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Sample records for binary encounter method

  1. Encounters of binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical integrations of encounters of pairs of binaries have been used to study the class of interactions, called fly-bys, in which the two-binary configuration survives. It is shown that these typically weak interactions can be treated by means of a first-order perturbation theory. A simple simulation model for obtaining the energy transfer rate between various degrees of freedom has been constructed. The model was employed to estimate the additional energy transfer arising from impact parameters larger than those used in the numerical experiments. In the hard binary limit the total energy transfer caused by binary-binary encounters is dominated by the collisional interactions in which the two-binary configuration is destroyed. (author)

  2. BINARY ASTEROID ENCOUNTERS WITH TERRESTRIAL PLANETS: TIMESCALES AND EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many asteroids that make close encounters with terrestrial planets are in a binary configuration. Here, we calculate the relevant encounter timescales and investigate the effects of encounters on a binary's mutual orbit. We use a combination of analytical and numerical approaches with a wide range of initial conditions. Our test cases include generic binaries with close, moderate, and wide separations, as well as seven well-characterized near-Earth binaries. We find that close approaches (<10 Earth radii) occur for almost all binaries on 1-10 million year timescales. At such distances, our results suggest substantial modifications to a binary's semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination, which we quantify. Encounters within 30 Earth radii typically occur on sub-million year timescales and significantly affect the wider binaries. Important processes in the lives of near-Earth binaries, such as tidal and radiative evolution, can be altered or stopped by planetary encounters.

  3. Superkicks in Hyperbolic Encounters of Binary Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Healy, James; Hinder, Ian; Shoemaker, Deirdre M; Laguna, Pablo; Matzner, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Generic inspirals and mergers of binary black holes produce beamed emission of gravitational radiation that can lead to a gravitational recoil or kick of the final black hole. The kick velocity depends on the mass ratio and spins of the binary as well as on the dynamics of the binary configuration. Studies have focused so far on the most astrophysically relevant configuration of quasi-circular inspirals, for which kicks as large as 3,300 km/s have been found. We present the first study of gravitational recoil in hyperbolic encounters. Contrary to quasi-circular configurations, in which the beamed radiation tends to average during the inspiral, radiation from hyperbolic encounters is plunge dominated, resulting in an enhancement of preferential beaming. As a consequence, it is possible to achieve kick velocities as large as 10,000 km/s.

  4. Superkicks in hyperbolic encounters of binary black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, James; Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Shoemaker, Deirdre M; Laguna, Pablo; Matzner, Richard A

    2009-01-30

    Generic inspirals and mergers of binary black holes produce beamed emission of gravitational radiation that can lead to a gravitational recoil or kick of the final black hole. The kick velocity depends on the mass ratio and spins of the binary as well as on the dynamics of the binary configuration. Studies have focused so far on the most astrophysically relevant configuration of quasicircular inspirals, for which kicks as large as approximately 3300 km s;(-1) have been found. We present the first study of gravitational recoil in hyperbolic encounters. Contrary to quasicircular configurations, in which the beamed radiation tends to average during the inspiral, radiation from hyperbolic encounters is plunge dominated, resulting in an enhancement of preferential beaming. As a consequence, it is possible in highly relativistic scatterings to achieve kick velocities as large as 10 000 km s;(-1). PMID:19257409

  5. R144 : a very massive binary likely ejected from R136 through a binary-binary encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Seungkyung; Banerjee, Sambaran

    2013-01-01

    R144 is a recently confirmed very massive, spectroscopic binary which appears isolated from the core of the massive young star cluster R136. The dynamical ejection hypothesis as an origin for its location is claimed improbable by Sana et al. due to its binary nature and high mass. We demonstrate here by means of direct N-body calculations that a very massive binary system can be readily dynamically ejected from a R136-like cluster, through a close encounter with a very massive system. One out of four N-body cluster models produces a dynamically ejected very massive binary system with a mass comparable to R144. The system has a system mass of $\\approx$ 355 Msun and is located at 36.8 pc from the centre of its parent cluster, moving away from the cluster with a velocity of 57 km/s at 2 Myr as a result of a binary-binary interaction. This implies that R144 could have been ejected from R136 through a strong encounter with an other massive binary or single star. In addition, we discuss all massive binaries and sin...

  6. Modified binary encounter Bethe model for electron-impact ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Guerra, M; Indelicato, P; Santos, J P

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical expressions for ionization cross sections by electron impact based on the binary encounter Bethe (BEB) model, valid from ionization threshold up to relativistic energies, are proposed. The new modified BEB (MBEB) and its relativistic counterpart (MRBEB) expressions are simpler than the BEB (nonrelativistic and relativistic) expressions because they require only one atomic parameter, namely the binding energy of the electrons to be ionized, and use only one scaling term for the ionization of all sub-shells. The new models are used to calculate the K-, L- and M-shell ionization cross sections by electron impact for several atoms with Z from 6 to 83. Comparisons with all, to the best of our knowledge, available experimental data show that this model is as good or better than other models, with less complexity.

  7. A census of transient orbital resonances encountered during binary inspiral

    CERN Document Server

    Ruangsri, Uchupol

    2013-01-01

    Transient orbital resonances have recently been identified as potentially important to the inspiral of small bodies into large black holes. These resonances occur as the inspiral evolves through moments in which two fundamental orbital frequencies, $\\Omega_\\theta$ and $\\Omega_r$, are in a small integer ratio to one another. Previous work has demonstrated that a binary's parameters are "kicked" each time the inspiral passes through a resonance, changing the orbit's characteristics relative to a model that neglects resonant effects. In this paper, we use exact Kerr geodesics coupled to an accurate but approximate model of inspiral to survey orbital parameter space and estimate how commonly one encounters long-lived orbital resonances. We find that the most important resonances last for a few hundred orbital cycles at mass ratio $10^{-6}$, and that resonances are almost certain to occur during the time that a large mass ratio binary would be a target of gravitational-wave observations. Resonances appear to be ub...

  8. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as

  9. Binary Black Hole Encounters, Gravitational Bursts and Maximum Final Spin

    CERN Document Server

    Washik, M C; Herrmann, F; Hinder, I; Shoemaker, D M; Laguna, P; Matzner, R A

    2008-01-01

    The spin of the final black hole in the coalescence of nonspinning black holes is determined by the ``residual'' orbital angular momentum of the binary. This residual momentum consists of the orbital angular momentum that the binary is not able to shed in the process of merging. We study the angular momentum radiated, the spin of the final black hole and the gravitational bursts in a series of orbits ranging from almost direct infall to numerous orbits before infall that exhibit multiple bursts of radiation in the merger process. We show that the final black hole gets a maximum spin parameter $a/M_h \\le 0.78$, and this maximum occurs for initial orbital angular momentum $L \\approx M^2_h$.

  10. M-shell ionization cross sections by proton impact on gold in the binary-encounter approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The M-subshell ionization cross sections by proton impact on gold have been calculated in the binary-encounter approximation. The momentum distribution of target electron is estimated nonrelativistically and relativistically by the use of the hydrogenic model and the Hartree–Fock method. The obtained subshell ionization cross sections are converted into the M-X-ray production cross sections and compared with experimental data and other theoretical calculations. The electronic relativistic effect and the wave-function effect on M-shell ionization cross sections are discussed

  11. M-shell ionization cross sections by proton impact on gold in the binary-encounter approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukoyama, Takeshi, E-mail: mukoyama@atomki.mta.hu

    2015-07-01

    The M-subshell ionization cross sections by proton impact on gold have been calculated in the binary-encounter approximation. The momentum distribution of target electron is estimated nonrelativistically and relativistically by the use of the hydrogenic model and the Hartree–Fock method. The obtained subshell ionization cross sections are converted into the M-X-ray production cross sections and compared with experimental data and other theoretical calculations. The electronic relativistic effect and the wave-function effect on M-shell ionization cross sections are discussed.

  12. Binary-black-hole encounters, gravitational bursts, and maximum final spin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washik, Matthew C; Healy, James; Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Shoemaker, Deirdre M; Laguna, Pablo; Matzner, Richard A

    2008-08-01

    The spin of the final black hole in the coalescence of nonspinning black holes is determined by the "residual" orbital angular momentum of the binary. This residual momentum consists of the orbital angular momentum that the binary is not able to shed in the process of merging. We study the angular momentum radiated, the spin of the final black hole, and the gravitational bursts in a sequence of equal mass encounters. The initial orbital configurations range from those producing an almost direct infall to others leading to numerous orbits before infall, with multiple bursts of radiation. Our sequence consists of orbits with fixed impact parameter. What varies is the initial linear momentum of the black holes. For this sequence, the final black hole of mass M_{h} gets a maximum spin parameter a/M_{h} approximately 0.823, with this maximum occurring for initial orbital angular momentum L/M_{h};{2} approximately 1.176. PMID:18764445

  13. The multiple system ADS 9626: A quadruple star or an encounter of two binaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyaeva, O. V.; Zhuchkov, R. Ya.; Malogolovets, E. V.; Orlov, V. V.; Glukhova, A. V.; Balega, Yu. Yu.; Bikmaev, I. F.

    2014-11-01

    The parameters of the quadruple system ADS 9626 (µ Boo) are analyzed. The system consists of two double stars: the Aa pair with an angular separation of ρ = 0.08″ and the BC pair with an angular separation of ρ = 2.2″, separated by ρ = 107″ and having the same parallaxes and proper motions. Position observations with the Pulkovo 26″ refractor have yielded from direct astrometric measurements the difference in the apparent magnitudes and the component-mass ratio for the BC subsystem: Δ m = 0.59 ± 0.06, M(B)/ M(C) = 1.18 ± 0.02. Spectroscopy with the Russian-Turkish 1.5-m telescope has yielded the radial velocities and physical parameters of the Aa, B, and C components. Speckle-interferometric observations with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory have provided the first measurements of the magnitude difference in the close Aa subsystem: Δ m = 0.46 ± 0.03 ( λ = 5500 Å) and Δ m = 0.41 ± 0.03 ( λ = 8000 Å). The new observations are consistent with the known orbits, which were used to find the radial velocities for the centers of mass of the inner subsystems. Themotion of the outer pair, Aa-BC, is studied using the apparent motion parameters (AMP) method. It is not possible to derive an elliptical orbit for this pair; the elements of a hyperbolic orbit have been estimated. The difference of the heavy-element abundances for the Aa and BC subsystems of 0.5 dex confirms that these pairs have a different origin. This suggests that we are observing here a close encounter of two binary stars.

  14. The multimessenger picture of compact object encounters: binary mergers versus dynamical collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosswog, S.; Piran, T.; Nakar, E.

    2013-04-01

    We explore the multimessenger signatures of encounters between two neutron stars (ns2) and between a neutron star and a stellar mass black hole (nsbh). We focus on the differences between gravitational-wave-driven binary mergers and dynamical collisions that occur, for example, in globular clusters. Our discussion is based on Newtonian hydrodynamics simulations that incorporate a nuclear equation of state and a multiflavour neutrino treatment. For both types of encounters we compare the gravitational wave and neutrino emission properties. We also calculate the rates at which nearly unbound mass is delivered back to the central remnant in a ballistic-fallback-plus-viscous-disc model and we analyse the properties of the dynamically ejected matter. Last but not least we address the electromagnetic transients that accompany each type of encounter. We find that dynamical collisions are at least as promising as binary mergers for producing (short) gamma-ray bursts, but they also share the same possible caveats in terms of baryonic pollution. All encounter remnants produce peak neutrino luminosities of at least ˜1053 erg s-1, some of the collision cases exceed this value by more than an order of magnitude. The canonical ns2 merger case ejects more than 1 per cent of a solar mass of extremely neutron-rich (Ye ˜ 0.03) material, an amount that is consistent with double neutron star mergers being a major source of r-process in the galaxy. nsbh collisions eject very large amounts of matter (˜0.15 M⊙) which seriously constrains their admissible occurrence rates. The compact object collision rate (sum of ns2 and nsbh) must therefore be less, likely much less, than 10 per cent of the ns2 merger rate. The radioactively decaying ejecta produce optical-ultraviolet `macronova' which, for the canonical merger case, peak after ˜0.4 d with a luminosity of ˜5 × 1041 erg s-1. ns2 (nsbh) collisions reach up to two (four) times larger peak luminosities. The dynamic ejecta deposit a

  15. The formation of eccentric compact binary inspirals and the role of gravitational wave emission in binary-single stellar encounters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsing, Johan [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    The inspiral and merger of eccentric binaries leads to gravitational waveforms distinct from those generated by circularly merging binaries. Dynamical environments can assemble binaries with high eccentricity and peak frequencies within the LIGO band. In this paper, we study binary-single stellar scatterings occurring in dense stellar systems as a source of eccentrically inspiraling binaries. Many interactions between compact binaries and single objects are characterized by chaotic resonances in which the binary-single system undergoes many exchanges before reaching a final state. During these chaotic resonances, a pair of objects has a non-negligible probability of experiencing a very close passage. Significant orbital energy and angular momentum are carried away from the system by gravitational wave (GW) radiation in these close passages, and in some cases this implies an inspiral time shorter than the orbital period of the bound third body. We derive the cross section for such dynamical inspiral outcomes through analytical arguments and through numerical scattering experiments including GW losses. We show that the cross section for dynamical inspirals grows with increasing target binary semi-major axis a and that for equal-mass binaries it scales as a {sup 2/7}. Thus, we expect wide target binaries to predominantly contribute to the production of these relativistic outcomes. We estimate that eccentric inspirals account for approximately 1% of dynamically assembled non-eccentric merging binaries. While these events are rare, we show that binary-single scatterings are a more effective formation channel than single-single captures for the production of eccentrically inspiraling binaries, even given modest binary fractions.

  16. Iterative Method for Generating Correlated Binary Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Usatenko, O V; Apostolov, S S; Makarov, N M; Krokhin, A A

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new efficient iterative method for generating random correlated binary sequences with prescribed correlation function. The method is based on consecutive linear modulations of initially uncorrelated sequence into a correlated one. Each step of modulation increases the correlations until the desired level has been reached. Robustness and efficiency for the proposed algorithm are tested by generating sequences with inverse power-law correlations. The substantial increase in the strength of correlation in the iterative method with respect to the single-step filtering generation is shown for all studied correlation functions. Our results can be used for design of disordered superlattices, waveguides, and surfaces with selective transport properties.

  17. Gravitational Encounters and the Evolution of Galactic Nuclei. I. Method

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, David

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm is described for evolving the phase-space density of stars or compact objects around a massive black hole at the center of a galaxy. The technique is based on numerical integration of the Fokker-Planck equation in energy-angular momentum space, f(E,L,t), and includes, for the first time, diffusion coefficients that describe the effects of both random and correlated encounters (resonant relaxation), as well as energy loss due to emission of gravitational waves. Destruction or loss of stars into the black hole are treated by means of a detailed boundary-layer analysis. Performance of the algorithm is illustrated by calculating two-dimensional, time-dependent and steady-state distribution functions and their corresponding loss rates.

  18. Diffraction effects in the production of binary encounter electrons emitted in collisions of heavy ions with He and H2 targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relative double differential cross sections for electron emission in collisions of Iq+ and Xeq+ projectile ions incidence on H2 and He targets are presented for observation angles of 0 degree to 60 degree with respect to the beam. The measurements were performed over a wide range of projectile velocities (0.6 to 3.6 MeV/amu) and charge states (q=7 to 23). As the velocity or charge state of the projectile are decreased, drastic changes in the behavior of the binary encounter peak can be observed. These effects can be attributed to diffraction of the target electrons by the non-Coulomb potential of the clothed projectile ion. A theoretical treatment of the double differential cross sections has been developed where the binary encounter electrons are treated within the impulse approximation as the elastic scattering of quasi-free target electrons by the screened potential of the projectile ion

  19. Binary discrete method of topology optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Yu-lin; WANG Xiao-ming; CHENG Geng-dong

    2007-01-01

    The numerical non-stability of a discrete algorithm of topology optimization can result from the inaccurate evaluation of element sensitivities. Especially, when material is added to elements, the estimation of element sensitivities is very inaccurate,even their signs are also estimated wrong. In order to overcome the problem, a new incremental sensitivity analysis formula is constructed based on the perturbation analysis of the elastic equilibrium increment equation, which can provide us a good estimate of the change of the objective function whether material is removed from or added to elements,meanwhile it can also be considered as the conventional sensitivity formula modified by a non-local element stiffness matrix. As a consequence, a binary discrete method of topology optimization is established, in which each element is assigned either a stiffness value of solid material or a small value indicating no material, and the optimization process can remove material from elements or add material to elements so as to make the objective function decrease. And a main advantage of the method is simple and no need of much mathematics, particularly interesting in engineering application.

  20. A novel asynchronous access method with binary interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Solis Jorge; Silva Jorge; Chau Tom; Mihailidis Alex

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Traditionally synchronous access strategies require users to comply with one or more time constraints in order to communicate intent with a binary human-machine interface (e.g., mechanical, gestural or neural switches). Asynchronous access methods are preferable, but have not been used with binary interfaces in the control of devices that require more than two commands to be successfully operated. Methods We present the mathematical development and evaluation of a novel as...

  1. ADIABATIC MASS LOSS IN BINARY STARS. I. COMPUTATIONAL METHOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asymptotic response of donor stars in interacting binary systems to very rapid mass loss is characterized by adiabatic expansion throughout their interiors. In this limit, energy generation and heat flow through the stellar interior can be neglected. We model this response by constructing model sequences, beginning with a donor star filling its Roche lobe at an arbitrary point in its evolution, holding its specific entropy and composition profiles fixed as mass is removed from the surface. The stellar interior remains in hydrostatic equilibrium. Luminosity profiles in these adiabatic models of mass-losing stars can be reconstructed from the specific entropy profiles and their gradients. These approximations are validated by comparison with time-dependent binary mass transfer calculations. We describe how adiabatic mass-loss sequences can be used to quantify threshold conditions for dynamical timescale mass transfer, and to establish the range of post-common envelope binaries that are allowed energetically. In dynamical timescale mass transfer, the adiabatic response of the donor star drives it to expand beyond its Roche lobe, leading to runaway mass transfer and the formation of a common envelope with its companion star. For donor stars with surface convection zones of any significant depth, this runaway condition is encountered early in mass transfer, if at all; but for main-sequence stars with radiative envelopes, it may be encountered after a prolonged phase of thermal timescale mass transfer, a so-called delayed dynamical instability. We identify the critical binary mass ratio for the onset of dynamical timescale mass transfer as that ratio for which the adiabatic response of the donor star radius to mass loss matches that of its Roche lobe at some point during mass transfer; if the ratio of donor to accretor masses exceeds this critical value, dynamical timescale mass transfer ensues. In common envelope evolution, the dissipation of orbital energy of the

  2. Method for forming cooperative binary ionic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelnutt, John A.; Martin, Kathleen E.; Wang, Zhongchun; Medforth, Craig J.

    2014-09-09

    A nanostructured molecular unit and method for forming is described where a cationic porphyrin having an ethanolic substituent species and a metal in the porphyrin cavity is combined with an anionic porphyrin having a sulfonate substituent species and a metal in the porphyrin cavity to form by self-assembly a nanostructured molecular unit with a morphology comprising four dendritic elements connected at a central node.

  3. A novel asynchronous access method with binary interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Solis Jorge

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally synchronous access strategies require users to comply with one or more time constraints in order to communicate intent with a binary human-machine interface (e.g., mechanical, gestural or neural switches. Asynchronous access methods are preferable, but have not been used with binary interfaces in the control of devices that require more than two commands to be successfully operated. Methods We present the mathematical development and evaluation of a novel asynchronous access method that may be used to translate sporadic activations of binary interfaces into distinct outcomes for the control of devices requiring an arbitrary number of commands to be controlled. With this method, users are required to activate their interfaces only when the device under control behaves erroneously. Then, a recursive algorithm, incorporating contextual assumptions relevant to all possible outcomes, is used to obtain an informed estimate of user intention. We evaluate this method by simulating a control task requiring a series of target commands to be tracked by a model user. Results When compared to a random selection, the proposed asynchronous access method offers a significant reduction in the number of interface activations required from the user. Conclusion This novel access method offers a variety of advantages over traditionally synchronous access strategies and may be adapted to a wide variety of contexts, with primary relevance to applications involving direct object manipulation.

  4. A simple method of constructing binary black hole initial data

    OpenAIRE

    Rácz, István

    2016-01-01

    By applying a parabolic-hyperbolic formulation of constraint equations and superposing Kerr-Schild black holes, a simple method is introduced to initialize time evolution of binary black hole systems. In constructing the initial data no use of boundary conditions in the strong field regime is made. The proposed new method offers a direct control on the ADM parameters of the composite system, and it could also be applied to construct initial data for multiple black holes.

  5. Hiding a Covert Digital Image by Assembling the RSA Encryption Method and the Binary Encoding Method

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang Tsan Lin; Sheng Lih Yeh

    2014-01-01

    The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) encryption method and the binary encoding method are assembled to form a hybrid hiding method to hide a covert digital image into a dot-matrix holographic image. First, the RSA encryption method is used to transform the covert image to form a RSA encryption data string. Then, all the elements of the RSA encryption data string are transferred into binary data. Finally, the binary data are encoded into the dot-matrix holographic image. The pixels of the dot-matri...

  6. A new method for constructing networks from binary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Borkulo, Claudia D.; Borsboom, Denny; Epskamp, Sacha; Blanken, Tessa F.; Boschloo, Lynn; Schoevers, Robert A.; Waldorp, Lourens J.

    2014-08-01

    Network analysis is entering fields where network structures are unknown, such as psychology and the educational sciences. A crucial step in the application of network models lies in the assessment of network structure. Current methods either have serious drawbacks or are only suitable for Gaussian data. In the present paper, we present a method for assessing network structures from binary data. Although models for binary data are infamous for their computational intractability, we present a computationally efficient model for estimating network structures. The approach, which is based on Ising models as used in physics, combines logistic regression with model selection based on a Goodness-of-Fit measure to identify relevant relationships between variables that define connections in a network. A validation study shows that this method succeeds in revealing the most relevant features of a network for realistic sample sizes. We apply our proposed method to estimate the network of depression and anxiety symptoms from symptom scores of 1108 subjects. Possible extensions of the model are discussed.

  7. Hiding a Covert Digital Image by Assembling the RSA Encryption Method and the Binary Encoding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Tsan Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA encryption method and the binary encoding method are assembled to form a hybrid hiding method to hide a covert digital image into a dot-matrix holographic image. First, the RSA encryption method is used to transform the covert image to form a RSA encryption data string. Then, all the elements of the RSA encryption data string are transferred into binary data. Finally, the binary data are encoded into the dot-matrix holographic image. The pixels of the dot-matrix holographic image contain seven groups of codes used for reconstructing the covert image. The seven groups of codes are identification codes, covert-image dimension codes, covert-image graylevel codes, pre-RSA bit number codes, RSA key codes, post-RSA bit number codes, and information codes. The reconstructed covert image derived from the dot-matrix holographic image and the original covert image are exactly the same.

  8. Simple methods for evaluating and comparing binary experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas A. Weber

    2010-01-01

    We consider a confidence parametrization of binary information sources in terms of appropriate likelihood ratios. This parametrization is used for Bayesian belief updates and for the equivalent comparison of binary experiments. In contrast to the standard parametrization of a binary information source in terms of its specificity and its sensitivity, one of the two confidence parameters is sufficient for a Bayesian belief update conditional on a signal realization. We introduce a confidence-au...

  9. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  10. Transition from quantum to quasi-classical behaviour of the binary encounter peak in collisions of 0.6 to 3.6 MeV amu-1 I23+ and Xe21+ with He and Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double differential cross sections are reported for the production of binary encounter electrons in collisions of 0.6 MeV amu-1 I23+ and 1.4, 2.4, and 3.6 MeV amu-1 Xe21+ projectiles incident on He and Ar targets. Electron energy spectra were measured between Oo and 45o in the case of the two lower projectile energies, and between 17.5o and 60o for the two higher projectile energies. The data are compared with quantum mechanical impulse approximation and classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations. (author)

  11. Stellar Encounter Rate in Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bahramian, Arash; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Gladstone, Jeanette C

    2013-01-01

    The high stellar densities in the cores of globular clusters cause significant stellar interactions. These stellar interactions can produce close binary mass-transferring systems involving compact objects and their progeny, such as X-ray binaries and radio millisecond pulsars. Comparing the numbers of these systems and interaction rates in different clusters drives our understanding of how cluster parameters affect the production of close binaries. In this paper we estimate stellar encounter rates (Gamma) for 124 Galactic globular clusters based on observational data as opposed to the methods previously employed, which assumed "King-model" profiles for all clusters. By deprojecting cluster surface brightness profiles to estimate luminosity density profiles, we treat "King-model" and "core-collapsed" clusters in the same way. In addition, we use Monte-Carlo simulations to investigate the effects of uncertainties in various observational parameters (distance, reddening, surface brightness) on Gamma, producing t...

  12. Prediction of surface tension of binary mixtures with the parachor method

    OpenAIRE

    Němec Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The parachor method for the estimation of the surface tension of binary mixtures is modified by considering temperature-dependent values of the parachor parameters. The temperature dependence is calculated by a least-squares fit of pure-solvent surface tension data to the binary parachor equation utilizing the Peng-Robinson equation of state for the calculation of equilibrium densities. A very good agreement between experimental binary surface tension data and the predictions of the modified ...

  13. Empirical comparison study of approximate methods for structure selection in binary graphical models

    OpenAIRE

    Viallon, Vivian; Banerjee, Onureena; Jougla, Eric; Rey, Grégoire; Coste, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Looking for associations among multiple variables is a topical issue in statistics due to the increasing amount of data encountered in biology, medicine, and many other domains involving statistical applications. Graphical models have recently gained popularity for this purpose in the statistical literature. In the binary case, however, exact inference is generally very slow or even intractable because of the form of the so-called log-partition function. In this paper, we review various appro...

  14. Interrupted Stellar Encounters in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Geller, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    Strong encounters between single stars and binaries play a pivotal role in the evolution of star clusters. Such encounters can also dramatically modify the orbital parameters of binaries, exchange partners in and out of binaries, and are a primary contributor to the rate of physical stellar collisions in star clusters. Often, these encounters are studied under the approximation that they happen quickly enough and within a small enough volume to be considered isolated from the rest of the cluster. In this paper, we study the validity of this assumption through the analysis of a large grid of single - binary and binary - binary scattering experiments. For each encounter we evaluate the encounter duration, and compare this with the expected time until another single or binary star will join the encounter. We find that for lower-mass clusters, similar to typical open clusters in our Galaxy, the percent of encounters that will be "interrupted" by an interloping star or binary may be 20-40% (or higher) in the core,...

  15. Anthropological Encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rutten

    2015-01-01

    In this collection of columns Mario Rutten shows how his training in anthropology has shaped his interpersonal relationships and how he learns from everyday encounters. He describes people from the state of Gujarat in north-west India whom he befriended as a young researcher. He has continued to fol

  16. STELLAR ENCOUNTER RATE IN GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahramian, Arash; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Gladstone, Jeanette C., E-mail: bahramia@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB, T5K 1V4 (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    The high stellar densities in the cores of globular clusters cause significant stellar interactions. These stellar interactions can produce close binary mass-transferring systems involving compact objects and their progeny, such as X-ray binaries and radio millisecond pulsars. Comparing the numbers of these systems and interaction rates in different clusters drives our understanding of how cluster parameters affect the production of close binaries. In this paper we estimate stellar encounter rates ({Gamma}) for 124 Galactic globular clusters based on observational data as opposed to the methods previously employed, which assumed 'King-model' profiles for all clusters. By deprojecting cluster surface brightness profiles to estimate luminosity density profiles, we treat 'King-model' and 'core-collapsed' clusters in the same way. In addition, we use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the effects of uncertainties in various observational parameters (distance, reddening, surface brightness) on {Gamma}, producing the first catalog of globular cluster stellar encounter rates with estimated errors. Comparing our results with published observations of likely products of stellar interactions (numbers of X-ray binaries, numbers of radio millisecond pulsars, and {gamma}-ray luminosity) we find both clear correlations and some differences with published results.

  17. A New Thermodynamic Calculation Method for Binary Alloys: Part I: Statistical Calculation of Excess Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The improved form of calculation formula for the activities of the components in binary liquids and solid alloys has been derived based on the free volume theory considering excess entropy and Miedema's model for calculating the formation heat of binary alloys. A calculation method of excess thermodynamic functions for binary alloys, the formulas of integral molar excess properties and partial molar excess properties for solid ordered or disordered binary alloys have been developed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  18. Comparison of three methods for ascertainment of contact information relevant to respiratory pathogen transmission in encounter networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Paula M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical models of infection that consider targeted interventions are exquisitely dependent on the assumed mixing patterns of the population. We report on a pilot study designed to assess three different methods (one retrospective, two prospective for obtaining contact data relevant to the determination of these mixing patterns. Methods 65 adults were asked to record their social encounters in each location visited during 6 study days using a novel method whereby a change in physical location of the study participant triggered data entry. Using a cross-over design, all participants recorded encounters on 3 days in a paper diary and 3 days using an electronic recording device (PDA. Participants were randomised to first prospective recording method. Results Both methods captured more contacts than a pre-study questionnaire, but ascertainment using the paper diary was superior to the PDA (mean difference: 4.52 (95% CI 0.28, 8.77. Paper diaries were found more acceptable to the participants compared with the PDA. Statistical analysis confirms that our results are broadly consistent with those reported from large-scale European based surveys. An association between household size (trend 0.14, 95% CI (0.06, 0.22, P P Conclusions The study's location-based reporting design allows greater scope compared to other methods for examining differences in the characteristics of encounters over a range of environments. Improved parameterisation of dynamic transmission models gained from work of this type will aid in the development of more robust decision support tools to assist health policy makers and planners.

  19. An Apparent Descriptive Method for Judging the Synchronization of Rotation of Binary Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Lin-sen

    2004-09-01

    The problem of the synchronous rotation of binary stars is judged by using a synchronous parameter introduced in an apparent descriptive method. The synchronous parameter is defined as the ratio of the rotational period to the orbital period. The author suggests several apparent phenomenal descriptive methods for judging the synchronization of rotation of binary stars. The first method is applicable when the orbital inclination is well-known. The synchronous parameter is defined by using the orbital inclination and the observable rotational velocity (1,2 sin ). The method is mainly suitable for eclipsing binary stars. Several others are suggested for the cases when the orbital inclination is unknown. The synchronous parameters are defined by using 1,2 sin , 1,2 sin3 , the mass function () and semi-amplitudes of the velocity curve, 1,2 given in catalogue of parameters of spectroscopic binary systems and (1,2 sin ). These methods are suitable for spectroscopic binary stars including those that show eclipses and visual binary stars concurrently. The synchronous parameters for fifty-five components in thirty binary systems are calculated by using several methods. The numerical results are listed in Tables 1 and 2. The statistical results are listed in Table 3. In addition, several apparent descriptive methods are discussed.

  20. Radio Emission and Orbital Motion from the Close-encounter Star-Brown Dwarf Binary WISE J072003.20-084651.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Melis, Carl; Todd, Jacob; Gelino, Christopher R.; Hallinan, Gregg; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella

    2015-12-01

    We report the detection of radio emission and orbital motion from the nearby star-brown dwarf binary WISE J072003.20-084651.2AB. Radio observations across the 4.5-6.5 GHz band with the Very Large Array identify at the position of the system quiescent emission with a flux density of 15 ± 3 μJy, and a highly polarized radio source that underwent a 2-3 minute burst with peak flux density 300 ± 90 μJy. The latter emission is likely a low-level magnetic flare similar to optical flares previously observed for this source. No outbursts were detected in separate narrow-band Hα monitoring observations. We report new high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations that confirm the presence of a co-moving T5.5 secondary and provide the first indications of three-dimensional orbital motion. We used these data to revise our estimates for the orbital period (4.1{}-1.3+2.7 year) and tightly constrain the orbital inclination to be nearly edge-on (93.°6+1.°6-1.°4), although robust measures of the component and system masses will require further monitoring. The inferred orbital motion does not change the high likelihood that this radio-emitting very low-mass binary made a close pass to the Sun in the past 100 kyr. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  1. Moving Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Deslandes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores my experience of losing an authoritative speaking position – that is, ‘falling on my face’ in a research encounter with the Brazilian Landless Worker’s Movement (O Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais sem Terra, or MST.  My specific movements through this locale invoke Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s concept of ‘unlearning one’s privilege as a loss’; and Sara Ahmed’s theory of ‘stranger fetishism’.  In writing my brief loss, I also; of course, recover my speaking position, meaning that I can always efface the loss by re-writing it as a source of ethnographic authority.  This essay is written in two voices in order to reflect this paradox: one which describes the encounter, and one that critically ruminates upon it.  I note, for example, that the MST as a variegated conglomerate of people takes the form of particular ‘Others’ when they are represented in the scholarship and polemic of ‘first world’ activists in the so called ‘global justice movement’.  ‘Falling on my face in the street’ of these Others locates particular processes of fetishization within the global justice movement and the relationships across power and difference that are contained herein; processes that impact on the idea of a ‘global’ solidarity against systemic ‘global’ oppressions.

  2. Introducing adapted Nelder & Mead's downhill simplex method to a fully automated analysis of eclipsing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Prsa, A

    2004-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries are extremely attractive objects because absolute physical parameters (masses, luminosities, radii) of both components may be determined from observations. Since most efforts to extract these parameters were based on dedicated observing programs, existing modeling code is based on interactivity. Gaia will make a revolutionary advance in shear number of observed eclipsing binaries and new methods for automatic handling must be introduced and thoroughly tested. This paper focuses on Nelder & Mead's downhill simplex method applied to a synthetically created test binary as it will be observed by Gaia.

  3. A new method for calculating the activity of stable compound from binary phase diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dengfu; DONG Lingyan; BAI Chenguang; LIU Qingcai; WANG Chuanjun

    2006-01-01

    A new method to calculate the activity of a stable compound in a binary phase diagram was presented and dis cussed. According to the formula for calculating activity from the binary phase diagram, the equilibrium constant can be calculated through the mass action principle after the activities of two pure components were computed respectively. Based on that, the activity of a stable compound can be easily obtained at last. The activity of the stable compound InSb is calculated in the In-Sb binary system by using this method. The result is well consistent with another calculation value.

  4. Radio Emission and Orbital Motion from the Close-Encounter Star-Brown Dwarf Binary WISE J072003.20-084651.2

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, Adam J; Todd, Jacob; Gelino, Christopher R; Hallinan, Gregg; Gagliuffi, Daniella Bardalez

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection of radio emission and orbital motion from the nearby star-brown dwarf binary WISE J072003.20-084651.2AB. Radio observations across the 4.5-6.5 GHz band with the Very Large Array identify at the position of the system quiescent emission with a flux density of 15$\\pm$3 $\\mu$Jy, and a highly-polarized radio source that underwent a 2-3 min burst with peak flux density 300$\\pm$90 $\\mu$Jy. The latter emission is likely a low-level magnetic flare similar to optical flares previously observed for this source. No outbursts were detected in separate narrow-band H$\\alpha$ monitoring observations. We report new high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations that confirm the presence of a co-moving T5.5 secondary and provide the first indications of three-dimensional orbital motion. We used these data to revise our estimates for the orbital period (4.1$^{+2.7}_{-1.3}$ yr) and tightly constrain the orbital inclination to be nearly edge-on (93.6\\deg$^{+1.6\\deg}_{-1.4\\deg}$), although robust m...

  5. Detecting population declines over large areas with presence-absence, time-to-encounter, and count survey methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Jacob E

    2006-06-01

    Ecologists often discount presence-absence surveys as a poor way to gain insight into population dynamics, in part because these surveys are not amenable to many standard statistical tests. Still, presence-absence surveys are sometimes the only feasible alternative for monitoring large areas when funds are limited, especially for sparse or difficult-to-detect species. I undertook a detailed simulation study to compare the power of presence-absence, count, and time-to-encounter surveys to detect regional declines in a population. I used a modeling approach that simulates both population numbers and the monitoring process, accounting for observation and other measurement errors. In gauging the efficacy of presence-absence surveys versus other approaches, I varied the number of survey sites, the spatial variation in encounter rate, the mean encounter rate, and the type of population loss. My results showed that presence-absence data can be as or more powerful than count data in many cases. Quantitative guidelines for choosing between presence-absence surveys and count surveys depend on the biological and logistical constraints governing a conservation monitoring situation. Generally, presence-absence surveys work best when there is little variability in abundance among the survey sites, the organism is rare, and the species is difficult to detect so that the time spent getting to each survey site is less than or equal to the time spent surveying each site. Count surveys work best otherwise. I present a case study with count data on the Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) from the North American Breeding Bird Survey to illustrate how the method might be used with field-survey data. The case study demonstrates that a count survey would be the most cost-effective design but would entail reduction in the number of sites. If this site reduction is not desirable, a presence-absence survey would be the most cost-effective survey. PMID:16909580

  6. Robust Logistic and Probit Methods for Binary and Multinomial Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabai, MA; Li, H; Eby, WM; Kengwoung-Keumo, JJ; Manne, U; Bae, S.; Fouad, M; Singh, KP

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce new robust estimators for the logistic and probit regressions for binary, multinomial, nominal and ordinal data and apply these models to estimate the parameters when outliers or inluential observations are present. Maximum likelihood estimates don't behave well when outliers or inluential observations are present. One remedy is to remove inluential observations from the data and then apply the maximum likelihood technique on the deleted data. Another approach is to...

  7. Health care encounters in Danish chiropractic practice from a consumer perspectives - a mixed methods investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Boyle, Eleanor; Larsen, Johanne Brinch;

    2016-01-01

    patients and 36 follow-up patients and finally video recorded 11 new and 24 follow-up consultations. Categorization and analysis led to the emergence six consumer touch point themes: 'the internet', 'the physical environment', 'practice models', 'administrative staff', 'the consultation sequence and timing......BACKGROUND: Perceived value is the key ingredient to carving and maintaining a competitive business niche. The opportunities to interact with consumers to understand and enhance perceived value are termed 'touch points'. Due to the out-of-pocket expense incurred by patients, Danish chiropractors...... are subject to consumer trends and behaviors. The purpose of this investigation was to explore and describe consumer touch points relevant to perceived value through healthcare journeys in chiropractic practices. METHOD: We designed a convergent parallel, mixed methods study. Our purposive sampling framework...

  8. Health care encounters in Danish chiropractic practice from a consumer perspectives - a mixed methods investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    , 12 new patients and 36 follow-up patients and finally video recorded 11 new and 24 follow-up consultations. Categorization and analysis led to the emergence six consumer touch point themes: ‘the internet’, ‘the physical environment’, ‘practice models’, ‘administrative staff’, ‘the consultation......Background Perceived value is the key ingredient to carving and maintaining a competitive business niche. The opportunities to interact with consumers to understand and enhance perceived value are termed ‘touch points’. Due to the out-of-pocket expense incurred by patients, Danish chiropractors...... are subject to consumer trends and behaviors. Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to To explore and describe consumer touch points relevant to perceived value through healthcare journeys in chiropractic practices. Method We designed a convergent parallel, mixed methods study. Our purposive sampling...

  9. A decoding method of an n length binary BCH code through (n + 1n length binary cyclic code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARIQ SHAH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For a given binary BCH code Cn of length n = 2 s - 1 generated by a polynomial of degree r there is no binary BCH code of length (n + 1n generated by a generalized polynomial of degree 2r. However, it does exist a binary cyclic code C (n+1n of length (n + 1n such that the binary BCH code Cn is embedded in C (n+1n . Accordingly a high code rate is attained through a binary cyclic code C (n+1n for a binary BCH code Cn . Furthermore, an algorithm proposed facilitates in a decoding of a binary BCH code Cn through the decoding of a binary cyclic code C (n+1n , while the codes Cn and C (n+1n have the same minimum hamming distance.

  10. Introducing adapted Nelder & Mead's downhill simplex method to a fully automated analysis of eclipsing binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Prsa, A.; Zwitter, T.

    2004-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries are extremely attractive objects because absolute physical parameters (masses, luminosities, radii) of both components may be determined from observations. Since most efforts to extract these parameters were based on dedicated observing programs, existing modeling code is based on interactivity. Gaia will make a revolutionary advance in shear number of observed eclipsing binaries and new methods for automatic handling must be introduced and thoroughly tested. This paper foc...

  11. Diffuse interface method for a compressible binary fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiewei; Amberg, Gustav; Do-Quang, Minh

    2016-01-01

    Multicomponent, multiphase, compressible flows are very important in real life, as well as in scientific research, while their modeling is in an early stage. In this paper, we propose a diffuse interface model for compressible binary mixtures, based on the balance of mass, momentum, energy, and the second law of thermodynamics. We show both analytically and numerically that this model is able to describe the phase equilibrium for a real binary mixture (CO_{2} + ethanol is considered in this paper) very well by adjusting the parameter which measures the attraction force between molecules of the two components in the model. We also show that the calculated surface tension of the CO_{2} + ethanol mixture at different concentrations match measurements in the literature when the mixing capillary coefficient is taken to be the geometric mean of the capillary coefficient of each component. Three different cases of two droplets in a shear flow, with the same or different concentration, are simulated, showing that the higher concentration of CO_{2} the smaller the surface tension and the easier the drop deforms. PMID:26871168

  12. Diffuse interface method for a compressible binary fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiewei; Amberg, Gustav; Do-Quang, Minh

    2016-01-01

    Multicomponent, multiphase, compressible flows are very important in real life, as well as in scientific research, while their modeling is in an early stage. In this paper, we propose a diffuse interface model for compressible binary mixtures, based on the balance of mass, momentum, energy, and the second law of thermodynamics. We show both analytically and numerically that this model is able to describe the phase equilibrium for a real binary mixture (CO2 + ethanol is considered in this paper) very well by adjusting the parameter which measures the attraction force between molecules of the two components in the model. We also show that the calculated surface tension of the CO2 + ethanol mixture at different concentrations match measurements in the literature when the mixing capillary coefficient is taken to be the geometric mean of the capillary coefficient of each component. Three different cases of two droplets in a shear flow, with the same or different concentration, are simulated, showing that the higher concentration of CO2 the smaller the surface tension and the easier the drop deforms.

  13. Research of Methods for Lost Data Reconstruction in Erasure Codes over Binary Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Tang

    2016-01-01

    In the process of encoding and decoding, erasure codes over binary fields, which just need AND operations and XOR operations and therefore have a high computational efficiency, are widely used in various fields of information technology. A matrix decoding method is proposed in this paper. The method is a universal data reconstruction scheme for erasure codes over binary fields. Besides a pre-judgment that whether errors can be recovered, the method can rebuild sectors of loss data on a fault-tolerant storage system constructed by erasure codes for disk errors. Data reconstruction process of the new method has simple and clear steps, so it is beneficial for implementation of computer codes. And more, it can be applied to other non-binary fields easily, so it is expected that the method has an extensive application in the future.

  14. Soliton solutions of the generalized sinh-Gordon equation by the binary (′/)-expansion method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Neirameh

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to extend the applications of (′/)-expansion method to solve a generalized sinh-Gordon equation. In fact, the binary (′/)-expansion method is introduced for finding different new exact solutions. It is shown that this method is a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations with time-dependent coefficients in mathematical physics.

  15. Binary Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Keegan; Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.

    2014-11-01

    Can a bound pair of similar mass terrestrial planets exist? We are interested here in bodies with a mass ratio of ~ 3:1 or less (so Pluto/Charon or Earth/Moon do not qualify) and we do not regard the absence of any such discoveries in the Kepler data set to be significant since the tidal decay and merger of a close binary is prohibitively fast well inside of 1AU. SPH simulations of equal mass “Earths” were carried out to seek an answer to this question, assuming encounters that were only slightly more energetic than parabolic (zero energy). We were interested in whether the collision or near collision of two similar mass bodies would lead to a binary in which the two bodies remain largely intact, effectively a tidal capture hypothesis though with the tidal distortion being very large. Necessarily, the angular momentum of such an encounter will lead to bodies separated by only a few planetary radii if capture occurs. Consistent with previous work, mostly by Canup, we find that most impacts are disruptive, leading to a dominant mass body surrounded by a disk from which a secondary forms whose mass is small compared to the primary, hence not a binary planet by our adopted definition. However, larger impact parameter “kissing” collisions were found to produce binaries because the dissipation upon first encounter was sufficient to provide a bound orbit that was then rung down by tides to an end state where the planets are only a few planetary radii apart. The long computational times for these simulation make it difficult to fully map the phase space of encounters for which this outcome is likely but the indications are that the probability is not vanishingly small and since planetary encounters are a plausible part of planet formation, we expect binary planets to exist and be a non-negligible fraction of the larger orbital radius exoplanets awaiting discovery.

  16. Numerical method for binary black hole/neutron star initial data: Code test

    CERN Document Server

    Tsokaros, A A; Tsokaros, Antonios A.; Uryu, Koji

    2007-01-01

    A new numerical method to construct binary black hole/neutron star initial data is presented. The method uses three spherical coordinate patches; Two of these are centered at the binary compact objects and cover a neighborhood of each object; the third patch extends to the asymptotic region. As in the Komatsu-Eriguchi-Hachisu method, nonlinear elliptic field equations are decomposed into a flat space Laplacian and a remaining nonlinear expression that serves in each iteration as an effective source. The equations are solved iteratively, integrating a Green's function against the effective source at each iteration. Detailed convergence tests for the essential part of the code are performed for a few types of selected Green's functions to treat different boundary conditions. Numerical computation of the gravitational potential of a fluid source, and a toy model for a binary black hole field are carefully calibrated with the analytic solutions to examine accuracy and convergence of the new code. As an example of...

  17. Intuitionistic Trapezoidal Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Group Decision Making Method Based on Binary Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy multiple criteria group decision making problems based on binary relation. Firstly, the similarity measure between two vectors based on binary relation is defined, which can be utilized to aggregate preference information. Some desirable properties of the similarity measure based on fuzzy binary relation are also studied. Then, a methodology for fuzzy multiple criteria group decision making is proposed, in which the criteria values are in the terms of intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers (ITFNs. Simple and exact formulas are also proposed to determine the vector of the aggregation and group set. According to the weighted expected values of group set, it is easy to rank the alternatives and select the best one. Finally, we apply the proposed method and the Cosine similarity measure method to a numerical example; the numerical results show that our method is effective and practical.

  18. Patient And phaRmacist Telephonic Encounters (PARTE in an underserved rural population with asthma: methods and rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry N. Young, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Methods used to deliver and test a pharmacy-based asthma care telephonic service for an underserved, rural patient population are described. Summary: In a randomized controlled trial (RCT, the Patient And phaRmacist Telephonic Encounters (PARTE project is assessing the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary impact of providing pharmacy-based asthma care service telephonically. The target audience is a low income patient population across a large geographic area served by a federally qualified community health center. Ninety-eight participants have been randomized to either standard care or the intervention group who received consultation and direct feedback from pharmacists via telephone regarding their asthma self-management and medication use. Pharmacists used a counseling framework that incorporates the Indian Health Services 3 Prime Questions and the RIM Technique (Recognition, Identification, and Management for managing medication use problems. Pharmacists encouraged patients to be active partners in the decision-making process to identify and address the underlying cause of medication use problems. Uniquely, this trial collected process and summative data using qualitative and quantitative approaches. Pharmacists’ training, the fidelity and quality of pharmacists’ service delivery, and short term patient outcomes are being evaluated. This evaluation will improve our ability to address research challenges and intervention barriers, refine staff training, explore patient perspectives, and evaluate measures’ power to provide preliminary patient outcome findings. Conclusion: A mixed method evaluation of a structured pharmacist intervention has the potential to offer insights regarding staff training, service fidelity and short term outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data in an RCT. Results will provide evidence regarding the feasibility and quality of carrying out the study and service delivery from the multiple

  19. Simultaneous determination of a binary mixture of pantoprazole sodium and itopride hydrochloride by four spectrophotometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Nesrin K.; El-Ragehy, Nariman A.; Ragab, Mona T.; El-Zeany, Badr A.

