in optical astronomy, but has never been attempted previously with HAWC. HAWC is an ideal instrument to search for TeV binaries, because of its wide field of view and high uptime. Applying this method to the entire sky may allow HAWC to detect binary sources of very short or very long periods not sensitive to current analyses. NSF, DOE, Los Alamos, Michigan Tech, CONACyt, UNAM, BUAP.

  17. Debris disks in main sequence binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Trilling, D E; Stapelfeldt, K R; Rieke, G H; Su, K Y L; Gray, R O; Corbally, C J; Bryden, G; Chen, C H; Boden, A; Beichman, C A

    2006-01-01

    We observed 69 A3-F8 main sequence binary star systems using the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. We find emission significantly in excess of predicted photospheric flux levels for 9(+4/-3)% and 40(+7/-6)% of these systems at 24 and 70 microns, respectively. Twenty two systems total have excess emission, including four systems that show excess emission at both wavelengths. A very large fraction (nearly 60%) of observed binary systems with small (<3 AU) separations have excess thermal mission. We interpret the observed infrared excesses as thermal emission from dust produced by collisions in planetesimal belts. The incidence of debris disks around main sequence A3-F8 binaries is marginally higher than that for single old AFGK stars. Whatever combination of nature (birth conditions of binary systems) and nurture (interactions between the two stars) drives the evolution of debris disks in binary systems, it is clear that planetesimal formation is not inhibited to a...

  18. The Galactic Distribution of Contact Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Dorn, Leah; Breitfeld, Abby; Mies, Regan; Avery, Tess

    2017-01-01

    The number of eclipsing contact binaries in different galactic latitudes and longitudes show peak distributions in the number per square degree in two latitudinal zones (-30 degrees to -25 degrees and +25 degrees to +30 degrees) and large fluctuations in longitude (Huang and Wade 1966, ApJ, 143, 146). Semi-detached or detached binaries are largely concentrated in the galactic plane as shown by Paczynski et al. (MNRAS, 368, 1311), different from the distribution of contact eclipsing binaries. The differences in distributions of different types of eclipsing binaries may be related to either distances or interstellar reddening. We will present a method to calculate photometric distances of W Urase Majoris systems (W UMa; used as a proxy for contact binaries) from 2MASS J and K magnitudes and interstellar reddening models (Schlafly and Finkbeiner 2011, ApJ. 737, 103). We compare the distances to those calculated from the period-luminosity-color relationship described by Rucinski (2004, NewAR, 48, 703). The W UMa systems are taken from the General Catalog of Variable Stars.

  19. Orbital eccentricities in primordial black holes binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Cholis, Ilias; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc; Muñoz, Julian B; Raccanelli, Alvise

    2016-01-01

    It was recently suggested that the merger of $\\sim30\\,M_\\odot$ primordial black holes (PBHs) may provide a significant number of events in gravitational-wave observatories over the next decade, if they make up an appreciable fraction of the dark matter. Here we show that measurement of the eccentricities of the inspiralling binary black holes can be used to distinguish these binaries from those produced by more traditional astrophysical mechanisms. These PBH binaries are formed on highly eccentric orbits and can then merge on timescales that in some cases are years or less, retaining some eccentricity in the last seconds before the merger. This is to be contrasted with massive-stellar-binary, globular-cluster, or other astrophysical origins for binary black holes (BBHs) in which the orbits have very effectively circularized by the time the BBH enters the observable LIGO window. Here we discuss the features of the gravitational-wave signals that indicate this eccentricity and forecast the sensitivity of LIGO a...

  20. Orbital eccentricities in primordial black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholis, Ilias; Kovetz, Ely D.; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc; Muñoz, Julian B.; Raccanelli, Alvise

    2016-10-01

    It was recently suggested that the merger of ˜30 M⊙ primordial black holes (PBHs) may provide a significant number of events in gravitational-wave observatories over the next decade, if they make up an appreciable fraction of the dark matter. Here we show that measurement of the eccentricities of the inspiralling binary black holes can be used to distinguish these binaries from those produced by more traditional astrophysical mechanisms. These PBH binaries are formed on highly eccentric orbits and can then merge on time scales that in some cases are years or less, retaining some eccentricity in the last seconds before the merger. This is to be contrasted with massive-stellar-binary, globular-cluster, or other astrophysical origins for binary black holes (BBHs) in which the orbits have very effectively circularized by the time the BBH enters the observable LIGO window. Here we discuss the features of the gravitational-wave signals that indicate this eccentricity and forecast the sensitivity of LIGO and the Einstein Telescope to such effects. We show that if PBHs make up the dark matter, then roughly one event should have a detectable eccentricity given LIGO's expected sensitivity and observing time of six years. The Einstein Telescope should see O (10 ) such events after ten years.

  1. Stability of multiplanet systems in binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Marzari, F

    2016-01-01

    When exploring the stability of multiplanet systems in binaries, two parameters are normally exploited: the critical semimajor axis ac computed by Holman and Wiegert (1999) within which planets are stable against the binary perturbations, and the Hill stability limit Delta determining the minimum separation beyond which two planets will avoid mutual close encounters. Our aim is to test whether these two parameters can be safely applied in multiplanet systems in binaries or if their predictions fail for particular binary orbital configurations. We have used the frequency map analysis (FMA) to measure the diffusion of orbits in the phase space as an indicator of chaotic behaviour. First we revisited the reliability of the empirical formula computing ac in the case of single planets in binaries and we find that, in some cases, it underestimates by 10-20% the real outer limit of stability. For two planet systems, the value of Delta is close to that computed for planets around single stars, but the level of chaoti...

  2. Planet scattering around binaries: ejections, not collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smullen, Rachel A.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Shannon, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary star and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically affects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Systems similar to the only observed multiplanet circumbinary system, Kepler-47, can arise from much more tightly packed, unstable systems. Only extreme initial conditions introduce differences in the final planet populations. Thus, we suggest that any intrinsic differences in the populations are imprinted by formation.

  3. An interferometric view of binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boffin, Henri M J

    2016-01-01

    The study of binary stars is critical to apprehend many of the most interesting classes of stars. Moreover, quite often, the study of stars in binary systems is our only mean to constrain stellar properties, such as masses and radii. Unfortunately, a great fraction of the most interesting binaries are so compact that they can only be apprehended by high-resolution techniques, mostly by interferometry. I present some results highlighting the use of interferometry in the study of binary stars, from finding companions and deriving orbits, determining the mass and radius of stars, to studying mass transfer in symbiotic stars, and tackling luminous blue variables. In particular, I show how interferometric studies using the PIONIER instrument have allowed us to confirm a dichotomy within symbiotic stars, obtain masses of stars with a precision better than 1%, and help us find a new Eta Carinae-like system. I will also illustrate the benefits for the study of binary stars one would get from upgrading the VLT Interfe...

  4. The binary white dwarf LHS 3236

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Canzian, Blaise; Guetter, Harry H.; Levine, Stephen E.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Monet, Alice K. B.; Stone, Ronald C.; Subasavage, John P.; Tilleman, Trudy; Walker, Richard L. [US Naval Observatory, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hartkopf, William I. [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109 (Australia); Leggett, S. K., E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    The white dwarf LHS 3236 (WD1639+153) is shown to be a double-degenerate binary, with each component having a high mass. Astrometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory gives a parallax and distance of 30.86 ± 0.25 pc and a tangential velocity of 98 km s{sup –1}, and reveals binary orbital motion. The orbital parameters are determined from astrometry of the photocenter over more than three orbits of the 4.0 yr period. High-resolution imaging at the Keck Observatory resolves the pair with a separation of 31 and 124 mas at two epochs. Optical and near-IR photometry give a set of possible binary components. Consistency of all data indicates that the binary is a pair of DA stars with temperatures near 8000 and 7400 K and with masses of 0.93 and 0.91 M {sub ☉}; also possible is a DA primary and a helium DC secondary with temperatures near 8800 and 6000 K and with masses of 0.98 and 0.69 M {sub ☉}. In either case, the cooling ages of the stars are ∼3 Gyr and the total ages are <4 Gyr. The combined mass of the binary (1.66-1.84 M {sub ☉}) is well above the Chandrasekhar limit; however, the timescale for coalescence is long.

  5. A Model for Contact Binary Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A model for contact binary systems is presented, which incorporates the following special features: a) The energy exchange between the components is based on the understanding that the energy exchange is due to the release of potential, kinetic and thermal energies of the exchanged mass. b) A special form of mass and angular momentum loss occurring in contact binaries is losses via the outer Lagrangian point. c) The effects of spin, orbital rotation and tidal action on the stellar structure as well as the effect of meridian circulation on the mixing of the chemical elements are considered. d) The model is valid not only for low-mass contact binaries but also for high-mass contact binaries. For illustration, we used the model to trace the evolution of a massive binary system consisting of one 12M⊙ and one 5M⊙ star. The result shows that the start and end of the contact stage fall within the semi-detached phase during which the primary continually transfers mass to the secondary. The time span of the contact stage is short and the mass transfer rate is very large. Therefore, the contact stage can be regarded as a special part of the semi-detached phase with a large mass transfer rate. Both mass loss through the outer Lagrangian point and oscillation between contact and semi-contact states can occur during the contact phase, and the effective temperatures of the primary and the secondary are almost equal.

  6. The Expressive Power of Binary Submodular Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Zivny, Stanislav; Jeavons, Peter G

    2008-01-01

    It has previously been an open problem whether all Boolean submodular functions can be decomposed into a sum of binary submodular functions over a possibly larger set of variables. This problem has been considered within several different contexts in computer science, including computer vision, artificial intelligence, and pseudo-Boolean optimisation. Using a connection between the expressive power of valued constraints and certain algebraic properties of functions, we answer this question negatively. Our results have several corollaries. First, we characterise precisely which submodular functions of arity 4 can be expressed by binary submodular functions. Next, we identify a novel class of submodular functions of arbitrary arities which can be expressed by binary submodular functions, and therefore minimised efficiently using a so-called expressibility reduction to the Min-Cut problem. More importantly, our results imply limitations on this kind of reduction and establish for the first time that it cannot be...

  7. Hybrid Black-Hole Binary Initial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundim, Bruno C.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    "Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class. Quantum Grav. 27:114005 (2010)], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculations was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features."

  8. Memory effect from spinning unbound binaries

    CERN Document Server

    De Vittori, Lorenzo; Gupta, Anuradha; Jetzer, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We present a recently developed prescription to obtain ready-to-use gravitational wave (GW) polarization states for spinning compact binaries on hyperbolic orbits. We include leading order spin-orbit interactions, invoking 1.5PN-accurate quasi-Keplerian parametrization for the radial part of the orbital dynamics. We also include radiation reaction effects on $h_+$ and $h_{\\times}$ during the interaction. In the GW signals from spinning binaries there is evidence of the memory effect in both polarizations, in contrast to the non-spinning case, where only the cross polarizations exhibits non-vanishing amplitudes at infinite time. We also compute 1PN-accurate GW polarization states for non-spinning compact binaries in unbound orbits in a fully parametric way, and compare them with existing waveforms.

  9. Gravitational waves from spinning eccentric binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, Péter; Rácz, István; Vasúth, Mátyás

    2012-01-01

    This paper is to introduce a new software called CBwaves which provides a fast and accurate computational tool to determine the gravitational waveforms yielded by generic spinning binaries of neutron stars and/or black holes on eccentric orbits. This is done within the post-Newtonian (PN) framework by integrating the equations of motion and the spin precession equations while the radiation field is determined by a simultaneous evaluation of the analytic waveforms. In applying CBwaves various physically interesting scenarios have been investigated. In particular, we have studied the appropriateness of the adiabatic approximation, and justified that the energy balance relation is indeed insensitive to the specific form of the applied radiation reaction term. By studying eccentric binary systems it is demonstrated that circular template banks are very ineffective in identifying binaries even if they possess tiny residual orbital eccentricity. In addition, by investigating the validity of the energy balance relat...

