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Sample records for binary encounter method

  1. Busting Up Binaries: Encounters Between Compact Binaries and a Supermassive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Addison, Eric; Larson, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Given the stellar density near the galactic center, close encounters between compact object binaries and the supermassive black hole are a plausible occurrence. We present results from a numerical study of close to 13 million such encounters. Consistent with previous studies, we corroborate that, for binary systems tidally disrupted by the black hole, the component of the binary remaining bound to the hole has eccentricity ~ 0.97 and circularizes dramatically by the time it enters the classical LISA band. Our results also show that the population of surviving binaries merits attention. These binary systems experience perturbations to their internal orbital parameters with potentially interesting observational consequences. We investigated the regions of parameter space for survival and estimated the distribution of orbital parameters post-encounter. We found that surviving binaries harden and their eccentricity increases, thus accelerating their merger due gravitational radiation emission and increasing the p...

  2. R144 : a very massive binary likely ejected from R136 through a binary-binary encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Seungkyung; Banerjee, Sambaran

    2013-01-01

    R144 is a recently confirmed very massive, spectroscopic binary which appears isolated from the core of the massive young star cluster R136. The dynamical ejection hypothesis as an origin for its location is claimed improbable by Sana et al. due to its binary nature and high mass. We demonstrate here by means of direct N-body calculations that a very massive binary system can be readily dynamically ejected from a R136-like cluster, through a close encounter with a very massive system. One out of four N-body cluster models produces a dynamically ejected very massive binary system with a mass comparable to R144. The system has a system mass of $\\approx$ 355 Msun and is located at 36.8 pc from the centre of its parent cluster, moving away from the cluster with a velocity of 57 km/s at 2 Myr as a result of a binary-binary interaction. This implies that R144 could have been ejected from R136 through a strong encounter with an other massive binary or single star. In addition, we discuss all massive binaries and sin...

  3. Modified binary encounter Bethe model for electron-impact ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Guerra, M; Indelicato, P; Santos, J P

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical expressions for ionization cross sections by electron impact based on the binary encounter Bethe (BEB) model, valid from ionization threshold up to relativistic energies, are proposed. The new modified BEB (MBEB) and its relativistic counterpart (MRBEB) expressions are simpler than the BEB (nonrelativistic and relativistic) expressions because they require only one atomic parameter, namely the binding energy of the electrons to be ionized, and use only one scaling term for the ionization of all sub-shells. The new models are used to calculate the K-, L- and M-shell ionization cross sections by electron impact for several atoms with Z from 6 to 83. Comparisons with all, to the best of our knowledge, available experimental data show that this model is as good or better than other models, with less complexity.

  4. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as

  5. Star Cluster Ecology; 2, Binary evolution with single-star encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwart, S F P; McMillan, S L W; Verbunt, F; Zwart, Simon F. Portegies; Hut, Piet; Millan, Stephen L. W. Mc; Verbunt, Frank

    1997-01-01

    Three-body effects greatly complicate stellar evolution. We model the effects of encounters of binaries with single stars, based on parameters chosen from conditions prevalent in the cores of globular clusters. For our three-body encounters, we start with a population of primordial binaries, and choose incoming stars from the evolving single star populations of Portgies Zwart, Hut and Verbunt (1997). In addition, we study the formation of new binaries through tidal capture among the single stars. In subsequent papers in this series, we will combine stellar evolution with the dynamics of a full N-body system.

  6. Close encounters of the third-body kind. [intruding bodies in binary star systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M. B.; Benz, W.; Hills, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    We simulated encounters involving binaries of two eccentricities: e = 0 (i.e., circular binaries) and e = 0.5. In both cases the binary contained a point mass of 1.4 solar masses (i.e., a neutron star) and a 0.8 solar masses main-sequence star modeled as a polytrope. The semimajor axes of both binaries were set to 60 solar radii (0.28 AU). We considered intruders of three masses: 1.4 solar masses (a neutron star), 0.8 solar masses (a main-sequence star or a higher mass white dwarf), and 0.64 solar masses (a more typical mass white dwarf). Our strategy was to perform a large number (40,000) of encounters using a three-body code, then to rerun a small number of cases with a three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code to determine the importance of hydrodynamical effects. Using the results of the three-body runs, we computed the exchange across sections, sigma(sub ex). From the results of the SPH runs, we computed the cross sections for clean exchange, denoted by sigma(sub cx); the formation of a triple system, denoted by sigma(sub trp); and the formation of a merged binary with an object formed from the merger of two of the stars left in orbit around the third star, denoted by sigma(sub mb). For encounters between either binary and a 1.4 solar masses neutron star, sigma(sub cx) approx. 0.7 sigma(sub ex) and sigma(sub mb) + sigma(sub trp) approx. 0.3 sigma(sub ex). For encounters between either binary and the 0.8 solar masses main-sequence star, sigma(sub cx) approx. 0.50 sigma(sub ex) and sigma(sub mb) + sigma(sub trp) approx. 1.0 sigma(sub ex). If the main sequence star is replaced by a main-sequence star of the same mass, we have sigma(sub cx) approx. 0.5 sigma(sub ex) and sigma(sub mb) + sigma(sub trp) approx. 1.6 sigma(sub ex). Although the exchange cross section is a sensitive function of intruder mass, we see that the cross section to produce merged binaries is roughly independent of intruder mass. The merged binaries produced have semi

  7. Patients recording clinical encounters: a path to empowerment? Assessment by mixed methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwyn, G.; Barr, P.J.; Grande, S.W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the motivations of patients recording clinical encounters, covertly or otherwise, and why some do not wish to record encounters. DESIGN: Mixed-methods analysis of survey data and nested semistructured interviews. SETTING: Survey to UK audience, using social media and radio broa

  8. Two Improved Access Methods on Compact Binary (CB) Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishibori, Masami; Koyama, Masafumi; Okada, Makoto; Aoe, Jun-ichi

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval and the use of binary trees as a fast access method for search strategies such as hashing. Proposes new methods based on compact binary trees that provide faster access and more compact storage, explains the theoretical basis, and confirms the validity of the methods through empirical observations. (LRW)

  9. Teaching Qualitative Methods: A Face-to-Face Encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Mike F.

    1996-01-01

    Considers the complete ethnographic project as a strategy for teaching qualitative methods. Describes an undergraduate class where students chose an ethnographic setting, gathered and analyzed data, and wrote a final report. Settings included Laundromats, bingo halls, auctions, karaoke clubs, and bowling leagues. (MJP)

  10. Binary discrete method of topology optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Yu-lin; WANG Xiao-ming; CHENG Geng-dong

    2007-01-01

    The numerical non-stability of a discrete algorithm of topology optimization can result from the inaccurate evaluation of element sensitivities. Especially, when material is added to elements, the estimation of element sensitivities is very inaccurate,even their signs are also estimated wrong. In order to overcome the problem, a new incremental sensitivity analysis formula is constructed based on the perturbation analysis of the elastic equilibrium increment equation, which can provide us a good estimate of the change of the objective function whether material is removed from or added to elements,meanwhile it can also be considered as the conventional sensitivity formula modified by a non-local element stiffness matrix. As a consequence, a binary discrete method of topology optimization is established, in which each element is assigned either a stiffness value of solid material or a small value indicating no material, and the optimization process can remove material from elements or add material to elements so as to make the objective function decrease. And a main advantage of the method is simple and no need of much mathematics, particularly interesting in engineering application.

  11. A method to deconvolve mass ratio distribution from binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cure, Michel; Christen, Alejandra; Cassetti, Julia; Boffin, Henri M J

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the evolution of stars in binary systems as well as to constrain the formation of binary stars, it is important to know the binary mass-ratio distribution. However, in most cases, i.e. for single-lined spectroscopic binaries, the mass ratio cannot be measured directly but only derived as the convolution of a function that depends on the mass ratio and the unknown inclination angle of the orbit on the plane of the sky. We extend our previous method to deconvolve this inverse problem (Cure et al. 2014), i.e., we obtain as an integral the cumulative distribution function (CDF) for the mass ratio distribution. After a suitable transformation of variables it turns out that this problem is the same as the one for rotational velocities $v \\sin i$, allowing a close analytic formulation for the CDF. We then apply our method to two real datasets: a sample of Am stars binary systems, and a sample of massive spectroscopic binaries in the Cyg OB2 Association.} {We are able to reproduce the previous re...

  12. Formation of anions and cations via a binary-encounter process in OH$^+$ + Ar collisions: the role of dissociative excitation and statistical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Lattouf, E; Chesnel, J -Y; Kovács, S T S; Bene, E; Herczku, P; Huber, B A; Méry, A; Poully, J -C; Rangama, J; Sulik, B

    2015-01-01

    Molecular fragmentation leading to the formation of negatively and positively charged hydrogen ions in 7-keV OH$^+$ + Ar collisions is investigated experimentally. The most striking finding is that negative and positive hydrogen ions are emitted with very similar angular dependences. Also, the kinetic energy distribution of the H$^+$ fragment shows strong similarities with that of the ejected H$^-$ ion. The kinematics of the emitted H core is found to be essentially driven by its scattering on the atomic target. However, in addition to this binary-encounter process, dissociative electronic excitation of the molecular projectile has to be invoked to explain the observed fragmentation patterns. Though the electron capture process is complex, it is shown that the relative population of the different final charge states of the outgoing fragments can be described by simple statistical laws.

  13. A novel asynchronous access method with binary interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Solis Jorge

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally synchronous access strategies require users to comply with one or more time constraints in order to communicate intent with a binary human-machine interface (e.g., mechanical, gestural or neural switches. Asynchronous access methods are preferable, but have not been used with binary interfaces in the control of devices that require more than two commands to be successfully operated. Methods We present the mathematical development and evaluation of a novel asynchronous access method that may be used to translate sporadic activations of binary interfaces into distinct outcomes for the control of devices requiring an arbitrary number of commands to be controlled. With this method, users are required to activate their interfaces only when the device under control behaves erroneously. Then, a recursive algorithm, incorporating contextual assumptions relevant to all possible outcomes, is used to obtain an informed estimate of user intention. We evaluate this method by simulating a control task requiring a series of target commands to be tracked by a model user. Results When compared to a random selection, the proposed asynchronous access method offers a significant reduction in the number of interface activations required from the user. Conclusion This novel access method offers a variety of advantages over traditionally synchronous access strategies and may be adapted to a wide variety of contexts, with primary relevance to applications involving direct object manipulation.

  14. A simple method of constructing binary black hole initial data

    CERN Document Server

    Rácz, István

    2016-01-01

    By applying a parabolic-hyperbolic formulation of constraint equations and superposing Kerr-Schild black holes, a simple method is introduced to initialize time evolution of binary black hole systems. In constructing the initial data no use of boundary conditions in the strong field regime is made. The proposed new method offers a direct control on the ADM parameters of the composite system, and it could also be applied to construct initial data for multiple black holes.

  15. Efficient Hybrid Method for Binary Floating Point Multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Praveenkumar Reddy,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high speed binary floating point multiplier based on Hybrid Method. To improve speed multiplication of mantissa is done using Hybrid method replacing existing multipliers like Carry Save Multiplier, Dadda Multiplier and Modified Booth Multiplier. Hybrid method is a combination of Dadda Multiplier and Modified Radix-8 Booth Multiplier. The design achieves high speed with maximum frequency of 555 MHz compared to existing floating point multipliers. The multiplier implemented in Verilog HDL and analyzed in Quartus II 10.0 version. Hybrid Multiplier is compared with existing multipliers.

  16. A new method for constructing networks from binary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Borkulo, Claudia D.; Borsboom, Denny; Epskamp, Sacha; Blanken, Tessa F.; Boschloo, Lynn; Schoevers, Robert A.; Waldorp, Lourens J.

    2014-08-01

    Network analysis is entering fields where network structures are unknown, such as psychology and the educational sciences. A crucial step in the application of network models lies in the assessment of network structure. Current methods either have serious drawbacks or are only suitable for Gaussian data. In the present paper, we present a method for assessing network structures from binary data. Although models for binary data are infamous for their computational intractability, we present a computationally efficient model for estimating network structures. The approach, which is based on Ising models as used in physics, combines logistic regression with model selection based on a Goodness-of-Fit measure to identify relevant relationships between variables that define connections in a network. A validation study shows that this method succeeds in revealing the most relevant features of a network for realistic sample sizes. We apply our proposed method to estimate the network of depression and anxiety symptoms from symptom scores of 1108 subjects. Possible extensions of the model are discussed.

  17. Binary recursive partitioning: background, methods, and application to psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Edgar C; Shaffer, Victoria A

    2011-02-01

    Binary recursive partitioning (BRP) is a computationally intensive statistical method that can be used in situations where linear models are often used. Instead of imposing many assumptions to arrive at a tractable statistical model, BRP simply seeks to accurately predict a response variable based on values of predictor variables. The method outputs a decision tree depicting the predictor variables that were related to the response variable, along with the nature of the variables' relationships. No significance tests are involved, and the tree's 'goodness' is judged based on its predictive accuracy. In this paper, we describe BRP methods in a detailed manner and illustrate their use in psychological research. We also provide R code for carrying out the methods.

  18. INTERRUPTED STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Aaron M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Leigh, Nathan W. C., E-mail: a-geller@northwestern.edu, E-mail: nleigh@amnh.org [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West and 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Strong encounters between single stars and binaries play a pivotal role in the evolution of star clusters. Such encounters can also dramatically modify the orbital parameters of binaries, exchange partners in and out of binaries, and are a primary contributor to the rate of physical stellar collisions in star clusters. Often, these encounters are studied under the approximation that they happen quickly enough and within a small enough volume to be considered isolated from the rest of the cluster. In this paper, we study the validity of this assumption through the analysis of a large grid of single–binary and binary–binary scattering experiments. For each encounter we evaluate the encounter duration, and compare this with the expected time until another single or binary star will join the encounter. We find that for lower-mass clusters, similar to typical open clusters in our Galaxy, the percent of encounters that will be “interrupted” by an interloping star or binary may be 20%–40% (or higher) in the core, though for typical globular clusters we expect ≲1% of encounters to be interrupted. Thus, the assumption that strong encounters occur in relative isolation breaks down for certain clusters. Instead, many strong encounters develop into more complex “mini-clusters,” which must be accounted for in studying, for example, the internal dynamics of star clusters, and the physical stellar collision rate.

  19. Multi-Domain Spectral Method for Initial Data of Arbitrary Binaries in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Ansorg, M

    2006-01-01

    We present a multi-domain spectral method to compute initial data of binary systems in General Relativity. By utilizing adapted conformal coordinates, the vacuum region exterior to the gravitational sources is divided up into two subdomains within which the spectral expansion of the field quantities is carried out. If a component of the binary is a neutron star, a further subdomain covering the star's interior is added. As such, the method can be used to construct arbitrary initial data corresponding to binary black holes, binary neutron stars or mixed binaries. In particular, it is possible to describe a black hole component by the puncture ansatz as well as through an excision technique. First examples are given for binary black hole excision data that fulfill the requirements of the quasi-stationary framework, which combines the Conformal Thin Sandwich formulation of the constraint equations with the Isolated Horizon conditions for black holes in quasi-equilibrium. These numerical solutions were obtained t...

  20. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  1. A New Parallel Method for Binary Black Hole Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulating binary black hole (BBH systems are a computationally intensive problem and it can lead to great scientific discovery. How to explore more parallelism to take advantage of the large number of computing resources of modern supercomputers is the key to achieve high performance for BBH simulations. In this paper, we propose a scalable MPM (Mesh based Parallel Method which can explore both the inter- and intramesh level parallelism to improve the performance of BBH simulation. At the same time, we also leverage GPU to accelerate the performance. Different kinds of performance tests are conducted on Blue Waters. Compared with the existing method, our MPM can improve the performance from 5x speedup (compared with the normalized speed of 32 MPI processes to 8x speedup. For the GPU accelerated version, our MPM can improve the performance from 12x speedup to 28x speedup. Experimental results also show that when only enough CPU computing resource or limited GPU computing resource is available, our MPM can employ two special scheduling mechanisms to achieve better performance. Furthermore, our scalable GPU acceleration MPM can achieve almost ideal weak scaling up to 2048 GPU computing nodes which enables our software to handle even larger BBH simulations efficiently.

  2. A New Thermodynamic Calculation Method for Binary Alloys: Part I: Statistical Calculation of Excess Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The improved form of calculation formula for the activities of the components in binary liquids and solid alloys has been derived based on the free volume theory considering excess entropy and Miedema's model for calculating the formation heat of binary alloys. A calculation method of excess thermodynamic functions for binary alloys, the formulas of integral molar excess properties and partial molar excess properties for solid ordered or disordered binary alloys have been developed. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  3. Interrupted Stellar Encounters in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Geller, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    Strong encounters between single stars and binaries play a pivotal role in the evolution of star clusters. Such encounters can also dramatically modify the orbital parameters of binaries, exchange partners in and out of binaries, and are a primary contributor to the rate of physical stellar collisions in star clusters. Often, these encounters are studied under the approximation that they happen quickly enough and within a small enough volume to be considered isolated from the rest of the cluster. In this paper, we study the validity of this assumption through the analysis of a large grid of single - binary and binary - binary scattering experiments. For each encounter we evaluate the encounter duration, and compare this with the expected time until another single or binary star will join the encounter. We find that for lower-mass clusters, similar to typical open clusters in our Galaxy, the percent of encounters that will be "interrupted" by an interloping star or binary may be 20-40% (or higher) in the core,...

  4. An Apparent Descriptive Method for Judging the Synchronization of Rotation of Binary Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Lin-sen

    2004-09-01

    The problem of the synchronous rotation of binary stars is judged by using a synchronous parameter introduced in an apparent descriptive method. The synchronous parameter is defined as the ratio of the rotational period to the orbital period. The author suggests several apparent phenomenal descriptive methods for judging the synchronization of rotation of binary stars. The first method is applicable when the orbital inclination is well-known. The synchronous parameter is defined by using the orbital inclination and the observable rotational velocity (1,2 sin ). The method is mainly suitable for eclipsing binary stars. Several others are suggested for the cases when the orbital inclination is unknown. The synchronous parameters are defined by using 1,2 sin , 1,2 sin3 , the mass function () and semi-amplitudes of the velocity curve, 1,2 given in catalogue of parameters of spectroscopic binary systems and (1,2 sin ). These methods are suitable for spectroscopic binary stars including those that show eclipses and visual binary stars concurrently. The synchronous parameters for fifty-five components in thirty binary systems are calculated by using several methods. The numerical results are listed in Tables 1 and 2. The statistical results are listed in Table 3. In addition, several apparent descriptive methods are discussed.

  5. Comparison of three methods for ascertainment of contact information relevant to respiratory pathogen transmission in encounter networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Paula M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical models of infection that consider targeted interventions are exquisitely dependent on the assumed mixing patterns of the population. We report on a pilot study designed to assess three different methods (one retrospective, two prospective for obtaining contact data relevant to the determination of these mixing patterns. Methods 65 adults were asked to record their social encounters in each location visited during 6 study days using a novel method whereby a change in physical location of the study participant triggered data entry. Using a cross-over design, all participants recorded encounters on 3 days in a paper diary and 3 days using an electronic recording device (PDA. Participants were randomised to first prospective recording method. Results Both methods captured more contacts than a pre-study questionnaire, but ascertainment using the paper diary was superior to the PDA (mean difference: 4.52 (95% CI 0.28, 8.77. Paper diaries were found more acceptable to the participants compared with the PDA. Statistical analysis confirms that our results are broadly consistent with those reported from large-scale European based surveys. An association between household size (trend 0.14, 95% CI (0.06, 0.22, P P Conclusions The study's location-based reporting design allows greater scope compared to other methods for examining differences in the characteristics of encounters over a range of environments. Improved parameterisation of dynamic transmission models gained from work of this type will aid in the development of more robust decision support tools to assist health policy makers and planners.

  6. Cosmopolitan encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Woodward, Ian

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing research on everyday cosmopolitanism in diverse societies. We employ a cosmopolitan encounters framework to explore the reflexive openness people perform and the ethical reasoning they draw on to get along with each other. In particular, we look beyond pleasu....... The ethical framework we propose is grounded in reflexive acts of sharing going beyond notions of giving and performing hospitality within a host/guest dyad....

  7. Fast optimization of binary clusters using a novel dynamic lattice searching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Cheng, Wen

    2014-09-28

    Global optimization of binary clusters has been a difficult task despite of much effort and many efficient methods. Directing toward two types of elements (i.e., homotop problem) in binary clusters, two classes of virtual dynamic lattices are constructed and a modified dynamic lattice searching (DLS) method, i.e., binary DLS (BDLS) method, is developed. However, it was found that the BDLS can only be utilized for the optimization of binary clusters with small sizes because homotop problem is hard to be solved without atomic exchange operation. Therefore, the iterated local search (ILS) method is adopted to solve homotop problem and an efficient method based on the BDLS method and ILS, named as BDLS-ILS, is presented for global optimization of binary clusters. In order to assess the efficiency of the proposed method, binary Lennard-Jones clusters with up to 100 atoms are investigated. Results show that the method is proved to be efficient. Furthermore, the BDLS-ILS method is also adopted to study the geometrical structures of (AuPd)79 clusters with DFT-fit parameters of Gupta potential.

  8. A new method for calculating the activity of stable compound from binary phase diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dengfu; DONG Lingyan; BAI Chenguang; LIU Qingcai; WANG Chuanjun

    2006-01-01

    A new method to calculate the activity of a stable compound in a binary phase diagram was presented and dis cussed. According to the formula for calculating activity from the binary phase diagram, the equilibrium constant can be calculated through the mass action principle after the activities of two pure components were computed respectively. Based on that, the activity of a stable compound can be easily obtained at last. The activity of the stable compound InSb is calculated in the In-Sb binary system by using this method. The result is well consistent with another calculation value.

  9. Moving Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Deslandes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores my experience of losing an authoritative speaking position – that is, ‘falling on my face’ in a research encounter with the Brazilian Landless Worker’s Movement (O Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais sem Terra, or MST.  My specific movements through this locale invoke Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s concept of ‘unlearning one’s privilege as a loss’; and Sara Ahmed’s theory of ‘stranger fetishism’.  In writing my brief loss, I also; of course, recover my speaking position, meaning that I can always efface the loss by re-writing it as a source of ethnographic authority.  This essay is written in two voices in order to reflect this paradox: one which describes the encounter, and one that critically ruminates upon it.  I note, for example, that the MST as a variegated conglomerate of people takes the form of particular ‘Others’ when they are represented in the scholarship and polemic of ‘first world’ activists in the so called ‘global justice movement’.  ‘Falling on my face in the street’ of these Others locates particular processes of fetishization within the global justice movement and the relationships across power and difference that are contained herein; processes that impact on the idea of a ‘global’ solidarity against systemic ‘global’ oppressions.

  10. A method of assessing the efficacy of hand sanitizers: use of real soil encountered in the food service industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, D L; Ponte, J M; Kochanowski, B A

    2000-04-01

    In many outbreaks of foodborne illness, the food worker has been implicated as the source of the infection. To decrease the likelihood of cross-contamination, food workers must clean and disinfect their hands frequently. To ensure their effectiveness, hand disinfectants should be tested using rigorous conditions that mimic normal use. Currently, several different methods are used to assess the efficacy of hand disinfectants. However, most of these methods were designed with the health care worker in mind and do not model the specific contamination situations encountered by the food worker. To fill this void, we developed a model that uses soil from fresh meat and a means of quantifying bacteria that is encountered and transferred during food preparation activities. Results of studies using various doses of para-chloro-meta-xylenol and triclosan confirm that the method is reproducible and predictable in measuring the efficacy of sanitizers. Consistent, dose-dependent results were obtained with relatively few subjects. Other studies showed that washing hands with a mild soap and water for 20 s was more effective than applying a 70% alcohol hand sanitizer.

  11. A decoding method of an n length binary BCH code through (n + 1n length binary cyclic code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARIQ SHAH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For a given binary BCH code Cn of length n = 2 s - 1 generated by a polynomial of degree r there is no binary BCH code of length (n + 1n generated by a generalized polynomial of degree 2r. However, it does exist a binary cyclic code C (n+1n of length (n + 1n such that the binary BCH code Cn is embedded in C (n+1n . Accordingly a high code rate is attained through a binary cyclic code C (n+1n for a binary BCH code Cn . Furthermore, an algorithm proposed facilitates in a decoding of a binary BCH code Cn through the decoding of a binary cyclic code C (n+1n , while the codes Cn and C (n+1n have the same minimum hamming distance.

  12. Soliton solutions of the generalized sinh-Gordon equation by the binary (′/)-expansion method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Neirameh

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to extend the applications of (′/)-expansion method to solve a generalized sinh-Gordon equation. In fact, the binary (′/)-expansion method is introduced for finding different new exact solutions. It is shown that this method is a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations with time-dependent coefficients in mathematical physics.

  13. A Fast Method to Predict Distributions of Binary Black Hole Masses Based on Gaussian Process Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yuqi; Zevin, Michael; Sampson, Laura; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    With more observations from LIGO in the upcoming years, we will be able to construct an observed mass distribution of black holes to compare with binary evolution simulations. This will allow us to investigate the physics of binary evolution such as the effects of common envelope efficiency and wind strength, or the properties of the population such as the initial mass function.However, binary evolution codes become computationally expensive when running large populations of binaries over a multi-dimensional grid of input parameters, and may simulate accurately only for a limited combination of input parameter values. Therefore we developed a fast machine-learning method that utilizes Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and Gaussian Process (GP) regression, which together can predict distributions over the entire parameter space based on a limited number of simulated models. Furthermore, Gaussian Process regression naturally provides interpolation errors in addition to interpolation means, which could provide a means of targeting the most uncertain regions of parameter space for running further simulations.We also present a case study on applying this new method to predicting chirp mass distributions for binary black hole systems (BBHs) in Milky-way like galaxies of different metallicities.

  14. Encountering Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savinetti, Nicol Marie Foulkes

    - and post-interview questionnaires and participant observation methods, and takes a holistic approach guided by Gadamerian hermeneutics. The main findings are that the Nordic citizens indeed exhibit highly divergent citizenship constellations. In vertical relationships they experience changes...... in India. In horizontal relationships, the Nordic migrants show diversity in their willingness and ability to mobilize and transform their economic, social, cultural and erotic capital (Bourdieu 1984, Hakim 2010) to facilitate dealing with new and sometimes challenging situations. Furthermore, being...

  15. Analysis UO2-CeO2 Powder Mixtures by the Binary-ratio Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The binary-ratio method is a special case in the X-ray fluorescence analysis and is suitable for themixed sample in which contains two compositions. A calibration curve of the analysis line intensity ratioversus concentration ratio is established, and is insensitive to reasonable variations in surface texture. The

  16. [To encounter oneself, to encounter each other].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, A A

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to elucidate the concept of encounter within the realm of psycotherapy, either individual or group, with its inter and intrapersonal connotations. Its importance is emphasized and means for its achievement are suggested. A double course is followed to attain this end: on the one hand, the tracing of the concept in the contemporary philosophic anthropology (the positions of M. Buber and of K. Jaspers are briefly examined) and in the views of several psychotherapists who have placed it as a significant issue in their treatments (the therapists considered are K. Binswanger, C. Rogers, J. L. Moreno and E. Pichon-Rivière), and on the other hand, some clinical means, and very special attitudes, are indicated as particularly favourable for the promotion of that enlargement of subjectivity leading to the encounter of one-self as well as the other person. Some fragments of sessions are presented demonstrating that in general the "how" of the attitude prevailing in the therapeutic relation is more effective than the "what" of the specific technical resources employed. However, some of these are commendable as a more direct way to bring about the experience of encounter. This leads me to psychodrama, with its techniques of the double, the inversion of roles, the mirror, and most of all with the general group sharing that closes the sessions, and to the gestalt methods, which involve in many instances physical contacts with other people, with the precise object of achieving a maximum insight, or, in the already classical expression, awareness, which is basically an encounter with oneself. Implicit in all the above considerations lies the conviction that man must share his existence with others not only for biological reasons; it is an indispensable requirement for his full development as an individual, a requirement for being himself. If one of the goals of psychological treatments is to promote personal growth and proximity to oneself, an

  17. Patient And phaRmacist Telephonic Encounters (PARTE in an underserved rural population with asthma: methods and rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry N. Young, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Methods used to deliver and test a pharmacy-based asthma care telephonic service for an underserved, rural patient population are described. Summary: In a randomized controlled trial (RCT, the Patient And phaRmacist Telephonic Encounters (PARTE project is assessing the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary impact of providing pharmacy-based asthma care service telephonically. The target audience is a low income patient population across a large geographic area served by a federally qualified community health center. Ninety-eight participants have been randomized to either standard care or the intervention group who received consultation and direct feedback from pharmacists via telephone regarding their asthma self-management and medication use. Pharmacists used a counseling framework that incorporates the Indian Health Services 3 Prime Questions and the RIM Technique (Recognition, Identification, and Management for managing medication use problems. Pharmacists encouraged patients to be active partners in the decision-making process to identify and address the underlying cause of medication use problems. Uniquely, this trial collected process and summative data using qualitative and quantitative approaches. Pharmacists’ training, the fidelity and quality of pharmacists’ service delivery, and short term patient outcomes are being evaluated. This evaluation will improve our ability to address research challenges and intervention barriers, refine staff training, explore patient perspectives, and evaluate measures’ power to provide preliminary patient outcome findings. Conclusion: A mixed method evaluation of a structured pharmacist intervention has the potential to offer insights regarding staff training, service fidelity and short term outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data in an RCT. Results will provide evidence regarding the feasibility and quality of carrying out the study and service delivery from the multiple

  18. Hiding Two Binary Images in Grayscale BMP Image via Five Modulus Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas A. Jassim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to hide two binary BMP images in a single BMP grayscale image. The widespread technique in image steganography is to hide one image (stego image into another (cover image. The proposed novel method is to hide two binary images into one grayscale bitmap cover image. First of all, the proposed technique starts with transforming all grayscale cover image pixels into multiples of five using Five Modulus Method (FMM. Clearly, any modulus of five is either 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. The transformed FMM cover image could be treated as a good host for carrying data. Obviously, it is known that the pixel value for the binary image is either 0 or 1. Therefore, by concatenating the two binary images, the composite results are 00, 01, 10 and 11. In fact, these concatenated values could be mapped using simple mapping that assigns a positive integer value such as 1 for 00, 2 for 01, 3 for 10 and 4 for 11. Consequently, a new matrix will be constructed that contains a number varying from 1 to 4 only. Fortunately, the four integer values are the same as the previously mentioned reminders of division by 5, hence, adding these four integers to the transformed FMM cover image. On the recipient side, a reverse process will be implemented to extract the two binary images. In terms of PSNR values, the cover image and the two extracted stego images have acceptable PSNR values, which yields that the proposed method is very efficient in information hiding.

  19. Shortcut Design Method for Multistage Binary Distillation via MS-Excel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. S. B. Dongare

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multistage distillation is most widely used industrial method for separating chemical mixtures with high energy consumptions especially when relative volatility of key components is lower than 1.5. The McCabe Thiele is considered to be the simplest and perhaps most instructive method for the conceptual design of binary distillation column which is still widely used, mainly for quick preliminary calculations. In this present work, we provide a numerical solution to a McCabe-Thiele method to find out theoretical number of stages for ideal and non-ideal binary system, reflux ratio, condenser duty, reboiler duty, each plate composition inside the column. Each and every point related to McCabe-Thiele in MS-Excel to give quick column dimensions are discussed in details

  20. Novel two wavelength spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of binary mixtures with severely overlapping spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Hayam M.; Saleh, Sarah S.; Hassan, Nagiba Y.; Salem, Hesham

    2015-02-01

    This work presents the application of different spectrophotometric techniques based on two wavelengths for the determination of severely overlapped spectral components in a binary mixture without prior separation. Four novel spectrophotometric methods were developed namely: induced dual wavelength method (IDW), dual wavelength resolution technique (DWRT), advanced amplitude modulation method (AAM) and induced amplitude modulation method (IAM). The results of the novel methods were compared to that of three well-established methods which were: dual wavelength method (DW), Vierordt's method (VD) and bivariate method (BV). The developed methods were applied for the analysis of the binary mixture of hydrocortisone acetate (HCA) and fusidic acid (FSA) formulated as topical cream accompanied by the determination of methyl paraben and propyl paraben present as preservatives. The specificity of the novel methods was investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures and the combined dosage form. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines where accuracy, repeatability, inter-day precision and robustness were found to be within the acceptable limits. The results obtained from the proposed methods were statistically compared with official ones where no significant difference was observed. No difference was observed between the obtained results when compared to the reported HPLC method, which proved that the developed methods could be alternative to HPLC techniques in quality control laboratories.

  1. Preparation of PLA and PLGA nanoparticles by binary organic solvent diffusion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋新宇; 周春山; 唐课文

    2003-01-01

    The nanoparticles of polylactide (PLA) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) were prepared by the bi-nary organic solvent diffusion method. The yield, particle size and size distribution of these nanoparticles wereevaluated. The yield of nanoparticles prepared by this method is over 90%, and the average size of the nanoparticlesis between 130-180 nm. In order to clarify the effect of the organic solvent used in the system on nanoparticle yieldand size, the cloud points of PLA and PLGA were examined by cloud point titration. The results indicate that theyields of nanoparticles increase with the increase of ethanol in the acetone solution and attain the maximum at thecloud point of ethanol, while the size of nanoparticles decreases with the increase of ethanol in the acetone solutionand attains the minimum at the cloud point of ethanol. The optimal composition ratio of binary organic solvents coin-cides to that near the cloud point and the optimal condition of binary organic solvents can be predicted.

  2. A simple method for analyzing data from a randomized trial with a missing binary outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freedman Laurence S

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many randomized trials involve missing binary outcomes. Although many previous adjustments for missing binary outcomes have been proposed, none of these makes explicit use of randomization to bound the bias when the data are not missing at random. Methods We propose a novel approach that uses the randomization distribution to compute the anticipated maximum bias when missing at random does not hold due to an unobserved binary covariate (implying that missingness depends on outcome and treatment group. The anticipated maximum bias equals the product of two factors: (a the anticipated maximum bias if there were complete confounding of the unobserved covariate with treatment group among subjects with an observed outcome and (b an upper bound factor that depends only on the fraction missing in each randomization group. If less than 15% of subjects are missing in each group, the upper bound factor is less than .18. Results We illustrated the methodology using data from the Polyp Prevention Trial. We anticipated a maximum bias under complete confounding of .25. With only 7% and 9% missing in each arm, the upper bound factor, after adjusting for age and sex, was .10. The anticipated maximum bias of .25 × .10 =.025 would not have affected the conclusion of no treatment effect. Conclusion This approach is easy to implement and is particularly informative when less than 15% of subjects are missing in each arm.

  3. Introducing Powell's Direction Set Method to a Fully Automated Analysis of Eclipsing Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Prsa, A

    2006-01-01

    With recent observational advancements, substantial amounts of photometric and spectroscopic eclipsing binary data have been acquired. As part of an ongoing effort to assemble a reliable pipeline for fully automatic data analysis, we put Powell's direction set method to the test. The method does not depend on numerical derivatives, only on function evaluations, and as such it cannot diverge. Compared to differential corrections (DC) and Nelder & Mead's downhill simplex (NMS) method, Powell's method proves to be more efficient in terms of solution determination and the required number of iterations. However, its application is still not optimal in terms of time cost. Causes for this deficiency are identified and two steps toward the solution are proposed: non-ortogonality of the parameter set should be removed and better initial directions should be determined before the minimization is initiated. Once these setbacks are worked out, Powell's method will probably replace DC and NMS as the default minimizing...

  4. A smart simple spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of binary mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eman S. Elzanfaly; Ahmed S. Saad; Abd Elaziz B. Abd Elaleem

    2012-01-01

    A new simple spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of drugs with interfering spectra in binary mixtures without previous separation. The new method is based on a simple modification for the ratio subtraction method. This modification enabled wider range of application. The proposed ratio difference method was applied for the determination of brimonidine and timolol in laboratory prepared mixtures with mean percentage recoveries 100.40±2.29 and 101.23± 1.30 respectively, and in their pharmaceutical formulation with mean percentage recoveries 101.08±0.44 and 100.66±0.52 respectively. The suggested ratio difference method was validated according to USP guidelines and can be applied for routine aualitv control testing.

  5. Stability of multiplanet systems in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzari, F.; Gallina, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. When exploring the stability of multiplanet systems in binaries, two parameters are normally exploited: the critical semimajor axis ac computed by Holman & Wiegert (1999, AJ, 117, 621) within which planets are stable against the binary perturbations, and the Hill stability limit Δ determining the minimum separation beyond which two planets will avoid mutual close encounters. Both these parameters are derived in different contexts, i.e. Δ is usually adopted for computing the stability limit of two planets around a single star while ac is computed for a single planet in a binary system. Aims: Our aim is to test whether these two parameters can be safely applied in multiplanet systems in binaries or if their predictions fail for particular binary orbital configurations. Methods: We have used the frequency map analysis (FMA) to measure the diffusion of orbits in the phase space as an indicator of chaotic behaviour. Results: First we revisited the reliability of the empirical formula computing ac in the case of single planets in binaries and we find that, in some cases, it underestimates by 10-20% the real outer limit of stability and it does not account for planets trapped in resonance with the companion star well beyond ac. For two-planet systems, the value of Δ is close to that computed for planets around single stars, but the level of chaoticity close to it substantially increases for smaller semimajor axes and higher eccentricities of the binary orbit. In these configurations ac also begins to be unreliable and non-linear secular resonances with the stellar companion lead to chaotic behaviour well within ac, even for single planet systems. For two planet systems, the superposition of mean motion resonances, either mutual or with the binary companion, and non-linear secular resonances may lead to chaotic behaviour in all cases. We have developed a parametric semi-empirical formula determining the minimum value of the binary semimajor axis, for a given

  6. RESEARCH ON FEATURE POINTS EXTRACTION METHOD FOR BINARY MULTISCALE AND ROTATION INVARIANT LOCAL FEATURE DESCRIPTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Ying

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An extreme point of scale space extraction method for binary multiscale and rotation invariant local feature descriptor is studied in this paper in order to obtain a robust and fast method for local image feature descriptor. Classic local feature description algorithms often select neighborhood information of feature points which are extremes of image scale space, obtained by constructing the image pyramid using certain signal transform method. But build the image pyramid always consumes a large amount of computing and storage resources, is not conducive to the actual applications development. This paper presents a dual multiscale FAST algorithm, it does not need to build the image pyramid, but can extract feature points of scale extreme quickly. Feature points extracted by proposed method have the characteristic of multiscale and rotation Invariant and are fit to construct the local feature descriptor.

  7. A method for precise charge reconstruction with pixel detectors using binary hit information

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, David-Leon; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hügging, Fabian; Wermes, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented to precisely reconstruct charge spectra with pixel detectors using binary hit information of individual pixels. The method is independent of the charge information provided by the readout circuitry and has a resolution mainly limited by the electronic noise. It relies on the ability to change the detection threshold in small steps while counting hits from a particle source. The errors are addressed and the performance of the method is shown based on measurements with the ATLAS pixel chip FE-I4 bump bonded to a 230 {\\mu}m 3D-silicon sensor. Charge spectra from radioactive sources and from electron beams are presented serving as examples. It is demonstrated that a charge resolution ({\\sigma}<200 e) close to the electronic noise of the ATLAS FE-I4 pixel chip can be achieved.

  8. Binary dynamics near a massive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Hopman, Clovis

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the dynamical evolution of binary stars that interact with a static background of single stars in the environment of a massive black hole (MBH). All stars are considered to be single mass, Newtonian point particles. We follow the evolution of the energy E and angular momentum J of the center of mass of the binaries with respect to the MBH, as well as their internal semi-major axis a, using a Monte Carlo method. For a system like the Galactic center, the main conclusions are the following: (1) The binary fraction can be of the order of a few percent outside 0.1 pc, but decreases quickly closer to the MBH. (2) Within ~0.1 pc, binaries can only exist on eccentric orbits with apocenters much further away from the MBH. (3) Far away from the MBH, loss-cone effects are the dominant mechanism that disrupts binaries with internal velocities close to the velocity dispersion. Closer to the MBH, three-body encounters are more effective in disrupting binaries. (4) The rate at which hard binaries become tighter ...

  9. Different spectrophotometric methods applied for the analysis of binary mixture of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Three different spectrophotometric methods were applied for the quantitative analysis of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in their binary mixture, namely, ratio subtraction, absorbance subtraction and amplitude modulation. A comparative study was done listing the advantages and the disadvantages of each method. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines and the obtained accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can be used for the routine analysis of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in their binary mixtures.

  10. Novel spectroscopic methods for determination of Cromolyn sodium and Oxymetazoline hydrochloride in binary mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El-Kosasy, A. M.; Magdy, N.; El Zahar, N. M.

    2014-10-01

    New accurate, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and subsequently validated for determination of Cromolyn sodium (CS) and Oxymetazoline HCl (OXY) in binary mixture. These methods include ‘H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) and area under the curve (AUC)' spectrophotometric method and first derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic (FDSFS) method. For spectrophotometric methods, absorbances were recorded at 241.5 nm and 274.9 nm for HPSAM and the wavelength was selected in ranges 232.0-254.0 nm and 216.0-229.0 nm for AUC method, where the concentration was obtained by applying Cramer's rule. For FDSFS method, the first-derivative synchronous fluorescence signal was measured at 290.0 nm, using Δλ = 145.0 nm. The suggested methods were validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that they were precise and reproducible. All the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method and there was no significant difference.

  11. A New Method for the Detections of Multiple Faults Using Binary Decision Diagrams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Zhongliang; CHEN Ling; ZHANG Guangzhao

    2006-01-01

    With the complexity of integrated circuits is continually increasing, a local defect in circuits may cause multiple faults. The behavior of a digital circuit with a multiple fault may significantly differ from that of a single fault. A new method for the detection of multiple faults in digital circuits is presented in this paper, the method is based on binary decision diagram (BDD). First of all, the BDDs for the normal circuit and faulty circuit are built respectively. Secondly, a test BDD is obtained by the XOR operation of the BDDs corresponds to normal circuit and faulty circuit. In the test BDD, each input assignment that leads to the leaf node labeled 1 is a test vector of multiple faults. Therefore, the test set of multiple faults is generated by searching for the type of input assignments in the test BDD. Experimental results on some digital circuits show the feasibility of the approach presented in this paper.

  12. On the graph traversal method for evaluating linear binary-chain programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳军

    1999-01-01

    Grahne et al. have presented a graph algorithm for evaluating a subset of recursive queries. This method consists of two phases. In the first phase, the method transforms a linear binary-chain program into a set of equations over expressions containing predicate symbols. In the second phase, a graph is constructed from the equations and the answers are produced by traversing the relevant paths. A new algorithm is described which requires less time than Grahne’ s. The key idea of the improvement is to reduce the search space that will be traversed when a query is invoked. Further, the evaluation of cyclic data is speeded up by generating most answers directly in terms of the answers already found and the associated "path information" instead of traversing the corresponding paths as usual. In this way, this algorithm achieves a linear time complexity for both acyclic and most of cyclic data.

  13. Validation of different spectrophotometric methods for determination of vildagliptin and metformin in binary mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghany, Maha F.; Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Ayad, Miriam F.; Tadros, Mariam M.