    2015-02-01

    Four simple, sensitive, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture containing Pantoprazole Sodium Sesquihydrate (PAN) and Itopride Hydrochloride (ITH). Method (A) is the derivative ratio method (1DD), method (B) is the mean centering of ratio spectra method (MCR), method (C) is the ratio difference method (RD) and method (D) is the isoabsorptive point coupled with third derivative method (3D). Linear correlation was obtained in range 8-44 μg/mL for PAN by the four proposed methods, 8-40 μg/mL for ITH by methods A, B and C and 10-40 μg/mL for ITH by method D. The suggested methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by the official and a reported method for PAN and ITH, respectively, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision.

  20. Novel two wavelength spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of binary mixtures with severely overlapping spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Hayam M.; Saleh, Sarah S.; Hassan, Nagiba Y.; Salem, Hesham

    2015-02-01

    This work presents the application of different spectrophotometric techniques based on two wavelengths for the determination of severely overlapped spectral components in a binary mixture without prior separation. Four novel spectrophotometric methods were developed namely: induced dual wavelength method (IDW), dual wavelength resolution technique (DWRT), advanced amplitude modulation method (AAM) and induced amplitude modulation method (IAM). The results of the novel methods were compared to that of three well-established methods which were: dual wavelength method (DW), Vierordt's method (VD) and bivariate method (BV). The developed methods were applied for the analysis of the binary mixture of hydrocortisone acetate (HCA) and fusidic acid (FSA) formulated as topical cream accompanied by the determination of methyl paraben and propyl paraben present as preservatives. The specificity of the novel methods was investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures and the combined dosage form. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines where accuracy, repeatability, inter-day precision and robustness were found to be within the acceptable limits. The results obtained from the proposed methods were statistically compared with official ones where no significant difference was observed. No difference was observed between the obtained results when compared to the reported HPLC method, which proved that the developed methods could be alternative to HPLC techniques in quality control laboratories.

  1. An efficient iterative method to reduce eccentricity in numerical-relativity simulations of compact binary inspiral

    CERN Document Server

    Pürrer, Michael; Hannam, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a new iterative method to reduce eccentricity in black-hole-binary simulations. Given a good first estimate of low-eccentricity starting momenta, we evolve puncture initial data for ~4 orbits and construct improved initial parameters by comparing the inspiral with post-Newtonian calculations. Our method is the first to be applied directly to the gravitational-wave (GW) signal, rather than the orbital motion. The GW signal is in general less contaminated by gauge effects, which, in moving-puncture simulations, limit orbital-motion-based measurements of the eccentricity to an uncertainty of $\\Delta e \\sim 0.002$, making it difficult to reduce the eccentricity below this value. Our new method can reach eccentricities below $10^{-3}$ in one or two iteration steps; we find that this is well below the requirements for GW astronomy in the advanced detector era. Our method can be readily adapted to any compact-binary simulation with GW emission, including black-hole-binary simulations that use alternative ...

  2. Differential Binary Encoding Method for Calibrating Image Sensors Based on IOFBs

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Cano; Ignacio Bravo; Felipe Espinosa; José Luis Lázaro-Galilea; Alfredo Gardel; Pedro R. Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Image transmission using incoherent optical fiber bundles (IOFBs) requires prior calibration to obtain the spatial in-out fiber correspondence necessary to reconstruct the image captured by the pseudo-sensor. This information is recorded in a Look-Up Table called the Reconstruction Table (RT), used later for reordering the fiber positions and reconstructing the original image. This paper presents a very fast method based on image-scanning using spaces encoded by a weighted binary code to obta...

  3. A method to estimate the significance of coincident gravitational-wave observations from compact binary coalescence

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, K; Hanna, C.; Keppel, D.

    2013-01-01

    Coalescing compact binary systems consisting of neutron stars and/or black holes should be detectable with upcoming advanced gravitational-wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo, GEO and {KAGRA}. Gravitational-wave experiments to date have been riddled with non-Gaussian, non-stationary noise that makes it challenging to ascertain the significance of an event. A popular method to estimate significance is to time shift the events collected between detectors in order to establish a false coincidence...

  4. Application of the finite volume method in the simulation of saturated flows of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the simulation of saturated flows of an incompressible Newtonian fluid through a rigid, homogeneous and isotropic porous medium. The employed mathematical model is derived from the Continuum Theory of Mixtures and generalizes the classical one which is based on Darcy's Law form of the momentum equation. In this approach fluid and porous matrix are regarded as continuous constituents of a binary mixture. The finite volume method is employed in the simulation. (author)

  5. Preparation of PLA and PLGA nanoparticles by binary organic solvent diffusion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋新宇; 周春山; 唐课文

    2003-01-01

    The nanoparticles of polylactide (PLA) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) were prepared by the bi-nary organic solvent diffusion method. The yield, particle size and size distribution of these nanoparticles wereevaluated. The yield of nanoparticles prepared by this method is over 90%, and the average size of the nanoparticlesis between 130-180 nm. In order to clarify the effect of the organic solvent used in the system on nanoparticle yieldand size, the cloud points of PLA and PLGA were examined by cloud point titration. The results indicate that theyields of nanoparticles increase with the increase of ethanol in the acetone solution and attain the maximum at thecloud point of ethanol, while the size of nanoparticles decreases with the increase of ethanol in the acetone solutionand attains the minimum at the cloud point of ethanol. The optimal composition ratio of binary organic solvents coin-cides to that near the cloud point and the optimal condition of binary organic solvents can be predicted.

  6. Spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of betamethasone valerate and fusidic acid in their binary mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Salem, Hesham; Abdelkawy, Mohammad; Samir, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Five spectrophotometric methods were successfully developed and validated for the determination of betamethasone valerate and fusidic acid in their binary mixture. Those methods are isoabsorptive point method combined with the first derivative (ISO Point - D1) and the recently developed and well established methods namely ratio difference (RD) and constant center coupled with spectrum subtraction (CC) methods, in addition to derivative ratio (1DD) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR). New enrichment technique called spectrum addition technique was used instead of traditional spiking technique. The proposed spectrophotometric procedures do not require any separation steps. Accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of the proposed methods were determined and the specificity was assessed by analyzing synthetic mixtures of both drugs. They were applied to their pharmaceutical formulation and the results obtained were statistically compared to that of official methods. The statistical comparison showed that there is no significant difference between the proposed methods and the official ones regarding both accuracy and precision.

  7. A simple method for analyzing data from a randomized trial with a missing binary outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freedman Laurence S

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many randomized trials involve missing binary outcomes. Although many previous adjustments for missing binary outcomes have been proposed, none of these makes explicit use of randomization to bound the bias when the data are not missing at random. Methods We propose a novel approach that uses the randomization distribution to compute the anticipated maximum bias when missing at random does not hold due to an unobserved binary covariate (implying that missingness depends on outcome and treatment group. The anticipated maximum bias equals the product of two factors: (a the anticipated maximum bias if there were complete confounding of the unobserved covariate with treatment group among subjects with an observed outcome and (b an upper bound factor that depends only on the fraction missing in each randomization group. If less than 15% of subjects are missing in each group, the upper bound factor is less than .18. Results We illustrated the methodology using data from the Polyp Prevention Trial. We anticipated a maximum bias under complete confounding of .25. With only 7% and 9% missing in each arm, the upper bound factor, after adjusting for age and sex, was .10. The anticipated maximum bias of .25 × .10 =.025 would not have affected the conclusion of no treatment effect. Conclusion This approach is easy to implement and is particularly informative when less than 15% of subjects are missing in each arm.

  8. A toy model for testing finite element methods to simulate extreme-mass-ratio binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extreme-mass-ratio binary systems, binaries involving stellar mass objects orbiting massive black holes, are considered to be a primary source of gravitational radiation to be detected by the space-based interferometer LISA. The numerical modelling of these binary systems is extremely challenging because the scales involved expand over several orders of magnitude. One needs to handle large wavelength scales comparable to the size of the massive black hole and, at the same time, to resolve the scales in the vicinity of the small companion where radiation reaction effects play a crucial role. Adaptive finite element methods, in which quantitative control of errors is achieved automatically by finite element mesh adaptivity based on a posteriori error estimation, are a natural choice that has great potential for achieving the high level of adaptivity required in these simulations. To demonstrate this, we present the results of simulations of a toy model, consisting of a point-like source orbiting a black hole under the action of a scalar gravitational field

  9. Methods for studying short-range order in solid binary solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The short range order definition and its characteristic parameters are first recalled. The different methods to study the short range order are then examined: X ray diffusion, electrical resistivity, specific heat and thermoelectric power, neutron diffraction, electron spin resonance, study of thermodynamic and mechanical properties. The theory of the X ray diffraction effects due to short range order and the subsequent experimental method are emphasized. The principal results obtained from binary Systems, by the different experimental techniques, are reported and briefly discussed. The Au-Cu, Li-Mg, Au-Ni and Cu-Zn Systems are moreover described. (author)

  10. Machine Learning Methods for Binary and Multiclass Classification of Melanoma Thickness From Dermoscopic Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, Aurora; Sanchez-Monedero, Javier; Gutierrez, Pedro Antonio; Hervas-Martinez, Cesar

    2016-04-01

    Thickness of the melanoma is the most important factor associated with survival in patients with melanoma. It is most commonly reported as a measurement of depth given in millimeters (mm) and computed by means of pathological examination after a biopsy of the suspected lesion. In order to avoid the use of an invasive method in the estimation of the thickness of melanoma before surgery, we propose a computational image analysis system from dermoscopic images. The proposed feature extraction is based on the clinical findings that correlate certain characteristics present in dermoscopic images and tumor depth. Two supervised classification schemes are proposed: a binary classification in which melanomas are classified into thin or thick, and a three-class scheme (thin, intermediate, and thick). The performance of several nominal classification methods, including a recent interpretable method combining logistic regression with artificial neural networks (Logistic regression using Initial variables and Product Units, LIPU), is compared. For the three-class problem, a set of ordinal classification methods (considering ordering relation between the three classes) is included. For the binary case, LIPU outperforms all the other methods with an accuracy of 77.6%, while, for the second scheme, although LIPU reports the highest overall accuracy, the ordinal classification methods achieve a better balance between the performances of all classes. PMID:26672031

  11. Novel spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of timolol and dorzolamide in their binary mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Hegazy, Maha A; Rezk, Mamdouh R; Omran, Yasmin Rostom

    2014-05-21

    Two smart and novel spectrophotometric methods namely; absorbance subtraction (AS) and amplitude modulation (AM) were developed and validated for the determination of a binary mixture of timolol maleate (TIM) and dorzolamide hydrochloride (DOR) in presence of benzalkonium chloride without prior separation, using unified regression equation. Additionally, simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra were developed and validated for simultaneous determination of the binary mixture namely; simultaneous ratio subtraction (SRS), ratio difference (RD), ratio subtraction (RS) coupled with extended ratio subtraction (EXRS), constant multiplication method (CM) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR). The proposed spectrophotometric procedures do not require any separation steps. Accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of the proposed methods were determined and the specificity was assessed by analyzing synthetic mixtures of both drugs. They were applied to their pharmaceutical formulation and the results obtained were statistically compared to that of a reported spectrophotometric method. The statistical comparison showed that there is no significant difference between the proposed methods and the reported one regarding both accuracy and precision. PMID:24607469

  12. Introducing Powell's Direction Set Method to a Fully Automated Analysis of Eclipsing Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Prsa, A

    2006-01-01

    With recent observational advancements, substantial amounts of photometric and spectroscopic eclipsing binary data have been acquired. As part of an ongoing effort to assemble a reliable pipeline for fully automatic data analysis, we put Powell's direction set method to the test. The method does not depend on numerical derivatives, only on function evaluations, and as such it cannot diverge. Compared to differential corrections (DC) and Nelder & Mead's downhill simplex (NMS) method, Powell's method proves to be more efficient in terms of solution determination and the required number of iterations. However, its application is still not optimal in terms of time cost. Causes for this deficiency are identified and two steps toward the solution are proposed: non-ortogonality of the parameter set should be removed and better initial directions should be determined before the minimization is initiated. Once these setbacks are worked out, Powell's method will probably replace DC and NMS as the default minimizing...

  13. A New Thermodynamic Calculation Method for Binary Alloys Part II: Exploring the Correction Factor Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new method of revising activity values has been derived based on the so called correction factor function for binary alloys with a large difference between two components. The correction factor is a function of physical properties formed by the difference of two components. Its absolute value increases with the enhancement of the difference in the character of components. It can be either positive or negative and the rules for selecting the sign of correction factor have been analyzed. Results are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  14. Cultural geography. Different encounters, encountering difference

    OpenAIRE

    Longhurst, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    In the first half of this paper it is argued that cultural geography is a dynamic and diverse field that extends well beyond a single branch of human geography. The boundaries between it and other sub-disciplines are often blurred. People have «different» encounters with cultural geography depending on their sub-disciplinary convergences. People also have different encounters with cultural geography depending on where they live and work. «Place matters» in the construction, production and rep...

  15. Binaries and Globular Cluster Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rasio, F A; Joshi, K J; Rasio, Frederic A.; Fregeau, John M.; Joshi, Kriten J.

    2001-01-01

    We summarize the results of recent theoretical work on the dynamical evolution of globular clusters containing primordial binaries. Even a very small initial binary fraction (e.g., 10%) can play a key role in supporting a cluster against gravothermal collapse for many relaxation times. Inelastic encounters between binaries and single stars or other binaries provide a very significant energy source for the cluster. These dynamical interactions also lead to the production of large numbers of exotic systems such as ultracompact X-ray binaries, recycled radio pulsars, double degenerate systems, and blue stragglers. Our work is based on a new parallel supercomputer code implementing Henon's Monte Carlo method for simulating the dynamical evolution of dense stellar systems in the Fokker-Planck approximation. This new code allows us to calculate very accurately the evolution of a cluster containing a realistic number of stars (N ~ 10^5 - 10^6) in typically a few hours to a few days of computing time. The discrete, s...

  16. RESEARCH ON FEATURE POINTS EXTRACTION METHOD FOR BINARY MULTISCALE AND ROTATION INVARIANT LOCAL FEATURE DESCRIPTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Ying

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An extreme point of scale space extraction method for binary multiscale and rotation invariant local feature descriptor is studied in this paper in order to obtain a robust and fast method for local image feature descriptor. Classic local feature description algorithms often select neighborhood information of feature points which are extremes of image scale space, obtained by constructing the image pyramid using certain signal transform method. But build the image pyramid always consumes a large amount of computing and storage resources, is not conducive to the actual applications development. This paper presents a dual multiscale FAST algorithm, it does not need to build the image pyramid, but can extract feature points of scale extreme quickly. Feature points extracted by proposed method have the characteristic of multiscale and rotation Invariant and are fit to construct the local feature descriptor.

  17. Simulation of physical sputtering of metal surface: certification of modified method of binary collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified method of binary collisions and its application for simulation of metal surface sputtering is considered. The conventional methods possess an insufficient speed of response and incomplete adequacy to the experiment. The proposed model possesses a considerably higher speed of response and fuller account of factors affecting the spUttering process. A particular attention is given to the problem of experimental certification of the program. Using as an example physical sputtering of nickel and copper by nickel- and argon ions, respectively, a perfect agreement bitween model results and the experiment is shown: the sputtering coefficient dependence on the ion energy and incidence angle, angular- and energy distributions of sputtered atoms. Studies on prospects for using the new method are considered

  18. Different spectrophotometric methods applied for the analysis of binary mixture of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Three different spectrophotometric methods were applied for the quantitative analysis of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in their binary mixture, namely, ratio subtraction, absorbance subtraction and amplitude modulation. A comparative study was done listing the advantages and the disadvantages of each method. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines and the obtained accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can be used for the routine analysis of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in their binary mixtures.

  19. Encounters with immigrant customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the challenges that Danish community pharmacy staff encounter when serving non-Western immigrant customers. Special attention was paid to similarities and differences between the perceptions of pharmacists and pharmacy assistants. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed...... to one pharmacist and one pharmacy assistant employed at each of the 55 community pharmacies located in the five local councils in Denmark with the highest number of immigrant inhabitants. KEY FINDINGS: The total response rate was 76% (84/110). Most respondents found that the needs of immigrant customers...... interval, CI, 1.27-8.04). Forty-two per cent (n = 35) perceived that immigrant customers put pressure on pharmacy staff resources, while 27% (n = 23) found that the immigrant customer group make work more interesting. More pharmacists than assistants agreed on the latter (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1...

  20. Stellar Encounters with Multiple Star Systems and the Blue Straggler Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    We present a technique to identify the most probable dynamical formation scenario for an observed binary or triple system containing one or more merger products or, alternatively, to rule out the possibility of a dynamical origin. Our method relies on an analytic prescription for energy conservation during stellar encounters. With this, observations of the multiple star system containing the merger product(s) can be used to work backwards in order to constrain the initial orbital energies of any single, binary or triple systems that went into the encounter. The initial semi-major axes of the orbits provide an estimate for the collisional cross section and therefore the time-scale for the encounter to occur in its host cluster. We have applied our analytic prescription to observed binary and triple systems containing blue stragglers, in particular the triple system S1082 in M67 and the period distribution of the blue straggler binaries in NGC 188. We have shown that both S1082 and most of the blue straggler bi...

  1. An autocorrelation method to detect periodic gravitational waves from neutron stars in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceré, Andrea; Yvert, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Rotating, non-axisymmetric neutron stars are expected to emit continuous gravitational waves at a nearly stable frequency. Nowadays about 2500 pulsars have been detected, thanks to their beamed electromagnetic emission, and many more of these objects should exist, whose electromagnetic beam does not include Earth and cannot be detected. The gravitational emission is not beamed, and could be accessible to gravitational observatories, even though no detection as been claimed yet. About half of the pulsars predicted to possibly emit gravitational waves in the frequency range accessible to ground-based interferometers belongs to binary systems; this is an additional complication, because the frequencies of these pulsars are Doppler-shifted due to their orbital motion, and an optimal detection strategy would require a computing power far beyond the present capabilities. We present here an approach which allows searching all-sky for such sources, over a broad range of frequencies, orbital periods and binary system eccentricities, reaching sensitivities potentially good enough to provide candidates for more sophisticated hierarchical detection methods. We test this new technique using real data taken during the first science run of Virgo, and estimating the sensitivity to a set of simulated pulsar signals.

  2. A New Method for the Detections of Multiple Faults Using Binary Decision Diagrams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Zhongliang; CHEN Ling; ZHANG Guangzhao

    2006-01-01

    With the complexity of integrated circuits is continually increasing, a local defect in circuits may cause multiple faults. The behavior of a digital circuit with a multiple fault may significantly differ from that of a single fault. A new method for the detection of multiple faults in digital circuits is presented in this paper, the method is based on binary decision diagram (BDD). First of all, the BDDs for the normal circuit and faulty circuit are built respectively. Secondly, a test BDD is obtained by the XOR operation of the BDDs corresponds to normal circuit and faulty circuit. In the test BDD, each input assignment that leads to the leaf node labeled 1 is a test vector of multiple faults. Therefore, the test set of multiple faults is generated by searching for the type of input assignments in the test BDD. Experimental results on some digital circuits show the feasibility of the approach presented in this paper.

  3. A New Method to Calculate the Stochastic Background of Gravitational Waves Generated by Compact Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, E F D

    2015-01-01

    In the study of gravitational waves (GWs), the stochastic background generated by compact binary systems are among the most important kinds of signals. The reason for such an importance has to do with their probable detection by the interferometric detectors [such as the Advanced LIGO (ALIGO) and Einstein Telescope (ET)] in the near future. In this paper we are concerned with, in particular, the stochastic background of GWs generated by double neutron star (DNS) systems in circular orbits during their periodic and quasi--periodic phases. Our aim here is to describe a new method to calculate such spectra, which is based on an analogy with a problem of Statistical Mechanics. Besides, an important characteristic of our method is to consider the time evolution of the orbital parameters.

  4. Enhanced method for the generation of binary Fresnel holograms based on grid-cross downsampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. K. Cheung; Peter Tsang; T. C. Poon; Changhe Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated that digital Fresnel holograms can be binarized in a non-iterative manner by downsampling the source image with a grid lattice prior to the hologram generation process. The reconstructed image of a hologram that is binarized with this approach is superior in quality compared with that obtained with direct thresholding, half-toning, and error diffusion. Despite the success, the downsampling mechanism results in a prominent texture of regularly spaced voids in the shaded regions. To alleviate this problem, an enhanced non-iterative method for the generation of binary Fresnel holograms is presented. Our method is based on a multi-direction line-sampling formed by a combined grid and cross lattice, which is capable of preserving a more solid texture in the shaded regions and enhancing the visual quality of the reconstructed image. Computer simulations and optical reconstructions are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed technique.%Past research has demonstrated that digital Fresnel holograms can be binarized in a non-iterative manner by downsampling the source image with a grid lattice prior to the hologram generation process.The reconstructed image of a hologram that is binarized with this approach is superior in quality compared with that obtained with direct thresholding,half-toning,and error diffusion.Despite the success,the downsampling mechanism results in a prominent texture of regularly spaced voids in the shaded regions.To alleviate this problem,an enhanced non-iterative method for the generation of binary Fresnel holograms is presented.Our method is based on a multi-direction line-sampling formed by a combined grid and cross lattice,which is capable of preserving a more solid texture in the shaded regions and enhancing the visual quality of the reconstructed image.Computer simulations and optical reconstructions are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed technique.

  5. Differential Binary Encoding Method for Calibrating Image Sensors Based on IOFBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Cano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Image transmission using incoherent optical fiber bundles (IOFBs requires prior calibration to obtain the spatial in-out fiber correspondence necessary to reconstruct the image captured by the pseudo-sensor. This information is recorded in a Look-Up Table called the Reconstruction Table (RT, used later for reordering the fiber positions and reconstructing the original image. This paper presents a very fast method based on image-scanning using spaces encoded by a weighted binary code to obtain the in-out correspondence. The results demonstrate that this technique yields a remarkable reduction in processing time and the image reconstruction quality is very good compared to previous techniques based on spot or line scanning, for example.

  6. A phase-field-based quasi-incompressible lattice Boltzmann method for binary fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Kang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a phase-field-based quasi-incompressible lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been proposed for binary fluids. Compared with the generalized incompressible LBM, the quasi-incompressible model can conserve mass locally and globally. A series of numerical simulations, including one-dimensional flat interface, the stationary droplet, the bubble rising under buoyancy and phase separation have been performed to validate the proposed model and compare it with the incompressible model. By the one-dimensional flat interface and stationary droplet tests, the proposed model can track the interface with high accuracy and is well consistent with the Laplace law. Moreover, the simulations of bubble rising and phase separation demonstrate that the predictions by the quasi-incompressible and incompressible models agree qualitatively when the interfacial mixing layer is small; while the predictions differ significantly when the interfacial mixing layer is large.

  7. Propensity score methods for estimating relative risks in cluster randomized trials with low-incidence binary outcomes and selection bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyrat, Clémence; Caille, Agnès; Donner, Allan; Giraudeau, Bruno

    2014-09-10

    Despite randomization, selection bias may occur in cluster randomized trials. Classical multivariable regression usually allows for adjusting treatment effect estimates with unbalanced covariates. However, for binary outcomes with low incidence, such a method may fail because of separation problems. This simulation study focused on the performance of propensity score (PS)-based methods to estimate relative risks from cluster randomized trials with binary outcomes with low incidence. The results suggested that among the different approaches used (multivariable regression, direct adjustment on PS, inverse weighting on PS, and stratification on PS), only direct adjustment on the PS fully corrected the bias and moreover had the best statistical properties. PMID:24771662

  8. Dental Encounter System (DES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  9. Binary encoding method to encrypt Fourier-transformed information of digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuang Tsan

    2009-02-01

    An encoding method is used to encrypt the Fourier-transformed information of a hidden (covert) digital image in an overt image, while the Fourier-transformed information must be encoded with binary codes. All of the pixels in an overt image are classified into five groups that are called identification, type, tracing, dimension, and information codes. Identification codes are used to judge if the overt image contains codes that belong to the proposed encoding method or not; type codes are used to judge the encoding type; tracing codes are used to judge the encoding trace; dimension codes are used to judge the size of the hidden information; and information codes are used to decode the hidden information. Applying the proposed encoding method is rather easy, and host images corresponding to overt images are not needed for decoding work. The experiment has demonstrated four types of encoding for the proposed encoding method to reconstruct covert images without any distortion or only with a little distortion.

  10. [Encounters with strangers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, W V

    1990-01-01

    Beginning with three episodes about the encounter with the alien (from a working group, a therapeutic group and from the actual public discussion about aliens) it is pointed out, why the encounter with the alien is both, fascinating and frightening. From the psychoanalytic point of view this is explained with the concept of the representation of the alien, especially under the genetic, adaptive and topic aspects. Finally from the initial examples conclusions for counseling and psychotherapy are drawn. PMID:2399213

  11. Gravitational Radiation Damping and Evolution of the Orbit of Compact Binary Stars (Solution by the Second Perturbation Method)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lin-Sen Li

    2014-06-01

    The influence of the gravitational radiation damping on the evolution of the orbital elements of compact binary stars is examined by using the method of perturbation. The perturbation equations with the true anomaly as an independent variable are given. This effect results in both the secular and periodic variation of the semi-major axis, the eccentricity, the mean longitude at the epoch and the mean longitude. However, the longitude of periastron exhibits no secular variation, but only periodic variation. The effect of secular variation of the orbit would lead to collapse of the system of binary stars. The deduced formulae are applied to the calculation of secular variation of the orbital elements for three compact binary stars: PSR 1913+16, PSR J0737-3039 and M33X-7. The results obtained are discussed.

  12. Direct Spectral Detection: An Efficient Method to Detect and Characterize Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gullikson, Kevin; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah; Jaffe, Daniel; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Mace, Gregory N; MacQueen, Phillip; Park, Sunkyung; Riddle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Young, intermediate-mass stars are experiencing renewed interest as targets for direct-imaging planet searches. However, these types of stars are part of multiple systems more often than not. Close stellar companions affect the formation and orbital evolution of any planets, and the properties of the companions can help constrain the binary formation mechanism. Unfortunately, close companions are difficult and expensive to detect with imaging techniques. In this paper, we describe the direct spectral detection method wherein a high-resolution spectrum of the primary is cross-correlated against a template for a companion star. Variants of this method have previously been used to search for stellar, brown dwarf, and even planetary companions. We show that the direct spectral detection method can detect companions as late as M-type orbiting A0 or earlier primary stars in a single epoch on small-aperture telescopes. In addition to estimating the detection limits, we determine the sources of uncertainty in charact...

  13. A Hamiltonian Monte–Carlo method for Bayesian inference of supermassive black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the use of a Hamiltonian Monte–Carlo to map out the posterior density function for supermassive black hole binaries. While previous Markov Chain Monte–Carlo (MCMC) methods, such as Metropolis–Hastings MCMC, have been successfully employed for a number of different gravitational wave sources, these methods are essentially random walk algorithms. The Hamiltonian Monte–Carlo treats the inverse likelihood surface as a ‘gravitational potential’ and by introducing canonical positions and momenta, dynamically evolves the Markov chain by solving Hamilton's equations of motion. This method is not as widely used as other MCMC algorithms due to the necessity of calculating gradients of the log-likelihood, which for most applications results in a bottleneck that makes the algorithm computationally prohibitive. We circumvent this problem by using accepted initial phase-space trajectory points to analytically fit for each of the individual gradients. Eliminating the waveform generation needed for the numerical derivatives reduces the total number of required templates for a 106 iteration chain from ∼109 to ∼106. The result is in an implementation of the Hamiltonian Monte–Carlo that is faster, and more efficient by a factor of approximately the dimension of the parameter space, than a Hessian MCMC. (paper)

  14. A method to identify and characterise binary candidates - a study of CoRoT

    CERN Document Server

    Da Silva, Ronaldo

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the CoRoT space mission data was performed aiming to test a method that selects, among the several light curves observed, the transiting systems that likely host a low-mass star orbiting the main target. The method identifies stellar companions by fitting a model to the observed transits. Applying this model, that uses equations like Kepler's third law and an empirical mass-radius relation, it is possible to estimate the mass and radius of the primary and secondary objects as well as the semimajor axis and inclination angle of the orbit. We focus on how the method can be used in the characterisation of transiting systems having a low-mass stellar companion with no need to be monitored with radial-velocity measurements or ground-based photometric observations. The model, which provides a good estimate of the system parameters, is also useful as a complementary approach to select possible planetary candidates. A list of confirmed binaries together with our estimate of their parameters are presen...

  15. The clinical encounter revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattner, Ami

    2014-04-01

    The patient-physician encounter is the pivotal starting point of any healthcare delivery, but it is subject to multiple process breakdowns and prevalent suboptimal performance. An overview of the techniques and components of a successful encounter valid for every setting and readily applicable is presented, stressing 7 rules: (1) ensuring optimal environment, tools, and teamwork; (2) viewing each encounter not only as a cognitive/biomedical challenge, but also as a personal one, and a learning opportunity; (3) adopting an attitude of curiosity, concentration, compassion, and commitment, and maintaining a systematic, orderly approach; (4) "simple is beautiful"-making the most of the basic clinical data and their many unique advantages; (5) minding "the silent dimension"-being attentive to the patient's identity and emotions; (6) following the "Holy Trinity" of gathering all information, consulting databases/colleagues, and tailoring gained knowledge to the individual patient; and (7) using the encounter as a "window of opportunity" to further the patient's health-not just the major problem, by addressing screening and prevention; promoting health literacy and shared decision-making; and establishing proper follow-up. Barriers to implementation identified can be overcome by continuous educational interventions. A high-quality encounter sets a virtuous cycle of patient-provider interaction and results in increasing satisfaction, adherence, and improved health outcomes. PMID:24333201

  16. Brief encounter networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kostakos, Vassilis; Penn, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Many complex human and natural phenomena can usefully be represented as networks describing the relationships between individuals. While these relationships are typically intermittent, previous research has used network representations that aggregate the relationships at discrete intervals. However, such an aggregation discards important temporal information, thus inhibiting our understanding of the networks dynamic behaviour and evolution. We have recorded patterns of human urban encounter using Bluetooth technology thus retaining the temporal properties of this network. Here we show how this temporal information influences the structural properties of the network. We show that the temporal properties of human urban encounter are scale-free, leading to an overwhelming proportion of brief encounters between individuals. While previous research has shown preferential attachment to result in scale-free connectivity in aggregated network data, we found that scale-free connectivity results from the temporal prope...

  17. Strange culinary encounters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan; Kjær, Katrine Meldgaard

    2015-01-01

    ‘other’ food cultures in these programs, paying special attention to how the encounter with the local Indian and Italian is imagined to be a gateway to an authentic and/or primitive experience. Our main argument is that despite Jamie and Gordon's ‘noble’ intentions and their ‘enlightened’ cosmopolitan......In this article, we examine the ways in which the encountering of 'other' food cultures is played out in the two travelogue cooking shows Gordon's Great Escape and Jamie's Italian Escape. We investigate how the two protagonist chefs Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay imagine, meet and evaluate the...

  18. A Practical Encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen,Aleksander Buchardt; Billow Khalid, Bashir; Ramsing, Bjarke; Pedersen, Brigitta Alexandra Major; Glenny, Nina Louise; Hagstrøm, Tommy Mickiewicz

    2012-01-01

    This project is a case study on the Trampoline House, a user-driven, non-profit organisation. This organisation has a specific focus on asylum seekers with the aim of empowering and integrating them into society. However they emphasise that this integration is a two-way process also highlighting the necessity of integrating the Danish users in the workings of the house with a foundation in a practical encounter. Our aim is to analyse this practical encounter and discern to which extent it...

  19. Encounters in cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Based on extensive ethnographic material from in-depth interviews with Danish cancer patients after treatment, this study analyzes their stories to explore how interactions with the physician configures and situates a need for rehabilitation. We identify three themes in the illness stories: (1...... this encounter. The significance of the social encounters in cancer treatment is elucidated through this analysis, and we demonstrate how the need for recognition of the complex effects of cancer on one's life is central to counter experiences of objectification and dehumanization....

  20. Rabies virus inactivation by binary ethylenimine: new method for inactivated vaccine production.

    OpenAIRE

    Larghi, O P; Nebel, A E

    1980-01-01

    The inactivation dynamics of rabies virus (PV strain) by binary ethylenimine, and the immunogenic properites and the stability of the vaccines prepared using this agent, were studied. Binary ethylenimine at a final concentration of 0.01 M was prepared wtih 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide in alkaline solutions, either separately from or in suspensions of rabies virus propagated in BHK cells. The infectivity of virus suspensions containing more than 108 plaque-forming units per 0.1 ml was inacti...

  1. Four Spectrophotometric Methods For Simultaneous Determination Of Carbamazepine And Lamotrigine In Binary Mixtures And Urine Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work four different UV-spectrophotometric methods are described for simultaneous determination of antiepileptic drugs; carbamazepine (CBZ) and lamotrigine (LMT) in binary synthetic mixtures and urine samples without separation. First method was by solving the two simultaneous equations (SEQ) based on total absorbance according to Beers law. Second was Dual wavelength (DWSP) method; Absorbance difference between 304 and 313 nm was measurable for CBZ but was zero for LMT. Likewise the absorbance difference between 282 and 290 nm was significant for LMT, and zero for CBZ. Third involved the use of zero- crossing first derivative method (ZCDSP) using the amplitudes at 308.9 and 286.6 nm for CBZ and LMT respectively. Ratio Derivative Spectrophotometry (RDSP) was the last. Here, the absorbance at different concentrations of CBZ or LMT, was divided, wavelength by wavelength, by the absorbance of a divisor, which was LMT standard for the analyte CBZ, and vice versa for LMT, (Divisor=2.0 μg.mL-1) in both cases. The amplitude of the derivative ratio spectra at 290 nm with wavelength interval (Δλ=6.0nm) and 328 nm (Δλ=4.0 nm) were selected for the determination of CBZ and LMT respectively. CBZ and LMT were simultaneously determined in synthetic mixtures and urine samples by the four methods giving good linearity, r2 ranged between 0.9990 - 0.9997. Detection Limit (D.L) was mostly less than 0.4 μg.mL-1,while in case of ZCDSP and RDSP were between 0.01-0.2 μg.mL-1 with wider linearity range (1-50 for CBZ and 1 - 80 μg.mL-1 for LMT). A slightly lower sensitivity was observed when suppressing solution for urine analysis was used to remove interferences. The recoveries of CBZ and LMT in samples of urine of a healthy person spiked with the drugs and using urine of a healthy person as a blank were, in most cases, around (101.0 % - 103.33 %) and (98.33 % - 102.16 %) with RSD≤3.61 and 3.63 % for CBZ and LMT respectively. The recoveries using suppressing solution were

  2. Krylov iterative methods and synthetic acceleration for transport in binary statistical media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In particle transport applications there are numerous physical constructs in which heterogeneities are randomly distributed. The quantity of interest in these problems is the ensemble average of the flux, or the average of the flux over all possible material 'realizations.' The Levermore-Pomraning closure assumes Markovian mixing statistics and allows a closed, coupled system of equations to be written for the ensemble averages of the flux in each material. Generally, binary statistical mixtures are considered in which there are two (homogeneous) materials and corresponding coupled equations. The solution process is iterative, but convergence may be slow as either or both materials approach the diffusion and/or atomic mix limits. A three-part acceleration scheme is devised to expedite convergence, particularly in the atomic mix-diffusion limit where computation is extremely slow. The iteration is first divided into a series of 'inner' material and source iterations to attenuate the diffusion and atomic mix error modes separately. Secondly, atomic mix synthetic acceleration is applied to the inner material iteration and S2 synthetic acceleration to the inner source iterations to offset the cost of doing several inner iterations per outer iteration. Finally, a Krylov iterative solver is wrapped around each iteration, inner and outer, to further expedite convergence. A spectral analysis is conducted and iteration counts and computing cost for the new two-step scheme are compared against those for a simple one-step iteration, to which a Krylov iterative method can also be applied.

  3. An Opportunistic Array Beamforming Technique Based on Binary Multiobjective Wind Driven Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenkai Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel binary version of multiobjective wind driven optimization (WDO for emitted beamforming of opportunistic array radar, which is assumed as a multiobjective optimization problem. Firstly, the emitted signal model and objective functions of optimization are presented. Then the algorithm proposes a new definition of the position vector of air parcel, and brings a good discretization interpretation of continuous WDO. For multiobjective optimization, the grey relational grade (GRG is then used to measure the similarity between the best two solutions for these two objectives. The best pressure locations with the maximum GRG will be recorded as the best two candidate solutions to the problem, and a final optimization result will be selected according to the importance of the two objectives. Finally, the proposed improved WDO has been applied for the optimal design of beamforming of the opportunistic antenna array, which needs a trade-off between the 3 dB main beam width and sidelobe level. The simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO in the optimal beamforming by achieving more reduction in the sidelobe level and saving more runtime.

  4. Encountering an Alien Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproull, Lee S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Applies a cultural perspective to the problem of introducing novices to computing. Presents a model of initial socialization composed of reality shock, confusion, and attempts at control. Describes a survey of college students' first encounters with computers and suggests that the social contexts of introductory courses encourage feelings of…

  5. A difficult encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Vasev, Nikolay Rumenov

    2015-01-01

    through three explanatory variables, namely, institutional misfit, salience and administrative resources. We find that Denmark and Bulgaria have transposed the Directive in protectionist and minimalistic ways, thus far leading to a low outcome, i.e. low patient outflow. The encounter between the EU and...

  6. Global Diabetes Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Nielsen, Annegrete; Langstrup, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    As already recognized, though little theorized within International Relations, the capacity of technology to ensure the achievement of preset policy goals is often grossly overrated. Drawing on Science and Technology Studies, this chapter proposes a lens to investigate global encounters, which take...

  7. Global Diabetes Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Annegrete; Langstrup, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    As already recognized, though little theorized within International Relations, the capacity of technology to ensure the achievement of preset policy goals is often grossly overrated. Drawing on Science and Technology Studies, this chapter proposes a lens to investigate global encounters, which ta...

  8. A Lakatosian Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Helen

    2010-01-01

    There is much to be learned and pondered by reading "Proofs and Refutations," by Imre Lakatos. It highlights the importance of mathematical definitions, and how definitions evolve to capture the essence of the object they are defining. It also provides an exhilarating encounter with the ups and downs of the mathematical reasoning process, where…

  9. Mining information from binary black hole mergers: a comparison of estimation methods for complex exponentials in noise

    CERN Document Server

    Berti, E; González, J A; Sperhake, U; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The ringdown phase following a binary black hole merger is usually assumed to be well described by a linear superposition of complex exponentials (quasinormal modes). In the strong-field conditions typical of a binary black hole merger, non-linear effects may produce mode coupling. Mode coupling can also be induced by the black hole's rotation, or by expanding the radiation field in terms of spin-weighted spherical harmonics (rather than spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics). Observing deviations from the predictions of linear black hole perturbation theory requires optimal fitting techniques to extract ringdown parameters from numerical waveforms, which are inevitably affected by numerical error. So far, non-linear least-squares fitting methods have been used as the standard workhorse to extract frequencies from ringdown waveforms. These methods are known not to be optimal for estimating parameters of complex exponentials. Furthermore, different fitting methods have different performance in the presence of noi...

  10. Classification of multispectral image data by the Binary Diamond neural network and by nonparametric, pixel-by-pixel methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salu, Yehuda; Tilton, James

    1993-01-01

    The classification of multispectral image data obtained from satellites has become an important tool for generating ground cover maps. This study deals with the application of nonparametric pixel-by-pixel classification methods in the classification of pixels, based on their multispectral data. A new neural network, the Binary Diamond, is introduced, and its performance is compared with a nearest neighbor algorithm and a back-propagation network. The Binary Diamond is a multilayer, feed-forward neural network, which learns from examples in unsupervised, 'one-shot' mode. It recruits its neurons according to the actual training set, as it learns. The comparisons of the algorithms were done by using a realistic data base, consisting of approximately 90,000 Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper pixels. The Binary Diamond and the nearest neighbor performances were close, with some advantages to the Binary Diamond. The performance of the back-propagation network lagged behind. An efficient nearest neighbor algorithm, the binned nearest neighbor, is described. Ways for improving the performances, such as merging categories, and analyzing nonboundary pixels, are addressed and evaluated.

  11. Ole Romer's method still on the stage. The study of two bound eclipsing binaries in quintuple system V994 Her

    CERN Document Server

    Zasche, P; 10.1093/mnras/sts616

    2013-01-01

    More than three hundred years ago, Ole Romer measured the speed of light only by observing the periodic shifting of the observed eclipse arrival times of Jupiter's moons arising from the varying Earth-Jupiter distance. The same method of measuring the periodic modulation of delays is still used in astrophysics. The ideal laboratories for this effect are eclipsing binaries. The unique system V994 Her consists of two eclipsing binaries orbiting each other. However, until now it was not certain whether these are gravitationally bound and what their orbital period is. We show that the system is in fact quintuple and the two eclipsing binaries are orbiting each other with period about 6.3 years. This analysis was made only from studying the periodic modulation of the two periods, when during the periastron passage one binary has an apparently shorter period, while the other one longer, exactly as required by a theory. Additionally, it was found that both inner eclipsing pairs orbit with slightly eccentric orbits u...

  12. Binary black holes on a budget: Simulations using workstations

    CERN Document Server

    Marronetti, P; Brügmann, B; González, J; Hannam, M; Husa, S; Sperhake, U; Marronetti, Pedro; Tichy, Wolfgang; Bruegmann, Bernd; Gonzalez, Jose; Hannam, Mark; Husa, Sascha; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Binary black hole simulations have traditionally been computationally very expensive: current simulations are performed in supercomputers involving dozens if not hundreds of processors, thus systematic studies of the parameter space of binary black hole encounters still seem prohibitive with current technology. Here we present results obtained using dual processor workstations with comparable quality to those obtained using much larger computer resources. For this, we use the multi-layered refinement level code BAM, based on the moving punctures method. BAM provides grid structures composed of boxes of increasing resolution near the center of the grid. In the case of binaries, the highest resolution boxes are placed around each black hole and they track them in their orbits until the final merger when a single set of levels surrounds the black hole remnant. This is particular useful when simulating spinning black holes since the gravitational fields gradients are larger. We present simulations of binaries wit...

  13. S-type and P-type habitability in stellar binary systems: A comprehensive approach. I. Method and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive approach is provided for the study of both S-type and P-type habitability in stellar binary systems, which in principle can also be expanded to systems of higher order. P-type orbits occur when the planet orbits both binary components, whereas in the case of S-type orbits, the planet orbits only one of the binary components with the second component considered a perturbator. The selected approach encapsulates a variety of different aspects, which include: (1) the consideration of a joint constraint, including orbital stability and a habitable region for a putative system planet through the stellar radiative energy fluxes (radiative habitable zone; RHZ), needs to be met; (2) the treatment of conservative, general, and extended zones of habitability for the various systems as defined for the solar system and beyond; (3) the provision of a combined formalism for the assessment of both S-type and P-type habitability; in particular, mathematical criteria are presented for the kind of system in which S-type and P-type habitability is realized; (4) applications of the attained theoretical approach to standard (theoretical) main-sequence stars. In principle, five different cases of habitability are identified, which are S-type and P-type habitability provided by the full extent of the RHZs; habitability, where the RHZs are truncated by the additional constraint of planetary orbital stability (referred to as ST- and PT-type, respectively); and cases of no habitability at all. Regarding the treatment of planetary orbital stability, we utilize the formulae of Holman and Wiegert as also used in previous studies. In this work, we focus on binary systems in circular orbits. Future applications will also consider binary systems in elliptical orbits and provide thorough comparisons to other methods and results given in the literature.

  14. Very massive runaway stars from three-body encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Gvaramadze, V V

    2010-01-01

    Very massive stars preferentially reside in the cores of their parent clusters and form binary or multiple systems. We study the role of tight very massive binaries in the origin of the field population of very massive stars. We performed numerical simulations of dynamical encounters between single (massive) stars and a very massive binary with parameters similar to those of the most massive known Galactic binaries, WR 20a and NGC 3603-A1. We found that these three-body encounters could be responsible for the origin of high peculiar velocities ($\\geq$ 70 km/s) observed for some very massive ($\\geq$ 60-70 Msun) runaway stars in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (e.g., $\\lambda$ Cep, BD+43 3654, Sk-67 22, BI 237, 30 Dor 016), which can hardly be explained within the framework of the binary-supernova scenario. The production of high-velocity massive stars via three-body encounters is accompanied by the recoil of the binary in the opposite direction to the ejected star. We show that the relative positi...

  15. Gender Encounter during Interactive Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Wokekoro, Victor Dike; Lerdthamanad, Kritsada

    2011-01-01

    Gender encounter during interactive market is indeed a dynamic aspect of a marketing that affects its’ outcome which is to seal sales. The dynamic implication gender encounter has brought about the researching of both same gender and cross gender encounter in this paper. The division and independent investigate of same gender and cross gender encounter had given a clear motive on the gender preference among male and female students towards same/cross gender encounter. In actualizing this purp...

  16. Seven new binaries discovered in the Kepler light curves through the BEER method confirmed by radial-velocity observations

    CERN Document Server

    Faigler, S; Quinn, S N; Latham, D W; Tal-Or, L

    2011-01-01

    We present seven newly discovered non-eclipsing short-period binary systems with low-mass companions, identified by the recently introduced BEER algorithm, applied to the publicly available 138-day photometric light curves obtained by the Kepler mission. The detection is based on the beaming effect (sometimes called Doppler boosting), which increases (decreases) the brightness of any light source approaching (receding from) the observer, enabling a prediction of the stellar Doppler radial-velocity modulation from its precise photometry. The BEER algorithm identifies the BEaming periodic modulation, with a combination of the well known Ellipsoidal and Reflection/heating periodic effects, induced by short-period companions. The seven detections were confirmed by spectroscopic radial-velocity follow-up observations, indicating minimum secondary masses in the range of 0.07-0.4 Msun. The discovered binaries establish for the first time the feasibility of the BEER algorithm as a new detection method for short-perio...

  17. The Idealized Cultural Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull

    ). This paper proposes to study cultural encounters which are organised around ideals of cultural difference as a positive social and political force. The Danish People to People NGO Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke (MS) is build around ideals of equality, co-operation, mutuality and solidarity between people and...... framework for an investigation into MS’ organisation of what I have termed ‘the idealized cultural encounter’, while also questioning the ways in which ‘culture’ is envisioned in contexts where ‘encounter’ is seen as a positive and desirable force....

  18. Awkward Encounters and Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koning, Juliette; Ooi, Can-Seng

    2013-01-01

    from these encounters. Un-paralyzing reflexivity means to include the awkward, the emotional, and admit the non-rational aspects of our ethnographic experiences; such inclusive reflexivity is incredibly insightful. Research limitations/implications – Inclusive reflexivity not only allows room for the...... imperfectness of the researcher, but also enables a fuller and deeper representation of the groups and communities we aim to understand and, thus, will enhance the trustworthiness and quality of our ethnographic work. Originality/value – Awkwardness is rarely acknowledged, not to mention discussed, in...

  19. Raman Spectroscopy as the Method of Detection for Constructing a Binary Liquid-Vapor Phase Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardino, Debra J.; Howard, Austin A.; McDowell, Matthew D.; Hammer, Nathan I.