  10. Binary-phase compression of stretched pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovoy, Vadim V.; Nairat, Muath; Dantus, Marcos

    2017-10-01

    Pulse stretching and compression are essential for the energy scale-up of ultrafast lasers. Here, we consider a radical approach using spectral binary phases, containing only two values (0 and π) for stretching and compressing laser pulses. We numerically explore different strategies and present results for pulse compression of factors up to a million back to the transform limit and experimentally obtain results for pulse compression of a factor of one hundred, in close agreement with numerical calculations. Imperfections resulting from binary-phase compression are addressed by considering cross-polarized wave generation filtering, and show that this approach leads to compressed pulses with contrast ratios greater than ten orders of magnitude. This new concept of binary-phase stretching and compression, if implemented in a multi-layer optic, could eliminate the need for traditional pulse stretchers and more importantly expensive compressors.

  11. Binary Code Disassembly for Reverse Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Popa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The disassembly of binary file is used to restore the software application code in a readable and understandable format for humans. Further, the assembly code file can be used in reverse engineering processes to establish the logical flows of the computer program or its vulnerabilities in real-world running environment. The paper highlights the features of the binary executable files under the x86 architecture and portable format, presents issues of disassembly process of a machine code file and intermediate code, disassembly algorithms which can be applied to a correct and complete reconstruction of the source file written in assembly language, and techniques and tools used in binary code disassembly.

  12. Gravitational wave background from binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rosado, Pablo A

    2011-01-01

    Basic aspects of the background of gravitational waves and its mathematical characterization are reviewed. The spectral energy density parameter $\\Omega(f)$, commonly used as a quantifier of the background, is derived for an ensemble of many identical sources emitting at different times and locations. For such an ensemble, $\\Omega(f)$ is generalized to account for the duration of the signals and of the observation, so that one can distinguish the resolvable and unresolvable parts of the background. The unresolvable part, often called confusion noise or stochastic background, is made by signals that cannot be either individually identified or subtracted out of the data. To account for the resolvability of the background, the overlap function is introduced. This function is a generalization of the duty cycle, which has been commonly used in the literature, in some cases leading to incorrect results. The spectra produced by binary systems (stellar binaries and massive black hole binaries) are presented over the ...

  13. Detecting compact binary coalescences with seedless clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, M.; Thrane, E.; Christensen, N.

    2014-10-01

    Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. Although matched filtering is the optimal search method for well-modeled systems, alternative detection strategies can be used to guard against theoretical errors (e.g., involving new physics and/or assumptions about spin or eccentricity) while providing a measure of redundancy. In a previous paper, we showed how "seedless clustering" can be used to detect long-lived gravitational-wave transients in both targeted and all-sky searches. In this paper, we apply seedless clustering to the problem of low-mass (Mtotal≤10M⊙) compact binary coalescences for both spinning and eccentric systems. We show that seedless clustering provides a robust and computationally efficient method for detecting low-mass compact binaries.

  14. Hybrid black-hole binary initial data

    CERN Document Server

    Mundim, Bruno C; Zlochower, Yosef; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class.Quant.Grav.27:114005,2010], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculation was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features.

  15. Hybrid black-hole binary initial data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundim, Bruno C; Zlochower, Yosef; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY14623 (United States); Kelly, Bernard J, E-mail: bcmsma@astro.rit.edu, E-mail: bernard.j.kelly@nasa.gov, E-mail: yosef@astro.rit.edu, E-mail: nakano@astro.rit.edu, E-mail: manuela@astro.rit.edu [CRESST and Gravitational Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2011-07-07

    Traditional black-hole (BH) binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al (2010, Class. Quantum Grav. 27 114005), a new binary BH initial data with radiation content derived from post-Newtonian (PN) theory was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless 'wavy' metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesirable features: unphysical horizon mass loss and large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features.

  16. Rapid Compact Binary Coalescence Parameter Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Chris; Brady, Patrick; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Ochsner, Evan; Qi, Hong

    2016-03-01

    The first observation run with second generation gravitational-wave observatories will conclude at the beginning of 2016. Given their unprecedented and growing sensitivity, the benefit of prompt and accurate estimation of the orientation and physical parameters of binary coalescences is obvious in its coupling to electromagnetic astrophysics and observations. Popular Bayesian schemes to measure properties of compact object binaries use Markovian sampling to compute the posterior. While very successful, in some cases, convergence is delayed until well after the electromagnetic fluence has subsided thus diminishing the potential science return. With this in mind, we have developed a scheme which is also Bayesian and simply parallelizable across all available computing resources, drastically decreasing convergence time to a few tens of minutes. In this talk, I will emphasize the complementary use of results from low latency gravitational-wave searches to improve computational efficiency and demonstrate the capabilities of our parameter estimation framework with a simulated set of binary compact object coalescences.

  17. Asteroseismic modelling of the Binary HD 176465

    CERN Document Server

    Nsamba, B; Campante, T L; Reese, D R; White, T R; Hernández, A García; Jiang, C

    2016-01-01

    The detection and analysis of oscillations in binary star systems is critical in understanding stellar structure and evolution. This is partly because such systems have the same initial chemical composition and age. Solar-like oscillations have been detected by Kepler in both components of the asteroseismic binary HD 176465. We present an independent modelling of each star in this binary system. Stellar models generated using MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics) were fitted to both the observed individual frequencies and complementary spectroscopic parameters. The individual theoretical oscillation frequencies for the corresponding stellar models were obtained using GYRE as the pulsation code. A Bayesian approach was applied to find the probability distribution functions of the stellar parameters using AIMS (Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale) as the optimisation code. The ages of HD 176465 A and HD 176465 B were found to be 2.81 $\\pm$ 0.48 Gyr and 2.52 $\\pm$ 0.80 Gyr, respectively. ...

  18. Gravitational Wave Physics with Binary Love Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Gravitational waves from the late inspiral of neutron star binaries encode rich information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities through their tidal deformabilities. However, extracting the individual tidal deformabilities of the components of a binary is challenging with future ground-based gravitational wave interferometers due to degeneracies between them. We overcome this difficulty by finding new, approximate universal relations between the individual tidal deformabilities that depend on the mass ratio of the two stars and are insensitive to their internal structure. Such relations have applications not only to gravitational wave astrophysics, but also to nuclear physics as they improve the measurement accuracy of tidal parameters. Moreover, the relations improve our ability to test extreme gravity and perform cosmology with gravitational waves emitted from neutron star binaries.

  19. Reconciliation with non-binary species trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernot, Benjamin; Stolzer, Maureen; Goldman, Aiton; Durand, Dannie

    2008-10-01

    Reconciliation extracts information from the topological incongruence between gene and species trees to infer duplications and losses in the history of a gene family. The inferred duplication-loss histories provide valuable information for a broad range of biological applications, including ortholog identification, estimating gene duplication times, and rooting and correcting gene trees. While reconciliation for binary trees is a tractable and well studied problem, there are no algorithms for reconciliation with non-binary species trees. Yet a striking proportion of species trees are non-binary. For example, 64% of branch points in the NCBI taxonomy have three or more children. When applied to non-binary species trees, current algorithms overestimate the number of duplications because they cannot distinguish between duplication and incomplete lineage sorting. We present the first algorithms for reconciling binary gene trees with non-binary species trees under a duplication-loss parsimony model. Our algorithms utilize an efficient mapping from gene to species trees to infer the minimum number of duplications in O(|V(G) | x (k(S) + h(S))) time, where |V(G)| is the number of nodes in the gene tree, h(S) is the height of the species tree and k(S) is the size of its largest polytomy. We present a dynamic programming algorithm which also minimizes the total number of losses. Although this algorithm is exponential in the size of the largest polytomy, it performs well in practice for polytomies with outdegree of 12 or less. We also present a heuristic which estimates the minimal number of losses in polynomial time. In empirical tests, this algorithm finds an optimal loss history 99% of the time. Our algorithms have been implemented in NOTUNG, a robust, production quality, tree-fitting program, which provides a graphical user interface for exploratory analysis and also supports automated, high-throughput analysis of large data sets.

  20. ON SELF-INVERSE BINARY MATRICES OVER THE BINARY GALOIS FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muhammad Ali Rushdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An important class of square binary matrices over the simplest finite or Galois Field GF(2 is the class of involutory or Self-Inverse (SI matrices. These matrices are of significant utility in prominent engineering applications such as the study of the Preparata Transformation or the analysis of synchronous Boolean Networks. Therefore, it is essential to devise appropriate methods, not only for understanding the properties of these matrices, but also for characterizing and constructing them. We survey square binary matrices of orders 1, 2 and 3 to identify primitive SI matrices among them. Larger SI matrices are constructed as (a the direct sum, or (b the Kronecker product, of smaller ones. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the construction and properties of binary SI matrices. The intersection of the sets of SI and permutation binary matrices is studied. We also study higher-order SI binary matrices and describe them via recursive relations or Kronecker products. Our work culminates in an exposition of the two most common representations of Boolean functions via two types of Boolean SI matrices. A better understanding of the properties and methods of constructing SI binary matrices over GF (2 is achieved. A clearer picture is attained about the utility of binary matrices in the representation of Boolean functions.

  1. Searching for Binary Supermassive Black Holes via Variable Broad Emission Line Shifts: Low Binary Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lile; Greene, Jenny E.; Ju, Wenhua; Rafikov, Roman R.; Ruan, John J.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2017-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHs) are expected to result from galaxy mergers, and thus are natural byproducts (and probes) of hierarchical structure formation in the universe. They are also the primary expected source of low-frequency gravitational wave emission. We search for binary BHs using time-variable velocity shifts in broad Mg ii emission lines of quasars with multi-epoch observations. First, we inspect velocity shifts of the binary SMBH candidates identified in Ju et al., using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra with an additional epoch of data that lengthens the typical baseline to ∼10 yr. We find variations in the line of sight velocity shifts over 10 yr that are comparable to the shifts observed over 1–2 yr, ruling out the binary model for the bulk of our candidates. We then analyze 1438 objects with eight-year median time baselines, from which we would expect to see velocity shifts >1000 {km} {{{s}}}-1 from sub-parsec binaries. We find only one object with an outlying velocity of 448 {km} {{{s}}}-1, indicating—based on our modeling—that ≲1% (the value varies with different assumptions) of SMBHs that are active as quasars reside in binaries with ∼0.1 pc separations. Binaries either sweep rapidly through these small separations or stall at larger radii.

  2. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Haghighipour, Nader, E-mail: kaltenegger@mpia.de [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries α Cen AB and HD 196886.

  3. Speckle interferometric observations of close binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S K; Yeswanth, L; Anbazhagan, P

    2002-01-01

    Speckle interferometric technique is employed to record a series of hundreds of short-exposure images of several close binary stars with sub-arcsecond separation through a narrow band filter at the Cassegrain focus of the 2.34 meter (m) Vainu Bappu telescope (VBT), situated at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur, India. The data are recorded sequentially by a Peltier-cooled intensified CCD camera with 10 ms exposure. The auto-correlation method is applied to determine the angular separations and position angles of these binary systems.

  4. Pulsations in close binaries: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maceroni C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CoRoT and Kepler provided a precious by-product: a number of eclipsing binaries containing variable stars and, among these, non-radial pulsators. This providential occurrence allows combining independent information from two different phenomena whose synergy yields scientific results well beyond those from the single sources. In particular, the analysis of pulsations in eclipsing binary components throws light on the internal structure of the pulsating star, on the system evolution, and on the role of tidal forces in exciting the oscillations. The case study of the Kepler target KIC 3858884 is illustrative of the difficulties of analysis and of the achievements in this rapidly developing field.