    New, simple, specific, accurate, precise and reproducible spectrophotometric methods have been developed and subsequently validated for determination of vildagliptin (VLG) and metformin (MET) in binary mixture. Zero order spectrophotometric method was the first method used for determination of MET in the range of 2-12 μg mL-1 by measuring the absorbance at 237.6 nm. The second method was derivative spectrophotometric technique; utilized for determination of MET at 247.4 nm, in the range of 1-12 μg mL-1. Derivative ratio spectrophotometric method was the third technique; used for determination of VLG in the range of 4-24 μg mL-1 at 265.8 nm. Fourth and fifth methods adopted for determination of VLG in the range of 4-24 μg mL-1; were ratio subtraction and mean centering spectrophotometric methods, respectively. All the results were statistically compared with the reported methods, using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The developed methods were satisfactorily applied to analysis of the investigated drugs and proved to be specific and accurate for quality control of them in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  14. Enhanced method for the generation of binary Fresnel holograms based on grid-cross downsampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. K. Cheung; Peter Tsang; T. C. Poon; Changhe Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated that digital Fresnel holograms can be binarized in a non-iterative manner by downsampling the source image with a grid lattice prior to the hologram generation process. The reconstructed image of a hologram that is binarized with this approach is superior in quality compared with that obtained with direct thresholding, half-toning, and error diffusion. Despite the success, the downsampling mechanism results in a prominent texture of regularly spaced voids in the shaded regions. To alleviate this problem, an enhanced non-iterative method for the generation of binary Fresnel holograms is presented. Our method is based on a multi-direction line-sampling formed by a combined grid and cross lattice, which is capable of preserving a more solid texture in the shaded regions and enhancing the visual quality of the reconstructed image. Computer simulations and optical reconstructions are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed technique.%Past research has demonstrated that digital Fresnel holograms can be binarized in a non-iterative manner by downsampling the source image with a grid lattice prior to the hologram generation process.The reconstructed image of a hologram that is binarized with this approach is superior in quality compared with that obtained with direct thresholding,half-toning,and error diffusion.Despite the success,the downsampling mechanism results in a prominent texture of regularly spaced voids in the shaded regions.To alleviate this problem,an enhanced non-iterative method for the generation of binary Fresnel holograms is presented.Our method is based on a multi-direction line-sampling formed by a combined grid and cross lattice,which is capable of preserving a more solid texture in the shaded regions and enhancing the visual quality of the reconstructed image.Computer simulations and optical reconstructions are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed technique.

  15. Encounters with immigrant customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the challenges that Danish community pharmacy staff encounter when serving non-Western immigrant customers. Special attention was paid to similarities and differences between the perceptions of pharmacists and pharmacy assistants. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed...... to one pharmacist and one pharmacy assistant employed at each of the 55 community pharmacies located in the five local councils in Denmark with the highest number of immigrant inhabitants. KEY FINDINGS: The total response rate was 76% (84/110). Most respondents found that the needs of immigrant customers...... interval, CI, 1.27-8.04). Forty-two per cent (n = 35) perceived that immigrant customers put pressure on pharmacy staff resources, while 27% (n = 23) found that the immigrant customer group make work more interesting. More pharmacists than assistants agreed on the latter (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1...

  16. Evolution of Binaries in Dense Stellar Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanova, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the field, the binaries in dense stellar systems are frequently not primordial, and could be either dynamically formed or significantly altered from their primordial states. Destruction and formation of binaries occur in parallel all the time. The destruction, which constantly removes soft binaries from a binary pool, works as an energy sink and could be a reason for cluster entering the binary-burning phase. The true binary fraction is greater than observed, as a result, the observable binary fraction evolves differently from the predictions. Combined measurements of binary fractions in globular clusters suggest that most of the clusters are still core-contracting. The formation, on other hand, affects most the more evolutionary advanced stars, which significantly enhances the population of X-ray sources in globular clusters. The formation of binaries with a compact objects proceeds mainly through physical collisions, binary-binary and single-binary encounters; however, it is the dynamical for...

  17. Probe hybridization array typing: a binary typing method for Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, U; Zhang, L; France, A M; Ghosh, D; Shalaby, W; Xie, J; Marrs, C F; Foxman, B

    2007-01-01

    The ability to distinguish between Escherichia coli strains is critical for outbreak investigations. Binary typing, based on the presence or absence of genetic material, provides a high-throughput alternative to gel- and PCR-based typing techniques that generate complex banding patterns and lack uniform interpretation criteria. We developed, validated, and determined the discriminatory power of an E. coli binary typing method, probe hybridization array typing (PHAT). In PHAT, the absence or presence of genetic material is identified by using DNA hybridization to produce a reproducible and portable fingerprint for each genome. PHAT probes were generated from genome subtractive hybridization experiments. We PHAT typed the ECOR collection of strains from a variety of geographical locations, and 33 rectal E. coli strains selected from college-aged women with urinary tract infection. In the set of 33 human rectal strains, the discriminatory power of PHAT (98%) equaled that of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, for ECOR strains, which include nonhuman strains, the current set of PHAT probes was less discriminating than MLST, ribotyping, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (80% versus 97, 92, and 97%, respectively). When we limited the analysis to ECOR strains of B2 and D lineage, which are associated with human infection, current PHAT probes were highly discriminatory (94%). PHAT can be applied in a high-throughput format (i.e., "library on a slide"), the discriminatory ability can be varied based on the probe set, and PHAT is readily adapted to other bacterial species with high variation in genetic content.

  18. Five different spectrophotometric methods for determination of Amprolium hydrochloride and Ethopabate binary mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Lobna A.; Magdy, N.; Abbas, Mahmoud M.

    2015-03-01

    Five simple, specific, accurate and precise UV-spectrophotometric methods are adopted for the simultaneous determination of Amprolium hydrochloride (AMP) and Ethopabate (ETH), a binary mixture with overlapping spectra, without preliminary separation. The first method is first derivative of the ratio spectra (1DD) for determination of AMP and ETH at 234.7 nm and 306.8 nm respectively with mean percentage recoveries 99.76 ± 0.907 and 100.29 ± 0.842 respectively. The second method is the mean centering of the ratio spectra for determination of AMP and ETH at 238.8 nm and 313 nm respectively with mean percentage recoveries 100.26 ± 1.018 and 99.94 ± 1.286 respectively. The third method is based on dual wavelength selection for determination of AMP and ETH at 235.3 nm & 308 nm and 244 nm & 268.4 nm respectively with mean percentage recoveries 99.30 ± 1.097 and 100.03 ± 1.065 respectively. The fourth method is ratio difference method for determination of AMP and ETH at 239 nm & 310 nm and 239 nm & 313 nm respectively with mean percentage recoveries 99.27 ± 0.892 and 100.40 ± 1.814 respectively. The fifth one is area under the curve (AUC) method where the areas between 235.6-243 nm and 268.3-275 nm are selected for determination of AMP and ETH with mean percentage recoveries 100.35 ± 1.031 and 100.39 ± 0.956 respectively. These methods are tested by analyzing synthetic mixtures of the two drugs and they are applied to their pharmaceutical veterinary preparation. Methods are validated according to the ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision and repeatability are found to be within the acceptable limit.

  19. Gravitational Radiation Damping and Evolution of the Orbit of Compact Binary Stars (Solution by the Second Perturbation Method)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lin-Sen Li

    2014-06-01

    The influence of the gravitational radiation damping on the evolution of the orbital elements of compact binary stars is examined by using the method of perturbation. The perturbation equations with the true anomaly as an independent variable are given. This effect results in both the secular and periodic variation of the semi-major axis, the eccentricity, the mean longitude at the epoch and the mean longitude. However, the longitude of periastron exhibits no secular variation, but only periodic variation. The effect of secular variation of the orbit would lead to collapse of the system of binary stars. The deduced formulae are applied to the calculation of secular variation of the orbital elements for three compact binary stars: PSR 1913+16, PSR J0737-3039 and M33X-7. The results obtained are discussed.

  20. A method to estimate the significance of coincident gravitational-wave observations from compact binary coalescence

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, Kipp; Keppel, Drew

    2012-01-01

    Coalescing compact binary systems consisting of neutron stars and/or black holes should be detectable with upcoming advanced gravitational-wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo, GEO and {KAGRA}. Gravitational-wave experiments to date have been riddled with non-Gaussian, non-stationary noise that makes it challenging to ascertain the significance of an event. A popular method to estimate significance is to time shift the events collected between detectors in order to establish a false coincidence rate. Here we propose a method for estimating the false alarm probability of events using variables commonly available to search candidates that does not rely on explicitly time shifting the events while still capturing the non-Gaussianity of the data. We present a method for establishing a statistical detection of events in the case where several silver-plated (3--5$\\sigma$) events exist but not necessarily any gold-plated ($>5\\sigma$) events. We use LIGO data and a simulated, realistic, blind signal population to test ...

  1. Force-Field Based Quasi-Chemical Method for Rapid Evaluation of Binary Phase Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweere, Augustinus J M; Fraaije, Johannes G E M

    2015-11-05

    We present the Pair Configurations to Molecular Activity Coefficients (PAC-MAC) method. The method is based on the pair sampling technique of Blanco (Fan, C. F.; Olafson, B. D.; Blanco, M.; Hsu, S. L. Application of Molecular Simulation to Derive Phase Diagrams of Binary Mixtures. Macromolecules 1992, 25, 3667-3676) with an extension that takes the packing of the molecules into account by a free energy model. The intermolecular energy is calculated using classical force fields. PAC-MAC is able to predict activity coefficients and corresponding vapor-liquid equilibrium diagrams at least 4 orders of magnitude faster than molecular simulations. The accuracy of the PAC-MAC method is tested by comparing the results with experimental data and with the results of the COSMO-SAC model (Lin, S.-T.; Sandler, S. I. A Priori Phase Equilibrium Prediction from a Segment Contribution Solvation Model. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2002, 41, 899-913). PAC-MAC (using the OPLS-aa force field) is shown to be comparable in accuracy to COSMO-SAC, at the considerable advantage that PAC-MAC in principle does not require quantum calculation, provided proper force fields to be available.

  2. Unsupervised frequency-recognition method of SSVEPs using a filter bank implementation of binary subband CCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiul Islam, Md; Khademul Islam Molla, Md; Nakanishi, Masaki; Tanaka, Toshihisa

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Recently developed effective methods for detection commands of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain–computer interface (BCI) that need calibration for visual stimuli, which cause more time and fatigue prior to the use, as the number of commands increases. This paper develops a novel unsupervised method based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) for accurate detection of stimulus frequency. Approach. A novel unsupervised technique termed as binary subband CCA (BsCCA) is implemented in a multiband approach to enhance the frequency recognition performance of SSVEP. In BsCCA, two subbands are used and a CCA-based correlation coefficient is computed for the individual subbands. In addition, a reduced set of artificial reference signals is used to calculate CCA for the second subband. The analyzing SSVEP is decomposed into multiple subband and the BsCCA is implemented for each one. Then, the overall recognition score is determined by a weighted sum of the canonical correlation coefficients obtained from each band. Main results. A 12-class SSVEP dataset (frequency range: 9.25–14.75 Hz with an interval of 0.5 Hz) for ten healthy subjects are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The results suggest that BsCCA significantly improves the performance of SSVEP-based BCI compared to the state-of-the-art methods. The proposed method is an unsupervised approach with averaged information transfer rate (ITR) of 77.04 bits min‑1 across 10 subjects. The maximum individual ITR is 107.55 bits min‑1 for 12-class SSVEP dataset, whereas, the ITR of 69.29 and 69.44 bits min‑1 are achieved with CCA and NCCA respectively. Significance. The statistical test shows that the proposed unsupervised method significantly improves the performance of the SSVEP-based BCI. It can be usable in real world applications.

  3. Dental Encounter System (DES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  4. Dynamical Evolution of Wide Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda H. Mallada

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulate numerically encounters of wide binaries with field stars and Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs by means of the impulse approximation. We analyze the time evolution of the distributions of eccentricities and semimajor axes of wide binaries with given initial conditions, at intervals of 109 yr, up to 1010 yr (assumed age of the Galaxy. We compute the fraction of surviving binaries for stellar encounters, for GMC encounters and for a combination of both, and hence, the dynamical lifetime for different semimajor axes and different masses of binaries (0.5, 1, 1.2, 1.5, 2.5, and 3 Msolar. We find that the dynamical lifetime of wide binaries considering only GMCs is half than that considering only stars. For encounters with GMCs we analyze the influence of the initial inclination of the orbital plane of the binary with respect to the plane perpendicular to the relative velocity vector of the binary and the GMC. We find that the perturbation is maximum when the angle is minimum.

  5. Quantitative Characterization of the Toxicities of Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr Binary Mixtures Using Combination Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Mo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct equipartition ray design was used to construct Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr binary mixtures. Microplate toxicity analysis was used to evaluate the toxicity of individual substance and the Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr mixtures on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Selenastrum capricornutum. The interacting toxicity of the mixture was analyzed with concentration addition (CA model. In addition, combination index method (CI was proposed and used to quantitatively characterize the toxicity of the binary mixtures of Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr observed in experiment and find the degree of deviation from the predicted outcome of the CA model, that is, the intensity of interacting toxicity. Results indicate that most of the 20 binary mixtures exhibit enhancing and synergistic effect, and only Cd-Cr-R4 and Cd-Cr-R5 mixtures have relatively high antagonistic effects against C. pyrenoidosa. Based on confidence interval, CI can compare the intensities of interaction of the mixtures under varying levels of effect. The characterization methods are applicable for analyzing binary mixture with complex interaction.

  6. Comparison of the accuracy of two conventional phenotypic methods and two MALDI-TOF MS systems with that of DNA sequencing analysis for correctly identifying clinically encountered yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Qiao-Ting; Lee, Tai-Fen; Teng, Shih-Hua; Peng, Li-Yun; Chen, Ping-Hung; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the accuracy of species-level identification of two commercially available matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) systems (Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS) and two conventional phenotypic methods (Phoenix 100 YBC and Vitek 2 Yeast ID) with that of rDNA gene sequencing analysis among 200 clinical isolates of commonly encountered yeasts. The correct identification rates of the 200 yeast isolates to species or complex (Candida parapsilosis complex, C. guilliermondii complex and C. rugosa complex) levels by the Bruker Biotyper, Vitek MS (using in vitro devices [IVD] database), Phoenix 100 YBC and Vitek 2 Yeast ID (Sabouraud's dextrose agar) systems were 92.5%, 79.5%, 89%, and 74%, respectively. An additional 72 isolates of C. parapsilosis complex and 18 from the above 200 isolates (30 in each of C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis) were also evaluated separately. Bruker Biotyper system could accurately identify all C. parapsilosis complex to species level. Using Vitek 2 MS (IVD) system, all C. parapsilosis but none of C. metapsilosis, or C. orthopsilosis could be accurately identified. Among the 89 yeasts misidentified by the Vitek 2 MS (IVD) system, 39 (43.8%), including 27 C. orthopsilosis isolates, could be correctly identified Using the Vitek MS Plus SARAMIS database for research use only. This resulted in an increase in the rate of correct identification of all yeast isolates (87.5%) by Vitek 2 MS. The two species in C. guilliermondii complex (C. guilliermondii and C. fermentati) isolates were correctly identified by cluster analysis of spectra generated by the Bruker Biotyper system. Based on the results obtained in the current study, MALDI-TOF MS systems present a promising alternative for the routine identification of yeast species, including clinically commonly and rarely encountered yeast species and several species belonging to C. parapsilosis complex, C. guilliermondii complex

  7. Comparison of the accuracy of two conventional phenotypic methods and two MALDI-TOF MS systems with that of DNA sequencing analysis for correctly identifying clinically encountered yeasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Ting Chao

    Full Text Available We assessed the accuracy of species-level identification of two commercially available matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS systems (Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS and two conventional phenotypic methods (Phoenix 100 YBC and Vitek 2 Yeast ID with that of rDNA gene sequencing analysis among 200 clinical isolates of commonly encountered yeasts. The correct identification rates of the 200 yeast isolates to species or complex (Candida parapsilosis complex, C. guilliermondii complex and C. rugosa complex levels by the Bruker Biotyper, Vitek MS (using in vitro devices [IVD] database, Phoenix 100 YBC and Vitek 2 Yeast ID (Sabouraud's dextrose agar systems were 92.5%, 79.5%, 89%, and 74%, respectively. An additional 72 isolates of C. parapsilosis complex and 18 from the above 200 isolates (30 in each of C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis were also evaluated separately. Bruker Biotyper system could accurately identify all C. parapsilosis complex to species level. Using Vitek 2 MS (IVD system, all C. parapsilosis but none of C. metapsilosis, or C. orthopsilosis could be accurately identified. Among the 89 yeasts misidentified by the Vitek 2 MS (IVD system, 39 (43.8%, including 27 C. orthopsilosis isolates, could be correctly identified Using the Vitek MS Plus SARAMIS database for research use only. This resulted in an increase in the rate of correct identification of all yeast isolates (87.5% by Vitek 2 MS. The two species in C. guilliermondii complex (C. guilliermondii and C. fermentati isolates were correctly identified by cluster analysis of spectra generated by the Bruker Biotyper system. Based on the results obtained in the current study, MALDI-TOF MS systems present a promising alternative for the routine identification of yeast species, including clinically commonly and rarely encountered yeast species and several species belonging to C. parapsilosis complex, C. guilliermondii

  8. The clinical encounter revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattner, Ami

    2014-04-01

    The patient-physician encounter is the pivotal starting point of any healthcare delivery, but it is subject to multiple process breakdowns and prevalent suboptimal performance. An overview of the techniques and components of a successful encounter valid for every setting and readily applicable is presented, stressing 7 rules: (1) ensuring optimal environment, tools, and teamwork; (2) viewing each encounter not only as a cognitive/biomedical challenge, but also as a personal one, and a learning opportunity; (3) adopting an attitude of curiosity, concentration, compassion, and commitment, and maintaining a systematic, orderly approach; (4) "simple is beautiful"-making the most of the basic clinical data and their many unique advantages; (5) minding "the silent dimension"-being attentive to the patient's identity and emotions; (6) following the "Holy Trinity" of gathering all information, consulting databases/colleagues, and tailoring gained knowledge to the individual patient; and (7) using the encounter as a "window of opportunity" to further the patient's health-not just the major problem, by addressing screening and prevention; promoting health literacy and shared decision-making; and establishing proper follow-up. Barriers to implementation identified can be overcome by continuous educational interventions. A high-quality encounter sets a virtuous cycle of patient-provider interaction and results in increasing satisfaction, adherence, and improved health outcomes.

  9. Ole Romer's method still on the stage. The study of two bound eclipsing binaries in quintuple system V994 Her

    CERN Document Server

    Zasche, P; 10.1093/mnras/sts616

    2013-01-01

    More than three hundred years ago, Ole Romer measured the speed of light only by observing the periodic shifting of the observed eclipse arrival times of Jupiter's moons arising from the varying Earth-Jupiter distance. The same method of measuring the periodic modulation of delays is still used in astrophysics. The ideal laboratories for this effect are eclipsing binaries. The unique system V994 Her consists of two eclipsing binaries orbiting each other. However, until now it was not certain whether these are gravitationally bound and what their orbital period is. We show that the system is in fact quintuple and the two eclipsing binaries are orbiting each other with period about 6.3 years. This analysis was made only from studying the periodic modulation of the two periods, when during the periastron passage one binary has an apparently shorter period, while the other one longer, exactly as required by a theory. Additionally, it was found that both inner eclipsing pairs orbit with slightly eccentric orbits u...

  10. Mining information from binary black hole mergers: a comparison of estimation methods for complex exponentials in noise

    CERN Document Server

    Berti, E; González, J A; Sperhake, U; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The ringdown phase following a binary black hole merger is usually assumed to be well described by a linear superposition of complex exponentials (quasinormal modes). In the strong-field conditions typical of a binary black hole merger, non-linear effects may produce mode coupling. Mode coupling can also be induced by the black hole's rotation, or by expanding the radiation field in terms of spin-weighted spherical harmonics (rather than spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics). Observing deviations from the predictions of linear black hole perturbation theory requires optimal fitting techniques to extract ringdown parameters from numerical waveforms, which are inevitably affected by numerical error. So far, non-linear least-squares fitting methods have been used as the standard workhorse to extract frequencies from ringdown waveforms. These methods are known not to be optimal for estimating parameters of complex exponentials. Furthermore, different fitting methods have different performance in the presence of noi...

  11. Binary mask programmable hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, T-C; Zhou, Changhe; Cheung, K W K

    2012-11-19

    We report, for the first time, the concept and generation of a novel Fresnel hologram called the digital binary mask programmable hologram (BMPH). A BMPH is comprised of a static, high resolution binary grating that is overlaid with a lower resolution binary mask. The reconstructed image of the BMPH can be programmed to approximate a target image (including both intensity and depth information) by configuring the pattern of the binary mask with a simple genetic algorithm (SGA). As the low resolution binary mask can be realized with less stringent display technology, our method enables the development of simple and economical holographic video display.

  12. Brief encounter networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kostakos, Vassilis; Penn, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Many complex human and natural phenomena can usefully be represented as networks describing the relationships between individuals. While these relationships are typically intermittent, previous research has used network representations that aggregate the relationships at discrete intervals. However, such an aggregation discards important temporal information, thus inhibiting our understanding of the networks dynamic behaviour and evolution. We have recorded patterns of human urban encounter using Bluetooth technology thus retaining the temporal properties of this network. Here we show how this temporal information influences the structural properties of the network. We show that the temporal properties of human urban encounter are scale-free, leading to an overwhelming proportion of brief encounters between individuals. While previous research has shown preferential attachment to result in scale-free connectivity in aggregated network data, we found that scale-free connectivity results from the temporal prope...

  13. Universal data-based method for reconstructing complex networks with binary-state dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingwen; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Grebogi, Celso; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2017-03-01

    To understand, predict, and control complex networked systems, a prerequisite is to reconstruct the network structure from observable data. Despite recent progress in network reconstruction, binary-state dynamics that are ubiquitous in nature, technology, and society still present an outstanding challenge in this field. Here we offer a framework for reconstructing complex networks with binary-state dynamics by developing a universal data-based linearization approach that is applicable to systems with linear, nonlinear, discontinuous, or stochastic dynamics governed by monotonic functions. The linearization procedure enables us to convert the network reconstruction into a sparse signal reconstruction problem that can be resolved through convex optimization. We demonstrate generally high reconstruction accuracy for a number of complex networks associated with distinct binary-state dynamics from using binary data contaminated by noise and missing data. Our framework is completely data driven, efficient, and robust, and does not require any a priori knowledge about the detailed dynamical process on the network. The framework represents a general paradigm for reconstructing, understanding, and exploiting complex networked systems with binary-state dynamics.

  14. Identifying familiar strangers in human encounter networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Yi-Qing

    2016-10-01

    Familiar strangers, pairs of individuals who encounter repeatedly but never know each other, have been discovered for four decades yet lack an effective method to identify. Here we propose a novel method called familiar stranger classifier (FSC) to identify familiar strangers from three empirical datasets, and classify human relationships into four types, i.e., familiar stranger (FS), in-role (IR), friend (F) and stranger (S). The analyses of the human encounter networks show that the average number of FS one may encounter is finite but larger than the Dunbar Number, and their encounters are structurally more stable and denser than those of S, indicating the encounters of FS are not limited by the social capacity, and more robust than the random scenario. Moreover, the temporal statistics of encounters between FS over the whole time span show strong periodicity, which are diverse from the bursts of encounters within one day, suggesting the significance of longitudinal patterns of human encounters. The proposed method to identify FS in this paper provides a valid framework to understand human encounter patterns and analyse complex human social behaviors.

  15. Strange culinary encounters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan; Kjær, Katrine Meldgaard

    2015-01-01

    the ‘other’ food cultures in these programs, paying special attention to how the encounter with the local Indian and Italian is imagined to be a gateway to an authentic and/or primitive experience. Our main argument is that despite Jamie and Gordon's ‘noble’ intentions and their ‘enlightened’ cosmopolitan......In this article, we examine the ways in which the encountering of 'other' food cultures is played out in the two travelogue cooking shows Gordon's Great Escape and Jamie's Italian Escape. We investigate how the two protagonist chefs Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay imagine, meet and evaluate...

  16. Encounters in cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Based on extensive ethnographic material from in-depth interviews with Danish cancer patients after treatment, this study analyzes their stories to explore how interactions with the physician configures and situates a need for rehabilitation. We identify three themes in the illness stories: (1...... by this encounter. The significance of the social encounters in cancer treatment is elucidated through this analysis, and we demonstrate how the need for recognition of the complex effects of cancer on one's life is central to counter experiences of objectification and dehumanization....

  17. EXTRASOLAR BINARY PLANETS. II. DETECTABILITY BY TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, K. M.; Ida, S. [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ochiai, H. [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Nagasawa, M., E-mail: nagasawa.m.ad@m.titech.ac.jp [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2015-05-20

    We discuss the detectability of gravitationally bound pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call “binary planets”) in extrasolar planetary systems that are formed through orbital instability followed by planet–planet dynamical tides during their close encounters, based on the results of N-body simulations by Ochiai et al. (Paper I). Paper I showed that the formation probability of a binary is as much as ∼10% for three giant planet systems that undergo orbital instability, and after post-capture long-term tidal evolution, the typical binary separation is three to five times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. The binary planets are stable during the main-sequence lifetime of solar-type stars, if the stellarcentric semimajor axis of the binary is larger than 0.3 AU. We show that detecting modulations of transit light curves is the most promising observational method to detect binary planets. Since the likely binary separations are comparable to the stellar diameter, the shape of the transit light curve is different from transit to transit, depending on the phase of the binary’s orbit. The transit durations and depth for binary planet transits are generally longer and deeper than those for the single planet case. We point out that binary planets could exist among the known inflated gas-giant planets or objects classified as false positive detections at orbital radii ≳0.3 AU, propose a binary planet explanation for the CoRoT candidate SRc01 E2 1066, and show that binary planets are likely to be present in, and could be detected using, Kepler-quality data.

  18. Evaporation of Binary Sessile Drops: Infrared and Acoustic Methods To Track Alcohol Concentration at the Interface and on the Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin; Toubal, Malika; Carlier, Julien; Harmand, Souad; Nongaillard, Bertrand; Bigerelle, Maxence

    2016-09-27

    Evaporation of droplets of three pure liquids (water, 1-butanol, and ethanol) and four binary solutions (5 wt % 1-butanol-water-based solution and 5, 25, and 50 wt % ethanol-water-based solutions) deposited on hydrophobic silicon was investigated. A drop shape analyzer was used to measure the contact angle, diameter, and volume of the droplets. An infrared camera was used for infrared thermal mapping of the droplet's surface. An acoustic high-frequency echography technique was, for the first time, applied to track the alcohol concentration in a binary-solution droplet. Evaporation of pure alcohol droplets was executed at different values of relative humidity (RH), among which the behavior of pure ethanol evaporation was notably influenced by the ambient humidity as a result of high hygrometry. Evaporation of droplets of water and binary solutions was performed at a temperature of 22 °C and a mean humidity of approximately 50%. The exhaustion times of alcohol in the droplets estimated by the acoustic method and the visual method were similar for the water-1-butanol mixture; however, the time estimated by the acoustic method was longer when compared with that estimated by the visual method for the water-ethanol mixture due to the residual ethanol at the bottom of the droplet.

  19. Global Diabetes Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Nielsen, Annegrete; Langstrup, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    As already recognized, though little theorized within International Relations, the capacity of technology to ensure the achievement of preset policy goals is often grossly overrated. Drawing on Science and Technology Studies, this chapter proposes a lens to investigate global encounters, which ta...

  20. Strange culinary encounters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan; Kjær, Katrine Meldgaard

    2015-01-01

    the ‘other’ food cultures in these programs, paying special attention to how the encounter with the local Indian and Italian is imagined to be a gateway to an authentic and/or primitive experience. Our main argument is that despite Jamie and Gordon's ‘noble’ intentions and their ‘enlightened’ cosmopolitan...

  1. Communication in medical encounters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensing, J.M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide a theoretical and empirical basis for the concept of communication as the core instrument in the medical encounter. Adequate communication, embedded in a warm and caring relationship, has always been recognized as essential to the concept of good doctoring, but

  2. A Lakatosian Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Helen

    2010-01-01

    There is much to be learned and pondered by reading "Proofs and Refutations," by Imre Lakatos. It highlights the importance of mathematical definitions, and how definitions evolve to capture the essence of the object they are defining. It also provides an exhilarating encounter with the ups and downs of the mathematical reasoning process, where…

  3. Seven new binaries discovered in the Kepler light curves through the BEER method confirmed by radial-velocity observations

    CERN Document Server

    Faigler, S; Quinn, S N; Latham, D W; Tal-Or, L

    2011-01-01

    We present seven newly discovered non-eclipsing short-period binary systems with low-mass companions, identified by the recently introduced BEER algorithm, applied to the publicly available 138-day photometric light curves obtained by the Kepler mission. The detection is based on the beaming effect (sometimes called Doppler boosting), which increases (decreases) the brightness of any light source approaching (receding from) the observer, enabling a prediction of the stellar Doppler radial-velocity modulation from its precise photometry. The BEER algorithm identifies the BEaming periodic modulation, with a combination of the well known Ellipsoidal and Reflection/heating periodic effects, induced by short-period companions. The seven detections were confirmed by spectroscopic radial-velocity follow-up observations, indicating minimum secondary masses in the range of 0.07-0.4 Msun. The discovered binaries establish for the first time the feasibility of the BEER algorithm as a new detection method for short-perio...

  4. Raman Spectroscopy as the Method of Detection for Constructing a Binary Liquid-Vapor Phase Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardino, Debra J.; Howard, Austin A.; McDowell, Matthew D.; Hammer, Nathan I.

    2011-01-01

    The physical chemistry laboratory is sometimes constrained to one semester, resulting in pedagogical deficiencies for the students taking the course. The use of a multidimensional laboratory exercise offers students the opportunity to encounter multiple experimental techniques and physical chemistry concepts while not sacrificing a significant…

  5. Markov-Binary Visibility Graph: a new method for analyzing Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sadra, Yaser; Ahadpour, Sodief

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we introduce a new and simple transformation from time series to complex networks based on markov-binary visibility graph(MBVG). Due to the simple structure of this transformation in comparison with other transformations be obtained more precise results. Moreover, several topological aspects of the constructed graph, such as degree distribution, clustering coefficient, and mean visibility length have been thoroughly investigated. Numerical simulations confirm the reliability of markov-binary visibility graph for time series analysis. This algorithm have the capability of distinguishing between uncorrelated and correlated systems. Finaly, we illustrate this algorithm analyzing the human heartbeat dynamics. The results indicate that the human heartbeat (RR-interval) time series of normally, Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and Atrial Fibrillation (AF) subjects are uncorrelated, chaotic and correlated stochastic systems, respectively.

  6. Methods for Reducing False Alarms in Searches for Compact Binary Coalescences in LIGO Data

    CERN Document Server

    Slutsky, J; Brown, D A; Cadonati, L; Cain, J; Cavaglià, M; Chatterji, S; Christensen, N; Coughlin, M; Desai, S; González, G; Isogai, T; Katsavounidis, E; Rankins, B; Reed, T; Riles, K; Shawhan, P; Smith, J R; Zotov, N; Zweizig, J

    2010-01-01

    The LIGO detectors are sensitive to a variety of noise transients of non-astrophysical origin. Instrumental glitches and environmental disturbances increase the false alarm rate in the searches for gravitational waves. Using times already identified when the interferometers produced data of questionable quality, or when the channels that monitor the interferometer indicated non-stationarity, we have developed techniques to safely and effectively veto false triggers from the compact binary coalescences (CBCs) search pipeline.

  7. Methods for reducing false alarms in searches for compact binary coalescences in LIGO data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slutsky, J; Gonzalez, G [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Blackburn, L; Katsavounidis, E [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Brown, D A; Smith, J R [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1130 (United States); Cadonati, L [University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Cain, J; Cavaglia, M; Rankins, B [University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States); Chatterji, S; Zweizig, J [California Institute of Technology, Pasedena, CA 91125 (United States); Christensen, N; Coughlin, M; Isogai, T [Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); Desai, S [NCSA at University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Reed, T; Zotov, N [Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Riles, K [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shawhan, P, E-mail: jsluts@tigers.lsu.ed [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-08-21

    The LIGO detectors are sensitive to a variety of noise transients of non-astrophysical origin. Instrumental glitches and environmental disturbances increase the false alarm rate in the searches for gravitational waves. Using times already identified when the interferometers produced data of questionable quality, or when the channels that monitor the interferometer indicated non-stationarity, we have developed techniques to safely and effectively veto false triggers from the compact binary coalescences search pipeline.

  8. SEVEN NEW BINARIES DISCOVERED IN THE KEPLER LIGHT CURVES THROUGH THE BEER METHOD CONFIRMED BY RADIAL-VELOCITY OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faigler, S.; Mazeh, T.; Tal-Or, L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Quinn, S. N.; Latham, D. W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    We present seven newly discovered non-eclipsing short-period binary systems with low-mass companions, identified by the recently introduced BEER algorithm, applied to the publicly available 138-day photometric light curves obtained by the Kepler mission. The detection is based on the beaming effect (sometimes called Doppler boosting), which increases (decreases) the brightness of any light source approaching (receding from) the observer, enabling a prediction of the stellar Doppler radial-velocity (RV) modulation from its precise photometry. The BEER algorithm identifies the BEaming periodic modulation, with a combination of the well-known Ellipsoidal and Reflection/heating periodic effects, induced by short-period companions. The seven detections were confirmed by spectroscopic RV follow-up observations, indicating minimum secondary masses in the range 0.07-0.4 M{sub Sun }. The binaries discovered establish for the first time the feasibility of the BEER algorithm as a new detection method for short-period non-eclipsing binaries, with the potential to detect in the near future non-transiting brown-dwarf secondaries, or even massive planets.

  9. A New Method for the Quick Determination of S-Type and P-Type Habitable Zones in Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaopeng; Cuntz, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    More than 3500 exoplanets have been confirmed nowadays, including a very large number of planets discovered by the Kepler mission. Additional exoplanets are expected to be found by ongoing missions as, e.g., K2 as well as future missions such as TESS. Exoplanets, especially terrestrial planets, located in stellar habitable zones are drawing great attention from the community and the public at large due to their potential for hosting alien life - a prospect that makes the adequate determination of stellar habitable zones an important goal of exoplanetary research. In the local Galactic neighborhood, binary systems occur relatively frequently. Thus, it is the aim of my presentation to offer a method for the quick determination for the existence of habitable zones in binaries. Therefore, fitting formulas for binary habitable zones regarding both S-type and P-type star-planet configurations are provided. Based on previous work in the literature, a joint constraint regarding radiative habitable zones and planetary orbital stability limits is used. Models of stellar habitable zones utilize updated computations for planetary climate models as given by Kopparapu et al. (2013, 2014) [ApJ 765, 131; ApJL 787, L29]. Cases studies showing the quality of the fit formulas, as well as applications to observed systems, are presented as well.

  10. Novel sulI binary vectors enable an inexpensive foliar selection method in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jamison

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfonamide resistance is conferred by the sulI gene found on many Enterobacteriaceae R plasmids and Tn21 type transposons. The sulI gene encodes a sulfonamide insensitive dihydropteroate synthase enzyme required for folate biosynthesis. Transformation of tobacco, potato or Arabidopsis using sulI as a selectable marker generates sulfadiazine-resistant plants. Typically sulI-based selection of transgenic plants is performed on tissue culture media under sterile conditions. Findings A set of novel binary vectors containing a sulI selectable marker expression cassette were constructed and used to generate transgenic Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that the sulI selectable marker can be utilized for direct selection of plants grown in soil with a simple foliar spray application procedure. A highly effective and inexpensive high throughput screening strategy to identify transgenic Arabidopsis without use of tissue culture was developed. Conclusion Novel sulI-containing Agrobacterium binary vectors designed to over-express a gene of interest or to characterize a test promoter in transgenic plants have been constructed. These new vector tools combined with the various beneficial attributes of sulfonamide selection and the simple foliar screening strategy provide an advantageous alternative for plant biotechnology researchers. The set of binary vectors is freely available upon request.

  11. Eclipsing Binary Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, P C C

    2004-01-01

    The first eclipsing binary pulsar, PSR B1957+20, was discovered in 1987. Since then, 13 other eclipsing low-mass binary pulsars have been found, 12 of these are in globular clusters. In this paper we list the known eclipsing binary pulsars and their properties, with special attention to the eclipsing systems in 47 Tuc. We find that there are two fundamentally different groups of eclipsing binary pulsars; separated by their companion masses. The less massive systems (M_c ~ 0.02 M_sun) are a product of predictable stellar evolution in binary pulsars. The systems with more massive companions (M_c ~ 0.2 M_sun) were formed by exchange encounters in globular clusters, and for that reason are exclusive to those environments. This class of systems can be used to learn about the neutron star recycling fraction in the globular clusters actively forming pulsars. We suggest that most of these binary systems are undetectable at radio wavelengths.

  12. Awkward Encounters and Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koning, Juliette; Ooi, Can-Seng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Researchers rarely present accounts of their awkward encounters in ethnographies. Awkwardness, however, does matter and affects the ethnographic accounts we write and our understanding of social situations. The purpose is to bring these hidden sides of organizational ethnography...... (Koning), and visiting an artist village in China (Ooi). Based on analysing their awkwardness, and in the context of a critical assessment of the reflexive turn in ethnography, the authors propose a more inclusive reflexivity. The paper ends with formulating several points supportive of reaching inclusive...

  13. The Idealized Cultural Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull

    ). This paper proposes to study cultural encounters which are organised around ideals of cultural difference as a positive social and political force. The Danish People to People NGO Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke (MS) is build around ideals of equality, co-operation, mutuality and solidarity between people...... framework for an investigation into MS’ organisation of what I have termed ‘the idealized cultural encounter’, while also questioning the ways in which ‘culture’ is envisioned in contexts where ‘encounter’ is seen as a positive and desirable force....

  14. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  15. Reconsidering Children's Encounters with Nature and Place Using Posthumanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article explores and reconsiders the view of children's encounters with place as central to a place-based pedagogy that seeks to dismantle rather than support constructions of a nature-culture binary. I unpack the current fervour for reinserting the child in nature and nature-based education as a significant phenomenon in environmental and…

  16. Rings from Close Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Weve recently discovered narrow sets of rings around two minor planets orbiting in our solar system. How did these rings form? A new study shows that they could be a result of close encounters between the minor planets and giants like Jupiter or Neptune.Unexpected Ring SystemsPositions of the centaurs in our solar system (green). Giant planets (red), Jupiter trojans (grey), scattered disk objects (tan) and Kuiper belt objects (blue) are also shown. [WilyD]Centaurs are minor planets in our solar system that orbit between Jupiter and Neptune. These bodies of which there are roughly 44,000 with diameters larger than 1 km have dynamically unstable orbits that cross paths with those of one or more giant planets.Recent occultation observations of two centaurs, 10199 Chariklo and 2060 Chiron, revealed that these bodies both host narrow ring systems. Besides our four giant planets, Chariklo and Chiron are the only other bodies in the solar system known to have rings. But how did these rings form?Scientists have proposed several models, implicating collisions, disruption of a primordial satellite, or dusty outgassing. But a team of scientists led by Ryuki Hyodo (Paris Institute of Earth Physics, Kobe University) has recently proposed an alternative scenario: what if the rings were formed from partial disruption of the centaur itself, after it crossed just a little too close to a giant planet?Tidal Forces from a GiantHyodo and collaborators first used past studies of centaur orbits to estimate that roughly 10% of centaurs experience close encounters (passing within a distance of ~2x the planetary radius) with a giant planet during their million-year lifetime. The team then performed a series of simulations of close encounters between a giant planet and a differentiated centaur a body in which the rocky material has sunk to form a dense silicate core, surrounded by an icy mantle.Some snapshots of simulation outcomes (click for a closer look!) for different initial states of

  17. Effect of Iron Fe (II and Fe (III in a Binary System Evaluated Bioluminescent Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sorokina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of iron ions Fe2+ and Fe3+ on the bioluminescent recombinant strain of Escherichia coli in a single-component and binary system. Found that for the bacteria E. coli Fe3+ ions are more toxic than Fe2+. Under the combined effect of iron toxicity increases, the percentage of luminescence quenching increases, but the value is much less than the sum of the indicator for the Fe2+ and Fe3+. The biological effect of insertion of iron is not proportional to their content in the mixture.

  18. Study of Molecular Interactions in Binary Liquid Mixtures by Acoustical Method at 303K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Paul Divakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity and density measurements were made in two binary liquid mixtures Isopropyl acetate (IPA and Isobutyl acetate (IBA with cyclohexanone (CY as a common component at 303K, at fixed frequency of 2MHz using single crystal variable path interferometer and specific gravity bottle respectively. The experimental data have been used to calculate the acoustic impedance, adiabatic compressibility, inter molecular free length and molar volume. The excess thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated and discussed in the light of molecular interactions.

  19. METHOD TO MAKE SIMPLE CALCULATIONS IN A BATCH DISTILLATION COLUMN FOR IDEAL BINARY MIXTURES USING RAYLEIGH EQUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Otiniano Cáceres, Manuel Eduardo; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos,Lima,Perú.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a simple method for calculation on a column of binary batch rectification with rectification, using the Rayleigh equation in the two main operating modes: constant, variable reflux reflux. En este trabajo se presenta un método simple para realizar los cálculos en una columna de rectificación discontinua binaria con rectificación, utilizando la ecuación de Rayleigh en los dos principales modos de operación: reflujo constante y reflujo variable.

  20. A fully implicit, fully adaptive time and space discretisation method for phase-field simulation of binary alloy solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosam, J.; Jimack, P. K.; Mullis, A.

    2007-08-01

    A fully implicit numerical method based upon adaptively refined meshes for the simulation of binary alloy solidification in 2D is presented. In addition we combine a second-order fully implicit time discretisation scheme with variable step size control to obtain an adaptive time and space discretisation method. The superiority of this method, compared to widely used fully explicit methods, with respect to CPU time and accuracy, is shown. Due to the high nonlinearity of the governing equations a robust and fast solver for systems of nonlinear algebraic equations is needed to solve the intermediate approximations per time step. We use a nonlinear multigrid solver which shows almost h-independent convergence behaviour.

  1. Key Elements of Robustness in Binary Black Hole Evolutions using Spectral Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Szilagyi, Bela

    2014-01-01

    As a network of advanced-era gravitational wave detectors is nearing its design sensitivity, efficient and accurate waveform modeling becomes more and more relevant. Understanding of the nature of the signal being sought can have an order unity effect on the event rates seen in these instruments. The paper provides a description of key elements of the Spectral Einstein Code ({\\tt SpEC}), with details of our spectral adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm that has been optimized for binary black hole (BBH) evolutions. We expect that the gravitational waveform catalog produced by our code will have a central importance in both the detection and parameter estimation of gravitational waves in these instruments.

  2. An evaluation of different delivery methods for teaching binary, hex and decimal conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kempthorne

    Full Text Available The ability to convert between binary, hexadecimal, and decimal numbering systems is a fundamental skill commonly taught to tertiary-level computing and ICT students. This paper presents the results of a multiple year investigation into the application of differing approaches for the teaching and learning of these skills. Specifically, the study compares traditional lectures, games, and group activities with student levels of academic achievement. Student prior experience with numbering system conversion is also analysed. The study reveals that, overall, the game-based approach resulted in the highest average test scores; however, when students were divided into groups with and without prior experience, the students with prior experience performed better with a traditional lecture approach.

  3. Stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in binary combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Ullah Khan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method is presented for determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in binary combination. Gatifloxacin, flurbiprofen and their degradation products were detected at 254 nm using a BDS Hypersil C8 (250 X 4.6 mm, 5 µm column and mixture of 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.0 and methanol 30:70 v/v as mobile phase. Response was linear over the range of 15-105 mg mL-1 for gatifloxacin (r² > 0.998 and of 1.5-10.5 mg mL-1 for flurbiprofen (r² > 0.999. The developed method efficiently separated the analytical peaks from degradation products (peak purity index > 0.9999. The method developed can be applied successfully for determination of gatifloxacin and flurbiprofen in human serum, urine, pharmaceutical formulations, and their stability studies.