    2011-01-01

    The physical chemistry laboratory is sometimes constrained to one semester, resulting in pedagogical deficiencies for the students taking the course. The use of a multidimensional laboratory exercise offers students the opportunity to encounter multiple experimental techniques and physical chemistry concepts while not sacrificing a significant…

  20. Mining information from binary black hole mergers: A comparison of estimation methods for complex exponentials in noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ringdown phase following a binary black hole merger is usually assumed to be well described by a linear superposition of complex exponentials (quasinormal modes). In the strong-field conditions typical of a binary black hole merger, nonlinear effects may produce mode coupling. Artificial mode coupling can also be induced by the black hole's rotation, if the radiation field is expanded in terms of spin-weighted spherical harmonics (rather than spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics). Observing deviations from the predictions of linear black hole perturbation theory requires optimal fitting techniques to extract ringdown parameters from numerical waveforms, which are inevitably affected by numerical error. So far, nonlinear least-squares fitting methods have been used as the standard workhorse to extract frequencies from ringdown waveforms. These methods are known not to be optimal for estimating parameters of complex exponentials. Furthermore, different fitting methods have different performance in the presence of noise. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the gravitational wave community to modern variations of a linear parameter estimation technique first devised in 1795 by Prony: the Kumaresan-Tufts and matrix pencil methods. Using ''test'' damped sinusoidal signals in Gaussian white noise we illustrate the advantages of these methods, showing that they have variance and bias at least comparable to standard nonlinear least-squares techniques. Then we compare the performance of different methods on unequal-mass binary black hole merger waveforms. The methods we discuss should be useful both theoretically (to monitor errors and search for nonlinearities in numerical relativity simulations) and experimentally (for parameter estimation from ringdown signals after a gravitational wave detection)

  1. Extrasolar Binary Planets II: Detectability by Transit Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, K M; Nagasawa, M; Ida, S

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the detectability of gravitationally bounded pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call "binary planets") in extrasolar planetary systems that are formed through orbital instability followed by planet-planet dynamical tides during their close encounters, based on the results of N-body simulations by Ochiai, Nagasawa and Ida (Paper I). Paper I showed that the formation probability of a binary is as much as $\\sim 10\\%$ for three giant planet systems that undergo orbital instability, and after post-capture long-term tidal evolution, the typical binary separation is 3--5 times the sum of physical radii of the planets. The binary planets are stable during main sequence lifetime of solar-type stars, if the stellarcentric semimajor axis of the binary is larger than 0.3 AU. We show that detecting modulations of transit light curves is the most promising observational method to detect binary planets. Since the likely binary separations are comparable to the stellar diameter, the shape of the transit light cu...

  2. Encountering whales: How encounter rates became the basis for managing whaling

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    Declining rates of encountering whales, including both sighting and catching, were noted by whalers throughout the 19th century, and these declines became the first indication that whaling was adversely affecting whale abundance. The interpretation of declines in both sighting and catch rates proved to be a difficult scientific task. Satisfactory quantitative methods of interpreting changes in whale encounter rates were not developed until the second half of the 20th century. Rates of encount...

  3. Markov-Binary Visibility Graph: a new method for analyzing Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sadra, Yaser; Ahadpour, Sodief

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we introduce a new and simple transformation from time series to complex networks based on markov-binary visibility graph(MBVG). Due to the simple structure of this transformation in comparison with other transformations be obtained more precise results. Moreover, several topological aspects of the constructed graph, such as degree distribution, clustering coefficient, and mean visibility length have been thoroughly investigated. Numerical simulations confirm the reliability of markov-binary visibility graph for time series analysis. This algorithm have the capability of distinguishing between uncorrelated and correlated systems. Finaly, we illustrate this algorithm analyzing the human heartbeat dynamics. The results indicate that the human heartbeat (RR-interval) time series of normally, Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and Atrial Fibrillation (AF) subjects are uncorrelated, chaotic and correlated stochastic systems, respectively.

  4. SEVEN NEW BINARIES DISCOVERED IN THE KEPLER LIGHT CURVES THROUGH THE BEER METHOD CONFIRMED BY RADIAL-VELOCITY OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.; Tal-Or, L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Quinn, S. N.; Latham, D. W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    We present seven newly discovered non-eclipsing short-period binary systems with low-mass companions, identified by the recently introduced BEER algorithm, applied to the publicly available 138-day photometric light curves obtained by the Kepler mission. The detection is based on the beaming effect (sometimes called Doppler boosting), which increases (decreases) the brightness of any light source approaching (receding from) the observer, enabling a prediction of the stellar Doppler radial-velocity (RV) modulation from its precise photometry. The BEER algorithm identifies the BEaming periodic modulation, with a combination of the well-known Ellipsoidal and Reflection/heating periodic effects, induced by short-period companions. The seven detections were confirmed by spectroscopic RV follow-up observations, indicating minimum secondary masses in the range 0.07-0.4 M{sub Sun }. The binaries discovered establish for the first time the feasibility of the BEER algorithm as a new detection method for short-period non-eclipsing binaries, with the potential to detect in the near future non-transiting brown-dwarf secondaries, or even massive planets.

  5. SEVEN NEW BINARIES DISCOVERED IN THE KEPLER LIGHT CURVES THROUGH THE BEER METHOD CONFIRMED BY RADIAL-VELOCITY OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present seven newly discovered non-eclipsing short-period binary systems with low-mass companions, identified by the recently introduced BEER algorithm, applied to the publicly available 138-day photometric light curves obtained by the Kepler mission. The detection is based on the beaming effect (sometimes called Doppler boosting), which increases (decreases) the brightness of any light source approaching (receding from) the observer, enabling a prediction of the stellar Doppler radial-velocity (RV) modulation from its precise photometry. The BEER algorithm identifies the BEaming periodic modulation, with a combination of the well-known Ellipsoidal and Reflection/heating periodic effects, induced by short-period companions. The seven detections were confirmed by spectroscopic RV follow-up observations, indicating minimum secondary masses in the range 0.07-0.4 M☉. The binaries discovered establish for the first time the feasibility of the BEER algorithm as a new detection method for short-period non-eclipsing binaries, with the potential to detect in the near future non-transiting brown-dwarf secondaries, or even massive planets.

  6. Studying stellar binary systems with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna using delayed rejection Markov chain Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayesian analysis of Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) data sets based on Markov chain Monte Carlo methods has been shown to be a challenging problem, in part due to the complicated structure of the likelihood function consisting of several isolated local maxima that dramatically reduces the efficiency of the sampling techniques. Here we introduce a new fully Markovian algorithm, a delayed rejection Metropolis-Hastings Markov chain Monte Carlo method, to efficiently explore these kind of structures and we demonstrate its performance on selected LISA data sets containing a known number of stellar-mass binary signals embedded in Gaussian stationary noise.

  7. Numerical Methods for the Simulation of Dynamical Mass Transfer in Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Motl, Patrick M; Tohline, Joel E; Frank, Juhan

    2001-01-01

    We describe computational tools that have been developed to simulate dynamical mass transfer in semi-detached, polytropic binaries that are initially executing synchronous rotation upon circular orbits. Initial equilibrium models are generated with a self-consistent field algorithm; models are then evolved in time with a parallel, explicit, Eulerian hydrodynamics code with no assumptions made about the symmetry of the system. Poisson's equation is solved along with the equations of ideal flui...

  8. An opportunistic array beamforming technique based on binary multiobjective wind driven optimization method.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenkai Zhang; Sana Salous; Hailin Li; Yubo Tian

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel binary version of multiobjective wind driven optimization (WDO) for emitted beamforming of opportunistic array radar, which is assumed as a multiobjective optimization problem. Firstly, the emitted signal model and objective functions of optimization are presented. Then the algorithm proposes a new definition of the position vector of air parcel, and brings a good discretization interpretation of continuous WDO. For multiobjective optimization, the grey relational grade (GR...

  9. BICEPP: an example-based statistical text mining method for predicting the binary characteristics of drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Tsafnat Guy; Polasek Thomas M; Anthony Stephen; Lin Frank PY; Doogue Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The identification of drug characteristics is a clinically important task, but it requires much expert knowledge and consumes substantial resources. We have developed a statistical text-mining approach (BInary Characteristics Extractor and biomedical Properties Predictor: BICEPP) to help experts screen drugs that may have important clinical characteristics of interest. Results BICEPP first retrieves MEDLINE abstracts containing drug names, then selects tokens that best pre...

  10. Mergers of Black Hole -- Neutron Star binaries. I. Methods and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Rantsiou, E; Laguna, P; Rasio, F; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Kobayashi, Shiho; Laguna, Pablo; Rasio, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    We use a 3-D relativistic SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) code to study mergers of black hole -- neutron star (BH--NS) binary systems with low mass ratios, adopting $M_{NS}/M_{BH} \\simeq 0.1$ as a representative case. The outcome of such mergers depends sensitively on both the magnitude of the BH spin and its obliquity (i.e., the inclination of the binary orbit with respect to the equatorial plane of the BH). In particular, only systems with sufficiently high BH spin parameter $a$ and sufficiently low orbital inclinations allow any NS matter to escape or to form a long-lived disk outside the BH horizon after disruption. Mergers of binaries with orbital inclinations above $\\sim60^o$ lead to complete prompt accretion of the entire NS by the BH, even for the case of an extreme Kerr BH. We find that the formation of a significant disk or torus of NS material around the BH always requires a near-maximal BH spin and a low initial inclination of the NS orbit just prior to merger.

  11. Novel sulI binary vectors enable an inexpensive foliar selection method in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jamison

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is conferred by the sulI gene found on many Enterobacteriaceae R plasmids and Tn21 type transposons. The sulI gene encodes a sulfonamide insensitive dihydropteroate synthase enzyme required for folate biosynthesis. Transformation of tobacco, potato or Arabidopsis using sulI as a selectable marker generates sulfadiazine-resistant plants. Typically sulI-based selection of transgenic plants is performed on tissue culture media under sterile conditions. Findings A set of novel binary vectors containing a sulI selectable marker expression cassette were constructed and used to generate transgenic Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that the sulI selectable marker can be utilized for direct selection of plants grown in soil with a simple foliar spray application procedure. A highly effective and inexpensive high throughput screening strategy to identify transgenic Arabidopsis without use of tissue culture was developed. Conclusion Novel sulI-containing Agrobacterium binary vectors designed to over-express a gene of interest or to characterize a test promoter in transgenic plants have been constructed. These new vector tools combined with the various beneficial attributes of sulfonamide selection and the simple foliar screening strategy provide an advantageous alternative for plant biotechnology researchers. The set of binary vectors is freely available upon request.

  12. Reconsidering Children's Encounters with Nature and Place Using Posthumanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article explores and reconsiders the view of children's encounters with place as central to a place-based pedagogy that seeks to dismantle rather than support constructions of a nature-culture binary. I unpack the current fervour for reinserting the child in nature and nature-based education as a significant phenomenon in environmental and…

  13. Disciplining the audiological encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Hindhede, Anette

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the social power variations in the context of audiological rehabilitation. The empirically based study examines the everyday interaction between professional medicine and the patient when hearing aids are being provided. By the use of video recordings an analysis is conducted...... of the structural level of rehabilitation practice for hard-of-hearing working age people in two outpatient clinics in two different public hospitals in Denmark. It is shown that the hearing aid fitting consultations are conducted in a ritualised manner which makes it possible to control what kind of...... experiences patients are allowed to bring to the audiological encounter. Bureaucratic time imperatives preclude patients' subjective experiences and standardised, normative accountabilities based on scientific knowledge work as an effective structuring principle to get the work done in the appropriate time....

  14. Eclipsing Binary Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, P C C

    2004-01-01

    The first eclipsing binary pulsar, PSR B1957+20, was discovered in 1987. Since then, 13 other eclipsing low-mass binary pulsars have been found, 12 of these are in globular clusters. In this paper we list the known eclipsing binary pulsars and their properties, with special attention to the eclipsing systems in 47 Tuc. We find that there are two fundamentally different groups of eclipsing binary pulsars; separated by their companion masses. The less massive systems (M_c ~ 0.02 M_sun) are a product of predictable stellar evolution in binary pulsars. The systems with more massive companions (M_c ~ 0.2 M_sun) were formed by exchange encounters in globular clusters, and for that reason are exclusive to those environments. This class of systems can be used to learn about the neutron star recycling fraction in the globular clusters actively forming pulsars. We suggest that most of these binary systems are undetectable at radio wavelengths.

  15. Ejection and Capture Dynamics in Restricted Three-Body Encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Shiho; Sari, Re'em; Rossi, Elena M

    2012-01-01

    We study the tidal disruption of binaries by a massive point mass (e.g. the black hole at the Galactic center), and we discuss how the ejection and capture preference between unequal-mass binary members depends on which orbit they approach the massive object. We show that the restricted three-body approximation provides a simple and clear description of the dynamics. The orbit of a binary with mass m around a massive object M should be almost parabolic with an eccentricity |1-e| < (m/M)^{1/3} << 1 for a member to be captured, while the other is ejected. Indeed, the energy change of the members obtained for a parabolic orbit can be used to describe non-parabolic cases. If a binary has an encounter velocity much larger than (M/m)^{1/3} times the binary rotation velocity, it would be abruptly disrupted, and the energy change at the encounter can be evaluated in a simple disruption model. We evaluate the probability distributions for the ejection and capture of circular binary members and for the final e...

  16. Effect of Iron Fe (II and Fe (III in a Binary System Evaluated Bioluminescent Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sorokina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of iron ions Fe2+ and Fe3+ on the bioluminescent recombinant strain of Escherichia coli in a single-component and binary system. Found that for the bacteria E. coli Fe3+ ions are more toxic than Fe2+. Under the combined effect of iron toxicity increases, the percentage of luminescence quenching increases, but the value is much less than the sum of the indicator for the Fe2+ and Fe3+. The biological effect of insertion of iron is not proportional to their content in the mixture.

  17. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  18. Binary black holes on a budget: simulations using workstations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binary black hole simulations have traditionally been computationally very expensive: current simulations are performed in supercomputers involving dozens if not hundreds of processors, thus systematic studies of the parameter space of binary black hole encounters still seem prohibitive with current technology. Here we show how the multi-layered refinement level code BAM can be used on dual processor workstations to simulate certain binary black hole systems. BAM, based on the moving punctures method, provides grid structures composed of boxes of increasing resolution near the centre of the grid. In the case of binaries, the highest resolution boxes are placed around each black hole and they track them in their orbits until the final merger when a single set of levels surrounds the black hole remnant. This is particularly useful when simulating spinning black holes since the gravitational fields gradients are larger. We present simulations of binaries with equal mass black holes with spins parallel to the binary axis and intrinsic magnitude of S/m2 = 0.75. Our results compare favourably to those of previous simulations of this particular system. We show that the moving punctures method produces stable simulations at maximum spatial resolutions up to M/160 and for durations of up to the equivalent of 20 orbital periods

  19. Orbit and spin evolution of synchronous binary stars on the main sequence (a theoretical improvement to the analytical method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a method to study the solution of equations for synchronous binary stars with large eccentricity on the main sequence. The theoretical results show that the evolution of the eccentricity is linear with time or follows an exponential form, and the semi-major axis and spin vary with time in an exponential form that are different from the results given in a previous paper. The improved method is applicable in both cases of large eccentricity and small eccentricity. In addition, the number of terms in the expansion of a series with small eccentricity is very long due to the series converging slowly. The advantage of this method is that it is applicable to cases with large eccentricity due to the series converging quickly. This paper chooses the synchronous binary star V1143 Cyg that is on the main sequence and has a large eccentricity (e = 0.54) as an example calculation and gives the numerical results. Lastly, the evolutionary tendency including the evolution of orbit and spin, the time for the speed up of spin, the circularization time, the orbital collapse time and the life time are given in the discussion and conclusion. The results shown in this paper are an improvement on those from the previous paper. (paper)

  20. PHOEBE: PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej; Matijevic, Gal; Latkovic, Olivera; Vilardell, Francesc; Wils, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    PHOEBE (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs) is a modeling package for eclipsing binary stars, built on top of the widely used WD program (Wilson & Devinney 1971). This introductory paper overviews most important scientific extensions (incorporating observational spectra of eclipsing binaries into the solution-seeking process, extracting individual temperatures from observed color indices, main-sequence constraining and proper treatment of the reddening), numerical innovations (suggested improvements to WD's Differential Corrections method, the new Nelder & Mead's downhill Simplex method) and technical aspects (back-end scripter structure, graphical user interface). While PHOEBE retains 100% WD compatibility, its add-ons are a powerful way to enhance WD by encompassing even more physics and solution reliability.

  1. Adiabatic Mass Loss Model in Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, H. W.

    2012-07-01

    Rapid mass transfer process in the interacting binary systems is very complicated. It relates to two basic problems in the binary star evolution, i.e., the dynamically unstable Roche-lobe overflow and the common envelope evolution. Both of the problems are very important and difficult to be modeled. In this PhD thesis, we focus on the rapid mass loss process of the donor in interacting binary systems. The application to the criterion of dynamically unstable mass transfer and the common envelope evolution are also included. Our results based on the adiabatic mass loss model could be used to improve the binary evolution theory, the binary population synthetic method, and other related aspects. We build up the adiabatic mass loss model. In this model, two approximations are included. The first one is that the energy generation and heat flow through the stellar interior can be neglected, hence the restructuring is adiabatic. The second one is that he stellar interior remains in hydrostatic equilibrium. We model this response by constructing model sequences, beginning with a donor star filling its Roche lobe at an arbitrary point in its evolution, holding its specific entropy and composition profiles fixed. These approximations are validated by the comparison with the time-dependent binary mass transfer calculations and the polytropic model for low mass zero-age main-sequence stars. In the dynamical time scale mass transfer, the adiabatic response of the donor star drives it to expand beyond its Roche lobe, leading to runaway mass transfer and the formation of a common envelope with its companion star. For donor stars with surface convection zones of any significant depth, this runaway condition is encountered early in mass transfer, if at all; but for main sequence stars with radiative envelopes, it may be encountered after a prolonged phase of thermal time scale mass transfer, so-called delayed dynamical instability. We identify the critical binary mass ratio for the

  2. Numerical scheme for the modal method based on subsectional Gegenbauer polynomial expansion: application to biperiodic binary grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edee, K; Plumey, J P

    2015-03-01

    The modal method based on Gegenbauer polynomials (MMGE) is extended to the case of bidimensional binary gratings. A new concept of modified polynomials is introduced in order to take into account boundary conditions and also to make the method more flexible in use. In the previous versions of MMGE, an undersized matrix relation is obtained by solving Maxwell's equations, and the boundary conditions complement this undersized system. In the current work, contrary to this previous version of the MMGE, boundary conditions are incorporated into the definition of a new basis of polynomial functions, which are adapted to the boundary value problem of interest. Results are successfully compared for both metallic and dielectric structures to those obtained from the modal method based on Fourier expansion (MMFE) and MMFE with adaptative spatial resolution. PMID:26366651

  3. Stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in binary combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Ullah Khan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method is presented for determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in binary combination. Gatifloxacin, flurbiprofen and their degradation products were detected at 254 nm using a BDS Hypersil C8 (250 X 4.6 mm, 5 µm column and mixture of 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.0 and methanol 30:70 v/v as mobile phase. Response was linear over the range of 15-105 mg mL-1 for gatifloxacin (r² > 0.998 and of 1.5-10.5 mg mL-1 for flurbiprofen (r² > 0.999. The developed method efficiently separated the analytical peaks from degradation products (peak purity index > 0.9999. The method developed can be applied successfully for determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in human serum, urine, pharmaceutical formulations, and their stability studies.

  4. Numerical Methods for the Simulation of Dynamical Mass Transfer in Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Motl, P M; Frank, J; Motl, Patrick M; Tohline, Joel E; Frank, Juhan

    2002-01-01

    We describe computational tools that have been developed to simulate dynamical mass transfer in semi-detached, polytropic binaries that are initially executing synchronous rotation upon circular orbits. Initial equilibrium models are generated with a self-consistent field algorithm; models are then evolved in time with a parallel, explicit, Eulerian hydrodynamics code with no assumptions made about the symmetry of the system. Poisson's equation is solved along with the equations of ideal fluid mechanics to allow us to treat the nonlinear tidal distortion of the components in a fully self-consistent manner. We present results from several standard numerical experiments that have been conducted to assess the general viability and validity of our tools, and from benchmark simulations that follow the evolution of two detached systems through five full orbits (up to approximately 90 stellar dynamical times). These benchmark runs allow us to gauge the level of quantitative accuracy with which simulations of semi-de...

  5. An evaluation of different delivery methods for teaching binary, hex and decimal conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kempthorne

    Full Text Available The ability to convert between binary, hexadecimal, and decimal numbering systems is a fundamental skill commonly taught to tertiary-level computing and ICT students. This paper presents the results of a multiple year investigation into the application of differing approaches for the teaching and learning of these skills. Specifically, the study compares traditional lectures, games, and group activities with student levels of academic achievement. Student prior experience with numbering system conversion is also analysed. The study reveals that, overall, the game-based approach resulted in the highest average test scores; however, when students were divided into groups with and without prior experience, the students with prior experience performed better with a traditional lecture approach.

  6. Calibration Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J.

    2011-09-01

    Two Excel Spreadsheet files are offered to help calibrate telescope or camera image scale and orientation with binary stars for any time. One is a personally selected list of fixed position binaries and binaries with well-determined orbits, and the other contains all binaries with published orbits. Both are derived from the web site of the Washington Double Star Library. The spreadsheets give the position angle and separation of the binaries for any entered time by taking advantage of Excel's built in iteration function to solve Kepler's transcendental equation.

  7. Spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra for simultaneous determination of binary mixtures with sever overlapping spectra: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, H.; Fayez, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Three simple, specific and accurate spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra were developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Rabeprazole sodium (RB) and Domperidone (DP) in their binary mixture without prior separation. Method A, is constant center spectrophotometric method (CC). Method B is a ratio difference spectrophotometric one (RD), while method C is a combined ratio isoabsorptive point-ratio difference method (RIRD). Linear correlations were obtained in range of 4-44 μg/mL for both Rabeprazole sodium and Domperidone. The mean percentage recoveries of RB were 99.69 ± 0.504 for method A, 99.83 ± 0.483 for (B) and 100.31 ± 0.499 for (C), respectively, and that of DP were 99.52 ± 0.474 for method A, 100.12 ± 0.505 for (B) and 100.16 ± 0.498 for (C), respectively. Specificity was investigated by analysis of laboratory prepared mixtures containing the cited drugs and their combined tablet dosage form. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by the reported methods, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision. The three methods were validated as per ICH guidelines and can be applied for routine analysis in quality control laboratories.

  8. Finding binary active galactic nuclei candidates by the centroid shift in imaging surveys II. Testing the method with SDSS J233635.75-010733.7

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    In Liu (2015), we propose selecting binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) candidates using the centroid shift of the images, which is induced by the non-synchronous variations of the two nuclei. In this paper, a known binary AGN (SDSS J233635.75-010733.7) is employed to verify the ability of this method. Using 162 exposures in the $R$ band of \\textit{Palomar Transient Factory} (PTF), an excess of dispersion in the positional distribution of the binary AGN is detected, though the two nuclei cannot be resolved in the images of PTF. We also propose a new method to compare the position of the binary AGN in PTF $g$ and $R$ band and find the difference is highly significant even only with 20 exposures. This new method is efficient for two nuclei with different spectral energy distributions, e.g., type I + type II AGN or off-set AGN. Large-scale surveys, e.g., the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, are expected to discover a large sample of binary AGN candida...

  9. BICEPP: an example-based statistical text mining method for predicting the binary characteristics of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsafnat Guy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of drug characteristics is a clinically important task, but it requires much expert knowledge and consumes substantial resources. We have developed a statistical text-mining approach (BInary Characteristics Extractor and biomedical Properties Predictor: BICEPP to help experts screen drugs that may have important clinical characteristics of interest. Results BICEPP first retrieves MEDLINE abstracts containing drug names, then selects tokens that best predict the list of drugs which represents the characteristic of interest. Machine learning is then used to classify drugs using a document frequency-based measure. Evaluation experiments were performed to validate BICEPP's performance on 484 characteristics of 857 drugs, identified from the Australian Medicines Handbook (AMH and the PharmacoKinetic Interaction Screening (PKIS database. Stratified cross-validations revealed that BICEPP was able to classify drugs into all 20 major therapeutic classes (100% and 157 (of 197 minor drug classes (80% with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC > 0.80. Similarly, AUC > 0.80 could be obtained in the classification of 173 (of 238 adverse events (73%, up to 12 (of 15 groups of clinically significant cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP inducers or inhibitors (80%, and up to 11 (of 14 groups of narrow therapeutic index drugs (79%. Interestingly, it was observed that the keywords used to describe a drug characteristic were not necessarily the most predictive ones for the classification task. Conclusions BICEPP has sufficient classification power to automatically distinguish a wide range of clinical properties of drugs. This may be used in pharmacovigilance applications to assist with rapid screening of large drug databases to identify important characteristics for further evaluation.

  10. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Goodwin, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-...

  11. Three different methods for determination of binary mixture of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin using dual wavelength spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hany W.; Hassan, Said A.; Salem, Maissa Y.; El-Zeany, Badr A.

    2013-03-01

    Three simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods depending on the proper selection of two wavelengths are developed for the simultaneous determination of Amlodipine besylate (AML) and Atorvastatin calcium (ATV) in tablet dosage forms. The first method is the new Ratio Difference method, the second method is the Bivariate method and the third one is the Absorbance Ratio method. The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range of 4-40 and 8-32 μg/mL for AML and ATV, respectively. These methods are tested by analyzing synthetic mixtures of the above drugs and they are applied to commercial pharmaceutical preparation of the subjected drugs. Methods are validated according to the ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness are found to be within the acceptable limit. The mathematical explanation of the procedures is illustrated.

  12. Domestic Violence Encountered among Kurdish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sirwan Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective; There is growing recognition that violence against women has a large public health impact, in addition to being a gross violation of women's human rights. The study's aims were: To show the types of domestic abuse encountered by Kurdish women, and study the relationship between them. Methods; The study conducted in the…

  13. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  14. Smart stability-indicating spectrophotometric methods for determination of binary mixtures without prior separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bardicy, Mohammad G; Lotfy, Hayam M; El-Sayed, Mohammad A; El-Tarras, Mohammad F

    2008-01-01

    Ratio subtraction and isosbestic point methods are 2 innovating spectrophotometric methods used to determine vincamine in the presence of its acid degradation product and a mixture of cinnarizine (CN) and nicergoline (NIC). Linear correlations were obtained in the concentration range from 8-40 microg/mL for vincamine (I), 6-22 microg/mL for CN (II), and 6-36 microg/mL for NIC (III), with mean accuracies 99.72 +/- 0.917% for I, 99.91 +/- 0.703% for II, and 99.58 +/- 0.847 and 99.83 +/- 1.039% for III. The ratio subtraction method was utilized for the analysis of laboratory-prepared mixtures containing different ratios of vincamine and its degradation product, and it was valid in the presence of up to 80% degradation product. CN and NIC in synthetic mixtures were analyzed by the 2 proposed methods with the total content of the mixture determined at their respective isosbestic points of 270.2 and 235.8 nm, and the content of CN was determined by the ratio subtraction method. The proposed method was validated and found to be suitable as a stability-indicating assay method for vincamine in pharmaceutical formulations. The standard addition technique was applied to validate the results and to ensure the specificity of the proposed methods. PMID:18476341

  15. Three different spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra for determination of binary mixture of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hany W.; Hassan, Said A.; Salem, Maissa Y.; El-Zeiny, Badr A.

    2011-12-01

    Three simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra are developed for the simultaneous determination of Amlodipine besylate (AM) and Atorvastatin calcium (AT) in tablet dosage forms. The first method is first derivative of the ratio spectra ( 1DD), the second is ratio subtraction and the third is the method of mean centering of ratio spectra. The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range of 3-40 and 8-32 μg/ml for AM and AT, respectively. These methods are tested by analyzing synthetic mixtures of the above drugs and they are applied to commercial pharmaceutical preparation of the subjected drugs. Standard deviation is <1.5 in the assay of raw materials and tablets. Methods are validated as per ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness are found to be within the acceptable limit.

  16. Interactions between discontinuities for binary mixture separation problem and hodograph method

    CERN Document Server

    Elaeva, M S; Yu, Zhukov M

    2016-01-01

    The Cauchy problem for first-order PDE with the initial data which have a piecewise discontinuities localized in different spatial points is completely solved. The interactions between discontinuities arising after breakup of initial discontinuities are studied with the help of the hodograph method. The solution is constructed in analytical implicit form. To recovery the explicit form of solution we propose the transformation of the PDEs into some ODEs on the level lines (isochrones) of implicit solution. In particular, this method allows us to solve the Goursat problem with initial data on characteristics. The paper describes a specific problem for zone electrophoresis (method of the mixture separation). However, the method proposed allows to solve any system of two first-order quasilinear PDEs for which the second order linear PDE, arising after the hodograph transformation, has the Riemann-Green function in explicit form.

  17. Brief encounters: what do primary care professionals contribute to peoples’ self-care support network for long-term conditions? A mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Anne; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Brooks, Helen; Kennedy, Anne; Blickem, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary care professionals are presumed to play a central role in delivering long-term condition management. However the value of their contribution relative to other sources of support in the life worlds of patients has been less acknowledged. Here we explore the value of primary care professionals in people’s personal communities of support for long-term condition management. Methods A mixed methods survey with nested qualitative study designed to identify relationships and socia...

  18. Progress in electrical impedance imaging of binary media: 1: Analytical and numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first of two papers summarizing the use of electrical impedance excitation/measurement for producing cross sectional images of the distribution of insulating media imbedded in conducting media. This computed tomographic approach finds the distribution of electrical properties of an electric field which minimizes in the least squares sense the difference between measured and computed boundary response to excitation. In this paper we briefly review the basic analytical methods developed for this system. We then extend these methods to three dimensions, add a method for preconditioning voltages for error correction, describe methods for optimizing the resolution of a target by providing optimal excitation patterns and then describe the overall numerical sensitivity. The second paper then demonstrates the ability of this system to image multiple, separate, differently-sized two-dimensional or three-dimensional targets with demonstrated linear sensitivity of over 30:1 with maximum possible linear sensitivity of one part in 1300 based on our ability to distinguish variations from a homogeneous background. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the Finite Element Lattice Boltzmann Method for Binary Fluid Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Matin, Rastin; Hernandez-Garcia, Anier; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the commonly used lattice Boltzmann method, off-lattice Boltzmann methods decouple the velocity discretization from the underlying spatial grid, thus allowing for more efficient geometric representations of complex boundaries. The current work combines characteristic-based integration of the streaming step with the free-energy based multiphase model by Lee et. al. [Journal of Computational Physics, 206 (1), 2005 ]. This allows for simulation time steps more than an order of magnitude larger than the relaxation time. Unlike previous work by Wardle et. al. [Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 65 (2), 2013 ] that integrated intermolecular forcing terms in the advection term, the current scheme applies collision and forcing terms locally for a simpler finite element formulation. A series of thorough benchmark studies reveal that this does not compromise stability and that the scheme is able to accurately simulate flows at large density and viscosity contrasts.

  20. Test case set generation method on MC/DC based on binary tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-jie; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Yuan

    2013-03-01

    Exploring efficient, reliable test case design methods has been tester pursuit of the goal. Along with the aerospace software logic complexity of improving and software scale enlarging, this requirement also gets more compelling. Test case design techniques suited for MC/DC improved test case design efficiency, increase the test coverage. It is suitable to test the software that logical relationship is complicated comparatively. Some software test tools provide the function to calculate the test coverage. And it can assess the test cases whether on the MC/DC or not. But the software tester needs the reverse thinking. The paper puts forward that design the test case by Unique-cause and Masking approach. And it proposes automatic generation method of test case on MC/DC. It improved the efficiency and correctness of generation the test case set on DC/DC.

  1. A Method to Identify and Characterize Binary Candidates—A Study of CoRoT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Ronaldo; Silva-Valio, Adriana

    2011-05-01

    The analysis of the CoRoT space mission data was performed aiming to test a method that selects, among the several light curves observed, the transiting systems that likely host a low-mass star orbiting the main target. The method identifies stellar companions by fitting a model to the observed transits. Applying this model, which uses equations such as Kepler's third law and an empirical mass-radius relation, it is possible to estimate the mass and radius of the primary and secondary objects, as well as the semimajor axis and inclination angle of the orbit. We focus on how the method can be used in the characterization of transiting systems having a low-mass stellar companion with no need to be monitored with radial-velocity measurements or ground-based photometric observations. The model, which provides a good estimate of the system parameters, is also useful as a complementary approach to select possible planetary candidates. A list of confirmed binaries is presented, together with our estimate of their parameters. The characterization of the first 12 detected CoRoT exoplanetary systems was also performed and agrees very well with the results of their respective announcement articles. The comparison with confirmed systems validates our method, especially when the radius of the secondary companion is smaller than 1.5 RJup, in the case of planets, or larger than 2 RJup, in the case of low-mass stars. Intermediate situations are not conclusive. The CoRoT space mission, launched on 2006 December 27, was developed and is operated by the CNES, with participation of the Science Programs of ESA, ESA's RSSD, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain.

  2. Encountering social work through STS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Rasmus

    Encountering social work through STS: Marginalization, materials and knowledge In this presentation, I attempt to produce an encounter between STS and social work. Concretely, I focus on the subset of social work called “local community work”, which in Denmark is used to intervene on marginalized...... inhabitants. Local community work derives from this assemblage of policy and knowledge as the “social” intervention commonly deployed. Based on an ethnographic field work, I examine how local community practices attempt to interpellate specific futures for individuals and their local environments. I do this...... by examining the materials and types of knowledge that participate in shaping local community work practices and encounters between local community workers and residents in marginalized housing areas. Through this analysis, I argue that social work research can benefit from orienting itself more...

  3. Automated preparation method for colloidal crystal arrays of monodisperse and binary colloid mixtures by contact printing with a pintool plotter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, Klaus; Neumann, Thomas; Wang, Jianjun; Jonas, Ulrich; Knoll, Wolfgang; Ottleben, Holger

    2007-03-13

    Photonic crystals and photonic band gap materials with periodic variation of the dielectric constant in the submicrometer range exhibit unique optical properties such as opalescence, optical stop bands, and photonic band gaps. As such, they represent attractive materials for the active elements in sensor arrays. Colloidal crystals, which are 3D gratings leading to Bragg diffraction, are one potential precursor of such optical materials. They have gained particular interest in many technological areas as a result of their specific properties and ease of fabrication. Although basic techniques for the preparation of regular patterns of colloidal crystals on structured substrates by self-assembly of mesoscopic particles are known, the efficient fabrication of colloidal crystal arrays by simple contact printing has not yet been reported. In this article, we present a spotting technique used to produce a microarray comprising up to 9600 single addressable sensor fields of colloidal crystal structures with dimensions down to 100 mum on a microfabricated substrate in different formats. Both monodisperse colloidal crystals and binary colloidal crystal systems were prepared by contact printing of polystyrene particles in aqueous suspension. The array morphology was characterized by optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed regularly ordered crystalline structures for both systems. In the case of binary crystals, the influence of the concentration ratio of the large and small particles in the printing suspension on the obtained crystal structure was investigated. The optical properties of the colloidal crystal arrays were characterized by reflection spectroscopy. To examine the stop bands of the colloidal crystal arrays in a high-throughput fashion, an optical setup based on a CCD camera was realized that allowed the simultaneous readout of all of the reflection spectra of several thousand sensor fields per array in parallel. In agreement with

  4. Reservoir characterisation by a binary level set method and adaptive multiscale estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Lars Kristian

    2006-01-15

    The main focus of this work is on estimation of the absolute permeability as a solution of an inverse problem. We have both considered a single-phase and a two-phase flow model. Two novel approaches have been introduced and tested numerical for solving the inverse problems. The first approach is a multi scale zonation technique which is treated in Paper A. The purpose of the work in this paper is to find a coarse scale solution based on production data from wells. In the suggested approach, the robustness of an already developed method, the adaptive multi scale estimation (AME), has been improved by utilising information from several candidate solutions generated by a stochastic optimizer. The new approach also suggests a way of combining a stochastic and a gradient search method, which in general is a problematic issue. The second approach is a piecewise constant level set approach and is applied in Paper B, C, D and E. Paper B considers the stationary single-phase problem, while Paper C, D and E use a two-phase flow model. In the two-phase flow problem we have utilised information from both production data in wells and spatially distributed data gathered from seismic surveys. Due to the higher content of information provided by the spatially distributed data, we search solutions on a slightly finer scale than one typically does with only production data included. The applied level set method is suitable for reconstruction of fields with a supposed known facies-type of solution. That is, the solution should be close to piecewise constant. This information is utilised through a strong restriction of the number of constant levels in the estimate. On the other hand, the flexibility in the geometries of the zones is much larger for this method than in a typical zonation approach, for example the multi scale approach applied in Paper A. In all these papers, the numerical studies are done on synthetic data sets. An advantage of synthetic data studies is that the true

  5. VR-BFDT: A variance reduction based binary fuzzy decision tree induction method for protein function prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golzari, Fahimeh; Jalili, Saeed

    2015-07-21

    In protein function prediction (PFP) problem, the goal is to predict function of numerous well-sequenced known proteins whose function is not still known precisely. PFP is one of the special and complex problems in machine learning domain in which a protein (regarded as instance) may have more than one function simultaneously. Furthermore, the functions (regarded as classes) are dependent and also are organized in a hierarchical structure in the form of a tree or directed acyclic graph. One of the common learning methods proposed for solving this problem is decision trees in which, by partitioning data into sharp boundaries sets, small changes in the attribute values of a new instance may cause incorrect change in predicted label of the instance and finally misclassification. In this paper, a Variance Reduction based Binary Fuzzy Decision Tree (VR-BFDT) algorithm is proposed to predict functions of the proteins. This algorithm just fuzzifies the decision boundaries instead of converting the numeric attributes into fuzzy linguistic terms. It has the ability of assigning multiple functions to each protein simultaneously and preserves the hierarchy consistency between functional classes. It uses the label variance reduction as splitting criterion to select the best "attribute-value" at each node of the decision tree. The experimental results show that the overall performance of the proposed algorithm is promising. PMID:25865524

  6. A Bayesian method for comparing and combining binary classifiers in the absence of a gold standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Jonathan M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many problems in bioinformatics involve classification based on features such as sequence, structure or morphology. Given multiple classifiers, two crucial questions arise: how does their performance compare, and how can they best be combined to produce a better classifier? A classifier can be evaluated in terms of sensitivity and specificity using benchmark, or gold standard, data, that is, data for which the true classification is known. However, a gold standard is not always available. Here we demonstrate that a Bayesian model for comparing medical diagnostics without a gold standard can be successfully applied in the bioinformatics domain, to genomic scale data sets. We present a new implementation, which unlike previous implementations is applicable to any number of classifiers. We apply this model, for the first time, to the problem of finding the globally optimal logical combination of classifiers. Results We compared three classifiers of protein subcellular localisation, and evaluated our estimates of sensitivity and specificity against estimates obtained using a gold standard. The method overestimated sensitivity and specificity with only a small discrepancy, and correctly ranked the classifiers. Diagnostic tests for swine flu were then compared on a small data set. Lastly, classifiers for a genome-wide association study of macular degeneration with 541094 SNPs were analysed. In all cases, run times were feasible, and results precise. The optimal logical combination of classifiers was also determined for all three data sets. Code and data are available from http://bioinformatics.monash.edu.au/downloads/. Conclusions The examples demonstrate the methods are suitable for both small and large data sets, applicable to the wide range of bioinformatics classification problems, and robust to dependence between classifiers. In all three test cases, the globally optimal logical combination of the classifiers was found to be

  7. Numerical simulations of protostellar encounters I. Star-disc encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Boffin, H. M. J.,; Watkins, S. J.; Bhattal, A. S.; Francis, N; Whitworth, A. P.

    1998-01-01

    It appears that most stars are born in clusters, and that at birth most stars have circumstellar discs which are comparable in size to the separations between the stars. Interactions between neighbouring stars and discs are therefore likely to play a key role in determining disc lifetimes, stellar masses, and the separations and eccentricities of binary orbits. Such interactions may also cause fragmentation of the discs, thereby triggering the formation of additional stars. We have carried ou...

  8. Nordic Perspectives on Encountering Foreignness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antologien præsenterer det NOS-HS-finansierede forskningsnetværk "Encountering Foreignness" gennem eksempler på den forskning medlemmerne har produceret i forbindelse med arbejdet i netværket. Den meget forskelligartede samling af tekster viser, hvor bred netværkets spændvidde har været. Der...

  9. A Lakatosian Encounter with Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Helen

    2010-01-01

    There is much to be learned and pondered by reading "Proofs and Refutations" by Imre Lakatos (Lakatos, 1976). It highlights the importance of mathematical definitions, and how definitions evolve to capture the essence of the object they are defining. It also provides an exhilarating encounter with the ups and downs of the mathematical reasoning…

  10. An Analytic Method to determine Habitable Zones for S-Type Planetary Orbits in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eggl, Siegfried; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Gyergyovits, Markus; Funk, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    With more and more extrasolar planets discovered in and around binary star systems, questions concerning the determination of the classical Habitable Zone arise. Do the radiative and gravitational perturbations of the second star influence the extent of the Habitable Zone significantly, or is it sufficient to consider the host-star only? In this article we investigate the implications of stellar companions with different spectral types on the insolation a terrestrial planet receives orbiting a Sun-like primary. We present time independent analytical estimates and compare these to insolation statistics gained via high precision numerical orbit calculations. Results suggest a strong dependence of permanent habitability on the binary's eccentricity, as well as a possible extension of Habitable Zones towards the secondary in close binary systems.

  11. AN ANALYTIC METHOD TO DETERMINE HABITABLE ZONES FOR S-TYPE PLANETARY ORBITS IN BINARY STAR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Gyergyovits, Markus; Funk, Barbara [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Georgakarakos, Nikolaos, E-mail: siegfried.eggl@univie.ac.at, E-mail: elke.pilat-lohinger@univie.ac.at [128 V. Olgas str., Thessaloniki 546 45 (Greece)

    2012-06-10

    With more and more extrasolar planets discovered in and around binary star systems, questions concerning the determination of the classical habitable zone have arisen. Do the radiative and gravitational perturbations of the second star influence the extent of the habitable zone significantly, or is it sufficient to consider the host star only? In this article, we investigate the implications of stellar companions with different spectral types on the insolation a terrestrial planet receives orbiting a Sun-like primary. We present time-independent analytical estimates and compare them to insolation statistics gained via high precision numerical orbit calculations. Results suggest a strong dependence of permanent habitability on the binary's eccentricity, as well as a possible extension of habitable zones toward the secondary in close binary systems.

  12. Ethics in the communicative encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Birkelund, Regner

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The communicative encounter has been described as a fundamental element in caring for the patients, and further, in this encounter, the nonverbal body language and the tone of speech are agued to play a crucial role. AIM: This study explores how seriously ill hospitalised patients...... experience and assign meaning to the health professionals' communication with special attention to the nonverbal body language and tone of speech. The study is part of a larger study exploring how seriously ill patients experience and assign meaning to the sensory impressions in the physical hospital......' nonverbal communication was imperative for their experience of being confirmed or in contrast, their experience of being ignored and an inconvenience. CONCLUSION: The health professionals' nonverbal communication proved essential for the seriously ill patients' experience of well-being in the form of...

  13. Encountering spiritual tourism in Kathmandu

    OpenAIRE

    Børø, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Spiritual tourism as a phenomenon is increasing worldwide. Many have conducted research looking at the intersection between religion and tourism, but few have focused on the host community within these encounters. Many Western tourists arrive in Kathmandu to go on retreats', and to participate in yoga and meditation classes. The majority of these are particularly interested in various forms of Buddhist practice and traditions. In this thesis I have studied how N...

  14. Binary stars as probes of dark substructures in dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Penarrubia, Jorge; Walker, Matthew G; Gilmore, Gerry; Evans, N Wyn; Mackay, Craig D

    2010-01-01

    We use analytical and N-body methods to examine the survival of wide stellar binaries against repeated encounters with dark substructures orbiting in the dark matter haloes of dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). Our models adopt cosmologically-motivated conditions wherein dSphs are dark-matter dominated systems that form hierarchically and orbit about a host galaxy. Our analytical estimates show that wide binaries are disrupted at a rate that is proportional to the local density of dark substructures averaged over the life-time of the binary population. The fact that external tides can efficiently strip dark substructures from the outskirts of dSphs implies that the present number and distribution of binaries is strongly coupled with the mass evolution of individual galaxies. Yet we show that for the range of dynamical masses and Galactocentric distances spanned by Milky Way dSphs, a truncation in the separation function at a_max <~ 0.1 pc is expected in all these galaxies. An exception may be the Sagittari...

  15. Effect of genetic algorithm as a variable selection method on different chemometric models applied for the analysis of binary mixture of amoxicillin and flucloxacillin: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Different chemometric models were applied for the quantitative analysis of amoxicillin (AMX), and flucloxacillin (FLX) in their binary mixtures, namely, partial least squares (PLS), spectral residual augmented classical least squares (SRACLS), concentration residual augmented classical least squares (CRACLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). All methods were applied with and without variable selection procedure (genetic algorithm GA). The methods were used for the quantitative analysis of the drugs in laboratory prepared mixtures and real market sample via handling the UV spectral data. Robust and simpler models were obtained by applying GA. The proposed methods were found to be rapid, simple and required no preliminary separation steps.

  16. Transport properties of a binary mixture of CO2—N2 from the pair potential energy functions based on a semi-empirical inversion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential energy surface of a CO2—N2 mixture is determined by using an inversion method, together with a new collision integral correlation [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 19 1179 (1990)]. With the new invert potential, the transport properties of CO2—N2 mixture are presented in a temperature range from 273.15 K to 3273.15 K at low density by employing the Chapman—Enskog scheme and the Wang Chang—Uhlenbeck—de Boer theory, consisting of a viscosity coefficient, a thermal conductivity coefficient, a binary diffusion coefficient, and a thermal diffusion factor. The accuracy of the predicted results is estimated to be 2% for viscosity, 5% for thermal conductivity, and 10% for binary diffusion coefficient. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  17. Transport properties of a binary mixture of CO2-N2 from the pair potential energy functions based on a semi-empirical inversion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Bo; Wang Xiao-Po; Yang Fu-Xin; Liu Zhi-Gang

    2012-01-01

    The potential energy surface of a CO2-N2 mixture is determined by using an inversion method,together with a new collision integral correlation [J.Phys.Chem.Ref.Data 19 1179 (1990)].With the new invert potential,the transport properties of CO2-N2 mixture are presented in a temperature range from 273.15 K to 3273.15 K at low density by employing the Chapman-Enskog scheme and the Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck-de Boer theory,consisting of a viscosity coefficient,a thermal conductivity coefficient,a binary diffusion coefficient,and a thermal diffusion factor.The accuracy of the predicted results is estimated to be 2% for viscosity,5% for thermal conductivity,and 10% for binary diffusion coefficient.

  18. Preparation of highly permeable BPPO microfiltration membrane with binary porous structures on a colloidal crystal substrate by the breath figure method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hua; Yu, Bing; Cong, Hailin; Peng, Qiaohong; Yang, Zhen; Luo, Yongli; Chi, Ming

    2016-01-01

    A highly permeable brominated poly(phenylene oxide) (BPPO) microfiltration membrane with binary porous structures was fabricated by combination of the breath figure and colloidal crystal template methods. The pore size in the bottom layer of the membrane was adjusted by the diameter of SiO2 microspheres in the colloidal crystal template, while the pore size in the top layer of the membrane was adjusted by varying the BPPO concentration in the casting solution. The permeability of the membrane cast on the colloidal crystal substrate was much higher than that of the membrane cast on a bare silicon wafer. The binary porous BPPO membrane with high permeability and antifouling property was used for microfiltration applications. PMID:26402782

  19. Interfaith dialogue as moral encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen

    The concept of interfaith dialogue has been introduced and developed by scholars of different religions. The aim has been to find solutions from within religion to handle and optimise encounters with religious ‘Others’. Furthermore, interfaith dialogue has increasingly become a tool to solve...... between Muslims and Christians and analyse the different moral orders involved and how – following these orders – the participants are expected to deal with differences. Main focus is on how the participants are expected to deal with a requirement of staying the same (as Christian or Muslim) while at the...