  5. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  6. All optical binary delta-sigma modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeh, Mohammad R.; Siahmakoun, Azad

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a novel A/D converter called "Binary Delta-Sigma Modulator" (BDSM) which operates only with nonnegative signal with positive feedback and binary threshold. This important modification to the conventional delta-sigma modulator makes the high-speed (>100GHz) all-optical implementation possible. It has also the capability to modify its own sampling frequency as well as its input dynamic range. This adaptive feature helps designers to optimize the system performance under highly noisy environment and also manage the power consumption of the A/D converters.

  7. Rotation and massive close binary evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Langer, N; Yoon, S -C; Hunter, I; Brott, I; Lennon, D J; de Mink, S E; Verheijdt, M

    2008-01-01

    We review the role of rotation in massive close binary systems. Rotation has been advocated as an essential ingredient in massive single star models. However, rotation clearly is most important in massive binaries where one star accretes matter from a close companion, as the resulting spin-up drives the accretor towards critical rotation. Here, we explore our understanding of this process, and its observable consequences. When accounting for these consequences, the question remains whether rotational effects in massive single stars are still needed to explain the observations.

  8. Photometric Solutions of Some Contact ASAS Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Gezer, I

    2015-01-01

    We present the first light curve solution of 6 contact binary systems which are chosen from the ASAS catalog. The photometric elements and the estimated absolute parameters of all systems are obtained with the light curve analyses. We calculated the values of degree of contact for the systems. The location of the targets on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and the mass-radius plane is compared to the other well-known contact binaries and the evolutionary status of the systems are also discussed.

  9. Photometric solutions of some contact ASAS binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, İ.; Bozkurt, Z.

    2016-04-01

    We present the first light curve solution of 6 contact binary systems which are chosen from the ASAS catalog. The photometric elements and the estimated absolute parameters of all systems are obtained with the light curve analyses. We calculated the values of degree of contact for the systems. The location of the targets on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and the mass-radius plane is compared to the other well-known contact binaries and the evolutionary status of the systems are also discussed.

  10. Auto-correlation of Binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S K

    2001-01-01

    Speckle interferometric technique is used to record a series of short exposure images of several close binary stars with sub-arcsecond separation through a narrow band filter centred at H$\\alpha$ at the Cassegrain focus of the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu telescope (VBT), situated at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur. The auto-correlation method is developed under Image Reduction Analysis Facility (IRAF). Wiener filter is included in the programme to eliminate spurious high frequency contributions; a few sets of data provide the optimised results. The auto-correlated image of these stars gives the separation of the binary components.

  11. Binary Sparse Phase Retrieval via Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Simulated Annealing Sparse PhAse Recovery (SASPAR algorithm for reconstructing sparse binary signals from their phaseless magnitudes of the Fourier transform. The greedy strategy version is also proposed for a comparison, which is a parameter-free algorithm. Sufficient numeric simulations indicate that our method is quite effective and suggest the binary model is robust. The SASPAR algorithm seems competitive to the existing methods for its efficiency and high recovery rate even with fewer Fourier measurements.

  12. VLSI binary multiplier using residue number systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsi, F.; Di Cola, A.

    1982-01-01

    The idea of performing multiplication of n-bit binary numbers using a hardware based on residue number systems is considered. This paper develops the design of a VLSI chip deriving area and time upper bounds of a n-bit multiplier. To perform multiplication using residue arithmetic, numbers are converted from binary to residue representation and, after residue multiplication, the result is reconverted to the original notation. It is shown that the proposed design requires an area a=o(n/sup 2/ log n) and an execution time t=o(log/sup 2/n). 7 references.

  13. Apsidal motion in eclipsing binary GG Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilan, E.; Bulut, I.

    2016-03-01

    The study of apsidal motion in binary stars with eccentric orbit is well known as an important source of information for the stellar internal structure as well as the possibility of verification of general relativity. In this study, the apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary GG Ori (P = 6.631 days, e = 0.22) has been analyzed using the times of minimum light taken from the literature and databases and the elements of apsidal motion have been computed. The method described by Giménez and García-Pelayo (1983) has been used for the apsidal motion analysis.

  14. Spin supplementary conditions for spinning compact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Mikóczi, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    We consider the different spin supplementary conditions (SSC) for a spinning compact binary with the leading-order spin-orbit (SO) interaction. The Lagrangian of the binary system can be constructed but it is acceleration-dependent in two cases of SSC. We rewrite the generalized Hamiltonian formalism proposed by Ostrogradsky and compute the conservative quantities and the dissipative part of relative motion during the gravitational radiation of each SSCs. We give the orbital elements and observed quantities of the SO dynamics, for instance the energy and the orbital angular momentum losses and waveforms and discuss their SSC dependence.

  15. Winds from disks in compact binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauche, C.W.

    1993-10-27

    We herein present an observational and theoretical review of the winds of compact binaries. After a brief consideration of the accretion disk coronae and winds of X-ray binaries, the review concentrates on the winds of cataclysmic variables (CVs). Specifically, we consider the related problems of the geometry and mass-loss rate of the winds of CVs, their ionization state and variability, and the results from studies of eclipsing CVs. Finally, the properties of bona fide accretion disk wind models are reviewed.

  16. The DEBCat detached eclipsing binary catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Detached eclipsing binary star systems are our primary source of measured physical properties of normal stars. I introduce DEBCat: a catalogue of detached eclipsing binaries with mass and radius measurements to the 2% precision necessary to put useful constraints on theoretical models of stellar evolution. The catalogue was begun in 2006, as an update of the compilation by Andersen (1991). It now contains over 170 systems, and new results are added on appearance in the refereed literature. DEBCat is available at: http://www.astro.keele.ac.uk/jkt/debcat/

  17. Accretion-powered Compact Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauche, Christopher W.

    2003-12-01

    Preface; The workshop logo; A short history of the CV workshop F. A. Córdova; Part I. Observations: 1. Low mass x-ray binaries A. P. Cowley, P. C. Schmidtke, D. Crampton, J. B. Hutchings, C. A. Haswell, E. L. Robinson, K. D. Horne, H. M. Johnston, S. R. Kulkarni, S. Kitamoto, X. Han, R. M. Hjellming, R. M. Wagner, S. L. Morris, P. Hertz, A. N. Parmar, L. Stella, P. Giommi, P. J. Callanan, T. Naylor, P. A. Charles, C. D. Bailyn, J. N. Imamura, T. Steiman-Cameron, J. Kristian, J. Middleditch, L. Angelini and J. P. Noris; 2. Nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables R. S. Polidan, C. W. Mauche, R. A. Wade, R. H. Kaitchuck, E. M. Schlegel, P. A. Hantzios, R. C. Smith, J. H. Wood, F. Hessman, A. Fiedler, D. H. P. Jones, J. Casares, P. A. Charles, J. van Paradijs, E. Harlaftis, T. Naylor, G. Sonneborn, B. J. M. Hassall, K. Horne, C. A. la Dous, A. W. Shafter, N. A. Hawkins, D. A. H. Buckley, D. J. Sullivan, F. V. Hessman, V. S. Dhillon, T. R. Marsh, J. Singh, S. Seetha, F. Giovannelli, A. Bianchini, E. M. Sion, D. J. Mullan, H. L. Shipman, G. Machin, P. J. Callanan, S. B. Howell, P. Szkody, E. M. Schlegel and R. F. Webbink; 3. Magnetic cataclysmic variables C. Hellier, K. O. Mason, C. W. Mauche, G. S. Miller, J. C. Raymond, F. K. Lamb, J. Patterson, A. J. Norton, M. G. Watson, A. R. King, I. M. McHardy, H. Lehto, J. P. Osborne, E. L. Robinson, A. W. Shafter, S. Balachandran, S. R. Rosen, J. Krautter, W. Buchholz, D. A. H. Buckley, I. R. Tuoly, D. Crampton, B. Warner, R. M. Prestage, B. N. Ashoka, M. Mouchet, J. M. Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M. Hameury, P. Szkody, P. Garnavich, S. Howell, T. Kii, M. Cropper, K. Mason, J. Bailey, D. T. Wickramasinghe, L. Ferrario, K. Beuermann, A. D. Schwope, H.-C. Thomas, S. Jordan, J. Schachter, A. V. Filippenko, S. M. Kahn, F. B. S. Paerels, K. Mukai, M. L. Edgar, S. Larsson, R. F. Jameson, A. R. King, A. Silber, R. Remillard, H. Bradt, M. Ishida, T. Ohashi and G. D. Schmidt; Part II. Accretion Theory: 4. Nonmagnetic W. Kley, F. Geyer, H. Herold, H

  18. Neutron-Star-Black-Hole Binaries Produced by Binary-Driven Hypernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Chris L; Oliveira, F G; Rueda, J A; Ruffini, R

    2015-12-01

    Binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) within the induced gravitational collapse paradigm have been introduced to explain energetic (E_{iso}≳10^{52}  erg), long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with type Ic supernovae (SNe). The progenitor is a tight binary composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron-star (NS) companion, a subclass of the newly proposed "ultrastripped" binaries. The CO-NS short-period orbit causes the NS to accrete appreciable matter from the SN ejecta when the CO core collapses, ultimately causing it to collapse to a black hole (BH) and producing a GRB. These tight binaries evolve through the SN explosion very differently than compact binaries studied in population synthesis calculations. First, the hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion alters both the mass and the momentum of the binary. Second, because the explosion time scale is on par with the orbital period, the mass ejection cannot be assumed to be instantaneous. This dramatically affects the post-SN fate of the binary. Finally, the bow shock created as the accreting NS plows through the SN ejecta transfers angular momentum, braking the orbit. These systems remain bound even if a large fraction of the binary mass is lost in the explosion (well above the canonical 50% limit), and even large kicks are unlikely to unbind the system. Indeed, BdHNe produce a new family of NS-BH binaries unaccounted for in current population synthesis analyses and, although they may be rare, the fact that nearly 100% remain bound implies that they may play an important role in the compact merger rate, important for gravitational waves that, in turn, can produce a new class of ultrashort GRBs.

  19. Elucidating the True Binary Fraction of VLM Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Spectral Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; SAHLMANN, JOHANNES; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagne, Jonathan; Skrzypek, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    The very lowest-mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs are found in abundance in nearly all Galactic environments, yet their formation mechanism(s) remain an open question. One means of testing current formation theories is to use multiplicity statistics. The majority of VLM binaries have been discovered through direct imaging, and current angular resolution limits (0.05”-0.1") are coincident with the 1-4 AU peak in the projected separation distribution of known systems, suggesting an observational bias. I have developed a separation-independent method to detect T dwarf companions to late-M/early-L dwarfs by identifying methane absorption in their unresolved, low-resolution, near-infrared spectra using spectral indices and template fitting. Over 60 spectral binary candidates have been identified with this and comparable methods. I discuss follow-up observations, including laser-guide star adaptive optics imaging with Keck/NIRC2, which have confirmed 9 systems; and radial velocity and astrometric monitoring observations that have confirmed 7 others. The direct imaging results indicate a resolved binary fraction of 18%, coincident with current estimates of the VLM binary fraction; however, our sample contained 5 previously confirmed binaries, raising its true binary fraction to 47%. To more accurately measure the true VLM binary fraction, I describe the construction of an unbiased, volume-limited, near-infrared spectral sample of M7-L5 dwarfs within 25 pc, of which 4 (1%) are found to be spectral binary candidates. I model the complex selection biases of this method through a population simulation, set constraints on the true binary fraction as traced by these systems, and compare to the predictions of current formation theories. I also describe how this method may be applied to conduct a separation-unbiased search for giant exoplanets orbiting young VLM stars and brown dwarfs.