  4. Universalist ethics in extraterrestrial encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Seth D.

    2010-02-01

    If humanity encounters an extraterrestrial civilization, or if two extraterrestrial civilizations encounter each other, then the outcome may depend not only on the civilizations' relative strength to destroy each other but also on what ethics are held by one or both civilizations. This paper explores outcomes of encounter scenarios in which one or both civilizations hold a universalist ethical framework. Several outcomes are possible in such scenarios, ranging from one civilization destroying the other to both civilizations racing to be the first to commit suicide. Thus, attention to the ethics of both humanity and extraterrestrials is warranted in human planning for such an encounter. Additionally, the possibility of such an encounter raises profound questions for contemporary human ethics, even if such an encounter never occurs.

  5. Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  6. A new method of binary addition scheme with massive use of non-linear material based system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuladeep Roy Chowdhury; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2003-01-01

    The limitations in electronics in arithmetic, algebraic & logic processing are well known. Very high speedperformance (above GHz) are not expected at all in conventional electronic mechanism. To achieve highspeed performance we may think on the introduction of optics instead of electronics for information pro-cessing and computing. Non-linear optical material is a successful candidate in this regard to play a majorrole in the optically controlled switching systems and therefore in all-optical parallel computation thesematerials can show a very good potential aspect. In this paper, we have proposed a new method of anoptical half adder as well as full adder circuit for binary addition using non-linear and linear optical ma-terials.

  7. BICEPP: an example-based statistical text mining method for predicting the binary characteristics of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsafnat Guy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of drug characteristics is a clinically important task, but it requires much expert knowledge and consumes substantial resources. We have developed a statistical text-mining approach (BInary Characteristics Extractor and biomedical Properties Predictor: BICEPP to help experts screen drugs that may have important clinical characteristics of interest. Results BICEPP first retrieves MEDLINE abstracts containing drug names, then selects tokens that best predict the list of drugs which represents the characteristic of interest. Machine learning is then used to classify drugs using a document frequency-based measure. Evaluation experiments were performed to validate BICEPP's performance on 484 characteristics of 857 drugs, identified from the Australian Medicines Handbook (AMH and the PharmacoKinetic Interaction Screening (PKIS database. Stratified cross-validations revealed that BICEPP was able to classify drugs into all 20 major therapeutic classes (100% and 157 (of 197 minor drug classes (80% with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC > 0.80. Similarly, AUC > 0.80 could be obtained in the classification of 173 (of 238 adverse events (73%, up to 12 (of 15 groups of clinically significant cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP inducers or inhibitors (80%, and up to 11 (of 14 groups of narrow therapeutic index drugs (79%. Interestingly, it was observed that the keywords used to describe a drug characteristic were not necessarily the most predictive ones for the classification task. Conclusions BICEPP has sufficient classification power to automatically distinguish a wide range of clinical properties of drugs. This may be used in pharmacovigilance applications to assist with rapid screening of large drug databases to identify important characteristics for further evaluation.

  8. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Goodwin, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-...

  9. The remains of a spinning, hyperbolic encounter

    CERN Document Server

    De Vittori, Lorenzo; Gupta, Anuradha; Jetzer, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We review a recently proposed approach to construct gravitational wave (GW) polarization states of unbound spinning compact binaries. Through this rather simple method, we are able to include corrections due to the dominant order spin-orbit interactions, in the quadrupolar approximation and in a semi-analytic way. We invoke the 1.5 post-Newtonian (PN) accurate quasi-Keplerian parametrization for the radial part of the dynamics and impose its temporal evolution in the PN accurate polarization states equations. Further, we compute 1PN accurate amplitude corrections for the polarization states of non-spinning compact binaries on hyperbolic orbits. As an interesting application, we perform comparisons with previously available results for both the GW signals in the case of non-spinning binaries and the theoretical prediction for the amplitude of the memory effect on the metric after the hyperbolic passage.

  10. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  11. Predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Pécseli, H.L.;

    2002-01-01

    With reference to studies of predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters, we demonstrate the feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of particle fluxes to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous and isot......With reference to studies of predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters, we demonstrate the feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of particle fluxes to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous...

  12. Three different methods for determination of binary mixture of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin using dual wavelength spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hany W.; Hassan, Said A.; Salem, Maissa Y.; El-Zeany, Badr A.

    2013-03-01

    Three simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods depending on the proper selection of two wavelengths are developed for the simultaneous determination of Amlodipine besylate (AML) and Atorvastatin calcium (ATV) in tablet dosage forms. The first method is the new Ratio Difference method, the second method is the Bivariate method and the third one is the Absorbance Ratio method. The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range of 4-40 and 8-32 μg/mL for AML and ATV, respectively. These methods are tested by analyzing synthetic mixtures of the above drugs and they are applied to commercial pharmaceutical preparation of the subjected drugs. Methods are validated according to the ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness are found to be within the acceptable limit. The mathematical explanation of the procedures is illustrated.

  13. Three different methods for determination of binary mixture of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin using dual wavelength spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hany W; Hassan, Said A; Salem, Maissa Y; El-Zeany, Badr A

    2013-03-01

    Three simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods depending on the proper selection of two wavelengths are developed for the simultaneous determination of Amlodipine besylate (AML) and Atorvastatin calcium (ATV) in tablet dosage forms. The first method is the new Ratio Difference method, the second method is the Bivariate method and the third one is the Absorbance Ratio method. The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range of 4-40 and 8-32 μg/mL for AML and ATV, respectively. These methods are tested by analyzing synthetic mixtures of the above drugs and they are applied to commercial pharmaceutical preparation of the subjected drugs. Methods are validated according to the ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness are found to be within the acceptable limit. The mathematical explanation of the procedures is illustrated.

  14. Predicting close encounters between asteroids with the STB software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly (Schunova), Eva; Jonas, Jeff; Srivatsa, Mudhakar; Ganti, Raghu; Agrawal, Dakshi; Denneau, Larry; Kratky, Martin; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a method that can quickly and efficiently calculate close encounters between all known asteroids both in the past and the future. Only several hundred asteroids out of more than 690,000 have their masses currently known. The most accurate values are from direct measurements by in situ visits (e.g. Dawn at Ceres and Vesta (Russell et al. 2012, Science 336, 6082, pp. 684), Hayabusa at Itokawa (Abe et al. 2006, Science 312, 5778, pp. 1344-1349)) followed by measurements of binary systems and also from mutual orbit perturbations during close encounters between a handful of the largest MBAs.We used software called “Space Time Box” (STB) invented by IBM capable of efficiently determine co-located entities in 3D space and time. Orbits from the MPCORB.DAT database were placed into selected STB granularity with 1 day and 0.05 AU-wide bins. By determining and only tracking asteroids co-located within a selected minimal distance the computational requirements were significantly reduced. Selected instances of co-location were then provided as an input for a numerical integrator SWIFT with 8 planets as perturbers and were integrated until desired epoch with a 0.5 and 1 day timestep. We then used interpolation for the specified time window to check if the positions of asteroids intersect or are within a certain distance parameter.Using the STB optimization we calculated close encounters between years 2014 and 2039. These events offer the opportunity to search in the survey archives for potential collisions and carefully select the events for mass determination based on their minimal approach distance, angle and mass ratio of participating objects. A follow-up astrometric campaign would ensure improvement of the mass determination precision. Predicted future events can also be directly observed in the real time with optical and IR telescopes in search for collisions or mass loss.As an example we present one close encounter event observed with the University

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Ultrasound Velocity in Binary Liquid Systems of PPG by Mathematical and Experimental Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, A.; Venugopal, T.; Venkatramanan, K.

    The estimation of the speed of ultrasound is the fundamental requirement for investigating the transport properties of liquid and solid systems. Ultrasonic velocities of liquid mixtures containing polar and non-polar groups are of considerable importance in understanding inter-molecular interaction between component molecules and they find applications in several industrial and technological processes. There are many standard mathematical methods available to measure the ultrasonic velocity. In the present study, interferometric technique is planned for experimental measurement of ultrasound velocity. In this paper, the speed of ultrasound waves in Polypropylene Glycol (PPG 400, PPG 4000) in toluene has been estimated for different concentrations (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% & 10%) at 303K and these experimental values compared with theoretical values obtained by using various mathematical methods like Nomotto's Relation, Vandeal Vangeal Relation, Impedance Relation, and Rao's specific sound velocity. The most reliable method that matches with experimental method is identified using Average Percentage Error (APE) and analysed in the light of molecular interactions occurring in the binary liquid systems. Comparison of evaluated theoretical velocities with experimental values will reveal the nature of interaction between component molecules in the mixtures. Such theoretical study is useful in defining a comprehensive theoretical model for a specific liquid mixture. Also, various molecular interaction parameters like free volume, internal pressure, viscous relaxation time, inter atomic free length, etc are calculated and discussed in terms of polymer-solvent interactions.

  16. Comparison of methods for estimating the intraclass correlation coefficient for binary responses in cancer prevention cluster randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng; Crespi, Catherine M; Wong, Weng Kee

    2012-09-01

    The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is a fundamental parameter of interest in cluster randomized trials as it can greatly affect statistical power. We compare common methods of estimating the ICC in cluster randomized trials with binary outcomes, with a specific focus on their application to community-based cancer prevention trials with primary outcome of self-reported cancer screening. Using three real data sets from cancer screening intervention trials with different numbers and types of clusters and cluster sizes, we obtained point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the ICC using five methods: the analysis of variance estimator, the Fleiss-Cuzick estimator, the Pearson estimator, an estimator based on generalized estimating equations and an estimator from a random intercept logistic regression model. We compared estimates of the ICC for the overall sample and by study condition. Our results show that ICC estimates from different methods can be quite different, although confidence intervals generally overlap. The ICC varied substantially by study condition in two studies, suggesting that the common practice of assuming a common ICC across all clusters in the trial is questionable. A simulation study confirmed pitfalls of erroneously assuming a common ICC. Investigators should consider using sample size and analysis methods that allow the ICC to vary by study condition.

  17. A close encounter of the massive kind

    CERN Document Server

    Apellániz, J Maíz; Barbá, R H; Bouquin, J -B Le; Gamen, R C

    2016-01-01

    We have used (a) HST ACS imaging and STIS spectroscopy, (b) ground-based PIONIER/VLT long-baseline interferometry, and (c) ground-based spectroscopy from different instruments to study the orbit of the extreme multiple system HD 93 129 Aa,Ab, which is composed of (at least) two very massive stars in a long-period orbit with e>0.92 that will pass through periastron in 2017/2018. In several ways, the system is an eta Car precursor. Around the time of periastron passage the two very strong winds will collide and generate an outburst of non-thermal hard X-ray emission without precedent in an O+O binary since astronomers have been able to observe above Earth's atmosphere. A coordinated multiwavelength monitoring in the next two years will enable a breakthrough understanding of the wind interactions in such extreme close encounters. Furthermore, we have found evidence that HD 93 129 Aa may be a binary system itself. In that case, we could witness a three-body interaction that may yield a runaway star or a stellar c...

  18. A close encounter of the massive kind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sana, H.; Barbá, R. H.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Gamen, R. C.

    2017-01-01

    We have used (i) Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectroscopy, (ii) ground-based Precision Integrated-Optics Near-infrared Imaging ExpeRiment/Very Large Telescope long-baseline interferometry, and (iii) ground-based spectroscopy from different instruments to study the orbit of the extreme multiple system HD 93 129 Aa,Ab, which is composed of (at least) two very massive stars in a long-period orbit with e > 0.92, which will pass through periastron in 2017/2018. In several ways, the system is an η Car precursor. Around the time of periastron passage, the two very strong winds will collide and generate an outburst of non-thermal hard X-ray emission without precedent in an O+O binary since astronomers have been able to observe above Earth's atmosphere. A coordinated multiwavelength monitoring in the next two years will enable a breakthrough understanding of the wind interactions in such extreme close encounters. Furthermore, we have found evidence that HD 93 129 Aa may be a binary system itself. In that case, we could witness a three-body interaction which may yield a runaway star or a stellar collision close to or shortly after the periastron passage. Either of those outcomes would be unprecedented, as they are predicted to be low-frequency events in the Milky Way.

  19. Smart stability-indicating spectrophotometric methods for determination of binary mixtures without prior separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bardicy, Mohammad G; Lotfy, Hayam M; El-Sayed, Mohammad A; El-Tarras, Mohammad F

    2008-01-01

    Ratio subtraction and isosbestic point methods are 2 innovating spectrophotometric methods used to determine vincamine in the presence of its acid degradation product and a mixture of cinnarizine (CN) and nicergoline (NIC). Linear correlations were obtained in the concentration range from 8-40 microg/mL for vincamine (I), 6-22 microg/mL for CN (II), and 6-36 microg/mL for NIC (III), with mean accuracies 99.72 +/- 0.917% for I, 99.91 +/- 0.703% for II, and 99.58 +/- 0.847 and 99.83 +/- 1.039% for III. The ratio subtraction method was utilized for the analysis of laboratory-prepared mixtures containing different ratios of vincamine and its degradation product, and it was valid in the presence of up to 80% degradation product. CN and NIC in synthetic mixtures were analyzed by the 2 proposed methods with the total content of the mixture determined at their respective isosbestic points of 270.2 and 235.8 nm, and the content of CN was determined by the ratio subtraction method. The proposed method was validated and found to be suitable as a stability-indicating assay method for vincamine in pharmaceutical formulations. The standard addition technique was applied to validate the results and to ensure the specificity of the proposed methods.

  20. Three different spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra for determination of binary mixture of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hany W.; Hassan, Said A.; Salem, Maissa Y.; El-Zeiny, Badr A.

    2011-12-01

    Three simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra are developed for the simultaneous determination of Amlodipine besylate (AM) and Atorvastatin calcium (AT) in tablet dosage forms. The first method is first derivative of the ratio spectra ( 1DD), the second is ratio subtraction and the third is the method of mean centering of ratio spectra. The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range of 3-40 and 8-32 μg/ml for AM and AT, respectively. These methods are tested by analyzing synthetic mixtures of the above drugs and they are applied to commercial pharmaceutical preparation of the subjected drugs. Standard deviation is <1.5 in the assay of raw materials and tablets. Methods are validated as per ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness are found to be within the acceptable limit.

  1. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation and cross-flow filtration methods for the production of arbovirus antigens inactivated by binary ethylenimine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Teck F

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sucrose density gradient centrifugation and cross-flow filtration methods have been developed and standardised for the safe and reproducible production of inactivated arbovirus antigens which are appropriate for use in diagnostic serological applications. Methods To optimise the maximum titre of growth during the propagation of arboviruses, the multiplicity of infection and choice of cell line were investigated using stocks of Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus grown in both mosquito and mammalian cell lines. To standardise and improve the efficacy of the inactivation of arboviral suspensions, stocks of Ross River virus, Barmah Forest virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus and Alfuy virus were chemically inactivated using binary ethylenimine at a final concentration of 3 mM. Aliquots were then taken at hourly intervals and crude inactivation rates were determined for each virus using a plaque assay. To ensure complete inactivation, the same aliquots were each passaged 3 times in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells and the presence of viral growth was detected using an immunofluorescent assay. For larger quantities of viral suspensions, centrifugation on an isopycnic sucrose density gradient or cross-flow filtration was used to produce concentrated, pure antigens or partially concentrated, semi-purified antigens respectively. Results The results of the propagation experiments suggested that the maximum viral titres obtained for both Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus were affected by the incubation period and choice of cell line, rather than the use of different multiplicity of infection values. Results of the binary ethylenimine inactivation trial suggested that standardised periods of 5 or 8 hours would be suitable to ensure effective and complete inactivation for a number of different arboviral antigens. Conclusion Two methods used to prepare inactivated arbovirus antigens have been

  2. Homeless women's experiences of service provider encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Donna J; Nichols, Tracy R

    2014-01-01

    Service providers are gatekeepers to health-sustaining services and resources, although little is known about service encounters from the perspective of homeless women. We conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 15 homeless women to better understand their experiences of service encounters. Using a phenomenological method, 160 significant statements were extracted from participant transcripts; more positive than negative interactions were reported. The 10 themes that emerged fall along a dehumanizing/humanizing continuum primarily separated by the power participants experienced in the interaction and the trust they felt in the service provider. Implications for nursing practice and research are offered.

  3. Interactions between discontinuities for binary mixture separation problem and hodograph method

    CERN Document Server

    Elaeva, M S; Yu, Zhukov M

    2016-01-01

    The Cauchy problem for first-order PDE with the initial data which have a piecewise discontinuities localized in different spatial points is completely solved. The interactions between discontinuities arising after breakup of initial discontinuities are studied with the help of the hodograph method. The solution is constructed in analytical implicit form. To recovery the explicit form of solution we propose the transformation of the PDEs into some ODEs on the level lines (isochrones) of implicit solution. In particular, this method allows us to solve the Goursat problem with initial data on characteristics. The paper describes a specific problem for zone electrophoresis (method of the mixture separation). However, the method proposed allows to solve any system of two first-order quasilinear PDEs for which the second order linear PDE, arising after the hodograph transformation, has the Riemann-Green function in explicit form.

  4. Designing multiplex PCR system of Campylobacter jejuni for efficient typing by improving monoplex PCR binary typing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazuhiro; Ibata, Ami; Suzuki, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Masakado; Yamashita, Teruo; Minagawa, Hiroko; Kurane, Ryuichiro

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for the majority of Campylobacter infections. As the molecular epidemiological study of outbreaks, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is performed in general. But PFGE has several problems. PCR binary typing (P-BIT) method is a typing method for Campylobacter spp. that was recently developed, and was reported to have a similar discriminatory power and stability to those of PFGE. We modified the P-BIT method from 18 monoplex PCRs to two multiplex PCR systems (mP-BIT). The same results were obtained from monoplex PCRs using original primers and multiplex PCR in the representative isolates. The mP-BIT can analyze 48 strains at a time by using 96-well PCR systems and can identify C. jejuni because mP-BIT includes C. jejuni marker. The typing of the isolates by the mP-BIT and PFGE demonstrated generally concordant results and the mP-BIT method (D = 0.980) has a similar discriminatory power to that of PFGE with SmaI digest (D = 0.975) or KpnI digest (D = 0.987) as with original article. The mP-BIT method is quick, simple and easy, and comes to be able to perform it at low cost by having become a multiplex PCR system. Therefore, the mP-BIT method with two multiplex PCR systems has high potential for a rapid first-line surveillance typing assay of C. jejuni and can be used for routine surveillance and outbreak investigations of C. jejuni in the future.

  5. Domestic Violence Encountered among Kurdish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sirwan Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective; There is growing recognition that violence against women has a large public health impact, in addition to being a gross violation of women's human rights. The study's aims were: To show the types of domestic abuse encountered by Kurdish women, and study the relationship between them. Methods; The study conducted in the…

  6. The Art of the Encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Vautrin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As the archives from the second half of Grotowski’s life were made available, this text focuses on the Polish master’s conceptions of theatre where he describes theatre as the art of the encounter. This paper simultaneously places this proposition in the context of questions of a specific time period, and reveals how this encounter is the anathema that will revert viewpoints both about the art of acting and the creation of theatrical relations. These researches on theatre as the art of the encounter continue today through the Open Program, one of the two groups of the Workcenter of Jerzy Grotowski and Thomas Richards, and, notably, their creations around American poet Allen Ginsberg, an author whose poetry intends, in a similar way, to encounter the other and the world.

  7. Evaluation of the Finite Element Lattice Boltzmann Method for Binary Fluid Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Matin, Rastin; Hernandez-Garcia, Anier; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the commonly used lattice Boltzmann method, off-lattice Boltzmann methods decouple the velocity discretization from the underlying spatial grid, thus allowing for more efficient geometric representations of complex boundaries. The current work combines characteristic-based integration of the streaming step with the free-energy based multiphase model by Lee et. al. [Journal of Computational Physics, 206 (1), 2005 ]. This allows for simulation time steps more than an order of magnitude larger than the relaxation time. Unlike previous work by Wardle et. al. [Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 65 (2), 2013 ] that integrated intermolecular forcing terms in the advection term, the current scheme applies collision and forcing terms locally for a simpler finite element formulation. A series of thorough benchmark studies reveal that this does not compromise stability and that the scheme is able to accurately simulate flows at large density and viscosity contrasts.

  8. Stellar Encounters with Massive Star-Disk Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckel, N; Moeckel, Nickolas; Bally, John

    2006-01-01

    The dense, clustered environment in which massive stars form can lead to interactions with neighboring stars. It has been hypothesized that collisions and mergers may contribute to the growth of the most massive stars. In this paper we extend the study of star-disk interactions to explore encounters between a massive protostar and a less massive cluster sibling using the publicly available SPH code GADGET-2. Collisions do not occur in the parameter space studied, but the end state of many encounters is an eccentric binary with a semi-major axis ~ 100 AU. Disk material is sometimes captured by the impactor. Most encounters result in disruption and destruction of the initial disk, and periodic torquing of the remnant disk. We consider the effect of the changing orientation of the disk on an accretion driven jet, and the evolution of the systems in the presence of on-going accretion from the parent core.

  9. Stability indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of piroxicam and ofloxacin in binary combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Peter; Azeem, Waqar; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Khan, Islam Ullah; Razzaq, Syed Naeem

    2015-09-01

    A simple and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of piroxicam and ofloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations and human serum. Optimum separations of piroxicam, ofloxacin and stress-induced degradation products were achieved by use of Hypersil BDS C8 column (250 x 4.6mm, 5 μm). The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile: 0.012M K2HPO4: 0.008M sodium citrate (both buffers mixed and pH adjusted to 2.8) (50:25:25 v/v/v) delivered at flow rate of 1.5 mL min⁻¹ using DAD at 254 nm. Response was linear function of concentration over the ranges of 70-130 mg mL⁻¹ for piroxicam and ofloxacin (r² ≥ 0.999). The method efficiently separated the analytical peaks from degradation products with acceptable tailing and resolution. The developed method was successfully used for concurrent analysis of piroxicam and ofloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations, human serum and in vitro drug interaction studies.

  10. Methods for meta-analysis of individual participant data from Mendelian randomisation studies with binary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Stephen; Thompson, Simon G

    2016-02-01

    Mendelian randomisation is an epidemiological method for estimating causal associations from observational data by using genetic variants as instrumental variables. Typically the genetic variants explain only a small proportion of the variation in the risk factor of interest, and so large sample sizes are required, necessitating data from multiple sources. Meta-analysis based on individual patient data requires synthesis of studies which differ in many aspects. A proposed Bayesian framework is able to estimate a causal effect from each study, and combine these using a hierarchical model. The method is illustrated for data on C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease (CHD) from the C-reactive protein CHD Genetics Collaboration (CCGC). Studies from the CCGC differ in terms of the genetic variants measured, the study design (prospective or retrospective, population-based or case-control), whether C-reactive protein was measured, the time of C-reactive protein measurement (pre- or post-disease), and whether full or tabular data were shared. We show how these data can be combined in an efficient way to give a single estimate of causal association based on the totality of the data available. Compared to a two-stage analysis, the Bayesian method is able to incorporate data on 23% additional participants and 51% more events, leading to a 23-26% gain in efficiency.

  11. Reservoir characterisation by a binary level set method and adaptive multiscale estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Lars Kristian

    2006-01-15

    The main focus of this work is on estimation of the absolute permeability as a solution of an inverse problem. We have both considered a single-phase and a two-phase flow model. Two novel approaches have been introduced and tested numerical for solving the inverse problems. The first approach is a multi scale zonation technique which is treated in Paper A. The purpose of the work in this paper is to find a coarse scale solution based on production data from wells. In the suggested approach, the robustness of an already developed method, the adaptive multi scale estimation (AME), has been improved by utilising information from several candidate solutions generated by a stochastic optimizer. The new approach also suggests a way of combining a stochastic and a gradient search method, which in general is a problematic issue. The second approach is a piecewise constant level set approach and is applied in Paper B, C, D and E. Paper B considers the stationary single-phase problem, while Paper C, D and E use a two-phase flow model. In the two-phase flow problem we have utilised information from both production data in wells and spatially distributed data gathered from seismic surveys. Due to the higher content of information provided by the spatially distributed data, we search solutions on a slightly finer scale than one typically does with only production data included. The applied level set method is suitable for reconstruction of fields with a supposed known facies-type of solution. That is, the solution should be close to piecewise constant. This information is utilised through a strong restriction of the number of constant levels in the estimate. On the other hand, the flexibility in the geometries of the zones is much larger for this method than in a typical zonation approach, for example the multi scale approach applied in Paper A. In all these papers, the numerical studies are done on synthetic data sets. An advantage of synthetic data studies is that the true

  12. Transmission Power Level Selection Method Based On Binary Search Algorithm for HiLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingeswari V Chandra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently the sensor communication research has introduced an IP-based communication known as 6LoWPAN to sensor network. 6LoWPAN was introduced to give a new perspective to sensor network by enabling IPv6 to be applied to wireless sensors as well as wired sensor. Dedicated routing protocols based on 6LoWPAN was soon introduced and Hierarchical Routing Protocol for 6LoWPAN (HiLOW is one of them. HiLOW clearly defines the routing tree setup process, address allocation technique and the data routing process but there is some shortcomings in terms of transmission power selection. HiLOW does not highlight how the suitable transmission power is being selected for sensor communication purpose and this leads to the assumption that at all time and all scenarios the sensors are using maximum transmission power. In the case the sensors are using maximum transmission power for communication even when it is not necessary then power depletion for sensors will be amplified and the network lifetime will be significantly reduced. In this paper we present a brief introduction to 6LoWPAN, a concise review on HiLOW, a highlight on issues revolving each process in HiLOW and propose a new idea on transmission power selection method for HiLOW.

  13. On the origin of W UMa type Contact binaries - a new method for computation of initial masses

    CERN Document Server

    Yildiz, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    W UMa type binaries have two defining characteristics. These are (i) the effective temperatures of both components are very similar, and (ii) the secondary (currently less massive) component is overluminous for its current mass. We consider the latter to be an indication of its mass before the mass-transfer event. For these stars we define a mass difference ($\\delta M$) between the mass determined from its luminosity and the present mass determined from fitting the binary orbit. We compare the observed values of the mass difference to stellar models with mass loss. The range of initial secondary masses that we find for observed W UMa type binaries is 1.3-2.6 M$_{\\odot}$. We discover that the A- and the W-subtype contact binaries have different ranges of initial secondary masses. Binary systems with an initial mass higher than $1.8 \\pm 0.1$ M$_{\\odot}$ become A-subtype while systems with initial masses lower than this become W-subtype. Only 6 per cent of systems violate this behavior. We also obtain the initia...

  14. Implementation of the frequency-modulated sideband search method for gravitational waves from low mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Sammut, Letizia; Melatos, Andrew; Owen, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    We describe the practical implementation of the sideband search, a search for periodic gravitational waves from neutron stars in binary systems. The orbital motion of the source in its binary system causes frequency-modulation in the combination of matched filters known as the $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic. The sideband search is based on the incoherent summation of these frequency-modulated $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic sidebands. It provides a new detection statistic for sources in binary systems, called the $\\mathcal{C}$-statistic. The search is well suited to low-mass X-ray binaries, the brightest of which, called Sco X-1, is an ideal target candidate. For sources like Sco X-1, with well constrained orbital parameters, a slight variation on the search is possible. The extra orbital information can be used to approximately demodulate the data from the binary orbital motion in the coherent stage, before incoherently summing the now reduced number of sidebands. We investigate this approach and show that it improves the ...

  15. Encountering social work through STS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Rasmus

    Encountering social work through STS: Marginalization, materials and knowledge In this presentation, I attempt to produce an encounter between STS and social work. Concretely, I focus on the subset of social work called “local community work”, which in Denmark is used to intervene on marginalized...... and their inhabitants. Local community work derives from this assemblage of policy and knowledge as the “social” intervention commonly deployed. Based on an ethnographic field work, I examine how local community practices attempt to interpellate specific futures for individuals and their local environments. I do...... this by examining the materials and types of knowledge that participate in shaping local community work practices and encounters between local community workers and residents in marginalized housing areas. Through this analysis, I argue that social work research can benefit from orienting itself more concretely...

  16. An Analytic Method to determine Habitable Zones for S-Type Planetary Orbits in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eggl, Siegfried; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Gyergyovits, Markus; Funk, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    With more and more extrasolar planets discovered in and around binary star systems, questions concerning the determination of the classical Habitable Zone arise. Do the radiative and gravitational perturbations of the second star influence the extent of the Habitable Zone significantly, or is it sufficient to consider the host-star only? In this article we investigate the implications of stellar companions with different spectral types on the insolation a terrestrial planet receives orbiting a Sun-like primary. We present time independent analytical estimates and compare these to insolation statistics gained via high precision numerical orbit calculations. Results suggest a strong dependence of permanent habitability on the binary's eccentricity, as well as a possible extension of Habitable Zones towards the secondary in close binary systems.

  17. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime...... mask using a directional system and a method for correcting errors in the target binary mask. The last part of the thesis, proposes a new method for objective evaluation of speech intelligibility.......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...

  18. A Lakatosian Encounter with Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Helen

    2010-01-01

    There is much to be learned and pondered by reading "Proofs and Refutations" by Imre Lakatos (Lakatos, 1976). It highlights the importance of mathematical definitions, and how definitions evolve to capture the essence of the object they are defining. It also provides an exhilarating encounter with the ups and downs of the mathematical reasoning…

  19. On the dynamical evolution and end states of binary centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a numerical integration of 666 fictitious binary Centaurs coming from the trans Neptunian space. Our population is restricted to tight binaries whose components have sizes between 30 and 100 km. We included the dynamical perturbations from the giant planets, Kozai Cycles induced by the Sun and tidal friction on the orbits of the binaries. We found that most binaries are disrupted during one of the close planetary encounters, making the mean lifetime of binary Centaurs much shorter than the one of single Centaurs. Nearly 10 per cent of the binaries reach a very tight circular orbit, arguing in favour of the existence of a non-negligible population of contact Centaurs. Another 10 per cent survive as a binary during their lifetime as Centaur. Our simulations favour the existence of a small population of very tight binary Centaurs.

  20. Preparation of highly permeable BPPO microfiltration membrane with binary porous structures on a colloidal crystal substrate by the breath figure method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hua; Yu, Bing; Cong, Hailin; Peng, Qiaohong; Yang, Zhen; Luo, Yongli; Chi, Ming

    2016-01-01

    A highly permeable brominated poly(phenylene oxide) (BPPO) microfiltration membrane with binary porous structures was fabricated by combination of the breath figure and colloidal crystal template methods. The pore size in the bottom layer of the membrane was adjusted by the diameter of SiO2 microspheres in the colloidal crystal template, while the pore size in the top layer of the membrane was adjusted by varying the BPPO concentration in the casting solution. The permeability of the membrane cast on the colloidal crystal substrate was much higher than that of the membrane cast on a bare silicon wafer. The binary porous BPPO membrane with high permeability and antifouling property was used for microfiltration applications.

  1. Transport properties of a binary mixture of CO2-N2 from the pair potential energy functions based on a semi-empirical inversion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Bo; Wang Xiao-Po; Yang Fu-Xin; Liu Zhi-Gang

    2012-01-01

    The potential energy surface of a CO2-N2 mixture is determined by using an inversion method,together with a new collision integral correlation [J.Phys.Chem.Ref.Data 19 1179 (1990)].With the new invert potential,the transport properties of CO2-N2 mixture are presented in a temperature range from 273.15 K to 3273.15 K at low density by employing the Chapman-Enskog scheme and the Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck-de Boer theory,consisting of a viscosity coefficient,a thermal conductivity coefficient,a binary diffusion coefficient,and a thermal diffusion factor.The accuracy of the predicted results is estimated to be 2% for viscosity,5% for thermal conductivity,and 10% for binary diffusion coefficient.

  2. Effect of genetic algorithm as a variable selection method on different chemometric models applied for the analysis of binary mixture of amoxicillin and flucloxacillin: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Different chemometric models were applied for the quantitative analysis of amoxicillin (AMX), and flucloxacillin (FLX) in their binary mixtures, namely, partial least squares (PLS), spectral residual augmented classical least squares (SRACLS), concentration residual augmented classical least squares (CRACLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). All methods were applied with and without variable selection procedure (genetic algorithm GA). The methods were used for the quantitative analysis of the drugs in laboratory prepared mixtures and real market sample via handling the UV spectral data. Robust and simpler models were obtained by applying GA. The proposed methods were found to be rapid, simple and required no preliminary separation steps.

  3. New analytical methods for gravitational radiation and reaction in binaries with arbitrary mass ratio and relative velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Galley, Chad R

    2009-01-01

    We present a new analytical framework for describing the dynamics of a gravitational binary system with unequal masses moving with arbitrary relative velocity, taking into account the backreaction from both compact objects in the form of tidal deformation, gravitational waves and self forces. Allowing all dynamical variables to interact with each other in a self-consistent manner this formalism ensures that all the dynamical quantities involved are conserved on the background spacetime and obey the gauge invariance under general coordinate transformations that preserve the background geometry. Because it is based on a generalized perturbation theory and the important new emphasis is on the self-consistency of all the dynamical variables involved we call it a gravitational perturbation theory with self-consistent backreaction (GP-SCB). As an illustration of how this formalism is implemented we construct perturbatively a self-consistent set of equations of motion for an inspiraling gravitational binary, which d...

  4. A matched filter method for ground-based sub-noise detection of terrestrial extrasolar planets in eclipsing binaries: application to CM Draconis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J M; Doyle, L R; Cullers, D K

    1996-02-01

    The photometric detection of extrasolar planets by transits in eclipsing binary systems can be significantly improved by cross-correlating the observational light curves with synthetic models of possible planetary transit features, essentially a matched filter approach. We demonstrate the utility and application of this transit detection algorithm for ground-based detections of terrestrial-sized (Earth-to-Neptune radii) extrasolar planets in the dwarf M-star eclipsing binary system CM Draconis. Preliminary photometric observational data of this system demonstrate that the observational noise is well characterized as white and Gaussian at the observational time steps required for precision photometric measurements. Depending on planet formation scenarios, terrestrial-sized planets may form quite close to this low-luminosity system. We demonstrate, for example, that planets as small as 1.4 Earth radii with periods on the order of a few months in the CM Draconis system could be detected at the 99.9% confidence level in less than a year using 1-m class telescopes from the ground. This result contradicts commonly held assumptions limiting present ground-based efforts to, at best, detections of gas giant planets after several years of observation. This method can be readily extended to a number of other larger star systems with the utilization of larger telescopes and longer observing times. Its extension to spacecraft observations should also allow the determination of the presence of terrestrial-sized planets in nearly 100 other known eclipsing binary systems.

  5. S-Type and P-Type Habitability in Stellar Binary Systems: A Comprehensive Approach. I. Method and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cuntz, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive approach is provided to the study of both S-type and P-type habitability in stellar binary systems, which in principle can also be expanded to systems of higher order. P-type orbits occur when the planet orbits both binary components, whereas in case of S-type orbits the planet orbits only one of the binary components with the second component considered a perturbator. The selected approach encapsulates a variety of different aspects, which include: (1) The consideration of a joint constraint including orbital stability and a habitable environment for a putative system planet through the stellar radiative energy fluxes ("radiative habitable zone"; RHZ) needs to be met. (2) The treatment of conservative, general and extended zones of habitability for the various systems as defined for the Solar System and beyond. (3) The providing of a combined formalism for the assessment of both S-type and P-type habitability; in particular, mathematical criteria are presented for which kind of system S-type ...

  6. Close encounters involving free-floating planets in star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Long; Zheng, Xiaochen; Church, Ross P; Davies, Melvyn B

    2015-01-01

    Instabilities in planetary systems can result in the ejection of planets from their host system, resulting in free-floating planets (FFPs). If this occurs in a star cluster, the FFP may remain bound to the star cluster for some time and interact with the other cluster members until it is ejected. Here, we use $N$-body simulations to characterise close star-planet and planet-planet encounters and the dynamical fate of the FFP population in star clusters containing $500-2000$ single or binary star members. We find that FFPs ejected from their planetary system at low velocities typically leave the star cluster 40% earlier than their host stars, and experience tens of close ($<1000$ AU) encounters with other stars and planets before they escape. The fraction of FFPs that experiences a close encounter depends on both the stellar density and the initial velocity distribution of the FFPs. Approximately half of the close encounters occur within the first 30 Myr, and only 10% occur after 100 Myr. The periastron vel...

  7. Development and validation of a rapid RP-HPLC method for the determination of cetirizine or fexofenadine with pseudoephedrine in binary pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuş, Sevgi; Küçükgüzel, Ilkay; Küçükgüzel, S Güniz

    2008-01-22

    The objective of the current study was to develop a simple, accurate, precise and rapid reversed-phase HPLC method and subsequent validation using ICH suggested approach for the determination of antihistaminic-decongestant pharmaceutical dosage forms containing binary mixtures of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PSE) with fexofenadine hydrochloride (FEX) or cetirizine dihydrochloride (CET). The chromatographic separation of PSE, FEX and CET was achieved on a Zorbax C8 (150 mm x 4.6mm; 5 microm particle size) column using UV detection at 218 and 222 nm. The optimized mobile phase was consisted of TEA solution (0.5%, pH 4.5)-methanol-acetonitrile (50:20:30, v/v/v). The retention times were 1.099, 2.714 and 3.808 min for PSE, FEX and CET, respectively. The proposed method provided linear responses within the concentration ranges 30-240 and 1.25-10 microg ml(-1) with LOD values of 1.75 and 0.10 microg ml(-1) for PSE and CET, respectively. Linearity range for PSE-FEX binary mixtures were 10-80 and 5-40 microg ml(-1) with LOD values of 0.75 and 0.27 microg ml(-1) for PSE and FEX, respectively. Correlation coefficients (r) of the regression equations were greater than 0.999 in all cases. The precision of the method was demonstrated using intra- and inter-day assay R.S.D. values which were less than 1% in all instances. No interference from any components of pharmaceutical dosage forms or degradation products was observed. According to the validation results, the proposed method was found to be specific, accurate, precise and could be applied to the quantitative analysis of these drugs in capsules containing PSE-CET or extended-release tablets containing PSE-FEX binary mixtures.

  8. The Binary Garrote

    CERN Document Server

    Kappen, H J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I present a new model and solution method for sparse regression. The model introduces binary selector variables $s_i$ for the features $i$ in a way that is similar to Breiman's Garrote model. I refer to this method as the binary Garrote (BG). The posterior probability for $s_i$ is computed in the variational approximation. The BG is compared numerically with the Lasso method and with ridge regression. Numerical results on synthetic data show that the BG yields more accurate predictions and more accurately reconstructs the true model than the other methods. The naive implementation of the BG requires the inversion of a modified covariance matrix which scales cubic in the number of features. We indicate how for sparse problem the solution can be computed linear in the number of features.

  9. Special relativity a first encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Giulini, Domenico

    2005-01-01

    Special relativity provides the foundations of our knowledge of space and time. Without it, our understanding of the world, and its place in the universe, would be unthinkable. This book gives a concise, elementary, yet exceptionally modern, introduction to special relativity. It is a gentle yet serious 'first encounter', in that it conveys a true understanding rather than purely reports the basic facts. Only very elementary mathematical knowledge is needed to master it (basichigh-school maths), yet it will leave the reader with a sound understanding of the subject. Special Relativity: A First

  10. Interfaith dialogue as moral encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen

    The concept of interfaith dialogue has been introduced and developed by scholars of different religions. The aim has been to find solutions from within religion to handle and optimise encounters with religious ‘Others’. Furthermore, interfaith dialogue has increasingly become a tool to solve...... problems of integration and geopolitical conflicts. Thus the focus has changed from religion as the solution to an ontologically given differentiation, to religion being the problem that must be transgressed in order to meet on equal terms. In this paper, I discuss the setup of interfaith dialogue meetings...

  11. An adaptable binary entropy coder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, A.; Klimesh, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel entropy coding technique which is based on recursive interleaving of variable-to-variable length binary source codes. We discuss code design and performance estimation methods, as well as practical encoding and decoding algorithms.

  12. 基于特征的二值商标分层检索方法%A Hierarchical Binary Trademark Retrieval Method Based on Feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚菁菁; 张吉楠

    2011-01-01

    针对以往商标图像搜索方法单一,并且缺少用户反馈的缺点,文中提出一种基于形状特征和纹理特征的二值商标图像分层搜索方法.该方法首先利用HU不变矩提取图像的形状特征;然后利用欧氏距离来测量图像的相似度,进行第一次筛选得到一个数目不定的候选集;接着利用灰度直方图的方法提取候选集中的图像的纹理信息,进行第二次筛选;最后通过用户的反馈进行不断的优化.从而使检索出来的图像更加迅速和准确,更加符合人的视觉感受.%The previous binary trademark image retrieval method is not perfect for lack of comprehensive approach and user feedback.This paper presents a hierarchical binary trademark image retrieval method based on shape and texture features. Firstly, this method uses Hu invariant moments shape feature to extract the images and then uses Euclidean distance to measure the image similarity, and filter a number of uncertainties in the candidate set; then extracts gray level histogram of the image the candidate focused on texture information,and get a second filter; Finally, it is optimized by continuous user feedback. This binary trademark images retrieval mothed is more quickly, accurately, and more in line with human perception.

  13. Simulation of the decomposition of binary alloys on the basis of the free energy density functional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, P. E.; Svetukhin, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    The simulation of the decomposition of a three-dimensional fragment of a solid solution satisfying the regular solution approximation has been carried out based on the Cahn-Hilliard equation taking into account the Gaussian fluctuations of the initial state of the alloy. The simulation has been performed for several temperatures and revealed the existence of four stages (nucleation, growth, coagulation, and coalescence) of the process. The influence of the temperature on the distribution of phases during the decomposition of binary alloys has been established, and the specific features in the change of stages of the decomposition process have been revealed.

  14. Rhinoplasty Education Using a Standardized Patient Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Eric J.; Khosla, Rohit K.; Howell, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Background Comprehensive aesthetic surgery training continues to be a challenge for residency programs. Our residency program developed a rhinoplasty-based objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) based upon validated methods as part of the residency education curriculum. We report our experience with the rhinoplasty-based OSCE and offer guidance to its incorporation within residency programs. Methods The encounter involved resident evaluation and operative planning for a standardized patient desiring a rhinoplasty procedure. Validated OSCE methods currently used at our medical school were implemented. Residents were evaluated on appropriate history taking, physical examination, and explanation to the patient of treatment options. Examination results were evaluated using analysis of variance (statistical significance POSCE. Medical knowledge assessment showed increasing performance with clinical year, 50% versus 84% for postgraduate year 3 and 6, respectively (POSCE realistically represents an actual patient encounter. All faculty confirmed the utility of evaluating resident performance during the OSCE as a useful assessment tool for determining the Next Accreditation System Milestone level. Conclusions Aesthetic surgery training for residents will require innovative methods for education. Our examination showed a program-educational weakness in billing/coding, an area that will be improved upon by topic-specific lectures. A thoroughly developed OSCE can provide a realistic educational opportunity to improve residents' performance on the nonoperative aspects of rhinoplasty and should be considered as an adjunct to resident education. PMID:27689053

  15. Determinants of frequency and longevity of hospital encounters' data use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt Jeremy C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of clinically relevant information enables improvement in user interfaces and in data management. However, it is difficult to identify what information is important in daily clinical care, and what is used occasionally. This study aims to determine for how long clinical documents are used in a Hospital Information System (HIS. Methods The access logs of 3 years of usage of a HIS were analysed concerning report departmental source, type of hospital encounter, and inpatient encounter ICD-9-CM main diagnosis. Reports median life indicates the median time elapsed between information creation and its usage. The models that better explains report views over time were explored. Results The number of report views in the study period was 656 583. Fifty two percent of the reports viewed by medical doctors in emergency encounters were from previous encounters - 21% at outpatient attendance, 19% in inpatient (wards and 12% during emergency encounters. In an inpatient setting, 20% of the reports viewed were produced in previous encounters. The median life of information in documents is 1.5 days for emergency, 4.8 days for inpatient and 37.8 days for outpatient encounters. Immune-haemotherapy reports reach their median lives faster (7 days than clinical pathology (15 days, gastroenterology (80 days and pathology (118 days. The median life of reports produced in inpatient encounters varied from 36 days for neoplasms as the main diagnosis to 0.7 days for injury and poisoning. The model with the best fit (R2 > 0.9 was the exponential. Conclusions The usage of past patient information varied significantly according to patient age, type of information, type of hospital encounter and medical cause (main diagnosis for the encounter. The exponential model is a good fit to model how the reports are seen over time, so the design of user interfaces and repository management algorithms should take it in consideration.