  20. A method for testing the performance and the accuracy of the binary MLC used in helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a helical tomotherapy a binary MLC is used for fluence modulation. The 64 pneumatically driven leaves of the MLC are either completely open or closed. Th e fast and frequent leaf movements result in a high demand of accuracy and stability of the MLC. This article is based on the analytical investigation of the accuracy and the stability of the MLC. Different patterns of MLC movements were generated to investigate the characteristics of the MLC. One of the considered aspects contains the friction between the leaves. The influence of variations of the compressed air on the MLC was also explored. The integrated MVCT detector of the tomotherapy system deposits the treatment data in a matrix. The detector is triggered with the linear accelerator, which is pulsed by 300Hz. The data matrix is available after the treatment. An IDL (Interactive Data Language) routine was programmed in order to analyse the matrix. The points of time, at which the leaves open (POT), and the period, in which the leaves stay open (LOT), were measured and compared with the desired values. That procedure has been repeated several times a week for approximately 6 months to investigate the stability of the MLC. Relative deviations of the LOT from -0.4% to -5.4% were measured. The friction between the leaves had no significant influence on the LOT. The available compressed air, that is used to move the leaves, depends on the number of moving leaves and also on the previous movements of the MLC. Variations of the compressed air resulted in deviations of the LOT from -1.8% to -3.7%. The measured POT deviates from the programmed POT up to -18.4ms ± 0.7ms. This maximal deviation correlates with a shift of the gantry angle of 0.52 which is negligible. The MLC has shown a stable behaviour over the 6 months. A separate consideration of the leaves showed no higher standard deviation of the LOT than ± 0.7ms during the investigated time. The variation between the different leaves is much higher than

  1. Competitive learning for binary valued data

    OpenAIRE

    Leisch, Friedrich; Weingessel, Andreas; Dimitriadou, Evgenia

    1998-01-01

    We propose a new approach for using online competitive learning on binary data. The usual Euclidean distance is replaced by binary distance measures, which take possible asymmetries of binary data into account and therefore provide a "different point of view" for looking at the data. The method is demonstrated on two artificial examples and applied on tourist marketing research data. (author's abstract)

  2. Optimization of Multi-Type Distributed Generation Capacity and Location Based on Binary Encoding Genetic Algorithm-Newton Raphson Method

    OpenAIRE

    Yusran

    2013-01-01

    This research discussed about optimization of multi-type Distributed Generation (DG) capacity and location. Multi-type DG was used in this research to investigate the effect of DG type to losses and voltage profile of network. The three types of DG were injecting active power only; injecting both active and reactive power; and the one injecting active power and absorbing reactive power. This research used combination of Binary Encoding Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Newton Raphson (NR...

  3. Calculation of Viscosity and Diffusion Coefficients for Two Binary Gaseous Mixtures Using the Semi-empirical Inversion Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Reza Rafiee; Mina Rastgar; Neda Heidari

    2011-01-01

    The accurate reduced potential energies for two binary gas mixtures including benzenemethanol and methane-tetrafluoromethane at low density have been obtained by direct inversion of the viscosity collision integral equations.The kinetic theory along with the extended principle of corresponding-states has been used to calculate the viscosity and diffusion coefficients over a wide range of temperature and composition.Good agreements between calculated and experimental data are obtained.

  4. An Analytic Method to determine Habitable Zones for S-Type Planetary Orbits in Binary Star Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Gyergyovits, Markus; Funk, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    With more and more extrasolar planets discovered in and around binary star systems, questions concerning the determination of the classical Habitable Zone arise. Do the radiative and gravitational perturbations of the second star influence the extent of the Habitable Zone significantly, or is it sufficient to consider the host-star only? In this article we investigate the implications of stellar companions with different spectral types on the insolation a terrestrial planet receives orbiting ...

  5. Pairing mechanisms for binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; Goodwin, S P; Zwart, S F Portegies; Kaper, L; 10.1002/asna.200811061

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the binary population in stellar groupings provides important information about the outcome of the star forming process in different environments. Binarity is also a key ingredient in stellar population studies and is a prerequisite to calibrate the binary evolution channels. In these proceedings we present an overview of several commonly used methods to pair individual stars into binary systems, which we refer to as the pairing function. Many pairing functions are frequently used by observers and computational astronomers, either for the mathematical convenience, or because they roughly describe the expected outcome of the star forming process. We discuss the consequences of each pairing function for the interpretation of observations and numerical simulations. The binary fraction and mass ratio distribution generally depend strongly on the selection of the range in primary spectral type in a sample. These quantities, when derived from a binary survey with a mass-limited sample of target stars, ...

  6. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Hubber, David A.; Goodwin, Simon P.

    2016-08-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-alignment processes, which tend to misalign the components. The alignment process dominates in systems with misalignment angle near 90°, while the anti-alignment process dominates in systems with the misalignment angle near 0° or 180°. This means that highly misaligned systems will become more aligned but slightly misaligned systems will become more misaligned.

  7. DESTRUCTION OF BINARY MINOR PLANETS DURING NEPTUNE SCATTERING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of extremely wide binaries in the low-inclination component of the Kuiper Belt provides a unique handle on the dynamical history of this population. Some popular frameworks of the formation of the Kuiper Belt suggest that planetesimals were moved there from lower semimajor axis orbits by scattering encounters with Neptune. We test the effects such events would have on binary systems and find that wide binaries are efficiently destroyed by the kinds of scattering events required to create the Kuiper Belt with this mechanism. This indicates that a binary-bearing component of the cold Kuiper Belt was emplaced through a gentler mechanism or was formed in situ.

  8. Alien encounter a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    It has been nearly 100 years since the Apollo moon landings, when Jack and Vladimir, two astronauts on a mission to Venus, discover a mysterious void related to indigenous life on the planet. Subsequently more voids are detected on Earth, Mars, Titan, and, quite ominously, inside a planetoid emerging from the Kuiper belt. Jack is sent to investigate the voids in the Solar System and intercept the planetoid - which, as becomes increasingly clear, is inhabited by alien life forms. Jack and his crew will have little time to understand their alien biochemistry, abilities, behavior patterns, resilience, and technology, but also how these life forms relate to the voids. Humankind's first encounter with these exotic life forms couldn't be more fateful, becoming a race against time to save life on Earth and to reveal the true nature of the voids, which seem to be intrinsically related to life and the universe itself. In this novel, the author combines many topics related to state-of-the-art research in the field of...

  9. Encounter Probability of Individual Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    1998-01-01

    wave height corresponding to a certain exceedence probability within a structure lifetime (encounter probability), based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme significant wave height. Then the design individual wave height is calculated as the expected maximum individual wave height...... associated with the design significant wave height, with the assumption that the individual wave heights follow the Rayleigh distribution. However, the exceedence probability of such a design individual wave height within the structure lifetime is unknown. The paper presents a method for the determination of...... the design individual wave height corresponding to an exceedence probability within the structure lifetime, given the long-term extreme significant wave height. The method can also be applied for estimation of the number of relatively large waves for fatigue analysis of constructions....

  10. Effect of two virus inactivation methods. Electron beam irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment on determination of reproductive hormones in equine plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment have previously been shown to be effective for in-vitro inactivation of virus in biological material. In the present study the 2 methods were tested for possible effects on measurable concentrations of reproductive hormones in equine plasma (luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone (P4), and oestradiol-17 β (E2)). The inactivation methods were electron beam irradiation with a dose from 11 to 44 kGy or treatment with binary ethylenimine (BEI) in concentrations of 1 and 5 mmol/L. Generally, there was a close correlation (r>0.8, p2 the effect of irradiation and BEI treatment was depressive and dose-dependant. For P4 the effect of irradiation was also depressive and dose-dependant. However, the highest dose of BEI resulted in an increase of measured P4 concentration, which may be attributed to changes in the plasma matrix due to the treatment. Although the treatments affected measured hormone concentrations, the close correlation between pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements means that the diagnostic value will remain unchanged. (au)

  11. A Method of Utilizing Binary System to Compress Database%一种利用二进制属性压缩数据库的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚志鹏; 孙仁诚; 邵峰晶; 周文鹏

    2013-01-01

    For some tables in relational database,in which the collection of data items are only attributed to two types (eg 0,1 or true,false),a new method of lossless compression which will largely reduce the usage of physical memory is presented by combining each binary attributes of many rows into one binary number according to the identity column.Besides,this method will maintain the same functionality as the original one such as selecting,updating,inserting and deleting,and verifies the increased efficiency in database manipulation with an example.%针对关系型数据库中大多数属性取值只有两种(例如0,1或者ture,false)的数据表,提出了一种无损压缩方法,根据标识列进行聚合,将多行数据的二进制属性合并成一个多位二进制数存储,极大地压缩了数据存储占用的物理空间.并在这种存储方式下,实现了与原存储方式功能完全相同的查改增删等数据库操作,利用实例验证了这种存储方式下,数据库操作的效率的提升.

  12. Coordination and resource-related difficulties encountered by Quebec's public health specialists and infectious diseases/medical microbiologists in the management of A (H1N1 - a mixed-method, exploratory survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan Charles

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Quebec, the influenza A (H1N1 pandemic was managed using a top-down style that left many involved players with critical views and frustrations. We aimed to describe physicians' perceptions - infectious diseases specialists/medical microbiologists (IDMM and public health/preventive medicine specialists (PHPMS - in regards to issues encountered with the pandemics management at the physician level and highlight suggested improvements for future healthcare emergencies. Methods In April 2010, Quebec IDMM and PHPMS physicians were invited to anonymously complete a web-based learning needs assessment. The survey included both open-ended and multiple-choice questions. Descriptive statistics were used to report on the frequency distribution of multiple choice responses whereas thematic content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data generated from the survey and help understand respondents' experience and perceptions with the pandemics. Results Of the 102 respondents, 85.3% reported difficulties or frustrations in their practice during the pandemic. The thematic analysis revealed two core themes describing the problems experienced in the pandemic management: coordination and resource-related difficulties. Coordination issues included communication, clinical practice guidelines, decision-making, roles and responsibilities, epidemiological investigation, and public health expert advisory committees. Resources issues included laboratory resources, patient management, and vaccination process. Conclusion Together, the quantitative and qualitative data suggest a need for improved coordination, a better definition of roles and responsibilities, increased use of information technologies, merged communications, and transparency in the decisional process. Increased flexibility and less contradiction in clinical practice guidelines from different sources and increased laboratory/clinical capacity were felt critical to the proper

  13. The equations for binary density and the binary stream of particles of electro conducting magnetic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In work on the basis of a method of the kinetic equations it is output the differential equations for binary density and a binary stream of particles of electro conducting magnetic liquids. These equations are the nonuniform equations of parabolic type. The solution of these equations completely feature existential behaviour of binary density and a binary stream of particles of electro conducting magnetic liquids, i.e. process of a structural relaxation. (author)

  14. Testing general relativity with compact coalescing binaries: comparing exact and predictive methods to compute the Bayes factor

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Mandel, Ilya; Vecchio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The second generation of gravitational-wave detectors is scheduled to start operations in 2015. Gravitational-wave signatures of compact binary coalescences could be used to accurately test the strong-field dynamical predictions of general relativity. Computationally expensive data analysis pipelines, including TIGER, have been developed to carry out such tests. As a means to cheaply assess whether a particular deviation from general relativity can be detected, Cornish et al. and Vallisneri recently proposed an approximate scheme to compute the Bayes factor between a general-relativity gravitational-wave model and a model representing a class of alternative theories of gravity parametrised by one additional parameter. This approximate scheme is based on only two easy-to-compute quantities: the signal-to-noise ratio of the signal and the fitting factor between the signal and the manifold of possible waveforms within general relativity. In this work, we compare the prediction from the approximate formula agains...

  15. Cryptography with DNA binary strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, A; Richter, C; Banzhaf, W; Rauhe, H

    2000-06-01

    Biotechnological methods can be used for cryptography. Here two different cryptographic approaches based on DNA binary strands are shown. The first approach shows how DNA binary strands can be used for steganography, a technique of encryption by information hiding, to provide rapid encryption and decryption. It is shown that DNA steganography based on DNA binary strands is secure under the assumption that an interceptor has the same technological capabilities as sender and receiver of encrypted messages. The second approach shown here is based on steganography and a method of graphical subtraction of binary gel-images. It can be used to constitute a molecular checksum and can be combined with the first approach to support encryption. DNA cryptography might become of practical relevance in the context of labelling organic and inorganic materials with DNA 'barcodes'. PMID:10963862

  16. Encounters along Micro-Level Borders: Silence and Metacommunicative Talk in Service Encounter Conversations between Finnish Employment Officials and Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Tanttu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the interaction between Finnish employment officials and their immigrant clients in service encounter conversations. It employs the concepts of metacommunicative talk, silence, agency and asymmetric interaction situation. Such service encounters between native speakers of Finnish and immigrants going through the integration process and speaking Finnish as their second language constitute situations of institutional interaction, characterised by asymmetry. Asymmetry during the service encounter arises from the roles and power relations between the official and client, a familiarity with the routines associated with service encounters, and the use of Finnish as the language of conversation during the encounter. This article examines two authentic service encounters, recorded in a Finnish employment office. The encounters are analysed using discourse analysis, combining micro-level analysis of language use and macro-level analysis of the situation. Interviews with the employment officials and background information collected from the officials and clients via questionnaires are used in support of the qualita-tive analysis. Officials use different methods of interaction with their clients. In addition, the individual characteristics of officials and clients and their cultural differences in-fluence the construction of interaction during a service encounter. Finnish officials can sometimes handle service encounters with very little talk - sometimes with hardly any talk at all. However, metacommunicative talk can serve as a vehicle for reinforcing the client's agency and supporting the immigrant in learning the language and customs, as well as in establishing a foothold in the new community, and thereby promoting the integration process as a whole.

  17. Detection of unresolved binaries with multicolor photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chulkov, D; Malkov, O; Sichevskij, S; Krussanova, N; Mironov, A; Zakharov, A; Kniazev, A

    2016-01-01

    The principal goal of this paper is to specify conditions of detection of unresolved binaries by multicolor photometry. We have developed a method for estimating the critical distance at which an unresolved binary of given mass and age can be detected. The method is applied to the photometric system of the planned Lyra-B spaceborne experiment. We have shown that some types of unresolved binary stars can be discovered and distinguished from single stars solely by means of photometric observations.

  18. Prediction of (liquid + liquid) equilibrium for binary and ternary systems containing ionic liquids with the bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide anion using the ASOG method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ASOG model was used to predict LLE data for ionic liquid systems. • Twenty five binary and seven ternary systems that include the NTf2 anion were used. • New group interaction parameters were determined. • The results are satisfactory, with rms deviations of about 3%. - Abstract: Ionic liquids are neoteric, environmentally friendly solvents (as they do not produce emissions) composed of large organic cations and relatively small inorganic anions. They have favorable physical properties, such as negligible volatility and a wide range of liquid existence. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for systems including ionic liquids, although essential for the design, optimization and operation of separation processes, remain scarce. However, some recent studies have presented ternary LLE data involving several ionic liquids and organic compounds such as alkanes, alkenes, alkanols, ethers and aromatics, as well as water. In this work, the ASOG model for the activity coefficient is used to predict LLE data for 25 binary and 07 ternary systems at 101.3 kPa and several temperatures; all the systems are formed by ionic liquids including the bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (NTf2) anion plus alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, alkanols, water, thiophene and aromatics. New group interaction parameters were determined using a modified Simplex method, minimizing a composition-based objective function of experimental data obtained from the literature. The results are satisfactory, with rms deviations of approximately 3%

  19. Brief encounters: Assembling cosmetic surgery tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ruth; Bell, David; Cheung, Olive; Jones, Meredith; Probyn, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a large-scale, multi-disciplinary, mixed methods project which explores empirically and theoretically the rapidly growing but poorly understood (and barely regulated) phenomenon of cosmetic surgery tourism (CST). We explore CST by drawing on theories of flows, networks and assemblages, aiming to produce a fuller and more nuanced account of - and accounting for - CST. This enables us to conceptualise CST as an interplay of places, people, things, ideas and practices. Through specific instances of assembling cosmetic surgery that we encountered in the field, and that we illustrate with material from interviews with patients, facilitators and surgeons, our analysis advances understandings and theorisations of medical mobilities, globalisation and assemblage thinking. PMID:24985788

  20. Research of the thermal-tension condition and the elemental composition gradient changes of binary systems produced by combined ion-plasma method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesman, A. I.; Postnikov, D. V.; Polonyankin, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    To increase the life cycle of the constructional steel products working at high temperatures in air environment the combined ion-plasma method of surface modification was elaborated. Using the method described in the paper, constructional steel J24056 samples with different refractory metal coatings such as molybdenum and tantalum and film-thickness up to 10 microns were prepared. The calculations of the temperature distribution and the tension on the depth of the specified sample brand coated steel were performed. The research of oxygen distribution in the surface layer after high temperature annealing in an air atmosphere has been conducted. An estimation model of the oxygen distribution within the grains in a binary steel-coating system is proposed in the paper.

  1. A new method for the discovery of the best threshold value for finding positive or negative association rules using Binary Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoljabbar Asadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In association rule mining most of former researches have worked on analytic optimizing method , but finding and specifying the advocate initiation limit influences on association rule mining's quality , which still is important hence this research wants to present a new algorithm for optimizing the analytic efficiency improvement including automatic analyze proper amount for initiation. Through former method this task had been performing based on positive rules but regarding that finding the negative ones were though for administrator, this research's privilege is that the initiation level automatically is analyzed for the first time; also it has high efficiency in large data base. Particle Swarm Optimization is observed for any particle's efficiency and as data turned in binary the advocate amount will be found. Results showed Particle Swarm Optimization could present better initiation level, and enhance the former algorithm's result a lot. Consequence will be comparing with Weka and Apriori.

  2. Determinants of customer satisfaction with service encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Ariana Nefat; Nika Paus

    2008-01-01

    Service encounters are the focal point of a customer’s perception of a service in terms of its quality, value and customer satisfaction. The paper researches the influence of the components of a service encounter on customer satisfaction. Among several factors that determine customer satisfaction the quality of service, which is related to the characteristics of service, plays an important role. However, a direct insight into the reasons that make a service encounter satisfactory or unsatisfa...

  3. A MULTIRATE STÖRMER ALGORITHM FOR CLOSE ENCOUNTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present, analyze, and test a multirate Störmer-based algorithm for integrating close encounters when performing N-body simulations of the Sun, planets, and a large number of test particles. The algorithm is intended primarily for accurate simulations of the outer solar system. The algorithm uses stepsizes H and hi , i = 1, ..., Np , where hi p is the number of planets. The stepsize H is used for the integration of the orbital motion of the Sun and planets at all times. H is also used as the stepsize for the integration of the orbital motion of test particles when they are not undergoing a close encounter. The stepsize hi is used to integrate the orbital motion of test particles during a close encounter with the ith planet. The position of the Sun and planets during a close encounter is calculated using Hermite interpolation. We tested the algorithm on two contrasting problems, and compared its performance with the existing method which uses the same stepsize for all bodies (this stepsize must be significantly smaller than H to ensure the close encounters are integrated accurately). Our tests show that the integration error for the new and existing methods are comparable when the stepsizes are chosen to minimize the error, and that for this choice of stepsizes the new method requires considerably less CPU time than the existing method.

  4. Research on color local angel binary patterns texture feature extraction method based on GPU%基于GPU的CLABP特征提取方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗沛; 梁鹏

    2014-01-01

    Color local angel binary patterns (CLABP)method can extract color texture feature effectively. But the algorithm is complex and has large amount of calculation. In order to solve the problem, this paper proposes a GPU implement for color local angel binary patterns texture feature extraction and presentation. On one hand, this method use asynchronous processing way to realize CLABP parallel acceleration. On the other hand, it also improves the implement via shared memory to reduce the number of reading data. In order to verify the validity of proposed method, we compare our method with CPU implement on Outex texture dataset. The experiment results demonstrate that the acceleration rate can achieve 25 times.%彩色局部角度二值模式( CLABP )可以有效地提取彩色图像中的纹理特征,但是算法复杂、计算量大。针对这一问题,采用 GPU 实现 CLABP 特征提取和表示的并行方法。该方法一方面使用异步处理的方式实现 CLABP 的并行加速,另一方面采用共享内存的形式减少读取数据的次数。为了验证该方法的有效性,在Outex纹理图像数据库上与CPU程序性能进行对比,结果表明,GPU实现方法可以提升加速比约25倍。

  5. Lattice Boltzmann method for binary fluids based on mass-conserving quasi-incompressible phase-field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kang; Guo, Zhaoli

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) model is proposed for binary fluids based on a quasi-incompressible phase-field model [J. Shen et al., Commun. Comput. Phys. 13, 1045 (2013), 10.4208/cicp.300711.160212a]. Compared with the other incompressible LBE models based on the incompressible phase-field theory, the quasi-incompressible model conserves mass locally. A series of numerical simulations are performed to validate the proposed model, and comparisons with an incompressible LBE model [H. Liang et al., Phys. Rev. E 89, 053320 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.053320] are also carried out. It is shown that the proposed model can track the interface accurately. As the stationary droplet and rising bubble problems, the quasi-incompressible LBE gives nearly the same predictions as the incompressible model, but the compressible effect in the present model plays a significant role in the phase separation problem. Therefore, in general cases the present mass-conserving model should be adopted.

  6. Ultrasonic velocity and absorption study of binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitrile by interferometric method at different frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, N. R.; Chimankar, O. P.; Bhandakkar, V. D.; Padole, N. N.

    2012-12-01

    The ultrasonic velocity (u), absorption (α), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) has been measured at different frequencies (1MHz to 10MHz) in the binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitriile over the entire range of composition at temperature 303K. Vander Waal's constant (b), adiabatic compressibility (βa), acoustic impedance (Z), molar volume (V), free length (Lf), free volume, internal pressure, intermolecular radius and relative association have been also calculated. A special application for acrylonitrile is in the manufacture of carbon fibers. These are produced by paralysis of oriented poly acrylonitrile fibers and are used to reinforce composites for high-performance applications in the aircraft, defense and aerospace industries. Other applications of acrylonitrile are in the production of fatty amines, ion exchange resins and fatty amine amides used in cosmetics, adhesives, corrosion inhibitors and water-treatment resins. Cyclohexane derivatives can be used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, herbicides, plant growth regulator, plasticizers, rubber chemicals, nylon, cyclamens and other organic compounds. In the view of these extensive applications of acrylonitrile and cyclohexane in the engineering process, textile and pharmaceutical industries present study provides qualitative information regarding the nature and strength of interaction in the liquid mixtures through derive parameters from ultrasonic velocity and absorption measurement.

  7. Ultrasonic velocity and absorption study of binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitrile by interferometric method at different frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrasonic velocity (u), absorption (α), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) has been measured at different frequencies (1MHz to 10MHz) in the binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitriile over the entire range of composition at temperature 303K. Vander Waal's constant (b), adiabatic compressibility (βa), acoustic impedance (Z), molar volume (V), free length (Lf), free volume, internal pressure, intermolecular radius and relative association have been also calculated. A special application for acrylonitrile is in the manufacture of carbon fibers. These are produced by paralysis of oriented poly acrylonitrile fibers and are used to reinforce composites for high-performance applications in the aircraft, defense and aerospace industries. Other applications of acrylonitrile are in the production of fatty amines, ion exchange resins and fatty amine amides used in cosmetics, adhesives, corrosion inhibitors and water-treatment resins. Cyclohexane derivatives can be used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, herbicides, plant growth regulator, plasticizers, rubber chemicals, nylon, cyclamens and other organic compounds. In the view of these extensive applications of acrylonitrile and cyclohexane in the engineering process, textile and pharmaceutical industries present study provides qualitative information regarding the nature and strength of interaction in the liquid mixtures through derive parameters from ultrasonic velocity and absorption measurement.

  8. Children's collaborative encounters in pre-school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinth, Lone

    2013-01-01

    ’s collaboration and how the institutional demands influence children’s collaborative encounters. The study is based on video recordings of paedagogical activities (workshops and circle times) in two Danish pre-schools over a period of 11 months. Although institutional demands challenge children’s initiatives...... on children’s collaborative encounters in early childhood education is suggested....

  9. Phenomenology and Otherness - on embodied encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten; Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    Starting from phenomenology's notion of orientation towards and involvement with the other and the surrounding environment the paper want to pursue a development from the meeting and opening up to the universalized other of phenomenology towards a focus on encounters with particular others. It is...... encounters, practice, orientation, proximity-distance, emotion....

  10. Multiple criteria group decision making method based on binary connection number aggregation operators%基于二元联系数集结算子的多准则群决策方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪新凡; 王坚强; 杨恶恶

    2013-01-01

    定义了二元联系数的加性运算法则,给出了几种新的算术集结算子,即二元联系数加权算术平均(BCNWAA)算子、二元联系数有序加权平均(BCNOWA)算子和二元联系数混合集结(BCNHA)算子,提出了一种基于二元联系数的准则权重信息不完全确定的群决策方法。该方法利用BCNWAA算子和BCNHA算子对二元联系数准则值进行集结;利用二元联系数准则值的方差和准则权重的随机性,通过构建优化模型确定最优准则权重。最后,通过实例分析表明了该方法的可行性和有效性。%Some additive operational laws of binary connection numbers are defined, and several new arithmetic aggregation operators, such as the binary connection number weighted arithmetic averaging(BCNWAA) operator, the binary connection number ordered weighted averaging(BCNOWA) operator and the binary connection number hybrid aggregation(BCNHA) operator, are proposed. Then an approach is developed for solving multiple criterion group decision making based on binary connection numbers with incomplete uncertain information. In this method, binary connection number criterion values are aggregated using the BCNWAA operator and the BCNHA operator, some optimal models are constructed to determine the optimal criterion weights using the variance of binary connection number criterion values and the randomness of criterion weights. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed method.

  11. A stabilized finite element method using equal-order interpolation velocity-pressure elements for the simulation of directional solidification of binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Using classical SUPG/PSPG techniques for incompressible flows and the recent developments on stabilized finite element techniques for modeling of Darcy flow, a stabilized finite element model has been developed to calculate the thermosolutal convection and macrosegregation during the solidification of dendritic alloys. The single set of conservation equations derived using volume averaging techniques are solved in the whole domain (mushy zone, liquid, and solid regions) without internal interfaces. An equal-order interpolation for both velocity and pressure is considered for solving the mass and momentum equations. This model is applied to the simulation of the solidification of binary alloys where the solutal convection plays an important role in the macrosegregation patterns. The results of extensive studies of the performance of the method will be discussed and compared with those obtained from other available techniques including penalty finite element formulations. Refs. 2 (author)

  12. Binary-Signal Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebeler, Elmer L.

    2011-01-01

    Binary communication through long cables, opto-isolators, isolating transformers, or repeaters can become distorted in characteristic ways. The usual solution is to slow the communication rate, change to a different method, or improve the communication media. It would help if the characteristic distortions could be accommodated at the receiving end to ease the communication problem. The distortions come from loss of the high-frequency content, which adds slopes to the transitions from ones to zeroes and zeroes to ones. This weakens the definition of the ones and zeroes in the time domain. The other major distortion is the reduction of low frequency, which causes the voltage that defines the ones or zeroes to drift out of recognizable range. This development describes a method for recovering a binary data stream from a signal that has been subjected to a loss of both higher-frequency content and low-frequency content that is essential to define the difference between ones and zeroes. The method makes use of the frequency structure of the waveform created by the data stream, and then enhances the characteristics related to the data to reconstruct the binary switching pattern. A major issue is simplicity. The approach taken here is to take the first derivative of the signal and then feed it to a hysteresis switch. This is equivalent in practice to using a non-resonant band pass filter feeding a Schmitt trigger. Obviously, the derivative signal needs to be offset to halfway between the thresholds of the hysteresis switch, and amplified so that the derivatives reliably exceed the thresholds. A transition from a zero to a one is the most substantial, fastest plus movement of voltage, and therefore will create the largest plus first derivative pulse. Since the quiet state of the derivative is sitting between the hysteresis thresholds, the plus pulse exceeds the plus threshold, switching the hysteresis switch plus, which re-establishes the data zero to one transition

  13. Infalling clouds on to supermassive black hole binaries - II. Binary evolution and the final parsec problem

    CERN Document Server

    Goicovic, Felipe G; Cuadra, Jorge; Stasyszyn, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The formation of massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) is an unavoidable outcome of galaxy evolution via successive mergers. However, the mechanism that drives their orbital evolution from parsec separations down to the gravitational wave (GW) dominated regime is poorly understood and their final fate is still unclear. If such binaries are embedded in gas-rich and turbulent environments, as observed in remnants of galaxy mergers, the interaction with gas clumps (such as molecular clouds) may efficiently drive their orbital evolution. Using numerical simulations, we test this hypothesis by studying the dynamical evolution of an equal-mass, circular MBHB accreting infalling molecular clouds. We investigate different orbital configurations, modelling a total of 13 systems to explore different possible pericentre distances and relative inclinations of the cloud-binary encounter. We show that the evolution of the binary orbit is dominated by the exchange of angular momentum through gas accretion during the first sta...

  14. Testing general relativity with compact coalescing binaries: comparing exact and predictive methods to compute the Bayes factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second generation of gravitational-wave detectors is scheduled to start operations in 2015. Gravitational-wave signatures of compact binary coalescences could be used to accurately test the strong-field dynamical predictions of general relativity (GR). Computationally expensive data analysis pipelines, including TIGER (test infrastructure for general relativity), have been developed to carry out such tests. As a means to cheaply assess whether a particular deviation from GR can be detected, Cornish et al (2011 Phys. Rev. D 84 062003) and Vallisneri (2012 Phys. Rev. D 86 082001) recently proposed an approximate scheme to compute the Bayes factor between a GR gravitational-wave model and a model representing a class of alternative theories of gravity parametrized by one additional parameter. This approximate scheme is based on only two easy-to-compute quantities: the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the signal and the fitting factor (FF) between the signal and the manifold of possible waveforms within GR. In this work, we compare the prediction from the approximate formula against an exact numerical calculation of the Bayes factor using the lalinference library. We find that, using frequency-domain waveforms, the approximate scheme predicts exact results with good accuracy, providing the correct scaling with the SNR at a FF value of 0.992 and the correct scaling with the FF at a SNR of 20, down to a FF of ∼0.9. We extend the framework for the approximate calculation of the Bayes factor, which significantly increases its range of validity, at least to FFs of ∼0.7 or higher. (paper)

  15. Encountering whales: How encounter rates became the basis for managing whaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Smith

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Declining rates of encountering whales, including both sighting and catching, were noted by whalers throughout the 19th century, and these declines became the first indication that whaling was adversely affecting whale abundance. The interpretation of declines in both sighting and catch rates proved to be a difficult scientific task. Satisfactory quantitative methods of interpreting changes in whale encounter rates were not developed until the second half of the 20th century. Rates of encountering whales played a key role in the International Whaling Commission (IWC Scientific Committee from its beginning in the early 1950s, as well as in the US in implementing its Marine Mammal Protection Act beginning in the early 1970s. The development of methods of collecting and interpreting sighting and catch data was intimately interwoven with the development of themanagement of whaling and cetacean by-catches in fisheries throughout the world, but especially within the context of the Scientific Committees of the IWC and the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO. Although overfishing of whales was initially identified through the use of sighting rate data, catch rate data provided the IWC’s Committee its first firm footing for management advice. However, it was sighting rate data that ultimately became the basis for the scientific advice on whaling and for management advice in other settings. This led to the development of large scale cetacean sighting programmes, such as the IWC’s International Decade of Cetacean Researchsurveys in Antarctic aboard Japanese ships, the North Atlantic Sighting Surveys (NASS aboard Norwegian, Icelandic, Spanish, Greenlandic and Faroese vessels and aircraft (coordinated by NAMMCO through its Scientific Committee from 1995, and surveys under the US’s Marine Mammal Protection Act and the European Union’s Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (SCANS programme. Fishery independent cetacean sighting surveys

  16. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...... and looks at the overlapping roles of authors as activists, teachers, communicators etc....

  17. A novel method for solving lithium carbonate pellet by binary-acid for tritium production rate measurement by liquid scintillation counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium carbonate pellets are frequently used for estimation of tritium production rate in irradiated samples in fusion blanket neutronics experiment and the activity is measured by liquid scintillation counting technique. In this measurement, it is essential to solve the lithium carbonate pellet as much as possible and to mix the pellet solution into scintillation cocktail homogeneously at stable condition. For this purpose, a novel binary-acid method has been developed to solve lithium carbonate and to mix the pellet solution into scintillation cocktail. High solubility is attained by adopting two acids, HNO3 and CH3COOH, and a good compatibility of the pellet solution with scintillator is obtained by emulsion cocktail resulting in high counting efficiency. Defining a product of dissolved mass and counting efficiency as a Figure of Merit (FOM), the present method has higher FOM value than the conventional method and is extremely simple in a sample preparation procedure. In the present work, solubility, compatibility and counting efficiency were systematically examined for different mixing ratios of two acids, and the condition for a maximum FOM was determined. The FOM value of a factor of two higher than the conventional method was finally attained. (author)

  18. Calculating the probability of injected carbon dioxide plumes encountering faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, P.D.

    2011-04-01

    One of the main concerns of storage in saline aquifers is leakage via faults. In the early stages of site selection, site-specific fault coverages are often not available for these aquifers. This necessitates a method using available fault data to estimate the probability of injected carbon dioxide encountering and migrating up a fault. The probability of encounter can be calculated from areal fault density statistics from available data, and carbon dioxide plume dimensions from numerical simulation. Given a number of assumptions, the dimension of the plume perpendicular to a fault times the areal density of faults with offsets greater than some threshold of interest provides probability of the plume encountering such a fault. Application of this result to a previously planned large-scale pilot injection in the southern portion of the San Joaquin Basin yielded a 3% and 7% chance of the plume encountering a fully and half seal offsetting fault, respectively. Subsequently available data indicated a half seal-offsetting fault at a distance from the injection well that implied a 20% probability of encounter for a plume sufficiently large to reach it.

  19. Service encounters as bases for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Jon; Sundbo, Donna; Henten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    between employees and customers, employees investing stubbornness and time can be a driver for innovation, and several layers of management can be a barrier. In the field experiments three new factors for encounter-based innovation were found: translation, multitasking, and hyper-professionalism. The two......This article examines the factors affecting the innovativeness of service encounters – either as drivers or as barriers. The assumption is that a considerable number of innovations in service industries are initiated in service encounters and that employees are the core factor in connecting...... customers with the innovating organization. Based on literature studies and pilot case studies, seven propositions are proposed and tested in a qualitative, hermeneutic way in field experiments in nine service organizations. Important new results are that encounter-based innovation requires mutual empathy...

  20. Structured vs. Unstructured Encounter Forms: A Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Ashby, Richard O.

    1985-01-01

    The “ENCOUNTER FORM” is an instrument used to record information regarding a patient visit. This is used for permanent storage in the medical record, for data entry, or, at times, for both purposes. The design of the encounter form is a function of both the needs of the medical information system and the ability of that system to interact with the providers who document the care.

  1. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    Abstract  A social choice rule (SCR) is a collection of social choice correspondences, one for each agenda. An effectivity rule is a collection of effectivity functions, one for each agenda. We prove that every monotonic and superadditive effectivity rule is the effectivity rule of some SCR. A SCR...... is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  2. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  3. Rectangular Decomposition of Binary Images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suk, Tomáš; Höschl, Cyril; Flusser, Jan

    Berlin : Springer, 2012 - (Blanc-Talon, J.; Popescu, D.; Philips, W.; Scheunders, P.), s. 213-224 ISBN 978-3-642-33139-8. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7517). [Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (Acivs 2012). Brno (CZ), 04.09.2012-07.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : binary image decomposition * generalized delta-method * distance transformation * quadtree * bipartite graph * image compression * fast convolution Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/suk-rectangular decomposition of binary images.pdf

  4. Close encounters of the stellar kind

    CERN Document Server

    Bailer-Jones, C A L

    2014-01-01

    Stars which pass close to the Sun can perturb the Oort cloud, injecting comets into the inner solar system where they may collide with the Earth. Using van Leeuwen's re-reduction of the Hipparcos data complemented by the original Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues, along with recent radial velocity surveys, I integrate the orbits of over 50 000 stars through the Galaxy to look for close encounters. The search uses a Monte Carlo simulation over the covariance of the data in order to properly characterize the uncertainties in the times, distances, and speeds of the encounters. I show that modelling stellar encounters by assuming instead a linear relative motion produces, for many encounters, inaccurate and biased results. I find 42, 14, and 4 stars which have encounter distances below 2, 1, and 0.5 pc respectively, although some of these stars have questionable data. Of the 14 stars coming within 1 pc, 5 were found by at least one of three previous studies (which found a total of 7 coming within 1 pc). The closes...

  5. Termite: Emulation Testbed for Encounter Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bruno

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cutting-edge mobile devices like smartphones and tablets are equipped with various infrastructureless wireless interfaces, such as WiFi Direct and Bluetooth. Such technologies allow for novel mobile applications that take advantage of casual encounters between co-located users. However, the need to mimic the behavior of real-world encounter networks makes testing and debugging of such applications hard tasks. We present Termite, an emulation testbed for encounter networks. Our system allows developers to run their applications on a virtual encounter network emulated by software. Developers can model arbitrary encounter networks and specify user interactions on the emulated virtual devices. To facilitate testing and debugging, developers can place breakpoints, inspect the runtime state of virtual nodes, and run experiments in a stepwise fashion. Termite defines its own Petri Net variant to model the dynamically changing topology and synthesize user interactions with virtual devices. The system is designed to efficiently multiplex an underlying emulation hosting infrastructure across multiple developers, and to support heterogeneous mobile platforms. Our current system implementation supports virtual Android devices communicating over WiFi Direct networks and runs on top of a local cloud infrastructure. We evaluated our system using emulator network traces, and found that Termite is expressive and performs well.

  6. Determinants of customer satisfaction with service encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Nefat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Service encounters are the focal point of a customer’s perception of a service in terms of its quality, value and customer satisfaction. The paper researches the influence of the components of a service encounter on customer satisfaction. Among several factors that determine customer satisfaction the quality of service, which is related to the characteristics of service, plays an important role. However, a direct insight into the reasons that make a service encounter satisfactory or unsatisfactory is provided by the critical incident technique, where causes of dis/satisfaction differ primarily depending on whether they derive from interpersonal contact or from contact with technology. The evidence of service, which includes people, process and the physical evidence, plays a critical role in a customer’s dis/satisfaction. The influence of these elements cannot be observed separately; it must be observed in their interaction during the delivery of service and their strongest effect is achieved during face-to-face service encounters that have the characteristics of a theatre metaphor. Even though a high level of satisfaction may be achieved after the recovery of a service, enterprises should aim to conduct excellent service encounters right from the start.

  7. Escape probability methods versus ``exact" transfer for modelling the X-ray spectrum of Active Galactic Nuclei and X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, A.-M.; Collin, S.; Paletou, F.; Coupé, S.; Godet, O.; Pelat, D.

    2003-08-01

    In the era of XMM-Newton and Chandra missions, it is crucial to use codes able to compute correctly the line spectrum of X-ray irradiated thick media (Thomson thickness of the order of unity), in order to build models for the structure and the emission of the central regions of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), or of X-ray binaries. In all photoionized codes except in our code Titan, the line intensities are computed with the so-called ``escape probability approximation". In its last version, Titan solves the transfer of a thousand lines and of the continuum with the ``Accelerated Lambda Iteration" method, which is one of the most efficient and at the same time the most secure for line transfer. We first review the escape probability formalism and mention various reasons why it should lead to wrong results concerning the line fluxes. Then we check several approximations commonly used instead of line transfer in photoionization codes, by comparing them to the full transfer computation. We find that for conditions typical of the AGN or X-ray binary emission medium, all approximations lead to an overestimation of the emitted X-ray line spectrum, which can reach more than one order of magnitude. We show that it is due mainly to the local treatment of line photons, implying a delicate balance between excitations of X-ray transitions by the very intense underlying diffuse X-ray continuum (which are not taken properly into account in escape probability approximations) and the net rate of excitations by the diffuse line flux. The most affected lines are those in the soft X-ray range. Such processes are much less important in cooler and thinner media (like the Broad Line Region of AGN), as the most intense lines lie in the optical and near ultraviolet range where the diffuse continuum is small. We conclude that it is very important to treat correctly the transfer of the continuum to get the best results for the line spectrum. On the other hand the approximations used for the

  8. 槐定碱/苦参碱二元醇脂质体不同制备方法的比较%Comparison of sophoridine/matrine binary ethosomes prepared by different methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周倩; 魏玉辉; 杨阳; 张建萍; 周燕; 武新安

    2013-01-01

    目的:以包封率、粒径分布和Zeta电位为指标,探讨槐定碱/苦参碱(sophoridine/matrine,S/M)二元醇脂质体3种不同制备方法的适宜性.方法:用被动载药法(Ⅰ法)、主动载药法(Ⅱ法)和被动加主动载药法(Ⅲ法)分别制备了S/M的二元醇脂质体,并考察了3种方法制备的不同药脂比二元醇脂质体的包封率、粒径分布和Zeta电位.结果:当药脂比为1∶1时,用Ⅰ法制备的S二元醇脂质体包封率最高,用Ⅲ法制备的M二元醇脂质体包封率最高;用Ⅱ法制备时,2种碱的包封率均随药脂比的减小而增大;而采用Ⅰ/Ⅲ法时2种碱的包封率均随药脂比的减小而减小.结论:制备S/M二元醇脂质体时,不同的方法和药脂比对其包封率有显著影响.S二元醇脂质体适宜用Ⅰ法制备,而M二元醇脂质体则适宜用Ⅲ法.%OBJECTIVE According to encapsulation efficiency, particle size, Zeta potential, to compare the three different methods of preparation Sophoridine/Matrine binary ethosomes. METHODS The passive drug-loading method (method Ⅰ ), active drug-loading method (method Ⅱ ), and passive plus active drug-loading method (method Ⅲ) were applied in this research to prepare S/M binary ethosomes, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency, particle size, Zeta potential of S/M binary ethosomes with different drug/lipid ratio was characterized. RESULTS When the drug/lipid ratio was 1 :1, S binary ethosomes prepared by the method Ⅰ were the highest encapsulation efficiency, and M binary ethosomes prepared by method Ⅲ were the highest rate; using the methods Ⅱ , the encapsulation efficiency of two alkaloids increased with the decrease of drug/ lipid ratio; whereas using method Ⅰ or Ⅲ, the encapsulation efficiency of two alkaloids decreased with the decrease of drug/ lipid ratio. CONCLUSION For preparation of S/M binary ethosomes, the appropriate methods and drug/lipid ratio are important impacts of their encapsulation

  9. Comparative study between recent methods manipulating ratio spectra and classical methods based on two-wavelength selection for the determination of binary mixture of antazoline hydrochloride and tetryzoline hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, Lamia M.; Abd-El Rahman, Mohamed K.; Ramadan, Nesrin K.; EL Sanabary, Hoda F. A.; Salem, Maissa Y.

    2016-04-01

    A comparative study was developed between two classical spectrophotometric methods (dual wavelength method and Vierordt's method) and two recent methods manipulating ratio spectra (ratio difference method and first derivative of ratio spectra method) for simultaneous determination of Antazoline hydrochloride (AN) and Tetryzoline hydrochloride (TZ) in their combined pharmaceutical formulation and in the presence of benzalkonium chloride as a preservative without preliminary separation. The dual wavelength method depends on choosing two wavelengths for each drug in a way so that the difference in absorbance at those two wavelengths is zero for the other drug. While Vierordt's method, is based upon measuring the absorbance and the absorptivity values of the two drugs at their λmax (248.0 and 219.0 nm for AN and TZ, respectively), followed by substitution in the corresponding Vierordt's equation. Recent methods manipulating ratio spectra depend on either measuring the difference in amplitudes of ratio spectra between 255.5 and 269.5 nm for AN and 220.0 and 273.0 nm for TZ in case of ratio difference method or computing first derivative of the ratio spectra for each drug then measuring the peak amplitude at 250.0 nm for AN and at 224.0 nm for TZ in case of first derivative of ratio spectrophotometry. The specificity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing different laboratory prepared mixtures of the two drugs. All methods were applied successfully for the determination of the selected drugs in their combined dosage form proving that the classical spectrophotometric methods can still be used successfully in analysis of binary mixture using minimal data manipulation rather than recent methods which require relatively more steps. Furthermore, validation of the proposed methods was performed according to ICH guidelines; accuracy, precision and repeatability are found to be within the acceptable limits. Statistical studies showed that the methods can be

  10. Accurate orbit propagation with planetary close encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baù, Giulio; Milani Comparetti, Andrea; Guerra, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    We tackle the problem of accurately propagating the motion of those small bodies that undergo close approaches with a planet. The literature is lacking on this topic and the reliability of the numerical results is not sufficiently discussed. The high-frequency components of the perturbation generated by a close encounter makes the propagation particularly challenging both from the point of view of the dynamical stability of the formulation and the numerical stability of the integrator. In our approach a fixed step-size and order multistep integrator is combined with a regularized formulation of the perturbed two-body problem. When the propagated object enters the region of influence of a celestial body, the latter becomes the new primary body of attraction. Moreover, the formulation and the step-size will also be changed if necessary. We present: 1) the restarter procedure applied to the multistep integrator whenever the primary body is changed; 2) new analytical formulae for setting the step-size (given the order of the multistep, formulation and initial osculating orbit) in order to control the accumulation of the local truncation error and guarantee the numerical stability during the propagation; 3) a new definition of the region of influence in the phase space. We test the propagator with some real asteroids subject to the gravitational attraction of the planets, the Yarkovsky and relativistic perturbations. Our goal is to show that the proposed approach improves the performance of both the propagator implemented in the OrbFit software package (which is currently used by the NEODyS service) and of the propagator represented by a variable step-size and order multistep method combined with Cowell's formulation (i.e. direct integration of position and velocity in either the physical or a fictitious time).

  11. Plankton motility patterns and encounter rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    measure of run length to reaction distance determines whether the underlying encounter is ballistic or diffusive. Since ballistic interactions are intrinsically more efficient than diffusive, we predict that organisms will display motility with long correlation run lengths compared to their reaction...... distances to their prey, but short compared to the reaction distances of their predators. We show motility data for planktonic organisms ranging from bacteria to copepods that support this prediction. We also present simple ballistic and diffusive motility models for estimating encounter rates, which lead...

  12. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 °C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 μm) and sample B (smaller than 50 μm). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of α-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing α-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 μm showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 μm. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  13. 一种用于认证二值文本图像窜改定位的数字水印算法%Digital watermarking method for binary text images authentication and tamper localization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡精易; 毛建旭; 赵希

    2012-01-01

    众多二值文本图像水印算法在嵌入水印时,都要对黑色像素进行变动,很容易引起图像失真,为解决此问题,提出一种新的水印算法,该算法按行列统计文本黑色像素信息并生成水印,将水印编码与差错控制码绑定,将文本分块,利用不可视黄点表征水印嵌入文本空白处.实验结果表明,嵌入水印后,图像效果良好,水印提取实现了盲提取,并具有完整性鉴定和窜改定位的功能.%Numerous algorithms of binary text image watermarking in embedding watermark depend on shuffling the black pixels, which would easily lead to image distortion. To solve this problem, this paper proposed a novel watermarking method that relied on the imperceptibility of yellow dots on white paper. This method counted the black pixels information of binary text image in the form of rows and columns to generate the watermarks, and then binding these watermarks with the error control code. Meanwhile, it divided the original binary text into blocks, the watermarks described as imperceptible yellow dots were then embedded into the selected white pixel of each block. Experimental results show that the watermarked binary text images have fine quality and the watermarks can be extracted blindly, which can authenticate the binary text images and accurately localise the tampered areas.