  20. The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring. I. Observational campaign and OB-type spectroscopic binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L. A.; Sana, H.; Taylor, W.; Barbá, R.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Crowther, P.; Damineli, A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gieles, M.; Grin, N. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.; Lockwood, S.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Neijssel, C.; Norman, C.; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Richardson, N. D.; Schootemeijer, A.; Shenar, T.; Soszyński, I.; Tramper, F.; Vink, J. S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Massive binaries play a crucial role in the Universe. Knowing the distributions of their orbital parameters is important for a wide range of topics from stellar feedback to binary evolution channels and from the distribution of supernova types to gravitational wave progenitors, yet no direct measurements exist outside the Milky Way. Aims: The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring project was designed to help fill this gap by obtaining multi-epoch radial velocity (RV) monitoring of 102 massive binaries in the 30 Doradus region. Methods: In this paper we analyze 32 FLAMES/GIRAFFE observations of 93 O- and 7 B-type binaries. We performed a Fourier analysis and obtained orbital solutions for 82 systems: 51 single-lined (SB1) and 31 double-lined (SB2) spectroscopic binaries. Results: Overall, the binary fraction and orbital properties across the 30 Doradus region are found to be similar to existing Galactic samples. This indicates that within these domains environmental effects are of second order in shaping the properties of massive binary systems. A small difference is found in the distribution of orbital periods, which is slightly flatter (in log space) in 30 Doradus than in the Galaxy, although this may be compatible within error estimates and differences in the fitting methodology. Also, orbital periods in 30 Doradus can be as short as 1.1 d, somewhat shorter than seen in Galactic samples. Equal mass binaries (q> 0.95) in 30 Doradus are all found outside NGC 2070, the central association that surrounds R136a, the very young and massive cluster at 30 Doradus's core. Most of the differences, albeit small, are compatible with expectations from binary evolution. One outstanding exception, however, is the fact that earlier spectral types (O2-O7) tend to have shorter orbital periods than later spectral types (O9.2-O9.7). Conclusions: Our results point to a relative universality of the incidence rate of massive binaries and their orbital properties in the

  1. BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Mikkola, Seppo, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Seppo.Mikkola@utu.fi [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, Piikkiö (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  2. Observational Evidence for Tidal Interaction in Close Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mazeh, Tsevi

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the rich corpus of observational evidence for tidal effects in short-period binaries. We review the evidence for ellipsoidal variability and for the observational manifestation of apsidal motion in eclipsing binaries. Among the long-term effects, circularization was studied the most, and a transition period between circular and eccentric orbits has been derived for eight coeval samples of binaries. As binaries are supposed to reach synchronization before circularization, one can expect finding eccentric binaries in pseudo-synchronization state, the evidence for which is reviewed. The paper reviews the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and its potential to study spin-orbit alignment. We discuss the tidal interaction in close binaries that are orbited by a third distant companion, and review the effect of pumping the binary eccentricity by the third star. We then discuss the idea that the tidal interaction induced by the eccentricity modulation can shrink the binary separation. The paper discusses t...

  3. The same, but different: Stochasticity in binary destruction

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Observations of binaries in clusters tend to be of visual binaries with separations of 10s - 100s au. Such binaries are 'intermediates' and their destruction or survival depends on the exact details of their individual dynamical history. We investigate the stochasticity of the destruction of such binaries and the differences between the initial and processed populations using N-body simulations. We concentrate on Orion Nebula Cluster-like clusters, where the observed binary separation distribution ranges from 62 - 620 au. We find that, starting from the same initial binary population in statistically identical clusters, the number of intermediate binaries that are destroyed after 1 Myr can vary by a factor of >2, and that the resulting separation distributions can be statistically completely different in initially substructured clusters. We also find that the mass ratio distributions are altered (destroying more low mass ratio systems), but not as significantly as the binary fractions or separation distributi...

  4. Model-independent inference on compact-binary observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ilya; Farr, Will M.; Colonna, Andrea; Stevenson, Simon; Tiňo, Peter; Veitch, John

    2017-03-01

    The recent advanced LIGO detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes enhance the prospect of exploring binary evolution via gravitational-wave observations of a population of compact-object binaries. In the face of uncertainty about binary formation models, model-independent inference provides an appealing alternative to comparisons between observed and modelled populations. We describe a procedure for clustering in the multidimensional parameter space of observations that are subject to significant measurement errors. We apply this procedure to a mock data set of population-synthesis predictions for the masses of merging compact binaries convolved with realistic measurement uncertainties, and demonstrate that we can accurately distinguish subpopulations of binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and mixed neutron star-black hole binaries with tens of observations.

  5. On the dynamical evolution and end states of binary centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a numerical integration of 666 fictitious binary Centaurs coming from the trans Neptunian space. Our population is restricted to tight binaries whose components have sizes between 30 and 100 km. We included the dynamical perturbations from the giant planets, Kozai Cycles induced by the Sun and tidal friction on the orbits of the binaries. We found that most binaries are disrupted during one of the close planetary encounters, making the mean lifetime of binary Centaurs much shorter than the one of single Centaurs. Nearly 10 per cent of the binaries reach a very tight circular orbit, arguing in favour of the existence of a non-negligible population of contact Centaurs. Another 10 per cent survive as a binary during their lifetime as Centaur. Our simulations favour the existence of a small population of very tight binary Centaurs.

  6. Evolution of Binary Stars in Multiple-Population Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jongsuk; Sollima, Antonio; McMillan, Stephen L W; D'Antona, Franca; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters has implications for all the aspects of the study of these stellar systems. In this paper, by means of N-body simulations, we study the evolution of binary stars in multiple-population clusters and explore the implications of the initial differences in the spatial distribution of different stellar populations for the evolution and survival of their binary stars. Our simulations show that initial differences between the spatial distribution of first-generation (FG) and second-generation (SG) stars can leave a fingerprint in the current properties of the binary population. SG binaries are disrupted more efficiently than those of the FG population resulting in a global SG binary fraction smaller than that of the FG. As for surviving binaries, dynamical evolution produces a difference between the SG and the FG binary binding energy distribution with the SG population characterized by a larger fraction of high binding energy (more bound) binaries. ...

  7. Model-independent inference on compact-binary observations

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Ilya; Colonna, Andrea; Stevenson, Simon; Tiňo, Peter; Veitch, John

    2016-01-01

    The recent advanced LIGO detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes enhance the prospect of exploring binary evolution via gravitational-wave observations of a population of compact-object binaries. In the face of uncertainty about binary formation models, model-independent inference provides an appealing alternative to comparisons between observed and modelled populations. We describe a procedure for clustering in the multi-dimensional parameter space of observations that are subject to significant measurement errors. We apply this procedure to a mock data set of population-synthesis predictions for the masses of merging compact binaries convolved with realistic measurement uncertainties, and demonstrate that we can accurately distinguish subpopulations of binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and mixed black hole -- neutron star binaries.

  8. Deterministic Chaos in the X-ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzedzielski, M.; Sukova, P.; Janiuk, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hardly any of the observed black hole accretion disks in X-ray binaries and active galaxies shows constant flux. When the local stochastic variations of the disk occur at specific regions where a resonant behaviour takes place, there appear the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). If the global structure of the flow and its non-linear hydrodynamics affects the fluctuations, the variability is chaotic in the sense of deterministic chaos. Our aim is to solve a problem of the stochastic versus deterministic nature of the black hole binary variabilities. We use both observational and analytic methods. We use the recurrence analysis and we study the occurence of long diagonal lines in the recurrence plot of observed data series and compare it to the surrogate series. We analyze here the data of two X-ray binaries - XTE J1550-564 and GX 339-4 observed by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. In these sources, the non-linear variability is expected because of the global conditions (such as the mean accretion rate) leading to the possible instability of an accretion disk. The thermal-viscous instability and fluctuations around the fixed-point solution occurs at high accretion rate, when the radiation pressure gives dominant contribution to the stress tensor.

  9. Deterministic chaos in the X-Ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Grzedzielski, M; Janiuk, A

    2015-01-01

    Hardly any of the observed black hole accretion disks in X-Ray binaries and active galaxies shows constant flux. When the local stochastic variations of the disk occur at specific regions where a resonant behaviour takes place, there appear the Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs). If the global structure of the flow and its non-linear hydrodynamics affects the fluctuations, the variability is chaotic in the sense of deterministic chaos. Our aim is to solve a problem of the stochastic versus deterministic nature of the black hole binaries vari- ability. We use both observational and analytic methods. We use the recurrence analysis and we study the occurence of long diagonal lines in the recurrence plot of observed data series and compare it to the sur- rogate series. We analyze here the data of two X-Ray binaries - XTE J1550-564, and GX 339-4 observed by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. In these sources, the non-linear variability is expected because of the global conditions (such as the mean accretion rate) leadin...

  10. Deterministic Chaos in the X-ray Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Grzedzielski; P. Sukova; A. Janiuk

    2015-12-01

    Hardly any of the observed black hole accretion disks in X-ray binaries and active galaxies shows constant flux. When the local stochastic variations of the disk occur at specific regions where a resonant behaviour takes place, there appear the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). If the global structure of the flow and its non-linear hydrodynamics affects the fluctuations, the variability is chaotic in the sense of deterministic chaos. Our aim is to solve a problem of the stochastic versus deterministic nature of the black hole binary variabilities. We use both observational and analytic methods. We use the recurrence analysis and we study the occurence of long diagonal lines in the recurrence plot of observed data series and compare it to the surrogate series. We analyze here the data of two X-ray binaries – XTE J1550-564 and GX 339-4 observed by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. In these sources, the non-linear variability is expected because of the global conditions (such as the mean accretion rate) leading to the possible instability of an accretion disk. The thermal-viscous instability and fluctuations around the fixedpoint solution occurs at high accretion rate, when the radiation pressure gives dominant contribution to the stress tensor.

  11. Beyond-Binary Arithmetic: Algorithms and VLSI Implementations

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Takafumi; Higuchi, Tatsuo

    2000-01-01

    Beyond-binary arithmetic algorithms are defined as a new class of computer arithmetic algorithms which employ non-binary data representations to achieve higher performances beyond those of conventional binary algorithms. This paper presents prominent examples of beyond-binary arithmetic algorithms: examples include (i) a high-radix redundant division algorithm without using lookup tables, (ii) a high-radix redundant CORDIC algorithm for fast vector rotation, and (iii) redundant complex arithm...

  12. Hafnium binary alloys from experiments and first principles

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Ohad; Hart, Gus L. W.; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of hafnium in numerous technological applications, experimental and computational data on its binary alloys is sparse. In particular, data is scant on those binary systems believed to be phase separating. We performed a comprehensive study of 44 hafnium binary systems with alkali metals, alkaline earths, transition metals and metals, using high-throughput first principles calculations. These computations predict novel unsuspected compounds in six binary syste...

  13. Formation and evolution of X-ray binaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We review recent progress in theoretical understanding of X-ray binaries,which has largely been driven by new observations.We select several topics including formation of compact low-mass X-ray binaries,the evolutionary connection between low-mass X-ray binaries and binary and millisecond radio pulsars,and ultraluminous X-ray sources,to illustrate the interplay between theories and observations.