  16. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  17. Cryptography with DNA binary strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, A; Richter, C; Banzhaf, W; Rauhe, H

    2000-06-01

    Biotechnological methods can be used for cryptography. Here two different cryptographic approaches based on DNA binary strands are shown. The first approach shows how DNA binary strands can be used for steganography, a technique of encryption by information hiding, to provide rapid encryption and decryption. It is shown that DNA steganography based on DNA binary strands is secure under the assumption that an interceptor has the same technological capabilities as sender and receiver of encrypted messages. The second approach shown here is based on steganography and a method of graphical subtraction of binary gel-images. It can be used to constitute a molecular checksum and can be combined with the first approach to support encryption. DNA cryptography might become of practical relevance in the context of labelling organic and inorganic materials with DNA 'barcodes'.

  18. Effect of two virus inactivation methods. Electron beam irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment on determination of reproductive hormones in equine plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyvsgaard, N.C.; Nansen, P. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Hoeier, R.; Brueck, I. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Clinical Studies, Section of Reproduction, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Ionizing irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment have previously been shown to be effective for in-vitro inactivation of virus in biological material. In the present study the 2 methods were tested for possible effects on measurable concentrations of reproductive hormones in equine plasma (luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone (P{sub 4}), and oestradiol-17 {beta} (E{sub 2})). The inactivation methods were electron beam irradiation with a dose from 11 to 44 kGy or treatment with binary ethylenimine (BEI) in concentrations of 1 and 5 mmol/L. Generally, there was a close correlation (r>0.8, p<0.001) between pre- and post-treatment hormone levels. Thus, the different phases of the oestrous cycle could be distinguished on the basis of measured hormone concentrations of treated samples. However, both treatments significantly changed hormone concentrations of the plasma samples. For LH, FSH, and E{sub 2} the effect of irradiation and BEI treatment was depressive and dose-dependant. For P{sub 4} the effect of irradiation was also depressive and dose-dependant. However, the highest dose of BEI resulted in an increase of measured P{sub 4} concentration, which may be attributed to changes in the plasma matrix due to the treatment. Although the treatments affected measured hormone concentrations, the close correlation between pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements means that the diagnostic value will remain unchanged. (au). 17 refs.

  19. A Method of Utilizing Binary System to Compress Database%一种利用二进制属性压缩数据库的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚志鹏; 孙仁诚; 邵峰晶; 周文鹏

    2013-01-01

    For some tables in relational database,in which the collection of data items are only attributed to two types (eg 0,1 or true,false),a new method of lossless compression which will largely reduce the usage of physical memory is presented by combining each binary attributes of many rows into one binary number according to the identity column.Besides,this method will maintain the same functionality as the original one such as selecting,updating,inserting and deleting,and verifies the increased efficiency in database manipulation with an example.%针对关系型数据库中大多数属性取值只有两种(例如0,1或者ture,false)的数据表,提出了一种无损压缩方法,根据标识列进行聚合,将多行数据的二进制属性合并成一个多位二进制数存储,极大地压缩了数据存储占用的物理空间.并在这种存储方式下,实现了与原存储方式功能完全相同的查改增删等数据库操作,利用实例验证了这种存储方式下,数据库操作的效率的提升.

  20. Testing general relativity with compact coalescing binaries: comparing exact and predictive methods to compute the Bayes factor

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Mandel, Ilya; Vecchio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The second generation of gravitational-wave detectors is scheduled to start operations in 2015. Gravitational-wave signatures of compact binary coalescences could be used to accurately test the strong-field dynamical predictions of general relativity. Computationally expensive data analysis pipelines, including TIGER, have been developed to carry out such tests. As a means to cheaply assess whether a particular deviation from general relativity can be detected, Cornish et al. and Vallisneri recently proposed an approximate scheme to compute the Bayes factor between a general-relativity gravitational-wave model and a model representing a class of alternative theories of gravity parametrised by one additional parameter. This approximate scheme is based on only two easy-to-compute quantities: the signal-to-noise ratio of the signal and the fitting factor between the signal and the manifold of possible waveforms within general relativity. In this work, we compare the prediction from the approximate formula agains...

  1. Can a combination of the conformal thin-sandwich and puncture methods yield binary black hole solutions in quasi-equilibrium?

    CERN Document Server

    Hannam, M D; Cook, G B; Baumgarte, T W; Hannam, Mark D.; Evans, Charles R.; Cook, Gregory B.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    We consider combining two important methods for constructing quasi-equilibrium initial data for binary black holes: the conformal thin-sandwich formalism and the puncture method. The former seeks to enforce stationarity in the conformal three-metric and the latter attempts to avoid internal boundaries, like minimal surfaces or apparent horizons. We show that these two methods make partially conflicting requirements on the boundary conditions that determine the time slices. In particular, it does not seem possible to construct slices that are quasi-stationary and avoid physical singularities and simultaneously are connected by an everywhere positive lapse function, a condition which must obtain if internal boundaries are to be avoided. Some relaxation of these conflicting requirements may yield a soluble system, but some of the advantages that were sought in combining these approaches will be lost.

  2. Detection of unresolved binaries with multicolor photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chulkov, D; Malkov, O; Sichevskij, S; Krussanova, N; Mironov, A; Zakharov, A; Kniazev, A

    2016-01-01

    The principal goal of this paper is to specify conditions of detection of unresolved binaries by multicolor photometry. We have developed a method for estimating the critical distance at which an unresolved binary of given mass and age can be detected. The method is applied to the photometric system of the planned Lyra-B spaceborne experiment. We have shown that some types of unresolved binary stars can be discovered and distinguished from single stars solely by means of photometric observations.

  3. Alien encounter a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    It has been nearly 100 years since the Apollo moon landings, when Jack and Vladimir, two astronauts on a mission to Venus, discover a mysterious void related to indigenous life on the planet. Subsequently more voids are detected on Earth, Mars, Titan, and, quite ominously, inside a planetoid emerging from the Kuiper belt. Jack is sent to investigate the voids in the Solar System and intercept the planetoid - which, as becomes increasingly clear, is inhabited by alien life forms. Jack and his crew will have little time to understand their alien biochemistry, abilities, behavior patterns, resilience, and technology, but also how these life forms relate to the voids. Humankind's first encounter with these exotic life forms couldn't be more fateful, becoming a race against time to save life on Earth and to reveal the true nature of the voids, which seem to be intrinsically related to life and the universe itself. In this novel, the author combines many topics related to state-of-the-art research in the field of...

  4. Encounters with Translations of Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Titchkosky

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This special issue edited by Katie Aubrecht demonstrates that a focus on translations of happiness makes us attend to the interpretive process animating social relations. There are many registers of translation that individuals, communities, and the state make use of as they grapple with relations to happiness. Among the vast array of historical registers that aim to make happiness comprehensible or compelling, medicine and politics are two of the most noteworthy. Moving from one register to another, such as from institutional versions of happiness as a medically regulated matter, to its appearance in situations of war, trauma, illness, local community or state, between these differing registers, we come to re-encounter happiness in many important ways as this special issue demonstrates. This issue thus invites its readers to question modernity’s progressive interest in and use of happiness as a way to narrate and assemble our essential inter-relatedness.

  5. Encounters along Micro-Level Borders: Silence and Metacommunicative Talk in Service Encounter Conversations between Finnish Employment Officials and Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Tanttu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the interaction between Finnish employment officials and their immigrant clients in service encounter conversations. It employs the concepts of metacommunicative talk, silence, agency and asymmetric interaction situation. Such service encounters between native speakers of Finnish and immigrants going through the integration process and speaking Finnish as their second language constitute situations of institutional interaction, characterised by asymmetry. Asymmetry during the service encounter arises from the roles and power relations between the official and client, a familiarity with the routines associated with service encounters, and the use of Finnish as the language of conversation during the encounter. This article examines two authentic service encounters, recorded in a Finnish employment office. The encounters are analysed using discourse analysis, combining micro-level analysis of language use and macro-level analysis of the situation. Interviews with the employment officials and background information collected from the officials and clients via questionnaires are used in support of the qualita-tive analysis. Officials use different methods of interaction with their clients. In addition, the individual characteristics of officials and clients and their cultural differences in-fluence the construction of interaction during a service encounter. Finnish officials can sometimes handle service encounters with very little talk - sometimes with hardly any talk at all. However, metacommunicative talk can serve as a vehicle for reinforcing the client's agency and supporting the immigrant in learning the language and customs, as well as in establishing a foothold in the new community, and thereby promoting the integration process as a whole.

  6. Coordination and resource-related difficulties encountered by Quebec's public health specialists and infectious diseases/medical microbiologists in the management of A (H1N1 - a mixed-method, exploratory survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan Charles

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Quebec, the influenza A (H1N1 pandemic was managed using a top-down style that left many involved players with critical views and frustrations. We aimed to describe physicians' perceptions - infectious diseases specialists/medical microbiologists (IDMM and public health/preventive medicine specialists (PHPMS - in regards to issues encountered with the pandemics management at the physician level and highlight suggested improvements for future healthcare emergencies. Methods In April 2010, Quebec IDMM and PHPMS physicians were invited to anonymously complete a web-based learning needs assessment. The survey included both open-ended and multiple-choice questions. Descriptive statistics were used to report on the frequency distribution of multiple choice responses whereas thematic content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data generated from the survey and help understand respondents' experience and perceptions with the pandemics. Results Of the 102 respondents, 85.3% reported difficulties or frustrations in their practice during the pandemic. The thematic analysis revealed two core themes describing the problems experienced in the pandemic management: coordination and resource-related difficulties. Coordination issues included communication, clinical practice guidelines, decision-making, roles and responsibilities, epidemiological investigation, and public health expert advisory committees. Resources issues included laboratory resources, patient management, and vaccination process. Conclusion Together, the quantitative and qualitative data suggest a need for improved coordination, a better definition of roles and responsibilities, increased use of information technologies, merged communications, and transparency in the decisional process. Increased flexibility and less contradiction in clinical practice guidelines from different sources and increased laboratory/clinical capacity were felt critical to the proper

  7. Deterministic binary vectors for efficient automated indexing of MEDLINE/PubMed abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahle, Manuel; Widdows, Dominic; Herskovic, Jorge R; Bernstam, Elmer V; Cohen, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    The need to maintain accessibility of the biomedical literature has led to development of methods to assist human indexers by recommending index terms for newly encountered articles. Given the rapid expansion of this literature, it is essential that these methods be scalable. Document vector representations are commonly used for automated indexing, and Random Indexing (RI) provides the means to generate them efficiently. However, RI is difficult to implement in real-world indexing systems, as (1) efficient nearest-neighbor search requires retaining all document vectors in RAM, and (2) it is necessary to maintain a store of randomly generated term vectors to index future documents. Motivated by these concerns, this paper documents the development and evaluation of a deterministic binary variant of RI. The increased capacity demonstrated by binary vectors has implications for information retrieval, and the elimination of the need to retain term vectors facilitates distributed implementations, enhancing the scalability of RI.

  8. Comparison of Bayesian and classical methods in the analysis of cluster randomized controlled trials with a binary outcome: The Community Hypertension Assessment Trial (CHAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolovich Lisa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster randomized trials (CRTs are increasingly used to assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve health outcomes or prevent diseases. However, the efficiency and consistency of using different analytical methods in the analysis of binary outcome have received little attention. We described and compared various statistical approaches in the analysis of CRTs using the Community Hypertension Assessment Trial (CHAT as an example. The CHAT study was a cluster randomized controlled trial aimed at investigating the effectiveness of pharmacy-based blood pressure clinics led by peer health educators, with feedback to family physicians (CHAT intervention against Usual Practice model (Control, on the monitoring and management of BP among older adults. Methods We compared three cluster-level and six individual-level statistical analysis methods in the analysis of binary outcomes from the CHAT study. The three cluster-level analysis methods were: i un-weighted linear regression, ii weighted linear regression, and iii random-effects meta-regression. The six individual level analysis methods were: i standard logistic regression, ii robust standard errors approach, iii generalized estimating equations, iv random-effects meta-analytic approach, v random-effects logistic regression, and vi Bayesian random-effects regression. We also investigated the robustness of the estimates after the adjustment for the cluster and individual level covariates. Results Among all the statistical methods assessed, the Bayesian random-effects logistic regression method yielded the widest 95% interval estimate for the odds ratio and consequently led to the most conservative conclusion. However, the results remained robust under all methods – showing sufficient evidence in support of the hypothesis of no effect for the CHAT intervention against Usual Practice control model for management of blood pressure among seniors in primary care. The

  9. Binary-Signal Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebeler, Elmer L.

    2011-01-01

    Binary communication through long cables, opto-isolators, isolating transformers, or repeaters can become distorted in characteristic ways. The usual solution is to slow the communication rate, change to a different method, or improve the communication media. It would help if the characteristic distortions could be accommodated at the receiving end to ease the communication problem. The distortions come from loss of the high-frequency content, which adds slopes to the transitions from ones to zeroes and zeroes to ones. This weakens the definition of the ones and zeroes in the time domain. The other major distortion is the reduction of low frequency, which causes the voltage that defines the ones or zeroes to drift out of recognizable range. This development describes a method for recovering a binary data stream from a signal that has been subjected to a loss of both higher-frequency content and low-frequency content that is essential to define the difference between ones and zeroes. The method makes use of the frequency structure of the waveform created by the data stream, and then enhances the characteristics related to the data to reconstruct the binary switching pattern. A major issue is simplicity. The approach taken here is to take the first derivative of the signal and then feed it to a hysteresis switch. This is equivalent in practice to using a non-resonant band pass filter feeding a Schmitt trigger. Obviously, the derivative signal needs to be offset to halfway between the thresholds of the hysteresis switch, and amplified so that the derivatives reliably exceed the thresholds. A transition from a zero to a one is the most substantial, fastest plus movement of voltage, and therefore will create the largest plus first derivative pulse. Since the quiet state of the derivative is sitting between the hysteresis thresholds, the plus pulse exceeds the plus threshold, switching the hysteresis switch plus, which re-establishes the data zero to one transition

  10. MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT METHODS USED AT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY LESSON AND THE DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED FEN VE TEKNOLOJİ DERSİNDE KULLANILAN ÖLÇMEDEĞERLENDİRME YÖNTEMLERİ VE KARŞILAŞILAN GÜÇLÜKLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etem YEŞİLYURT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, in which qualitative research method was used, is to determine the methods used by teachers at Science and Technology lessons to measure and assess students’ academic achievement levels and determine the difficulties encountered during the employment of these methods. The work group of this study consists of 54 Science and Technology teachers working at the downtowns of Diyarbakır, Elazığ, Hakkâri, Kahramanmaraş, Malatya, Şanlıurfa at 2009-2010 academic year. Data were obtained by a semi-structured interview form developed by the researcher and analyzed through NVivo 8 qualitative data analysis program. As a result of the research, teachers were determined to more frequently employ essay tests, complete-filling tests, multiple choice tests, true-false tests and equating tests that are among the traditional methods and also performance based processes, projects and portfolios that are among alternative methods. Students cannot state what they know at essay tests, they write whatever comes to their minds at complete-filling tests, and they can find incidentally the true answer at multiple choice tests, true-false tests and equating tests. At the methods of performance based processes and projects, teachers stated that they encountered such problems that students take their homework ready-made from internet, families help students excessively and students cannot put forth original products. Nitel araştırma yöntemi kullanılarak yapılan bu çalışmanın amacı, öğretmenlerin Fen ve Teknoloji dersinde öğrencilerin akademik başarısını ölçme ve değerlendirmede kullandıkları yöntemleri ve bu yöntemleri kullanırken karşılaştıkları güçlükleri belirlemektir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 2009-2010 akademik yılında Diyarbakır, Elazığ, Hakkâri, Kahramanmaraş, Malatya, Şanlıurfa il merkezinde görev yapan 54 Fen ve Teknoloji öğretmeni oluşturmaktadır. Veriler, ara

  11. Multiple criteria group decision making method based on binary connection number aggregation operators%基于二元联系数集结算子的多准则群决策方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪新凡; 王坚强; 杨恶恶

    2013-01-01

    定义了二元联系数的加性运算法则,给出了几种新的算术集结算子,即二元联系数加权算术平均(BCNWAA)算子、二元联系数有序加权平均(BCNOWA)算子和二元联系数混合集结(BCNHA)算子,提出了一种基于二元联系数的准则权重信息不完全确定的群决策方法。该方法利用BCNWAA算子和BCNHA算子对二元联系数准则值进行集结;利用二元联系数准则值的方差和准则权重的随机性,通过构建优化模型确定最优准则权重。最后,通过实例分析表明了该方法的可行性和有效性。%Some additive operational laws of binary connection numbers are defined, and several new arithmetic aggregation operators, such as the binary connection number weighted arithmetic averaging(BCNWAA) operator, the binary connection number ordered weighted averaging(BCNOWA) operator and the binary connection number hybrid aggregation(BCNHA) operator, are proposed. Then an approach is developed for solving multiple criterion group decision making based on binary connection numbers with incomplete uncertain information. In this method, binary connection number criterion values are aggregated using the BCNWAA operator and the BCNHA operator, some optimal models are constructed to determine the optimal criterion weights using the variance of binary connection number criterion values and the randomness of criterion weights. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed method.

  12. Determinants of customer satisfaction with service encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Ariana Nefat; Nika Paus

    2008-01-01

    Service encounters are the focal point of a customer’s perception of a service in terms of its quality, value and customer satisfaction. The paper researches the influence of the components of a service encounter on customer satisfaction. Among several factors that determine customer satisfaction the quality of service, which is related to the characteristics of service, plays an important role. However, a direct insight into the reasons that make a service encounter satisfactory or unsatisfa...

  13. Focus Groups as Transformative Spiritual Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Moloney PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are a valuable method for exploring the construction and negotiation of meanings. In her doctoral research the author explored how Australian women's experiences of menstruation, birth, and spirituality are invested with meaning and how that meaning influences and shapes those experiences. The focus group has been described as a potentially liminal space, which enables the discussion of taboo subjects by breaking the ice and giving people permission to comment. In addition, she discovered that the groups could be occasions of empowerment and transformation for both participants and researcher. In a way that far exceeded her expectations, the group format was ideally suited to feminist research and the organic inquiry methodology she used. Some groups became deeply spiritual encounters that were nourishing and transformative for all. This article explores how focus groups can be vehicles of spiritual transformation, examining one group in particular to highlight the points raised.

  14. Emotions in relation to healthcare encounters affecting self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räty, Lena; Gustafsson, Barbro

    2006-02-01

    This study identifies emotions in patients with epilepsy as a result of confirming and disconfirming healthcare experiences. A discussion of emotions as a motive for patients' goal-directed actions was a further aim of this study. The critical incident method was used for data collection. Emotions occurring in confirming and disconfirming healthcare encounters were analyzed using the Belief-Desire Theory of Emotions and were categorized as basic, complex, or self-evaluating. Confirming encounters aroused emotions like hope, a feeling of security, joy, relief, and pride, while disconfirming encounters aroused emotions like despair, fear, unrest, resignation, shame, and guilt. The emotions identified in the healthcare encounters were recognized as motives for action. An emotion such as a feeling of security aroused a desire in the patients to strengthen their positive self and motivated them to have a constructive and sympathetic attitude toward the healthcare experience. An emotion such as anger caused patients to strive to maintain their self-respect either by avoiding difficult situations and ignoring the problem (patients with a low self-esteem) or by trying to re-create a positive self-image (patients with a high self-esteem). Healthcare encounters between patient and caregiver considerably affect the patient's emotional status and thereby his or her well-being. The importance of establishing healthcare encounters that evoke positive emotions that strengthen patients' resources must be addressed in future nursing care.

  15. Releasing and relieving encounters: experiences of pregnancy and childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Ingela

    2004-12-01

    The experience of childbirth is an important life event for women, memories of which may follow them throughout life. The aim of the study reported here was to synthesize the results from four selected studies describing these experiences by focusing on women's and midwives' experiences of the encounter during childbirth, as well as experiences of pregnancy from the women's perspective. The setting was the Alternative Birth Care Centre (Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goteborg) and Karolinska Hospital (Stockholm, Sweden). A qualitative method grounded in phenomenology and hermeneutics was used as a basis for the studies and synthesis. The essential structure may be conceptualized under the heading 'releasing and relieving encounters', which, for the woman, constitutes an encounter with herself as well as with the midwife, and includes stillness as well as change. Stillness is expressed as presence and being one's body. Change is expressed as transition to the unknown and to motherhood. In the releasing and relieving encounter, for the midwife stillness and change equals being both anchored and a companion. To be a companion is to be an available person who listens to and follows the woman through the process of childbirth. To be anchored is to be the person who respects the limits of the woman's ability as well as her own professional limits in the transition process. A releasing and relieving encounter implies a sharing of responsibility and participation for women. This may be understood as a unique feature, which differs from other caring encounters and should be further studied.

  16. A MULTIRATE STOeRMER ALGORITHM FOR CLOSE ENCOUNTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazier, K. R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Newman, W. I. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Sharp, P. W., E-mail: kevin_grazier@yahoo.com, E-mail: win@ucla.edu, E-mail: sharp@math.auckland.ac.nz [Department of Mathematics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2013-04-15

    We present, analyze, and test a multirate Stoermer-based algorithm for integrating close encounters when performing N-body simulations of the Sun, planets, and a large number of test particles. The algorithm is intended primarily for accurate simulations of the outer solar system. The algorithm uses stepsizes H and h{sub i} , i = 1, ..., N{sub p} , where h{sub i} << H and N{sub p} is the number of planets. The stepsize H is used for the integration of the orbital motion of the Sun and planets at all times. H is also used as the stepsize for the integration of the orbital motion of test particles when they are not undergoing a close encounter. The stepsize h{sub i} is used to integrate the orbital motion of test particles during a close encounter with the ith planet. The position of the Sun and planets during a close encounter is calculated using Hermite interpolation. We tested the algorithm on two contrasting problems, and compared its performance with the existing method which uses the same stepsize for all bodies (this stepsize must be significantly smaller than H to ensure the close encounters are integrated accurately). Our tests show that the integration error for the new and existing methods are comparable when the stepsizes are chosen to minimize the error, and that for this choice of stepsizes the new method requires considerably less CPU time than the existing method.

  17. Binary Solvents Dispersive Liquid—Liquid Microextraction (BS-DLLME) Method for Determination of Tramadol in Urine Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tramadol is an opioid, synthetic analog of codeine and has been used for the treatment of acute or chronic pain may be abused. In this work, a developed Dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) as binary solvents-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (BS-DLLME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FD) was employed for determination of tramadol in the urine samples. This procedure involves the use of an appropriate mixture of binary extraction solvents (70 μL CHCl3 and 30 μL ethyl acetate) and disperser solvent (600 μL acetone) for the formation of cloudy solution in 5 ml urine sample comprising tramadol and NaCl (7.5%, w/v). After centrifuging, the small droplets of extraction solvents were precipitated. In the final step, the HPLC with fluorescence detection was used for determination of tramadol in the precipitated phase. Results Various factors on the efficiency of the proposed procedure were investigated and optimized. The detection limit (S/N = 3) and quantification limit (S/N = 10) were found 0.2 and 0.9 μg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for the extraction of 30 μg L of tramadol was found 4.1% (n = 6). The relative recoveries of tramadol from urine samples at spiking levels of 10, 30 and 60 μg/L were in the range of 95.6 – 99.6%. Conclusions Compared with other methods, this method provides good figures of merit such as good repeatability, high extraction efficiency, short analysis time, simple procedure and can be used as microextraction technique for routine analysis in clinical laboratories. PMID:24495475

  18. 真空制冰过程中水滴动态特性%Analysis on droplet temperature in binary ice preparation by vacuum method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章学来; 李晓菲; 高文忠; 王为; 李志伟

    2012-01-01

    The binary ice is a solid-liquid two-phase solution with huge minute ice crystals. The binary ice, with good flowing ability and large phase change latent heat, can be used as a good coolant for cold storage or large-scale and high-density cold energy transfer. In order to investigate the factors affecting the droplet temperature in binary ice preparation by vacuum method, a vacuum ice experimental bench, was set up to examine the dynamic characteristics of process, and collect relevant images and experimental data. The collected images are analyzed qualitatively. Experimental data collected are droplet temperature as a function of time at different environment temperatures, ambient pressures, water temperatures, water quality, sizes and initial falling velocities of water droplets which are compared with simulation data. The results show that the effects of environment temperature, water temperature, initial falling velocity of water droplets are small, while the effects of ambient pressure and water size are significant. The effect of water quality is special, mainly on the maximum subcooled degree of droplets.%为研究真空制冰水滴温度影响因素并进行分析,搭建了真空制冰动态特性研究实验台,进行相关实验,采集了相关图像和实验数据.对采集的图像进行了定性分析.采集的实验数据主要是在不同环境温度、环境压力、供水水温、水质、粒径及水滴下落初速度等情况下水滴温度随时间的变化情况,并与模拟计算值一并进行了对比分析.分析得出环境温度、供水水温、下落初速度对其影响较小,而环境压力、水滴粒径对其影响较为明显,供水水质对其影响比较特殊,主要表现在液滴的最大过冷度上.

  19. A phase-field-lattice Boltzmann method for modeling motion and growth of a dendrite for binary alloy solidification in the presence of melt convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Roberto; Takaki, Tomohiro; Ohno, Munekazu

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a combination of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and the phase-field method (PFM) is used for modeling simultaneous growth and motion of a dendrite during solidification. PFM is used as a numerical tool to simulate the morphological changes of the solid phase, and the fluid flow of the liquid phase is described by using LBM. The no-slip boundary condition at the liquid-solid interface is satisfied by adding a diffusive-forcing term in the LBM formulation. The equations of motion are solved for tracking the translational and rotational motion of the solid phase. The proposed method is easily implemented on a single Cartesian grid and is suitable for parallel computation. Two-dimensional benchmark computations show that the no-slip boundary condition and the shape preservation condition are satisfied in this method. Then, the present method is applied to the calculation of dendritic growth of a binary alloy under melt convection. Initially, the solid is stationary, and then, the solid moves freely due to the influence of fluid flow. Simultaneous growth and motion are effectively simulated. As a result, it is found that motion and melt convection enhance dendritic growth along the flow direction.

  20. Close encounters of three black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Campanelli, Manuela; Zlochower, Yosef

    2007-01-01

    We present the first fully relativistic longterm numerical evolutions of three equal-mass black holes in a hierarchical system consisting of a third black hole in orbit about a black-hole binary at twice the binaries separation. We find that these close-three-black-hole systems can have very different merger dynamics than black-hole binaries. In particular, we see distinctive waveforms, a suppression of the emitted gravitational radiation, and a redistribution of the energy of the system that can impart substantial kicks to one of the members of the binary. We evolve two such configurations and find very different behaviors. In one configuration the binary is quickly disrupted and the individual holes follow complicated trajectories and merge with the third hole in rapid succession, while in the other, the binary completes a half-orbit before the initial merger of one of the members with the third black hole, and the resulting two-black-hole system forms a highly elliptical, well separated binary that shows n...

  1. Localisation of a source of hazardous substance dispersion using binary measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Branko; Gunatilaka, Ajith; Gailis, Ralph

    2016-10-01

    The problem is to estimate the parameters of a source continuously releasing hazardous material into the atmosphere. The concentration measurements are collected at a number of known locations by a moving binary sensor, characterised by an unknown threshold. The paper formulated a solution in the Bayesian framework, using a dispersion model of Poisson distributed particle encounters in a turbulent flow and assuming the environmental parameters (wind velocity, diffusivity, particle lifetime) are known. The method is implemented using an importance sampling technique and successfully validated with three experimental datasets under different wind conditions. In this context, the estimates of the source release rate are not of practical use, being scaled with an unknown constant related to the binary threshold.

  2. Encountering whales: How encounter rates became the basis for managing whaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Smith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Declining rates of encountering whales, including both sighting and catching, were noted by whalers throughout the 19th century, and these declines became the first indication that whaling was adversely affecting whale abundance. The interpretation of declines in both sighting and catch rates proved to be a difficult scientific task. Satisfactory quantitative methods of interpreting changes in whale encounter rates were not developed until the second half of the 20th century. Rates of encountering whales played a key role in the International Whaling Commission (IWC Scientific Committee from its beginning in the early 1950s, as well as in the US in implementing its Marine Mammal Protection Act beginning in the early 1970s. The development of methods of collecting and interpreting sighting and catch data was intimately interwoven with the development of themanagement of whaling and cetacean by-catches in fisheries throughout the world, but especially within the context of the Scientific Committees of the IWC and the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO. Although overfishing of whales was initially identified through the use of sighting rate data, catch rate data provided the IWC’s Committee its first firm footing for management advice. However, it was sighting rate data that ultimately became the basis for the scientific advice on whaling and for management advice in other settings. This led to the development of large scale cetacean sighting programmes, such as the IWC’s International Decade of Cetacean Researchsurveys in Antarctic aboard Japanese ships, the North Atlantic Sighting Surveys (NASS aboard Norwegian, Icelandic, Spanish, Greenlandic and Faroese vessels and aircraft (coordinated by NAMMCO through its Scientific Committee from 1995, and surveys under the US’s Marine Mammal Protection Act and the European Union’s Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (SCANS programme. Fishery independent cetacean sighting surveys

  3. Unsupervised learning of binary vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelli Lopes da Silva, Mauro

    In this thesis, unsupervised learning of binary vectors from data is studied using methods from Statistical Mechanics of disordered systems. In the model, data vectors are distributed according to a single symmetry-breaking direction. The aim of unsupervised learning is to provide a good approximation to this direction. The difference with respect to previous studies is the knowledge that this preferential direction has binary components. It is shown that sampling from the posterior distribution (Gibbs learning) leads, for general smooth distributions, to an exponentially fast approach to perfect learning in the asymptotic limit of large number of examples. If the distribution is non-smooth, then first order phase transitions to perfect learning are expected. In the limit of poor performance, a second order phase transition ("retarded learning") is predicted to occur if the data distribution is not biased. Using concepts from Bayesian inference, the center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble is shown to have maximal average (Bayes-optimal) performance. This upper bound for continuous vectors is extended to a discrete space, resulting in the clipped center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble having maximal average performance among the binary vectors. To calculate the performance of this best binary vector, the geometric properties of the center of mass of binary vectors are studied. The surprising result is found that the center of mass of infinite binary vectors which obey some simple constraints, is again a binary vector. When disorder is taken into account in the calculation, however, a vector with continuous components is obtained. The performance of the best binary vector is calculated and shown to always lie above that of Gibbs learning and below the Bayes-optimal performance. Making use of a variational approach under the replica symmetric ansatz, an optimal potential is constructed in the limits of zero temperature and mutual overlap 1. Minimization of this potential

  4. A comparative study of smart spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of sitagliptin phosphate and metformin hydrochloride in their binary mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Hayam M; Mohamed, Dalia; Mowaka, Shereen

    2015-01-01

    Simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the oral antidiabetic drugs; sitagliptin phosphate (STG) and metformin hydrochloride (MET) in combined pharmaceutical formulations. Three methods were manipulating ratio spectra namely; ratio difference (RD), ratio subtraction (RS) and a novel approach of induced amplitude modulation (IAM) methods. The first two methods were used for determination of STG, while MET was directly determined by measuring its absorbance at λmax 232 nm. However, (IAM) was used for the simultaneous determination of both drugs. Moreover, another three methods were developed based on derivative spectroscopy followed by mathematical manipulation steps namely; amplitude factor (P-factor), amplitude subtraction (AS) and modified amplitude subtraction (MAS). In addition, in this work the novel sample enrichment technique named spectrum addition was adopted. The proposed spectrophotometric methods did not require any preliminary separation step. The accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of the proposed methods were determined. The selectivity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures of the drugs and their combined pharmaceutical formulations. Standard deviation values were less than 1.5 in the assay of raw materials and tablets. The obtained results were statistically compared to that of a reported spectrophotometric method. The statistical comparison showed that there was no significant difference between the proposed methods and the reported one regarding both accuracy and precision.

  5. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  6. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...... and looks at the overlapping roles of authors as activists, teachers, communicators etc....

  7. Binary Representations of Fingerprint Spectral Minutiae Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Haiyun; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2010-01-01

    A fixed-length binary representation of a fingerprint has the advantages of a fast operation and a small template storage. For many biometric template protection schemes, a binary string is also required as input. The spectral minutiae representation is a method to represent a minutiae set as a fixe

  8. Calculating the probability of injected carbon dioxide plumes encountering faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, P.D.

    2011-04-01

    One of the main concerns of storage in saline aquifers is leakage via faults. In the early stages of site selection, site-specific fault coverages are often not available for these aquifers. This necessitates a method using available fault data to estimate the probability of injected carbon dioxide encountering and migrating up a fault. The probability of encounter can be calculated from areal fault density statistics from available data, and carbon dioxide plume dimensions from numerical simulation. Given a number of assumptions, the dimension of the plume perpendicular to a fault times the areal density of faults with offsets greater than some threshold of interest provides probability of the plume encountering such a fault. Application of this result to a previously planned large-scale pilot injection in the southern portion of the San Joaquin Basin yielded a 3% and 7% chance of the plume encountering a fully and half seal offsetting fault, respectively. Subsequently available data indicated a half seal-offsetting fault at a distance from the injection well that implied a 20% probability of encounter for a plume sufficiently large to reach it.

  9. Stability of multiplanet systems in binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Marzari, F

    2016-01-01

    When exploring the stability of multiplanet systems in binaries, two parameters are normally exploited: the critical semimajor axis ac computed by Holman and Wiegert (1999) within which planets are stable against the binary perturbations, and the Hill stability limit Delta determining the minimum separation beyond which two planets will avoid mutual close encounters. Our aim is to test whether these two parameters can be safely applied in multiplanet systems in binaries or if their predictions fail for particular binary orbital configurations. We have used the frequency map analysis (FMA) to measure the diffusion of orbits in the phase space as an indicator of chaotic behaviour. First we revisited the reliability of the empirical formula computing ac in the case of single planets in binaries and we find that, in some cases, it underestimates by 10-20% the real outer limit of stability. For two planet systems, the value of Delta is close to that computed for planets around single stars, but the level of chaoti...

  10. Stimuli-responsive coacervate induced in binary functionalized poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) aqueous system and novel method for preparing semi-ipn microgel using the coacervate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tomohiro; Akasaki, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Aoyagi, Takao

    2009-08-18

    We describe a novel method for preparing a stimuli-responsive semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) hydrogel microsphere using a thermoresponsive-type coacervation. The coacervate droplets were formed in the two-component nonionic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-hydroxyisopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAAm-co-HIPAAm)) and ionic poly(NIPAAm-co-2-carboxyisopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAAm-co-CIPAAm)) aqueous system by heating the solution above the lower critical solution temperature. The resulting coacervate droplets included both kinds of polymer chains. Divinyl sulfone, which cross-links the hydroxyl groups of the poly(NIPAAm-co-HIPAAm), was added to the coacervate droplets. In this way, the stimuli-responsive semi-IPN hydrogel microsphere consisting of the poly(NIPAAm-co-HIPAAm) gel matrix and the linear poly(NIPAAm-co-CIPAAm) chains could be prepared, and their sizes were relatively homogeneous. That is, by utilizing the thermoresponsive coacervate droplets induced in the binary system, we could successfully prepare the fine stimuli-responsive semi-IPN hydrogel microsphere and it was prepared in a simple and easy method without any additives.

  11. Mean centering of ratio kinetic profiles for the simultaneous kinetic determination of binary mixtures in electroanalytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, K; Atabati, M; Karami, M

    2009-09-01

    In this work, the applicability of mean centering (MC) of ratio kinetic profiles method to the kinetic voltammetry data is verified. For this purpose, a procedure is described for the determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) by adsorptive linear sweep voltammetry using pyrogallol (py) as a complexing agent. The method is based on the differences between the rate of complexation of pyrogallol with Sb(V) and Sb(III) at pH 1.2. The results show that the mean centering of ratio kinetic profiles method is suitable for the speciation of antimony. Sb(III) and Sb(V) can be determined in the ranges of 3.0-120.0 and 10.0-240.0 ng mL(-1), respectively. Moreover, the solution is analyzed for any possible effects of foreign ions. The obtained results show that the method of MC in combination to electroanalytical techniques is a powerful method with high sensitivity and selectivity. The procedure is successfully applied to the speciation of antimony in pharmaceutical preparations.

  12. Identifying Satisfied/Dissatisfied Service Encounters in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Hardeep; Devi, Pinkey

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore satisfactory and dissatisfactory service encounters in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The data are collected through the well established critical incident technique (CIT) method. All the satisfied and dissatisfied critical incidents are then grouped on the basis of Bitner et al.'s…

  13. Multispectral characterization of tissues encountered during laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, R.M.; Dunias, P.; Wieringa, F.P.; Stassen, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This study investigated the feasibility of automated differentiation between essential tissue types encountered during laparoscopic colorectal surgery using spectral analysis. Methods: Wide band (440-1830 nm) spectra were collected using an optical fiber probe and spectrometer from freshly exp

  14. Marangoni Convection in Binary Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Oron, A; Behringer, Robert P.; Oron, Alexander; Zhang, Jie

    2006-01-01

    Marangoni instabilities in binary mixtures are different from those in pure liquids. In contrast to a large amount of experimental work on Marangoni convection in pure liquids, such experiments in binary mixtures are not available in the literature, to our knowledge. Using binary mixtures of sodium chloride/water, we have systematically investigated the pattern formation for a set of substrate temperatures and solute concentrations in an open system. The flow patterns evolve with time, driven by surface-tension fluctuations due to evaporation and the Soret effect, while the air-liquid interface does not deform. A shadowgraph method is used to follow the pattern formation in time. The patterns are mainly composed of polygons and rolls. The mean pattern size first decreases slightly, and then gradually increases during the evolution. Evaporation affects the pattern formation mainly at the early stage and the local evaporation rate tends to become spatially uniform at the film surface. The Soret effect becomes i...

  15. A one-step method to convert vectors into binary vectors suited for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, F.L.W.; van Wijk, R.; Michielse, C.B.; Houterman, P.M.; Ram, A.F.; Cornelissen, B.J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are widely used for the construction of physical maps, positional-cloning and whole-genome sequencing strategies. Unfortunately, their use for functional genomics is limited, as currently there is no efficient method to use BACs directly for complementation. W

  16. Assortment of encounters and evolution of cooperativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, I; Cavalli-Sforza, L L

    1982-02-01

    The method of evolutionary stable strategies (ESS), in its current form, is confronted with a difficulty when it tries to explain how some social behaviors initiate their evolution. We show that this difficulty may be removed by changing the assumption made tacitly in game theory (and in ESS) of randomness of meetings or encounters. In reality, such randomness seems to be rare in nature. Family, population and social structure, customs, and habits impose various types of deviation from randomness. Introducing nonrandomness of meeting in a way formally similar to assortative mating, we show that the bar to initial increase of inherited cooperative or altruistic behaviors can be removed, provided there is sufficient assortment of meetings. Family structure may cause contacts predominantly between certain types of relatives, and one can reconstruct some results of classical kin selection in terms of evolutionary stable strategy with assortative meetings. Neighbor effects and group selection might be similarly treated. Assortment need not be a passive consequence of population and social structure, but it can also be actively pursued. Behaviors favoring the choice of cooperative companions will have the effect of favoring the evolution of cooperativeness. It can be shown that discrimination in the choice of companions, especially if combined with assortment, can favor the development of cooperativeness, making initial increase of cooperative behavior possible even at levels of assortment passively imposed which would not be adequate, per se, to guarantee the increase of cooperativeness. It is possible that, in some cases, cooperativeness and behavior favoring some type of assortment are coselected.

  17. Genetic diversification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a function of prolonged geographic dissemination and as measured by binary typing and other genotyping methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, W; van Belkum, A; Kreiswirth, B; Verbrugh, H

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the extent of genome evolution among methicillin-resistant Staghylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Three different collections of strains were analysed, comprising locally, nationally and internationally disseminated genotypes. Various genotyping assays displaying different levels of resolution were used. Geographically and temporally diverse MRSA strains comprised the international group. MRSA strains recovered during an outbreak in a New York City hospital and Portuguese MRSA isolates, all resembling the so-called Iberian clone, were included in the local and national collections, respectively. Genotypes were determined by genome scanning typing techniques and procedures which analyse specific DNA elements only. The outbreak strains showed subclonal variation, whereas the Portuguese isolates displayed an increased number of genotypes. Among the epidemiologically unrelated MRSA strains, the different genotyping techniques revealed a wide heterogeneity of types. Different typing techniques appeared to show different levels of resolution, which could be correlated with the extent of geographic spread; the more pronounced the spread, the higher the degree of genome evolution. Binary typing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis are the typing methods of choice for determining (non)identity among strains that have a recent common ancestor and have undergone yet limited dissemination.

  18. 槐定碱/苦参碱二元醇脂质体不同制备方法的比较%Comparison of sophoridine/matrine binary ethosomes prepared by different methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周倩; 魏玉辉; 杨阳; 张建萍; 周燕; 武新安

    2013-01-01

    目的:以包封率、粒径分布和Zeta电位为指标,探讨槐定碱/苦参碱(sophoridine/matrine,S/M)二元醇脂质体3种不同制备方法的适宜性.方法:用被动载药法(Ⅰ法)、主动载药法(Ⅱ法)和被动加主动载药法(Ⅲ法)分别制备了S/M的二元醇脂质体,并考察了3种方法制备的不同药脂比二元醇脂质体的包封率、粒径分布和Zeta电位.结果:当药脂比为1∶1时,用Ⅰ法制备的S二元醇脂质体包封率最高,用Ⅲ法制备的M二元醇脂质体包封率最高;用Ⅱ法制备时,2种碱的包封率均随药脂比的减小而增大;而采用Ⅰ/Ⅲ法时2种碱的包封率均随药脂比的减小而减小.结论:制备S/M二元醇脂质体时,不同的方法和药脂比对其包封率有显著影响.S二元醇脂质体适宜用Ⅰ法制备,而M二元醇脂质体则适宜用Ⅲ法.%OBJECTIVE According to encapsulation efficiency, particle size, Zeta potential, to compare the three different methods of preparation Sophoridine/Matrine binary ethosomes. METHODS The passive drug-loading method (method Ⅰ ), active drug-loading method (method Ⅱ ), and passive plus active drug-loading method (method Ⅲ) were applied in this research to prepare S/M binary ethosomes, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency, particle size, Zeta potential of S/M binary ethosomes with different drug/lipid ratio was characterized. RESULTS When the drug/lipid ratio was 1 :1, S binary ethosomes prepared by the method Ⅰ were the highest encapsulation efficiency, and M binary ethosomes prepared by method Ⅲ were the highest rate; using the methods Ⅱ , the encapsulation efficiency of two alkaloids increased with the decrease of drug/ lipid ratio; whereas using method Ⅰ or Ⅲ, the encapsulation efficiency of two alkaloids decreased with the decrease of drug/ lipid ratio. CONCLUSION For preparation of S/M binary ethosomes, the appropriate methods and drug/lipid ratio are important impacts of their encapsulation

  19. Comparative study between recent methods manipulating ratio spectra and classical methods based on two-wavelength selection for the determination of binary mixture of antazoline hydrochloride and tetryzoline hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, Lamia M.; Abd-El Rahman, Mohamed K.; Ramadan, Nesrin K.; EL Sanabary, Hoda F. A.; Salem, Maissa Y.