  14. On the disruption of pulsar and X-ray binaries in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Verbunt, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The stellar encounter rate Gamma has been shown to be strongly correlated with the number of X-ray binaries in clusters and also to the number of radio pulsars. However, the pulsar populations in different clusters show remarkably different characteristics: in some GCs the population is dominated by binary systems, in others by single pulsars and exotic systems that result from exchange encounters. In this paper, we describe a second dynamical parameter for globular clusters, the encounter rate for a single binary, gamma. We find that this parameter provides a good characterization of the differences between the pulsar populations of different globular clusters. The higher gamma is for any particular globular cluster the more isolated pulsars and products of exchange interactions are observed. Furthermore, we also find that slow and "young" pulsars are found almost exclusively in clusters with a high gamma; this suggests that these kinds of objects are formed by the disruption of X-ray binaries, thus halting ...

  15. A comparison of three methods of Mendelian randomization when the genetic instrument, the risk factor and the outcome are all binary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Vuistiner

    Full Text Available The method of instrumental variable (referred to as Mendelian randomization when the instrument is a genetic variant has been initially developed to infer on a causal effect of a risk factor on some outcome of interest in a linear model. Adapting this method to nonlinear models, however, is known to be problematic. In this paper, we consider the simple case when the genetic instrument, the risk factor, and the outcome are all binary. We compare via simulations the usual two-stages estimate of a causal odds-ratio and its adjusted version with a recently proposed estimate in the context of a clinical trial with noncompliance. In contrast to the former two, we confirm that the latter is (under some conditions a valid estimate of a causal odds-ratio defined in the subpopulation of compliers, and we propose its use in the context of Mendelian randomization. By analogy with a clinical trial with noncompliance, compliers are those individuals for whom the presence/absence of the risk factor X is determined by the presence/absence of the genetic variant Z (i.e., for whom we would observe X = Z whatever the alleles randomly received at conception. We also recall and illustrate the huge variability of instrumental variable estimates when the instrument is weak (i.e., with a low percentage of compliers, as is typically the case with genetic instruments for which this proportion is frequently smaller than 10% where the inter-quartile range of our simulated estimates was up to 18 times higher compared to a conventional (e.g., intention-to-treat approach. We thus conclude that the need to find stronger instruments is probably as important as the need to develop a methodology allowing to consistently estimate a causal odds-ratio.

  16. Moral Relations in Encounters with Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Karin; Öhman, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this article is to develop in-depth knowledge about the connection between outdoor experiences and moral attitudes towards nature. The study focuses on processes in which moral relations are at stake in encounters between students and nature. The purpose is to identify such events, describe their specific circumstances and…

  17. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  18. Primary lumbar hernia: A rarely encountered hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada Sundaramurthy

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: A surgeon may encounter a primary lumbar hernia perhaps once in his lifetime making it an interesting surgical challenge. Sound anatomical knowledge and adequate imaging are indispensable. Inspite of advances in minimally invasive surgery, it cannot be universally applied to patients with lumbar hernia and management requires a more tailored approach.

  19. Encounters on a Shape-changing Bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Grönvall, Erik; Petersen, Marianne Graves;

    2014-01-01

    concert hall, an airport and a shopping mall. We gathered insights from more than 120 people, as they unexpectedly encountered the shape changing capabilities of the bench. By taking the user tests out of the lab and into the wild, we explored the influence of context on the users experience of a shape...

  20. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. VIII. Identification of False Positive Eclipsing Binaries and Re-extraction of New Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Abdul-Masih, Michael; Conroy, Kyle; Bloemen, Steven; Boyajian, Tabetha; Doyle, Laurance R; Johnston, Cole; Kostov, Veselin; Latham, David W; Matijevic, Gal; Shporer, Avi; Southworth, John

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has provided unprecedented, nearly continuous photometric data of $\\sim$200,000 objects in the $\\sim$105 deg$^{2}$ field of view from the beginning of science operations in May of 2009 until the loss of the second reaction wheel in May of 2013. The Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog contains information including but not limited to ephemerides, stellar parameters and analytical approximation fits for every known eclipsing binary system in the Kepler Field of View. Using Target Pixel level data collected from Kepler in conjunction with the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, we identify false positives among eclipsing binaries, i.e. targets that are not eclipsing binaries themselves, but are instead contaminated by eclipsing binary sources nearby on the sky and show eclipsing binary signatures in their light curves. We present methods for identifying these false positives and for extracting new light curves for the true source of the observed binary signal. For each source, we extract three separa...

  1. Evolution of Compact Binary Populations in Globular Clusters: A Boltzmann Study. II. Introducing Stochasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sambaran; Ghosh, Pranab

    2008-06-01

    We continue the exploration that we began in Paper I of using the Boltzmann scheme to study the evolution of compact binary populations of globular clusters, introducing in this paper our method of handling the stochasticity inherent in the dynamical processes of binary formation, destruction, and hardening in globular clusters. We describe these stochastic processes as "Wiener processes," whereupon the Boltzmann equation becomes a stochastic partial differential equation, the solution of which involves the use of "Itō calculus" (this use being the first, to our knowledge, in this subject), in addition to ordinary calculus. As in Paper I, we focus on the evolution of (1) the number of X-ray binaries NXB in globular clusters and (2) the orbital period distribution of these binaries. We show that, although the details of the fluctuations in the above quantities differ from one "realization" to another of the stochastic processes, the general trends follow those found in the continuous-limit study of Paper I, and the average result over many such realizations is very close to the continuous-limit result. We investigate the dependence of NXB found by these calculations on two essential globular cluster properties, namely, the star-star and star-binary encounter rate parameters Γ and γ, for which we coined the name "Verbunt parameters" in Paper I. We compare our computed results with those from Chandra observations of Galactic globular clusters, showing that the expected scalings of NXB with the Verbunt parameters are in good agreement with those observed. We indicate additional features that can be incorporated into the scheme in the future, as well as how more elaborate problems can be tackled.

  2. Eccentricity distribution of wide binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 477 solar-type binaries within 67pc with projected separations larger than 50AU is studied by a new statistical method. Speed and direction of the relative motion are determined from the short observed arcs or known orbits, and their joint distribution is compared to the numerical simulations. By inverting the observed distribution with the help of simulations, we find that average eccentricity of wide binaries is 0.59+-0.02 and the eccentricity distribution can be modeled as f(e) ~= 1.2 e + 0.4. However, wide binaries containing inner subsystems, i.e. triple or higher-order multiples, have significantly smaller eccentricities with the average e = 0.52+-0.05 and the peak at e ~ 0.5. We find that the catalog of visual orbits is strongly biased against large eccentricities. A marginal evidence of eccentricity increasing with separation (or period) is found for this sample. Comparison with spectroscopic binaries proves the reality of the controversial period-eccentricity relation. The average eccentr...

  3. Using a binary logistic regression method and GIS for evaluating and mapping the groundwater spring potential in the Sultan Mountains (Aksehir, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Adnan

    2011-07-01

    SummaryThe purpose of this study is to produce a groundwater spring potential map of the Sultan Mountains in central Turkey, based on a logistic regression method within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Using field surveys, the locations of the springs (440 springs) were determined in the study area. In this study, 17 spring-related factors were used in the analysis: geology, relative permeability, land use/land cover, precipitation, elevation, slope, aspect, total curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, wetness index, stream power index, sediment transport capacity index, distance to drainage, distance to fault, drainage density, and fault density map. The coefficients of the predictor variables were estimated using binary logistic regression analysis and were used to calculate the groundwater spring potential for the entire study area. The accuracy of the final spring potential map was evaluated based on the observed springs. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by calculating the relative operating characteristics. The area value of the relative operating characteristic curve model was found to be 0.82. These results indicate that the model is a good estimator of the spring potential in the study area. The spring potential map shows that the areas of very low, low, moderate and high groundwater spring potential classes are 105.586 km 2 (28.99%), 74.271 km 2 (19.906%), 101.203 km 2 (27.14%), and 90.05 km 2 (24.671%), respectively. The interpretations of the potential map showed that stream power index, relative permeability of lithologies, geology, elevation, aspect, wetness index, plan curvature, and drainage density play major roles in spring occurrence and distribution in the Sultan Mountains. The logistic regression approach has not yet been used to delineate groundwater potential zones. In this study, the logistic regression method was used to locate potential zones for groundwater springs in the Sultan Mountains. The evolved model

  4. Eclipsing Binaries with the Kepler Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Andrej; Kepler Eclipsing Binary Working Group

    2012-05-01

    Kepler has revolutionized the eclipsing binary field by providing us essentially uninterrupted data of unprecedented quality. Out of 160,000 targets, we detected over 2500 eclipsing binaries. These range in orbital periods from as short as 0.3 days, all the way to several years, and encompass stellar types across the H-R diagram. In this talk I will present the collaborative effort of the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Working Group to study and characterize these systems on a statistical level: their distribution in periods, galactic latitude, spectral type, fundamental stellar properties and multiplicity as evidenced by eclipse timing variations. I will further show the gems that have sprung from this sample, which were modeled and interpreted to reveal intrinsically pulsating components, runaway encounters with massive tertiaries, stellar objects that populate the lowest end of the main sequence and circumbinary planets. I will critically review and discuss the causes of data systematics and detrending, and introduce a novel algorithm to classify light curves into morphological types using Locally Linear Embedding. Finally, I will touch on the dark side of eclipsing binaries as the primary cause of false positives in extrasolar planet detections with Kepler.

  5. Mobbing behaviors encountered by nurse teaching staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Dilek; Yildirim, Aytolan; Timucin, Arzu

    2007-07-01

    The term 'mobbing' is defined as antagonistic behaviors with unethical communication directed systematically at one individual by one or more individuals in the workplace. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of determining the mobbing behaviors encountered by nursing school teaching staff in Turkey, its effect on them, and their responses to them. A large percentage (91%) of the nursing school employees who participated in this study reported that they had encountered mobbing behaviors in the institution where they work and 17% that they had been directly exposed to mobbing in the workplace. The academic staff who had been exposed to mobbing behaviors experienced various physiological, emotional and social reactions. They frequently 'worked harder and [were] more organized and worked very carefully to avoid criticism' to escape from mobbing. In addition, 9% of the participants stated that they 'thought about suicide occasionally'. PMID:17562724

  6. Encounter-based worms: Analysis and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Tanachaiwiwat, Sapon

    2007-01-01

    Encounter-based network is a frequently-disconnected wireless ad-hoc network requiring immediate neighbors to store and forward aggregated data for information disseminations. Using traditional approaches such as gateways or firewalls for deterring worm propagation in encounter-based networks is inappropriate. We propose the worm interaction approach that relies upon automated beneficial worm generation aiming to alleviate problems of worm propagations in such networks. To understand the dynamic of worm interactions and its performance, we mathematically model worm interactions based on major worm interaction factors including worm interaction types, network characteristics, and node characteristics using ordinary differential equations and analyze their effects on our proposed metrics. We validate our proposed model using extensive synthetic and trace-driven simulations. We find that, all worm interaction factors significantly affect the pattern of worm propagations. For example, immunization linearly decrea...

  7. Tidal disruption events from supermassive black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Eric R; Nixon, Chris; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the pre-disruption gravitational dynamics and post-disruption hydrodynamics of the tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. We focus on binaries with relatively low mass primaries ($10^6M_{\\odot}$), moderate mass ratios, and separations with reasonably long gravitational wave inspiral times (tens of Myr). First, we generate a large ensemble (between 1 and 10 million) of restricted three-body integrations to quantify the statistical properties of tidal disruptions by circular SMBH binaries of initially-unbound stars. Compared to the reference case of a disruption by a single SMBH, the binary potential induces significant variance into the specific energy and angular momentum of the star at the point of disruption. Second, we use Newtonian numerical hydrodynamics to study the detailed evolution of the fallback debris from 120 disruptions randomly selected from the three-body ensemble (excluding only the most deeply penetrating encounters). We find that the overall mor...

  8. Aliens on Earth. Are reports of close encounters correct?

    CERN Document Server

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Popular culture (movies, SF literature) and witness accounts of close encounters with extraterrestrials provide a rather bizarre image of Aliens behavior on Earth. It is far from stereotypes of human space exploration. The reported Aliens are not missions of diplomats, scientists nor even invasion fleets; typical encounters are with lone ETs (or small groups), and involve curious behavior: abductions and experiments (often of sexual nature), cattle mutilations, localized killing and mixing in human society using various methods. Standard scientific explanations of these social memes point to influence of cultural artifacts (movies, literature) on social imagination, projection of our fears and observations of human society, and, in severe cases, psychic disorder of the involved individuals. In this work we propose an alternate explanation, claiming that the memes might be the result of observations of actual behavior of true Aliens, who, visiting Earth behave in a way that is then reproduced by such memes. Th...

  9. Winnicott and Lacan: a missed encounter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanier, Alain

    2012-04-01

    Winnicott was able to say that Lacan's paper on the mirror stage "had certainly influenced" him, while Lacan argued that he found his object a in Winnicott's transitional object. By following the development of their personal relations, as well as of their theoretical discussions, it is possible to argue that this was a missed encounter--yet a happily missed one, since the misunderstandings of their theoretical exchanges allowed each of them to clarify concepts otherwise difficult to discern. PMID:22768481

  10. The Voyager 2 Encounter with Uranus

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, E. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Voyager Uranus/Interstellar Mission is the continuation of the NASA program of exploration of the outer solar system. The first phase of the Voyager program included encounters with Jupiter and Saturn as summarized in the Journal of Geophysical Research (volume 86, pages 8123–8841, 1981, and volume 88, pages 8639–9018, 1983). With the successful completion of this first phase a second phase was undertaken with the objectives of exploring the Uranus system and investigating the interplanet...

  11. Fast algorithms for generating binary holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Dustin; Kuhn, Axel

    2014-01-01

    We describe three algorithms for generating binary-valued holograms. Our methods are optimised for producing large arrays of tightly focussed optical tweezers for trapping particles. Binary-valued holograms allow us to use a digital mirror device (DMD) as the display element, which is much faster than other alternatives. We describe how our binary amplitude holograms can be used to correct for phase errors caused by optical aberrations. Furthermore, we compare the speed and accuracy of the algorithms for both periodic and arbitrary arrangements of traps, which allows one to choose the ideal scheme depending on the circumstances.

  12. Predicting the Earth encounters of (99942) Apophis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Jon D.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Ostro, Steven J.; Nolan, Michael C.; Busch, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    Arecibo delay-Doppler measurements of (99942) Apophis in 2005 and 2006 resulted in a five standard-deviation trajectory correction to the optically predicted close approach distance to Earth in 2029. The radar measurements reduced the volume of the statistical uncertainty region entering the encounter to 7.3% of the pre-radar solution, but increased the trajectory uncertainty growth rate across the encounter by 800% due to the closer predicted approach to the Earth. A small estimated Earth impact probability remained for 2036. With standard-deviation plane-of-sky position uncertainties for 2007-2010 already less than 0.2 arcsec, the best near-term ground-based optical astrometry can only weakly affect the trajectory estimate. While the potential for impact in 2036 will likely be excluded in 2013 (if not 2011) using ground-based optical measurements, approximations within the Standard Dynamical Model (SDM) used to estimate and predict the trajectory from the current era are sufficient to obscure the difference between a predicted impact and a miss in 2036 by altering the dynamics leading into the 2029 encounter. Normal impact probability assessments based on the SDM become problematic without knowledge of the object's physical properties; impact could be excluded while the actual dynamics still permit it. Calibrated position uncertainty intervals are developed to compensate for this by characterizing the minimum and maximum effect of physical parameters on the trajectory. Uncertainty in accelerations related to solar radiation can cause between 82 and 4720 Earth-radii of trajectory change relative to the SDM by 2036. If an actionable hazard exists, alteration by 2-10% of Apophis' total absorption of solar radiation in 2018 could be sufficient to produce a six standard-deviation trajectory change by 2036 given physical characterization; even a 0.5% change could produce a trajectory shift of one Earth-radius by 2036 for all possible spin-poles and likely masses

  13. Signature of Single Binary Encounter in Intermediate Energy He2+—Ar Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Gao; Xiao-Long, Zhu; Shao-Feng, Zhang; Rui-Tian, Zhang; Wen-Tian, Feng; Da-Long, Guo; Bin, Li; Dong-Mei, Zhao; Han-Bing, Wang; Zhong-Kui, Huang; Shun-Cheng, Yan; Dong-Bin, Qian; Xin-Wen, Ma

    2016-07-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No 2010CB832902, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants Nos U1332128 and 11274317, 10979007 and 11004202, and the Program of One Hundred Talents of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Co-creation of Innovations in ICT based service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Henten, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Innovations in services often emanate from service encounters (i.e. the touch points between the service producers and the customers). Two different types of service encounters are dealt with: face-to-face and ICT-based service encounters. The aim of the chapter is to examine the specific...... conditions for innovations from ICT-based service encounters. The service encounter research tradition is mostly concerned with customer satisfaction. The perspective of the present chapter is on innovations in the service encounter. The specific contribution of the chapter is to establish a conceptual...... foundation for innovations in ICT-based service encounters....

  15. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenhua; Zhang, Zhongcheng; Li, Xiu; Li, Qin; You, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8), image patch (Statistical_Joint) and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal) are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor. PMID:24520346

  16. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Guo

    Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.

  17. GAIA survey of galactic eclipsing binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Zwitter, Tomaz

    2002-01-01

    General importance and capabilities of observations of eclipsing binaries by the forthcoming ESA mission GAIA are discussed. Availability of spectroscopic observations and a large number of photometric bands on board will make it possible to reliably determine physical parameters for $\\sim 10^5$ binary stars. It is stressed that current methods of object by object analysis will have to be modified and included in an automatic analysis pipeline.

  18. Learning Compact Binary Face Descriptor for Face Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiwen; Liong, Venice Erin; Zhou, Xiuzhuang; Zhou, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Binary feature descriptors such as local binary patterns (LBP) and its variations have been widely used in many face recognition systems due to their excellent robustness and strong discriminative power. However, most existing binary face descriptors are hand-crafted, which require strong prior knowledge to engineer them by hand. In this paper, we propose a compact binary face descriptor (CBFD) feature learning method for face representation and recognition. Given each face image, we first extract pixel difference vectors (PDVs) in local patches by computing the difference between each pixel and its neighboring pixels. Then, we learn a feature mapping to project these pixel difference vectors into low-dimensional binary vectors in an unsupervised manner, where 1) the variance of all binary codes in the training set is maximized, 2) the loss between the original real-valued codes and the learned binary codes is minimized, and 3) binary codes evenly distribute at each learned bin, so that the redundancy information in PDVs is removed and compact binary codes are obtained. Lastly, we cluster and pool these binary codes into a histogram feature as the final representation for each face image. Moreover, we propose a coupled CBFD (C-CBFD) method by reducing the modality gap of heterogeneous faces at the feature level to make our method applicable to heterogeneous face recognition. Extensive experimental results on five widely used face datasets show that our methods outperform state-of-the-art face descriptors. PMID:26340256

  19. Measuring agreement between rating interpretations and binary clinical interpretations of images: a simulation study of methods for quantifying the clinical relevance of an observer performance paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies, that are often used to evaluate medical imaging systems, differ from ‘live’ clinical interpretations in several respects which could compromise their clinical relevance. The aim was to develop methodology for quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory ROC study. A simulator was developed to generate ROC ratings data and binary clinical interpretations classified as correct or incorrect for a common set of images interpreted under clinical and laboratory conditions. The area under the trapezoidal ROC curve (AUC) was used as the laboratory figure-of-merit and the fraction of correct clinical decisions as the clinical figure-of-merit. Conventional agreement measures (Pearson, Spearman, Kendall and kappa) between the bootstrap-induced fluctuations of the two figures of merit were estimated. A jackknife pseudovalue transformation applied to the figures of merit was also investigated as a way to capture agreement existing at the individual image level that could be lost at the figure-of-merit level. It is shown that the pseudovalues define a relevance-ROC curve. The area under this curve (rAUC) measures the ability of the laboratory figure-of-merit-based pseudovalues to correctly classify incorrect versus correct clinical interpretations. Therefore, rAUC is a measure of the clinical relevance of an ROC study. The conventional measures and rAUC were compared under varying simulator conditions. It was found that design details of the ROC study, namely the number of bins, the difficulty level of the images, the ratio of disease-present to disease-absent images and the unavoidable difference between laboratory and clinical performance levels, can lead to serious underestimation of the agreement as indicated by conventional agreement measures, even for perfectly correlated data, while rAUC showed high agreement and was relatively immune to these details. At the same time rAUC was sensitive to factors such

  20. Rethinking social identity theory in international encounters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    In a globalized business environment, interaction across linguistic boundaries is becoming a normal part of everyday life. In these encounters language differences may affect the formation of social identities among organization members. While studies based on Social Identity Theory perceive the...... link between identity and language to be linear, this article takes a different approach. By drawing on anthropological theories on ethnic identity it is argued that the relation between language and social identity is negotiated in interaction. In the empirical analysis the article focuses on the...

  1. Impact of connected objects on social encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellekens, Koen; Giaccardi, Elisa; Day, Dennis;

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on how connected objects could influence social encounters in a mingling event. Therefore a user study was conducted with Pop Glass; an interactive glass that uses coloured lights to reveal and shape social relations. 29 students participated in a staged mingling event where they...... used as a topic of talk, ‘toasting device’ and boundary object, making relevant a social past. With the lights on Pop Glass proved to be a talkable, a ‘super networker’ and it triggered a collective sense making process about the experiment itself. The quantitative analysis showed that glass’ lights...

  2. Clusius In Portugal: One voyage, Multiple Encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Nobre de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    From 1564 to 1565, Clusius (1526-1609) travelled to the Iberican Peninsula as the tutor of the young heir of the Függers. This journey, which lasted nearly a year, took the two men to the most important cities in the Peninsula. If strolling through the Portuguese countryside demonstrated the peculiarities of the local flora to the botanist, the decreed visit to Lisbon offered many surprising experiences. The encounter with the work recently arrived from the Orient —Colóquios dos Simples e Dro...

  3. Advanced operator splitting based semi-implicit spectral method to solve the binary and single component phase-field crystal model

    OpenAIRE

    Bansel, Gurvinder Singh

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. We present extensive testing in order to find the optimum balance among errors associated with time integration, spatial discretization, and splitting for a fully spectral semi implicit scheme of the phase field crystal model. The scheme solves numerically the equations of dissipative dynamics of the binary phase field crystal model proposed by Elder et al. [Elder et al, 2007]. The fully spec...

  4. Envisioning invertebrates and other aquatic encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Eva

    2007-12-01

    To "envision" animals is to visualize, to experience, to figure, to image, kinds of species, discourses, representations, institutions, histories, epistemologies; and, to "imagine possible" a set of material and ethical relationships between species. This dissertation explores the "envisioning of animals" that takes place through/across/between the interfaces of seawater/visuality/experience/biology/technology/phyla---as illustrated in the documentary works of Jean Painleve (scientist and filmmaker), Genevieve Hamon (filmmaker and set-designer), Leni Riefenstahl (filmmaker and photographer), and David Powell (scientist and aquarist). In each case, aesthetic conceptions of beauty and/or ambiguity coupled with biological epistemology and phenomenology of the organisms themselves compete over "what gets to count as culture and nature," and in doing so, construct a host of hybridized and enmeshed "encounters." In the process the following questions are raised: What is the role of the ocean---it's ecosystems and semiotics---in the production of "envisioning"? How are animals used---and in turn shape and reshape the users---to construct tropes of encounter? What theories can be used to understand the phenomenological, semiotic, material, and rhetorical use/miss-use of animals in the articulation of history, economy, biology, narrativity, and representation? How does this motley crew of documentarians answer differently "the animal question," and challenge and/or reinforce anthropocentrism? Divided into two parts, the dissertation first develops a set of methodological questions derived from critical appraisal of "envisioning," encountering, and embodying through science studies, as well as an account of the use and misuse of animals as only "stand ins" for human intentionality; secondly, the dissertation analyses the work of the documentarians in question. Jean Painleve and Genevieve Hamon are shown to critique traditions of representation in nature/science films

  5. An empirical comparative study of approximate methods for binary graphical models; application to the search of associations among causes of death in French death certificates

    OpenAIRE

    Viallon, Vivian; Banerjee, Onureena; Rey, Gregoire; Jougla, Eric; Coste, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Looking for associations among multiple variables is a topical issue in statistics due to the increasing amount of data encountered in biology, medicine and many other domains involving statistical applications. Graphical models have recently gained popularity for this purpose in the statistical literature. Following the ideas of the LASSO procedure designed for the linear regression framework, recent developments dealing with graphical model selection have been based on $\\ell_1$-penalization...

  6. The binary proletariat

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, Nate

    2000-01-01

    In the endless quest to transform itself, capitalism has spawned a new working class. The proletariat was an essential product of the industrial revolution, and the lighter, more efficient capitalism of the digital revolution has created the Binary Proletariat.

  7. Binary Evolutionary Models

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Z

    2008-01-01

    In this talk, we present the general principles of binary evolution and give two examples. The first example is the formation of subdwarf B stars (sdBs) and their application to the long-standing problem of ultraviolet excess (also known as UV-upturn) in elliptical galaxies. The second is for the progenitors of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We discuss the main binary interactions, i.e., stable Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) and common envelope (CE) evolution, and show evolutionary channels leading to the formation of various binary-related objects. In the first example, we show that the binary model of sdB stars of Han et al. (2002, 2003) can reproduce field sdB stars and their counterparts, extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars, in globular clusters. By applying the binary model to the study of evolutionary population synthesis, we have obtained an ``a priori'' model for the UV-upturn of elliptical galaxies and showed that the UV-upturn is most likely resulted from binary interactions. This has major implications...

  8. Encounters with Science at ULA, Venezuela: An Incentive for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, P.

    2006-08-01

    In the School of Science of the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), in Mérida, Venezuela, a very successful event focused on high school students and primary school students, was founded in 2000. The name of this event is "Encounters with Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Biology" (hereinafter "Encounters with Science"), and it integrates these disciplines as well as Astronomy. Its main purpose is that young minds can become familiar with the methods of science inquiry and reasoning, and can understand the concepts and processes of the sciences through thoroughly prepared experiences. This flourishing program is continuing to grow and to become strong. As a matter of fact, in its sixth edition (2005), the number of high and elementary school students coming from all over the country, has reached the outstanding number of nine thousand. Among all the experiences that the students could be engaged in were many involving Astronomy. These experiences were prepared by professors, together with graduate and undergraduate students, who are pursuing their degrees in all branches of science including astronomy. Although there is this incredible team of faculties and graduate and undergraduate students working together; the target is the students of the high and elementary schools. We certainly focus on the engaging and encouraging of students to experience scientific work first hand. Additionally, our professors have prepared an excellent didactic material that can, together with the hour/class teaching, prepare high school and elementary school students for a better understanding of science; particularly, helping in this way for a better education in Astronomy. The main event of the Encounters lasts five days in the School of Science of ULA, but subsidiary events are spread all over the year and around the country. As a successful program, it can be interesting to see if other countries can adopt this method to recruit or to trigger the interest of students to pursue their

  9. Clusius In Portugal: One voyage, Multiple Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Nobre de Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available From 1564 to 1565, Clusius (1526-1609 travelled to the Iberican Peninsula as the tutor of the young heir of the Függers. This journey, which lasted nearly a year, took the two men to the most important cities in the Peninsula. If strolling through the Portuguese countryside demonstrated the peculiarities of the local flora to the botanist, the decreed visit to Lisbon offered many surprising experiences. The encounter with the work recently arrived from the Orient —Colóquios dos Simples e Drogas he Cousas Mediçinais da Índia, by Garcia de Orta (Goa, 1563— awakened his interest. The present article weaves together considerations on the multiple impacts that the botanist’s voyage to Portugal caused in European science of the time.

  10. Spider behaviors include oral sexual encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorič, Matjaž; Šuen, Klavdija; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Several clades of spiders whose females evolved giant sizes are known for extreme sexual behaviors such as sexual cannibalism, opportunistic mating, mate-binding, genital mutilation, plugging, and emasculation. However, these behaviors have only been tested in a handful of size dimorphic spiders. Here, we bring another lineage into the picture by reporting on sexual behavior of Darwin's bark spider, Caerostris darwini. This sexually size dimorphic Madagascan species is known for extreme web gigantism and for producing the world's toughest biomaterial. Our field and laboratory study uncovers a rich sexual repertoire that predictably involves cannibalism, genital mutilation, male preference for teneral females, and emasculation. Surprisingly, C. darwini males engage in oral sexual encounters, rarely reported outside mammals. Irrespective of female's age or mating status males salivate onto female genitalia pre-, during, and post-copulation. While its adaptive significance is elusive, oral sexual contact in spiders may signal male quality or reduce sperm competition. PMID:27126507

  11. EVIDENCE OF AN ASTEROID ENCOUNTERING A PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brook, P. R.; Karastergiou, A. [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Buchner, S. [Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 443, Krugersdorp 1740 (South Africa); Roberts, S. J. [Information Engineering, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Keith, M. J.; Johnston, S.; Shannon, R. M., E-mail: paul.brook@astro.ox.ac.uk [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2014-01-10

    Debris disks and asteroid belts are expected to form around young pulsars due to fallback material from their original supernova explosions. Disk material may migrate inward and interact with a pulsar's magnetosphere, causing changes in torque and emission. Long-term monitoring of PSR J0738–4042 reveals both effects. The pulse shape changes multiple times between 1988 and 2012. The torque, inferred via the derivative of the rotational period, changes abruptly from 2005 September. This change is accompanied by an emergent radio component that drifts with respect to the rest of the pulse. No known intrinsic pulsar processes can explain these timing and radio emission signatures. The data lead us to postulate that we are witnessing an encounter with an asteroid or in-falling debris from a disk.

  12. Ethics in the bank internet encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl; Mattsson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss some ethical issues in the internet encounter between customer and bank. Empirical data related to the difficulties that customers have when they deal with the bank through internet technology and electronic banking. The authors discuss...... the difficulties that customers expressed from an ethical standpoint. Design/methodology/approach – The key problem of the paper is “how does research handle the user's lack of competence in a web-based commercial environment?” The authors illustrate this ethical dilemma with data from a Danish Bank collected....../implications – The important implication for managerial research of this study would be for banks to focus on customer competency with an ethical concern instead of only being concerned with technical solutions for effective internet operations. Practical implications – Since more and more businesses are digitally based...

  13. Discriminative predation: Simultaneous and sequential encounter experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.D.BEATTY; D.W.FRANKS

    2012-01-01

    There are many situations in which the ability of animals to distinguish between two similar looking objects can have significant selective consequences.For example,the objects that require discrimination may be edible versus defended prey,predators versus non-predators,or mates of varying quality.Working from the premise that there are situations in which discrimination may be more or less successful,we hypothesized that individuals find it more difficult to distinguish between stimuli when they encounter them sequentially rather than simultaneously.Our study has wide biological and psychological implications from the perspective of signal perception,signal evolution,and discrimination,and could apply to any system where individuals are making relative judgments or choices between two or more stimuli or signals.While this is a general principle that might seem intuitive,it has not been experimentally tested in this context,and is often not considered in the design of models or experiments,or in the interpretation of a wide range of studies.Our study is different from previous studies in psychology in that a) the level of similarity of stimuli are gradually varied to obtain selection gradients,and b) we discuss the implications of our study for specific areas in ecology,such as the level of perfection of mimicry in predator-prey systems.Our experiments provide evidence that it is indeed more difficult to distinguish between stimuli - and to learn to distinguish between stimuli - when they are encountered sequentially rather than simultaneously,even if the intervening time interval is short.

  14. Discriminative predation: Simultaneous and sequential encounter experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. BEATTY, D.W.FRANKS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many situations in which the ability of animals to distinguish between two similar looking objects can have significant selective consequences. For example, the objects that require discrimination may be edible versus defended prey, predators versus non-predators, or mates of varying quality. Working from the premise that there are situations in which discrimination may be more or less successful, we hypothesized that individuals find it more difficult to distinguish between stimuli when they encounter them sequentially rather than simultaneously. Our study has wide biological and psychological implications from the perspective of signal perception, signal evolution, and discrimination, and could apply to any system where individuals are making relative judgments or choices between two or more stimuli or signals. While this is a general principle that might seem intuitive, it has not been experimentally tested in this context, and is often not considered in the design of models or experiments, or in the interpretation of a wide range of studies. Our study is different from previous studies in psychology in that a the level of similarity of stimuli are gradually varied to obtain selection gradients, and b we discuss the implications of our study for specific areas in ecology, such as the level of perfection of mimicry in predator-prey systems. Our experiments provide evidence that it is indeed more difficult to distinguish between stimuli – and to learn to distinguish between stimuli – when they are encountered sequentially rather than simultaneously, even if the intervening time interval is short [Current Zoology 58 (4: 649–657, 2012].

  15. Guest-Host Encounters in Diaspora-Heritage Tourism: The Taglit-Birthright Israel Mifgash (Encounter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Theodore; Mittelberg, David; Hecht, Shahar; Saxe, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    More than 300,000 diaspora Jewish young adults and tens of thousands of their Israeli peers have participated in structured, cross-cultural encounters--"mifgashim"--in the context of an experiential education program known as Taglit-Birthright Israel. Drawing on field observations, interviews, and surveys, the formal and informal components of the…

  16. 4,871 Emergency Airway Encounters by Air Medical Providers: A Report of the Air Transport Emergency Airway Management (NEAR VI: “A-TEAM” Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin A. Brown III

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-hospital airway management is a key component of resuscitation although the benefit of pre-hospital intubation has been widely debated. We report a large series of pre-hospital emergency airway encounters performed by air-transport providers in a large, multi-state system. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed electronic intubation flight records from an 89 rotorcraft air medical system from January 01, 2007, through December 31, 2009. We report patient characteristics, intubation methods, success rates, and rescue techniques with descriptive statistics. We report proportions with 95% confidence intervals and binary comparisons using chi square test with p-values <0.05 considered significant. Results: 4,871 patients had active airway management, including 2,186 (44.9% medical and 2,685 (55.1% trauma cases. There were 4,390 (90.1% adult and 256 (5.3% pediatric (age ≤ 14 intubations; 225 (4.6% did not have an age recorded. 4,703 (96.6% had at least one intubation attempt. Intubation was successful on first attempt in 3,710 (78.9% and was ultimately successful in 4,313 (91.7%. Intubation success was higher for medical than trauma patients (93.4% versus 90.3%, p=0.0001 JT test. 168 encounters were managed primarily with an extraglottic device (EGD. Cricothyrotomy was performed 35 times (0.7% and was successful in 33. Patients were successfully oxygenated and ventilated with an endotracheal tube, EGD, or surgical airway in 4809 (98.7% encounters. There were no reported deaths from a failed airway. Conclusion: Airway management, predominantly using rapid sequence intubation protocols, is successful within this high-volume, multi-state air-transport system. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:188–193.

  17. Customer-to-customer roles and impacts in service encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates customer-to-customer roles and impacts in the context of service encounters. This topic is studied from two angles: customer interactions during group service encounters and customer perceptions post service encounters. The first angle is a focus on group service encounters that addresses the lack of research on customer-to-customer interactions that occur in customer-to-customer interaction-intensive contexts. These are contexts where the interactions between custome...

  18. How do Service Encounters Impact on Relationship Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Chao-Hung Wang; Li-Chang Hsu

    2011-01-01

    The literature has generally held that interpersonal-based service encounters strongly affect the relationship benefits, though technology-based service encounters are increasing importance. However, there has been no systematic comparison of the impact of two service encounters on relationship benefits. We test hypotheses about the respective effects of both service encounters on different relationship benefits in two services industries. The results provide support for the proposal model an...

  19. Innovation from the ICT-based service encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The pupose of the paper is to develop a framework for analyzing the dynamics of innovations emanating from the ICT-based service encounters. Many innovations are based on the direct encounter between employees and customers, and the paper aims to extend the analysis of such encounters to ICT...

  20. Bayesian approach to the study of white dwarf binaries in LISA data: The application of a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) defines new demands on data analysis efforts in its all-sky gravitational wave survey, recording simultaneously thousands of galactic compact object binary foreground sources and tens to hundreds of background sources like binary black hole mergers and extreme-mass ratio inspirals. We approach this problem with an adaptive and fully automatic Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler, able to sample from the joint posterior density function (as established by Bayes theorem) for a given mixture of signals ''out of the box'', handling the total number of signals as an additional unknown parameter beside the unknown parameters of each individual source and the noise floor. We show in examples from the LISA Mock Data Challenge implementing the full response of LISA in its TDI description that this sampler is able to extract monochromatic Double White Dwarf signals out of colored instrumental noise and additional foreground and background noise successfully in a global fitting approach. We introduce 2 examples with fixed number of signals (MCMC sampling), and 1 example with unknown number of signals (RJ-MCMC), the latter further promoting the idea behind an experimental adaptation of the model indicator proposal densities in the main sampling stage. We note that the experienced runtimes and degeneracies in parameter extraction limit the shown examples to the extraction of a low but realistic number of signals.

  1. Age and helium content of the open cluster NGC 6791 from multiple eclipsing binary members. I. Measurements, methods, and first results

    CERN Document Server

    Brogaard, K; Grundahl, F; Clausen, J V; Frandsen, S; VandenBerg, D A; Bedin, L R

    2010-01-01

    Earlier measurements of the masses and radii of the detached eclipsing binary V20 in the open cluster NGC 6791 were accurate enough to demonstrate that there are significant differences between current stellar models. Here we improve on those results and add measurements of two additional detached eclipsing binaries, the cluster members V18 and V80. The enlarged sample sets much tighter constraints on the properties of stellar models than has hitherto been possible, thereby improving both the accuracy and precision of the cluster age. We employed (i) high-resolution UVES spectroscopy of V18, V20 and V80 to determine their spectroscopic effective temperatures, [Fe/H] values, and spectroscopic orbital elements, and (ii) time-series photometry from the Nordic Optical Telescope to obtain the photometric elements. The masses and radii of the V18 and V20 components are found to high accuracy, with errors on the masses in the range 0.27-0.36% and errors on the radii in the range 0.61-0.92%. V80 is found to be magnet...

  2. Binary and recycled pulsars: 30 years after observational discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G S

    2006-01-01

    Binary radio pulsars, first discovered by Hulse and Taylor in 1974 [1], are a unique tool for experimentally testing general relativity (GR), whose validity has been confirmed with a precision unavailable in laboratory experiments. In particular, indirect evidence of the existence of gravitational waves has been obtained. Radio pulsars in binary systems (which have come to be known as recycled) have completed the accretion stage, during which neutron star spins reach millisecond periods and their magnetic fields decay 2 to 4 orders of magnitude more weakly than ordinary radio pulsars. Among about a hundred known recycled pulsars, many have turned out to be single neutron stars. The high concentration of single recycled pulsars in globular clusters suggests that close stellar encounters are highly instrumental in the loss of the companion. A system of one recycled pulsar and one 'normal' one discovered in 2004 is the most compact among binaries containing recycled pulsars [2]. Together with the presence of two...

  3. Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Faber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.

  4. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees. For...... all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  5. Spherical hashing: binary code embedding with hyperspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jae-Pil; Lee, Youngwoon; He, Junfeng; Chang, Shih-Fu; Yoon, Sung-Eui

    2015-11-01

    Many binary code embedding schemes have been actively studied recently, since they can provide efficient similarity search, and compact data representations suitable for handling large scale image databases. Existing binary code embedding techniques encode high-dimensional data by using hyperplane-based hashing functions. In this paper we propose a novel hypersphere-based hashing function, spherical hashing, to map more spatially coherent data points into a binary code compared to hyperplane-based hashing functions. We also propose a new binary code distance function, spherical Hamming distance, tailored for our hypersphere-based binary coding scheme, and design an efficient iterative optimization process to achieve both balanced partitioning for each hash function and independence between hashing functions. Furthermore, we generalize spherical hashing to support various similarity measures defined by kernel functions. Our extensive experiments show that our spherical hashing technique significantly outperforms state-of-the-art techniques based on hyperplanes across various benchmarks with sizes ranging from one to 75 million of GIST, BoW and VLAD descriptors. The performance gains are consistent and large, up to 100 percent improvements over the second best method among tested methods. These results confirm the unique merits of using hyperspheres to encode proximity regions in high-dimensional spaces. Finally, our method is intuitive and easy to implement. PMID:26440269

  6. Properties of eclipsing binaries from all-sky surveys - I. Detached eclipsing binaries in ASAS, NSVS, and LINEAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee ( ), Chien-Hsiu

    2015-11-01

    Eclipsing binaries provide a unique opportunity to measure fundamental properties of stars. With the advent of all-sky surveys, thousands of eclipsing binaries have been reported, yet their light curves are not fully exploited. The goal of this work is to make use of the eclipsing binary light curves delivered by all-sky surveys. We attempt to extract physical parameters of the binary systems from their light curves and colour. Inspired by the work of Devor et al., we use the Detached Eclipsing Binary Light curve fitter (DEBIL) and the Method for Eclipsing Component Identification (MECI) to derive basic properties of the binary systems reported by the All Sky Automated Survey, the Northern Sky Variability Survey, and the Lincoln Near Earth Asteroids Research. We derive the mass, fractional radius, and age for 783 binary systems. We report a subsample of eccentric systems and compare their properties to the tidal circularization theory. With MECI, we are able to estimate the distance of the eclipsing binary systems and use them to probe the structure of the Milky Way. Following the approach of Devor et al., we demonstrate that DEBIL and MECI are instrumental to investigate eclipsing binary light curves in the era of all-sky surveys, and provide estimates of stellar parameters of both binary components without spectroscopic information.

  7. Casebook: a system for tracking clinical encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, J A; Piggins, J; Blewett, D R; Hassan, L; Raila, W; Link, D; Oliver, D E; Barnett, G O

    1991-01-01

    Casebook is a clinically oriented database, written in MUMPS, and designed for recording the clinical encounters of medical students at Harvard Medical School. Its main goals are to 1) increase student use of computer technology, 2) help faculty evaluate the diversity of clinical experiences on their service, 3) provide data to the faculty on the "typical" experience of medical students on their service to aid in the evaluation of the curriculum and, 4) provide report-generation capabilities for the students to improve dialog with their preceptors. Students are able to enter information on "Problems" and "Procedures" selecting from a pop-up menu of medical terms or by entering free text. Casebook is currently in use in the Medicine, OB/GYN, Pediatric and Ambulatory rotations. At sites where the faculty take an active interest in the use of Casebook students perceive it to be valuable and subsequently use it more frequently. It is currently being expanded for use by medical students in their second, third, and fourth years of school. PMID:1807697

  8. Thermal fluctuation problems encountered in LMFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most significant problems of LMFBRs deals with thermal fluctuations. The main reason is that LMFBRs operate with sodium coolant at very different temperatures which leads to the existence of several areas of transition between hot and cold sodium. These transitions areas which are the critical points, maybe found in the reactor block as well as in the secondary and auxiliary loops. The characteristics of these thermal fluctuations are not easy to quantify because of their complex (random) behaviour, and often demand the use of thermalhydraulic mock-up tests. A good knowledge of these phenomena is essential because of the potential high level of damage they can induce on structures. Two typical thermal fluctuation problems encountered on operation reactors are described. They were not originally anticipated at the design stage of the former Phenix and the latter Superphenix reactors. Description and the analyses performed to describe the damaging process are explained. A well known thermal fluctuation problem is presented. It is pointed out how the feedback from the damages observed on operating reactors is used to prevent the components from any high cycle fatigue

  9. Close encounters of the prototype kind

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    CERN is building a new control centre for the operation of its entire accelerator complex and technical infrastructure. The prototype console for the new centre has just been installed and tested. Close encounters of the prototype kind CERN is building a new control centre for the operation of its entire accelerator complex and technical infrastructure. The prototype console for the new centre has just been installed and tested. The prototype of the control consoles that will be at the heart of the future CERN Control Centre (CCC) has just been installed in the Roy Billinge Room in Building 354. Until now, there have been four separate control rooms for the CERN accelerators and technical infrastructure. The CCC, which will be located on the Prévessin site, will bring them all together in a single room. The Centre will consist of 40 consoles for four different areas (LHC, SPS, PS complex and technical infrastructure). The prototype was tested by the technicians for a month. Following installation and con...

  10. Viking first encounter of phobos: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, R H; Duxbury, T C; Born, G H; Christensen, E J; Diehl, R E; Farless, D; Hildebrand, C E; Mitchell, R T; Molko, P M; Morabito, L A; Palluconi, F D; Reichert, R J; Taraji, H; Veverka, J; Neugebauer, G; Findlay, J T

    1978-01-01

    During the last 2 weeks of February 1977, an intensive scientific investigation of the martian satellite Phobos was conducted by the Viking Orbiter-1 (VO-1) spacecraft. More than 125 television pictures were obtained during this period and infrared observations were made. About 80 percent of the illuminated hemisphere was imaged at a resolution of about 30 meters. Higher resolution images of limited areas were also obtained. Flyby distances within 80 kilometers of the surface were achieved. An estimate of the mass of Phobos (GM) was obtained by observing the effect of Phobos's gravity on the orbit of VO-1 as sensed by Earth-based radiometric tracking. Preliminary results indicate a value of GM of 0.00066 +/- 0.00012 cubic kilometer per second squared (standard deviation of 3) and a mean density of about 1.9 +/- 0.6 gram per cubic centimeter (standard deviation of 3). This low density, together with the low albedo and the recently determined spectral reflectance, suggest that Phobos is compositionally similar to type I carbonaceous chondrites. Thus, either this object formed in the outer part of the asteroid belt or Lewis's theory that such material cannot condense at 1.5 astronomical units is incorrect. The data on Phobos obtained during this first encounter period are comparable in quantity to all of the data on Mars returned by Mariner flights 4, 6, and 7. PMID:17841954

  11. Aging and Osteoarthritis: An Inevitable Encounter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hügle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a major health burden of our time. Age is the most prominent risk factor for the development and progression of OA. The mechanistic influence of aging on OA has different facets. On a molecular level, matrix proteins such as collagen or proteoglycans are modified, which alters cartilage function. Collagen cross-linking within the bone results in impaired plasticity and increased stiffness. Synovial or fat tissue, menisci but also ligaments and muscles play an important role in the pathogenesis of OA. In the elderly, sarcopenia or other causes of muscle atrophy are frequently encountered, leading to a decreased stability of the joint. Inflammation in form of cellular infiltration of synovial tissue or subchondral bone and expression of inflammatory cytokines is more and more recognized as trigger of OA. It has been demonstrated that joint movement can exhibit anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Therefore physical activity or physiotherapy in the elderly should be encouraged, also in order to increase the muscle mass. A reduced stem cell capacity in the elderly is likely associated with a decrease of repair mechanisms of the musculoskeletal system. New treatment strategies, for example with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are investigated, despite clear evidence for their efficacy is lacking.

  12. LHC experiences close encounters with UFOs

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    On 29 May, yet another record was set as 1092 bunches per beam were injected into the LHC, hitting a peak luminosity of 1.26x1033 cm-2 s-1. While running at 3.5 TeV each beam now packs a total energy of over 70 MJ – equivalent to a TGV travelling at a 70 kph.   Operators in the LHC Control Centre happily show off their display screens after succesfully injecting 1092 bunches injected into the machine for the first time.  As the total beam intensity has been pushed up, the LHC has encountered a number of related problems, such as the so-called UFOs (Unidentified Falling Objects). These are thought to be dust particles falling through the beam, causing localized beam loss. The losses can push nearby beam loss monitors over the threshold and dump the beam. This is more of an annoyance than a danger for the LHC, but UFOs do reduce the operational efficiency of the machine. Despite this, the luminosity delivered to the experiments has steadily increased. On three occasions there ha...

  13. Non-negative Matrix Factorization for Binary Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Søgaard; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    We propose the Logistic Non-negative Matrix Factorization for decomposition of binary data. Binary data are frequently generated in e.g. text analysis, sensory data, market basket data etc. A common method for analysing non-negative data is the Non-negative Matrix Factorization, though this is in...... theory not appropriate for binary data, and thus we propose a novel Non-negative Matrix Factorization based on the logistic link function. Furthermore we generalize the method to handle missing data. The formulation of the method is compared to a previously proposed method (Tome et al., 2015). We compare...... the performance of the Logistic Non-negative Matrix Factorization to Least Squares Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Kullback-Leibler (KL) Non-negative Matrix Factorization on sets of binary data: a synthetic dataset, a set of student comments on their professors collected in a binary term...