  14. The cool surfaces of binary near-Earth asteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Delbo, Marco; Walsh, Kevin; Mueller, Michael; Harris, Alan W.; Howell, Ellen S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Here we show results from thermal-infrared observations of km-sized binary Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs). We combine previously published thermal properties for NEAs with newly derived values for three binary NEAs. The ?value derived from the Near-Earth Asteroid Thermal Model (NEATM) for each object is then used to estimate an average thermal inertia for the population of binary NEAs and compared against similar estimates for the population of non-binaries. We find that thes...

  15. Model-independent inference on compact-binary observations

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Ilya; Farr, Will M.; Colonna, Andrea; Stevenson, Simon; Tiňo, Peter; Veitch, John

    2016-01-01

    The recent advanced LIGO detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes enhance the prospect of exploring binary evolution via gravitational-wave observations of a population of compact-object binaries. In the face of uncertainty about binary formation models, model-independent inference provides an appealing alternative to comparisons between observed and modelled populations. We describe a procedure for clustering in the multi-dimensional parameter space of observations t...

  16. Binary Solid-Liquid Phase Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Herbert R.

    1978-01-01

    Indicates some of the information that may be obtained from a binary solid-liquid phase equilibria experiment and a method to write a computer program that will plot an ideal phase diagram to which the experimental results may be compared. (Author/CP)

  17. Binary Quadratic Forms: A Historical View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, Azar N.; Beintema, Mark B.

    2006-01-01

    We present an expository account of the development of the theory of binary quadratic forms. Beginning with the formulation and proof of the Two-Square Theorem, we show how the study of forms of the type x[squared] + ny[squared] led to the discovery of the Quadratic Reciprocity Law, and how this theorem, along with the concept of reduction relates…

  18. Unification of binary and LCP fission processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, M.; Bouzid, B.; Medkour, G.; Djebara, M.

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the ambiguities of the parameters of the models used to calculate the yields of binary and light-charged-particle-accompanied (LCP) ternary fission processes. A model based on the adiabatic perturbation theory is set up. It removes these ambiguities and helps to treat the two processes in a unified way.

  19. Predicting Social Trust with Binary Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwere-Boamah, Joseph; Hufstedler, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    This study used binary logistic regression to predict social trust with five demographic variables from a national sample of adult individuals who participated in The General Social Survey (GSS) in 2012. The five predictor variables were respondents' highest degree earned, race, sex, general happiness and the importance of personally assisting…

  20. Orbits of Ten Visual Binary Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Novakovi(c)

    2007-01-01

    We present the orbits of ten visual binary stars:WDS 01015+6922.WDS 01424-0645,WDS 01461+6349,WDS 04374-0951,WDS 04478+5318,WDS 05255-0033,WDS 05491+6248,WDS 06404+4058,WDS 07479-1212,and WDS 18384+0850.We have also determined their masses,dynamical parallaxes and ephemerides.

  1. The Primordial Binary Population in OB Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, M.B.N.; Brown, A.G.A.; Gualandris, A.; Kaper, L.; Portegies Zwart, S.F.; Zinnecker, H.; Allen, C.; Scarfe, C.

    2004-01-01

    We present the first results of our adaptive optics survey of 200 (mainly) A-type stars in the nearby OB association Sco OB2, which we will use, together with literature data and detailed simulations of young star clusters, to determine the primordial binary population.

  2. The Primordial Binary Population in OB Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, M.B.N.; Brown, A.G.A.; Gualandris, A.; Kaper, L.; Portegies Zwart, S.F.; Zinnecker, H.; Allen, C.; Scarfe, C.

    2004-01-01

    We present the first results of our adaptive optics survey of 200 (mainly) A-type stars in the nearby OB association Sco OB2, which we will use, together with literature data and detailed simulations of young star clusters, to determine the primordial binary population.

  3. Cassini states for black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, Alexandre C M

    2016-01-01

    Cassini states correspond to equilibria of the spin axis of a celestial body when its orbit is perturbed. They were initially described for planetary satellites, but the spin axes of black-hole binaries also present this kind of equilibria. In previous works, Cassini states were reported as spin-orbit resonances, but actually the spin of black-hole binaries is in circulation and there is no resonant motion. Here we provide a general description of the spin dynamics of black-hole binary systems based on a Hamiltonian formalism. In absence of dissipation the problem is integrable and it is easy to identify all possible trajectories for the spin for a given value of the total angular momentum. As the system collapses due to radiation reaction, the Cassini states are shifted to different positions, which modifies the dynamics around them. This is why the final spin distribution may differ from the initial one. Our method provides a simple way of predicting the distribution of the spin of black-hole binaries at th...

  4. Chemically homogeneous evolution in massive binaries

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Pols, O R

    2010-01-01

    Rotation can have severe consequences for the evolution of massive stars. It is now considered as one of the main parameters, alongside mass and metallicity that determine the final fate of single stars. In massive, fast rotating stars mixing processes induced by rotation may be so efficient that helium produced in the center is mixed throughout the envelope. Such stars evolve almost chemically homogeneously. At low metallicity they remain blue and compact, while they gradually evolve into Wolf-Rayet stars and possibly into progenitors of long gamma-ray bursts. In binaries this type of evolution may occur because of (I) tides in very close binaries, as a result of (II) spin up by mass transfer, as result of (III) a merger of the two stars and (IV) when one of the components in the binary was born with a very high initial rotation rate. As these stars stay compact, the evolutionary channels are very different from what classical binary evolutionary models predict. In this contribution we discuss examples of ne...

  5. ANGULAR-MOMENTUM IN BINARY SPIRAL GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OOSTERLOO, T

    1993-01-01

    In order to investigate the relative orientations of spiral galaxies in pairs, the distribution of the angle between the spin-vectors for a new sample of 40 binary spiral galaxies is determined. From this distribution it is found, contrary to an earlier result obtained by Helou (1984), that there is

  6. LSM is not generated by binary functions

    CERN Document Server

    McQuillan, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Bulatov et al. [1] defined the operation of (efficient) pps_\\omega-definability in order to study the computational complexity of certain approximate counting problems. They asked whether all log-supermodular functions can be defined by binary implication and unary functions in this sense. We give a negative answer to this question.

  7. Binary pulsars as dark-matter probes

    CERN Document Server

    Pani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    During the motion of a binary pulsar around the galactic center, the pulsar and its companion experience a wind of dark-matter particles that can affect the orbital motion through dynamical friction. We show that this effect produces a characteristic seasonal modulation of the orbit and causes a secular change of the orbital period whose magnitude can be well within the astonishing precision of various binary-pulsar observations. Our analysis is valid for binary systems with orbital period longer than a day. By comparing this effect with pulsar-timing measurements, it is possible to derive model-independent upper bounds on the dark-matter density at different distances $D$ from the galactic center. For example, the precision timing of J1713+0747 imposes $\\rho_{\\rm DM}\\lesssim 10^5\\,{\\rm GeV/cm}^3$ at $D\\approx7\\,{\\rm kpc}$. The detection of a binary pulsar at $D\\lesssim 10\\,{\\rm pc}$ could provide stringent constraints on dark-matter halo profiles and on growth models of the central black hole. The Square Kil...

  8. Binaries are the best single stars

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Izzard, R G

    2010-01-01

    Stellar models of massive single stars are still plagued by major uncertainties. Testing and calibrating against observations is essential for their reliability. For this purpose one preferably uses observed stars that have never experienced strong binary interaction, i.e. "true single stars". However, the binary fraction among massive stars is high and identifying "true single stars" is not straight forward. Binary interaction affects systems in such a way that the initially less massive star becomes, or appears to be, single. For example, mass transfer results in a widening of the orbit and a decrease of the luminosity of the donor star, which makes it very hard to detect. After a merger or disruption of the system by the supernova explosion, no companion will be present. The only unambiguous identification of "true single stars" is possible in detached binaries, which contain two main-sequence stars. For these systems we can exclude the occurrence of mass transfer since their birth. A further advantage is ...

  9. Flip-flopping binary black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousto, Carlos O; Healy, James

    2015-04-10

    We study binary spinning black holes to display the long term individual spin dynamics. We perform a full numerical simulation starting at an initial proper separation of d≈25M between equal mass holes and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles, and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t=20 000M and displays a total change in the orientation of the spin of one of the black holes from an initial alignment with the orbital angular momentum to a complete antialignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects this dynamics may have on spin growth in accreting binaries and on the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes.

  10. The Orbital Decay of Embedded Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W

    2009-01-01

    Young binaries within dense molecular clouds are subject to dynamical friction from ambient gas. Consequently, their orbits decay, with both the separation and period decreasing in time. A simple analytic expression is derived for this braking torque. The derivation utilizes the fact that each binary acts as a quadrupolar source of acoustic waves. The acoustic disturbance has the morphology of a two-armed spiral and carries off angular momentum. From the expression for the braking torque, the binary orbital evolution is also determined analytically. This type of merger may help explain the origin of high-mass stars. If infrared dark clouds, with peak densities up to 10^7 cm^{-3}, contain low-mass binaries, those with separations less than 100 AU merge within about 10^5 yr. During the last few thousand years of the process, the rate of mechanical energy deposition in the gas exceeds the stars' radiative luminosity. Successive mergers may lead to the massive star formation believed to occur in these clouds.

  11. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  12. Wobbling Ancient Binaries - Here Be Planets?

    CERN Document Server

    Horner, Jonathan; Hinse, Tobias; Marshall, Jonathan; Mustill, Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, a number of planets have been proposed to orbit several post main-sequence binary star systems on the basis of observed variations in the timing of eclipses between the binary components. A common feature of these planet candidates is that the best-fit orbits are often highly eccentric, such that the multiple planet systems proposed regularly feature mutually crossing orbits - a scenario that almost always leads to unstable planetary systems. In this work, we present the results of dynamical studies of all multiple-planet systems proposed to orbit these highly evolved binary stars, finding that most do not stand up to dynamical scrutiny. In one of the potentially stable cases (the NN Serpentis 2-planet system), we consider the evolution of the binary star system, and show that it is highly unlikely that planets could survive from the main sequence to obtain their current orbits - again casting doubt on the proposed planets. We conclude by considering alternative explanations for the obs...

  13. Strong lensing interferometry for compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, U.L.; Yang, I.S.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a possibility to improve the current precision measurements on compact binaries. When the orbital axis is almost perpendicular to our line of sight, a pulsar behind its companion can form two strong lensing images. These images cannot be resolved, but we can use multiwavelength interferom

  14. Binaries are the best single stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mink, S.E.; Langer, N.; Izzard, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Stellar models of massive single stars are still plagued by major uncertainties. Testing and calibrating against observations is essential for their reliability. For this purpose one preferably uses observed stars that have never experienced strong binary interaction, i.e. “true single stars”. Howev

  15. Spectropolarimetry of single and binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Harries, T J

    2004-01-01

    Spectropolarimetry is a photon-hungry technique that will reach fruition in the 8-m telescope age. Here I summarize some of the stellar spectropolarimetric research that my collaborators and I have undertaken, with particular emphasis on the circumstellar environment of massive stars, symbiotic binaries, and star formation.