    2016-04-01

    A comparative study was developed between two classical spectrophotometric methods (dual wavelength method and Vierordt's method) and two recent methods manipulating ratio spectra (ratio difference method and first derivative of ratio spectra method) for simultaneous determination of Antazoline hydrochloride (AN) and Tetryzoline hydrochloride (TZ) in their combined pharmaceutical formulation and in the presence of benzalkonium chloride as a preservative without preliminary separation. The dual wavelength method depends on choosing two wavelengths for each drug in a way so that the difference in absorbance at those two wavelengths is zero for the other drug. While Vierordt's method, is based upon measuring the absorbance and the absorptivity values of the two drugs at their λmax (248.0 and 219.0 nm for AN and TZ, respectively), followed by substitution in the corresponding Vierordt's equation. Recent methods manipulating ratio spectra depend on either measuring the difference in amplitudes of ratio spectra between 255.5 and 269.5 nm for AN and 220.0 and 273.0 nm for TZ in case of ratio difference method or computing first derivative of the ratio spectra for each drug then measuring the peak amplitude at 250.0 nm for AN and at 224.0 nm for TZ in case of first derivative of ratio spectrophotometry. The specificity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing different laboratory prepared mixtures of the two drugs. All methods were applied successfully for the determination of the selected drugs in their combined dosage form proving that the classical spectrophotometric methods can still be used successfully in analysis of binary mixture using minimal data manipulation rather than recent methods which require relatively more steps. Furthermore, validation of the proposed methods was performed according to ICH guidelines; accuracy, precision and repeatability are found to be within the acceptable limits. Statistical studies showed that the methods can be

  20. On the disruption of pulsar and X-ray binaries in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Verbunt, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The stellar encounter rate Gamma has been shown to be strongly correlated with the number of X-ray binaries in clusters and also to the number of radio pulsars. However, the pulsar populations in different clusters show remarkably different characteristics: in some GCs the population is dominated by binary systems, in others by single pulsars and exotic systems that result from exchange encounters. In this paper, we describe a second dynamical parameter for globular clusters, the encounter rate for a single binary, gamma. We find that this parameter provides a good characterization of the differences between the pulsar populations of different globular clusters. The higher gamma is for any particular globular cluster the more isolated pulsars and products of exchange interactions are observed. Furthermore, we also find that slow and "young" pulsars are found almost exclusively in clusters with a high gamma; this suggests that these kinds of objects are formed by the disruption of X-ray binaries, thus halting ...

  1. The feasibility, reliability, and validity of a post-encounter form for evaluating clinical reasoning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durning, S.J.; Artino, A.; Boulet, J.; Rochelle, J. La; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Arze, B.; Schuwirth, L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Developing feasible, reliable and valid methods for the evaluation of clinical reasoning is challenging. AIM: To explore feasibility, reliability, and validity evidence for a post-encounter form assessing clinical reasoning. METHOD: A free-text, post-encounter form was used in an Objecti

  2. On the rotational motion of NEAs during close encounters with Earth and Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Boldrin, Luiz Augusto; Winter, Othon; Araujo, Rosana

    2016-10-01

    "NEAs" stands for Near-Earth Asteroids, and as the name suggests it refers to the asteroids that in its orbital evolution approach the Earth's orbit. During their lifetime, the NEAs suffer numerous close encounters (CE) with Earth, Mars and Venus. These close encounters cause variations in the orbital and rotational angular momentum, changing their dynamic behavior of them. The variation of the rotational angular momentum during the next encounters can increase or decrease the rotation rate depending on the initial condition. In addition to the rotation rate, close encounters cause variation in the movement of precession and nutation of the asteroid. Using a numerical model that takes into account the spin-orbit coupling of a body with ellipsoidal shape, the aim of this study is to analyze the variation and rotacioanal motion (rotation, precession and nutation) of asteroids during CE with earth and Venus for different initial conditions. We computed the variation of the obliquity, the variation of spin period and the spin mode (tumbling or non-tumbling and long-axis mode or short-axis mode) after the CE. We found significant changes in obliquity and spin period only in cases with strong encounters, i.e., those is in cases where the distance of the encounter (d) and the relative velocity (v) (we call encounter parameters) are small. On the other hand we did not find a relation between encounter parameters and the behavior of the spin mode since the body can tumbling in low as well as large values of (d) and (v). For future works we intent to do the same study for a binary asteroid system.

  3. Determinants of customer satisfaction with service encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Nefat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Service encounters are the focal point of a customer’s perception of a service in terms of its quality, value and customer satisfaction. The paper researches the influence of the components of a service encounter on customer satisfaction. Among several factors that determine customer satisfaction the quality of service, which is related to the characteristics of service, plays an important role. However, a direct insight into the reasons that make a service encounter satisfactory or unsatisfactory is provided by the critical incident technique, where causes of dis/satisfaction differ primarily depending on whether they derive from interpersonal contact or from contact with technology. The evidence of service, which includes people, process and the physical evidence, plays a critical role in a customer’s dis/satisfaction. The influence of these elements cannot be observed separately; it must be observed in their interaction during the delivery of service and their strongest effect is achieved during face-to-face service encounters that have the characteristics of a theatre metaphor. Even though a high level of satisfaction may be achieved after the recovery of a service, enterprises should aim to conduct excellent service encounters right from the start.

  4. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. VIII. Identification of False Positive Eclipsing Binaries and Re-extraction of New Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Abdul-Masih, Michael; Conroy, Kyle; Bloemen, Steven; Boyajian, Tabetha; Doyle, Laurance R; Johnston, Cole; Kostov, Veselin; Latham, David W; Matijevic, Gal; Shporer, Avi; Southworth, John

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has provided unprecedented, nearly continuous photometric data of $\\sim$200,000 objects in the $\\sim$105 deg$^{2}$ field of view from the beginning of science operations in May of 2009 until the loss of the second reaction wheel in May of 2013. The Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog contains information including but not limited to ephemerides, stellar parameters and analytical approximation fits for every known eclipsing binary system in the Kepler Field of View. Using Target Pixel level data collected from Kepler in conjunction with the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, we identify false positives among eclipsing binaries, i.e. targets that are not eclipsing binaries themselves, but are instead contaminated by eclipsing binary sources nearby on the sky and show eclipsing binary signatures in their light curves. We present methods for identifying these false positives and for extracting new light curves for the true source of the observed binary signal. For each source, we extract three separa...

  5. Search for Asteroid-Asteroid Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Mammana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies about asteroids did not consider mutual interactions since they assume a negligible asteroid mass. In 1966 Hertz took into account for the first time the gravitational effects produced by an asteroid on another for mass determination. This gravitational action becomes relevant for enough effective encounters. The most efficient gravitational interaction is that produced in a large time interval and for small distances. For each particular caseful it is relevant to perform a care analysis in order to determinate the feasibility in the mass determination and improved orbital elements. In the present paper we performed a search of asteroid-asteroid encounters occurred in the twenty century for the first 3000 numbered asteroids . Of all encounters we have selected only those asteroid pairs in which one of the asteroids has a diameter larger than 200 km and the other one (the smaller an observational interval of at least ten years.

  6. Centaur's ring system formation by close encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santana, Thamiris; Winter, Othon

    2016-10-01

    Rupture of small bodies due to close approach to a massive body is a frequent event in the Solar System. Some of these small bodies can just disintegrate completely or suffer a material loss.In this work we study the gravitational interaction between a giant planet and a small body in close encounters in order to simulate the formation of a planetary ring system around a centaur by the partial rupture of the small body.Considering the current Chariklo's body and a disk of particles around it, we simulated the system under close encounters with one of giant planets.Another motivation for the study is also the centaur Chiron, that is a candidate to have a ring system like Chariklo. The characteristics of the encounters are defined by the impact parameter and the velocity at infinity.The results are presented in terms of conditions that could lead to a rupture that could generate a ring like system.

  7. Eccentricity distribution of wide binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 477 solar-type binaries within 67pc with projected separations larger than 50AU is studied by a new statistical method. Speed and direction of the relative motion are determined from the short observed arcs or known orbits, and their joint distribution is compared to the numerical simulations. By inverting the observed distribution with the help of simulations, we find that average eccentricity of wide binaries is 0.59+-0.02 and the eccentricity distribution can be modeled as f(e) ~= 1.2 e + 0.4. However, wide binaries containing inner subsystems, i.e. triple or higher-order multiples, have significantly smaller eccentricities with the average e = 0.52+-0.05 and the peak at e ~ 0.5. We find that the catalog of visual orbits is strongly biased against large eccentricities. A marginal evidence of eccentricity increasing with separation (or period) is found for this sample. Comparison with spectroscopic binaries proves the reality of the controversial period-eccentricity relation. The average eccentr...

  8. Tidal disruption events from supermassive black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Eric R; Nixon, Chris; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the pre-disruption gravitational dynamics and post-disruption hydrodynamics of the tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. We focus on binaries with relatively low mass primaries ($10^6M_{\\odot}$), moderate mass ratios, and separations with reasonably long gravitational wave inspiral times (tens of Myr). First, we generate a large ensemble (between 1 and 10 million) of restricted three-body integrations to quantify the statistical properties of tidal disruptions by circular SMBH binaries of initially-unbound stars. Compared to the reference case of a disruption by a single SMBH, the binary potential induces significant variance into the specific energy and angular momentum of the star at the point of disruption. Second, we use Newtonian numerical hydrodynamics to study the detailed evolution of the fallback debris from 120 disruptions randomly selected from the three-body ensemble (excluding only the most deeply penetrating encounters). We find that the overall mor...

  9. Dynamics of a stressful encounter: cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkman, S; Lazarus, R S; Dunkel-Schetter, C; DeLongis, A; Gruen, R J

    1986-05-01

    Despite the importance that is attributed to coping as a factor in psychological and somatic health outcomes, little is known about actual coping processes, the variables that influence them, and their relation to the outcomes of the stressful encounters people experience in their day-to-day lives. This study uses an intraindividual analysis of the interrelations among primary appraisal (what was at stake in the encounter), secondary appraisal (coping options), eight forms of problem- and emotion-focused coping, and encounter outcomes in a sample of community-residing adults. Coping was strongly related to cognitive appraisal; the forms of coping that were used varied depending on what was at stake and the options for coping. Coping was also differentially related to satisfactory and unsatisfactory encounter outcomes. The findings clarify the functional relations among appraisal and coping variables and the outcomes of stressful encounters.

  10. Primary lumbar hernia: A rarely encountered hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada Sundaramurthy

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: A surgeon may encounter a primary lumbar hernia perhaps once in his lifetime making it an interesting surgical challenge. Sound anatomical knowledge and adequate imaging are indispensable. Inspite of advances in minimally invasive surgery, it cannot be universally applied to patients with lumbar hernia and management requires a more tailored approach.

  11. Encounters on a Shape-changing Bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Grönvall, Erik; Petersen, Marianne Graves;

    2014-01-01

    ; a concert hall, an airport and a shopping mall. We gathered insights from more than 120 people, as they unexpectedly encountered the shape changing capabilities of the bench. By taking the user tests out of the lab and into the wild, we explored the influence of context on the users experience of a shape...

  12. Encountering Pedagogy through Relational Art Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rita L.; O'Donoghue, Donal

    2012-01-01

    Two artists involved in "socially engaged art" practice were invited to work with art education teacher candidates and instructors in an effort to rethink notions of teaching, learning and art. We initiated this residency, which we called "The Summerhill Residency", to examine how learning encounters might create environments…

  13. Service encounters as bases for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Jon; Sundbo, Donna; Henten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    between employees and customers, employees investing stubbornness and time can be a driver for innovation, and several layers of management can be a barrier. In the field experiments three new factors for encounter-based innovation were found: translation, multitasking, and hyper-professionalism. The two...

  14. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  15. Moral Relations in Encounters with Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Karin; Öhman, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this article is to develop in-depth knowledge about the connection between outdoor experiences and moral attitudes towards nature. The study focuses on processes in which moral relations are at stake in encounters between students and nature. The purpose is to identify such events, describe their specific circumstances and…

  16. Children's collaborative encounters in pre-school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinth, Lone

    2013-01-01

    ’s collaboration and how the institutional demands influence children’s collaborative encounters. The study is based on video recordings of paedagogical activities (workshops and circle times) in two Danish pre-schools over a period of 11 months. Although institutional demands challenge children’s initiatives...

  17. Fast algorithms for generating binary holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Dustin; Kuhn, Axel

    2014-01-01

    We describe three algorithms for generating binary-valued holograms. Our methods are optimised for producing large arrays of tightly focussed optical tweezers for trapping particles. Binary-valued holograms allow us to use a digital mirror device (DMD) as the display element, which is much faster than other alternatives. We describe how our binary amplitude holograms can be used to correct for phase errors caused by optical aberrations. Furthermore, we compare the speed and accuracy of the algorithms for both periodic and arbitrary arrangements of traps, which allows one to choose the ideal scheme depending on the circumstances.

  18. On The Validity of the Assumed PDF Method for Modeling Binary Mixing/Reaction of Evaporated Vapor in GAS/Liquid-Droplet Turbulent Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. S.; Bellan, J.

    1997-01-01

    An Investigation of the statistical description of binary mixing and/or reaction between a carrier gas and an evaporated vapor species in two-phase gas-liquid turbulent flows is perfomed through both theroetical analysis and comparisons with results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a two-phase mixing layer.

  19. The Ratio of Retrograde to Prograde Orbits: A Unique Way to test Kuiper Belt Binary Formation Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichting, Hilke E

    2008-01-01

    With the discovery of Kuiper Belt binaries that have wide separations and roughly equal masses new theories were proposed to explain their formation. Two formation scenarios were suggested by Goldreich and collaborators: In the first, dynamical friction that is generated by the sea of small bodies enables a transient binary to become bound ($L^2s$ mechanism); in the second, a transient binary gets bound by an encounter with a third body ($L^3$ mechanism). We show that these different binary formation scenarios leave their own unique signatures in the relative abundance of prograde to retrograde binary orbits. This signature is due to stable retrograde orbits that exist much further out in the Hill sphere than prograde orbits. It provides an excellent opportunity to distinguish between the different binary formation scenarios observationally. We predict that if binary formation proceeded while sub-Hill velocities prevailed, the vast majority of all comparable mass ratio binaries have retrograde orbits. This do...

  20. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Guo

    Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.

  1. Aliens on Earth. Are reports of close encounters correct?

    CERN Document Server

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Popular culture (movies, SF literature) and witness accounts of close encounters with extraterrestrials provide a rather bizarre image of Aliens behavior on Earth. It is far from stereotypes of human space exploration. The reported Aliens are not missions of diplomats, scientists nor even invasion fleets; typical encounters are with lone ETs (or small groups), and involve curious behavior: abductions and experiments (often of sexual nature), cattle mutilations, localized killing and mixing in human society using various methods. Standard scientific explanations of these social memes point to influence of cultural artifacts (movies, literature) on social imagination, projection of our fears and observations of human society, and, in severe cases, psychic disorder of the involved individuals. In this work we propose an alternate explanation, claiming that the memes might be the result of observations of actual behavior of true Aliens, who, visiting Earth behave in a way that is then reproduced by such memes. Th...

  2. Mobbing behaviors encountered by nurse teaching staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Dilek; Yildirim, Aytolan; Timucin, Arzu

    2007-07-01

    The term 'mobbing' is defined as antagonistic behaviors with unethical communication directed systematically at one individual by one or more individuals in the workplace. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of determining the mobbing behaviors encountered by nursing school teaching staff in Turkey, its effect on them, and their responses to them. A large percentage (91%) of the nursing school employees who participated in this study reported that they had encountered mobbing behaviors in the institution where they work and 17% that they had been directly exposed to mobbing in the workplace. The academic staff who had been exposed to mobbing behaviors experienced various physiological, emotional and social reactions. They frequently 'worked harder and [were] more organized and worked very carefully to avoid criticism' to escape from mobbing. In addition, 9% of the participants stated that they 'thought about suicide occasionally'.

  3. Rethinking social identity theory in international encounters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    In a globalized business environment, interaction across linguistic boundaries is becoming a normal part of everyday life. In these encounters language differences may affect the formation of social identities among organization members. While studies based on Social Identity Theory perceive...... the link between identity and language to be linear, this article takes a different approach. By drawing on anthropological theories on ethnic identity it is argued that the relation between language and social identity is negotiated in interaction. In the empirical analysis the article focuses...... on the encounter between expatriates and local employees of a Danish subsidiary in England. The findings show that identity making may be actualized by competition for resources and recognition. This can be done by investing certain objects such as the symbolic application of language with certain identifications...

  4. Encounter-based worms: Analysis and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Tanachaiwiwat, Sapon

    2007-01-01

    Encounter-based network is a frequently-disconnected wireless ad-hoc network requiring immediate neighbors to store and forward aggregated data for information disseminations. Using traditional approaches such as gateways or firewalls for deterring worm propagation in encounter-based networks is inappropriate. We propose the worm interaction approach that relies upon automated beneficial worm generation aiming to alleviate problems of worm propagations in such networks. To understand the dynamic of worm interactions and its performance, we mathematically model worm interactions based on major worm interaction factors including worm interaction types, network characteristics, and node characteristics using ordinary differential equations and analyze their effects on our proposed metrics. We validate our proposed model using extensive synthetic and trace-driven simulations. We find that, all worm interaction factors significantly affect the pattern of worm propagations. For example, immunization linearly decrea...

  5. The encounters that compose the research craft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Kind

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses ethical and political dimensions of research, which is taken as social practice. To perform this research, with two teams in different regions of Brazil (Northeast and Southeast, building a truly collaborative work was an imperative task. The work process is problematized in a research involving women activists of two Brazilian social movements. The research process is discussed in four specific encouters. The first concerns the process of co-elaborating the project and the challenges of gathering distinct research interests. The second focuses on the daily challenges of staff in working with the theme of death, but also the synergy needed to work remotely. The third encounter discusses the relationship between researchers and participants, highlighting ethical and political dilemmas. The fourth and final encounter to be discussed the constraints posed by working with the theme of death, echoing among the participants and another researchers.

  6. Winnicott and Lacan: a missed encounter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanier, Alain

    2012-04-01

    Winnicott was able to say that Lacan's paper on the mirror stage "had certainly influenced" him, while Lacan argued that he found his object a in Winnicott's transitional object. By following the development of their personal relations, as well as of their theoretical discussions, it is possible to argue that this was a missed encounter--yet a happily missed one, since the misunderstandings of their theoretical exchanges allowed each of them to clarify concepts otherwise difficult to discern.

  7. Investigation of Wake-Vortex Aircraft Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sonya T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions though the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. The major goal of the TAP program is to develop the technology that will allow air traffic levels during instrument meteorological condition to approach those achieved during visual operations. The Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement of TAP at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) will develop the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). The purpose of the AVOSS is to integrate current and predicted weather conditions, wake vortex transport and decay knowledge, wake vortex sensor data, and operational definitions of acceptable strengths for vortex encounters to produce dynamic wake vortex separation criteria. The proposed research is in support of the wake vortex hazard definition component of the LaRC AVOSS development research. The research program described in the next section provided an analysis of the static test data and uses this data to evaluate the accuracy vortex/wake-encounter models. The accuracy of these models has not before been evaluated using experimental data. The research results also presented the first analysis of the forces and moments imparted on an airplane during a wake vortex encounter using actual flight test data.

  8. Lossless compression catalyst based on binary allocation via modular arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Mastriani, Mario

    2014-01-01

    A new binary (bit-level) lossless compression catalyst method based on a modular arithmetic, called Binary Allocation via Modular Arithmetic (BAMA), has been introduced in this paper. In other words, BAMA is for storage and transmission of binary sequences, digital signal, images and video, also streaming and all kinds of digital transmission. As we said, our method does not compress, but facilitates the action of the real compressor, in our case, any lossless compression algorithm (Run Lengt...

  9. Calculated Method of the Excess Thermodynamics Functions for Solid Binary Alloy Systems%固态二元合金超额热力学函数的计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星秋; P.Rogl; 等

    2001-01-01

    基于Miedema二元合金生成热模型,结合自由体积理论,充分考虑超额熵,针对实际固态二元合金熔体,提出全浓度范围内的超额热力学函数的计算方法,分别推导出对有序、无序固态二元合金的全摩尔超额函数、偏摩尔超额函数、组元活度计算式.分别计算了固态无序合金Ag-Au、有序合金Co-Pt在800K、1273K温度下的各种超额热力学函数值,计算结果与实验值吻合良好.%Based on Miedema's model for calculating the formation heat of binary alloys by combining the free volume theory and considering excess entropy, the calculation method of excess thermodynamics functions for solid binary alloy systems was developed. The formulas of excess integral mole quantities, the partial mole quantities and the activity of component were derived in the article for solid ordered or unordered binary alloy systems. The excess thermodynamics functions for solid unordered Ag-Au alloy at 800K and solid Co-Pt alloy at 1273K were calculated.

  10. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nazzario, R C; Covington, C; Kagan, D; Hyde, T W

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction between the KBOs and the third body causes one of four effects; scattering into the Oort cloud, collisions with the growing protoplanets, formation of binary pairs, or creation of a single Kuiper belt object. Additionally, the initial location of the progenitors of the Kuiper belt objects also has a significant effect on binary formation.

  11. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Nazzario, R. C.; Orr, K.; Covington, C.; Kagan, D.; Hyde, T. W.

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction betw...

  12. Elucidating the True Binary Fraction of VLM Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Spectral Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; SAHLMANN, JOHANNES; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagne, Jonathan; Skrzypek, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    The very lowest-mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs are found in abundance in nearly all Galactic environments, yet their formation mechanism(s) remain an open question. One means of testing current formation theories is to use multiplicity statistics. The majority of VLM binaries have been discovered through direct imaging, and current angular resolution limits (0.05”-0.1") are coincident with the 1-4 AU peak in the projected separation distribution of known systems, suggesting an observational bias. I have developed a separation-independent method to detect T dwarf companions to late-M/early-L dwarfs by identifying methane absorption in their unresolved, low-resolution, near-infrared spectra using spectral indices and template fitting. Over 60 spectral binary candidates have been identified with this and comparable methods. I discuss follow-up observations, including laser-guide star adaptive optics imaging with Keck/NIRC2, which have confirmed 9 systems; and radial velocity and astrometric monitoring observations that have confirmed 7 others. The direct imaging results indicate a resolved binary fraction of 18%, coincident with current estimates of the VLM binary fraction; however, our sample contained 5 previously confirmed binaries, raising its true binary fraction to 47%. To more accurately measure the true VLM binary fraction, I describe the construction of an unbiased, volume-limited, near-infrared spectral sample of M7-L5 dwarfs within 25 pc, of which 4 (1%) are found to be spectral binary candidates. I model the complex selection biases of this method through a population simulation, set constraints on the true binary fraction as traced by these systems, and compare to the predictions of current formation theories. I also describe how this method may be applied to conduct a separation-unbiased search for giant exoplanets orbiting young VLM stars and brown dwarfs.

  13. Using data from an encounter sampler to model fish dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaza, A.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Trexler, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    A method to estimate speed of free-ranging fishes using a passive sampling device is described and illustrated with data from the Everglades, U.S.A. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) from minnow traps embedded in drift fences was treated as an encounter rate and used to estimate speed, when combined with an independent estimate of density obtained by use of throw traps that enclose 1 m2 of marsh habitat. Underwater video was used to evaluate capture efficiency and species-specific bias of minnow traps and two sampling studies were used to estimate trap saturation and diel-movement patterns; these results were used to optimize sampling and derive correction factors to adjust species-specific encounter rates for bias and capture efficiency. Sailfin mollies Poecilia latipinna displayed a high frequency of escape from traps, whereas eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki were most likely to avoid a trap once they encountered it; dollar sunfish Lepomis marginatus were least likely to avoid the trap once they encountered it or to escape once they were captured. Length of sampling and time of day affected CPUE; fishes generally had a very low retention rate over a 24 h sample time and only the Everglades pygmy sunfish Elassoma evergladei were commonly captured at night. Dispersal speed of fishes in the Florida Everglades, U.S.A., was shown to vary seasonally and among species, ranging from 0.05 to 0.15 m s-1 for small poeciliids and fundulids to 0.1 to 1.8 m s-1 for L. marginatus. Speed was generally highest late in the wet season and lowest in the dry season, possibly tied to dispersal behaviours linked to finding and remaining in dry-season refuges. These speed estimates can be used to estimate the diffusive movement rate, which is commonly employed in spatial ecological models.

  14. Binary and triple collisions causing instability in the free-fall three-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Hiroaki; Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2000-04-01

    Dominant factors for escape after the first triple-encounter are searched for in the three-body problem with zero initial velocities and equal masses. By a global numerical survey on the whole initial-value space, it is found that not only a triple-collision orbit but also a particular family of binary-collision orbits exist in the set of escape orbits. This observation is justified from various viewpoints. Binary-collision orbits experiencing close triple-encounter turn out to be close to isosceles orbits after the encounter and hence lead to escape. Except for a few cases, binary-collision orbits of near-isosceles slingshot also escape.

  15. ON SELF-INVERSE BINARY MATRICES OVER THE BINARY GALOIS FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muhammad Ali Rushdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An important class of square binary matrices over the simplest finite or Galois Field GF(2 is the class of involutory or Self-Inverse (SI matrices. These matrices are of significant utility in prominent engineering applications such as the study of the Preparata Transformation or the analysis of synchronous Boolean Networks. Therefore, it is essential to devise appropriate methods, not only for understanding the properties of these matrices, but also for characterizing and constructing them. We survey square binary matrices of orders 1, 2 and 3 to identify primitive SI matrices among them. Larger SI matrices are constructed as (a the direct sum, or (b the Kronecker product, of smaller ones. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the construction and properties of binary SI matrices. The intersection of the sets of SI and permutation binary matrices is studied. We also study higher-order SI binary matrices and describe them via recursive relations or Kronecker products. Our work culminates in an exposition of the two most common representations of Boolean functions via two types of Boolean SI matrices. A better understanding of the properties and methods of constructing SI binary matrices over GF (2 is achieved. A clearer picture is attained about the utility of binary matrices in the representation of Boolean functions.

  16. 基于二值图像连通域提取的图像滤波方法%An Image Filtering Method to Extract Connected Domain in Binary Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠华; 游福成; 段怀锋; 闫涛; 卜文斌

    2015-01-01

    In order to address the noise suppression effect is not as ideal as expected, when using common noise filtering method to suppress the target image, it presents an image filtering method to extract connected domain in binary image. The collected binary image extracts the images connected domain and communicates according to the outline of the selected field noise point and filter noise point, ultimately preserves image detail and effective noise suppression characteristics of the target image. Results show that this method is superior to conventional filtering methods in a particular application.%为解决常用滤波方法对目标图像噪声抑制效果不理想的问题,提出了一种基于二值图像连通域提取的图像滤波方法。将采集到的图像进行二值化,对图像进行连通域提取并根据连通域的轮廓筛选出噪声干扰点,对噪声点进行过滤,保留图像细节特征,对目标图像的噪声达到有效抑制的效果。结果表明:该方法在特定应用上优于常规滤波方法。

  17. Envisioning invertebrates and other aquatic encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Eva

    2007-12-01

    To "envision" animals is to visualize, to experience, to figure, to image, kinds of species, discourses, representations, institutions, histories, epistemologies; and, to "imagine possible" a set of material and ethical relationships between species. This dissertation explores the "envisioning of animals" that takes place through/across/between the interfaces of seawater/visuality/experience/biology/technology/phyla---as illustrated in the documentary works of Jean Painleve (scientist and filmmaker), Genevieve Hamon (filmmaker and set-designer), Leni Riefenstahl (filmmaker and photographer), and David Powell (scientist and aquarist). In each case, aesthetic conceptions of beauty and/or ambiguity coupled with biological epistemology and phenomenology of the organisms themselves compete over "what gets to count as culture and nature," and in doing so, construct a host of hybridized and enmeshed "encounters." In the process the following questions are raised: What is the role of the ocean---it's ecosystems and semiotics---in the production of "envisioning"? How are animals used---and in turn shape and reshape the users---to construct tropes of encounter? What theories can be used to understand the phenomenological, semiotic, material, and rhetorical use/miss-use of animals in the articulation of history, economy, biology, narrativity, and representation? How does this motley crew of documentarians answer differently "the animal question," and challenge and/or reinforce anthropocentrism? Divided into two parts, the dissertation first develops a set of methodological questions derived from critical appraisal of "envisioning," encountering, and embodying through science studies, as well as an account of the use and misuse of animals as only "stand ins" for human intentionality; secondly, the dissertation analyses the work of the documentarians in question. Jean Painleve and Genevieve Hamon are shown to critique traditions of representation in nature/science films

  18. Co-creation of Innovations in ICT based service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Henten, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Innovations in services often emanate from service encounters (i.e. the touch points between the service producers and the customers). Two different types of service encounters are dealt with: face-to-face and ICT-based service encounters. The aim of the chapter is to examine the specific...... conditions for innovations from ICT-based service encounters. The service encounter research tradition is mostly concerned with customer satisfaction. The perspective of the present chapter is on innovations in the service encounter. The specific contribution of the chapter is to establish a conceptual...

  19. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  20. Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Faber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.

  1. Stacking Analysis of Binary Systems with HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Chad; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Detecting binary systems at TeV energies is an important problem because only a handful of such systems are currently known. The nature of such systems is typically thought to be composed of a compact object and a massive star. The TeV emission from these systems does not obviously correspond to emission in GeV or X-ray, where many binary systems have previously been found. This study focuses on a stacking method to detect TeV emission from LS 5039, a known TeV binary, to test its efficacy in HAWC data. Stacking is a widely employed method for increasing signal to noise ratio in optical astronomy, but has never been attempted previously with HAWC. HAWC is an ideal instrument to search for TeV binaries, because of its wide field of view and high uptime. Applying this method to the entire sky may allow HAWC to detect binary sources of very short or very long periods not sensitive to current analyses. NSF, DOE, Los Alamos, Michigan Tech, CONACyt, UNAM, BUAP.

  2. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  3. Binary Popldation Synthcsis Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Zhanwen

    2011-01-01

    Binary population synthesis (BPS), an approach to evolving millions of stars (including binaries) simultaneously, plays a crucial role in our understanding of stellar physics, the structure and evolution of galaxies, and cosmology. We proposed and developed a BPS approach, and used it to investigate the formation of many peculiar stars such as hot subdwarf stars, progenitors of type la supernovae, barium stars, CH stars, planetary nebulae, double white dwarfs, blue stragglers, contact binaries, etc. We also established an evolution population synthesis (EPS) model, the Yunnan Model, which takes into account binary interactions for the first time. We applied our model for the origin of hot subdwarf stars in the study of elliptical galaxies and explained their far-UV radiation.

  4. 4,871 Emergency Airway Encounters by Air Medical Providers: A Report of the Air Transport Emergency Airway Management (NEAR VI: “A-TEAM” Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin A. Brown III

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-hospital airway management is a key component of resuscitation although the benefit of pre-hospital intubation has been widely debated. We report a large series of pre-hospital emergency airway encounters performed by air-transport providers in a large, multi-state system. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed electronic intubation flight records from an 89 rotorcraft air medical system from January 01, 2007, through December 31, 2009. We report patient characteristics, intubation methods, success rates, and rescue techniques with descriptive statistics. We report proportions with 95% confidence intervals and binary comparisons using chi square test with p-values <0.05 considered significant. Results: 4,871 patients had active airway management, including 2,186 (44.9% medical and 2,685 (55.1% trauma cases. There were 4,390 (90.1% adult and 256 (5.3% pediatric (age ≤ 14 intubations; 225 (4.6% did not have an age recorded. 4,703 (96.6% had at least one intubation attempt. Intubation was successful on first attempt in 3,710 (78.9% and was ultimately successful in 4,313 (91.7%. Intubation success was higher for medical than trauma patients (93.4% versus 90.3%, p=0.0001 JT test. 168 encounters were managed primarily with an extraglottic device (EGD. Cricothyrotomy was performed 35 times (0.7% and was successful in 33. Patients were successfully oxygenated and ventilated with an endotracheal tube, EGD, or surgical airway in 4809 (98.7% encounters. There were no reported deaths from a failed airway. Conclusion: Airway management, predominantly using rapid sequence intubation protocols, is successful within this high-volume, multi-state air-transport system. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:188–193.

  5. Encounters with Science at ULA, Venezuela: An Incentive for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, P.

    2006-08-01

    In the School of Science of the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), in Mérida, Venezuela, a very successful event focused on high school students and primary school students, was founded in 2000. The name of this event is "Encounters with Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Biology" (hereinafter "Encounters with Science"), and it integrates these disciplines as well as Astronomy. Its main purpose is that young minds can become familiar with the methods of science inquiry and reasoning, and can understand the concepts and processes of the sciences through thoroughly prepared experiences. This flourishing program is continuing to grow and to become strong. As a matter of fact, in its sixth edition (2005), the number of high and elementary school students coming from all over the country, has reached the outstanding number of nine thousand. Among all the experiences that the students could be engaged in were many involving Astronomy. These experiences were prepared by professors, together with graduate and undergraduate students, who are pursuing their degrees in all branches of science including astronomy. Although there is this incredible team of faculties and graduate and undergraduate students working together; the target is the students of the high and elementary schools. We certainly focus on the engaging and encouraging of students to experience scientific work first hand. Additionally, our professors have prepared an excellent didactic material that can, together with the hour/class teaching, prepare high school and elementary school students for a better understanding of science; particularly, helping in this way for a better education in Astronomy. The main event of the Encounters lasts five days in the School of Science of ULA, but subsidiary events are spread all over the year and around the country. As a successful program, it can be interesting to see if other countries can adopt this method to recruit or to trigger the interest of students to pursue their

  6. Spider behaviors include oral sexual encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorič, Matjaž; Šuen, Klavdija; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Several clades of spiders whose females evolved giant sizes are known for extreme sexual behaviors such as sexual cannibalism, opportunistic mating, mate-binding, genital mutilation, plugging, and emasculation. However, these behaviors have only been tested in a handful of size dimorphic spiders. Here, we bring another lineage into the picture by reporting on sexual behavior of Darwin’s bark spider, Caerostris darwini. This sexually size dimorphic Madagascan species is known for extreme web gigantism and for producing the world’s toughest biomaterial. Our field and laboratory study uncovers a rich sexual repertoire that predictably involves cannibalism, genital mutilation, male preference for teneral females, and emasculation. Surprisingly, C. darwini males engage in oral sexual encounters, rarely reported outside mammals. Irrespective of female’s age or mating status males salivate onto female genitalia pre-, during, and post-copulation. While its adaptive significance is elusive, oral sexual contact in spiders may signal male quality or reduce sperm competition. PMID:27126507

  7. Organised cultural encounters and social integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappa, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates English conversation meetings at a grassroots integration initiative which targets improving the life situation of asylum seekers and refugees in Denmark. Contrary to similar initiatives which have been studied from an integration policy evaluation perspective, this study...... takes an explorative, social interactional approach. The paper gives examples of a common occurrence: specifically, how the volunteers actively seek out shared identities, or co-membership, with the asylum seekers and refugees as language learners. It is argued that this interactional choice highlights...... the intentional diversity fundamental to organised cultural encounters, seeing as the volunteers seek co-membership as a result of a particular oriented to difference in membership belongings among the participants. Since these English conversation meetings are transient by nature, a focus on managing...

  8. Ethics in the bank internet encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl; Mattsson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    /implications – The important implication for managerial research of this study would be for banks to focus on customer competency with an ethical concern instead of only being concerned with technical solutions for effective internet operations. Practical implications – Since more and more businesses are digitally based......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss some ethical issues in the internet encounter between customer and bank. Empirical data related to the difficulties that customers have when they deal with the bank through internet technology and electronic banking. The authors discuss...... the difficulties that customers expressed from an ethical standpoint. Design/methodology/approach – The key problem of the paper is “how does research handle the user's lack of competence in a web-based commercial environment?” The authors illustrate this ethical dilemma with data from a Danish Bank collected...

  9. Discriminative predation: Simultaneous and sequential encounter experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.D.BEATTY; D.W.FRANKS

    2012-01-01

    There are many situations in which the ability of animals to distinguish between two similar looking objects can have significant selective consequences.For example,the objects that require discrimination may be edible versus defended prey,predators versus non-predators,or mates of varying quality.Working from the premise that there are situations in which discrimination may be more or less successful,we hypothesized that individuals find it more difficult to distinguish between stimuli when they encounter them sequentially rather than simultaneously.Our study has wide biological and psychological implications from the perspective of signal perception,signal evolution,and discrimination,and could apply to any system where individuals are making relative judgments or choices between two or more stimuli or signals.While this is a general principle that might seem intuitive,it has not been experimentally tested in this context,and is often not considered in the design of models or experiments,or in the interpretation of a wide range of studies.Our study is different from previous studies in psychology in that a) the level of similarity of stimuli are gradually varied to obtain selection gradients,and b) we discuss the implications of our study for specific areas in ecology,such as the level of perfection of mimicry in predator-prey systems.Our experiments provide evidence that it is indeed more difficult to distinguish between stimuli - and to learn to distinguish between stimuli - when they are encountered sequentially rather than simultaneously,even if the intervening time interval is short.

  10. Non-negative Matrix Factorization for Binary Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Søgaard; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    this is in theory not appropriate for binary data, and thus we propose a novel Non-negative Matrix Factorization based on the logistic link function. Furthermore we generalize the method to handle missing data. The formulation of the method is compared to a previously proposed method (Tome et al., 2015). We compare......We propose the Logistic Non-negative Matrix Factorization for decomposition of binary data. Binary data are frequently generated in e.g. text analysis, sensory data, market basket data etc. A common method for analysing non-negative data is the Non-negative Matrix Factorization, though...... the performance of the Logistic Non-negative Matrix Factorization to Least Squares Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Kullback-Leibler (KL) Non-negative Matrix Factorization on sets of binary data: a synthetic dataset, a set of student comments on their professors collected in a binary term-document matrix...

  11. Binary Sparse Phase Retrieval via Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Simulated Annealing Sparse PhAse Recovery (SASPAR algorithm for reconstructing sparse binary signals from their phaseless magnitudes of the Fourier transform. The greedy strategy version is also proposed for a comparison, which is a parameter-free algorithm. Sufficient numeric simulations indicate that our method is quite effective and suggest the binary model is robust. The SASPAR algorithm seems competitive to the existing methods for its efficiency and high recovery rate even with fewer Fourier measurements.

  12. Guest-Host Encounters in Diaspora-Heritage Tourism: The Taglit-Birthright Israel Mifgash (Encounter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Theodore; Mittelberg, David; Hecht, Shahar; Saxe, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    More than 300,000 diaspora Jewish young adults and tens of thousands of their Israeli peers have participated in structured, cross-cultural encounters--"mifgashim"--in the context of an experiential education program known as Taglit-Birthright Israel. Drawing on field observations, interviews, and surveys, the formal and informal…

  13. Customer-to-customer roles and impacts in service encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates customer-to-customer roles and impacts in the context of service encounters. This topic is studied from two angles: customer interactions during group service encounters and customer perceptions post service encounters. The first angle is a focus on group service encounters that addresses the lack of research on customer-to-customer interactions that occur in customer-to-customer interaction-intensive contexts. These are contexts where the interactions between custome...

  14. Density of Liquid Binary Ni-W Alloys Measured by Modified Sessile Drop Method%用改良静滴法测量液态Ni-W二元合金的密度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方亮; 肖锋; 陶再南

    2004-01-01

    In order ot provide a scientific base for studying the shrinkage, transport phenomena and macrosegregation during the solidification of an alloy, the density of liquid binary Ni-W alloys with tungsten concentration from 0 to 15 mass% was measured by a modified sessile drop method. It has been found that the density of the liquid Ni-W alloys decreases with increasing temperature, but increases with the increase of tungsten concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-W binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and tungsten concentration. The partial molar volume of tungsten in Ni-W binary alloy has been evaluated approximately as (10.80-1.35× 10-3T) × 10-6 m3·mol-1.%为了给研究合金在凝固过程中发生收缩、迁移现象和偏析提供科学依据,我们用改良静滴法对钨浓度为0到15%的液态Ni-W二元合金的密度进行了测量.结果表明:Ni-W二元合金的液态密度随温度的增加而减少,但随合金中钨浓度的增加而增加;液态Ni-W二元合金的摩尔体积随温度和合金中钨浓度的增加而增加.金属钨在Ni-W二元合金中的偏摩尔体积约为(10.80-1.35×10-3T)×10-6m3·mol-1.

  15. Innovation from the ICT-based service encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The pupose of the paper is to develop a framework for analyzing the dynamics of innovations emanating from the ICT-based service encounters. Many innovations are based on the direct encounter between employees and customers, and the paper aims to extend the analysis of such encounters to ICT...

  16. Eclipsing Binary Update, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    Contents: 1. Wrong again! The elusive period of DHK 41. 2. Stars observed and not observed. 3. Eclipsing binary chart information. 4. Eclipsing binary news and notes. 5. A note on SS Arietis. 6. Featured star: TX Ursae Majoris.

  17. The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring. I. Observational campaign and OB-type spectroscopic binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L. A.; Sana, H.; Taylor, W.; Barbá, R.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Crowther, P.; Damineli, A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gieles, M.; Grin, N. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.; Lockwood, S.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Neijssel, C.; Norman, C.; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Richardson, N. D.; Schootemeijer, A.; Shenar, T.; Soszyński, I.; Tramper, F.; Vink, J. S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Massive binaries play a crucial role in the Universe. Knowing the distributions of their orbital parameters is important for a wide range of topics from stellar feedback to binary evolution channels and from the distribution of supernova types to gravitational wave progenitors, yet no direct measurements exist outside the Milky Way. Aims: The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring project was designed to help fill this gap by obtaining multi-epoch radial velocity (RV) monitoring of 102 massive binaries in the 30 Doradus region. Methods: In this paper we analyze 32 FLAMES/GIRAFFE observations of 93 O- and 7 B-type binaries. We performed a Fourier analysis and obtained orbital solutions for 82 systems: 51 single-lined (SB1) and 31 double-lined (SB2) spectroscopic binaries. Results: Overall, the binary fraction and orbital properties across the 30 Doradus region are found to be similar to existing Galactic samples. This indicates that within these domains environmental effects are of second order in shaping the properties of massive binary systems. A small difference is found in the distribution of orbital periods, which is slightly flatter (in log space) in 30 Doradus than in the Galaxy, although this may be compatible within error estimates and differences in the fitting methodology. Also, orbital periods in 30 Doradus can be as short as 1.1 d, somewhat shorter than seen in Galactic samples. Equal mass binaries (q> 0.95) in 30 Doradus are all found outside NGC 2070, the central association that surrounds R136a, the very young and massive cluster at 30 Doradus's core. Most of the differences, albeit small, are compatible with expectations from binary evolution. One outstanding exception, however, is the fact that earlier spectral types (O2-O7) tend to have shorter orbital periods than later spectral types (O9.2-O9.7). Conclusions: Our results point to a relative universality of the incidence rate of massive binaries and their orbital properties in the

  18. Non-small-bowel lesions encountered during double-balloon enteroscopy performed for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hoi-Poh; Tee; Arthur; J; Kaffes

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To report the incidence of non-small-bowel bleeding pathologies encountered during double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) procedures and to analyse their significance.METHODS: A retrospective study of a prospective DBE database conducted in a tertiary-referral center was conducted. A total of 179 patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) referred for DBE from June 2004 to November 2008 were analysed looking for the incidence of non-small-bowel lesions (NSBLs; all and newly diagnosed) encountered ...

  19. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  20. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  1. Orbits for sixteen binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper orbits for 13 binaries are recalculated and presented. The reason is that recent observations show higher residuals than the corresponding ephemerides calculated by using the orbital elements given in the Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars. The binaries studied were: WDS 00182+7257 = A 803, WDS 00335+4006 = HO 3, WDS 00583+2124 = BU 302, WDS 01011+6022 = A 926, WDS 01014+1155 = BU 867, WDS 01112+4113 = A 655, WDS 01361−2954 + HJ 3447, WDS 02333+5219 = STT 42 AB,WDS 04362+0814 = A 1840 AB,WDS 08017−0836 = A 1580, WDS 08277−0425 = A 550, WDS 17471+1742 = STF 2215 and WDS 18025+4414 = BU 1127 Aa-B. In addition, for three binaries - WDS 01532+1526 = BU 260, WDS 02563+7253 = STF 312 AB and WDS 05003+3924 = STT 92 AB - the orbital elements are calculated for the first time. In this paper the authors present not only the orbital elements, but the masses dynamical parallaxes, absolute magnitudes and ephemerides for the next five years, as well.