  14. First Encounters: Knowledge Interpretation on the Front-Lines of Cross-Cultural Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Barsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that guides this work is that although it may be valuable to lobby for competent translators to help vulnerable foreigners in cross-cultural settings, such as the Canadian Convention refugee determination hearings or criminal trials, it is nevertheless too late to make much of a difference at that point, because most of the incriminating damage is done in the initial encounter between claimant/defendant and authority. Approaching a discussion about the relative merits of translation versus interpretation from this perspective, that emphasizes the time at which the conversation occurs, would suggest that linguistic accuracy is much more important in formal hearings, while interpretation is crucial during the initial encounter, because it is during this period of negotiation that a sensitive and qualified interpreter can keep a claimant from incriminating herself or mis-communicating the situation to authority.

  15. Binary Popldation Synthcsis Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Zhanwen

    2011-01-01

    Binary population synthesis (BPS), an approach to evolving millions of stars (including binaries) simultaneously, plays a crucial role in our understanding of stellar physics, the structure and evolution of galaxies, and cosmology. We proposed and developed a BPS approach, and used it to investigate the formation of many peculiar stars such as hot subdwarf stars, progenitors of type la supernovae, barium stars, CH stars, planetary nebulae, double white dwarfs, blue stragglers, contact binaries, etc. We also established an evolution population synthesis (EPS) model, the Yunnan Model, which takes into account binary interactions for the first time. We applied our model for the origin of hot subdwarf stars in the study of elliptical galaxies and explained their far-UV radiation.

  16. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  17. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Lorimer, D R

    2008-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 solar masses, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e=0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion.

  18. Hypervelocity binary stars: smoking gun of massive binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Youjun; Lin, D N C

    2007-01-01

    The hypervelocity stars recently found in the Galactic halo are expelled from the Galactic center through interactions between binary stars and the central massive black hole or between single stars and a hypothetical massive binary black hole. In this paper, we demonstrate that binary stars can be ejected out of the Galactic center with velocities up to 10^3 km/s, while preserving their integrity, through interactions with a massive binary black hole. Binary stars are unlikely to attain such high velocities via scattering by a single massive black hole or through any other mechanisms. Based on the above theoretical prediction, we propose a search for binary systems among the hypervelocity stars. Discovery of hypervelocity binary stars, even one, is a definitive evidence of the existence of a massive binary black hole in the Galactic center.

  19. Binary Sparse Phase Retrieval via Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Simulated Annealing Sparse PhAse Recovery (SASPAR algorithm for reconstructing sparse binary signals from their phaseless magnitudes of the Fourier transform. The greedy strategy version is also proposed for a comparison, which is a parameter-free algorithm. Sufficient numeric simulations indicate that our method is quite effective and suggest the binary model is robust. The SASPAR algorithm seems competitive to the existing methods for its efficiency and high recovery rate even with fewer Fourier measurements.

  20. Proactive Office Encounter: A Systematic Approach to Preventive and Chronic Care at Every Patient Encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Kanter, Michael; Martinez, Osvaldo; Lindsay, Gail; Andrews, Kristen; Denver, Cristine

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Kaiser Permanente's (KP) Southern California Region designed and implemented a systematic in-reach program, the Proactive Office Encounter (POE), to address the growing needs of its three million patients for preventive care and management of chronic disease. The program sought staff from both primary and specialty care departments to proactively identify gaps in care and to assist physicians in closing those gaps. The POE engaged the entire health team in a proactive patient-care ex...

  1. Milli-arcsecond Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, R M; Mioduszewki, A; Rodríguez, L F

    2008-01-01

    As part of an astrometric program, we have used the Very Long Baseline Array to measure the trigonometric parallax of several young stars in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star-forming regions with great accuracy. Additionally, we have obtained an unprecedented sample of high-resolution (~ 1 mas) images of several young stellar systems. These images revealed that about 70% of the stars in our sample are very tight binary stars (with separations of a few mas). Since it is highly unlikely that 70% of all stars are such tight binaries, we argue that selection effects are at work.

  2. Binary Cumulant Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmfels, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Algebraic statistics for binary random variables is concerned with highly structured algebraic varieties in the space of 2x2x...x2-tensors. We demonstrate the advantages of representing such varieties in the coordinate system of binary cumulants. Our primary focus lies on hidden subset models. Parametrizations and implicit equations in cumulants are derived for hyperdeterminants, for secant and tangential varieties of Segre varieties, and for certain context-specific independence models. Extending work of Rota and collaborators, we explore the polynomial inequalities satisfied by cumulants.

  3. The GENGA Code: Gravitational Encounters in N-body simulations with GPU Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Simon L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a GPU implementation of a hybrid symplectic N-body integrator, GENGA (Gravitational ENcounters with Gpu Acceleration), designed to integrate planet and planetesimal dynamics in the late stage of planet formation and stability analysis of planetary systems. GENGA is based on the integration scheme of the Mercury code (Chambers 1999), which handles close encounters with very good energy conservation. It uses mixed variable integration (Wisdom & Holman 1991) when the motion is a perturbed Kepler orbit and combines this with a direct N-body Bulirsch-Stoer method during close encounters. The GENGA code supports three simulation modes: Integration of up to 2048 massive bodies, integration with up to a million test particles, or parallel integration of a large number of individual planetary systems. GENGA is written in CUDA C and runs on all Nvidia GPUs with compute capability of at least 2.0. All operations are performed in parallel, including the close encounter detection and the grouping of indepe...

  4. Formation of binary radio pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the standard scenario of the evolution of massive binary stars a study is made of the formation of final binary systems in which at least one of the components is a neutron star. It is found that about every fortieth radio pulsar must be a member of a close binary system. This is confirmed by observations. Radio pulsars are not formed in wide binary systems, possibly because of the very slow rotation of the presupernova stars

  5. Dynamical effects on binary X-ray sources in dense stellar clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the model in which the globular-cluster X-ray sources are binaries. Collisions of field stars in cores of dense clusters may shrink the orbits of tightly bound (''hard'') binaries, with important consequences for the evolution of X-ray sources if one component is a collapsed star. Exchange capture of field stars enables the binary to recycle its mass supplier and to undergo a number of intermittent stages of X-ray activity. ''Hard'' binaries may be formed by three-body encounters or by two-body tidal capture in clusters with large core densities and low velocity dispersions. Alternatively, as suggested by Hills, such objects may form by neutron-star or black-hole capture in exchange collisions with primordial binaries

  6. The dynamical importance of binary systems in young massive star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    de Grijs, Richard; Geller, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of the binary fractions in star clusters is of fundamental importance for many fields in astrophysics. Observations indicate that the majority of stars are found in binary systems, while most stars with masses greater than $0.5 M_\\odot$ are formed in star clusters. In addition, since binaries are on average more massive than single stars, in resolved star clusters these systems are thought to be good tracers of (dynamical) mass segregation. Over time, dynamical evolution through two-body relaxation will cause the most massive objects to migrate to the cluster center, while the relatively lower-mass objects remain in or migrate to orbits at greater radii. This process will globally dominate a cluster's stellar distribution. However, close encounters involving binary systems may disrupt `soft' binaries. This process will occur more frequently in a cluster's central, dense region than in its periphery, which may mask the effects of mass segregation. Using high resolution Hubble Space Telescope o...

  7. Ultra-low frequency gravitational radiation from massive black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, M; Rajagopal, Mohan; Romani, Roger W

    1994-01-01

    For massive black hole binaries produced in galactic mergers, we examine the possibility of inspiral induced by interaction with field stars. We model the evolution of such binaries for a range of galaxy core and binary parameters, using numerical results from the literature to compute the binary's energy and angular momentum loss rates due to stellar encounters and including the effect of back-action on the field stars. We find that only a small fraction of binary systems can merge within a Hubble time via unassisted stellar dynamics. External perturbations may, however, cause efficient inspiral. Averaging over a population of central black holes and galaxy mergers, we compute the expected background of gravitational radiation with periods Pw ~1-10y. Comparison with sensitivities from millisecond pulsar timing suggests that the strongest sources may be detectable with modest improvements to present experiments.

  8. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Masses, Merger Rates, and the Impact of Stellar Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Rasio, Frederic A

    2016-01-01

    Expanding upon our previous work (Rodriguez et al., 2015), we study merging binary black holes formed in globular clusters using our Monte Carlo approach to stellar dynamics. We have created a new set of 52 cluster models with different masses, metallicities, and radii to fully characterize the binary black hole merger rate. These models include all the relevant dynamical processes (such as two-body relaxation, strong encounters, and three-body binary formation) and agree well with detailed direct N-body simulations. In addition, we have enhanced our stellar evolution algorithms with updated metallicity-dependent stellar wind and supernova prescriptions, allowing us to compare our results directly to the most recent population synthesis predictions for merger rates from isolated binary evolution. We explore the relationship between a cluster's global properties and the population of binary black holes that it produces. In particular, we derive a numerically calibrated relationship between the merger times of ...

  9. Calculation of binary phase diagrams between the actinide elements, rare earth elements, and transition metal elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempts were made to apply the Kaufman method of calculating binary phase diagrams to the calculation of binary phase diagrams between the rare earths, actinides, and the refractory transition metals. Difficulties were encountered in applying the method to the rare earths and actinides, and modifications were necessary to provide accurate representation of known diagrams. To calculate the interaction parameters for rare earth-rare earth diagrams, it was necessary to use the atomic volumes for each of the phases: liquid, body-centered cubic, hexagonal close-packed, and face-centered cubic. Determination of the atomic volumes of each of these phases for each element is discussed in detail. In some cases, empirical means were necessary. Results are presented on the calculation of rare earth-rare earth, rare earth-actinide, and actinide-actinide diagrams. For rare earth-refractory transition metal diagrams and actinide-refractory transition metal diagrams, empirical means were required to develop values for the enthalpy of vaporization for rare earth elements and values for the constant (C) required when intermediate phases are present. Results of using the values determined for each element are presented

  10. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  11. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pol, J.C. van de

    2000-01-01

    We incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and tautology checkin

  12. Mass transfer between debris discs during close stellar encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Jilkova, Lucie; Hammer, Michael; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2016-01-01

    We study mass transfers between debris discs during stellar encounters. We carried out numerical simulations of close flybys of two stars, one of which has a disc of planetesimals represented by test particles. We explored the parameter space of the encounters, varying the mass ratio of the two stars, their pericentre and eccentricity of the encounter, and its geometry. We find that particles are transferred to the other star from a restricted radial range in the disc and the limiting radii of this transfer region depend on the parameters of the encounter. We derive an approximate analytic description of the inner radius of the region. The efficiency of the mass transfer generally decreases with increasing encounter pericentre and increasing mass of the star initially possessing the disc. Depending on the parameters of the encounter, the transfer particles have a specific distributions in the space of orbital elements (semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and argument of pericentre) around their new hos...

  13. Cultural Effects On Customer Satisfaction With Service Encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley A. Hopkins; Winter Nie; Willie E. Hopkins

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual model presented in this paper illustrates the relationship that we propose exist between several aspects of culture and customer satisfaction with a service encounter. Specifically, the model proposes that (1) the effectiveness of the service script used during a service encounter is directly related to customer satisfaction with the encounter, (2) cultural differences between the customer and the service employee have an impact on the effectiveness of the service script, and (...

  14. Short-period comet production in close encounters with Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for calculating the resultant probability distributions of orbital elements for a small body (a comet, asteroid or meteoroid) after a gravitational encounter with a planet is described. This technique incorporates the frequency of such encounters so that the chance of attaining a certain new orbit per unit time is derived. The use of this technique is then illustrated by considering the effect of Jupiter upon the orbits of near-parabolic comets with perihelia near that planet (q=5.2 AU) and in ther inner solar system (q=1.0 AU), with prograde (i=10 deg) and retrograde (i=170 deg) paths. As indicated by previous authors the prograde comets are more easily captured into short-period (P<20 yr) and intermediate-period (20< P<200 yr) orbits; however, in contradiction to most previous work but in agreement with the results of Stagg and Bailey (submitted to Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.) it is found that the comets with smaller perihelia, rather than those with perihelia near Jupiter, have higher capture probabilities. This is apparently due to the fact that a small deflection only is needed to sufficiently decelerate a comet onto a smaller orbit if it makes a near-perpendicular crossing of Jupiter's path, whereas a larger deflection (to achieve a large orbital change) is needed if the paths are near-parallel. With comparatively modest amounts of computer time this method may be used to calculate the relative capture probabilities as a function of i and q for all values of interest, and is thus a useful precursor to integrations following orbital evolution, since it indicates the most likely avenues whereby shorter-period comets are derived from the near-parabolic flux. 83 refs., figs., 4 tabs

  15. Apsidal motion in eclipsing binary GG Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilan, E.; Bulut, I.

    2016-03-01

    The study of apsidal motion in binary stars with eccentric orbit is well known as an important source of information for the stellar internal structure as well as the possibility of verification of general relativity. In this study, the apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary GG Ori (P = 6.631 days, e = 0.22) has been analyzed using the times of minimum light taken from the literature and databases and the elements of apsidal motion have been computed. The method described by Giménez and García-Pelayo (1983) has been used for the apsidal motion analysis.

  16. Quantitative spectroscopy of close binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovski, K

    2011-01-01

    The method of spectral disentangling has now created the opportunity for studying the chemical composition in previously inaccessible components of binary and multiple stars. This in turn makes it possible to trace their chemical evolution, a vital aspect in understanding the evolution of stellar systems. We review different ways to reconstruct individual spectra from eclipsing and non-eclipsing systems, and then concentrate on some recent applications to detached binaries with high-mass and intermediate-mass stars, and Algol-type mass-transfer systems.

  17. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. VIII. Identification of False Positive Eclipsing Binaries and Re-extraction of New Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Masih, Michael; Prša, Andrej; Conroy, Kyle; Bloemen, Steven; Boyajian, Tabetha; Doyle, Laurance R.; Johnston, Cole; Kostov, Veselin; Latham, David W.; Matijevič, Gal; Shporer, Avi; Southworth, John

    2016-04-01

    The Kepler mission has provided unprecedented, nearly continuous photometric data of ∼200,000 objects in the ∼105 deg2 field of view (FOV) from the beginning of science operations in May of 2009 until the loss of the second reaction wheel in May of 2013. The Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog contains information including but not limited to ephemerides, stellar parameters, and analytical approximation fits for every known eclipsing binary system in the Kepler FOV. Using target pixel level data collected from Kepler in conjunction with the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, we identify false positives among eclipsing binaries, i.e., targets that are not eclipsing binaries themselves, but are instead contaminated by eclipsing binary sources nearby on the sky and show eclipsing binary signatures in their light curves. We present methods for identifying these false positives and for extracting new light curves for the true source of the observed binary signal. For each source, we extract three separate light curves for each quarter of available data by optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio, the relative percent eclipse depth, and the flux eclipse depth. We present 289 new eclipsing binaries in the Kepler FOV that were not targets for observation, and these have been added to the catalog. An online version of this catalog with downloadable content and visualization tools is maintained at http://keplerEBs.villanova.edu.

  18. A New Local Segmentation Method Based on Binary Level Set and Morphological Operation%一种新的基于二值水平集和形态学的局部分割方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑强; 董恩清

    2012-01-01

    Local segmentation is the key work in image segmentation. Considering two existing problems, which are the instability of controlling narrow band and the low precision in local segmentation, this paper proposes a new Binary and Selective Morphological Operation Regularized Level Set (BSMORLS) method. Since the traditional signed distance function is replaced by binary level set in the method, and the binary property of the level set is maintained strictly in curve evolution, the stability of narrow band and the precision of one pixel width can be guaranteed. Optional morphological operator is utilized to increase the flexibility of curve smoothing, and sparse field is adopted to reduce the computational complexity. Experiments on some synthetic and medical images indicate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed local segmentation method.%局部分割是图像分割中的关键性工作,针对局部分割方法中存在的窄带控制不稳定和局部分割精度不足的问题,文中提出一种新的基于二值水平集和形态学运算的局部分割方法.该方法引入二值水平集取代传统的符号距离函数,并在曲线进化过程中保持水平集函数的二值性以确保窄带控制的稳定性和一个像素宽度的局部分割精度.为增加曲线平滑方案的灵活性,引入可选择的形态学算子来平滑曲线,并采用稀疏场算法以提高效率.在合成图像和医学图像上的实验结果表明,提出的方法能更好地实现图像局部分割.

  19. A binary spelling interface with random errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelmouter, J; Birbaumer, N

    2000-06-01

    An algorithm for design of a spelling interface based on a modified Huffman's algorithm is presented. This algorithm builds a full binary tree that allows to maximize an average probability to reach a leaf where a required character is located when a choice at each node is made with possible errors. A means to correct errors (a delete-function) and an optimization method to build this delete-function into the binary tree are also discussed. Such a spelling interface could be successfully applied to any menu-orientated alternative communication system when a user (typically, a patient with devastating neuromuscular handicap) is not able to express an intended single binary response, either through motor responses or by using of brain-computer interfaces, with an absolute reliability. PMID:10896195

  20. Faculty encounters with uncivil nursing students: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luparell, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The critical incident technique (CIT) was used to explore faculty experiences with uncivil nursing students. Twenty-one nursing faculty with various years of experience in teaching were interviewed to ascertain what they considered critical incidents of uncivil encounters with nursing students and what effect those encounters had on them. Thirty-six encounters were described by the faculty. Of the 36 encounters, 33 occurred with individual students and 3 occurred with groups of students. Twenty-three encounters occurred in the context of poor student performance requiring constructive criticism or resulting in course failure. A battlefield metaphor is used to describe the incidents, their antecedents, and their consequences. The encounters were precipitated by a period of escalating tensions and effort by the faculty to diffuse the situation. The faculty were surprised and caught off guard by the encounters, which ranged in severity from mild to highly aggressive. The faculty often perceived significant threats to well-being of self, loved ones, job security, and/or possessions. The aftermath of the encounters included physical and emotional tolls on faculty, decreased self-esteem and loss of confidence in teaching ability, significant time expenditures, and negative consequences to the educational process. Three of the faculty left teaching in part due to encounters with students. PMID:15011194

  1. Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions of Cultural Competence Encounters During Practice Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Loren-Ashley; Vellurattil, Rosalyn Padiyara; Quiñones-Boex, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ perceptions regarding cultural competence training, cross-cultural experiences during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), and perceived comfort levels with various cultural encounters.

  2. Binary Solid-Liquid Phase Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Herbert R.

    1978-01-01

    Indicates some of the information that may be obtained from a binary solid-liquid phase equilibria experiment and a method to write a computer program that will plot an ideal phase diagram to which the experimental results may be compared. (Author/CP)

  3. BINARY WAVELET TRANSFORM FOR IMAGE REPRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHOK.M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The MRA (Multi resolution analysis for an image provides specific information localized in space or frequency domain .In this paper an efficient representation of the visual information is presented using Binary wavelet Transform for both color and gray level image. Analytical results shows that this method proves to be more efficient in representing the visual information than the earlier

  4. Design and implementation of binary tree data structure based on DNA computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chun-de; WEI Guo-hui

    2009-01-01

    The designing,encodings and an instance of simulation of a binary tree for DNA computer were proposed,which utilizes the method of biology to complete inserting and deleting of the binary tree. Firstly,DNA encodings for storage and all elements of the binary tree were completely given out. Then, the implementations of all bio-operations in DNA computer were described. Finally, to prove the feasibility of this method, an actual binary tree with detailed nucleotide encodings was introduced. The process of an algorithm implemented on this binary tree was demonstrated. Based on this method, more other data structures in DNA computer can be developed.

  5. Distortion-Invariant Binary Image Recognition Based on Central Projection Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yaming; XIAO Yanping; SUN Fanghong; FANG Nian

    2001-01-01

    A method of central projection correlation which is invariant to distortion of shift, scale and rotation of the binary target image is proposed. A 2-D binary image is transformed into an 1-D central projection referring to the centroid of the binary image. The distortion-invariant central projection correlation is successfully performed by computer simulations and its optical implementation is presented.

  6. Modeling of Wake-vortex Aircraft Encounters. Appendix B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sonya T.

    1999-01-01

    There are more people passing through the world's airports today than at any other time in history. With this increase in civil transport, airports are becoming capacity limited. In order to increase capacity and thus meet the demands of the flying public, the number of runways and number of flights per runway must be increased. In response to the demand, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airport operators, and the airline industry are taking steps to increase airport capacity without jeopardizing safety. Increasing the production per runway increases the likelihood that an aircraft will encounter the trailing wake-vortex of another aircraft. The hazard of a wake-vortex encounter is that heavy load aircraft can produce high intensity wake turbulence, through the development of its wing-tip vortices. A smaller aircraft following in the wake of the heavy load aircraft will experience redistribution of its aerodynamic load. This creates a safety hazard for the smaller aircraft. Understanding this load redistribution is of great importance, particularly during landing and take-off. In this research wake-vortex effects on an encountering 10% scale model of the B737-100 aircraft are modeled using both strip theory and vortex-lattice modeling methods. The models are then compared to wind tunnel data that was taken in the 30ft x 60ft wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Comparisons are made to determine if the models will have acceptable accuracy when parts of the geometry are removed, such as the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical tail. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to observe how accurately the models could match the experimental data if there was a 10% error in the circulation strength. It was determined that both models show accurate results when the wing, horizontal stabilizer, and vertical tail were a part of the geometry. When the horizontal

  7. TV Logos Recognition Method Based on Binary Image Corner Matching%一种基于二值图角点匹配的台标识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金阳; 程江华; 任通; 库锡树

    2012-01-01

    电视台标在视频传输、保存和格式转换过程中易发生缩放、旋转等形变,且向半透明化方向发展,这些因素给台标的识别带来了困难.针对形变及半透明化问题,提出一种基于二值化图像角点匹配的三步骤台标识别方法.首先利用二值化台标图像的差分累加和求平均,得到分割后的实时台标图像;然后利用Susan算法不涉及梯度运算的特点,在二值化台标图像上提取角点;最后采用极坐标域角点对匹配的方法,实现台标匹配.使用了部分地方电视台台标进行实验,结果证明了该方法的有效性.%Because of transmission, preservation, format conservation and so on, logos always have problems of transformation and circumrotation. It is more difficult to recognize a logo while the logo tend to semi-transparent A TV logo recognition method is proposed to solve these problems which based on binary image comer matching by three-step process. Firstly, the real-time TV station logo image is obtained by using the average of several accumulated difference sums of the segmented binary TV station logo images. Secondly, corners is extracted based on segmented binary TV station logo images by using the Susan arithmetic, which has a feature of no gradient operation; Finally, the logo is matched after working out the matching corners in transformed polar coordinates. By using several local TV logos, the experiments' result indicate that this method is effective.

  8. Binary MEMS gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel sensing mechanism for electrostatic MEMS that employs static bifurcation-based sensing and binary detection is demonstrated. It is implemented as an ethanol vapour sensor that exploits the static pull-in bifurcation. Sensor detection of 5 ppm of ethanol vapour in dry nitrogen, equivalent to a detectable mass of 165 pg, is experimentally demonstrated. Sensor robustness to external disturbances is also demonstrated. A closed-form expression for the sensitivity of statically detected electrostatic MEMS sensors is derived. It is shown that the sensitivity of static bifurcation-based binary electrostatic MEMS sensors represents an upper bound on the sensitivity of static detection for given sensor dimensions and material properties. (paper)

  9. Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eby, David A

    2013-01-01

    A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibb...

  10. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances.

  11. Tourism Encounters and Controversies: Ontological Politics of Tourism Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jóhannesson, G.T.; Ren, C.; Duim, van der V.R.

    2015-01-01

    The multiplicity of tourism encounters provide some of the best available occasions to observe the social world and its making(s). Focusing on ontological politics of tourism development, this book examines how different versions of tourism are enacted, how encounters between different versions of t

  12. Analyzing Service Encounters Cross-Culturally: Methodological Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaja, Paula

    Two approaches to analyzing service encounters (instances of face-to-face interaction between a server designated in a particular area and a customer receiving service from the server) are examined. Some linguists view service encounters as business transaction texts. The two approaches are the "top-down" approach, in which linguists make direct…

  13. Features of encounters of small bodies with planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'yanenko, N. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    A kinematic approach is developed to qualitative analysis of characteristics of a low-speed encounter of a small body with a planet. A classification of encounters of small bodies with planets based on the magnitude of planetocentric speed is proposed. The concept of the points of low-speed quasi-tangency of orbits of small bodies and planets is introduced. Based on this concept, the definitions of the point of minimum planetocentric speed, a quasi-tangent low-velocity segment on the orbit of a small body, low-velocity and high-velocity encounters are formulated. A classification of encounters of small bodies with planets according to the global minimum of the function of planetocentric distance is also proposed. The classification is based on the concepts of the gravity sphere of action and the Hill sphere of the planet. The definitions of an area and duration of low-speed and high-speed encounters are given.

  14. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  15. Exploring the consequences of pairing algorithms for binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; Goodwin, S P; Zwart, S F Portegies; Kaper, L

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the binary population in stellar groupings provides important information about the outcome of the star forming process in different environments (see, e.g., Blaauw 1991, and references therein). Binarity is also a key ingredient in stellar population studies, and is a prerequisite to calibrate the binary evolution channels. In this paper we present an overview of several commonly used methods to pair individual stars into binary systems, which we refer to as pairing functions. These pairing functions are frequently used by observers and computational astronomers, either for their mathematical convenience, or because they roughly describe the expected outcome of the star forming process. We discuss the consequences of each pairing function for the interpretation of observations and numerical simulations. The binary fraction and mass ratio distribution generally depend strongly on the selection of the range in primary spectral type in a sample. The mass ratio distribution and binary fraction deriv...

  16. Where Are The Circumbinary Planets of Contact Binaries?

    CERN Document Server

    Demircan, O

    2014-01-01

    Up to present date, no circumbinary planet around contact binaries were discovered neither by transit method nor by the minima times variation, although they are known having third component stars around. We thus ask: where are the circumbinary planets of contact binaries? By considering the physical and geometrical parameters we simulated the light curves of contact binaries with possible transiting circumbinary jovian planets. It seems either the circumbinary jovian planets are not formed around contact binaries, probably due to dynamical effects of the binary and third component stars, or they are present but the discovery of such planets were not possible so far due to larger distortions then expected in the photometric data and in the minima times.

  17. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    of the stars, as they move along their orbits and periodically approach and recede from the observer. Such spectroscopic observations therefore allow to measure the orbital velocities of the stars. It is exactly the same technique that is used to study and weigh extra-solar planets orbiting other stars [3]. However, this method has an important limitation. From the spectroscopical observations alone, it is only possible to deduce limits on the masses, as the inclination of orbits to the line-of-sight is usually unknown. The masses derived in this way (for stars as well as for exoplanets) are therefore only lower limits on the actual masses. Eclipsing Binaries However, fortunate observational circumstances sometimes allow to obtain all information about the stellar orbits. If a binary system is viewed (almost exactly) edge-on, the stars may pass in front of each other from time to time. Astronomers refer to this phenomenon as an "eclipse" and speak about an "eclipsing binary". The effect is similar to a "solar" eclipse as seen on the Earth, whenever the Moon passes in front of the Sun. Like the Moon blocks the sunlight, less light is received from the eclipsed star and thus the combined light from the binary system decreases during the eclipse. The way this happens (astronomers speak about the system's "lightcurve") then provides the additional information about the inclination of the orbit that is needed to determine exactly the stellar masses in a "spectroscopic" binary system. Very accurate values for the stellar diameters and the surface temperatures of the two stars can also be deduced. In short, when a full set of observations is available, it is possible to give a comprehensive description of an eclipsing binary system and its components. Eclipsing, spectroscopic binaries thus represent true cornerstones for the determination of stellar masses , and as such they are fundamental for our understanding of stellar evolution . Rather few such systems are known, but

  18. A General Method for Constructing Two-Dimensional Layered Mesoporous Mono- and Binary-Transition-Metal Nitride/Graphene as an Ultra-Efficient Support to Enhance Its Catalytic Activity and Durability for Electrocatalytic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baocang; Huo, Lili; Si, Rui; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jun

    2016-07-27

    We constructed a series of two-dimensional (2D) layered mesoporous mono- and binary-transition-metal nitride/graphene nanocomposites (TMN/G, TM = Ti, Cr, W, Mo, TiCr, TiW, and TiMo) via an efficient and versatile nanocasting strategy for the first time. The 2D layered mesoporous TMN/G is constituted of small TMN nanoparticles composited with graphene nanosheets and has a large surface area with high porosity. Through decoration with well-dispersed Pt nanoparticles, 2D layered mesoporous Pt/TMN/G catalysts can be obtained that display excellent catalytic activity and stability for methanol electro-oxidation reactions (MOR) and oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) in both acidic and alkaline media. The 2D layered mesoporous binary-Pt/TMN/G catalysts possess catalytic activity superior to that of mono-Pt/TMN/G, graphene free Pt/TMN, Pt/G, and Pt/C catalysts. Encouragingly, the 2D layered mesoporous Pt/Ti0.5Cr0.5N/G catalyst exhibits the best electrocatalytic performance for both MOR and ORR. The outstanding electrocatalytic performance of the Pt/Ti0.5Cr0.5N/G catalyst is rooted in its large surface area, high porosity, strong interaction among Pt, Ti0.5Cr0.5N, and graphene, an excellent electron transfer property facilitated by N-doped graphene, and the small size of Pt and Ti0.5Cr0.5N nanocrystals. The outstanding catalytic performance provides the 2D layered mesoporous Pt/Ti0.5Cr0.5N/G catalyst with a wide range of application prospects in direct methanol fuel cells in both acidic and alkaline media. The synthetic method may be available for constructing other 2D layered mesoporous metal nitrides, carbides, and phosphides. PMID:27356463

  19. A New Binary Carbazole Alkaloid from Murraya koenigii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new binary carbazole alkaloid, 8, 8"-biskoenigine (1), along with its monomer,kocnigine, was isolated from the dried leaves of Murraya koenigii collected in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan province. The structure of 1 was established by spectroscopic methods.

  20. Sensory information and encounter rates of interacting species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Hein

    Full Text Available Most motile organisms use sensory cues when searching for resources, mates, or prey. The searcher measures sensory data and adjusts its search behavior based on those data. Yet, classical models of species encounter rates assume that searchers move independently of their targets. This assumption leads to the familiar mass action-like encounter rate kinetics typically used in modeling species interactions. Here we show that this common approach can mischaracterize encounter rate kinetics if searchers use sensory information to search actively for targets. We use the example of predator-prey interactions to illustrate that predators capable of long-distance directional sensing can encounter prey at a rate proportional to prey density to the [Formula: see text] power (where [Formula: see text] is the dimension of the environment when prey density is low. Similar anomalous encounter rate functions emerge even when predators pursue prey using only noisy, directionless signals. Thus, in both the high-information extreme of long-distance directional sensing, and the low-information extreme of noisy non-directional sensing, encounter rate kinetics differ qualitatively from those derived by classic theory of species interactions. Using a standard model of predator-prey population dynamics, we show that the new encounter rate kinetics derived here can change the outcome of species interactions. Our results demonstrate how the use of sensory information can alter the rates and outcomes of physical interactions in biological systems.

  1. Brain systems underlying encounter expectancy bias in spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, Tatjana; Hoeppli, Marie-Eve; Piguet, Camille; Hofstetter, Christoph; Rieger, Sebastian W; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-06-01

    Spider-phobic individuals are characterized by exaggerated expectancies to be faced with spiders (so-called encounter expectancy bias). Whereas phobic responses have been linked to brain systems mediating fear, little is known about how the recruitment of these systems relates to exaggerated expectancies of threat. We used fMRI to examine spider-phobic and control participants while they imagined visiting different locations in a forest after having received background information about the likelihood of encountering different animals (spiders, snakes, and birds) at these locations. Critically, imagined encounter expectancies modulated brain responses differently in phobics as compared with controls. Phobics displayed stronger negative modulation of activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex by encounter expectancies for spiders, relative to snakes or birds (within-participants analysis); these effects were not seen in controls. Between-participants correlation analyses within the phobic group further corroborated the hypothesis that these phobia-specific modulations may underlie irrationality in encounter expectancies (deviations of encounter expectancies from objective background information) in spider phobia; the greater the negative modulation a phobic participant displayed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex, the stronger was her bias in encounter expectancies for spiders. Interestingly, irrationality in expectancies reflected in frontal areas relied on right rather than left hemispheric deactivations. Our data accord with the idea that expectancy biases in spider phobia may reflect deficiencies in cognitive control and contextual integration that are mediated by right frontal and parietal areas. PMID:25694215

  2. Value creation and knowledge development in tourism experience encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming; Jensen, Jens Friis

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that service encounters between front-line employees and users support the development of knowledge about users' needs. However, the potential for this often remains unused, not least in tourism. This article argues that if tourism service encounters are changed into ‘experienc...... were developed into experience encounters. The experiment illustrates the potential that experience encounters have to create knowledge and value, but also suggests some barriers that need to be overcome.......It has been argued that service encounters between front-line employees and users support the development of knowledge about users' needs. However, the potential for this often remains unused, not least in tourism. This article argues that if tourism service encounters are changed into ‘experience...... encounters’ by integrating them into the tourism experience to which they are related, this will create added experiential value for tourists and increase the creation of knowledge about users. This is illustrated in an innovation field experiment in a retro design boutique hotel in which service encounters...

  3. Biclustering Sparse Binary Genomic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Van Uitert, M.; Meuleman, W.; Wessels, L. F. A.

    2008-01-01

    Genomic datasets often consist of large, binary, sparse data matrices. In such a dataset, one is often interested in finding contiguous blocks that (mostly) contain ones. This is a biclustering problem, and while many algorithms have been proposed to deal with gene expression data, only two algorithms have been proposed that specifically deal with binary matrices. None of the gene expression biclustering algorithms can handle the large number of zeros in sparse binary matrices. The two propos...

  4. Channel Upgradation for Non-Binary Input Alphabets and MACs

    OpenAIRE

    Pereg, Uzi; Tal, Ido

    2013-01-01

    Consider a single-user or multiple-access channel with a large output alphabet. A method to approximate the channel by an upgraded version having a smaller output alphabet is presented and analyzed. The original channel is not necessarily symmetric and does not necessarily have a binary input alphabet. Also, the input distribution is not necessarily uniform. The approximation method is instrumental when constructing capacity achieving polar codes for an asymmetric channel with a non-binary in...

  5. Photometric study of eclipsing binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud - I. W UMa type binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devarapalli Shanti Priya; Kandulapati Sriram; Pasagada Vivekananda Rao

    2011-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries are among the most important sources of information on stellar parameters like radii, masses, luminosities, etc. We present the analysis of six W UMa systems discovered in the Large Magellanic Cloud using the WilsonDevinney method.

  6. Photometric study of eclipsing binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud - I. W UMa type binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eclipsing binaries are among the most important sources of information on stellar parameters like radii, masses, luminosities, etc. We present the analysis of six W UMa systems discovered in the Large Magellanic Cloud using the Wilson-Devinney method.

  7. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  8. Report IAU Comm. 42, Close Binary Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas, Ignasi; Scarfe, Colin D.; Torres, Guillermo; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Sion, Edward M.; Richards, Mercedes T.; Niarchos, Panayiotis; Olah, Katalin

    2008-01-01

    Brief summaries are given about (1) close binary research from the perspective of the Bibliography of Close Binaries, (2) low-mass binaries and model discrepancies, (3) W UMa-type binaries, (4) cataclysmic variables, (5) Algol binaries, (6) the oEA stars, (7) effects of binarity on stellar activity.

  9. Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Linagliptin in Binary Mixture with Metformin Hydrochloride and Simultaneous Determination of Linagliptin and Metformin Hydrochloride using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    El-Bagary, Ramzia I.; Elkady, Ehab F.; Ayoub, Bassam M.

    2013-01-01

    Simple, accurate and precise Zero order, first derivative spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods have been developed and validated for the determination of linagliptin (LNG) and metformin HCl (MET). The zero order and first derivative spectrophotometric methods were used for the determination of LNG in the range of 5-30 μg mL−1 by measuring the absorbance at 299 nm and 311 respectively. Besides, a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method is described for the simultaneous d...

  10. Low autocorrelation binary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.

  11. Mothers' Perceptions of Citizenship, Practices for Developing Citizenship Conscience of Their Children and Problems They Encountered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, A. Figen

    2012-01-01

    Family plays an important role in the development of citizenship awareness of children. The purpose of the present study is to figure out the citizenship perceptions of mothers, their practices for developing citizenship conscience of their children and to explore the problems they have encountered. In this study, critical case sampling method has…

  12. Concentrated Language Encounter Instruction Model III in Reading and Creative Writing Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promnont, Piyapong; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2015-01-01

    The research is aimed to study the development of eleventh grade students' reading, creative writing abilities, satisfaction taught through the concentrated language encounter instruction method, CLE model III. One experimental group time series design was used, and the data was analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures, t-test for one-group…

  13. Spaces of Spiritual Citizenship: Children's Relational and Emotional Encounters with the Everyday School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of children's spiritual, relational and emotional encounters with the primary school environment, with reference to concepts and theories from both education studies and human geography. Drawing on mixed-method qualitative research in two case study institutions, the article examines pupils' photographed "special…

  14. Pedestrian Detection Using Gradient Local Binary Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ning; Xu, Jiu; Goto, Satoshi

    In recent years, local pattern based features have attracted increasing interest in object detection and recognition systems. Local Binary Pattern (LBP) feature is widely used in texture classification and face detection. But the original definition of LBP is not suitable for human detection. In this paper, we propose a novel feature named gradient local binary patterns (GLBP) for human detection. In this feature, original 256 local binary patterns are reduced to 56 patterns. These 56 patterns named uniform patterns are used for generating a 56-bin histogram. And gradient value of each pixel is set as the weight which is always same in LBP based features in histogram calculation to computing the values in 56 bins for histogram. Experiments are performed on INRIA dataset, which shows the proposal GLBP feature is discriminative than histogram of orientated gradient (HOG), Semantic Local Binary Patterns (S-LBP) and histogram of template (HOT). In our experiments, the window size is fixed. That means the performance can be improved by boosting methods. And the computation of GLBP feature is parallel, which make it easy for hardware acceleration. These factors make GLBP feature possible for real-time pedestrian detection.

  15. Cassini states for black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Alexandre C. M.

    2016-03-01

    Cassini states correspond to the equilibria of the spin axis of a body when its orbit is perturbed. They were initially described for planetary satellites, but the spin axes of black hole binaries also present this kind of equilibria. In previous works, Cassini states were reported as spin-orbit resonances, but actually the spin of black hole binaries is in circulation and there is no resonant motion. Here we provide a general description of the spin dynamics of black hole binary systems based on a Hamiltonian formalism. In absence of dissipation, the problem is integrable and it is easy to identify all possible trajectories for the spin for a given value of the total angular momentum. As the system collapses due to radiation reaction, the Cassini states are shifted to different positions, which modifies the dynamics around them. This is why the final spin distribution may differ from the initial one. Our method provides a simple way of predicting the distribution of the spin of black hole binaries at the end of the inspiral phase.

  16. Cassini states for black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, Alexandre C M

    2016-01-01

    Cassini states correspond to equilibria of the spin axis of a celestial body when its orbit is perturbed. They were initially described for planetary satellites, but the spin axes of black-hole binaries also present this kind of equilibria. In previous works, Cassini states were reported as spin-orbit resonances, but actually the spin of black-hole binaries is in circulation and there is no resonant motion. Here we provide a general description of the spin dynamics of black-hole binary systems based on a Hamiltonian formalism. In absence of dissipation the problem is integrable and it is easy to identify all possible trajectories for the spin for a given value of the total angular momentum. As the system collapses due to radiation reaction, the Cassini states are shifted to different positions, which modifies the dynamics around them. This is why the final spin distribution may differ from the initial one. Our method provides a simple way of predicting the distribution of the spin of black-hole binaries at th...

  17. Tidal Disruption Events by a Massive Black Hole Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Ricarte, Angelo; Dai, Lixin; Coppi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) are a natural byproduct of galaxy mergers. Previous studies have shown that flares from stellar tidal disruption events (TDEs) are modified by the presence of a secondary perturber, causing interruptions in the light curve. We study the dynamics of TDE debris in the presence of a milliparsec-separated MBHB by integrating ballistic particle orbits in the time-varying potential of the binary. We find that gaps in the light curve appear when material misses the accretion radius on its first return to pericentre. Subsequent recurrences can be decomposed into "continuous" and "delayed" components, which exhibit different behaviour. We find that this potential can substantially alter the locations of stream self-intersections. When debris is confined to the plane, we find that close encounters with the secondary BH leave noticeable signatures on the fallback rate and can result in significant accretion onto the secondary BH. Tight, equal-mass MBHBs accrete equally, periodically t...

  18. Primordial binary populations in low-density star clusters as seen by Chandra: globular clusters versus old open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Maureen C.

    2015-08-01

    The binaries in the core of a star cluster are the energy source that prevents the cluster from experiencing core collapse. To model the dynamical evolution of a cluster, it is important to have constraints on the primordial binary content. X-ray observations of old star clusters are very efficient in detecting the close interacting binaries among the cluster members. The X-ray sources in star clusters are a mix of binaries that were dynamically formed and primordial binaries. In massive, dense star clusters, dynamical encounters play an important role in shaping the properties and numbers of the binaries. In contrast, in the low-density clusters the impact of dynamical encounters is presumed to be very small, and the close binaries detected in X-rays represent a primordial population. The lowest density globular clusters have current masses and central densities similar to those of the oldest open clusters in our Milky Way. I will discuss the results of studies with the Chandra X-ray Observatory that have nevertheless revealed a clear dichotomy: far fewer (if any at all) X-ray sources are detected in the central regions of the low-density globular clusters compared to the number of secure cluster members that have been detected in old open clusters (above a limiting X-ray luminosity of typically 4e30 erg/s). The low stellar encounter rates imply that dynamical destruction of binaries can be ignored at present, therefore an explanation must be sought elsewhere. I will discuss several factors that can shed light on the implied differences between the primordial close binary populations in the two types of star clusters.

  19. Brownian motion of massive black hole binaries and the final parsec problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bortolas, E; Dotti, M; Spera, M; Mapelli, M

    2016-01-01

    Massive black hole binaries (BHBs) are expected to be one of the most powerful sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the frequency range of the pulsar timing array and of forthcoming space-borne detectors. They are believed to form in the final stages of galaxy mergers, and then harden by slingshot ejections of passing stars. However, evolution via the slingshot mechanism may be ineffective if the reservoir of interacting stars is not readily replenished, and the binary shrinking may come to a halt at roughly a parsec separation. Recent simulations suggest that the departure from spherical symmetry, naturally produced in merger remnants, leads to efficient loss cone refilling, preventing the binary from stalling. However, current N-body simulations able to accurately follow the evolution of BHBs are limited to very modest particle numbers. Brownian motion may artificially enhance the loss cone refilling rate in low-N simulations, where the binary encounters a larger population of stars due its random motion...

  20. A Survey Design for a Sensitive Binary Variable Correlated with Another Nonsensitive Binary Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Wu Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tian et al. (2007 introduced a so-called hidden sensitivity model for evaluating the association of two sensitive questions with binary outcomes. However, in practice, we sometimes need to assess the association between one sensitive binary variable (e.g., whether or not a drug user, the number of sex partner being ⩽1 or >1, and so on and one nonsensitive binary variable (e.g., good or poor health status, with or without cervical cancer, and so on. To address this issue, by sufficiently utilizing the information contained in the non-sensitive binary variable, in this paper, we propose a new survey scheme, called combination questionnaire design/model, which consists of a main questionnaire and a supplemental questionnaire. The introduction of the supplemental questionnaire which is indeed a design of direct questioning can effectively reduce the noncompliance behavior since more respondents will not be faced with the sensitive question. Likelihood-based inferences including maximum likelihood estimates via the expectation-maximization algorithm, asymptotic confidence intervals, and bootstrap confidence intervals of parameters of interest are derived. A likelihood ratio test is provided to test the association between the two binary random variables. Bayesian inferences are also discussed. Simulation studies are performed, and a cervical cancer data set in Atlanta is used to illustrate the proposed methods.

  1. Geological Mapping of the Encounter Hemisphere on Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, O. L.; Moore, J. M.; Stern, S. A.; Weaver, H. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Ennico, K.; Young, L. A.; Cheng, A. F.; New Horizons GGI Theme Team

    2016-06-01

    We present mapping of Pluto's encounter hemisphere performed to date (focusing on Sputnik Planum and the immediately surrounding area) and offer preliminary descriptions of terrains further afield that will be the subject of future mapping.

  2. More Americans Engaging in Same-Sex Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Encounters And the number who are OK with homosexuality has quadrupled in last 40 years, survey finds ... began its first open national policy discussions about homosexuality, centered around the issues of gays in the ...

  3. Assessing the Usability of MAX 2008 Encounter Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Assessing the Usability of MAX 2008 Encounter Data for Comprehensive Managed Care As growing numbers of Medicaid enrollees receive comprehensive health benefits...

  4. Availability and Usability of BHO Encounter Data in MAX 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Availability and Usability of Behavioral Health Organization Encounter Data in MAX 2009, published in Volume 4, Issue 2 of Medicare and Medicaid Research Review,...

  5. Computing on Binary Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, Tian-Ming; Zhang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    Many problems in Computer Science can be abstracted to the following question: given a set of objects and rules respectively, which new objects can be produced? In the paper, we consider a succinct version of the question: given a set of binary strings and several operations like conjunction and disjunction, which new binary strings can be generated? Although it is a fundamental problem, to the best of our knowledge, the problem hasn't been studied yet. In this paper, an O(m^2n) algorithm is presented to determine whether a string s is representable by a set W, where n is the number of strings in W and each string has the same length m. However, looking for the minimum subset from a set to represent a given string is shown to be NP-hard. In addition, we prove that counting the number of strings representable is #P-complete. But if the operator negation can be used, the number is some power of 2. This di?erence maybe help us understand the problem more profoundly.

  6. Aliens on Earth. Are reports of close encounters correct?

    OpenAIRE

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Popular culture (movies, SF literature) and witness accounts of close encounters with extraterrestrials provide a rather bizarre image of Aliens behavior on Earth. It is far from stereotypes of human space exploration. The reported Aliens are not missions of diplomats, scientists nor even invasion fleets; typical encounters are with lone ETs (or small groups), and involve curious behavior: abductions and experiments (often of sexual nature), cattle mutilations, localized killing and mixing in...

  7. Orbital perturbations of the Galilean satellites during planetary encounters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nice model of the dynamical instability and migration of the giant planets can explain many properties of the present solar system, and can be used to constrain its early architecture. In the jumping-Jupiter version of the Nice model, required from the terrestrial planet constraint and dynamical structure of the asteroid belt, Jupiter has encounters with an ice giant. Here, we study the survival of the Galilean satellites in the jumping-Jupiter model. This is an important concern because the ice-giant encounters, if deep enough, could dynamically perturb the orbits of the Galilean satellites and lead to implausible results. We performed numerical integrations where we tracked the effect of planetary encounters on the Galilean moons. We considered three instability cases from Nesvorný and Morbidelli that differed in the number and distribution of encounters. We found that in one case, where the number of close encounters was relatively small, the Galilean satellite orbits were not significantly affected. In the other two, the orbital eccentricities of all moons were excited by encounters, Callisto's semimajor axis changed, and, in a large fraction of trials, the Laplace resonance of the inner three moons was disrupted. The subsequent evolution by tides damps eccentricities and can recapture the moons in the Laplace resonance. A more important constraint is represented by the orbital inclinations of the moons, which can be excited during the encounters and not appreciably damped by tides. We find that one instability case taken from Nesvorný and Morbidelli clearly does not meet this constraint. This shows how the regular satellites of Jupiter can be used to set limits on the properties of encounters in the jumping-Jupiter model, and help us to better understand how the early solar system evolved.