  16. What's Next? Judging Sequences of Binary Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarsson, An T.; Van Boven, Leaf; McClelland, Gary H.; Hastie, Reid

    2009-01-01

    The authors review research on judgments of random and nonrandom sequences involving binary events with a focus on studies documenting gambler's fallacy and hot hand beliefs. The domains of judgment include random devices, births, lotteries, sports performances, stock prices, and others. After discussing existing theories of sequence judgments,…

  17. Testing the Binary Trigger Hypothesis in FUors

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Joel D; Rizzuto, Aaron C; Ireland, Michael J; Dupuy, Trent J; Mann, Andrew W; Kuruwita, Rajika

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of three FU Orionis objects (hereafter, FUors) with nonredundant aperture-mask interferometry (NRM) at 1.59 um and 2.12 um that probe for binary companions on the scale of the protoplanetary disk that feeds their accretion outbursts. We do not identify any companions to V1515 Cyg or HBC 722, but we do resolve a close binary companion to V1057 Cyg that is at the diffraction limit (rho = 58.3 +/- 1.4 mas or 30 +/- 5 AU) and currently much fainter than the outbursting star (delta(K') = 3.34 +/- 0.10 mag). Given the flux excess of the outbursting star, we estimate that the mass of the companion (M ~ 0.25 Msun) is similar to or slightly below that of the FUor itself, and therefore it resembles a typical T Tauri binary system. Our observations only achieve contrast limits of delta(K') ~ 4 mag, and hence we are only sensitive to companions that were near or above the pre-outburst luminosity of the FUors. It remains plausible that FUor outbursts could be tied to the presence of a close binary ...

  18. Non-binary or genderqueer genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Christina; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Seal, Leighton; Barker, Meg John; Nieder, Timo O; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Some people have a gender which is neither male nor female and may identify as both male and female at one time, as different genders at different times, as no gender at all, or dispute the very idea of only two genders. The umbrella terms for such genders are 'genderqueer' or 'non-binary' genders. Such gender identities outside of the binary of female and male are increasingly being recognized in legal, medical and psychological systems and diagnostic classifications in line with the emerging presence and advocacy of these groups of people. Population-based studies show a small percentage--but a sizable proportion in terms of raw numbers--of people who identify as non-binary. While such genders have been extant historically and globally, they remain marginalized, and as such--while not being disorders or pathological in themselves--people with such genders remain at risk of victimization and of minority or marginalization stress as a result of discrimination. This paper therefore reviews the limited literature on this field and considers ways in which (mental) health professionals may assist the people with genderqueer and non-binary gender identities and/or expressions they may see in their practice. Treatment options and associated risks are discussed.

  19. Testing the Binary Trigger Hypothesis in FUors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; Kraus, Adam L.; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Ireland, Michael J.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Mann, Andrew W.; Kuruwita, Rajika

    2016-10-01

    We present observations of three FU Orionis objects (hereafter, FUors) with nonredundant aperture-mask interferometry at 1.59 μm and 2.12 μm that probe for binary companions on the scale of the protoplanetary disk that feeds their accretion outbursts. We do not identify any companions to V1515 Cyg or HBC 722, but we do resolve a close binary companion to V1057 Cyg that is at the diffraction limit (ρ =58.3+/- 1.4 mas or 30 ± 5 au) and currently much fainter than the outbursting star ({{Δ }}K\\prime =3.34+/- 0.10 mag). Given the flux excess of the outbursting star, we estimate that the mass of the companion (M∼ 0.25{M}ȯ ) is similar to or slightly below that of the FUor itself, and therefore it resembles a typical T Tauri binary system. Our observations only achieve contrast limits of {{Δ }}K\\prime ∼ 4 mag, and hence we are only sensitive to companions that were near or above the pre-outburst luminosity of the FUors. It remains plausible that FUor outbursts could be tied to the presence of a close binary companion. However, we argue from the system geometry and mass reservoir considerations that these outbursts are not directly tied to the orbital period (i.e., occurring at periastron passage), but instead must only occur infrequently.

  20. DARPA/TTO program IR binary optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, W. B.

    1984-06-01

    Binary grating optics consist of microfine rectangular (high-low) relief patterns on a dielectric or a metallic surface. By controlling the depth, width and periodicity of the binary pattern, the amplitude and the phase of an electromagnetic wave can be controlled to produce a variety of optical transfer functions. The lithographic tools for fabrication of binary optics are the ones developed for VLSI circuit fabrication. From a single lithographic mask, planar replica optics can be made in quantity. This technology has broad applicability for tactical missile systems as well as for space systems. In addition to making optics cheaper than by conventional means, binary optics allows the fabrication of unique devices that cannot be made conventionally. These include high-speed rotary scanners, multiplexers, filters, beam shapers and coherent laser adders. The goal of this program is the development of high quality planar optical components using VLSI circuit fabrication techniques. The main elements of the plan are: (1) the development of large aperture segmented and piezoelectrically active planar optical surfaces, (2) the development of raster scanning laser telescopes and extension to broadband applications, and (3) the application of diffractive optics technology to the coherent addition of beams from modular laser systems. This report covers progress in the setup of a reactive ion-beam etching laboratory, and the feasibility demonstrations of the coherent beam addition concept with gas lasers.

  1. Runaway Massive Binaries and Cluster Ejection Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    McSwain, M V; Boyajian, T S; Grundstrom, E D; Roberts, M S E; Ransom, Scott M.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Grundstrom, Erika D.

    2006-01-01

    The production of runaway massive binaries offers key insights into the evolution of close binary stars and open clusters. The stars HD 14633 and HD 15137 are rare examples of such runaway systems, and in this work we investigate the mechanism by which they were ejected from their parent open cluster, NGC 654. We discuss observational characteristics that can be used to distinguish supernova ejected systems from those ejected by dynamical interactions, and we present the results of a new radio pulsar search of these systems as well as estimates of their predicted X-ray flux assuming that each binary contains a compact object. Since neither pulsars nor X-ray emission are observed in these systems, we cannot conclude that these binaries contain compact companions. We also consider whether they may have been ejected by dynamical interactions in the dense environment where they formed, and our simulations of four-body interactions suggest that a dynamical origin is possible but unlikely. We recommend further X-ra...

  2. Bloch-Zener oscillations in binary superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisow, F; Szameit, A; Heinrich, M; Pertsch, T; Nolte, S; Tünnermann, A; Longhi, S

    2009-02-20

    Bloch-Zener oscillations, i.e., the coherent superposition of Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling between minibands of a binary lattice, are experimentally demonstrated for light waves in curved femtosecond laser-written waveguide arrays. Visualization of double-periodicity breathing and oscillation modes is reported, and synchronous tunneling leading to wave reconstruction is demonstrated.

  3. The Benchmark Eclipsing Binary V530 Ori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Pavlovski, Kresimir

    2015-01-01

    We report accurate measurements of the physical properties (mass, radius, temperature) of components of the G+M eclipsing binary V530 On. The M-type secondary shows a larger radius and a cooler temperature than predicted by standard stellar evolution models, as has been found for many other low...

  4. Chandra Imaging of Gamma-Ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Hare, Jeremy; Pavlov, George G

    2013-01-01

    We review the multiwavelength properties of the few known gamma-ray binaries, focusing on extended emission recently resolved with Chandra. We discuss the implications of these findings for the nature of compact objects and for physical processes operating in these systems.

  5. Spin flips in generic black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Lousto, Carlos O

    2015-01-01

    We study the spin dynamics of individual black holes in a binary system. In particular we focus on the polar precession of spins and the possibility of a complete flip of spins with respect to the orbital plane. We perform a full numerical simulation that displays these characteristics. We evolve equal mass binary spinning black holes for $t=20,000M$ from an initial proper separation of $d=25M$ down to merger after 48.5 orbits. We compute the gravitational radiation from this system and compare it to 3.5 post-Newtonian generated waveforms finding close agreement. We then further use 3.5 post-Newtonian evolutions to show the extension of this spin {flip-flop} phenomenon to unequal mass binaries. We also provide analytic expressions to approximate the maximum {flip-flop} angle and frequency in terms of the binary spins and mass ratio parameters at a given orbital radius. Finally we discuss the effect this spin {flip-flop} would have on accreting matter and other potential observational effects.

  6. Renormalization of QED with planar binary trees

    OpenAIRE

    Brouder, Christian; Frabetti, Alessandra

    2000-01-01

    The renormalized photon and electron propagators are expanded over planar binary trees. Explicit recurrence solutions are given for the terms of these expansions. In the case of massless Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), the relation between renormalized and bare expansions is given in terms of a Hopf algebra structure. For massive quenched QED, the relation between renormalized and bare expansions is given explicitly.

  7. What's Next? Judging Sequences of Binary Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarsson, An T.; Van Boven, Leaf; McClelland, Gary H.; Hastie, Reid

    2009-01-01

    The authors review research on judgments of random and nonrandom sequences involving binary events with a focus on studies documenting gambler's fallacy and hot hand beliefs. The domains of judgment include random devices, births, lotteries, sports performances, stock prices, and others. After discussing existing theories of sequence judgments,…

  8. Statistics of clusters in binary linear lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felderhof, B.U.

    1972-01-01

    The statistics of clusters in binary linear lattices is studied on the assumption that the relative weight of an Al or Bm cluster is determined only by its size l or m, and is independent of the location of the cluster on the chain. The average cluster numbers and the variance of their fluctuations

  9. Echoes in X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    O'Brien, K; Hynes, R; Chen, W; Haswell, C; Still, M

    2002-01-01

    We present a method of analysing the correlated X-ray and optical/UV variability in X-ray binaries, using the observed time delays between the X-ray driving lightcurves and their reprocessed optical echoes. This allows us to determine the distribution of reprocessing sites within the binary. We model the time-delay transfer functions by simulating the distribution of reprocessing regions, using geometrical and binary parameters. We construct best-fit time-delay transfer functions, showing the regions in the binary responsible for the reprocessing of X-rays. We have applied this model to observations of the Soft X-ray Transient, GRO j1655-40. We find the optical variability lags the X-ray variability with a mean time delay of 19.3$pm{2.2}$ seconds. This means that the outer regions of the accretion disc are the dominant reprocessing site in this system. On fitting the data to a simple geometric model, we derive a best-fit disk half-opening angle of 13.5$^{+2.1}_{-2.8}$ degrees, which is similar to that observe...

  10. Planet formation in slightly inclined binary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge J.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems of planet formation in close binary systems, such as α Centauri AB, is the formation of planetary embryos or cores by mutual accretion of km-sized planetesimals. In this contribution, we test the planetesimal accretion in such close binary systems but with small inclinations iB = 0.1–10° between the binary orbital plane and the gas disk plane. Compared to previous studies (coplanar case with iB = 0, we find that (1 planetesimal disk is stratified in the vertical direction and planetesimals are redistributed on different orbit groups with respect to their sizes, thus (2 collisions between similar-sized bodies dominate, leading to low dV and favoring planetesimal accretion (3 the planetesimal collision timescale at 1–2 AU is estimated as: T ∼ (1 + 100iB × 103 yrs, where 0 ≤ iB ≤ 10°. As a conclusion, although planetesimal accretion are much more favored in slightly inclined binary systems, it is significantly less efficient and slowed-down as compared to the single-star case.

  11. Balanced binary trees in the Tamari lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Giraudo, Samuele

    2010-01-01

    We show that the set of balanced binary trees is closed by interval in the Tamari lattice. We establish that the intervals [T0, T1] where T0 and T1 are balanced trees are isomorphic as posets to a hypercube. We introduce tree patterns and synchronous grammars to get a functional equation of the generating series enumerating balanced tree intervals.