  2. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pol, J.C. van de

    2000-01-01

    We incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and tautology checkin

  3. Binary white dwarfs in the halo of the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G. A.; Helmi, Amina; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We study single and binary white dwarfs in the inner halo of the Milky Way in order to learn more about the conditions under which the population of halo stars was born, such as the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history, or the binary fraction. Methods: We simulate the evolut

  4. The dynamical importance of binary systems in young massive star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    de Grijs, Richard; Geller, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of the binary fractions in star clusters is of fundamental importance for many fields in astrophysics. Observations indicate that the majority of stars are found in binary systems, while most stars with masses greater than $0.5 M_\\odot$ are formed in star clusters. In addition, since binaries are on average more massive than single stars, in resolved star clusters these systems are thought to be good tracers of (dynamical) mass segregation. Over time, dynamical evolution through two-body relaxation will cause the most massive objects to migrate to the cluster center, while the relatively lower-mass objects remain in or migrate to orbits at greater radii. This process will globally dominate a cluster's stellar distribution. However, close encounters involving binary systems may disrupt `soft' binaries. This process will occur more frequently in a cluster's central, dense region than in its periphery, which may mask the effects of mass segregation. Using high resolution Hubble Space Telescope o...

  5. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Masses, Merger Rates, and the Impact of Stellar Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Rasio, Frederic A

    2016-01-01

    Expanding upon our previous work (Rodriguez et al., 2015), we study merging binary black holes formed in globular clusters using our Monte Carlo approach to stellar dynamics. We have created a new set of 52 cluster models with different masses, metallicities, and radii to fully characterize the binary black hole merger rate. These models include all the relevant dynamical processes (such as two-body relaxation, strong encounters, and three-body binary formation) and agree well with detailed direct N-body simulations. In addition, we have enhanced our stellar evolution algorithms with updated metallicity-dependent stellar wind and supernova prescriptions, allowing us to compare our results directly to the most recent population synthesis predictions for merger rates from isolated binary evolution. We explore the relationship between a cluster's global properties and the population of binary black holes that it produces. In particular, we derive a numerically calibrated relationship between the merger times of ...

  6. Ultra-low frequency gravitational radiation from massive black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, M; Rajagopal, Mohan; Romani, Roger W

    1994-01-01

    For massive black hole binaries produced in galactic mergers, we examine the possibility of inspiral induced by interaction with field stars. We model the evolution of such binaries for a range of galaxy core and binary parameters, using numerical results from the literature to compute the binary's energy and angular momentum loss rates due to stellar encounters and including the effect of back-action on the field stars. We find that only a small fraction of binary systems can merge within a Hubble time via unassisted stellar dynamics. External perturbations may, however, cause efficient inspiral. Averaging over a population of central black holes and galaxy mergers, we compute the expected background of gravitational radiation with periods Pw ~1-10y. Comparison with sensitivities from millisecond pulsar timing suggests that the strongest sources may be detectable with modest improvements to present experiments.

  7. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  8. Thermodynamic study of complex formation between 3,5-di iodo-hydroxy quinoline and Zn2+, Ni2+ and Co2+ cations in some binary solvents using a conductometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nezhadali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexation reactions between 3,5-di iodo-8-hydroxy quinoline (IQN and Zn2+, Ni2+ and Co2+ were studied in dimethylformamide (DMF-ethanol (EtOH binary solvent systems at different temperatures using a conductometric method. The stoichiometry of complexes was established 1:1. It was found that the stability of complexes formed between cations and this ligand increases with increases temperature. The standard enthalpies and standard entropies of complexes were obtained from the temperature dependence of stability constants. The results obtained by conductometric technique show that there is an inverse relationship between the formation constants of complexes and donor number of solvents. In all cases, the formation constants increased with increasing amounts of EtOH versus DMF in these binary systems. The standard enthalpy and standard entropies of complexes were obtained from the temperature dependence of stability constant. In all cases, ΔH° was positive and ΔS° was negative. The selectivity order for IQN complexes among various neat studied solvents varies in the order: Zn–IQN2+› Ni–IQN2+›Co–IQN2+.

  9. LHC experiences close encounters with UFOs

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    On 29 May, yet another record was set as 1092 bunches per beam were injected into the LHC, hitting a peak luminosity of 1.26x1033 cm-2 s-1. While running at 3.5 TeV each beam now packs a total energy of over 70 MJ – equivalent to a TGV travelling at a 70 kph.   Operators in the LHC Control Centre happily show off their display screens after succesfully injecting 1092 bunches injected into the machine for the first time.  As the total beam intensity has been pushed up, the LHC has encountered a number of related problems, such as the so-called UFOs (Unidentified Falling Objects). These are thought to be dust particles falling through the beam, causing localized beam loss. The losses can push nearby beam loss monitors over the threshold and dump the beam. This is more of an annoyance than a danger for the LHC, but UFOs do reduce the operational efficiency of the machine. Despite this, the luminosity delivered to the experiments has steadily increased. On three occasions there ha...

  10. Aging and Osteoarthritis: An Inevitable Encounter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hügle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a major health burden of our time. Age is the most prominent risk factor for the development and progression of OA. The mechanistic influence of aging on OA has different facets. On a molecular level, matrix proteins such as collagen or proteoglycans are modified, which alters cartilage function. Collagen cross-linking within the bone results in impaired plasticity and increased stiffness. Synovial or fat tissue, menisci but also ligaments and muscles play an important role in the pathogenesis of OA. In the elderly, sarcopenia or other causes of muscle atrophy are frequently encountered, leading to a decreased stability of the joint. Inflammation in form of cellular infiltration of synovial tissue or subchondral bone and expression of inflammatory cytokines is more and more recognized as trigger of OA. It has been demonstrated that joint movement can exhibit anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Therefore physical activity or physiotherapy in the elderly should be encouraged, also in order to increase the muscle mass. A reduced stem cell capacity in the elderly is likely associated with a decrease of repair mechanisms of the musculoskeletal system. New treatment strategies, for example with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are investigated, despite clear evidence for their efficacy is lacking.

  11. Close encounters of the prototype kind

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    CERN is building a new control centre for the operation of its entire accelerator complex and technical infrastructure. The prototype console for the new centre has just been installed and tested. Close encounters of the prototype kind CERN is building a new control centre for the operation of its entire accelerator complex and technical infrastructure. The prototype console for the new centre has just been installed and tested. The prototype of the control consoles that will be at the heart of the future CERN Control Centre (CCC) has just been installed in the Roy Billinge Room in Building 354. Until now, there have been four separate control rooms for the CERN accelerators and technical infrastructure. The CCC, which will be located on the Prévessin site, will bring them all together in a single room. The Centre will consist of 40 consoles for four different areas (LHC, SPS, PS complex and technical infrastructure). The prototype was tested by the technicians for a month. Following installation and con...

  12. The Galactic Distribution of Contact Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Dorn, Leah; Breitfeld, Abby; Mies, Regan; Avery, Tess

    2017-01-01

    The number of eclipsing contact binaries in different galactic latitudes and longitudes show peak distributions in the number per square degree in two latitudinal zones (-30 degrees to -25 degrees and +25 degrees to +30 degrees) and large fluctuations in longitude (Huang and Wade 1966, ApJ, 143, 146). Semi-detached or detached binaries are largely concentrated in the galactic plane as shown by Paczynski et al. (MNRAS, 368, 1311), different from the distribution of contact eclipsing binaries. The differences in distributions of different types of eclipsing binaries may be related to either distances or interstellar reddening. We will present a method to calculate photometric distances of W Urase Majoris systems (W UMa; used as a proxy for contact binaries) from 2MASS J and K magnitudes and interstellar reddening models (Schlafly and Finkbeiner 2011, ApJ. 737, 103). We compare the distances to those calculated from the period-luminosity-color relationship described by Rucinski (2004, NewAR, 48, 703). The W UMa systems are taken from the General Catalog of Variable Stars.

  13. 基片上二元组份薄膜的定量分析的Monte Carlo模拟计算方法%The Monte Carlo Simulation Method for Quantitative Analysis of a Binary Film on a Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘荫荣; 胡幼华; 朱惠彪

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the Monte Carlo method is utilized to simulate incident electron scattering and characteristic x-ray emission in a film, and a calculation method of the composition of a binary film on a substrate is proposed.Calculations for several films are made, and agreement with measured values is obtained.%本文用Monte Carlo方法对入射电子在薄膜中的散射和特征X射线的发射进行数学模拟,提出了基片上元组份薄膜成份的模拟计算方法。用这一方法模拟计算了若干个二元组份薄膜的成份,得到了与实验测定值相一致的模拟计算结果。

  14. Dynamical Formation of Close Binary Systems in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Pooley, D; Anderson, S F; Baumgardt, H; Filippenko, A V; Gaensler, B M; Homer, L; Hut, P; Kaspi, V M; Margon, B; McMillan, S; Zwart, S P; Van der Klis, M; Verbunt, F

    2003-01-01

    We know from observations that globular clusters are very efficient catalysts in forming unusual short-period binary systems or their offspring, such as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs; neutron stars accreting matter from low-mass stellar companions), cataclysmic variables (CVs; white dwarfs accreting matter from stellar companions), and millisecond pulsars (MSPs; rotating neutron stars with spin periods of a few ms). Although there has been little direct evidence, the overabundance of these objects in globular clusters has been attributed by numerous authors to the high densities in the cores, which leads to an increase in the formation rate of exotic binary systems through close stellar encounters. Many such close binary systems emit X-radiation at low luminosities (L_x < 10^{34} erg/s) and are being found in large numbers through observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Here we present conclusive observational evidence for a link between the number of close binaries observed in X-rays in a globul...

  15. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. VIII. Identification of False Positive Eclipsing Binaries and Re-extraction of New Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Masih, Michael; Prša, Andrej; Conroy, Kyle; Bloemen, Steven; Boyajian, Tabetha; Doyle, Laurance R.; Johnston, Cole; Kostov, Veselin; Latham, David W.; Matijevič, Gal; Shporer, Avi; Southworth, John

    2016-04-01

    The Kepler mission has provided unprecedented, nearly continuous photometric data of ∼200,000 objects in the ∼105 deg2 field of view (FOV) from the beginning of science operations in May of 2009 until the loss of the second reaction wheel in May of 2013. The Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog contains information including but not limited to ephemerides, stellar parameters, and analytical approximation fits for every known eclipsing binary system in the Kepler FOV. Using target pixel level data collected from Kepler in conjunction with the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, we identify false positives among eclipsing binaries, i.e., targets that are not eclipsing binaries themselves, but are instead contaminated by eclipsing binary sources nearby on the sky and show eclipsing binary signatures in their light curves. We present methods for identifying these false positives and for extracting new light curves for the true source of the observed binary signal. For each source, we extract three separate light curves for each quarter of available data by optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio, the relative percent eclipse depth, and the flux eclipse depth. We present 289 new eclipsing binaries in the Kepler FOV that were not targets for observation, and these have been added to the catalog. An online version of this catalog with downloadable content and visualization tools is maintained at http://keplerEBs.villanova.edu.

  16. Speckle interferometric observations of close binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S K; Yeswanth, L; Anbazhagan, P

    2002-01-01

    Speckle interferometric technique is employed to record a series of hundreds of short-exposure images of several close binary stars with sub-arcsecond separation through a narrow band filter at the Cassegrain focus of the 2.34 meter (m) Vainu Bappu telescope (VBT), situated at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur, India. The data are recorded sequentially by a Peltier-cooled intensified CCD camera with 10 ms exposure. The auto-correlation method is applied to determine the angular separations and position angles of these binary systems.

  17. Apsidal motion in eclipsing binary GG Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilan, E.; Bulut, I.

    2016-03-01

    The study of apsidal motion in binary stars with eccentric orbit is well known as an important source of information for the stellar internal structure as well as the possibility of verification of general relativity. In this study, the apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary GG Ori (P = 6.631 days, e = 0.22) has been analyzed using the times of minimum light taken from the literature and databases and the elements of apsidal motion have been computed. The method described by Giménez and García-Pelayo (1983) has been used for the apsidal motion analysis.

  18. Auto-correlation of Binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S K

    2001-01-01

    Speckle interferometric technique is used to record a series of short exposure images of several close binary stars with sub-arcsecond separation through a narrow band filter centred at H$\\alpha$ at the Cassegrain focus of the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu telescope (VBT), situated at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur. The auto-correlation method is developed under Image Reduction Analysis Facility (IRAF). Wiener filter is included in the programme to eliminate spurious high frequency contributions; a few sets of data provide the optimised results. The auto-correlated image of these stars gives the separation of the binary components.

  19. The GENGA Code: Gravitational Encounters in N-body simulations with GPU Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Simon L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a GPU implementation of a hybrid symplectic N-body integrator, GENGA (Gravitational ENcounters with Gpu Acceleration), designed to integrate planet and planetesimal dynamics in the late stage of planet formation and stability analysis of planetary systems. GENGA is based on the integration scheme of the Mercury code (Chambers 1999), which handles close encounters with very good energy conservation. It uses mixed variable integration (Wisdom & Holman 1991) when the motion is a perturbed Kepler orbit and combines this with a direct N-body Bulirsch-Stoer method during close encounters. The GENGA code supports three simulation modes: Integration of up to 2048 massive bodies, integration with up to a million test particles, or parallel integration of a large number of individual planetary systems. GENGA is written in CUDA C and runs on all Nvidia GPUs with compute capability of at least 2.0. All operations are performed in parallel, including the close encounter detection and the grouping of indepe...

  20. The effect of common-envelope evolution on the visible population of post-common-envelope binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Toonen, S.; Nelemans, G.

    2013-01-01

    Context. An important ingredient in binary evolution is the common-envelope (CE) phase. Although this phase is believed to be responsible for the formation of many close binaries, the process is not well understood. Aims. We investigate the characteristics of the population of post-common-envelope binaries (PCEB). As the evolution of these binaries and their stellar components are relatively simple, this population can be directly used to constraint CE evolution. Methods. We use the binary po...

  1. Binary Solid-Liquid Phase Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Herbert R.

    1978-01-01

    Indicates some of the information that may be obtained from a binary solid-liquid phase equilibria experiment and a method to write a computer program that will plot an ideal phase diagram to which the experimental results may be compared. (Author/CP)

  2. Tidal disruption events from supermassive black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Eric R.; Armitage, Philip J.; Nixon, Chris; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the pre-disruption gravitational dynamics and post-disruption hydrodynamics of the tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. We focus on binaries with relatively low mass primaries (106 M⊙), moderate mass ratios, and separations with reasonably long gravitational wave inspiral times (tens of Myr). First, we generate a large ensemble (between 1 and 10 million) of restricted three-body integrations to quantify the statistical properties of tidal disruptions by circular SMBH binaries of initially unbound stars. Compared to the reference case of a disruption by a single SMBH, the binary potential induces a significant variance into the specific energy and angular momentum of the star at the point of disruption. Second, we use Newtonian numerical hydrodynamics to study the detailed evolution of the fallback debris from 120 disruptions randomly selected from the three-body ensemble (excluding only the most deeply penetrating encounters). We find that the overall morphology of the debris is greatly altered by the presence of the second black hole, and the accretion rate histories display a wide range of behaviours, including order of magnitude dips and excesses relative to control simulations that include only one black hole. Complex evolution typically persists for many orbital periods of the binary. We find evidence for power in the accretion curves on time-scales related to the binary orbital period, though there is no exact periodicity. We discuss our results in the context of future wide-field surveys, and comment on the prospects of identifying and characterizing the subset of events occurring in nuclei with binary SMBHs.

  3. Determination of the isomeric forms proportion of fluorogenic naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde in a binary mixture of water:methanol using electrochemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Mathilde; Le Potier, Isabelle; Pallandre, Antoine; Chebil, Syrine; Haghiri-Gosnet, Anne-Marie; Deslouis, Claude; Maisonhaute, Emmanuel; Gamby, Jean

    2016-02-01

    The electrochemical response of the fluorogenic label naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxyaldehyde (NDA) in a binary mixture of water/methanol was characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) electrochemical techniques. Naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxyaldehyde does exist in three isomeric forms in aqueous solution: the unhydrated dialdehyde (DA), the acyclic monohydrated (MA) and the cyclic hemiacetal (HAC). The study underlines that the proportion of each of them varies according to the working pH. At low and high pH, the dialdehyde form is in larger proportion than the acyclic monohydrated form. Conversely at intermediate pH, the concentration of the acyclic form is in greater proportion than the dialdehyde form. These results allowed us to determine the optimal pH of 9 for which the labeling of biomolecules could be more efficient due to the base catalyzed regeneration of the unhydrated form. At this pH, the data processing from the analysis of measured currents and estimation of diffusion coefficients of each form according to the semi-empirical models of Wilke-Chang, Scheibel, Reddy-Doraiswamy and Lusis-Ratcliff allowed us to obtain the concentration of dialdehyde (0.28 mM), acyclic monohydrated (0.57 mM) and cyclic hemiacetal monohydrated (0.15 mM) forms starting from 1mM naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxyaldehyde.

  4. The Tourism Encounter in Community-Based Tourism in Northern Thailand: Empty Meeting Ground or Space for Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Dolezal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a contribution to the anthropology of tourism by investigating the tourism encounter in community-based tourism (CBT in Northern Thailand. It does so by discussing MacCannell’s (1992 idea of the Empty Meeting Grounds and Said’s Orientalism (1978, two works that contributed to research on power inequalities between tourists and residents in the developing world. By establishing a relationship between the two and embedding these in the wider literature on the tourism encounter, this article suggests moving away from binaries towards understanding the space of the tourism encounter and its potential for change. Building on empirical research conducted in Ban Mae Kampong, a CBT village in Northern Thailand, findings suggest that CBT shows signs of resident-host interactions that are based on understanding and learning rather than exploitation. While also in CBT friendships and meaning take time to emerge and the ‘Other’ is used as attraction, villagers’ agency and control over tourism are acknowledged. This paper therefore calls for a revisiting of the theoretical grounding that influences our understanding of the tourism encounter and argues for an investigation of community power relations in connection to the tourism encounter and its potential for residents’ empowerment in CBT.

  5. Close Encounters of Lymphoid Cells and Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Adalia, Aranzazu; Veiga, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    During infections, the first reaction of the host against microbial pathogens is carried out by innate immune cells, which recognize conserved structures on pathogens, called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Afterward, some of these innate cells can phagocytose and destroy the pathogens, secreting cytokines that would modulate the immune response to the challenge. This rapid response is normally followed by the adaptive immunity, more specific and essential for a complete pathogen clearance in many cases. Some innate immune cells, usually named antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, are able to process internalized invaders and present their antigens to lymphocytes, triggering the adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the traditional boundary of separated roles between innate and adaptive immunity has been blurred by several studies, showing that very specialized populations of lymphocytes (cells of the adaptive immunity) behave similarly to cells of the innate immunity. These “innate-like” lymphocytes include γδ T cells, invariant NKT cells, B-1 cells, mucosal-associated invariant T cells, marginal zone B cells, and innate response activator cells, and together with the newly described innate lymphoid cells are able to rapidly respond to bacterial infections. Strikingly, our recent data suggest that conventional CD4+ T cells, the paradigm of cells of the adaptive immunity, also present innate-like behavior, capturing bacteria in a process called transinfection. Transinfected CD4+ T cells digest internalized bacteria like professional phagocytes and secrete large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, protecting for further bacterial challenges. In the present review, we will focus on the data showing such innate-like behavior of lymphocytes following bacteria encounter.

  6. Distortion-Invariant Binary Image Recognition Based on Central Projection Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yaming; XIAO Yanping; SUN Fanghong; FANG Nian

    2001-01-01

    A method of central projection correlation which is invariant to distortion of shift, scale and rotation of the binary target image is proposed. A 2-D binary image is transformed into an 1-D central projection referring to the centroid of the binary image. The distortion-invariant central projection correlation is successfully performed by computer simulations and its optical implementation is presented.

  7. Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eby, David A

    2013-01-01

    A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibb...

  8. Binary Love Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2015-01-01

    When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars imprint onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the gravitational wave model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately universal relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the gravitational wave model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between equation-of-state models, and improve tests of General Relativity and cosmology.

  9. Binary Love relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2016-07-01

    When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars get imprinted onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave (GW) observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the GW model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately equation-of-state (EoS)-insensitive relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the GW model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between EoS models, and improve tests of general relativity and cosmology.

  10. Mass transfer between debris discs during close stellar encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Jilkova, Lucie; Hammer, Michael; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2016-01-01

    We study mass transfers between debris discs during stellar encounters. We carried out numerical simulations of close flybys of two stars, one of which has a disc of planetesimals represented by test particles. We explored the parameter space of the encounters, varying the mass ratio of the two stars, their pericentre and eccentricity of the encounter, and its geometry. We find that particles are transferred to the other star from a restricted radial range in the disc and the limiting radii of this transfer region depend on the parameters of the encounter. We derive an approximate analytic description of the inner radius of the region. The efficiency of the mass transfer generally decreases with increasing encounter pericentre and increasing mass of the star initially possessing the disc. Depending on the parameters of the encounter, the transfer particles have a specific distributions in the space of orbital elements (semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and argument of pericentre) around their new hos...

  11. Visuality – Textuality: An Uncanny Encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Bronfen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Abstract (E: Given that visuality is as much a part of all narration as the fact that we view images by reading them as though they were texts, this essay proposes to speak about an uncanny encounter between the two. In order to illustrate this mutual implication, as well as to bring in the theme of the spectral (that Freud suggests all experiences of the uncanny entail, it offers a cross-mapping between three different media at three different historical moments: a novella by the late Victorian author Charlotte Perkins Gilman, a series of photographs by the late modern photographer Francesca Woodman, and a film by the postmodern film maker Amenábar.

    Abstract (F:

     

    Cet article part de deux observations : à savoir que la visualité fait partie du champ plus large du récit, et que nous regardons les images en les lisant comme si elles étaient des textes. À partir de là, on examine la rencontre du textuel et du visuel comme une forme de l’inquiétante étrangeté. Afin d’illustrer leur implication réciproque et d’introduire la notion de spectre (dont Freud pose qu’il est sous-entendu par toutes les expériences de l’inquiétante étrangeté, l’article procède à l’analyse comparative de trois médias à trois moments historiques différents : un récit par une auteure des dernières années de l’ère victorienne, Charlotte Perkins Gilman ; une suite de photographes par la photographe du modernisme tardif Francesca Woodman ; et un film par le r

  12. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  13. Due Regard Encounter Model Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    Note that no existing model covers encoun- ters between two IFR aircraft in oceanic airspace. The reason for this is that one cannot observe encounters...encounters between instrument flight rules ( IFR ) and non- IFR traffic beyond 12NM. 2 TABLE 1 Encounter model categories. Aircraft of Interest Intruder...Aircraft Location Flight Rule IFR VFR Noncooperative Noncooperative Conventional Unconventional CONUS IFR C C U X VFR C U U X Offshore IFR C C U X VFR C U

  14. The solar wind interaction with comets: A post encounter view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    The recent spacecraft encounters with comets Giacobini-Zinner and Halley have led to an enormous increase in our knowledge of comets, including their dust, neutral gas, plasma, and magnetic field environments. The latter has in turn led to better understanding of the nature of the solar wind interaction with the well developed atmosphere of a comet. The post-encounter understanding of this interaction is reviewed, underscoring the differences with pre-encounter reasoning. The problems outstanding in this area are emphasized.

  15. Professionalizations of Danish Teachers Encountering the 'Immigrant of School Age'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta

    of schooling – and in this case the history of professionalization of teachers encountering the 'immigrant of school age'. Hence, the paper aims to write a history of classifications, normalizations, modifications and expertise analyzed through the history of subjects (i.e. foreign-language or bilingual...... as a highly formative factor in the construction of the 'immigrant of school age' as a specific educational problem. Hence, the paper establishes an archive of documentary material based on the snowball method (Lynggaard 2010), which lets one document lead to the next document, agent or organization until...... to professionalize their understanding and instruction of the 'immigrant of school age'. Substantial references to other organizations has led me to include the journal, Sprog & Integration (Language & Integration) published by UC2 (Centre for bilingualism and interculturalism). UC2 has been a prominent provider...

  16. Structure and fate of binary WR stars: Clues from spectropolarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Because most massive stars have been or will be affected by a companion during the course of their evolution, we cannot afford to neglect binaries when discussing the progenitors of supernovae and GRBs. Analyzing linear polarization in the emission lines of close binary systems allows us to probe the structures of these systems' winds and mass flows, making it possible to map the complex morphologies of the mass loss and mass transfer structures that shape their subsequent evolution. In Wolf-Rayet (WR) binaries, line polarization variations with orbital phase distinguish polarimetric signatures arising from lines that scatter near the stars from those that scatter far from the orbital plane. These far-scattering lines may form the basis for a "binary line-effect method" of identifying rapidly rotating WR stars (and hence GRB progenitor candidates) in binary systems.

  17. Visual binary stars: data to investigate formation of binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva,, D.; Malkov,, O.; Yungelson, L.; Chulkov, D.

    Statistics of orbital parameters of binary stars as well as statistics of their physical characteristics bear traces of star formation history. However, statistical investigations of binaries are complicated by incomplete or missing observational data and by a number of observational selection effects. Visual binaries are the most common type of observed binary stars, with the number of pairs exceeding 130 000. The most complete list of presently known visual binary stars was compiled by cross-matching objects and combining data of the three largest catalogues of visual binaries. This list was supplemented by the data on parallaxes, multicolor photometry, and spectral characteristics taken from other catalogues. This allowed us to compensate partly for the lack of observational data for these objects. The combined data allowed us to check the validity of observational values and to investigate statistics of the orbital and physical parameters of visual binaries. Corrections for incompleteness of observational data are discussed. The datasets obtained, together with modern distributions of binary parameters, will be used to reconstruct the initial distributions and parameters of the function of star formation for binary systems.

  18. Capturing patient encounters during health care provider training using Personal Digital Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles R; Day, David; Griffin, Audrey; Huckstadt, Alicia

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary allied health education requires students experience both a depth and breadth of clinical encounters to prepare them to provide an increasingly broadening and evolving scope of practice. The Physician Assistant (PA) Studies program and the Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) Graduate Nursing Program at Wichita State University, College of Health Professions joined forces to undertake a project to introduce Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to their students. One aspect of this project was the logging method used by students. The PA program further studied the tracking and used three different logging methods with three different cohorts to capture patent encounter data during standard clinical rotations: paper logs, web-based logs and Using Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). Results indicate that patient encounter data were significantly better using PDAs than the other two methods. This report presents the background and results of the project as well as lessons learned.

  19. Modeling of Wake-vortex Aircraft Encounters. Appendix B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sonya T.

    1999-01-01

    There are more people passing through the world's airports today than at any other time in history. With this increase in civil transport, airports are becoming capacity limited. In order to increase capacity and thus meet the demands of the flying public, the number of runways and number of flights per runway must be increased. In response to the demand, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airport operators, and the airline industry are taking steps to increase airport capacity without jeopardizing safety. Increasing the production per runway increases the likelihood that an aircraft will encounter the trailing wake-vortex of another aircraft. The hazard of a wake-vortex encounter is that heavy load aircraft can produce high intensity wake turbulence, through the development of its wing-tip vortices. A smaller aircraft following in the wake of the heavy load aircraft will experience redistribution of its aerodynamic load. This creates a safety hazard for the smaller aircraft. Understanding this load redistribution is of great importance, particularly during landing and take-off. In this research wake-vortex effects on an encountering 10% scale model of the B737-100 aircraft are modeled using both strip theory and vortex-lattice modeling methods. The models are then compared to wind tunnel data that was taken in the 30ft x 60ft wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Comparisons are made to determine if the models will have acceptable accuracy when parts of the geometry are removed, such as the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical tail. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to observe how accurately the models could match the experimental data if there was a 10% error in the circulation strength. It was determined that both models show accurate results when the wing, horizontal stabilizer, and vertical tail were a part of the geometry. When the horizontal

  20. A General Method for Constructing Two-Dimensional Layered Mesoporous Mono- and Binary-Transition-Metal Nitride/Graphene as an Ultra-Efficient Support to Enhance Its Catalytic Activity and Durability for Electrocatalytic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baocang; Huo, Lili; Si, Rui; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jun

    2016-07-27

    We constructed a series of two-dimensional (2D) layered mesoporous mono- and binary-transition-metal nitride/graphene nanocomposites (TMN/G, TM = Ti, Cr, W, Mo, TiCr, TiW, and TiMo) via an efficient and versatile nanocasting strategy for the first time. The 2D layered mesoporous TMN/G is constituted of small TMN nanoparticles composited with graphene nanosheets and has a large surface area with high porosity. Through decoration with well-dispersed Pt nanoparticles, 2D layered mesoporous Pt/TMN/G catalysts can be obtained that display excellent catalytic activity and stability for methanol electro-oxidation reactions (MOR) and oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) in both acidic and alkaline media. The 2D layered mesoporous binary-Pt/TMN/G catalysts possess catalytic activity superior to that of mono-Pt/TMN/G, graphene free Pt/TMN, Pt/G, and Pt/C catalysts. Encouragingly, the 2D layered mesoporous Pt/Ti0.5Cr0.5N/G catalyst exhibits the best electrocatalytic performance for both MOR and ORR. The outstanding electrocatalytic performance of the Pt/Ti0.5Cr0.5N/G catalyst is rooted in its large surface area, high porosity, strong interaction among Pt, Ti0.5Cr0.5N, and graphene, an excellent electron transfer property facilitated by N-doped graphene, and the small size of Pt and Ti0.5Cr0.5N nanocrystals. The outstanding catalytic performance provides the 2D layered mesoporous Pt/Ti0.5Cr0.5N/G catalyst with a wide range of application prospects in direct methanol fuel cells in both acidic and alkaline media. The synthetic method may be available for constructing other 2D layered mesoporous metal nitrides, carbides, and phosphides.

  1. Rotational mixing in close binaries

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Yoon, S -Ch; Brott, I; Glebbeek, E; Verkoulen, M; Pols, O R

    2008-01-01

    Rotational mixing is a very important but uncertain process in the evolution of massive stars. We propose to use close binaries to test its efficiency. Based on rotating single stellar models we predict nitrogen surface enhancements for tidally locked binaries. Furthermore we demonstrate the possibility of a new evolutionary scenario for very massive (M > 40 solar mass) close (P < 3 days) binaries: Case M, in which mixing is so efficient that the stars evolve quasi-chemically homogeneously, stay compact and avoid any Roche-lobe overflow, leading to very close (double) WR binaries.

  2. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  3. Chaos in Binary Category Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Category computation theory deals with a web-based systemic processing that underlies the morphic webs, which constitute the basis of categorial logical calculus. It is proven that, for these structures, algorithmically incompressible binary patterns can be morphically compressed, with respect to the local connectivities, in a binary morphic program. From the local connectivites, there emerges a global morphic connection that can be characterized by a low length binary string, leading to the identification of chaotic categorial dynamics, underlying the algorithmically random pattern. The work focuses on infinite binary chains of C2, which is a category that implements an X-OR-based categorial logical calculus.

  4. Photon transport in binary photonic lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Lara, B. M.; Moya-Cessa, H.

    2013-01-01

    We present a review on the mathematical methods used to theoretically study classical propagation and quantum transport in arrays of coupled photonic waveguides. We focus on analysing two types of binary photonic lattices where self-energies or couplings are alternated. For didactic reasons, we split the analysis in classical propagation and quantum transport but all methods can be implemented, mutatis mutandis, in any given case. On the classical side, we use coupled mode theory and present ...

  5. Low autocorrelation binary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.

  6. Microlensing modulation by binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dubath, F; Durrer, R; Dubath, Florian; Gasparini, Maria Alice; Durrer, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    We compute the effect of the lens quadrupole on microlensing. The time dependence of the quadrupole can lead to specific modulations of the amplification signal. We study especially binary system lenses in our galaxy. The modulation is observable if the rotation period of the system is smaller than the time over which the amplification is significant and if the impact parameter of the passing light ray is sufficiently close to the Einstein radius so that the amplification is very large. Observations of this modulation can reveal important information on the quadrupole and thus on the gravitational radiation emitted by the lens.

  7. Tourism Encounters and Controversies: Ontological Politics of Tourism Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jóhannesson, G.T.; Ren, C.; Duim, van der V.R.

    2015-01-01

    The multiplicity of tourism encounters provide some of the best available occasions to observe the social world and its making(s). Focusing on ontological politics of tourism development, this book examines how different versions of tourism are enacted, how encounters between different versions of t

  8. Radiation reaction in binary systems in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennefick, Daniel John

    1997-09-01

    This thesis is concerned with current problems in, and historical aspects of, the problem of radiation reaction in stellar binary systems in general relativity. Part I addresses current issues in the orbital evolution due to gravitational radiation damping of compact binaries. A particular focus is on the inspiral of small bodies orbiting large black holes, employing a perturbation formalism. In addition, the merger, at the end of the insprial, of comparable mass compact binaries, such as neutron star binaries is also discussed. The emphasis of Part I is on providing detailed descriptions of sources and signals with a view to optimising signal analysis in gravitational wave detectors, whether ground- or space- based interferometers, or resonant mass detectors. Part II of the thesis examines the historical controversies surrounding the problem of gravitational waves, and gravitational radiation damping in stellar binaries. In particular, it focuses on debates in the mid 20th-century on whether binary star systems would really exhibit this type of damping and emit gravitational waves, and on the 'quadrupole formula controversy' of the 1970s and 1980s, on the question whether the standard formular describing energy loss due to emission of gravitational waves was correctly derived for such systems. The study shed light on the role of analogy in science, especially where its use is controversial, on the importance of style in physics and on the problem of identity in science, as the use of history as a rhetorical device in controversial debate is examined. The concept of the Theoretician's Regress is introduced to explain the difficulty encountered by relativists in closing debate in this controversy, which persisted in one forms or another for several decades.

  9. Photometric study of eclipsing binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud - I. W UMa type binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devarapalli Shanti Priya; Kandulapati Sriram; Pasagada Vivekananda Rao

    2011-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries are among the most important sources of information on stellar parameters like radii, masses, luminosities, etc. We present the analysis of six W UMa systems discovered in the Large Magellanic Cloud using the WilsonDevinney method.

  10. Formation and Evolution of Binary Systems Containing Collapsed Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Saul; West, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This research includes theoretical studies of the formation and evolution of five types of interacting binary systems. Our main focus has been on developing a number of comprehensive population synthesis codes to study the following types of binary systems: (i) cataclysmic variables (#3, #8, #12, #15), (ii) low- and intermediate-mass X-ray binaries (#13, #20, #21), (iii) high-mass X-ray binaries (#14, #17, #22), (iv) recycled binary millisecond pulsars in globular clusters (#5, #10, #ll), and (v) planetary nebulae which form in interacting binaries (#6, #9). The numbers in parentheses refer to papers published or in preparation that are listed in this paper. These codes take a new unified approach to population synthesis studies. The first step involves a Monte Carlo selection of the primordial binaries, including the constituent masses, and orbital separations and eccentricities. Next, a variety of analytic methods are used to evolve the primary star to the point where either a dynamical episode of mass transfer to the secondary occurs (the common envelope phase), or the system evolves down an alternate path. If the residual core of the primary is greater than 2.5 solar mass, it will evolve to Fe core collapse and the production of a neutron star and a supernova explosion. In the case of systems involving neutron stars, a kick velocity is chosen randomly from an appropriate distribution and added to the orbital dynamics which determine the state of the binary system after the supernova explosion. In the third step, all binaries which commence stable mass transfer from the donor star (the original secondary in the binary system) to the compact object, are followed with a detailed binary evolution code. Finally, we include all the relevant dynamics of the binary system. For example, in the case of LMXBs, the binary system, with its recoil velocity from the supernova explosion, is followed in time through its path in the Galactic potential. For our globular cluster

  11. Value creation and knowledge development in tourism experience encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming; Jensen, Jens Friis

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that service encounters between front-line employees and users support the development of knowledge about users' needs. However, the potential for this often remains unused, not least in tourism. This article argues that if tourism service encounters are changed into ‘experience...... encounters’ by integrating them into the tourism experience to which they are related, this will create added experiential value for tourists and increase the creation of knowledge about users. This is illustrated in an innovation field experiment in a retro design boutique hotel in which service encounters...... were developed into experience encounters. The experiment illustrates the potential that experience encounters have to create knowledge and value, but also suggests some barriers that need to be overcome....

  12. Orbital Perturbations of the Galilean Satellites During Planetary Encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Deienno, R; Vokrouhlicky, D; Yokoyama, T

    2014-01-01

    The Nice model of the dynamical instability and migration of the giant planets can explain many properties of the present Solar System, and can be used to constrain its early architecture. In the jumping-Jupiter version of the Nice model, required from the terrestrial planet constraint and dynamical structure of the asteroid belt, Jupiter has encounters with an ice giant. Here we study the survival of the Galilean satellites in the jumping-Jupiter model. This is an important concern because the ice-giant encounters, if deep enough, could dynamically perturb the orbits of the Galilean satellites, and lead to implausible results. We performed numerical integrations where we tracked the effect of planetary encounters on the Galilean moons. We considered three instability cases from Nesvorny & Morbidelli (2012) that differed in the number and distribution of encounters. We found that in one case, where the number of close encounters was relatively small, the Galilean satellite orbits were not significantly af...

  13. Cassini states for black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, Alexandre C M

    2016-01-01

    Cassini states correspond to equilibria of the spin axis of a celestial body when its orbit is perturbed. They were initially described for planetary satellites, but the spin axes of black-hole binaries also present this kind of equilibria. In previous works, Cassini states were reported as spin-orbit resonances, but actually the spin of black-hole binaries is in circulation and there is no resonant motion. Here we provide a general description of the spin dynamics of black-hole binary systems based on a Hamiltonian formalism. In absence of dissipation the problem is integrable and it is easy to identify all possible trajectories for the spin for a given value of the total angular momentum. As the system collapses due to radiation reaction, the Cassini states are shifted to different positions, which modifies the dynamics around them. This is why the final spin distribution may differ from the initial one. Our method provides a simple way of predicting the distribution of the spin of black-hole binaries at th...

  14. Echoes in X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    O'Brien, K; Hynes, R; Chen, W; Haswell, C; Still, M

    2002-01-01

    We present a method of analysing the correlated X-ray and optical/UV variability in X-ray binaries, using the observed time delays between the X-ray driving lightcurves and their reprocessed optical echoes. This allows us to determine the distribution of reprocessing sites within the binary. We model the time-delay transfer functions by simulating the distribution of reprocessing regions, using geometrical and binary parameters. We construct best-fit time-delay transfer functions, showing the regions in the binary responsible for the reprocessing of X-rays. We have applied this model to observations of the Soft X-ray Transient, GRO j1655-40. We find the optical variability lags the X-ray variability with a mean time delay of 19.3$pm{2.2}$ seconds. This means that the outer regions of the accretion disc are the dominant reprocessing site in this system. On fitting the data to a simple geometric model, we derive a best-fit disk half-opening angle of 13.5$^{+2.1}_{-2.8}$ degrees, which is similar to that observe...

  15. Tidal Disruption Events by a Massive Black Hole Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Ricarte, Angelo; Dai, Lixin; Coppi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) are a natural byproduct of galaxy mergers. Previous studies have shown that flares from stellar tidal disruption events (TDEs) are modified by the presence of a secondary perturber, causing interruptions in the light curve. We study the dynamics of TDE debris in the presence of a milliparsec-separated MBHB by integrating ballistic particle orbits in the time-varying potential of the binary. We find that gaps in the light curve appear when material misses the accretion radius on its first return to pericentre. Subsequent recurrences can be decomposed into "continuous" and "delayed" components, which exhibit different behaviour. We find that this potential can substantially alter the locations of stream self-intersections. When debris is confined to the plane, we find that close encounters with the secondary BH leave noticeable signatures on the fallback rate and can result in significant accretion onto the secondary BH. Tight, equal-mass MBHBs accrete equally, periodically t...

  16. Brownian motion of massive black hole binaries and the final parsec problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bortolas, E; Dotti, M; Spera, M; Mapelli, M

    2016-01-01

    Massive black hole binaries (BHBs) are expected to be one of the most powerful sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the frequency range of the pulsar timing array and of forthcoming space-borne detectors. They are believed to form in the final stages of galaxy mergers, and then harden by slingshot ejections of passing stars. However, evolution via the slingshot mechanism may be ineffective if the reservoir of interacting stars is not readily replenished, and the binary shrinking may come to a halt at roughly a parsec separation. Recent simulations suggest that the departure from spherical symmetry, naturally produced in merger remnants, leads to efficient loss cone refilling, preventing the binary from stalling. However, current N-body simulations able to accurately follow the evolution of BHBs are limited to very modest particle numbers. Brownian motion may artificially enhance the loss cone refilling rate in low-N simulations, where the binary encounters a larger population of stars due its random motion...

  17. Binary-single-star scattering; 6, automatic determination of interaction cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, S L W; McMillan, Stephen L W; Hut, Piet

    1996-01-01

    Scattering encounters between binaries and single stars play a central role in determining the dynamical evolution of a star cluster. In addition, three-body scattering can give rise to many interesting exceptional objects: merging can produce blue stragglers; exchange can produce binaries containing millisecond pulsars in environments quite different from those in which the pulsars were spun up; various types of X-ray binaries can be formed, and their activity can be either shut off or triggered as a result of triple interactions. To date, all published results on three-body scattering have relied on human guidance for determining the correct parameter range for the envelope within which to perform Monte--Carlo scattering experiments. In this paper, we describe the first fully automatic determination of cross sections and reaction rates for binary--single-star scattering. Rather than relying on human inspection of pilot calculations, we have constructed a feedback system that ensures near-optimal coverage of...

  18. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations of white dwarf collisions and close encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Lorén-Aguilar, P; García-Berro, E

    2010-01-01

    The collision of two white dwarfs is a quite frequent event in dense stellar systems, like globular clusters and galactic nuclei. In this paper we present the results of a set of simulations of the close encounters and collisions of two white dwarfs. We use an up- to-date smoothed particle hydrodynamics code that incorporates very detailed input physics and an improved treatment of the artificial viscosity. Our simulations have been done using a large number of particles (~ 4 \\times 10^5) and covering a wide range of velocities and initial distances of the colliding white dwarfs. We discuss in detail when the initial eccentric binary white dwarf survives the closest approach, when a lateral collision in which several mass transfer episodes occur is the outcome of the newly formed binary system, and which range of input parameters leads to a direct collision, in which only one mass transfer episode occurs. We also discuss the characteristics of the final configuration and we assess the possible observational s...

  19. Encounter Probability of Individual Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    1998-01-01

    Some coastal and offshore structures, e.g. offshore platforms and vertical wall breakwaters in deep water, are often designed according to a design individual wave height. The conventional method for the determination of the design individual wave height is first to obtain the design significant ...

  20. Encounters along Micro-Level Borders: Silence and Metacommunicative Talk in Service Encounter Conversations between Finnish Employment Officials and Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Tarja Tanttu

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the interaction between Finnish employment officials and their immigrant clients in service encounter conversations. It employs the concepts of metacommunicative talk, silence, agency and asymmetric interaction situation. Such service encounters between native speakers of Finnish and immigrants going through the integration process and speaking Finnish as their second language constitute situations of institutional interaction, characterised by asymmetry. Asymmetry durin...