  8. Orbital perturbations of the Galilean satellites during planetary encounters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Nesvorný, David [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO (United States); Vokrouhlický, David [Institute of Astronomy, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Yokoyama, Tadashi, E-mail: rogerio.deienno@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    The Nice model of the dynamical instability and migration of the giant planets can explain many properties of the present solar system, and can be used to constrain its early architecture. In the jumping-Jupiter version of the Nice model, required from the terrestrial planet constraint and dynamical structure of the asteroid belt, Jupiter has encounters with an ice giant. Here, we study the survival of the Galilean satellites in the jumping-Jupiter model. This is an important concern because the ice-giant encounters, if deep enough, could dynamically perturb the orbits of the Galilean satellites and lead to implausible results. We performed numerical integrations where we tracked the effect of planetary encounters on the Galilean moons. We considered three instability cases from Nesvorný and Morbidelli that differed in the number and distribution of encounters. We found that in one case, where the number of close encounters was relatively small, the Galilean satellite orbits were not significantly affected. In the other two, the orbital eccentricities of all moons were excited by encounters, Callisto's semimajor axis changed, and, in a large fraction of trials, the Laplace resonance of the inner three moons was disrupted. The subsequent evolution by tides damps eccentricities and can recapture the moons in the Laplace resonance. A more important constraint is represented by the orbital inclinations of the moons, which can be excited during the encounters and not appreciably damped by tides. We find that one instability case taken from Nesvorný and Morbidelli clearly does not meet this constraint. This shows how the regular satellites of Jupiter can be used to set limits on the properties of encounters in the jumping-Jupiter model, and help us to better understand how the early solar system evolved.

  9. Encounters between Otters (Lontra canadensis) and American Beavers (Castor canadensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Bob Arnebeck

    2004-01-01

    Six encounters between otters (Lontra canadensis) and American beavers (Castor canadensis) were observed between 1997 and 2003 at Wellesley Island State Park, New York. Contrary to the observer’s expectations, in each case the beaver moved aggressively toward the otter or otters, and the otters retreated. The author offers detailed accounts of each of the interactions, which may offer some insight into the relationship between otters and beavers. In half of the encounters, the beaver appeared...

  10. Finding the imprints of stellar encounters in long period comets

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Fabo

    2015-01-01

    The solar system's Oort cloud can be perturbed by the Galactic tide and by individual passing stars. These perturbations can inject Oort cloud objects into the inner parts of the solar system, where they may be observed as the long-period comets (periods longer than 200 years). Using dynamical simulations of the Oort cloud under the perturbing effects of the tide and 61 known stellar encounters, we investigate the link between long-period comets and encounters. We find that past encounters were responsible for injecting at least 5% of the currently known long-period comets. This is a lower limit due to the incompleteness of known encounters. Although the Galactic tide seems to play the dominant role in producing the observed long-period comets, the non-uniform longitude distribution of the cometary perihelia suggests the existence of strong -- but as yet unidentified -- stellar encounters or other impulses. The strongest individual future and past encounters are probably HIP 89825 (Gliese 710) and HIP 14473, ...

  11. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew J.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  12. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  13. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuChengqian; ZhaoXiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP)is proposed .A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP)is also proposed .The relationship between PCSP and DFP,the properties and exising conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  14. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chengqian; Zhao Xiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP) is proposed. A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP) is also proposed.The relationship between PCSP and DFP, the properties and existing conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  15. New multiplex PCR method for the detection of Clostridium difficile toxin A (tcdA) and toxin B (tcdB) and the binary toxin (cdtA/cdtB) genes applied to a Danish strain collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, S; Torpdahl, M; Olsen, K E P

    2008-11-01

    Isolates of Clostridium difficile from 159 hospitalized Danish patients (2005) were analysed by a new 5-plex PCR method targeting the toxin genes tcdA, tcdB, cdtA and cdtB, and 16S rDNA as an internal positive control. Additionally, the toxin-regulating gene tcdC was partially sequenced by a new sequencing-based method that revealed genetic changes that may render the gene product inactive. Finally tcdA was analysed using a previously published method for the detection of internal deletions. The 5-plex PCR revealed four different toxin gene profiles: 36 tcdA+, tcdB+, cdtA+/cdtB+; one tcdA+, tcdB-, cdtA+/cdtB+; 98 tcdA+, tcdB+, cdtA-/cdtB-; and 24 non-toxigenic tcdA-, tcdB-, cdtA-/cdtB-. Deletion studies revealed that 26 strains contained a c. 700-bp deletion in tcdA, and 39 strains contained at least one possible inactivation feature in tcdC. The prevalence of the binary toxin genes was 23%. All strains with the tcdA+, tcdB+, cdtA+/cdtB+ profile were investigated by PCR ribotyping, and this revealed eight different ribotypes, none of which were 027. The 5-plex PCR method offers a one-step, rapid and specific screening method for C. difficile toxin genes. This toxin gene profiling, together with deletion studies in tcdA and tcdC, may allow an evaluation of the pathogenic potential of C. difficile. PMID:19040478

  16. Planets in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...

  17. Binary Brayton cycle with two isothermal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper presents binary Brayton cycle with two isothermal processes. • Different parameters affecting the cycle performance have been studied. • The present cycle is a promising cycle for future power generation. - Abstract: The literature introduced isothermal concept and binary Brayton cycle as two promising methods used to enhance the performance of the gas turbine. Consequently, this work presents a cycle based on the blending of the two methods. This cycle is composed of gas turbine topping cycle with isothermal combustion and air turbine bottoming cycle with isothermal heating. Different parameters affecting the cycle performance have been studied. Simulations demonstrate that the present cycle achieves drastic enhancement in performance. The cycle merits justify its potential utilization for future power generation

  18. Stability-indicating HPLC–DAD methods for determination of two binary mixtures: Rabeprazole sodium–mosapride citrate and rabeprazole sodium–itopride hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed M. El-Fatatry

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two selective stability-indicating HPLC methods are described for determination of rabeprazole sodium (RZ–mosapride citrate (MR and RZ–itopride hydrochloride (IO mixtures in the presence of their ICH-stress formed degradation products. Separations were achieved on X-Bridge C18 column using two mobile phases: the first for RZ–MR mixture consisted of acetonitrile: 0.025 M KH2PO4 solution: TEA (30:69:1 v/v; pH 7.0; the second for RZ–IO mixture was at ratio of 25:74:1 (v/v; pH 9.25. The detection wavelength was 283 nm. The two methods were validated and validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. Peak purity testing using contrast angle theory, relative absorbance and log A versus the wavelengths plots were presented. The % recoveries of the intact drugs were between 99.1% and 102.2% with RSD% values less than 1.6%. Application of the proposed HPLC methods indicated that the methods could be adopted to follow the stability of their formulations.

  19. Equilibrium, Stability and Orbital Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, D; Shapiro, S L

    1993-01-01

    We present a new analytic study of the equilibrium and stability properties of close binary systems containing polytropic components. Our method is based on the use of ellipsoidal trial functions in an energy variational principle. We consider both synchronized and nonsynchronized systems, constructing the compressible generalizations of the classical Darwin and Darwin-Riemann configurations. Our method can be applied to a wide variety of binary models where the stellar masses, radii, spins, entropies, and polytropic indices are all allowed to vary over wide ranges and independently for each component. We find that both secular and dynamical instabilities can develop before a Roche limit or contact is reached along a sequence of models with decreasing binary separation. High incompressibility always makes a given binary system more susceptible to these instabilities, but the dependence on the mass ratio is more complicated. As simple applications, we construct models of double degenerate systems and of low-ma...

  20. Improvements to the construction of binary black hole initial data

    CERN Document Server

    Ossokine, Serguei; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Boyle, Michael; Szilágyi, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Construction of binary black hole initial data is a prerequisite for numerical evolutions of binary black holes. This paper reports improvements to the binary black hole initial data solver in the Spectral Einstein Code, to allow robust construction of initial data for mass-ratio above 10:1, and for dimensionless black hole spins above 0.9, while improving efficiency for lower mass-ratios and spins. We implement a more flexible domain decomposition, adaptive mesh refinement and an updated method for choosing free parameters. We also introduce a new method to control and eliminate residual linear momentum in initial data for precessing systems, and demonstrate that it eliminates gravitational mode mixing during the evolution. Finally, the new code is applied to construct initial data for hyperbolic scattering and for binaries with very small separation.

  1. Towards Physarum Binary Adders

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeff; 10.1016/j.biosystems.2010.04.005

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium of \\emph{Physarum polycephalum} is a single cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium's foraging behaviour is interpreted in terms of computation. Input data is a configuration of nutrients, result of computation is a network of plasmodium's cytoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients. Tsuda et al (2004) experimentally demonstrated that basic logical gates can be implemented in foraging behaviour of the plasmodium. We simplify the original designs of the gates and show --- in computer models --- that the plasmodium is capable for computation of two-input two-output gate $ \\to $ and three-input two-output $ \\to $. We assemble the gates in a binary one-bit adder and demonstrate validity of the design using computer simulation.

  2. Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, Paulo C C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review the recent discovery of several millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in eccentric binary systems. Timing these MSPs we were able to estimate (and in one case precisely measure) their masses. These results suggest that, as a class, MSPs have a much wider range of masses (1.3 to > 2 solar masses) than the normal and mildly recycled pulsars found in double neutron star (DNS) systems (1.25 < Mp < 1.44 solar masses). This is very likely to be due to the prolonged accretion episode that is thought to be required to form a MSP. The likely existence of massive MSPs makes them a powerful probe for understanding the behavior of matter at densities larger than that of the atomic nucleus; in particular, the precise measurement of the mass of PSR J1903+0327 ($1.67 +/- 0.01 solar masses) excludes several "soft" equations of state for dense matter.

  3. Binaries and distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourbaix, D.; Arenou, F.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Siopis, C.

    2013-02-01

    Gaia's five-year observation baseline might naively lead to the expectation that it will be possible to fit the parallax of any sufficiently nearby object with the default five-parameter model (position at a reference epoch, parallax and proper motion). However, simulated Gaia observations of a `model Universe' composed of nearly 107 objects, 50% of which turn out to be multiple stars, show that the single-star hypothesis can severely affect parallax estimation and that more sophisticated models must be adopted. In principle, screening these spurious single-star solutions is rather straightforward, for example by evaluating the quality of the fits. However, the simulated Gaia observations also reveal that some seemingly acceptable single-star solutions can nonetheless lead to erroneous distances. These solutions turn out to be binaries with an orbital period close to one year. Without auxiliary (e.g., spectroscopic) data, they will remain unnoticed.

  4. The Classical Linear Regression Model with one Incomplete Binary Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Toutenburg, Helge; Nittner, T.

    1999-01-01

    We present three different methods based on the conditional mean imputation when binary explanatory variables are incomplete. Apart from the single imputation and multiple imputation especially the so-called pi imputation is presented as a new procedure. Seven procedures are compared in a simulation experiment when missing data are confined to one independent binary variable: complete case analysis, zero order regression, categorical zero order regression, pi imputation, single imputation, mu...

  5. Excess Molar Volume of Binary Systems Containing Mesitylene

    OpenAIRE

    Morávková, L. (Lenka); Sedláková, Z.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a review of density measurements for binary systems containing 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (mesitylene) with a variety of organic compounds at atmospheric pressure. Literature data of the binary systems were divided into nine basic groups by the type of contained organic compound with mesitylene. The excess molar volumes calculated from the experimental density values have been compared with literature data. Densities were measured by a few experimental methods, namely using a ...

  6. Hydrodynamics for a granular binary mixture at low density

    OpenAIRE

    Garzó, Vicente; Dufty, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrodynamic equations for a binary mixture of inelastic hard spheres are derived from the Boltzmann kinetic theory. A normal solution is obtained via the Chapman-Enskog method for states near the local homogeneous cooling state. The mass, heat, and momentum fluxes are determined to first order in the spatial gradients of the hydrodynamic fields, and the associated transport coefficients are identified. In the same way as for binary mixtures with elastic collisions, these coefficients are det...

  7. Mock LISA data challenge for the galactic white dwarf binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Błaut, A.; Babak, S; Królak, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present data analysis methods used in detection and the estimation of parameters of gravitational wave signals from the white dwarf binaries in the mock LISA data challenge. Our main focus is on the analysis of challenge 3.1, where the gravitational wave signals from more than 50 mln. Galactic binaries were added to the simulated Gaussian instrumental noise. Majority of the signals at low frequencies are not resolved individually. The confusion between the signals is strongly reduced at fr...

  8. Stability-indicating HPLC–DAD methods for determination of two binary mixtures: Rabeprazole sodium–mosapride citrate and rabeprazole sodium–itopride hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    El-Fatatry, Hamed M.; Mabrouk, Mokhtar M; Ismail I. Hewala; Ehab H. Emam

    2014-01-01

    Two selective stability-indicating HPLC methods are described for determination of rabeprazole sodium (RZ)–mosapride citrate (MR) and RZ–itopride hydrochloride (IO) mixtures in the presence of their ICH-stress formed degradation products. Separations were achieved on X-Bridge C18 column using two mobile phases: the first for RZ–MR mixture consisted of acetonitrile: 0.025 M KH2PO4 solution: TEA (30:69:1 v/v; pH 7.0); the second for RZ–IO mixture was at ratio of 25:74:1 (v/v; pH 9.25). The dete...

  9. Disc-mass distribution in star-disc encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhausen, M; Pfalzner, S

    2011-01-01

    Investigations of stellar encounters in cluster environments have demonstrated their potential influence on the mass and angular momentum of protoplanetary discs around young stars. In this study it is investigated in how far the initial surface density in the disc surrounding a young star influences the outcome of an encounter. Based on a power-law ansatz for the surface density, $\\Sigma(r) \\propto r^{-p}$, a parameter study of star-disc encounters with different initial disc-mass distributions has been performed using N-body simulations. It is demonstrated that the shape of the disc-mass distribution has a significant impact on the quantity of the disc-mass and angular momentum losses in star-disc encounters. Most sensitive are the results where the outer parts of the disc are perturbed by high-mass stars. By contrast, disc-penetrating encounters lead more or less independently of the disc-mass distribution always to large losses. However, maximum losses are generally obtained for initially flat distributed...

  10. Binary analysis: 1. part: definitions and treatment of binary functions; 2. part: applications and functions of trans-coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of binary groups under their mathematical aspects constitutes the matter of binary analysis, the purpose of which consists in developing altogether simple, rigorous and practical methods needed by the technicians, the engineers and all those who may be mainly concerned by digital processing. This subject, fast extending if not determining, however tends actually to play a main part in nuclear electronics as well as in several other research areas. (authors)

  11. Bowen-York Type Initial Data for Binaries with Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to construct initial data for binary systems with neutron star components is introduced. The approach is a generalization of the puncture initial data method for binary black holes based on Bowen-York solutions to the momentum constraint. As with binary black holes, the method allows setting orbital configurations with direct input from post-Newtonian approximations and involves solving only the Hamiltonian constraint. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated with evolutions of double neutron star and black hole -- neutron star binaries in quasi-circular orbits.

  12. N-Body simulations of tidal encounters between stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-Body simulations have been performed to study the tidal effects of a primary stellar system on a secondary stellar system of density close to the Roche density. Two hyperbolic, one parabolic and one elliptic encounters have been simulated. The changes in energy, angular momentum, mass distribution, and shape of the secondary system have been determined in each case. The inner region containing about 40% of the mass was found to be practically unchanged and the mass exterior to the tidal radius was found to escape. The intermediate region showed tidal distension. The thickness of this region decreased as we went from hyperbolic encounters to the elliptic encounter keeping the distance of closest approach constant. The numerical results for the fractional change in energy have been compared with the predictions of the available analytic formulae and the usefulness and limitations of the formulae have been discussed. (author)

  13. Encounters of The Solar System With Molecular Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solar system has penetrated about 5 -- 10 giant molecular clouds over its history, and passes within 5 parsecs of a star-forming nebula every 100 million years or so. Numerical simulations of the effect of such encounters in perturbing the Oort cloud of comets are carried out using standard n-body computational techniques. It is found that the ingress of comets into the inner planetary system during such encounters amounts to factors of ∼100 over the average. During an encounter the impact rate of comets onto Earth increases by a comparable factor. The of ages of impact craters on the Earth is shown to be consistent with predictions from the model

  14. Motility of copepod nauplii and implications for food encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, Josefin; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Velocity differences drive all encounter processes. Therefore, knowledge of both prey and predator motility are essential in order to understand feeding behavior and predict food acquisition rates. Here, we describe and quantify the motility behavior of young and old naupliar stages of 6 copepods...... local food depletion.......Velocity differences drive all encounter processes. Therefore, knowledge of both prey and predator motility are essential in order to understand feeding behavior and predict food acquisition rates. Here, we describe and quantify the motility behavior of young and old naupliar stages of 6 copepods...... smoother glide of varying continuity. We apply observed time budgets and behavior-specific speeds in simple models to examine mechanisms of food encounter. The motility of all nauplii may account for clearance rates reported in the literature, but through different mechanisms. Smoothly swimming nauphi...

  15. Binary black hole mergers from globular clusters: Masses, merger rates, and the impact of stellar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carl L.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2016-04-01

    The recent discovery of GW150914, the binary black hole merger detected by Advanced LIGO, has the potential to revolutionize observational astrophysics. But to fully utilize this new window into the Universe, we must compare these new observations to detailed models of binary black hole formation throughout cosmic time. Expanding upon our previous work [C. L. Rodriguez, M. Morscher, B. Pattabiraman, S. Chatterjee, C.-J. Haster, and F. A. Rasio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 051101 (2015).], we study merging binary black holes formed in globular clusters using our Monte Carlo approach to stellar dynamics. We have created a new set of 52 cluster models with different masses, metallicities, and radii to fully characterize the binary black hole merger rate. These models include all the relevant dynamical processes (such as two-body relaxation, strong encounters, and three-body binary formation) and agree well with detailed direct N -body simulations. In addition, we have enhanced our stellar evolution algorithms with updated metallicity-dependent stellar wind and supernova prescriptions, allowing us to compare our results directly to the most recent population synthesis predictions for merger rates from isolated binary evolution. We explore the relationship between a cluster's global properties and the population of binary black holes that it produces. In particular, we derive a numerically calibrated relationship between the merger times of ejected black hole binaries and a cluster's mass and radius. With our improved treatment of stellar evolution, we find that globular clusters can produce a significant population of massive black hole binaries that merge in the local Universe. We explore the masses and mass ratios of these binaries as a function of redshift, and find a merger rate of ˜5 Gpc-3yr-1 in the local Universe, with 80% of sources having total masses from 32 M⊙ to 64 M⊙. Under standard assumptions, approximately one out of every seven binary black hole mergers

  16. Hamiltonian Hydrodynamics and Irrotational Binary Inspiral

    CERN Document Server

    Markakis, Charalampos M

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational waves from neutron-star and black-hole binaries carry valuable information on their physical properties and probe physics inaccessible to the laboratory. Although development of black-hole gravitational-wave templates in the past decade has been revolutionary, the corresponding work for double neutron-star systems has lagged. Neutron stars can be well-modelled as simple barotropic fluids during the part of binary inspiral most relevant to gravitational wave astronomy, but the crucial geometric and mathematical consequences of this simplification have remained computationally unexploited. In particular, Carter and Lichnerowicz have described barotropic fluid motion via classical variational principles as conformally geodesic. Moreover, Kelvin's circulation theorem implies that initially irrotational flows remain irrotational. Applied to numerical relativity, these concepts lead to novel Hamiltonian or Hamilton-Jacobi schemes for evolving relativistic fluid flows. Hamiltonian methods can conserve ...

  17. Simulation of nuclei morphologies for binary alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We study the critical nuclei morphologies of a binary alloy by the string method. The dynamic equation of the string, connecting the metastable phase (liquid) and stable phase (solid), is governed by Helmholtz free energy for the binary alloy system at a given temperature. The stationary string through the critical nucleus (saddle point) is obtained if the relaxation time of the string is su?ciently large. The critical nucleus radius and energy barrier to nucleation of a pure alloy with isotropic interface energy in two and three dimensions are calculated, which are consistent with the classical nucleation theory. The critical nuclei morphologies are sensitive to the anisotropy strength of interface energy and interface thickness of alloy in two and three dimensions. The critical nucleus and energy barrier to nucleation become smaller if the anisotropy strength of the interface energy is increased, which means that it is much easier to form a stable nucleus if the anisotropy of the interface energy is considered.

  18. Binary Fingerprints at Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Hung-Chih; King, Maria D; Kwan, Chiman

    2009-01-01

    We developed a simple way to generate binary patterns based on spectral slopes in different frequency ranges at fluctuation-enhanced sensing. Such patterns can be considered as binary "fingerprints" of odors. The method has experimentally been demonstrated with a commercial semiconducting metal oxide (Taguchi) sensor exposed to bacterial odors (Escherichia coli and Anthrax-surrogate Bacillus subtilis) and processing their stochastic signals. With a single Taguchi sensor, the situations of empty chamber, tryptic soy agar (TSA) medium, or TSA with bacteria could be distinguished with 100% reproducibility. The bacterium numbers were in the range of 25 thousands to 1 million. To illustrate the relevance for ultra-low power consumption, we show that this new type of signal processing and pattern recognition task can be implemented by a simple analog circuitry and a few logic gates with total power consumption in the microWatts range.

  19. Buffer Overflow Detection on Binary Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yan-fei; LI Hui; CHEN Ke-fei

    2006-01-01

    Most solutions for detecting buffer overflow are based on source code. But the requirement for source code is not always practical especially for business software. A new approach was presented to detect statically the potential buffer overflow vulnerabilities in the binary code of software. The binary code was translated into assembly code without the lose of the information of string operation functions. The feature code abstract graph was constructed to generate more accurate constraint statements, and analyze the assembly code using the method of integer range constraint. After getting the elementary report on suspicious code where buffer overflows possibly happen, the control flow sensitive analysis using program dependence graph was done to decrease the rate of false positive. A prototype was implemented which demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the new approach.

  20. Reconstructing complex networks with binary-state dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jingwen; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2015-01-01

    The prerequisite for our understanding of many complex networked systems lies in the reconstruction of network structure from measurable data. Although binary-state dynamics occurring in a broad class of complex networked systems in nature and society and has been intensively investigated, a general framework for reconstructing complex networks from binary states, the inverse problem, is lacking. Here we offer a general solution to the reconstruction problem by developing a data-based linearization approach for binary-state dynamics with linear, nonlinear, discrete and stochastic switching functions. The linearization allows us to convert the network reconstruction problem into a sparse signal reconstruction problem that can be resolved efficiently and credibly by convex optimization based on compressed sensing. The completely data-based linearization method and the sparse signal reconstruction constitutes a general framework for reconstructing complex networks without any knowledge of the binary-state dynami...

  1. Properties of M31. V: 298 Eclipsing Binaries from PAndromeda

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, C -H; Seitz, S; Bender, R; Riffeser, A; Kodric, M; Hopp, U; Snigula, J; Goessl, C; Kudritzki, R -P; Burgett, W; Chambers, K; Hodapp, K; Kaiser, N; Waters, C

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work is to conduct a photometric study of eclipsing binaries in M31. We apply a modified box-fitting algorithm to search for eclipsing binary candidates and determine their period. We classify these candidates into detached, semi-detached, and contact systems using the Fourier decomposition method. We cross-match the position of our detached candidates with the photometry from Local Group Survey (Massey et al. 2006) and select 13 candidates brighter than 20.5 magnitude in V. The relative physical parameters of these detached candidates are further characterized with Detached Eclipsing Binary Light curve fitter (DEBiL) by Devor (2005). We will followup the detached eclipsing binaries spectroscopically and determine the distance to M31.

  2. Cosmopolitan encounters: reflexive engagements and the ethics of sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Woodward, Ian;

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing research on everyday cosmopolitanism in diverse societies. We employ a cosmopolitan encounters framework to explore the reflexive openness people perform and the ethical reasoning they draw on to get along with each other. In particular, we look beyond...... in which diversity is strategically negotiated by enacting practices of civility. We argue that cosmopolitanism emerges from interactions in encounters between individuals when they reflect on their positionality within unequal power relationships and their actions are guided by a cosmopolitan ethics....... The ethical framework we propose is grounded in reflexive acts of sharing going beyond notions of giving and performing hospitality within a host/guest dyad....

  3. Value Encounters - Modeling and Analyzing Co-creation of Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Hans

    Recent marketing and management literature has introduced the concept of co-creation of value. Current value modeling approaches such as e3-value focus on the exchange of value rather than co-creation. In this paper, an extension to e3-value is proposed in the form of a “value encounter”. Value encounters are defined as interaction spaces where a group of actors meet and derive value by each one bringing in some of its own resources. They can be analyzed from multiple strategic perspectives, including knowledge management, social network management and operational management. Value encounter modeling can be instrumental in the context of service analysis and design.

  4. Binary black hole spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study parameter estimation with post-Newtonian (PN) gravitational waveforms for the quasi-circular, adiabatic inspiral of spinning binary compact objects. In particular, the performance of amplitude-corrected waveforms is compared with that of the more commonly used restricted waveforms, in Advanced LIGO and EGO. With restricted waveforms, the properties of the source can only be extracted from the phasing. In the case of amplitude-corrected waveforms, the spectrum encodes a wealth of additional information, which leads to dramatic improvements in parameter estimation. At distances of ∼100 Mpc, the full PN waveforms allow for high-accuracy parameter extraction for total mass up to several hundred solar masses, while with the restricted ones the errors are steep functions of mass, and accurate parameter estimation is only possible for relatively light stellar mass binaries. At the low-mass end, the inclusion of amplitude corrections reduces the error on the time of coalescence by an order of magnitude in Advanced LIGO and a factor of 5 in EGO compared to the restricted waveforms; at higher masses these differences are much larger. The individual component masses, which are very poorly determined with restricted waveforms, become measurable with high accuracy if amplitude-corrected waveforms are used, with errors as low as a few per cent in Advanced LIGO and a few tenths of a per cent in EGO. The usual spin-orbit parameter β is also poorly determined with restricted waveforms (except for low-mass systems in EGO), but the full waveforms give errors that are small compared to the largest possible value consistent with the Kerr bound. This suggests a way of finding out if one or both of the component objects violate this bound. On the other hand, we find that the spin-spin parameter σ remains poorly determined even when the full waveform is used. Generally, all errors have but a weak dependence on the magnitudes and orientations of the spins. We also briefly

  5. Encounter probability analysis of typhoon and plum rain in the Taihu Lake Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is of great significance to study the encounter possibility of typhoon and plum rain in the Taihu Lake Basin in order to adjust the schemes of design storm and utilize flood resource and make the decision of real-time scheduling for flood control in the Basin. Based upon the existing research findings of description of encounter phenomena of typhoon and plum rain, the initial time of typhoon affecting the Taihu Lake Basin, the start time of plum rain season and the end time of plum rain season were selected as the characteristic indices of typhoon and plum rain, respectively. According to their synchronous data from 1954 to 2009, the distribution functions of the above-mentioned three random variables were identified and a formula expressing the encounter possibility of typhoon and plum rain was derived. In view of the complexity and solution of this formula, joint distribution functions of typhoon and plum rain were constructed by the use of Gumbel Copula function on the basis of the adaptability comparison among three functions (Gumbel Copula, Clayton Copula and Frank Copula) in Archimedean functions. For the characteristics of the formula with the joint distribution functions based on Gumbel Copula function, two methods, i.e., numerical integration and Monte Carlo simulation, were selected to solve the encounter probability, and the validity of the computed results was analyzed finally.

  6. Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Affendi Rosdi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP.

  7. Strong Lensing by Binary Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, E M

    2008-01-01

    We study the problem of gravitational lensing by binary galaxies, idealized as two isothermal spheres. In a wide binary, each galaxy possesses individual tangential, nearly astroidal, caustics and roundish radial caustics. As the separation of the binary is made smaller, the caustics undergo a sequence of metamorphoses. The first metamorphosis occurs when the tangential caustics merge to form a single six-cusped caustic, lying interior to the radial caustics. At still smaller separations, the six-cusped caustic undergoes the second metamorphosis and splits into a four-cusped caustic and two three-cusped caustics, which shrink to zero size (an elliptic umbilic catastrophe) before they enlarge again and move away from the origin perpendicular to the binary axis. Finally, a third metamorphosis occurs as the three-cusp caustics join the radial caustics, leaving an inner distorted astroid caustic enclosed by two outer caustics. The maximum number of images possible is 7. Classifying the multiple imaging according ...

  8. Magnetic braking in ultracompact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Angular momentum loss in ultracompact binaries, such as the AM Canum Venaticorum stars, is usually assumed to be due entirely to gravitational radiation. Motivated by the outflows observed in ultracompact binaries, we investigate whether magnetically coupled winds could in fact lead to substantial additional angular momentum losses. We remark that the scaling relations often invoked for the relative importance of gravitational and magnetic braking do not apply, and instead use simple non-empirical expressions for the braking rates. In order to remove significant angular momentum, the wind must be tied to field lines anchored in one of the binary's component stars; uncertainties remain as to the driving mechanism for such a wind. In the case of white dwarf accretors, we find that magnetic braking can potentially remove angular momentum on comparable or even shorter timescales than gravitational waves over a large range in orbital period. We present such a solution for the 17-minute binary AM CVn itself which a...

  9. AN IMPROVED DESIGN OF REVERSIBLE BINARY TO BINARY CODED DECIMAL CONVERTER FOR BINARY CODED DECIMAL MULTIPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveena Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic gates under ideal conditions produce zero power dissipation. This factor highlights the usage of these gates in optical computing, low power CMOS design, quantum optics and quantum computing. The growth of decimal arithmetic in various applications as stressed the need to propose the study on reversible binary to BCD converter which plays a greater role in decimal multiplication for providing faster results. The different parameters such as gate count,garbage output and constant input are more optimized in the proposed fixed bit binary to binary coded decimal converter than the existing design.

  10. A Speeding Binary in the Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    The recent discovery of a hyper-velocity binary star system in the halo of the Milky Way poses a mystery: how was this system accelerated to its high speed?Accelerating StarsUnlike the uniform motion in the Galactic disk, stars in the Milky Ways halo exhibit a huge diversity of orbits that are usually tilted relative to the disk and have a variety of speeds. One type of halo star, so-called hyper-velocity stars, travel with speeds that can approach the escape velocity of the Galaxy.How do these hyper-velocity stars come about? Assuming they form in the Galactic disk, there are multiple proposed scenarios through which they could be accelerated and injected into the halo, such as:Ejection after a close encounter with the supermassive black hole at the Galactic centerEjection due to a nearby supernova explosionEjection as the result of a dynamical interaction in a dense stellar population.Further observations of hyper-velocity stars are necessary to identify the mechanism responsible for their acceleration.J1211s SurpriseModels of J1211s orbit show it did not originate from the Galactic center (black dot). The solar symbol shows the position of the Sun and the star shows the current position of J1211. The bottom two panels show two depictions(x-y plane and r-z plane) of estimated orbits of J1211 over the past 10 Gyr. [Nmeth et al. 2016]To this end, a team of scientists led by Pter Nmeth (Friedrich Alexander University, Erlangen-Nrnberg) recently studied the candidate halo hyper-velocity star SDSS J121150.27+143716.2. The scientists obtained spectroscopy of J1211 using spectrographs at the Keck Telescope in Hawaii and ESOs Very Large Telescope in Chile. To their surprise, they discovered the signature of a companion in the spectra: J1211 is actually a binary!Nmeth and collaborators found that J1211, located roughly 18,000 light-years away, is moving at a rapid ~570 km/s relative to the galactic rest frame. The binary system consists of a hot (30,600 K) subdwarf and a

  11. Transient Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, T M

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...

  12. Binary nucleation beyond capillarity approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalikmanov, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    Large discrepancies between binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) and experiments result from adsorption effects and inability of BCNT, based on the phenomenological capillarity approximation, to treat small clusters. We propose a model aimed at eliminating both of these deficiencies. Adsorption is taken into account within Gibbsian approximation. Binary clusters are treated by means of statistical-mechanical considerations: tracing out the molecular degrees of freedom of the more volatil...

  13. Clostridium difficile binary toxin CDT

    OpenAIRE

    Gerding, Dale N.; Johnson, Stuart; Rupnik, Maja; Aktories, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Binary toxin (CDT) is frequently observed in Clostridium difficile strains associated with increased severity of C. difficile infection (CDI). CDT belongs to the family of binary ADP-ribosylating toxins consisting of two separate toxin components: CDTa, the enzymatic ADP-ribosyltransferase which modifies actin, and CDTb which binds to host cells and translocates CDTa into the cytosol. CDTb is activated by serine proteases and binds to lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor. ADP-ribosylatio...

  14. Coalescence of Binary Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Oohara, Ken-ichi; Namamura, Takashi

    1996-01-01

    The most important sources for laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors like LIGO or VIRGO are catastrophic events such as coalescence of a neutron-star binary. The final phase, or the last three milliseconds, of coalescence is considered. We describe results of numerical simulations of coalescing binary neutron stars using Newtonian and post-Newtonian hydrodynamics code and then discuss recent development of our 3D GR code.

  15. Extrasolar binary planets. I. Formation by tidal capture during planet-planet scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochiai, H. [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Nagasawa, M. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Ida, S., E-mail: nagasawa.m.ad@m.titech.ac.jp [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We have investigated (1) the formation of gravitationally bounded pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call 'binary planets') from capturing each other through planet-planet dynamical tide during their close encounters and (2) the subsequent long-term orbital evolution due to planet-planet and planet-star quasi-static tides. For the initial evolution in phase 1, we carried out N-body simulations of the systems consisting of three Jupiter-mass planets taking into account the dynamical tide. The formation rate of the binary planets is as much as 10% of the systems that undergo orbital crossing, and this fraction is almost independent of the initial stellarcentric semimajor axes of the planets, while ejection and merging rates sensitively depend on the semimajor axes. As a result of circularization by the planet-planet dynamical tide, typical binary separations are a few times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. After the orbital circularization, the evolution of the binary system is governed by long-term quasi-static tide. We analytically calculated the quasi-static tidal evolution in phase 2. The binary planets first enter the spin-orbit synchronous state by the planet-planet tide. The planet-star tide removes angular momentum of the binary motion, eventually resulting in a collision between the planets. However, we found that the binary planets survive the tidal decay for the main-sequence lifetime of solar-type stars (∼10 Gyr), if the binary planets are beyond ∼0.3 AU from the central stars. These results suggest that the binary planets can be detected by transit observations at ≳ 0.3 AU.

  16. Extrasolar binary planets. I. Formation by tidal capture during planet-planet scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated (1) the formation of gravitationally bounded pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call 'binary planets') from capturing each other through planet-planet dynamical tide during their close encounters and (2) the subsequent long-term orbital evolution due to planet-planet and planet-star quasi-static tides. For the initial evolution in phase 1, we carried out N-body simulations of the systems consisting of three Jupiter-mass planets taking into account the dynamical tide. The formation rate of the binary planets is as much as 10% of the systems that undergo orbital crossing, and this fraction is almost independent of the initial stellarcentric semimajor axes of the planets, while ejection and merging rates sensitively depend on the semimajor axes. As a result of circularization by the planet-planet dynamical tide, typical binary separations are a few times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. After the orbital circularization, the evolution of the binary system is governed by long-term quasi-static tide. We analytically calculated the quasi-static tidal evolution in phase 2. The binary planets first enter the spin-orbit synchronous state by the planet-planet tide. The planet-star tide removes angular momentum of the binary motion, eventually resulting in a collision between the planets. However, we found that the binary planets survive the tidal decay for the main-sequence lifetime of solar-type stars (∼10 Gyr), if the binary planets are beyond ∼0.3 AU from the central stars. These results suggest that the binary planets can be detected by transit observations at ≳ 0.3 AU.

  17. Automated Scheduling of Science Activities for Titan Encounters by Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Trina L.; Knight, Russel L.; Mohr, Dave

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of automated planning and scheduling techniques for large missions, we have adapted ASPEN (Activity Scheduling and Planning Environment) [1] and CLASP (Compressed Large-scale Activity Scheduling and Planning) [2] to the domain of scheduling high-level science goals into conflict-free operations plans for Titan encounters by the Cassini spacecraft.

  18. One-to-One Encounters: Facilitators, Participants, and Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Lee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I explore the claim that one-to-one encounters between community music facilitators and music participants can be described as friendships. By exploring the relational structure through the call and the welcome, I make some general comments on friendship before finally tackling the question lying at the heart of this article: How…

  19. Rings of star formation: Imprints of a close galaxy encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    In this talk, I report results from galaxy merger simulations, which suggest the existence of a ring of star formation produced by close galaxy encounters. This is a generic feature of all galaxy interactions, provided that the disc spins are sufficiently aligned. This signature can be used to identify close galaxy pairs that have actually suffered a close interaction.

  20. Cross-Cultural Encounters as a Way of Overcoming Xenophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheunpflug, Annette

    1997-01-01

    Examines the educational potential of cross-cultural travel to overcome xenophobia, stating that international encounters must not be a replacement for dealing with the conditions that create societal prejudice. Asserts that a precondition for change in a person's perception of foreign peoples and cultures lies in the alteration of that person's…

  1. Bridging Identity Gaps : Supporting Identity Performance in Citizen Service Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchorst, Nikolaj Gandrup; McPhail, Brenda; Smith, Karen Louise;

    2012-01-01

    service quality. Lastly, we turn to a discussion of how the established identity gaps can be addressed through design. Information and communication technologies as well as face-to-face encounters have an important role to play in the building of an interface to government. Here, it is paramount to...

  2. Acetylcholinesterase: diffusional encounter rate constants for dumbbell models of ligand.

    OpenAIRE

    Antosiewicz, J; Gilson, M K; Lee, I H; McCammon, J A

    1995-01-01

    For some enzymes, virtually every substrate molecule that encounters the entrance to the active site proceeds to reaction, at low substrate concentrations. Such diffusion-limited enzymes display high apparent bimolecular rate constants ((kcat/KM)), which depend strongly upon solvent viscosity. Some experimental studies provide evidence that acetylcholinesterase falls into this category. Interestingly, the asymmetric charge distribution of acetylcholinesterase, apparent from the crystallograph...

  3. Health promoting effects of the physician-patient encounter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, A.M. van; Bensing, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of a medical treatment partly depends on the interpersonal context in which an intervention takes place. By identifying what factors in the medical encounter engender effect beyond that of the therapeutic intervention, treatment outcome is likely to increase. This study gives an overvie

  4. Numerical Modeling of Cometary Meteoroid Streams Encountering Mars and Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, A. A.; Vaubaillon, J.

    2011-01-01

    We have simulated numerically the existence of meteoroid streams that encounter the orbits of Mars and Venus, potentially producing meteor showers at those planets. We find that 17 known comets can produce such showers, the intensity of which can be determined through observations. Six of these streams contain dense dust trails capable of producing meteor outbursts.

  5. Supervision Challenges Encountered during Kenyan University Students' Practicum Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathuri-Ogola, Lucy; VanLeeuwen, Charlene; Kabaria-Muriithi, Joan; Weeks, Lori E.; Kieru, Jane; Ndayala, Phoebe

    2015-01-01

    There is little published research that examines the supervision experience of field attachment supervisors in Kenya. In this study, we identify the challenges encountered by field supervisors during student field attachments with community organizations. Fifteen organizations that had hosted third year students from the Department of Community…

  6. Stellar orbit evolution in close circumstellar disc encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, Diego J; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The formation and early evolution of circumstellar discs often occurs within dense, newborn stellar clusters. For the first time, we apply the moving-mesh code AREPO, to circumstellar discs in 3-D, focusing on disc-disc interactions that result from stellar fly-bys. Although a small fraction of stars are expected to undergo close approaches, the outcomes of the most violent encounters might leave an imprint on the discs and host stars that will influence both their orbits and their ability to form planets. We first construct well-behaved 3-D models of self-gravitating discs, and then create a suite of numerical experiments of parabolic encounters, exploring the effects of pericenter separation r_p, disc orientation and disc-star mass ratio (M_d/M_*) on the orbital evolution of the host stars. Close encounters (2r_p<~ disc radius) can truncate discs on very short time scales. If discs are massive, close encounters facilitate enough orbital angular momentum extraction to induce stellar capture. We find that ...

  7. Technology Mediated Information Sharing (Monitor Sharing) in Primary Care Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation study was to identify and describe the use of electronic health records (EHRs) for information sharing between patients and clinicians in primary-care encounters and to understand work system factors influencing information sharing. Ultimately, this will promote better design of EHR technologies and effective training…

  8. The Aboriginal-White Encounter: Towards Better Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Margaret S.

    The research reported here seeks to explain communication failure between Whites and Aboriginals in Australia, based on an examination of fundamental concepts underlying the world view of each group. The research arose from the observation that in Aboriginal-White encounters, each group had different expectations of and conclusions about the same…

  9. Encountering Over/sights. Remembering Invisible Pasts through Photography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The article revisits both other forms of memory and memory of others. Two rather different global cultural industries, namely art and tourism are discussed with regard to their mediating function of memorialisation and imaging practices and the encounters their cultural forms and objects can fost...

  10. Cinematic chronotopes: affective encounters in space-time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hesselberth

    2012-01-01

    This study makes a case for analyzing the chronotopes of the cinematic as affective encounters in space-time. It argues that, while the site of cinema is on the move, the extent to which technologically mediated sounds and images continue to be experienced as cinematic today is largely dependent on

  11. Critique of "Quantum Enigma:Physic encounters Consciousness"

    OpenAIRE

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The central claim that understanding quantum mechanics requires a conscious observer, which is made made by B. Rosenblum and F. Kuttner in their book "Quantum Enigma: Physics encounters consciousnes", is shown to be based on various misunderstandings and distortions of the foundations of quantum mechanics.

  12. SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS FROM DYNAMICALLY ASSEMBLED COMPACT BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: PATHWAYS, RATES, HYDRODYNAMICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL SETTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a detailed assessment of the various dynamical pathways leading to the coalescence of compact objects in globular clusters (GCs) and Short Gamma-ray Burst (SGRB) production. We consider primordial binaries, dynamically formed binaries (through tidal two-body and three-body exchange interactions), and direct impacts of compact objects (WD/NS/BH). Here, we show that if the primordial binary fraction is small, close encounters dominate the production rate of coalescing compact systems. We find that the two dominant channels are the interaction of field neutron stars (NSs) with dynamically formed binaries and two-body encounters. Under such conditions, we estimate the redshift distribution and host galaxy demographics of SGRB progenitors, and find that GCs can provide a significant contribution to the overall observed rate. Regarding the newly identified channel of close stellar encounters involving WD/NS/BH, we have carried out precise modeling of the hydrodynamical evolution, giving us a detailed description of the resulting merged system. Our calculations show that there is in principle no problem in accounting for the global energy budget of a typical SGRB. The particulars of each encounter, however, are variable in several aspects and can lead to interesting diversity. First and most importantly, the characteristics of the encounter are highly dependent on the impact parameter. This is in contrast to the merger scenario, where the masses of the compact objects dictate a typical length and luminosity scale for SGRB activity. Second, the nature of the compact star itself can produce very different outcomes. Finally, the presence of tidal tails in which material will fall back onto the central object at a later time is a robust feature of the present set of calculations. The mass involved in these structures is considerably larger than for binary mergers. It is thus possible to account generically in this scenario for a prompt episode of energy release, as

  13. On the binary expansions of algebraic numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.; Pomerance, Carl

    2003-07-01

    Employing concepts from additive number theory, together with results on binary evaluations and partial series, we establish bounds on the density of 1's in the binary expansions of real algebraic numbers. A central result is that if a real y has algebraic degree D > 1, then the number {number_sign}(|y|, N) of 1-bits in the expansion of |y| through bit position N satisfies {number_sign}(|y|, N) > CN{sup 1/D} for a positive number C (depending on y) and sufficiently large N. This in itself establishes the transcendency of a class of reals {summation}{sub n{ge}0} 1/2{sup f(n)} where the integer-valued function f grows sufficiently fast; say, faster than any fixed power of n. By these methods we re-establish the transcendency of the Kempner--Mahler number {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup 2{sup n}}, yet we can also handle numbers with a substantially denser occurrence of 1's. Though the number z = {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup n{sup 2}} has too high a 1's density for application of our central result, we are able to invoke some rather intricate number-theoretical analysis and extended computations to reveal aspects of the binary structure of z{sup 2}.

  14. Dynamics and planet formation in/around binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Marzari, Francesco; Kortenkamp, Steven; Scholl, Hans

    2007-01-01

    We study to which extent planetesimal accretion is affected by the perturbing presence of a compagnon star. We concentrate on one crucial parameter: the distribution of encounter velocities within the planetesimal swarm. We numerically explore the evolution of this parameter taking into account the secular perturbations of the binary and friction due to the very likely presence of gas in the disk. $$ maps are derived, for planetesimals of different sizes, for a total of 120 binary configurations (eccentricity eb and separation ab). We identify for each case 3 different accreting behaviours. 1) In regions where no significant dV increase is observed, ``classical'' (i.e., single-star) accretion is possible. 2) In regions where $dV>v_{ero}$, the threshold velocity above which all impacts are eroding, no accretion is possible and planet growth is stopped. 3) In between these 2 limiting behaviours, a large fraction of binary configurations leads to significant dV increase, but still below the erosion threshold. In...

  15. Information Status of the Patients about Radiological Examinations and Encountered Ethical and Medical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazan Büyükkaya; Ayla Büyükkaya2; Beyhan Öztürk1; et al.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: It is observed that the patient compliance and technical quality is increased in sufficiently informed patients by the doctor at the examinations requested from the radiology clinics. We aimed to point to rate of the patients have been informed by the doctor about ultrasound and interventional radiological examinations requested from the clinical disciplines and accordingly encountered medical and ethic problems. Methods: Simple yes or no questions were asked to 1000 patients (550 mal...

  16. Issues Encountered by Physicians During International Travel With Youth National Soccer Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Daryl A.; Davis, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little information is available to guide the selection, preparation, and support of a traveling team physician. Purpose: To determine the types of injuries and medical problems, as well as general team health and performance issues, encountered by physicians traveling internationally with youth national soccer teams. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology. Methods: Physicians assigned to travel abroad with the under-17 men’s and women’s US national soccer teams during a 2-year per...

  17. Digital Encounters - "Travelogue Collage" two seater sofa and wall hanging installation

    OpenAIRE

    Bottle, Neil

    2014-01-01

    My current research explores: "How can a breadth of creative skills, acquired and developed through working with analogue textile processes, coexist with contemporary digital textile design and production?" I have interpreted my personal "Digital Encounter" as an on going investigation in the relationships between traditional and contemporary textile print methodologies. One-off and mass production methods are also explored in the work. The traditions of quality and the historical val...

  18. T he Quality of Inte rnet Banking Service Encounter in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Yazan K.A. Migdadi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify t he quality of internet banking service encounter of the retail banks in Jordan, and to identify the quality dimensions that should be improved or sustained , to achieve these pur poses t he banks' web sites were evaluated by using the web site quantitative evaluation method (QEM) , the evaluation of the banks' web sites was conducted in March 2008 for...

  19. Eclipsing Binaries From the CSTAR Project at Dome A, Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ming; Wang, Songhu; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Lifan; Wittenmyer, R A; Liu, Hui-Gen; Meng, Zeyang; Ashley, M C B; Storey, J W V; Bayliss, D; Tinney, Chris; Wang, Ying; Wu, Donghong; Liang, Ensi; Yu, Zhouyi; Fan, Zhou; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Lawrence, J S; Liu, Qiang; Luong-Van, D M; Ma, Jun; Wu, Zhenyu; Yan, Jun; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Yuan, Xiangyan; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhu, Zhenxi; Zou, Hu

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) has observed an area around the Celestial South Pole at Dome A since 2008. About $20,000$ light curves in the i band were obtained lasting from March to July, 2008. The photometric precision achieves about 4 mmag at i = 7.5 and 20 mmag at i = 12 within a 30 s exposure time. These light curves are analyzed using Lomb--Scargle, Phase Dispersion Minimization, and Box Least Squares methods to search for periodic signals. False positives may appear as a variable signature caused by contaminating stars and the observation mode of CSTAR. Therefore the period and position of each variable candidate are checked to eliminate false positives. Eclipsing binaries are removed by visual inspection, frequency spectrum analysis and locally linear embedding technique. We identify 53 eclipsing binaries in the field of view of CSTAR, containing 24 detached binaries, 8 semi-detached binaries, 18 contact binaries, and 3 ellipsoidal variables. To derive the parameters of these binaries, we ...