  12. Merging Galaxies Create a Binary Quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Astronomers have found the first clear evidence of a binary quasar within a pair of actively merging galaxies. Quasars are the extremely bright centers of galaxies surrounding super-massive black holes, and binary quasars are pairs of quasars bound together by gravity. Binary quasars, like other quasars, are thought to be the product of galaxy mergers. Until now, however, binary quasars have not been seen in galaxies that are unambiguously in the act of merging. But images of a new binary quasar from the Carnegie Institution's Magellan telescope in Chile show two distinct galaxies with "tails" produced by tidal forces from their mutual gravitational attraction. "This is really the first case in which you see two separate galaxies, both with quasars, that are clearly interacting," says Carnegie astronomer John Mulchaey who made observations crucial to understanding the galaxy merger. Most, if not all, large galaxies, such as our galaxy the Milky Way, host super-massive black holes at their centers. Because galaxies regularly interact and merge, astronomers have assumed that binary super-massive black holes have been common in the Universe, especially during its early history. Black holes can only be detected as quasars when they are actively accreting matter, a process that releases vast amounts of energy. A leading theory is that galaxy mergers trigger accretion, creating quasars in both galaxies. Because most such mergers would have happened in the distant past, binary quasars and their associated galaxies are very far away and therefore difficult for most telescopes to resolve. The binary quasar, labeled SDSS J1254+0846, was initially detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a large scale astronomical survey of galaxies and over 120,000 quasars. Further observations by Paul Green of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and colleagues* using NASA's Chandra's X-ray Observatory and telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona and Palomar

  13. Binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sana, H.; de Mink, S.E.; de Koter, A.; Langer, N.; Evans, C.J.; Gieles, M.; Gosset, E.; Izzard, R.G.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Schneider, F.R.N.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of a nearby companion alters the evolution of massive stars in binary systems, leading to phenomena such as stellar mergers, x-ray binaries, and gamma-ray bursts. Unambiguous constraints on the fraction of massive stars affected by binary interaction were lacking. We simultaneously meas

  14. Microlensing Binaries Discovered through High-magnification Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G.; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, S.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Microlensing can provide a useful tool to probe binary distributions down to low-mass limits of binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of eight binary-lensing events detected through the channel of high-magnification events during the seasons from 2007 to 2010. The perturba...

  15. The Formation of Contact and Very Close Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisseleva-Eggleton, L; Eggleton, P P

    2007-08-10

    We explore the possibility that all close binaries, i.e. those with periods {approx}< 3 d, including contact (W UMa) binaries, are produced from initially wider binaries (periods of say 10's of days) by the action of a triple companion through the medium of Kozai Cycles with Tidal Friction (KCTF).

  16. Parameter estimation of gravitational wave compact binary coalescences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haster, Carl-Johan; LIGO Scientific Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The first detections of gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes have allowed unprecedented inference on the astrophysical parameters of such binaries. Given recent updates in detector capabilities, gravitational wave model templates and data analysis techniques, in this talk I will describe the prospects of parameter estimation of compact binary coalescences during the second observation run of the LIGO-Virgo collaboration.

  17. Microlensing Binaries Discovered through High-magnification Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G.; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, S.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Microlensing can provide a useful tool to probe binary distributions down to low-mass limits of binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of eight binary-lensing events detected through the channel of high-magnification events during the seasons from 2007 to 2010. The perturba...

  18. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. VIII. Identification of False Positive Eclipsing Binaries and Re-extraction of New Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Abdul-Masih, Michael; Conroy, Kyle; Bloemen, Steven; Boyajian, Tabetha; Doyle, Laurance R; Johnston, Cole; Kostov, Veselin; Latham, David W; Matijevic, Gal; Shporer, Avi; Southworth, John

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has provided unprecedented, nearly continuous photometric data of $\\sim$200,000 objects in the $\\sim$105 deg$^{2}$ field of view from the beginning of science operations in May of 2009 until the loss of the second reaction wheel in May of 2013. The Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog contains information including but not limited to ephemerides, stellar parameters and analytical approximation fits for every known eclipsing binary system in the Kepler Field of View. Using Target Pixel level data collected from Kepler in conjunction with the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, we identify false positives among eclipsing binaries, i.e. targets that are not eclipsing binaries themselves, but are instead contaminated by eclipsing binary sources nearby on the sky and show eclipsing binary signatures in their light curves. We present methods for identifying these false positives and for extracting new light curves for the true source of the observed binary signal. For each source, we extract three separa...

  19. A decoding method of an n length binary BCH code through (n + 1n length binary cyclic code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARIQ SHAH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For a given binary BCH code Cn of length n = 2 s - 1 generated by a polynomial of degree r there is no binary BCH code of length (n + 1n generated by a generalized polynomial of degree 2r. However, it does exist a binary cyclic code C (n+1n of length (n + 1n such that the binary BCH code Cn is embedded in C (n+1n . Accordingly a high code rate is attained through a binary cyclic code C (n+1n for a binary BCH code Cn . Furthermore, an algorithm proposed facilitates in a decoding of a binary BCH code Cn through the decoding of a binary cyclic code C (n+1n , while the codes Cn and C (n+1n have the same minimum hamming distance.

  20. Non-conservative evolution of close binaries: The evolutionary computations for a binary in case A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Hai-lin; Huang Run-qian

    1987-06-01

    The detailed evolutionary computations for a binary of 8.5 M/sub sun/+4.5 M/sub sun/ in Case A are described by using the method for computing the non-conservative evolution of close binaries proposed by Huang and Xie (7). The changes in the mass loss coefficient f/sub 1/ and the angular momentum loss coefficient f/sub 2/ in the process of mass transfer are also discussed in this paper.

  1. Cognitive Binary Logic - The Natural Unified Formal Theory of Propositional Binary Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Bodorin, Nicolaie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a formal theory which describes propositional binary logic as a semantically closed formal language, and allows for syntactically and semantically well-formed formulae, formal proofs (demonstrability in Hilbertian acception), deduction (Gentzen's view of demonstrability), CNF-ization, and deconstruction to be expressed and tested in the same (computational) formal language, using the same data structure. It is also shown here that Cognitive Binary Logic is a self-described theory in which the Liar Paradox is deconstructed.

  2. The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring: I. Observational campaign and OB-type spectroscopic binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, L A; Taylor, W; Barbá, R; Bonanos, A; Crowther, P; Damineli, A; de Koter, A; de Mink, S E; Evans, C J; Gieles, M; Grin, N J; Hénault-Brunet, V; Langer, N; Lennon, D; Lockwood, S; Apellániz, J Maíz; Moffat, A F J; Neijssel, C; Norman, C; Ramírez-Agudelo, O H; Richardson, N D; Schootemeijer, A; Shenar, T; Soszyński, I; Tramper, F; Vink, J S

    2016-01-01

    Massive binaries (MBs) play a crucial role in the Universe and knowing the distributions of their orbital parameters (OPs) is important for a wide range of topics, from stellar feedback to binary evolution channels, from the distribution of supernova types to gravitational wave progenitors. Yet, no direct measurements exist outside the Milky Way. The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring was designed to help fill this gap by obtaining multi-epoch radial velocity monitoring of 102 MBs in the 30 Dor. In this paper, we analyse 32 FLAMES/GIRAFFE observations of 93 O- and 7 B-type binaries. We performed a Fourier analysis and obtained orbital solutions for 82 systems: 51 single-lined and 31 double-lined spectroscopic binaries. Overall, the OPs and binary fraction are remarkably similar across the 30 Dor region and compared to existing Galactic samples (GSs). This indicates that within these domains environmental effects are of second order in shaping the properties of MBs. A small difference is found in the distribu...

  3. A template bank for gravitational waveforms from coalescing binary black holes: I. non-spinning binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ajith, P; Chen, Y; Hewitson, M; Krishnan, B; Sintes, A M; Whelan, J T; Brügmann, B; Diener, P; Dorband, N; González, J; Hannam, M; Husa, S; Pollney, D; Rezzolla, L; Santamaria, L; Sperhake, U; Thornburg, J

    2007-01-01

    Gravitational waveforms from the inspiral and ring-down stages of the binary black hole coalescences can be modelled accurately by approximation/perturbation techniques in general relativity. Recent progress in numerical relativity has enabled us to model also the non-perturbative merger phase of the binary black-hole coalescence problem. This enables us to \\emph{coherently} search for all three stages of the coalescence of non-spinning binary black holes using a single template bank. Taking our motivation from these results, we propose a family of template waveforms which can model the inspiral, merger, and ring-down stages of the coalescence of non-spinning binary black holes that follow quasi-circular inspiral. This two-dimensional template family is explicitly parametrized by the physical parameters of the binary. We show that the template family is not only \\emph{effectual} in detecting the signals from black hole coalescences, but also \\emph{faithful} in estimating the parameters of the binary. We compa...

  4. Binary Disk interaction II: Gap-Opening criteria for unequal mass binaries

    CERN Document Server

    del Valle, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between an unequal mass binary with an isothermal circumbinary disk, motivated by the theoretical and observational evidence that after a major merger of gas-rich galaxies, a massive gaseous disk with a SMBH binary will be formed in the nuclear region. We focus on the gravitational torques that the binary exerts onto the disk and how these torques can drive the formation of a gap in the disk. This exchange of angular momentum between the binary and the disk is mainly driven by the gravitational interaction between the binary and a strong non-axisymmetric density perturbation that is produced in the disk, as response to the presence of the binary. Using SPH numerical simulations we tested two gap-opening criterion, one that assumes that the geometry of the density perturbation is an ellipsoid/thick-spirals and another that assumes a geometry of flat-spirals for the density perturbation. We find that the flat-spirals gap opening criterion successfully predicts which simulations will hav...

  5. Binary-disk interaction. II. Gap-opening criteria for unequal-mass binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Valle, Luciano; Escala, Andrés, E-mail: ldelvalleb@gmail.com [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-01-01

    We study the interaction of an unequal-mass binary with an isothermal circumbinary disk, motivated by the theoretical and observational evidence that after a major merger of gas-rich galaxies, a massive gaseous disk with a supermassive black hole binary will be formed in the nuclear region. We focus on the gravitational torques that the binary exerts on the disk and how these torques can drive the formation of a gap in the disk. This exchange of angular momentum between the binary and the disk is mainly driven by the gravitational interaction between the binary and a strong nonaxisymmetric density perturbation that is produced in the disk, in response to the presence of the binary. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamics numerical simulations, we test two gap-opening criteria, one that assumes the geometry of the density perturbation is an ellipsoid/thick spiral and another that assumes a flat spiral geometry for the density perturbation. We find that the flat spiral gap-opening criterion successfully predicts which simulations will have a gap in the disk and which will not. We also study the limiting cases predicted by the gap-opening criteria. Since the viscosity in our simulations is considerably smaller than the expected value in the nuclear regions of gas-rich merging galaxies, we conclude that in such environments the formation of a circumbinary gap is unlikely.

  6. Non-Contiguous Pattern Avoidance in Binary Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Dairyko, Michael; Tyner, Samantha; Wynn, Casey

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider the enumeration of binary trees avoiding non-contiguous binary tree patterns. We begin by computing closed formulas for the number of trees avoiding a single binary tree pattern with 4 or fewer leaves and compare these results to analogous work for contiguous tree patterns. Next, we give an explicit generating function that counts binary trees avoiding a single non-contiguous tree pattern according to number of leaves. In addition, we enumerate binary trees that simultaneously avoid more than one tree pattern. Finally, we explore connections between pattern-avoiding trees and pattern-avoiding permutations.

  7. Non-binary Entanglement-assisted Stabilizer Quantum Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Riguang, Leng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we show how to construct non-binary entanglement-assisted stabilizer quantum codes by using pre-shared entanglement between the sender and receiver. We also give an algorithm to determine the circuit for non-binary entanglement-assisted stabilizer quantum codes and some illustrated examples. The codes we constructed do not require the dual-containing constraint, and many non-binary classical codes, like non-binary LDPC codes, which do not satisfy the condition, can be used to construct non-binary entanglement-assisted stabilizer quantum codes.