  1. Spin Correlation in Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farbiash, N; Farbiash, Netzach; Steinitz, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    We examine the correlation of projected rotational velocities in binary systems. It is an extension of previous work (Steinitz and Pyper, 1970; Levato, 1974). An enlarged data basis and new tests enable us to conclude that there is indeed correlation between the projected rotational velocities of components of binaries. In fact we suggest that spins are already correlated.

  2. Evolutionary Memory in Binary Systems?

    CERN Document Server

    Steinitz, N F R

    2004-01-01

    Correlation between the spins (rotational velocities) in binaries has previously been established. We now continue and show that the degree of spin correlation is independent of the components' separation. Such a result might be related for example to Zhang's non-linear model for the formation of binary stars from a nebula.

  3. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  4. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuChengqian; ZhaoXiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP)is proposed .A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP)is also proposed .The relationship between PCSP and DFP,the properties and exising conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  5. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chengqian; Zhao Xiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP) is proposed. A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP) is also proposed.The relationship between PCSP and DFP, the properties and existing conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  6. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew J.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  7. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing $10^4 - 10^6$ stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct $N$-body integrations and Fokker--Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  8. Performance of multi level error correction in binary holographic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, Jay C.; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Reyes, George F.

    2004-01-01

    At the Optical Computing Lab in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) a binary holographic data storage system was designed and tested with methods of recording and retrieving the binary information. Levels of error correction were introduced to the system including pixel averaging, thresholding, and parity checks. Errors were artificially introduced into the binary holographic data storage system and were monitored as a function of the defect area fraction, which showed a strong influence on data integrity. Average area fractions exceeding one quarter of the bit area caused unrecoverable errors. Efficient use of the available data density was discussed. .

  9. Kinetic spectrophotometric H-point standard addition method for the simultaneous determination of diloxanide furoate and metronidazole in binary mixtures and biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Nejem, R.'afat Mahmoud; Shanab, Alaa Mohamed Abu; Shaat, Nahed Talab

    2013-10-01

    Simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of diloxanide furoate and metronidazole using H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). The method is based on the oxidation rate difference of diloxanide and metronidazole by potassium permanganate in basic medium. A green color has been developed and measured at 610 nm. Different experimental parameters were carefully optimized. The limiting logarithmic and the initial-rate methods were adopted for the construction of the calibration curve of each individual reaction with potassium permanganate. Under the optimum conditions, Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 1.0-20.0 and 5.0-25.0 μg ml-1 for diloxanide furoate and metronidazole, respectively. The detection limits were 0.22 μg ml-1 for diloxanide furoate and 0.83 μg ml-1 for metronidazole. Correlation coefficients of the regression equations were greater than 0.9970 in all cases. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the maximum value of relative standard deviation did not exceed 1.06% (n = 5). The accuracy, expressed as recovery was between 99.4% and 101.4% with relative error of 0.12 and 0.14 for diloxanide furoate and metronidazole, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of both drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms and human urine samples and compared with alternative HPLC method.

  10. Signature Visualization of Software Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panas, T

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we present work on the visualization of software binaries. In particular, we utilize ROSE, an open source compiler infrastructure, to pre-process software binaries, and we apply a landscape metaphor to visualize the signature of each binary (malware). We define the signature of a binary as a metric-based layout of the functions contained in the binary. In our initial experiment, we visualize the signatures of a series of computer worms that all originate from the same line. These visualizations are useful for a number of reasons. First, the images reveal how the archetype has evolved over a series of versions of one worm. Second, one can see the distinct changes between version. This allows the viewer to form conclusions about the development cycle of a particular worm.

  11. Observing binary inspiral with LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, L S

    1994-01-01

    Gravitational radiation from a binary neutron star or black hole system leads to orbital decay and the eventual coalescence of the binary's components. During the last several minutes before the binary components coalesce, the radiation will enter the bandwidth of the United States Laser Inteferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and the French/Italian VIRGO gravitational radiation detector. The combination of detector sensitivity, signal strength, and source density and distribution all point to binary inspiral as the most likely candidate for observation among all the anticipated sources of gravitational radiation for LIGO/VIRGO. Here I review briefly some of the questions that are posed to theorists by the impending observation of binary inspiral.

  12. Sensory information and encounter rates of interacting species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Hein

    Full Text Available Most motile organisms use sensory cues when searching for resources, mates, or prey. The searcher measures sensory data and adjusts its search behavior based on those data. Yet, classical models of species encounter rates assume that searchers move independently of their targets. This assumption leads to the familiar mass action-like encounter rate kinetics typically used in modeling species interactions. Here we show that this common approach can mischaracterize encounter rate kinetics if searchers use sensory information to search actively for targets. We use the example of predator-prey interactions to illustrate that predators capable of long-distance directional sensing can encounter prey at a rate proportional to prey density to the [Formula: see text] power (where [Formula: see text] is the dimension of the environment when prey density is low. Similar anomalous encounter rate functions emerge even when predators pursue prey using only noisy, directionless signals. Thus, in both the high-information extreme of long-distance directional sensing, and the low-information extreme of noisy non-directional sensing, encounter rate kinetics differ qualitatively from those derived by classic theory of species interactions. Using a standard model of predator-prey population dynamics, we show that the new encounter rate kinetics derived here can change the outcome of species interactions. Our results demonstrate how the use of sensory information can alter the rates and outcomes of physical interactions in biological systems.

  13. Sensory information and encounter rates of interacting species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Andrew M; McKinley, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Most motile organisms use sensory cues when searching for resources, mates, or prey. The searcher measures sensory data and adjusts its search behavior based on those data. Yet, classical models of species encounter rates assume that searchers move independently of their targets. This assumption leads to the familiar mass action-like encounter rate kinetics typically used in modeling species interactions. Here we show that this common approach can mischaracterize encounter rate kinetics if searchers use sensory information to search actively for targets. We use the example of predator-prey interactions to illustrate that predators capable of long-distance directional sensing can encounter prey at a rate proportional to prey density to the [Formula: see text] power (where [Formula: see text] is the dimension of the environment) when prey density is low. Similar anomalous encounter rate functions emerge even when predators pursue prey using only noisy, directionless signals. Thus, in both the high-information extreme of long-distance directional sensing, and the low-information extreme of noisy non-directional sensing, encounter rate kinetics differ qualitatively from those derived by classic theory of species interactions. Using a standard model of predator-prey population dynamics, we show that the new encounter rate kinetics derived here can change the outcome of species interactions. Our results demonstrate how the use of sensory information can alter the rates and outcomes of physical interactions in biological systems.

  14. A study of selective spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of Itopride hydrochloride and Rabeprazole sodium binary mixture: Resolving sever overlapping spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Heba M.

    2015-02-01

    Itopride hydrochloride (IT) and Rabeprazole sodium (RB) are co-formulated together for the treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Three simple, specific and accurate spectrophotometric methods were applied and validated for simultaneous determination of Itopride hydrochloride (IT) and Rabeprazole sodium (RB) namely; constant center (CC), ratio difference (RD) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR) spectrophotometric methods. Linear correlations were obtained in range of 10-110 μg/μL for Itopride hydrochloride and 4-44 μg/mL for Rabeprazole sodium. No preliminary separation steps were required prior the analysis of the two drugs using the proposed methods. Specificity was investigated by analyzing the synthetic mixtures containing the two cited drugs and their capsules dosage form. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by the reported method, no significant difference was obtained with respect to accuracy and precision. The three methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and can be used for quality control laboratories for IT and RB.

  15. A comparison of two fast binary adder configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaris, J.; Cameron, K.

    1990-01-01

    Conditional sum and binary lookahead carry are two methods for performing fast binary addition. These methods are quite different, but the adders have a common feature that makes them interesting to compare. Both adders have the carry generating logic implemented as a binary tree, which grows in depth as log(sub 2) n,n equals the number of bits in the adder. The delay in the carry paths also grows in proportion to log(sub 2) n. This paper shows that the Transmission-Gate Conditional-Sum adder and the binary lookahead carry adder have the same speed of addition, but that the conditional sum adder requires only 46 percent of the area.

  16. Towards Physarum Binary Adders

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeff; 10.1016/j.biosystems.2010.04.005

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium of \\emph{Physarum polycephalum} is a single cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium's foraging behaviour is interpreted in terms of computation. Input data is a configuration of nutrients, result of computation is a network of plasmodium's cytoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients. Tsuda et al (2004) experimentally demonstrated that basic logical gates can be implemented in foraging behaviour of the plasmodium. We simplify the original designs of the gates and show --- in computer models --- that the plasmodium is capable for computation of two-input two-output gate $ \\to $ and three-input two-output $ \\to $. We assemble the gates in a binary one-bit adder and demonstrate validity of the design using computer simulation.

  17. Towards Physarum binary adders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a single cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium's foraging behaviour is interpreted in terms of computation. Input data is a configuration of nutrients, result of computation is a network of plasmodium's cytoplasmic tubes spanning sources of nutrients. Tsuda et al. (2004) experimentally demonstrated that basic logical gates can be implemented in foraging behaviour of the plasmodium. We simplify the original designs of the gates and show - in computer models - that the plasmodium is capable for computation of two-input two-output gate x, y-->xy, x+y and three-input two-output x,y,z-->x yz,x+y+z. We assemble the gates in a binary one-bit adder and demonstrate validity of the design using computer simulation.

  18. Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, Paulo C C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review the recent discovery of several millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in eccentric binary systems. Timing these MSPs we were able to estimate (and in one case precisely measure) their masses. These results suggest that, as a class, MSPs have a much wider range of masses (1.3 to > 2 solar masses) than the normal and mildly recycled pulsars found in double neutron star (DNS) systems (1.25 < Mp < 1.44 solar masses). This is very likely to be due to the prolonged accretion episode that is thought to be required to form a MSP. The likely existence of massive MSPs makes them a powerful probe for understanding the behavior of matter at densities larger than that of the atomic nucleus; in particular, the precise measurement of the mass of PSR J1903+0327 ($1.67 +/- 0.01 solar masses) excludes several "soft" equations of state for dense matter.

  19. Application of Gas Dynamical Friction for Planetesimals. II. Evolution of Binary Planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Evgeni; Perets, Hagai B.

    2016-04-01

    One of the first stages of planet formation is the growth of small planetesimals and their accumulation into large planetesimals and planetary embryos. This early stage occurs long before the dispersal of most of the gas from the protoplanetary disk. At this stage gas-planetesimal interactions play a key role in the dynamical evolution of single intermediate-mass planetesimals (mp ˜ 1021-1025 g) through gas dynamical friction (GDF). A significant fraction of all solar system planetesimals (asteroids and Kuiper-belt objects) are known to be binary planetesimals (BPs). Here, we explore the effects of GDF on the evolution of BPs embedded in a gaseous disk using an N-body code with a fiducial external force accounting for GDF. We find that GDF can induce binary mergers on timescales shorter than the disk lifetime for masses above mp ≳ 1022 g at 1 au, independent of the binary initial separation and eccentricity. Such mergers can affect the structure of merger-formed planetesimals, and the GDF-induced binary inspiral can play a role in the evolution of the planetesimal disk. In addition, binaries on eccentric orbits around the star may evolve in the supersonic regime, where the torque reverses and the binary expands, which would enhance the cross section for planetesimal encounters with the binary. Highly inclined binaries with small mass ratios, evolve due to the combined effects of Kozai-Lidov (KL) cycles with GDF which lead to chaotic evolution. Prograde binaries go through semi-regular KL evolution, while retrograde binaries frequently flip their inclination and ˜50% of them are destroyed.

  20. APPLICATION OF GAS DYNAMICAL FRICTION FOR PLANETESIMALS. II. EVOLUTION OF BINARY PLANETESIMALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishin, Evgeni; Perets, Hagai B. [Physics Department, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 3200003 (Israel)

    2016-04-01

    One of the first stages of planet formation is the growth of small planetesimals and their accumulation into large planetesimals and planetary embryos. This early stage occurs long before the dispersal of most of the gas from the protoplanetary disk. At this stage gas–planetesimal interactions play a key role in the dynamical evolution of single intermediate-mass planetesimals (m{sub p} ∼ 10{sup 21}–10{sup 25} g) through gas dynamical friction (GDF). A significant fraction of all solar system planetesimals (asteroids and Kuiper-belt objects) are known to be binary planetesimals (BPs). Here, we explore the effects of GDF on the evolution of BPs embedded in a gaseous disk using an N-body code with a fiducial external force accounting for GDF. We find that GDF can induce binary mergers on timescales shorter than the disk lifetime for masses above m{sub p} ≳ 10{sup 22} g at 1 au, independent of the binary initial separation and eccentricity. Such mergers can affect the structure of merger-formed planetesimals, and the GDF-induced binary inspiral can play a role in the evolution of the planetesimal disk. In addition, binaries on eccentric orbits around the star may evolve in the supersonic regime, where the torque reverses and the binary expands, which would enhance the cross section for planetesimal encounters with the binary. Highly inclined binaries with small mass ratios, evolve due to the combined effects of Kozai–Lidov (KL) cycles with GDF which lead to chaotic evolution. Prograde binaries go through semi-regular KL evolution, while retrograde binaries frequently flip their inclination and ∼50% of them are destroyed.

  1. Construct validity of the reporter-interpreter-manager-educator structure for assessing students' patient encounter skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G.; Arendrup, Henrick; Lindhardt, Bjarne O.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study, done in Denmark, was to explore the construct validity of a Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (RIME)-structured scoring format for assessing patient encounter skills. METHOD: The authors developed a RIME-structured scoring form and explored its construct validity...... (carried out during 2009-2010) was an observational study of patient encounter skills where clinician examiners used the scoring form in end-of-clerkship oral examinations of three consecutive cohorts of a total of 547 fourth-year medical students. RESULTS: In the experimental study, RIME scores showed...... in managing patient encounters when assessed according to an advanced criterion. However, clinician examiners may tacitly score the elements according to what can be expected at a certain level of student experience....

  2. Spaces of Spiritual Citizenship: Children's Relational and Emotional Encounters with the Everyday School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of children's spiritual, relational and emotional encounters with the primary school environment, with reference to concepts and theories from both education studies and human geography. Drawing on mixed-method qualitative research in two case study institutions, the article examines pupils' photographed "special…

  3. Patients covertly recording clinical encounters: threat or opportunity? A qualitative analysis of online texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsulukidze, M.; Grande, S.W.; Thompson, R.; Rudd, K.; Elwyn, G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of patients covertly recording clinical encounters has generated controversial media reports. This study aims to examine the phenomenon and analyze the underlying issues. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative analysis of online posts, articles, blogs, and forums

  4. Quasiequilibrium sequences of binary strange quark stars in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Limousin, F; Gourgoulhon, E; Limousin, Francois; Gondek-Rosinska, Dorota; Gourgoulhon, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Inspiraling compact binaries are expected to be the strongest sources of gravitational waves for VIRGO, LIGO and other laser interferometers. We present the first computations of quasi-equilibrium sequences of compact binaries containing two strange quark stars (which are currently considered as a possible alternative to neutron stars). We study a precoalescing stage in the conformal flatness approximation of general relativity using a multidomain spectral method. A hydrodynamical treatment is performed under the assumption that the flow is irrotational.

  5. Photometric study of the eclipsing binary ET Psc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özalp, G. Z.; Özkardeş, B.

    2016-03-01

    We present the photometric solution of the eclipsing binary ET Psc (GSC 00608-00490). The ASAS V-band photometric data of the system was modelled using the Wilson-Devinney method. The result shows that the eclipsing pair could be classified as A-subtype of W UMa-type binary system. The absolute dimensions of the system were also estimated based on the photometric solution.

  6. Efficient Convolutional Neural Network with Binary Quantization Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Ravanbakhsh, Mahdyar; Mousavi, Hossein; Nabi, Moin; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel method for segmentation that can benefit from general semantics of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Our segmentation proposes visually and semantically coherent image segments. We use binary encoding of CNN features to overcome the difficulty of the clustering on the high-dimensional CNN feature space. These binary encoding can be embedded into the CNN as an extra layer at the end of the network. This results in real-time segmentation. To the best of our ...

  7. Conflicting sensory relationships. Encounters with allergic people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaetà, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, people employ the term 'allergy' to define various pathological conditions, although the biomedical community lacks a consensus on a definition of the term. It has become a widespread and convenient label for diverse conditions, often going beyond biomedical diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to explore how allergic people narrate their illness experiences, focusing specifically on the relationship between words, senses and bodies. This paper is based on an ethnographic study in a medium-sized north Italian city conducted from 2004 to 2008, starting in a public hospital Allergy Unit, and then developing through snowball recruitment and referral methods. Interviews were conducted with 37 allergic people, four allergologists and four nurses. Allergic people's narratives constantly drew upon two main concepts: weakness and pollution. These are interpreted as sensorial dimensions expressing a conflicting relationship with the outside environment. It is argued that in times of marked individualism and social transformations, bodily states are of fundamental importance and the mobilisation of sensory concepts is an attempt to give order and meaning to a world that is perceived as constituted by threatening aspects, polluted and out of order.

  8. An Intimate Encounter: Negotiating Subtitled Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Flynn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of subtitling has received little attention in Film Studies, despite being the primary means by which foreign-language cinema is experienced. Current literature focuses on important matters of language and translation, but there are other aspects that exceed these matters when we watch subtitled films, aspects which are able to affect and move viewers without relying on explanation through translation. My paper shows how viewers have to negotiate these affective elements in order to apprehend foreign-language films, with special attention on their indeterminate characteristics that escape representation. It considers the negotiation of subtitled cinema from numerous theoretical perspectives. Gilles Deleuze’s film-philosophy is popular in Film Studies for its theoretical flows and lines of flight, but this paper engages another Deleuzian thread—one of gaps and fissure—in order to explore the indeterminate negotiations of subtitled films. But in thinking about subtitling, we also have to reconsider the constitution of media. Cinema is not just made up of individual parts; rather, it is made of many interacting media, which cannot be separated. I argue that subtitled cinema consists of multiple affective elements that go beyond the interpretive methods of language and translation, and that the practice of negotiation is one way to apprehend them. In conclusion, this article, by exploring non-linguistic issues, argues that subtitling is not simply supplementary to cinema.

  9. Availability and Usability of BHO Encounter Data in MAX 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Availability and Usability of Behavioral Health Organization Encounter Data in MAX 2009, published in Volume 4, Issue 2 of Medicare and Medicaid Research Review,...

  10. Storyboard GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Storyboard with mosaicked image of an asteroid and entitled GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid objectives. These objectives include: first asteroid encounter; surface geology, composition size, shape, mass; and relation of primitive bodies to meteorites.

  11. Assessing the Usability of MAX 2008 Encounter Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Assessing the Usability of MAX 2008 Encounter Data for Comprehensive Managed Care As growing numbers of Medicaid enrollees receive comprehensive health benefits...

  12. Social encounter networks: characterizing Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon, Leon; Read, Jonathan M; House, Thomas A; Vernon, Matthew C; Keeling, Matt J

    2013-08-22

    A major goal of infectious disease epidemiology is to understand and predict the spread of infections within human populations, with the intention of better informing decisions regarding control and intervention. However, the development of fully mechanistic models of transmission requires a quantitative understanding of social interactions and collective properties of social networks. We performed a cross-sectional study of the social contacts on given days for more than 5000 respondents in England, Scotland and Wales, through postal and online survey methods. The survey was designed to elicit detailed and previously unreported measures of the immediate social network of participants relevant to infection spread. Here, we describe individual-level contact patterns, focusing on the range of heterogeneity observed and discuss the correlations between contact patterns and other socio-demographic factors. We find that the distribution of the number of contacts approximates a power-law distribution, but postulate that total contact time (which has a shorter-tailed distribution) is more epidemiologically relevant. We observe that children, public-sector and healthcare workers have the highest number of total contact hours and are therefore most likely to catch and transmit infectious disease. Our study also quantifies the transitive connections made between an individual's contacts (or clustering); this is a key structural characteristic of social networks with important implications for disease transmission and control efficacy. Respondents' networks exhibit high levels of clustering, which varies across social settings and increases with duration, frequency of contact and distance from home. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for the transmission and control of pathogens spread through close contact.

  13. District nurses' views on quality of primary healthcare encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren Zotterman, Anna; Skär, Lisa; Olsson, Malin; Söderberg, Siv

    2015-09-01

    Good encounters are fundamental for good and professional nursing care, and can be described as treating patients with respect and protecting their integrity and autonomy. This study describes district nurses' views on quality of healthcare encounters in primary healthcare. A purposive sample of 27 district nurses participated in five focus group interviews. The focus groups interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. The interview texts were analysed using a thematic content analysis. The analysis resulted in four themes, including being aware of the importance and difficulties during encounters, being the patient's advocate, being attentive to the unique person and being informed when a meeting turned out poorly. The results show that district nurses believed that encounters formed the basis of their work and it was vital for them to be aware of any difficulties. District nurses found that acting in a professional manner during encounters is the most significant factor, but this type of interaction was sometimes difficult because of stress and lack of time. The district nurses considered themselves to be the patients' advocate in the healthcare system; in addition, the acts of seeing, listening, believing and treating the patient seriously were important for providing good quality care. If a poor encounter occurred between the district nurse and the patient, the district nurses found that it was necessary to arrange a meeting to properly communicate what problems arose during the interaction. The district nurses highlighted that providing an apology and explanation could improve future encounters and establish a better nurse-patient relationship. In conclusion, this study shows the importance of confirming and respecting patients' dignity as the fundamental basis for a good quality encounter in primary healthcare.

  14. Orbital perturbations of the Galilean satellites during planetary encounters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Nesvorný, David [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO (United States); Vokrouhlický, David [Institute of Astronomy, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Yokoyama, Tadashi, E-mail: rogerio.deienno@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    The Nice model of the dynamical instability and migration of the giant planets can explain many properties of the present solar system, and can be used to constrain its early architecture. In the jumping-Jupiter version of the Nice model, required from the terrestrial planet constraint and dynamical structure of the asteroid belt, Jupiter has encounters with an ice giant. Here, we study the survival of the Galilean satellites in the jumping-Jupiter model. This is an important concern because the ice-giant encounters, if deep enough, could dynamically perturb the orbits of the Galilean satellites and lead to implausible results. We performed numerical integrations where we tracked the effect of planetary encounters on the Galilean moons. We considered three instability cases from Nesvorný and Morbidelli that differed in the number and distribution of encounters. We found that in one case, where the number of close encounters was relatively small, the Galilean satellite orbits were not significantly affected. In the other two, the orbital eccentricities of all moons were excited by encounters, Callisto's semimajor axis changed, and, in a large fraction of trials, the Laplace resonance of the inner three moons was disrupted. The subsequent evolution by tides damps eccentricities and can recapture the moons in the Laplace resonance. A more important constraint is represented by the orbital inclinations of the moons, which can be excited during the encounters and not appreciably damped by tides. We find that one instability case taken from Nesvorný and Morbidelli clearly does not meet this constraint. This shows how the regular satellites of Jupiter can be used to set limits on the properties of encounters in the jumping-Jupiter model, and help us to better understand how the early solar system evolved.

  15. Orbital Perturbations of the Galilean Satellites during Planetary Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2014-08-01

    The Nice model of the dynamical instability and migration of the giant planets can explain many properties of the present solar system, and can be used to constrain its early architecture. In the jumping-Jupiter version of the Nice model, required from the terrestrial planet constraint and dynamical structure of the asteroid belt, Jupiter has encounters with an ice giant. Here, we study the survival of the Galilean satellites in the jumping-Jupiter model. This is an important concern because the ice-giant encounters, if deep enough, could dynamically perturb the orbits of the Galilean satellites and lead to implausible results. We performed numerical integrations where we tracked the effect of planetary encounters on the Galilean moons. We considered three instability cases from Nesvorný & Morbidelli that differed in the number and distribution of encounters. We found that in one case, where the number of close encounters was relatively small, the Galilean satellite orbits were not significantly affected. In the other two, the orbital eccentricities of all moons were excited by encounters, Callisto's semimajor axis changed, and, in a large fraction of trials, the Laplace resonance of the inner three moons was disrupted. The subsequent evolution by tides damps eccentricities and can recapture the moons in the Laplace resonance. A more important constraint is represented by the orbital inclinations of the moons, which can be excited during the encounters and not appreciably damped by tides. We find that one instability case taken from Nesvorný & Morbidelli clearly does not meet this constraint. This shows how the regular satellites of Jupiter can be used to set limits on the properties of encounters in the jumping-Jupiter model, and help us to better understand how the early solar system evolved.

  16. Delaying the image : towards an aesthetics of encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Altés Arlandis, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This thesis, as part of a movement towards the degree of PhD (a becoming Doctor of Philosophy), is constructed and approached as a philosophical situation, which is always about an encounter between terms that are foreign to each other. In this case, through the exploration of the interplays of space, film and politics, a multiplicity of foreign terms and such encounters will emerge and take us along a journey through places, movies and architectures, to discuss the ways in which architecture...

  17. Finding the imprints of stellar encounters in long period comets

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Fabo

    2015-01-01

    The solar system's Oort cloud can be perturbed by the Galactic tide and by individual passing stars. These perturbations can inject Oort cloud objects into the inner parts of the solar system, where they may be observed as the long-period comets (periods longer than 200 years). Using dynamical simulations of the Oort cloud under the perturbing effects of the tide and 61 known stellar encounters, we investigate the link between long-period comets and encounters. We find that past encounters were responsible for injecting at least 5% of the currently known long-period comets. This is a lower limit due to the incompleteness of known encounters. Although the Galactic tide seems to play the dominant role in producing the observed long-period comets, the non-uniform longitude distribution of the cometary perihelia suggests the existence of strong -- but as yet unidentified -- stellar encounters or other impulses. The strongest individual future and past encounters are probably HIP 89825 (Gliese 710) and HIP 14473, ...

  18. Chaotic zones around gravitating binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Ivan I

    2014-01-01

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound bodies (a double star, a double black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, in function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the binary periods. The binary's mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present, is also estimated.

  19. Form and semantics of communication in dental encounters: oral health, probability and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, Olga V; Robinson, Peter G; Ward, Paul R; Gibson, Barry J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it introduces a new method for capturing the intricacy of communication in contemporary healthcare encounters. The method, termed 'form analysis', was developed from the systems theory of Niklas Luhmann. It is hoped that the paper will introduce form analysis as a new method to help understand complex communications in health systems. Second, the paper demonstrates an application of form analysis in communications in dental encounters. Data were collected through 36 observed encounters between five dentists and 20 patients in UK NHS primary and secondary care dental clinics. The study found a range of semantic forms relevant for these encounters, three of which are discussed at length in this article. The forms of communications illustrate how the dichotomy of dental professional and patient perspectives transforms into complex, non-linear observations about oral health. Dentistry, it seems, remains up to date not only through the emergence of new technologies, but also through reflexivity in observing and assessing oral health. These observations are exposed to the contingency of clinical decisions and the temporal aspects of the clinical system.

  20. Comparison of electrochemical methods for triiodide diffusion coefficient measurements and observation of non-Stokesian diffusion behaviour in binary mixtures of two ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zistler, M.; Wachter, P.; Gores, H.J. [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie der Universitaet Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Wasserscheid, P.; Gerhard, D. [Institut fuer Chemische Reaktionstechnik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet, Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Hinsch, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany). Department of Materials Research and Applied Optics; Sastrawan, R. [Freiburg Materials Research Center, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-10-05

    Results of diffusion coefficient measurements of triiodide in a mixture of two ionic liquids (1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) at 25{sup o}C are described in this paper. Four electrochemical methods for measuring diffusion coefficients of triiodide were evaluated for their reliability and performance, including impedance spectroscopy and polarization measurements at thin layer cells as well as cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry at microelectrodes of different radii. Viscosities of the blends were measured to investigate the transport behaviour of triiodide ions used in Gratzel-type dye-sensitized solar cells. (author)

  1. Modified evolution of stellar binaries from supermassive black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Yi-Han; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of main-sequence binaries resided in the galactic centre is influenced a lot by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Due to this perturbation, the stars in a dense environment are likely to experience mergers or collisions through secular or non-secular interactions. In this work, we study the dynamics of the stellar binaries at galactic centre, perturbed by another distant SMBH. Geometrically, such a four-body system is supposed to be decomposed into the inner triple (SMBH-star-star) and the outer triple (SMBH-stellar binary-SMBH). We survey the parameter space and determine the criteria analytically for the stellar mergers and the tidal disruption events (TDEs). For a relative distant and equal masses SMBH binary, the stars have more opportunities to merge as a result from the Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations in the inner triple. With a sample of tight stellar binaries, our numerical experiments reveal that a significant fraction of the binaries, ∼70 per cent, experience merger eventually. Whereas the majority of the stellar TDEs are likely to occur at a close periapses to the SMBH, induced by the outer Kozai effect. The tidal disruptions are found numerically as many as ∼10 per cent for a close SMBH binary that is enhanced significantly than the one without the external SMBH. These effects require the outer perturber to have an inclined orbit (≥40°) relatively to the inner orbital plane and may lead to a burst of the extremely astronomical events associated with the detection of the SMBH binary.

  2. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Electrophoresis has long been recognized as an effective analytic technique for the separation of proteins and other charged species, however attempts at scaling up to accommodate commercial volumes have met with limited success. In this report we describe a novel electrophoretic separation technique - Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis (BOCE). Numerical simulations indicate that the technique has the potential for preparative scale throughputs with high resolution, while simultaneously avoiding many problems common to conventional electrophoresis. The technique utilizes the interaction of an oscillatory electric field and a transverse oscillatory shear flow to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged protein species. An oscillatory electric field is applied across the narrow gap of a rectangular channel inducing a periodic motion of charged protein species. The amplitude of this motion depends on the dimensionless electrophoretic mobility, alpha = E(sub o)mu/(omega)d, where E(sub o) is the amplitude of the electric field oscillations, mu is the dimensional mobility, omega is the angular frequency of oscillation and d is the channel gap width. An oscillatory shear flow is induced along the length of the channel resulting in the separation of species with different mobilities. We present a model that predicts the oscillatory behavior of charged species and allows estimation of both the magnitude of the induced convective velocity and the effective diffusivity as a function of a in infinitely long channels. Numerical results indicate that in addition to the mobility dependence, the steady state behavior of solute species may be strongly affected by oscillating fluid into and out of the active electric field region at the ends of the cell. The effect is most pronounced using time dependent shear flows of the same frequency (cos((omega)t)) flow mode) as the electric field oscillations. Under such conditions, experiments indicate that

  3. Stability of binaries. Part II: Rubble-pile binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ishan

    2016-10-01

    We consider the stability of the binary asteroids whose members are granular aggregates held together by self-gravity alone. A binary is said to be stable whenever both its members are orbitally and structurally stable to both orbital and structural perturbations. To this end, we extend the stability analysis of Sharma (Sharma [2015] Icarus, 258, 438-453), that is applicable to binaries with rigid members, to the case of binary systems with rubble members. We employ volume averaging (Sharma et al. [2009] Icarus, 200, 304-322), which was inspired by past work on elastic/fluid, rotating and gravitating ellipsoids. This technique has shown promise when applied to rubble-pile ellipsoids, but requires further work to settle some of its underlying assumptions. The stability test is finally applied to some suspected binary systems, viz., 216 Kleopatra, 624 Hektor and 90 Antiope. We also see that equilibrated binaries that are close to mobilizing their maximum friction can sustain only a narrow range of shapes and, generally, congruent shapes are preferred.

  4. Simulation of nuclei morphologies for binary alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We study the critical nuclei morphologies of a binary alloy by the string method. The dynamic equation of the string, connecting the metastable phase (liquid) and stable phase (solid), is governed by Helmholtz free energy for the binary alloy system at a given temperature. The stationary string through the critical nucleus (saddle point) is obtained if the relaxation time of the string is su?ciently large. The critical nucleus radius and energy barrier to nucleation of a pure alloy with isotropic interface energy in two and three dimensions are calculated, which are consistent with the classical nucleation theory. The critical nuclei morphologies are sensitive to the anisotropy strength of interface energy and interface thickness of alloy in two and three dimensions. The critical nucleus and energy barrier to nucleation become smaller if the anisotropy strength of the interface energy is increased, which means that it is much easier to form a stable nucleus if the anisotropy of the interface energy is considered.

  5. Binary Fingerprints at Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Hung-Chih; King, Maria D; Kwan, Chiman

    2009-01-01

    We developed a simple way to generate binary patterns based on spectral slopes in different frequency ranges at fluctuation-enhanced sensing. Such patterns can be considered as binary "fingerprints" of odors. The method has experimentally been demonstrated with a commercial semiconducting metal oxide (Taguchi) sensor exposed to bacterial odors (Escherichia coli and Anthrax-surrogate Bacillus subtilis) and processing their stochastic signals. With a single Taguchi sensor, the situations of empty chamber, tryptic soy agar (TSA) medium, or TSA with bacteria could be distinguished with 100% reproducibility. The bacterium numbers were in the range of 25 thousands to 1 million. To illustrate the relevance for ultra-low power consumption, we show that this new type of signal processing and pattern recognition task can be implemented by a simple analog circuitry and a few logic gates with total power consumption in the microWatts range.

  6. Particle algorithms for optimization on binary spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We propose a general sequential Monte Carlo approach for optimization of pseudo-Boolean objective functions. There are three aspects we particularly address in this work. First, we give a unified approach to stochastic optimization based on sequential Monte Carlo techniques, including the cross-entropy method and simulated annealing as special cases. Secondly, we point out the need for auxiliary sampling distributions, that is parametric families on binary spaces, which are able to reproduce complex dependency structures. We discuss some known and novel binary parametric families and illustrate their usefulness in our numerical experiments. Finally, we provide numerical evidence that particle-driven optimization algorithms yield superior results on strongly multimodal optimization problems while local search heuristics outperform them on easier problems.

  7. Buffer Overflow Detection on Binary Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yan-fei; LI Hui; CHEN Ke-fei

    2006-01-01

    Most solutions for detecting buffer overflow are based on source code. But the requirement for source code is not always practical especially for business software. A new approach was presented to detect statically the potential buffer overflow vulnerabilities in the binary code of software. The binary code was translated into assembly code without the lose of the information of string operation functions. The feature code abstract graph was constructed to generate more accurate constraint statements, and analyze the assembly code using the method of integer range constraint. After getting the elementary report on suspicious code where buffer overflows possibly happen, the control flow sensitive analysis using program dependence graph was done to decrease the rate of false positive. A prototype was implemented which demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the new approach.

  8. Probing Dark Energy with Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The equation of state (EoS) of dark energy $w$ remains elusive despite enormous experimental efforts to pin down its value and its time variation. Yet it is the single most important handle we have in our understanding of one of the most mysterious puzzle in nature, dark energy. This letter proposes a new method for measuring the EoS of dark energy by using the gravitational waves (GW) of black hole binaries. The method described here offers an alternative to the standard way of large scale surveys. It is well known that the mass of a black hole changes due to the accretion of dark energy but at an extremely slow rate. However, a binary of supermassive black holes (SBH) radiates gravitational waves with a power proportional to the masses of these accreting stars and thereby carries information on dark energy. These waves can propagate through the vastness of structure in the universe unimpeded. The orbital changes of the binary, induced by the energy loss from gravitational radiation, receive a large contribu...

  9. A Binary Code Analysis of Vulnerability Scanning Method for SDN Smart Power Grid%面向智能电网SDN的二进制代码分析漏洞扫描方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖聪; 陈广清; 陈智明; 万能

    2016-01-01

    Software deifned network provides smart power grid with virtual network control and compatible capability. However, security vulnerabilities are also brought in. A binary code analysis of vulnerability scanning method is proposed for SDN smart power grid. Code lexical analysis rules and code to vulnerability relfection database are built to scan the vulnerabilities from SDN smart power grid. Ignored speciifc service characteristics, new method improves the security. Simulations and tests demonstrate the improved performance of new method.%软件定义网络在提升智能电网的数据传输能力和网络兼容能力的同时,也带来了新的安全漏洞。文章面向新型的SDN电网架构,针对网络流量特征隐藏挖掘困难的问题,提出面向智能电网SDN的二进制代码分析漏洞扫描方法,通过构建代码词法分析规则和代码漏洞特征库,从而形成无视特定服务特征的通用扫描规则,提升对虚拟化网络架构的应用扫描支持能力。通过实验验证分析,新的漏洞扫描算法能够提升漏洞扫描的准确度和覆盖能力。

  10. Simultaneous inference of a binary composite endpoint and its components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Große Ruse, Mareile; Ritz, Christian; Hothorn, Ludwig A.

    2017-01-01

    Binary composite endpoints offer some advantages as a way to succinctly combine evidence from a number of related binary endpoints recorded in the same clinical trial into a single outcome. However, as some concerns about the clinical relevance as well as the interpretation of such composite endp......). The method is compared to the gatekeeping approach and results are provided in the Supplementary Material. In two data examples we show how the procedure may be adapted to handle local significance levels specified through a priori given weights.......Binary composite endpoints offer some advantages as a way to succinctly combine evidence from a number of related binary endpoints recorded in the same clinical trial into a single outcome. However, as some concerns about the clinical relevance as well as the interpretation of such composite...

  11. Spectral modelling of the Alpha Virginis (Spica) binary system

    CERN Document Server

    Palate, M; Rauw, G; Harrington, D; Moreno, E

    2013-01-01

    Context: The technique of matching synthetic spectra computed with theoretical stellar atmosphere models to the observations is widely used in deriving fundamental parameters of massive stars. When applied to binaries, however, these models generally neglect the interaction effects present in these systems Aims: The aim of this paper is to explore the uncertainties in binary stellar parameters that are derived from single-star models Methods: Synthetic spectra that include the tidal perturbations and irradiation effects are computed for the binary system alpha Virginis (Spica) using our recently-developed CoMBiSpeC model. The synthetic spectra are compared to S/N~2000 observations and optimum values of Teff and log(g) are derived. Results: The binary interactions have only a small effect on the strength of the photospheric absorption lines in Spica (<2% for the primary and <4% for the secondary). These differences are comparable to the uncertainties inherent to the process of matching synthetic spectra ...

  12. Reconstructing complex networks with binary-state dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jingwen; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2015-01-01

    The prerequisite for our understanding of many complex networked systems lies in the reconstruction of network structure from measurable data. Although binary-state dynamics occurring in a broad class of complex networked systems in nature and society and has been intensively investigated, a general framework for reconstructing complex networks from binary states, the inverse problem, is lacking. Here we offer a general solution to the reconstruction problem by developing a data-based linearization approach for binary-state dynamics with linear, nonlinear, discrete and stochastic switching functions. The linearization allows us to convert the network reconstruction problem into a sparse signal reconstruction problem that can be resolved efficiently and credibly by convex optimization based on compressed sensing. The completely data-based linearization method and the sparse signal reconstruction constitutes a general framework for reconstructing complex networks without any knowledge of the binary-state dynami...

  13. Encoding of multi-alphabet sources by binary arithmetic coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Muling; Oka, Takahumi; Kato, Shigeo; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Naoto

    1998-12-01

    In case of encoding a multi-alphabet source, the multi- alphabet symbol sequence can be encoded directly by a multi- alphabet arithmetic encoder, or the sequence can be first converted into several binary sequences and then each binary sequence is encoded by binary arithmetic encoder, such as the L-R arithmetic coder. Arithmetic coding, however, requires arithmetic operations for each symbol and is computationally heavy. In this paper, a binary representation method using Huffman tree is introduced to reduce the number of arithmetic operations, and a new probability approximation for L-R arithmetic coding is further proposed to improve the coding efficiency when the probability of LPS (Least Probable Symbol) is near 0.5. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme has high coding efficacy and can reduce the number of coding symbols.

  14. Superfast 3D absolute shape measurement using five binary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jae-Sang; Zhang, Song

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a method that recovers high-quality 3D absolute coordinates point by point with only five binary patterns. Specifically, three dense binary dithered patterns are used to compute the wrapped phase; and the average intensity is combined with two additional binary patterns to determine fringe order pixel by pixel in phase domain. The wrapped phase is temporarily unwrapped point by point by referring to the fringe order. We further developed a computational framework to reduce random noise impact due to dithering, defocusing and random noise. Since only five binary fringe patterns are required to recover one 3D frame, extremely high speed 3D shape measurement can be achieved. For example, we developed a system that captures 2D images at 3333 Hz, and thus performs 3D shape measurement at 667 Hz.

  15. Binary nucleation beyond capillarity approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalikmanov, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    Large discrepancies between binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) and experiments result from adsorption effects and inability of BCNT, based on the phenomenological capillarity approximation, to treat small clusters. We propose a model aimed at eliminating both of these deficiencies. Adsorption

  16. Simulating relativistic binaries with Whisky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiotti, L.

    We report about our first tests and results in simulating the last phase of the coalescence and the merger of binary relativistic stars. The simulations were performed using our code Whisky and mesh refinement through the Carpet driver.

  17. Magnetic braking in ultracompact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Angular momentum loss in ultracompact binaries, such as the AM Canum Venaticorum stars, is usually assumed to be due entirely to gravitational radiation. Motivated by the outflows observed in ultracompact binaries, we investigate whether magnetically coupled winds could in fact lead to substantial additional angular momentum losses. We remark that the scaling relations often invoked for the relative importance of gravitational and magnetic braking do not apply, and instead use simple non-empirical expressions for the braking rates. In order to remove significant angular momentum, the wind must be tied to field lines anchored in one of the binary's component stars; uncertainties remain as to the driving mechanism for such a wind. In the case of white dwarf accretors, we find that magnetic braking can potentially remove angular momentum on comparable or even shorter timescales than gravitational waves over a large range in orbital period. We present such a solution for the 17-minute binary AM CVn itself which a...

  18. AN IMPROVED DESIGN OF REVERSIBLE BINARY TO BINARY CODED DECIMAL CONVERTER FOR BINARY CODED DECIMAL MULTIPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveena Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible logic gates under ideal conditions produce zero power dissipation. This factor highlights the usage of these gates in optical computing, low power CMOS design, quantum optics and quantum computing. The growth of decimal arithmetic in various applications as stressed the need to propose the study on reversible binary to BCD converter which plays a greater role in decimal multiplication for providing faster results. The different parameters such as gate count,garbage output and constant input are more optimized in the proposed fixed bit binary to binary coded decimal converter than the existing design.

  19. Transient Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, T M

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...

  20. A Speeding Binary in the Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    The recent discovery of a hyper-velocity binary star system in the halo of the Milky Way poses a mystery: how was this system accelerated to its high speed?Accelerating StarsUnlike the uniform motion in the Galactic disk, stars in the Milky Ways halo exhibit a huge diversity of orbits that are usually tilted relative to the disk and have a variety of speeds. One type of halo star, so-called hyper-velocity stars, travel with speeds that can approach the escape velocity of the Galaxy.How do these hyper-velocity stars come about? Assuming they form in the Galactic disk, there are multiple proposed scenarios through which they could be accelerated and injected into the halo, such as:Ejection after a close encounter with the supermassive black hole at the Galactic centerEjection due to a nearby supernova explosionEjection as the result of a dynamical interaction in a dense stellar population.Further observations of hyper-velocity stars are necessary to identify the mechanism responsible for their acceleration.J1211s SurpriseModels of J1211s orbit show it did not originate from the Galactic center (black dot). The solar symbol shows the position of the Sun and the star shows the current position of J1211. The bottom two panels show two depictions(x-y plane and r-z plane) of estimated orbits of J1211 over the past 10 Gyr. [Nmeth et al. 2016]To this end, a team of scientists led by Pter Nmeth (Friedrich Alexander University, Erlangen-Nrnberg) recently studied the candidate halo hyper-velocity star SDSS J121150.27+143716.2. The scientists obtained spectroscopy of J1211 using spectrographs at the Keck Telescope in Hawaii and ESOs Very Large Telescope in Chile. To their surprise, they discovered the signature of a companion in the spectra: J1211 is actually a binary!Nmeth and collaborators found that J1211, located roughly 18,000 light-years away, is moving at a rapid ~570 km/s relative to the galactic rest frame. The binary system consists of a hot (30,600 K) subdwarf and a

  1. Residue arithmetic in binary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Barsi, Ferruccio

    1988-01-01

    A natural approach to the problem of performing mod m computations in a binary system is presented and a solution is suggested which is based upon a straightforward relation between the residues of a same integer X with respect to different moduli. The proposed solution proves fruitful in various applications, such as converting binary integers to residue notation and mod m addition or multiplication. Even if the most usual implementation approach for mod m processors is based on look-up tabl...