  20. Evolution of the binary population in young dense star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kaczmarek, Thomas; Pfalzner, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Context: Field stars are not always single stars, but can often be found in bound double systems. Since binary frequencies in the birth places of stars, young embedded clusters, are sometimes even higher than on average the question arises of how binary stars form in young dense star clusters and how their properties evolve to those observed in the field population. Aims: We assess, the influence of stellar dynamical interactions on the primordial binary population in young dense cluster environments. Methods: We perform numerical N-body simulations of the Orion Nebula Cluster like star cluster models including primordial binary populations using the simulation code nbody6++. Results: We find two remarkable results that have yet not been reported: The first is that the evolution of the binary frequency in young dense star clusters is independent predictably of its initial value. The time evolution of the normalized number of binary systems has a fundamental shape. The second main result is that the mass of th...

  1. Binary Encodings of Non-binary Constraint Satisfaction Problems: Algorithms and Experimental Results

    CERN Document Server

    Samaras, N; 10.1613/jair.1776

    2011-01-01

    A non-binary Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) can be solved directly using extended versions of binary techniques. Alternatively, the non-binary problem can be translated into an equivalent binary one. In this case, it is generally accepted that the translated problem can be solved by applying well-established techniques for binary CSPs. In this paper we evaluate the applicability of the latter approach. We demonstrate that the use of standard techniques for binary CSPs in the encodings of non-binary problems is problematic and results in models that are very rarely competitive with the non-binary representation. To overcome this, we propose specialized arc consistency and search algorithms for binary encodings, and we evaluate them theoretically and empirically. We consider three binary representations; the hidden variable encoding, the dual encoding, and the double encoding. Theoretical and empirical results show that, for certain classes of non-binary constraints, binary encodings are a competitive op...

  2. Incidence of Norovirus-Associated Medical Encounters among Active Duty United States Military Personnel and Their Dependents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Brian; Lopman, Benjamin A.; Alcala, Ashley N.; Riddle, Mark S.; Porter, Chad K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis episodes and outbreaks in US military deployments, but estimates of endemic disease burden among military personnel in garrison are lacking. Methods Diagnostic codes from gastroenteritis-associated medical encounters of active duty military personnel and their beneficiaries from July 1998–June 2011 were obtained from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Using time-series regression models, cause-unspecified encounters were modeled as a function of encounters for specific enteropathogens. Model residuals (representing unexplained encounters) were used to estimate norovirus-attributable medical encounters. Incidence rates were calculated using population data for both active duty and beneficiary populations. Results The estimated annual mean rate of norovirus-associated medically-attended visits among active duty personnel and their beneficiaries was 292 (95% CI: 258 to 326) and 93 (95% CI: 80 to 105) encounters per 10,000 persons, respectively. Rates were highest among beneficiaries <5 years of age with a median annual rate of 435 (range: 318 to 646) encounters per 10,000 children. Norovirus was estimated to cause 31% and 27% of all-cause gastroenteritis encounters in the active duty and beneficiary populations, respectively, with over 60% occurring between November and April. There was no evidence of any lag effect where norovirus disease occurred in one population before the other, or in one beneficiary age group before the others. Conclusions Norovirus is a major cause of medically-attended gastroenteritis among non-deployed US military active duty members as well as in their beneficiaries. PMID:27115602

  3. Production of Hypervelocity Stars through Encounters with Stellar-Mass Black Holes in the Galactic Centre

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, R M; Leary, Ryan M. O'; Loeb, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    Stars within 0.1 pc of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the Galactic centre are expected to encounter a cluster of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) that have segregated to that region. Some of these stars will scatter off an orbiting BH and be kicked out of the Galactic centre with velocities up to \\~2000 km/s. We calculate the resulting ejection rate of hypervelocity stars (HVSs) by this process under a variety of assumptions, and find it to be comparable to the tidal disruption rate of binary stars by Sgr A*, first discussed by Hills (1998). Under some conditions, this novel process is sufficient to account for all the B-type HVSs observed in the halo, and to dominate the production rate of all HVSs with lifetimes much less than the relaxation time-scale at a distance ~2 pc from Sgr A* (>~2 Gyr). Since HVSs are produced by at least two unavoidable processes, the statistics of HVSs could reveal bimodal velocity and mass distributions, and can constrain the distribution of BHs and stars in the innermost 0....

  4. Explosions Triggered by Violent Binary-Star Collisions: Application to Eta Carinae and other Eruptive Transients

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a model where a violent periastron collision of stars in an eccentric binary system induces an eruption or explosion seen as a brief transient source, attributed to LBVs, SN impostors, or other transients. The key ingredient is that an evolved primary increases its photospheric radius on relatively short timescales, to a point where the radius is comparable to or larger than the periastron separation in an eccentric binary. In such a configuration, a violent and sudden collision would ensue, possibly leading to substantial mass ejection instead of a binary merger. Repeated periastral grazings in an eccentric system could quickly escalate to a catastrophic encounter, wherein the companion star actually plunges deep inside the photosphere of a bloated primary during periastron, as a result of the primary star increasing its own radius. This is motivated by the case of $\\eta$~Carinae, where such a collision must have occured if conventional estimates of the present-day orbit are correct, and...

  5. Exoplanets Bouncing Between Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckel, Nickolas

    2012-01-01

    Exoplanetary systems are found not only among single stars, but also binaries of widely varying parameters. Binaries with separations of 100--1000 au are prevalent in the Solar neighborhood; at these separations planet formation around a binary member may largely proceed as if around a single star. During the early dynamical evolution of a planetary system, planet--planet scattering can eject planets from a star's grasp. In a binary, the motion of a planet ejected from one star has effectively entered a restricted three-body system consisting of itself and the two stars, and the equations of motion of the three body problem will apply as long as the ejected planet remains far from the remaining planets. Depending on its energy, escape from the binary as a whole may be impossible or delayed until the three-body approximation breaks down, and further close interactions with its planetary siblings boost its energy when it passes close to its parent star. Until then this planet may be able to transition from the ...

  6. Estimating the encounter rate variance in distance sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewster, R.M.; Buckland, S.T.; Burnham, K.P.; Borchers, D.L.; Jupp, P.E.; Laake, J.L.; Thomas, L.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant source of variance in line transect sampling is usually the encounter rate variance. Systematic survey designs are often used to reduce the true variability among different realizations of the design, but estimating the variance is difficult and estimators typically approximate the variance by treating the design as a simple random sample of lines. We explore the properties of different encounter rate variance estimators under random and systematic designs. We show that a design-based variance estimator improves upon the model-based estimator of Buckland et al. (2001, Introduction to Distance Sampling. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 79) when transects are positioned at random. However, if populations exhibit strong spatial trends, both estimators can have substantial positive bias under systematic designs. We show that poststratification is effective in reducing this bias. ?? 2008, The International Biometric Society.

  7. Voyager Saturn encounter attitude and articulation control experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, G.; Hill, M.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager attitude and articulation control system is designed for a three-axis stabilized spacecraft; it uses a biasable sun sensor and a Canopus Star Tracker (CST) for celestial control, as well as a dry inertial reference unit, comprised of three dual-axis dry gryos, for inertial control. A series of complex maneuvers was required during the first of two Voyager spacecraft encounters with Saturn (November 13, 1980); these maneuvers involved rotating the spacecraft simultaneously about two or three axes while maintaining accurate pointing of the scan platform. Titan and Saturn earth occulation experiments and a ring scattering experiment are described. Target motion compensation and the effects of celestial sensor interference are also considered. Failure of the CST, which required an extensive reevaluation of the star reference and attitude control mode strategy, is discussed. Results analyzed thus far show that the system performed with high accuracy, gathering data deeper into Saturn's atmosphere than on any previous planetary encounter.

  8. Choosing a language in international office service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    Choosing a language in international office service encounters – from multilingual miscellany to medium-of-interaction in a matter of seconds Spencer Hazel Roskilde University, Denmark In higher education settings characterized by increasing transnational student and staff mobility, members...... Preisler (eds.) Language alternation, language choice and language encounter in international education. Dordrecht: Springer Preisler, Bent, Ida Klitgård, and Anne H. Fabricius. (2011). Language and learning in the international university: from English uniformity to diversity and hybridity. Bristol...... are required to navigate dynamically fluctuating participation frameworks and their contingent language scenarios. Although some interactional settings have institutionally implemented rules or norms relating to which language is the designated medium-of-interaction, this is not the case across all settings...

  9. Renormalization group decimation technique for disordered binary harmonic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The density of states of disordered binary harmonic chains is calculated using the Renormalization Group Decimation technique on the displacements of the masses from their equilibrium positions. The results are compared with numerical simulation data and with those obtained with the current method of Goncalves da Silva and Koiller. The advantage of our procedure over other methods is discussed. (author)

  10. Measurement system analysis for binary inspection: Continuous versus dichotomous measurands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Mast; T.P. Erdmann; W.N. van Wieringen

    2011-01-01

    We review methods for assessing the reliability of binary measurements, such as accept/reject inspection in industry. Our framework introduces two factors that are highly relevant in deciding which method to use: (1) whether a reference value (gold standard) can be obtained and (2) whether the under

  11. Generalization of Supervised Learning for Binary Mask Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Gerkmann, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of speech segregation by es- timating the ideal binary mask (IBM) from noisy speech. Two methods will be compared, one supervised learning approach that incorporates a priori knowledge about the feature distri- bution observed during training. The second method so...

  12. T he Quality of Inte rnet Banking Service Encounter in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazan K.A. Migdadi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify t he quality of internet banking service encounter of the retail banks in Jordan, and to identify the quality dimensions that should be improved or sustained , to achieve these pur poses t he banks' web sites were evaluated by using the web site quantitative evaluation method (QEM , the evaluation of the banks' web sites was conducted in March 2008 for sixteen retail banks in Jordan, the results indicated that; the banks in Jordan ha v e significant positive quality of the internet b an king service encounter , further the banks' web sites are rich in their content, and significant in the navigation, but the speed of home page down load and web site accessibility should be developed in the future

  13. A Proposed Search for the Detection of Gravitational Waves from Eccentric Binary Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Vaibhav; Christensen, Nelson; Huerta, Eliu; Mohapatra, Satya; Gopakumar, Achamveedu; Haney, Maria; Parameswaran, Ajith; McWilliams, Sean; Vedovato, Gabriele; Drago, Marco; Salemi, Francesco; Prodi, Giovanni; Lazzaro, Claudia; Tiwari, Shubhanshu; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Da Silva, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    Most of compact binary systems are expected to circularize before the frequency of emitted gravitational waves (GWs) enters the sensitivity band of the ground based interferometric detectors. However, several mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of binary systems, which retain eccentricity throughout their lifetimes. Since no matched-filtering algorithm has been developed to extract continuous GW signals from compact binaries on orbits with low to moderate values of eccentricity, and available algorithms to detect binaries on quasi-circular orbits are sub-optimal to recover these events, in this paper we propose a search method for detection of gravitational waves produced from the coalescences of eccentric binary black holes (eBBH). We study the search sensitivity and the false alarm rates on a segment of data from the second joint science run of LIGO and Virgo detectors, and discuss the implications of the eccentric binary search for the advanced GW detectors.

  14. A Novel RFID Anti-Collision Algorithm based on Binary Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linpeng Hai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The method to deal with the tag collision in RFID system can be directly called “Multiple Access”. According to the ideas of these different anti-collision algorithms, they can be divided into two categories. One is the binary tree algorithm based on deterministic; the other is the statistical-based ALOHA algorithm. Overall, however, there is still room for improvement on anti-collision algorithm path optimization and communication complexity,. This paper focuses on binary tree algorithm. After analysis of the basic binary tree algorithm, dynamic binary tree algorithm, Trajan binary tree algorithm, paper propose a novel binary tree algorithm based on the dichotomy. Simulation performance shows that there have upgraded path optimization and communication efficiency

  15. Using Binary Code Instrumentation in Computer Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius POPA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the low-level details of the code generated by compilers whose format permits outside actions. Binary code modifications are manually done when the internal format is known and understood, or automatically by certain tools developed to process the binary code. The binary code instrumentation goals may be various from security increasing and bug fixing to development of malicious software. The paper highlights the binary code instrumentation techniques by code injection to increase the security and reliability of a software application. Also, the paper offers examples for binary code formats understanding and how the binary code injection may be applied.

  16. Scientific misconduct encountered by APAME journals: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Lai-Meng; Wong, Li Xuan; Koh, Cing Chai

    2015-12-01

    In June 2015, invitations were sent by email to 151 APAME journals to participate in an online survey with an objective of gaining insight into the common publication misconduct encountered by APAME editors. The survey, conducted through SurveyMonkey over a 20-day-period, comprised 10 questions with expansions to allow anecdotes limited to 400 characters, estimated to take less than 10 minutes to complete. Only one invitation was issued per journal, targeting (in order of priority) editors, editorial board members and editorial staff, and limited by email availability. 54 (36%) journals responded. 98% of respondents held Editor or Editorial Board positions. All respondent journals have editorial policies on publication ethics and 96% provide instructions related to ethics. 45% use anti-plagiarism software to screen manuscripts, the most popular being iThenticate, CrossCheck and Turnitin. Up to 50% of journals had encountered studies without IRB approval. Author misconduct encountered were (in rank order): plagiarism (75%), duplicate publication (58%), unjustified authorship (39%), authorship disputes (33%), data falsification (29%), data/image manipulation (27%), conflict of interest (25%), copyright violation (17%) and breach of confidentiality (10%). Reviewer misconduct encountered were: conflict of interest (19%), plagiarism (17%), obstructive behavior (17%), abusive language (13%) and breach of confidentiality (13%). Notwithstanding the limitations of the survey and the response rate, a few insights have been gained: (1) the need for strengthening the ethical culture of researchers/authors and reviewers, (2) anti-plagiarism software can improve plagiarism detection by about 15%, and (3) the need for technical support to detect plagiarism, duplicate publication and image manipulation. PMID:26712665

  17. Strengthening student communication through pediatric simulated patient encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Whitt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As medical students enter the role of physician, clinical outcomes not only rely on their mastery of clinical knowledge, but also on the effectiveness in which they can communicate with patients and family members. While students typically have numerous opportunities to practice clinical communication with adult patients, such practice in pediatric settings is limited. This study examines if simulated patient (SP encounters strengthen third-year medical students’ communication skills during the pediatrics clerkship. During 2011-2013, three SP encounters (comprising 3 pediatric scenarios were incorporated into a pediatrics clerkship at one United States medical school to give students a safe venue to practice advanced communication with observation and direct feedback. Third-year medical students engaged in the scenarios and received both written and oral feedback from an evaluator observing the encounter. With IRB approval, students’ self-perceived confidence and abilities at performing the advanced communication skills were measured using an eightitem, Likert scale questionnaire administered pre and post the SP encounter. Pre- and post-questionnaires (n = 215; response rate, 96% analyzed using a Wilcoxon-matched pairs signed-rank test demonstrated statistically significant increases in students’ perception of their confidence and abilities regarding their performance (P < 0.05; Bonferroni correction, P < 0.006. There was an increases in student confidence and self-perceived ability in: first, communicating with children and family members of young patients; second, managing confrontational situations involving parents; third, performing a thorough psychosocial history with an adolescent; and fourth, using Evidence Based Medicine to motivate parents.

  18. Medicaid Analytic eXtract 2008 Encounter Data Chartbook

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary Borck; Ashley Zlatinov; Susan Williams

    2013-01-01

    This chartbook uses Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) 2008 data to describe the service utilization of Medicaid enrollees in managed care plans. The chartbook extends the analysis of the previous MAX chartbooks, which focused on the service utilization of Medicaid enrollees covered on a fee-for-service basis. This chartbook also supplements recent MAX issue briefs that focused on the quality and completeness of encounter data. This chartbook provides valuable information for the Centers for Med...

  19. Globalization, migration health, and educational preparation for transnational medical encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Koehn Peter H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Unprecedented migration, a core dimension of contemporary globalization, challenges population health. In a world of increasing human mobility, many health outcomes are shaped by transnational interactions among care providers and care recipients who meet in settings where nationality/ethnic match is not an option. This review article explores the value of transnational competence (TC) education as preparation for ethnically and socially discordant clinical encounters. The relevance ...

  20. Differentiation of Brevibacterium spp. encountered in clinical specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Funke, G; Carlotti, A

    1994-01-01

    Forty-three strains belonging to the genus Brevibacterium which were encountered in clinical materials over 2 decades were compared with reference strains, including the type strains, of B. casei, B. epidermidis, B. mcbrellneri, B. iodinum, and B. linens. By means of carbohydrate assimilation tests (CATs) the 43 clinical isolates could be assigned to the species B. casei (n = 41) and B. epidermidis (n = 2). DNA-DNA hybridizations were performed for 20 clinical isolates and confirmed the speci...

  1. Photographic Images of Refugee Spatial Encounters: Pedagogy of Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Binaya Subedi

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines my effort to document the experiences of a Bhutanese refugee community in a mid-western city of the United States. In particular, the essay looks at housing experiences the community encountered and my efforts to translate the events through photographs. The essay also explores how oppression operates in relation to refugee experiences. Recognizing that knowledge of recent refugees of color has been absent and perhaps may not be addressed in school curriculum in the near f...

  2. The Effect of Novel Binary Accelerator System on Properties of Vulcanized Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez Kamoun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties, curing characteristics, and swelling behaviour of vulcanized natural rubber with a novel binary accelerator system are investigated. Results indicate that the mechanical properties were improved. Crosslinking density of vulcanized natural rubber was measured by equilibrium swelling method. As a result, the new binary accelerator was found to be able to improve both cure rate and crosslinking density. Using the numerical analysis of test interaction between binary accelerator and operational modelling of vulcanization-factors experiments, it can be concluded that the interaction (Cystine, N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazyl sulfenamide was significant and the optimum value of binary accelerator was suggested, respectively, at levels 0 and +1.

  3. Thermal transport properties of ethylene glycol/N-methylformamide binary mixture based CuO nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, M.; Kiruba, R.; Jeevaraj, A. Kingson Solomon

    2015-06-01

    In this present investigation, we have synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles by solvothermal method and analyzed their rheological behavior and thermal conductivity properties in binary base fluids (Ethylene Glycol+N-Methylformamide) and CuO binary nanofluid at different temperature. The crystalline nature and morphological properties of prepared CuO nanoparticles were characterized using XRD and SEM analysis respectively. The influence of CuO nanoparticles increases the thermal conductivity of binary base fluids. The results suggested that prepared binary nanofluids can be applicable in heat transfer.

  4. Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX3 (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures

  5. Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Banaras [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye [Department of Physics, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saifullah [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Jalali-Asadabadi, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan (UI), 81744 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, Imad [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Ahmad, Iftikhar, E-mail: ahma5532@gmail.com [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan)

    2015-10-25

    The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX{sub 3} (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures.

  6. AESTHETIC / POETICAL ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN MUSIC AND BABIES IN NURSERY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Richter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay approaches the intimacy between the aesthetic and poetic dimensions of language in the context of nursery school and proposes a phenomenological listening of encounters between adults and babies through the experience of music as a playful action of the expressive body in the world. Considering that without aesthetics life lacks flavor and without poetics it lacks sense, the article focuses on the merleaupontian understanding of the sensitive body as the primary source of significance to assert the inseparability between sensitive and intelligible in the action of learning to co-exist. The educational intention is to claim another rationality to stand up to the simplifying trend in encounters between adults and babies with the plurality of ways of interacting in language. Thus, thinking the aesthetic and poetic event - in the sense of poiesis and aisthesis terms - the link between sound and silence with life taken as its reflexive starting point - not what the baby does but how he experiences what he does in the musical encounters in nursery school. This study allows us to assert the vital and playful power of the expressive body feeling itself and the world in the plurality of ways of being in language that empowers everyday life through acting, producing, creating, doing.

  7. The structure of contact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kaehler, H

    2003-01-01

    In radiative layers of rotating stars the luminosity carried by circulation currents through a surface of constant entropy (circulation luminosity) is shown to be positive. The corresponding decrease in the temperature gradient is important in the secondary of contact binaries. This result removes the deadlock in the theory of contact binaries. The resulting treatment of contact binaries is investigated, assuming thermal equilibrium. If the circulation luminosity is adjusted to give a prescribed temperature difference between the components, details turn out to be unimportant. The temperature difference is bound to be positive. The fractional extent of radiative regions is larger in the secondary than in the primary. In the course of evolution the period increases and the mass ratio decreases. A survey of unevolved and evolved contact configurations is presented. Observational tests are passed. In stable systems the degree of contact is small. Stable systems in the period-colour diagram, unevolved and evolved...

  8. Model for magnetic-nonmagnetic binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razafimandimby, H. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Toliara, 601 Toliara (Madagascar); Randrianasoloharisoa, D. [LPMR, Universite d' Antananarivo (Madagascar); Rakotomahevitra, A. [Departement des Sciences Exactes, Universite de Mahajanga, BP 155 (Madagascar); Parlebas, J.C. [IPCMS, UMR 7504 CNRS-Universite Louis Pasteur, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg (France)

    2007-10-15

    An extension of a mean-field approximation (MFA) developed within standard basis operators (SBO) is used to study magnetism in magnetic-nonmagnetic binary alloys. The Curie temperature is calculated from the free energy within the framework of the present approach. The calculated results are in fair agreement with the theoretical results of other research groups for the same problem but utilizing other methods. Finally, the case of NiPt alloys is briefly examined as an example test for the comparison with experiment. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Double riches: asteroseismology in eclipsing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, John

    2015-01-01

    The study of eclipsing binaries is our primary source of measured properties of normal stars, achieved through analysis of light and radial velocity curves of eclipsing systems. The study of oscillations and pulsations is increasingly vital for determining the properties of single stars, and investigating the physical phenomena active in their interiors. Combining the two methods holds the promise of establishing stringent tests of stellar evolutionary theory, and of calibrating model-dependent asteroseismology with empirically measured stellar properties. I review recent advances and outline future work.

  10. Computer Vision Using Local Binary Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pietikainen, Matti; Zhao, Guoying; Ahonen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    The recent emergence of Local Binary Patterns (LBP) has led to significant progress in applying texture methods to various computer vision problems and applications. The focus of this research has broadened from 2D textures to 3D textures and spatiotemporal (dynamic) textures. Also, where texture was once utilized for applications such as remote sensing, industrial inspection and biomedical image analysis, the introduction of LBP-based approaches have provided outstanding results in problems relating to face and activity analysis, with future scope for face and facial expression recognition, b

  11. Service quality, trust, and patient satisfaction in interpersonal-based medical service encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ching-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction between service provider and customer is the primary core of service businesses of different natures, and the influence of trust on service quality and customer satisfaction could not be ignored in interpersonal-based service encounters. However, lack of existing literature on the correlation between service quality, patient trust, and satisfaction from the prospect of interpersonal-based medical service encounters has created a research gap in previous studies. Therefore, this study attempts to bridge such a gap with an evidence-based practice study. Methods We adopted a cross-sectional design using a questionnaire survey of outpatients in seven medical centers of Taiwan. Three hundred and fifty copies of questionnaire were distributed, and 285 valid copies were retrieved, with a valid response rate of 81.43%. The SPSS 14.0 and AMOS 14.0 (structural equation modeling statistical software packages were used for analysis. Structural equation modeling clarifies the extent of relationships between variables as well as the chain of cause and effect. Restated, SEM results do not merely show empirical relationships between variables when defining the practical situation. For this reason, SEM was used to test the hypotheses. Results Perception of interpersonal-based medical service encounters positively influences service quality and patient satisfaction. Perception of service quality among patients positively influences their trust. Perception of trust among patients positively influences their satisfaction. Conclusions According to the findings, as interpersonal-based medical service encounters will positively influence service quality and patient satisfaction, and the differences for patients’ perceptions of the professional skill and communication attitude of personnel in interpersonal-based medical service encounters will influence patients’ overall satisfaction in two ways: (A interpersonal-based medical

  12. Practical Binary Adaptive Block Coder

    CERN Document Server

    Reznik, Yuriy A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low-complexity algorithm for adaptive encoding/ decoding of binary sequences produced by memoryless sources. The algorithm implements universal block codes constructed for a set of contexts identified by the numbers of non-zero bits in previous bits in a sequence. We derive a precise formula for asymptotic redundancy of such codes, which refines previous well-known estimate by Krichevsky and Trofimov, and provide experimental verification of this result. In our experimental study we also compare our implementation with existing binary adaptive encoders, such as JBIG's Q-coder, and MPEG AVC (ITU-T H.264)'s CABAC algorithms.

  13. Coalescing binaries and Doppler experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Vecchio, A.; Bertotti, B.; Iess, L.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the sensitivity of the CASSINI experiments to gravitational waves emitted by the in-spiral of compact binaries. We show that the maximum distance reachable by the instrument is $\\sim 100$ Mpc. In particular, CASSINI can detect massive black hole binaries with chirp mass $\\simgt 10^6 \\Ms$ in the Virgo Cluster with signal-to-noise ratio between 5 and 30 and possible compact objects of mass $\\simgt 30 \\Ms$ orbiting the massive black hole that our Galactic Centre is likely to harbour.

  14. An Effective Digital Watermarking Algorithm for Binary Text Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhihua; QIN Zhongping

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at the binary text image's characteristics of simple pixel, complex texture and bad immunity of information concealment, a digital watermarking embedment location choosing method has been put forward based upon compatible roughness set. The method divides binary text image into different equivalent classes. Equivalent classes are further divided into different subclasses according to each pixel's degree and texture changes between blocks. Through properties' combination, the embedment block and location which are fit for watermarking are found out. At last, different binary text images are chosen for emulation experiment. After being embedded, the image is compressed in JPIG-2. Gaussian noise, salt & pepper noise are added and cutting is employed to imitate the actual environment in which images may suffer from various attacks and interferences. The result shows that the detector has a sound testing effect under various conditions.

  15. Mock LISA Data Challenge for the galactic white dwarf binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Błaut, Arkadiusz; Królak, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    We present data analysis methods used in detection and the estimation of parameters of gravitational wave signals from the white dwarf binaries in the Mock LISA Data Challenge. Our main focus is on the analysis of Challenge 3.1, where the gravitational wave signals from more than 50 mln. Galactic binaries were added to the simulated Gaussian instrumental noise. Majority of the signals at low frequencies are not resolved individually. The confusion between the signals is strongly reduced at frequencies above 5 mHz. Our basic data analysis procedure is the maximum likelihood detection method. We filter the data through the template bank at the first step of the search, then we refine parameters using the Nelder-Mead algorithm, we remove the strongest signal found and we repeat the procedure. We detect reliably and estimate parameters accurately of more than ten thousand signals from white dwarf binaries.

  16. Mock LISA data challenge for the Galactic white dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present data analysis methods used in the detection and estimation of parameters of gravitational-wave signals from the white dwarf binaries in the mock LISA data challenge. Our main focus is on the analysis of challenge 3.1, where the gravitational-wave signals from more than 6x107 Galactic binaries were added to the simulated Gaussian instrumental noise. The majority of the signals at low frequencies are not resolved individually. The confusion between the signals is strongly reduced at frequencies above 5 mHz. Our basic data analysis procedure is the maximum likelihood detection method. We filter the data through the template bank at the first step of the search, then we refine parameters using the Nelder-Mead algorithm, we remove the strongest signal found and we repeat the procedure. We detect reliably and estimate parameters accurately of more than ten thousand signals from white dwarf binaries.

  17. Mock LISA data challenge for the Galactic white dwarf binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaut, Arkadiusz; Babak, Stanislav; Królak, Andrzej

    2010-03-01

    We present data analysis methods used in the detection and estimation of parameters of gravitational-wave signals from the white dwarf binaries in the mock LISA data challenge. Our main focus is on the analysis of challenge 3.1, where the gravitational-wave signals from more than 6×107 Galactic binaries were added to the simulated Gaussian instrumental noise. The majority of the signals at low frequencies are not resolved individually. The confusion between the signals is strongly reduced at frequencies above 5 mHz. Our basic data analysis procedure is the maximum likelihood detection method. We filter the data through the template bank at the first step of the search, then we refine parameters using the Nelder-Mead algorithm, we remove the strongest signal found and we repeat the procedure. We detect reliably and estimate parameters accurately of more than ten thousand signals from white dwarf binaries.

  18. Retrograde binaries of massive black holes in circumbinary accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Maureira-Fredes, Cristián; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Context. We explore the hardening of a massive black hole binary embedded in a circumbinary gas disc under a specific circumstance: when the binary and the gas are coplanar and the gas is counter-rotating. The binary has unequal mass and the interaction of the gas with the lighter secondary black hole is the main cause of the braking torque on the binary that shrinks with time. The secondary black hole, revolving in the direction opposite to the gas, experiences a drag from gas-dynamical friction and from direct accretion of part of it. Aims: In this paper, using two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical grid simulations we investigate the effect of changing the accretion prescriptions on the dynamics of the secondary black hole, which in turn affect the binary hardening and eccentricity evolution. Methods: We find that realistic accretion prescriptions lead to results that differ from those inferred assuming accretion of all the gas within the Roche Lobe of the secondary black hole. Results: When considering gas accretion within the gravitational influence radius of the secondary black hole (which is smaller than the Roche Lobe radius) to better describe gas inflows, the shrinking of the binary is slower. In addition, in this case, a smaller amount of accreted mass is required to reduce the binary separation by the same amount. Different accretion prescriptions result in different discs' surface densities, which alter the black hole's dynamics back. Full 3D Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics realizations of a number of representative cases, run over a shorter interval of time, validate the general trends observed in the less computationally demanding 2D simulations. Conclusions: Initially circular black hole binaries increase their eccentricity only slightly, which then oscillates around small values (<0.1) while they harden. By contrast, initially eccentric binaries become more and more eccentric. A semi-analytical model describing the black hole's dynamics under

  19. Long-term effects of close encounters with (3) Juno, (20) Massalia, (31) Euphrosyne, and (111) Ate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Aljbaae, S.; Souchay, J.

    2014-07-01

    The inaccuracy in the determination of asteroid masses represents the major limitation for the performance of modern ephemerids. We describe and use in this work a dynamical method to determine the masses of four asteroids: (3) Juno, (20) Massalia, (31) Euphrosyne, and (111) Ate, based on the observational study of deflection caused by these asteroids on other smaller ones. A list of the encounters likely to produce mass determination for each one of our sample asteroids are presented in this work. We selected encounters whose separation between the two asteroids was less than 0.01 au, and with an angle (θ_1), which is the scattering angle between the orbits of the target asteroid with and without the studied mass at the moment of close encounter, larger than 0.1 arcsec. After that, the distance between the two positions of the target asteroid were calculated after 30 days of each possible close encounter, with and without the perturbing asteroid. We then checked if the orbital change of the asteroid is observable from Earth. We aim to follow-up each one of the close encounters listed here, using the most appropriate method of observation, in order to determine the mass of our studied objects with good accuracy. This kind of study is all the more interesting since the astrometric space mission Gaia is on the verge of detecting some of the deflections investigated here.

  20. Kepler Eclipsing Binaries with Stellar Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, D R; Guo, Z; Lester, K V; Orosz, J A; Peters, G J

    2015-01-01

    Many short-period binary stars have distant orbiting companions that have played a role in driving the binary components into close separation. Indirect detection of a tertiary star is possible by measuring apparent changes in eclipse times of eclipsing binaries as the binary orbits the common center of mass. Here we present an analysis of the eclipse timings of 41 eclipsing binaries observed throughout the NASA Kepler mission of long duration and precise photometry. This subset of binaries is characterized by relatively deep and frequent eclipses of both stellar components. We present preliminary orbital elements for seven probable triple stars among this sample, and we discuss apparent period changes in seven additional eclipsing binaries that may be related to motion about a tertiary in a long period orbit. The results will be used in ongoing investigations of the spectra and light curves of these binaries for further evidence of the presence of third stars.

  1. High-Order Binary Symmetry Constraints of a Liouville Integrable Hierarchy and Its Integrable Couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3 x 3 matrix spectral problem and a Liouville integrable hierarchy are constructed by designing a new subalgebra of loop algebra A2. Furthermore, high-order binary symmetry constraints of the corresponding hierarchy are obtained by using the binary nonlinearization method. Finally, according to another new subalgebra of loop algebra A2, its integrable couplings are established.

  2. Measuring and Modeling Fault Density for Plume-Fault Encounter Probability Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, P.D.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Nicot, J.-P.

    2011-05-15

    Emission of carbon dioxide from fossil-fueled power generation stations contributes to global climate change. Storage of this carbon dioxide within the pores of geologic strata (geologic carbon storage) is one approach to mitigating the climate change that would otherwise occur. The large storage volume needed for this mitigation requires injection into brine-filled pore space in reservoir strata overlain by cap rocks. One of the main concerns of storage in such rocks is leakage via faults. In the early stages of site selection, site-specific fault coverages are often not available. This necessitates a method for using available fault data to develop an estimate of the likelihood of injected carbon dioxide encountering and migrating up a fault, primarily due to buoyancy. Fault population statistics provide one of the main inputs to calculate the encounter probability. Previous fault population statistics work is shown to be applicable to areal fault density statistics. This result is applied to a case study in the southern portion of the San Joaquin Basin with the result that the probability of a carbon dioxide plume from a previously planned injection had a 3% chance of encountering a fully seal offsetting fault.

  3. Frame theory for binary vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bodmann, Bernhard G.; Le, My; Reza, Letty; Tobin, Matthew; Tomforde, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We develop the theory of frames and Parseval frames for finite-dimensional vector spaces over the binary numbers. This includes characterizations which are similar to frames and Parseval frames for real or complex Hilbert spaces, and the discussion of conceptual differences caused by the lack of a proper inner product on binary vector spaces. We also define switching equivalence for binary frames, and list all equivalence classes of binary Parseval frames in lowest dimensions, excluding cases...

  4. Using Binary Code Instrumentation in Computer Security

    OpenAIRE

    Marius POPA; Sergiu Marin CAPISIZU

    2013-01-01

    The paper approaches the low-level details of the code generated by compilers whose format permits outside actions. Binary code modifications are manually done when the internal format is known and understood, or automatically by certain tools developed to process the binary code. The binary code instrumentation goals may be various from security increasing and bug fixing to development of malicious software. The paper highlights the binary code instrumentation techniques by code injection to...

  5. A Galactic Binary Detection Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littenberg, Tyson B.

    2011-01-01

    The Galaxy is suspected to contain hundreds of millions of binary white dwarf systems, a large fraction of which will have sufficiently small orbital period to emit gravitational radiation in band for space-based gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). LISA's main science goal is the detection of cosmological events (supermassive black hole mergers, etc.) however the gravitational signal from the galaxy will be the dominant contribution to the data - including instrumental noise over approximately two decades in frequency. The catalogue of detectable binary systems will serve as an unparalleled means of studying the Galaxy. Furthermore, to maximize the scientific return from the mission, the data must be "cleansed" of the galactic foreground. We will present an algorithm that can accurately resolve and subtract 2:: 10000 of these sources from simulated data supplied by the Mock LISA Data Challenge Task Force. Using the time evolution of the gravitational wave frequency, we will reconstruct the position of the recovered binaries and show how LISA will sample the entire compact binary population in the Galaxy.

  6. CFD Simulations of Binary Nucleation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herrmann, E.; Brus, David; Hyvärinen, A-P.; Kulmala, M.

    Helsinki : -, 2010, P3U16. ISBN N. [International Aerosol Conference IAC 2010. Helsinki (FI), 29.08.2010-03.09.2010] Grant ostatní: FCR(FI) 1118615 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nucleation * binary * parameterization Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry www.iac2010.fi

  7. A Redundant Binary Algorithm for RSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施荣华

    1996-01-01

    The normal form and modified normal form for binary redundant representation are defined.A redundant binary algorithm to compute modular exponentiation for very large integers is proposed.It is shown that the proposed algorithm requires the minimum number of basic operations(modular multiplications)among all possible binary redundant representations.

  8. Excitation of the orbital inclination of Iapetus during planetary encounters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio; Walsh, Kevin J., E-mail: davidn@boulder.swri.edu [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Saturn's moon, Iapetus, has an orbit in a transition region where the Laplace surface is bending from the equator to the orbital plane of Saturn. The orbital inclination of Iapetus to the local Laplace plane is ≅ 8°, which is unexpected because the inclination should be ≅ 0 if Iapetus formed from a circumplanetary disk on the Laplace surface. It thus appears that some process has pumped up Iapetus's inclination while leaving its eccentricity near zero (e ≅ 0.03 at present). Here, we examined the possibility that Iapetus's inclination was excited during the early solar system instability when encounters between Saturn and ice giants occurred. We found that the dynamical effects of planetary encounters on Iapetus's orbit sensitively depend on the distance of the few closest encounters. In 4 out of 10 instability cases studied here, the orbital perturbations were too large to be plausible. In one case, Iapetus's orbit was practically unaffected. In the remaining five cases, the perturbations of Iapetus's inclination were adequate to explain its present value. In three of these cases, however, Iapetus's eccentricity was excited to >0.1-0.25, and it is not clear whether it could have been damped to its present value (≅ 0.03) by a subsequent process (e.g., tides and dynamical friction from captured irregular satellites do not seem to be strong enough). Our results therefore imply that only 2 out of 10 instability cases (∼20%) can excite Iapetus's inclination to its current value (∼30% of trials lead to >5°) while leaving its orbital eccentricity low.

  9. Mercury's helium exosphere after Mariner 10's third encounter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From Mariner 10 third encounter UV data, a value of .00045 was calculated as the fraction of the solar wind He++ flux intercepted and captured by Mercury's magnetosphere if the observed He atmosphere is maintained by the solar wind. If an internal source for He prevails, the corresponding upper bound for the global outgassing rate is estimated to be 4.5 x 10 to the 22nd power per sec. A surface temperature distribution was used which satisfies the heat equation over Mercury's entire surface using Mariner 10 determined mean surface thermal characteristics. The means stand off distance of Mercury's magnetopause averaged over Mercury's orbit was also used

  10. Vegetable Granuloma in Pindborg’s Tumor: A Rare Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, S V; Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable granuloma (VG) or pulse granuloma is an enigmatic lesion in terms of its designated nomenclature and etiopathogenesis. It is less often reported in the walls of inflammatory and developmental odontogenic cysts. It can present different histological characteristics, possibly related to the length of time in the tissue and its location. Due to its deceptive appearance, it can often mislead the pathologists. Here, we report an unusual encounter of VG in a Pindborg’s tumor, which is the first of its kind in the literature. PMID:25214745

  11. The joy of discovery great encounters along the way

    CERN Document Server

    Thirring, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Walter Thirring is the last offspring of an Austrian family of scientists. In this moving narrative, he describes how he survived the Nazi occupation and became instrumental in reconstructing European science. Thirring is one of the last living physicists who worked on the greatest discoveries and with the greatest scientists of the 20th century. He recollects encounters with the old masters like Einstein, Schrodinger, Heisenberg, Pauli and others as well as his collaborations with the present stars like Murray Gell-Mann and Elliott Lieb. The book presents the challenges faced when one of the

  12. Using systematically observed clinical encounters (SOCEs to assess medical students’ skills in clinical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R Bergus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available George R Bergus1–3, Jerold C Woodhead4, Clarence D Kreiter2,51Performance Based Assessment Program, Office of Student Affairs and Curriculum, 2Department of Family Medicine, 3Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Pediatrics, 5Office of Consultation and Research in Medical Education, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USAIntroduction: The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE is widely used to assess the clinical performance of medical students. However, concerns related to cost, availability, and validity, have led educators to investigate alternatives to the OSCE. Some alternatives involve assessing students while they provide care to patients – the mini-CEX (mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise and the Long Case are examples. We investigated the psychometrics of systematically observed clinical encounters (SOCEs, in which physicians are supplemented by lay trained observers, as a means of assessing the clinical performances of medical students.Methods: During the pediatrics clerkship at the University of Iowa, trained lay observers assessed the communication skills of third-year medical students using a communication checklist while the students interviewed and examined pediatric patients. Students then verbally presented their findings to faculty, who assessed students’ clinical skills using a standardized form. The reliability of the combined communication and clinical skills scores was calculated using generalizability theory.Results: Fifty-one medical students completed 199 observed patient encounters. The mean combined clinical and communication skills score (out of a maximum 45 points was 40.8 (standard deviation 3.3. The calculated reliability of the SOCE scores, using generalizability theory, from 10 observed patient encounters was 0.81. Students reported receiving helpful feedback from faculty after 97% of their observed clinical encounters.Conclusion: The SOCE can

  13. Searching for gravitational waves from compact binaries with precessing spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Ian; Privitera, Stephen; Bohé, Alejandro; Buonanno, Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    Current searches for gravitational waves from compact-object binaries with the LIGO and Virgo observatories employ waveform models with spins aligned (or antialigned) with the orbital angular momentum. Here, we derive a new statistic to search for compact objects carrying generic (precessing) spins. Applying this statistic, we construct banks of both aligned- and generic-spin templates for binary black holes and neutron star-black hole binaries, and compare the effectualness of these banks towards simulated populations of generic-spin systems. We then use these banks in a pipeline analysis of Gaussian noise to measure the increase in background incurred by using generic- instead of aligned-spin banks. Although the generic-spin banks have roughly a factor of ten more templates than the aligned-spin banks, we find an overall improvement in signal recovery at a fixed false-alarm rate for systems with high-mass ratio and highly precessing spins. This gain in sensitivity comes at a small loss of sensitivity (≲4 %) for systems that are already well covered by aligned-spin templates. Since the observation of even a single binary merger with misaligned spins could provide unique astrophysical insights into the formation of these sources, we recommend that the method described here be developed further to mount a viable search for generic-spin binary mergers in LIGO/Virgo data.

  14. Prospects for detecting asteroseismic binaries in Kepler data

    CERN Document Server

    Miglio, A; Farmer, R; Kolb, U; Girardi, L; Elsworth, Y; Appourchaux, T; Handberg, R

    2014-01-01

    Asteroseismology may in principle be used to detect unresolved stellar binary systems comprised of solar-type stars and/or red giants. This novel method relies on the detection of the presence of two solar-like oscillation spectra in the frequency spectrum of a single lightcurve. Here, we make predictions of the numbers of systems that may be detectable in data already collected by the NASA Kepler Mission. Our predictions, which are based upon TRILEGAL and BiSEPS simulations of the Kepler field of view, indicate that as many as 200 or more ``asteroseismic binaries'' may be detectable in this manner. Most of these binaries should be comprised of two He-core-burning red giants. Owing largely to the limited numbers of targets with the requisite short-cadence Kepler data, we expect only a small number of detected binaries containing solar-type stars. The predicted yield of detections is sensitive to the assumed initial mass ratio distribution of the binary components and therefore represents a sensitive calibrati...

  15. LUT observations of the mass-transferring binary AI Dra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Li, Linjia; Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Ergang; Liu, Nianping

    2016-06-01

    Complete UV band light curve of the eclipsing binary AI Dra was observed with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) in October 2014. It is very useful to adopt this continuous and uninterrupted light curve to determine physical and orbital parameters of the binary system. Photometric solutions of the spot model are obtained by using the W-D (Wilson and Devinney) method. It is confirmed that AI Dra is a semi-detached binary with secondary component filling its critical Roche lobe, which indicates that a mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one should happen. Orbital period analysis based on all available eclipse times suggests a secular period increase and two cyclic variations. The secular period increase was interpreted by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 4.12 ×10^{-8}M_{⊙}/yr, which is in agreement with the photometric solutions. Two cyclic oscillations were due to light travel-time effect (LTTE) via the presence of two cool stellar companions in a near 2:1 mean-motion resonance. Both photometric solutions and orbital period analysis confirm that AI Dra is a mass-transferring binary, the massive primary is filling 69 % of its critical Roche lobe. After the primary evolves to fill the critical Roche lobe, the mass transfer will be reversed and the binary will evolve into a contact configuration.

  16. PROSPECTS FOR DETECTING ASTEROSEISMIC BINARIES IN KEPLER DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglio, A.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Handberg, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Farmer, R.; Kolb, U. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Girardi, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Appourchaux, T. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR8617, Université Paris XI, Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-03-20

    Asteroseismology may in principle be used to detect unresolved stellar binary systems comprised of solar-type stars and/or red giants. This novel method relies on the detection of the presence of two solar-like oscillation spectra in the frequency spectrum of a single light curve. Here, we make predictions of the numbers of systems that may be detectable in data already collected by the NASA Kepler Mission. Our predictions, which are based upon TRILEGAL and BiSEPS simulations of the Kepler field of view, indicate that as many as 200 or more ''asteroseismic binaries'' may be detectable in this manner. Most of these binaries should be comprised of two He-core-burning red giants. Owing largely to the limited numbers of targets with the requisite short-cadence Kepler data, we expect only a small number of detected binaries containing solar-type stars. The predicted yield of detections is sensitive to the assumed initial mass ratio distribution (IMRD) of the binary components and therefore represents a sensitive calibration of the much debated IMRD near mass ratio unity.

  17. The Post-Newtonian Approximation for Relativistic Compact Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futamase Toshifumi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss various aspects of the post-Newtonian approximation in general relativity. After presenting the foundation based on the Newtonian limit, we show a method to derive post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries based on a surface integral approach and the strong field point particle limit. As an application we derive third post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries which respect the Lorentz invariance in the post-Newtonian perturbative sense, admit a conserved energy, and are free from any ambiguity.

  18. Optimal simulation of full binary trees on faulty hypercubes

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Bethany MY; Chin, Francis YL; Poon, ChungKeung

    1995-01-01

    The problem of operating full binary tree based algorithms on a hypercube with faulty nodes was investigated. Developing a method for embedding a full binary tree into the faulty hypercube is the solution to this problem. Two outcomes for embedding an (n-1)-tree into an n-cube with unit dilation and load, that were based on a new embedding technique, were presented. For the problem where the root can be mapped to any nonfaulty hypercube node, the optimum toleration of faults was shown. Moreov...

  19. Tests and applications of the SXS binary black hole catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Mark; Simulations of Extreme Spacetimes (SXS) Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Numerical relativity is the only reliable method of computing the full gravitational waveform--including inspiral, merger, and ringdown--for strongly-gravitating systems like coalescing black holes, which are of foremost importance to gravitational-wave interferometers such as LIGO. We have used the Spectral Einstein Code [black-holes.org/SpEC.html] to construct a public catalog of hundreds of binary black hole simulations, for use by gravitational-wave science, and for calibration of fast analytic models of binary black-hole waveforms. We discuss the current status of the catalog, tests of the resulting waveforms, and selected applications.

  20. Stochastic Background of Gravitational Waves Generated by Compact Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, E F D

    2015-01-01

    Binary Systems are the most studied sources of gravitational waves. The mechanisms of emission and the behavior of the orbital parameters are well known and can be written in analytic form in several cases. Besides, the strongest indication of the existence of gravitational waves has arisen from the observation of binary systems. On the other hand, when the detection of gravitational radiation becomes a reality, one of the observed pattern of the signals will be probably of stochastic background nature, which are characterized by a superposition of signals emitted by many sources around the universe. Our aim here is to develop an alternative method of calculating such backgrounds emitted by cosmological compact binary systems during their periodic or quasiperiodic phases. We use an analogy with a problem of Statistical Mechanics in order to perform this sum as well as taking into account the temporal variation of the orbital parameters of the systems. Such a kind of background is of particular importance sinc...