  8. 1974: the discovery of the first binary pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault

    2014-01-01

    The 1974 discovery, by Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor, of the first binary pulsar PSR 1913+16, opened up new possibilities for the study of relativistic gravity. PSR 1913+16, as well as several other binary pulsars, provided {\\it direct} observational proofs that gravity propagates at the velocity of light and has a quadrupolar structure. Binary pulsars also provided accurate tests of the strong-field regime of relativistic gravity. General Relativity has passed all the binary pulsar tests with flying colors. The discovery of binary pulsars had also very important consequences for astrophysics: accurate measurement of neutron star masses, improved understanding of the possible evolution scenarios for the co-evolution of binary stars, proof of the existence of binary neutron stars emitting gravitational waves for hundreds of millions of years, before coalescing in catastrophic events probably leading to an important emission of electromagnetic radiation and neutrinos. This article reviews the history of...

  9. Twin Binaries: Studies of Stability, Mass Transfer, and Coalescence

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardi, James C; Dooley, Katherine L; Gearity, Kyle; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Rasio, Frederic A

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by suggestions that binaries with almost equal-mass components ("twins") play an important role in the formation of double neutron stars and may be rather abundant among binaries, we study the stability of synchronized close and contact binaries with identical components in circular orbits. In particular, we investigate the dependency of the innermost stable circular orbit on the core mass, and we study the coalescence of the binary that occurs at smaller separations. For twin binaries composed of convective main-sequence stars, subgiants, or giants with low mass cores (M_c ~0.15M), we find that stable contact configurations exist at all separations down to the Roche limit, when mass shedding through the outer Lagrangian points triggers a coalescence of the envelopes and leaves the cores orbiting in a central tight binary. We discuss the implications of our results to the formation of binary neutron stars.

  10. Binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sana, H; de Koter, A; Langer, N; Evans, C J; Gieles, M; Gosset, E; Izzard, R G; Bouquin, J -B Le; Schneider, F R N; 10.1126/science.1223344

    2012-01-01

    The presence of a nearby companion alters the evolution of massive stars in binary systems, leading to phenomena such as stellar mergers, X-ray binaries and gamma-ray bursts. Unambiguous constraints on the fraction of massive stars affected by binary interaction were lacking. We simultaneously measured all relevant binary characteristics in a sample of Galactic massive O stars and quantified the frequency and nature of binary interactions. Over seventy per cent of all massive stars will exchange mass with a companion, leading to a binary merger in one third of the cases. These numbers greatly exceed previous estimates and imply that binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars, with implications for populations of massive stars and their supernovae.

  11. THE ELM SURVEY. V. MERGING MASSIVE WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK, 73019 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: alexg@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: callende@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2013-05-20

    We present the discovery of 17 low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) in short-period (P {<=} 1 day) binaries. Our sample includes four objects with remarkable log g {approx_equal} 5 surface gravities and orbital solutions that require them to be double degenerate binaries. All of the lowest surface gravity WDs have metal lines in their spectra implying long gravitational settling times or ongoing accretion. Notably, six of the WDs in our sample have binary merger times <10 Gyr. Four have {approx}>0.9 M{sub Sun} companions. If the companions are massive WDs, these four binaries will evolve into stable mass transfer AM CVn systems and possibly explode as underluminous supernovae. If the companions are neutron stars, then these may be millisecond pulsar binaries. These discoveries increase the number of detached, double degenerate binaries in the ELM Survey to 54; 31 of these binaries will merge within a Hubble time.

  12. The state of globular clusters at birth - II. Primordial binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Giersz, Mirek; Marks, Michael; Webb, Jeremy J.; Hypki, Arkadiusz; Heinke, Craig O.; Kroupa, Pavel; Sills, Alison

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we constrain the properties of primordial binary populations in Galactic globular clusters. Using the MOCCA Monte Carlo code for cluster evolution, our simulations cover three decades in present-day total cluster mass. Our results are compared to the observations of Milone et al. using the photometric binary populations as proxies for the true underlying distributions, in order to test the hypothesis that the data are consistent with a universal initial binary fraction near unity and the binary orbital parameter distributions of Kroupa. With the exception of a few possible outliers, we find that the data are to first-order consistent with the universality hypothesis. Specifically, the present-day binary fractions inside the half-mass radius can be reproduced assuming either high initial binary fractions near unity with a dominant soft binary component as in the Kroupa distribution combined with high initial densities (104-106 M⊙ pc-3), or low initial binary fractions (˜5-10 per cent) with a dominant hard binary component combined with moderate initial densities near their present-day values (102-103 M⊙ pc-3). This apparent degeneracy can potentially be broken using the binary fractions outside the half-mass radius - only high initial binary fractions with a significant soft component combined with high initial densities can reproduce the observed anticorrelation between the binary fractions outside the half-mass radius and the total cluster mass. We further illustrate using the simulated present-day binary orbital parameter distributions and the technique first introduced in Leigh et al. that the relative fractions of hard and soft binaries can be used to further constrain both the initial cluster density and the initial mass-density relation. Our results favour an initial mass-density relation of the form r_h ∝ M_clus^{α } with α < 1/3, corresponding to an initial correlation between cluster mass and density.

  13. X-Ray Background from Early Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    What impact did X-rays from the first binary star systems have on the universe around them? A new study suggests this radiation may have played an important role during the reionization of our universe.Ionizing the UniverseDuring the period of reionization, the universe reverted from being neutral (as it was during recombination, the previous period)to once again being ionized plasma a state it has remained in since then. This transition, which occurred between 150 million and one billion years after the Big Bang (redshift of 6 z 20), was caused by the formation of the first objects energetic enough to reionize the universes neutral hydrogen.ROSAT image of the soft X-ray background throughout the universe. The different colors represent different energy bands: 0.25 keV (red), 0.75 keV (green), 1.5 keV (blue). [NASA/ROSAT Project]Understanding this time period in particular, determining what sources caused the reionization, and what the properties were of the gas strewn throughout the universe during this time is necessary for us to be able to correctly interpret cosmological observations.Conveniently, the universe has provided us with an interesting clue: the large-scale, diffuse X-ray background we observe all around us. What produced these X-rays, and what impact did this radiation have on the intergalactic medium long ago?The First BinariesA team of scientists led by Hao Xu (UC San Diego) has suggested that the very first generation of stars might be an important contributor to these X-rays.This hypothetical first generation, Population III stars, are thought to have formed before and during reionization from large clouds of gas containing virtually no metals. Studies suggest that a large fraction of Pop III stars formed in binaries and when those stars ended their lives as black holes, ensuing accretion from their companions could produceX-ray radiation.The evolution with redshift of the mean X-ray background intensities. Each curve represents a different

  14. Coalescence of Magnetized Binary Neutron Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Patrick M.; Anderson, Matthew; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.; Neilsen, David; Palenzuela, Carlos; Ponce, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We present simulations of the merger of binary neutron star systems calculated with full general relativity and incorporating the global magnetic field structure for the stars evolved with resistive magnetohydrodynamics. Our simulation tools have recently been improved to incorporate the effects of neutrino cooling and have been generalized to allow for tabular equations of state to describe the degenerate matter. Of particular interest are possible electromagnetic counterparts to the gravitational radiation that emerges from these systems. We focus on magnetospheric interactions that ultimately tap into the gravitational potential energy of the binary to power a Poynting flux and deposition of energy through Joule heating and magnetic reconnection. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA through the Astrophysics Theory Program grant NNX13AH01G.

  15. Toroidal Horizons in Binary Black Hole Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Bohn, Andy; Teukolsky, Saul A

    2016-01-01

    We find the first binary black hole event horizon with a toroidal topology. It had been predicted that generically the event horizons of merging black holes should briefly have a toroidal topology, but such a phase has never been seen prior to this work. In all previous binary black hole simulations, in the coordinate slicing used to evolve the black holes, the topology of the event horizon transitions directly from two spheres during the inspiral to a single sphere as the black holes merge. We present a coordinate transformation to a foliation of spacelike hypersurfaces that "cut a hole" through the event horizon surface, resulting in a toroidal event horizon. A torus could potentially provide a mechanism for violating topological censorship. However, these toroidal event horizons satisfy topological censorship by construction, because we can always trivially apply the inverse coordinate transformation to remove the topological feature.

  16. Image Steganalysis with Binary Similarity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharrazi Mehdi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel technique for steganalysis of images that have been subjected to embedding by steganographic algorithms. The seventh and eighth bit planes in an image are used for the computation of several binary similarity measures. The basic idea is that the correlation between the bit planes as well as the binary texture characteristics within the bit planes will differ between a stego image and a cover image. These telltale marks are used to construct a classifier that can distinguish between stego and cover images. We also provide experimental results using some of the latest steganographic algorithms. The proposed scheme is found to have complementary performance vis-à-vis Farid's scheme in that they outperform each other in alternate embedding techniques.

  17. Binary population synthesis and SNIa rates

    CERN Document Server

    Toonen, S; Bours, M; Zwart, S Portegies

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significance of type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) in many fields in astrophysics, SNeIa lack a theoretical explanation. We investigate the potential contribution to the SNeIa rate from the most common progenitor channels using the binary population synthesis (BPS) code SeBa. Using SeBa, we aim constrain binary processes such as the common envelope phase and the efficiency of mass retention of white dwarf accretion. We find that the simulated rates are not sufficient to explain the observed rates. Further, we find that the mass retention efficiency of white dwarf accretion significantly influences the rates, but does not explain all the differences between simulated rates from different BPS codes.

  18. Tidal heating in close binary stellar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieutord, M.; Bonazzola, S.

    1987-07-15

    Tidal heating of a low-mass star in a close binary system, resulting from the conjugate effect of angular momentum loss and tidal action, is investigated via detailed study of the flow inside the secondary. It is found in the case of cataclysmic binaries that viscous dissipation is at most 10/sup -3/ x the nuclear luminosity of the star. It is shown, however, that the dissipation is very sensitive to the turbulent viscosity in the envelope of the secondary. The case of very close pairs of white dwarfs is also considered. It is shown that such pairs, which are thought to be the progenitors of Type I Supernovae may dissipate a power as large as 10/sup 38/ erg s/sup -1/, provided that they reach synchronization; such a heating will strongly modify the conditions in which the nuclear explosion starts.

  19. Binary Fingerprints at Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Hung-Chih; King, Maria D; Kwan, Chiman

    2009-01-01

    We developed a simple way to generate binary patterns based on spectral slopes in different frequency ranges at fluctuation-enhanced sensing. Such patterns can be considered as binary "fingerprints" of odors. The method has experimentally been demonstrated with a commercial semiconducting metal oxide (Taguchi) sensor exposed to bacterial odors (Escherichia coli and Anthrax-surrogate Bacillus subtilis) and processing their stochastic signals. With a single Taguchi sensor, the situations of empty chamber, tryptic soy agar (TSA) medium, or TSA with bacteria could be distinguished with 100% reproducibility. The bacterium numbers were in the range of 25 thousands to 1 million. To illustrate the relevance for ultra-low power consumption, we show that this new type of signal processing and pattern recognition task can be implemented by a simple analog circuitry and a few logic gates with total power consumption in the microWatts range.

  20. Novel quantum inspired binary neural network algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    OM PRAKASH PATEL; ARUNA TIWARI

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a quantum based binary neural network algorithm is proposed, named as novel quantum binary neural network algorithm (NQ-BNN). It forms a neural network structure by deciding weights and separability parameter in quantum based manner. Quantum computing concept represents solution probabilistically and gives large search space to find optimal value of required parameters using Gaussian random number generator. The neural network structure forms constructively having three number of layers input layer: hidden layer and output layer. A constructive way of deciding the network eliminates the unnecessary training of neural network. A new parameter that is a quantum separability parameter (QSP) is introduced here, which finds an optimal separability plane to classify input samples. During learning, it searches for an optimal separability plane. This parameter is taken as the threshold of neuron for learning of neural network. This algorithm is tested with three benchmark datasets and produces improved results than existing quantum inspired and other classification approaches.