  2. Coevolution of Binaries and Gaseous Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, David P

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by $\\it Kepler$ raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc, and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for $10^4$ binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentri...

  3. Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Affendi Rosdi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP.

  4. A New and Efficient Computation Method of IM (Integrated Importance Measures) for Components in Binary Coherent Systems%二态系统组(部)件综合重要度计算方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司书宾; 杨柳; 蔡志强; 兑红炎

    2011-01-01

    Aim. The introduction of the full paper reviews a number of papers on importance measures in the open literature and points out what we believe to be their shortcomings; then, it proposes what we believe to be a new and efficient computation method mentioned in the title. Section 1 explains how we established our IM (Integrated importance Measures) ; its core consists of; (1) we brief the computation methods and meanings of classic importance measures; (2 ) we put forward IM for binary coherent systems to describe the mathematical expectation of the system reliability decrease based on current component unreliabilities; (3 ) we analyze the computation relationships between IM and classic importance measures. Section 2 discusses the properties of IM; its core consists of: (1) we prove mathematically the calculation method and physical meaning of IM for typical series system; (2) we prove mathematically the calculation method and physical meaning of IM for typical parallel system. Section 3 does the numerical study of a hybrid system; the results, given in Tables 1, and their analysis show preliminarily that, by considering the component reliabilities and failure rates together, our IM is indeed efficient for component importance analysis in binary coherent system.%二态系统重要度理论是复杂系统重要度理论的基础,对于复杂系统可靠性分析具有重要意义.文章在对传统二态系统重要度计算方法研究基础上,针对二态系统提出一种组(部)件综合重要度计算方法,通过定理证明了二态系统组(部)件综合重要度的物理意义,探讨了二态系统组(部)件综合重要度计算方法与概率重要度、结构重要度、关键重要度、Δ-重要度和Improvement Potential重要度计算方法的关联关系.基于串联和并联系统,分别给出了串联和并联系统的二态系统组(部)件综合重要度计算公式及相关的性质.以二态混联系统为算例,依据系统

  5. Extrasolar binary planets. I. Formation by tidal capture during planet-planet scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochiai, H. [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Nagasawa, M. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Ida, S., E-mail: nagasawa.m.ad@m.titech.ac.jp [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We have investigated (1) the formation of gravitationally bounded pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call 'binary planets') from capturing each other through planet-planet dynamical tide during their close encounters and (2) the subsequent long-term orbital evolution due to planet-planet and planet-star quasi-static tides. For the initial evolution in phase 1, we carried out N-body simulations of the systems consisting of three Jupiter-mass planets taking into account the dynamical tide. The formation rate of the binary planets is as much as 10% of the systems that undergo orbital crossing, and this fraction is almost independent of the initial stellarcentric semimajor axes of the planets, while ejection and merging rates sensitively depend on the semimajor axes. As a result of circularization by the planet-planet dynamical tide, typical binary separations are a few times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. After the orbital circularization, the evolution of the binary system is governed by long-term quasi-static tide. We analytically calculated the quasi-static tidal evolution in phase 2. The binary planets first enter the spin-orbit synchronous state by the planet-planet tide. The planet-star tide removes angular momentum of the binary motion, eventually resulting in a collision between the planets. However, we found that the binary planets survive the tidal decay for the main-sequence lifetime of solar-type stars (∼10 Gyr), if the binary planets are beyond ∼0.3 AU from the central stars. These results suggest that the binary planets can be detected by transit observations at ≳ 0.3 AU.

  6. The Moderately Efficient Enzyme: Futile Encounters and Enzyme Floppiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron; Noor, Elad; Tawfik, Dan S

    2015-08-18

    The pioneering model of Henri, Michaelis, and Menten was based on the fast equilibrium assumption: the substrate binds its enzyme reversibly, and substrate dissociation is much faster than product formation. Here, we examine this assumption from a somewhat different point of view, asking what fraction of enzyme-substrate complexes are futile, i.e., result in dissociation rather than product formation. In Knowles' notion of a "perfect" enzyme, all encounters of the enzyme with its substrate result in conversion to product. Thus, the perfect enzyme's catalytic efficiency, kcat/KM, is constrained by only the diffusion on-rate, and the fraction of futile encounters (defined as φ) approaches zero. The available data on >1000 different enzymes suggest that for ≥90% of enzymes φ > 0.99 and for the "average enzyme" φ ≥ 0.9999; namely, <1 of 10(4) encounters is productive. Thus, the "fast equilibrium" assumption holds for the vast majority of enzymes. We discuss possible molecular origins for the dominance of futile encounters, including the coexistence of multiple sub-states of an enzyme's active site (enzyme floppiness) and/or its substrate. Floppiness relates to the inherent flexibility of proteins, but also to conflicting demands, or trade-offs, between rate acceleration (the rate-determining chemical step) and catalytic turnover, or between turnover rate and accuracy. The study of futile encounters and active-site floppiness may contribute to a better understanding of enzyme catalysis, enzyme evolution, and improved enzyme design.

  7. Gravitational waveforms for neutron star binaries from binary black hole simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Barkett, Kevin; Haas, Roland; Ott, Christian D; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Brown, Duncan A; Szilágyi, Béla; Kaplan, Jeffrey D; Lippuner, Jonas; Muhlberger, Curran D; Foucart, Francois; Duez, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves from binary neutron star (BNS) and black-hole/neutron star (BHNS) inspirals are primary sources for detection by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory. The tidal forces acting on the neutron stars induce changes in the phase evolution of the gravitational waveform, and these changes can be used to constrain the nuclear equation of state. Current methods of generating BNS and BHNS waveforms rely on either computationally challenging full 3D hydrodynamical simulations or approximate analytic solutions. We introduce a new method for computing inspiral waveforms for BNS/BHNS systems by adding the post-Newtonian (PN) tidal effects to full numerical simulations of binary black holes (BBHs), effectively replacing the non-tidal terms in the PN expansion with BBH results. Comparing a waveform generated with this method against a full hydrodynamical simulation of a BNS inspiral yields a phase difference of $<1$ radian over $\\sim 15$ orbits. The numerical phase accuracy ...

  8. Binary module test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, J.R.; Colley, T.C.; Pundyk, J.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of this project was to design and test a binary loop module representative of and scaleable to commercial size units. The design was based on state-of-the-art heat exchanger technology, and the purpose of the tests was to confirm performance of a supercritical boiling cycle using isobutane and a mixture of isobutane and isopentane as the secondary working fluid. The module was designed as one percent of a 50 MW unit. It was installed at Magma Power's East Mesa geothermal field and tested over a period of approximately 4 months. Most of the test runs were with isobutane but some data were collected for hydrocarbon mixtures. The results of the field tests are reported. In general these results indicate reasonably good heat balances and agreement with overall heat transfer coefficients calculated by current stream analysis methods and available fluid property data; however, measured pressure drops across the heat exchangers were 20 percent higher than estimated. System operation was stable under all conditions tested.

  9. Excitation of the Orbital Inclination of Iapetus during Planetary Encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvorny, David; Deienno, Rogerio; Walsh, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Saturn's moon Iapetus has an orbit in a transition region where the Laplace surface is bending from the equator to the orbital plane of Saturn. The orbital inclination of Iapetus to the local Laplace plane is ~8 deg, which is unexpected, because the inclination should be ~0 if Iapetus formed from a circumplanetary disk on the Laplace surface. It thus appears that some process has pumped up Iapetus's inclination while leaving its eccentricity near zero (e=0.03 at present). Here we examined the possibility that Iapetus's inclination was excited during the early solar system instability when encounters between Saturn and ice giants occurred. We found that the dynamical effects of planetary encounters on Iapetus's orbit sensitively depend on the distance of the few closest encounters. In four out of ten instability cases studied here, the orbital perturbations were too large to be plausible. In one case, Iapetus's orbit was practically unneffected. In the remaining five cases, the perturbations of Iapetus's incli...

  10. Eclipsing Binaries From the CSTAR Project at Dome A, Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ming; Wang, Songhu; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Lifan; Wittenmyer, R A; Liu, Hui-Gen; Meng, Zeyang; Ashley, M C B; Storey, J W V; Bayliss, D; Tinney, Chris; Wang, Ying; Wu, Donghong; Liang, Ensi; Yu, Zhouyi; Fan, Zhou; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Lawrence, J S; Liu, Qiang; Luong-Van, D M; Ma, Jun; Wu, Zhenyu; Yan, Jun; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Yuan, Xiangyan; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhu, Zhenxi; Zou, Hu

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) has observed an area around the Celestial South Pole at Dome A since 2008. About $20,000$ light curves in the i band were obtained lasting from March to July, 2008. The photometric precision achieves about 4 mmag at i = 7.5 and 20 mmag at i = 12 within a 30 s exposure time. These light curves are analyzed using Lomb--Scargle, Phase Dispersion Minimization, and Box Least Squares methods to search for periodic signals. False positives may appear as a variable signature caused by contaminating stars and the observation mode of CSTAR. Therefore the period and position of each variable candidate are checked to eliminate false positives. Eclipsing binaries are removed by visual inspection, frequency spectrum analysis and locally linear embedding technique. We identify 53 eclipsing binaries in the field of view of CSTAR, containing 24 detached binaries, 8 semi-detached binaries, 18 contact binaries, and 3 ellipsoidal variables. To derive the parameters of these binaries, we ...

  11. How patient-physician encounters in critical medical situations affect trust: results of a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Mark A

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients' trust in physicians and in the medical profession is vital for a successful patient-physician relationship. Trust is especially salient in critical medical situations, such as serious side-effects, hospitalizations, and diagnoses of serious medical conditions, but most trust studies have been done with the general population or in routine primary care settings. This study examines the association between patient-physician encounters in such critical medical situations and patients' trust in their physician and in the medical profession in general. Methods A random national telephone survey was conducted using validated multi-item questionnaire measuring trust and satisfaction with physicians and with the medical profession. A seven item questionnaire measured the patient-physician encounters in critical medical situations. A total of 1117 subjects aged 20 years and older with health insurance were included for analyses. Spearman rank order correlations were used to determine the association of encounter variables with trust in physicians and the medical profession. Results Prescription of medications by primary care physicians that patients believed might have side effects was negatively correlated with trust in physician (ρ = -0.12, p Conclusion Hospitalization, perceived seriousness of condition, and concerns about the risks of medications were found to be associated with patient trust in physicians or the medical profession. These findings highlight the salience of trust in serious physician-patient encounters and the role that patient vulnerability plays in determining patient trust.

  12. Encounter probability analysis of typhoon and plum rain in the Taihu Lake Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is of great significance to study the encounter possibility of typhoon and plum rain in the Taihu Lake Basin in order to adjust the schemes of design storm and utilize flood resource and make the decision of real-time scheduling for flood control in the Basin. Based upon the existing research findings of description of encounter phenomena of typhoon and plum rain, the initial time of typhoon affecting the Taihu Lake Basin, the start time of plum rain season and the end time of plum rain season were selected as the characteristic indices of typhoon and plum rain, respectively. According to their synchronous data from 1954 to 2009, the distribution functions of the above-mentioned three random variables were identified and a formula expressing the encounter possibility of typhoon and plum rain was derived. In view of the complexity and solution of this formula, joint distribution functions of typhoon and plum rain were constructed by the use of Gumbel Copula function on the basis of the adaptability comparison among three functions (Gumbel Copula, Clayton Copula and Frank Copula) in Archimedean functions. For the characteristics of the formula with the joint distribution functions based on Gumbel Copula function, two methods, i.e., numerical integration and Monte Carlo simulation, were selected to solve the encounter probability, and the validity of the computed results was analyzed finally.

  13. The standardized patient encounter: a dynamic educational approach to enhance students' clinical healthcare skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herge, E Adel; Lorch, Arlene; Deangelis, Tina; Vause-Earland, Tracey; Mollo, Kimberly; Zapletal, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Occupational therapy educators are challenged to prepare students entering the profession to be skilled in assessment, critical thinking, self-analysis, and decision-making. Simulation is an effective strategy used in medical and nursing curriculums to develop or enhance critical thinking, self-analysis, and decision-making skills. Through simulated learning activities, such as encounters with standardized patients (SP), students develop skills in decision-making, clinical reasoning, and interpersonal communication, skills necessary to function effectively in the current health care environment. This paper describes the process for integrating SP encounters in a professional healthcare curriculum for occupational therapy graduate students. Evidence that supports the use of simulation in healthcare curriculums for health profession students is explored. An example of an SP encounter in one occupational therapy course is described to illustrate how students engage in higher-level thinking as they administer an assessment tool and interact with an SP. The process of developing and evaluating the SP encounter is described and the outcomes are presented. The authors believe the SP experience is a viable teaching method in preparing competent, reflective practitioners for tomorrow's healthcare environment.

  14. X-Ray Background from Early Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    observed X-ray energy (and the total X-ray background is given by the sum of the curves). The two panels show results from two different calculation methods. [Xu et al. 2016]Xu and collaborators have now attempted to model to the impact of this X-ray production from Pop III binaries on the intergalactic medium and determine how much it could have contributed to reionization and the diffuse X-ray background we observe today.Generating a BackgroundThe authorsestimated the X-ray luminosities from Pop III binaries using the results of a series of galaxy-formation simulations, beginning at a redshift of z 25 and evolving up to z = 7.6. They then used these luminosities to calculate the resulting X-ray background.Xu and collaborators find that Pop III binaries can produce significant X-ray radiation throughout the period of reionization, and this radiation builds up gradually into an X-ray background. The team shows that X-rays from Pop III binaries might actually dominate more commonly assumed sources of the X-ray background at high redshifts (such as active galactic nuclei), and this radiation isstrong enough to heat the intergalactic medium to 1000K and ionize a few percent of the neutral hydrogen.If Pop III binaries are indeed this large of a contributor to the X-ray background and to the local and global heating of the intergalactic medium, then its important that we follow up with more detailed modeling to understand what this means for our interpretation of cosmological observations.CitationHao Xu et al 2016 ApJL 832 L5. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/832/1/L5

  15. Exoplanets Bouncing Between Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckel, Nickolas

    2012-01-01

    Exoplanetary systems are found not only among single stars, but also binaries of widely varying parameters. Binaries with separations of 100--1000 au are prevalent in the Solar neighborhood; at these separations planet formation around a binary member may largely proceed as if around a single star. During the early dynamical evolution of a planetary system, planet--planet scattering can eject planets from a star's grasp. In a binary, the motion of a planet ejected from one star has effectively entered a restricted three-body system consisting of itself and the two stars, and the equations of motion of the three body problem will apply as long as the ejected planet remains far from the remaining planets. Depending on its energy, escape from the binary as a whole may be impossible or delayed until the three-body approximation breaks down, and further close interactions with its planetary siblings boost its energy when it passes close to its parent star. Until then this planet may be able to transition from the ...

  16. Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Goldreich, P; Sari, R; Goldreich, Peter; Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re'em

    2002-01-01

    It appears that at least several percent of large Kuiper belt objects are members of wide binaries. Physical collisions are too infrequent to account for their formation. Collisionless gravitational interactions are more promising. These provide two channels for binary formation. In each, the initial step is the formation of a transient binary when two large bodies penetrate each other's Hill spheres. Stabilization of a transient binary requires that it lose energy. Either dynamical friction due to small bodies or the scattering of a third large body can be responsible. Our estimates favor the former, albeit by a small margin. We predict that most objects of size comparable to those currently observed in the Kuiper belt are members of multiple systems. More specifically, we derive the probability that a large body is a member of a binary with semi-major axis of order a. The probability depends upon sigma, the total surface density, Sigma, the surface density of large bodies having radius R, and theta=10^-4, t...

  17. Explosions Triggered by Violent Binary-Star Collisions: Application to Eta Carinae and other Eruptive Transients

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a model where a violent periastron collision of stars in an eccentric binary system induces an eruption or explosion seen as a brief transient source, attributed to LBVs, SN impostors, or other transients. The key ingredient is that an evolved primary increases its photospheric radius on relatively short timescales, to a point where the radius is comparable to or larger than the periastron separation in an eccentric binary. In such a configuration, a violent and sudden collision would ensue, possibly leading to substantial mass ejection instead of a binary merger. Repeated periastral grazings in an eccentric system could quickly escalate to a catastrophic encounter, wherein the companion star actually plunges deep inside the photosphere of a bloated primary during periastron, as a result of the primary star increasing its own radius. This is motivated by the case of $\\eta$~Carinae, where such a collision must have occured if conventional estimates of the present-day orbit are correct, and...

  18. Technology Mediated Information Sharing (Monitor Sharing) in Primary Care Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation study was to identify and describe the use of electronic health records (EHRs) for information sharing between patients and clinicians in primary-care encounters and to understand work system factors influencing information sharing. Ultimately, this will promote better design of EHR technologies and effective training…

  19. Cinematic chronotopes: affective encounters in space-time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselberth, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study makes a case for analyzing the chronotopes of the cinematic as affective encounters in space-time. It argues that, while the site of cinema is on the move, the extent to which technologically mediated sounds and images continue to be experienced as cinematic today is largely dependent on

  20. Young Infants Encode Lexical Stress in Newly Encountered Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the nature of infants' representations of newly encountered word forms. Using a word-object association task, we taught 14-month-olds novel three-syllable words differing in segments and stress patterns. At test, we manipulated the stress pattern of the word or the position of the stressed syllable in the word. Our…

  1. One-to-One Encounters: Facilitators, Participants, and Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Lee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I explore the claim that one-to-one encounters between community music facilitators and music participants can be described as friendships. By exploring the relational structure through the call and the welcome, I make some general comments on friendship before finally tackling the question lying at the heart of this article: How…

  2. Littoral Encounters : The Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobecki, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    1. III * Later Medieval: Excluding Chaucer -- Brown et al., 10.1093 ... ... between the Saracens and the londisse men allied to the protagonist (' Littoral Encounters: the Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn', Al-Mas a ... www.ywes.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/man0092 2.Murray, Alan V. “

  3. Cultures in Collision: Education and Dialogical Encounter in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungazi, Dickson A.

    The central theory of Paulo Freire's "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" is that all human beings are capable of engaging in a dialogical encounter with their world. Application of this theory to the bitter civil war that occurred in Zimbabwe from 1972 to 1979 leads to four conclusions. First, the lack of educational opportunity for the Africans…

  4. Encounters between spherical galaxies - II. Systems with a dark halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, AC; van Albada, TS

    2005-01-01

    We perform N-body simulations of encounters between spherical systems surrounded by a spherical halo. Following a preceding paper with a similar aim, the initial systems include a spherical Jaffe model for the luminous matter and a Hernquist model for the halo. The merger remnants from this sample a

  5. Photographic Images of Refugee Spatial Encounters: Pedagogy of Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Binaya

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines my effort to document the experiences of a Bhutanese refugee community in a mid-western city of the United States. In particular, the essay looks at housing experiences the community encountered and my efforts to translate the events through photographs. The essay also explores how oppression operates in relation to refugee…

  6. Health promoting effects of the physician–patient encounter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, A.M. van; Bensing, J.

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of a medical treatment partly depends on the interpersonal context in which an intervention takes place. By identifying what factors in the medical encounter engender effect beyond that of the therapeutic intervention, treatment outcome is likely to increase. This study gives an overvie

  7. Health promoting effects of the physician-patient encounter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, A.M. van; Bensing, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of a medical treatment partly depends on the interpersonal context in which an intervention takes place. By identifying what factors in the medical encounter engender effect beyond that of the therapeutic intervention, treatment outcome is likely to increase. This study gives an overvie

  8. Numerical Modeling of Cometary Meteoroid Streams Encountering Mars and Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, A. A.; Vaubaillon, J.

    2011-01-01

    We have simulated numerically the existence of meteoroid streams that encounter the orbits of Mars and Venus, potentially producing meteor showers at those planets. We find that 17 known comets can produce such showers, the intensity of which can be determined through observations. Six of these streams contain dense dust trails capable of producing meteor outbursts.

  9. Fertile Zones of Cultural Encounter in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2008-01-01

    We explain certain learning difficulties in computer science education as resulting from a clash between the students' culture as computer users and the professional computing culture. We propose the concept of fertile zones of cultural encounter as a way of overcoming these learning difficulties. This pedagogical approach aims to bridge the gap…

  10. Unethical Behaviours Preservice Teachers Encounter on Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveci Topal, Arzu; Kolburan Gecer, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    The development of web 2.0 technology has resulted in an increase in internet sharing. The scope of this study is social networking, which is one of the web 2.0 tools most heavily used by internet users. In this paper, the unethical behaviours that preservice teachers encounter on social networks and the ways to deal with these problems are…

  11. Neuropeptides and social behavior of rats tested in dyadic encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various neuropeptides on social behavior was studied in a test procedure in which 7-day isolated animals were tested together with non-isolated partners in dyadic encounters. The short-term isolation procedure increased the frequency and duration of social activities of the rats, but

  12. In "the Event" That Art and Teaching Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoian, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    In this writing, I explore the performative correspondences between the complex, disparate, and disjunctive encounters, alliances, and movements that characterize the making of art and the making of teaching that--according to philosophers Deleuze and Guattari--are constituted by the "plane of consistency," "zone of…

  13. Declining orangutan encounter rates from Wallace to the present suggest the species was once more abundant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus currently occur at low densities and seeing a wild one is a rare event. Compared to present low encounter rates of orangutans, it is striking how many orangutan each day historic collectors like Alfred Russel Wallace were able to shoot continuously over weeks or even months. Does that indicate that some 150 years ago encounter rates with orangutans, or their densities, were higher than now? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We test this hypothesis by quantifying encounter rates obtained from hunting accounts, museum collections, and recent field studies, and analysing whether there is a declining trend over time. Logistic regression analyses of our data support such a decline on Borneo between the mid-19th century and the present. Even when controlled for variation in the size of survey and hunting teams and the durations of expeditions, mean daily encounter rates appear to have declined about 6-fold in areas with little or no forest disturbance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding has potential consequences for our understanding of orangutans, because it suggests that Bornean orangutans once occurred at higher densities. We explore potential explanations-habitat loss and degradation, hunting, and disease-and conclude that hunting fits the observed patterns best. This suggests that hunting has been underestimated as a key causal factor of orangutan density and distribution, and that species population declines have been more severe than previously estimated based on habitat loss only. Our findings may require us to rethink the biology of orangutans, with much of our ecological understanding possibly being based on field studies of animals living at lower densities than they did historically. Our approach of quantifying species encounter rates from historic data demonstrates that this method can yield valuable information about the ecology and population density of species in the past, providing new

  14. A Proposed Search for the Detection of Gravitational Waves from Eccentric Binary Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Vaibhav; Christensen, Nelson; Huerta, Eliu; Mohapatra, Satya; Gopakumar, Achamveedu; Haney, Maria; Parameswaran, Ajith; McWilliams, Sean; Vedovato, Gabriele; Drago, Marco; Salemi, Francesco; Prodi, Giovanni; Lazzaro, Claudia; Tiwari, Shubhanshu; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Da Silva, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    Most of compact binary systems are expected to circularize before the frequency of emitted gravitational waves (GWs) enters the sensitivity band of the ground based interferometric detectors. However, several mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of binary systems, which retain eccentricity throughout their lifetimes. Since no matched-filtering algorithm has been developed to extract continuous GW signals from compact binaries on orbits with low to moderate values of eccentricity, and available algorithms to detect binaries on quasi-circular orbits are sub-optimal to recover these events, in this paper we propose a search method for detection of gravitational waves produced from the coalescences of eccentric binary black holes (eBBH). We study the search sensitivity and the false alarm rates on a segment of data from the second joint science run of LIGO and Virgo detectors, and discuss the implications of the eccentric binary search for the advanced GW detectors.

  15. Evaporative Instability in Binary Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ranga; Uguz, Erdem

    2012-11-01

    In this talk we depict the physics of evaporative convection for binary systems in the presence of surface tension gradient effects. Two results are of importance. The first is that a binary system, in the absence of gravity, can generate an instability only when heated from the vapor side. This is to be contrasted with the case of a single component where instability can occur only when heated from the liquid side. The second result is that a binary system, in the presence of gravity, will generate an instability when heated from either the vapor or the liquid side provided the heating is strong enough. In addition to these results we show the conditions at which interfacial patterns can occur. Support from NSF OISE 0968313, Partner Univ. Fund and a Chateaubriand Fellowship is acknowledged.

  16. Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.

  17. Black Hole Binaries in Quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Bailyn, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    I discuss some of what is known and unknown about the behavior of black hole binary systems in the quiescent accretion state. Quiescence is important for several reasons: 1) the dominance of the companion star in the optical and IR wavelengths allows the binary parameters to be robustly determined - as an example, we argue that the longer proposed distance to the X-ray source GRO J1655-40 is correct; 2) quiescence represents the limiting case of an extremely low accretion rate, in which both accretion and jets can be observed; 3) understanding the evolution and duration of the quiescent state is a key factor in determining the overall demographics of X-rary binaries, which has taken on a new importance in the era of gravitational wave astronomy.

  18. Probability Quantization for Multiplication-Free Binary Arithmetic Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K. -M.

    1995-01-01

    A method has been developed to improve on Witten's binary arithmetic coding procedure of tracking a high value and a low value. The new method approximates the probability of the less probable symbol, which improves the worst-case coding efficiency.

  19. Double image encryption by using iterative random binary encoding in gyrator domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Guo, Qing; Xu, Lie; Ahmad, Muhammad Ashfaq; Liu, Shutian

    2010-05-24

    We propose a double image encryption by using random binary encoding and gyrator transform. Two secret images are first regarded as the real part and imaginary part of complex function. Chaotic map is used for obtaining random binary matrix. The real part and imaginary part of complex function are exchanged under the control of random binary data. An iterative structure composed of the random binary encoding method is designed and employed for enhancing the security of encryption algorithm. The parameters in chaotic map and gyrator transform serve as the keys of this encryption scheme. Some numerical simulations have been made, to demonstrate the performance this algorithm.

  20. The Effect of Novel Binary Accelerator System on Properties of Vulcanized Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez Kamoun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties, curing characteristics, and swelling behaviour of vulcanized natural rubber with a novel binary accelerator system are investigated. Results indicate that the mechanical properties were improved. Crosslinking density of vulcanized natural rubber was measured by equilibrium swelling method. As a result, the new binary accelerator was found to be able to improve both cure rate and crosslinking density. Using the numerical analysis of test interaction between binary accelerator and operational modelling of vulcanization-factors experiments, it can be concluded that the interaction (Cystine, N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazyl sulfenamide was significant and the optimum value of binary accelerator was suggested, respectively, at levels 0 and +1.

  1. Practical Binary Adaptive Block Coder

    CERN Document Server

    Reznik, Yuriy A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low-complexity algorithm for adaptive encoding/ decoding of binary sequences produced by memoryless sources. The algorithm implements universal block codes constructed for a set of contexts identified by the numbers of non-zero bits in previous bits in a sequence. We derive a precise formula for asymptotic redundancy of such codes, which refines previous well-known estimate by Krichevsky and Trofimov, and provide experimental verification of this result. In our experimental study we also compare our implementation with existing binary adaptive encoders, such as JBIG's Q-coder, and MPEG AVC (ITU-T H.264)'s CABAC algorithms.

  2. Statistical Study of Visual Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Rahman, H I; Elsanhoury, W H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, some statistical distributions of wide pairs included in Double Star Catalogue are investigated. Frequency distributions and testing hypothesis are derived for some basic parameters of visual binaries. The results reached indicate that, it was found that the magnitude difference is distributed exponentially, which means that the majority of the component of the selected systems is of the same spectral type. The distribution of the mass ratios is concentrated about 0.7 which agree with Salpeter mass function. The distribution of the linear separation appears to be exponentially, which contradict with previous studies for close binaries.

  3. Skew Detection for Binary Document Images Using Mathematical Morphyology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The input document images with skew can be a serious problem in the optical character recognition system. A method is proposed for skew detection in binary document images using mathematic morphology. The basic process of our approach consists of three steps: Firstly, a dilation operation is applied to the binary image; Secondly, the dilated image is thinned; Finally, the skew angle is detected using the Hough transform. The proposed approach with high precision can detect skew with large angle (-90°-90°). The experimental result shows this method is applicable and efficient.

  4. A unified kinetic approach to binary nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Physics, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road]|[E.O.H.S.I., Rutgers University]|[UMDNJ, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States); Lazaridis, M. [Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Instittutvein 18, P. O. Box 100, N-2007 Kjeller (Norway); Drossinos, Y. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Georgopoulos, P.G. [E.O.H.S.I., Rutgers University]|[UMDNJ, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Two different methods to calculate the steady-state nucleation rate in heteromolecular systems proposed by Stauffer (1976) and Langer (1969) are analyzed. Their mathematical equivalence is explicitly demonstrated, thereby obtaining a generic expression for the rate of binary nucleation. Its numerical evaluation does not entail rotation of the coordinate system at the saddle point, but it only requires data in the natural coordinate system of number fluctuations, namely molecular impingement rates, the droplet free energy and its second order derivatives at the saddle point, and the total density of condensible vapors. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Interatomic Potentials for Some Binary Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using atomistic computer simulation methods we have derived a new set of interatomic potential parameters for some binary oxides, comprising divalent transition elements (rock-salt structured)and tetrava)ent metals. Computational techniques based on the minimization of the crystal energy with respect to atomic coordinates have been employed. Crystal properties were calculated and compared with the experimental data to check the reliability of our potential models. Intrinsic (Schottky and Frenkel) defect energies were also calculated and compared with previous studies.There is a good agreement between these calculations, which shows that the new potential parameters are reliable and can be used with confidence for future investigations.

  6. Computer Vision Using Local Binary Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pietikainen, Matti; Zhao, Guoying; Ahonen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    The recent emergence of Local Binary Patterns (LBP) has led to significant progress in applying texture methods to various computer vision problems and applications. The focus of this research has broadened from 2D textures to 3D textures and spatiotemporal (dynamic) textures. Also, where texture was once utilized for applications such as remote sensing, industrial inspection and biomedical image analysis, the introduction of LBP-based approaches have provided outstanding results in problems relating to face and activity analysis, with future scope for face and facial expression recognition, b

  7. Retrograde binaries of massive black holes in circumbinary accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Maureira-Fredes, Cristián; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Context. We explore the hardening of a massive black hole binary embedded in a circumbinary gas disc under a specific circumstance: when the binary and the gas are coplanar and the gas is counter-rotating. The binary has unequal mass and the interaction of the gas with the lighter secondary black hole is the main cause of the braking torque on the binary that shrinks with time. The secondary black hole, revolving in the direction opposite to the gas, experiences a drag from gas-dynamical friction and from direct accretion of part of it. Aims: In this paper, using two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical grid simulations we investigate the effect of changing the accretion prescriptions on the dynamics of the secondary black hole, which in turn affect the binary hardening and eccentricity evolution. Methods: We find that realistic accretion prescriptions lead to results that differ from those inferred assuming accretion of all the gas within the Roche Lobe of the secondary black hole. Results: When considering gas accretion within the gravitational influence radius of the secondary black hole (which is smaller than the Roche Lobe radius) to better describe gas inflows, the shrinking of the binary is slower. In addition, in this case, a smaller amount of accreted mass is required to reduce the binary separation by the same amount. Different accretion prescriptions result in different discs' surface densities, which alter the black hole's dynamics back. Full 3D Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics realizations of a number of representative cases, run over a shorter interval of time, validate the general trends observed in the less computationally demanding 2D simulations. Conclusions: Initially circular black hole binaries increase their eccentricity only slightly, which then oscillates around small values (<0.1) while they harden. By contrast, initially eccentric binaries become more and more eccentric. A semi-analytical model describing the black hole's dynamics under

  8. The Brave New World of Binary Star Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2006-08-01

    In this paper we discuss some of the new and exciting developments in the study of binary stars. Recent technological advances (such as CCDs) now make it possible (even easy) to study faint, astrophysically important binaries that in the past could only be done with large 4 + meter class telescopes. Also, the panoramic nature of CCDs (and the use of mosaics), permit large numbers of stars to be imaged and studied. At this conference, most of the observational material discussed was secured typically with smaller aperture 0.5 - 2 m telescopes. Excellent examples are the discovery of over 104 new ˜13 - 20 mag eclipsing (and interacting) binaries now found in nearby galaxies from the EROS, OGLE, MACHO and DIRECT programs. As briefly discussed here, and in more detail in several papers in this volume, a small fraction of these extragalactic eclipsing binaries are now serving as “standard candles” to secure accurate distances to the Magellanic Clouds, as well as to M31 and M33. Moreover, the discovery of increasingly larger numbers of eclipsing binaries has stimulated the development of automatic methods for reducing and analyzing the light curves of thousands of systems. In the near future, hundreds of thousands (possibly millions) of additional systems are expected to be discovered by Pan-STARRS, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescopes (LSST), and later by GAIA. Over the last decade, new classes of binary systems have also been found which contain Jupiter-size planets and binaries containing pulsating stars. Some examples of these important binaries are discussed. Also discussed are the increasing numbers (now eight) of eclipsing binary planet-star systems that have been found from high precision photometry. These systems are very important since the radii and masses of the hosted planets can be directly measured. Moreover, from the upcoming COROT and KEPLER missions hundreds of additional transiting planet-star systems are expected to be found. All in all, we hope

  9. Determining the Porosity and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Binary Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Ward, Anderson L.; Keller, Jason M.

    2009-09-27

    Gravels and coarse sands make up significant portions of some environmentally important sediments, while the hydraulic properties of the sediments are typically obtained in the laboratory using only the fine fraction (e.g., <2 mm or 4.75 mm). Researchers have found that the content of gravel has significant impacts on the hydraulic properties of the bulk soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the porosity and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures with different fractions of coarse and fine components. We proposed a mixing-coefficient model to estimate the porosity and a power-averaging method to determine the effective particle diameter and further to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures. The proposed methods could well estimate the porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the binary mixtures for the full range of gravel contents and was successfully applied to two data sets in the literature.

  10. An Effective Digital Watermarking Algorithm for Binary Text Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhihua; QIN Zhongping

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at the binary text image's characteristics of simple pixel, complex texture and bad immunity of information concealment, a digital watermarking embedment location choosing method has been put forward based upon compatible roughness set. The method divides binary text image into different equivalent classes. Equivalent classes are further divided into different subclasses according to each pixel's degree and texture changes between blocks. Through properties' combination, the embedment block and location which are fit for watermarking are found out. At last, different binary text images are chosen for emulation experiment. After being embedded, the image is compressed in JPIG-2. Gaussian noise, salt & pepper noise are added and cutting is employed to imitate the actual environment in which images may suffer from various attacks and interferences. The result shows that the detector has a sound testing effect under various conditions.

  11. Understanding Gravitational Waves from Inspiral Binary Systems and its Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Antelis, Javier M

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the events GW150926 and GW151226 has experimentally confirmed the existence of gravitational waves (GW) and has demonstrated the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This finding marks the beginning of a new era that will reveal unexpected features of our universe. This work presents a basic insight to the fundamental theory of GW emitted by inspiral binary systems and describes the scientific and technological efforts developed to measure this waves using the interferometer-based detector called LIGO. Subsequently, the work proposes a comprehensive data analysis methodology based on the matched filter algorithm which aims to detect GW signals emitted by inspiral binary systems of astrophysical sources. The method is validated with freely available LIGO data which contain injected GW signals. Results of experiments performed to assess detection carried out show that the method was able to recover the 85% of the injected GW.

  12. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARIES WITH STELLAR COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.; Guo, Z.; Lester, K. V. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States); Orosz, J. A. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-1221 (United States); Peters, G. J., E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: rmatson@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: guo@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: lester@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: jorosz@mail.sdsu.edu, E-mail: gjpeters@mucen.usc.edu [Space Sciences Center and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1341 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Many short-period binary stars have distant orbiting companions that have played a role in driving the binary components into close separation. Indirect detection of a tertiary star is possible by measuring apparent changes in eclipse times of eclipsing binaries as the binary orbits the common center of mass. Here we present an analysis of the eclipse timings of 41 eclipsing binaries observed throughout the NASA Kepler mission of long duration and precise photometry. This subset of binaries is characterized by relatively deep and frequent eclipses of both stellar components. We present preliminary orbital elements for seven probable triple stars among this sample, and we discuss apparent period changes in seven additional eclipsing binaries that may be related to motion about a tertiary in a long period orbit. The results will be used in ongoing investigations of the spectra and light curves of these binaries for further evidence of the presence of third stars.

  13. Binary/BCD-to-ASCII data converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    Converter inputs multiple precision binary words, converts data to multiple precision binary-coded decimal, and routes data back to computer. Converter base can be readily changed without need for new gate structure for each base changeover.

  14. Binary stars in the RAVE survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwitter T.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We searched the sample of RAVE survey spectra for both types of spectroscopic binary stars in order to estimate their number in the sample and perform a study on newly discovered binaries.

  15. The Influence of Neighborhood Characteristics on Police Officers’ Encounters with Persons Suspected to Have a Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Shaily; Bakeman, Roger; Broussard, Beth; Cristofaro, Sarah L.; Hankerson-Dyson, Dana; Husbands, Letheshia; Watson, Amy C.; Compton, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Police officers’ decisions and behaviors are impacted by the neighborhood context in which police encounters occur. For example, officers may use greater force and be more likely to make arrests in disadvantaged neighborhoods. We examined whether neighborhood characteristics influence police encounters with individuals suspected to have a serious mental illness, addictive disorder, or developmental disability. Method We obtained data on 916 encounters from 166 officers in six jurisdictions in Georgia, USA and abstracted geographical data pertaining to the location of these encounters from United States Decennial Census data. Encounters were nested within 163 census tracts. Officer-reported data covered general encounter characteristics, the officer’s perception of the subject’s condition, subject demographics, use of force, and disposition of the encounter (e.g., arrest v. referral or transport to treatment services). Geographical data included 17 variables representing population and housing characteristics of the census tracts, from which three indices pertaining to neighborhood income, stability, and immigration status were derived using factor-analytic techniques. We then examined associations of these indices with various encounter-related variables using multi-level analysis. Results Encounters taking place in higher-income and higher-stability census tracts were more likely to be dispatch-initiated and take place in a private home compared to those in lower-income and lower-stability neighborhoods. In higher-income neighborhoods, encounters were more likely to involve a subject suspected to have a mental illness (as opposed to an addictive disorder or developmental disability) and less likely to involve a subject suspected to have alcohol problems. The officer’s level of force used was not associated with neighborhood factors. Regarding disposition, although the likelihood of arrest was unrelated to neighborhood characteristics, encounters

  16. Bayesian analysis of binary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torney, David C.

    2005-03-01

    This manuscript details Bayesian methodology for "learning by example", with binary n-sequences encoding the objects under consideration. Priors prove influential; conformable priors are described. Laplace approximation of Bayes integrals yields posterior likelihoods for all n-sequences. This involves the optimization of a definite function over a convex domain--efficiently effectuated by the sequential application of the quadratic program.

  17. CHAOTIC ZONES AROUND GRAVITATING BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchenko, Ivan I., E-mail: iis@gao.spb.ru [Pulkovo Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pulkovskoje ave. 65, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-20

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound primaries of comparable masses (a binary star, a binary black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, as a function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges (above a threshold in the primaries' mass ratio) due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the central binary periods. In this zone, the unlimited chaotic orbital diffusion of the tertiary takes place, up to its ejection from the system. The primaries' mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present at all initial eccentricities of the tertiary, is estimated. The diversity of the observed orbital configurations of biplanetary and circumbinary exosystems is shown to be in accord with the existence of the primaries' mass parameter threshold.

  18. A Galactic Binary Detection Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littenberg, Tyson B.

    2011-01-01

    The Galaxy is suspected to contain hundreds of millions of binary white dwarf systems, a large fraction of which will have sufficiently small orbital period to emit gravitational radiation in band for space-based gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). LISA's main science goal is the detection of cosmological events (supermassive black hole mergers, etc.) however the gravitational signal from the galaxy will be the dominant contribution to the data - including instrumental noise over approximately two decades in frequency. The catalogue of detectable binary systems will serve as an unparalleled means of studying the Galaxy. Furthermore, to maximize the scientific return from the mission, the data must be "cleansed" of the galactic foreground. We will present an algorithm that can accurately resolve and subtract 2:: 10000 of these sources from simulated data supplied by the Mock LISA Data Challenge Task Force. Using the time evolution of the gravitational wave frequency, we will reconstruct the position of the recovered binaries and show how LISA will sample the entire compact binary population in the Galaxy.

  19. The Meritfactor of Binary Seqences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Binary sequences with small aperiodic correlations play an important role in many applications ranging from radar to modulation and testing of systems. Golay(1977) introduced the merit factor as a measure of the goodness of the sequence and conjectured an upper bound for this. His conjecture is s...

  20. High-Order Binary Symmetry Constraints of a Liouville Integrable Hierarchy and Its Integrable Couplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Jie; CHEN Lan-Xin; ZHANG Da-Jun; SUN Ye-Peng; CHEN Deng-Yuan; ZHANG Jun-Xian

    2008-01-01

    A 3 × 3 matrix spectral problem and a Liouville integrable hierarchy are constructed by designing a new subalgebra of loop algebra A2. Furthermore, high-order binary symmetry constraints of the corresponding hierarchy are obtained by using the binary nonlinearization method. Finally, according to another new subalgebra of loop algebra A2, its integrable couplings are established.

  1. Coevolution of binaries and circumbinary gaseous discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc which drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for 104 binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentric binaries which strongly couple to the disc develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance which corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. All systems display binary semimajor axis decay due to dissipation from the viscous disc.

  2. Formation and evolution of compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain

  3. T he Quality of Inte rnet Banking Service Encounter in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazan K.A. Migdadi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify t he quality of internet banking service encounter of the retail banks in Jordan, and to identify the quality dimensions that should be improved or sustained , to achieve these pur poses t he banks' web sites were evaluated by using the web site quantitative evaluation method (QEM , the evaluation of the banks' web sites was conducted in March 2008 for sixteen retail banks in Jordan, the results indicated that; the banks in Jordan ha v e significant positive quality of the internet b an king service encounter , further the banks' web sites are rich in their content, and significant in the navigation, but the speed of home page down load and web site accessibility should be developed in the future

  4. Design of an operations manager selection system in service encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanawin Nunthaphanich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide criteria for selecting operations managers at the ‘service encounter’ for mobile telecommunication companies, and develop a system for this multi-criteria decision-making scheme based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. There are three main criteria for evaluating the capability of service-encounter operation managers: (1 the ability to design service process; (2 the ability to operate service process; (3 the ability to conduct improvement. The AHP operation manager selection tool was developed based on the complex problems at the service encounter. It was created as a decision support system which was used to recruit and evaluate operations managers’ capability for the purpose of career advancement.

  5. Resurrecting the buried self: fairy tales and the analytic encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Linda

    2011-12-01

    The author uses the lens of myth and fairy tales to examine the narratives generated by the analytic experience. Fairy tales are understood as representing fundamental developmental conflicts, accounting for their enduring power over time. The analytic encounter is seen as an analogue of the fairy tale in which the hidden self, damaged by loss and abandonment, reemerges only through the redemptive power of [an] other's love. Clinical material is presented in which hidden parts of the patient's self are projected into the analyst for safekeeping; these hidden parts resonate with the analyst's own lost, unrealized potential and form an intersubjective experience which the author believes is transformative. The patient's dormant powers emerge in a newly experienced atmosphere of recognition, and in this way, the analytic encounter resembles the fairy tale in providing an identificatory bond and a protective space for the patient's hidden vitality.

  6. Choosing a language in international office service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    Choosing a language in international office service encounters – from multilingual miscellany to medium-of-interaction in a matter of seconds Spencer Hazel Roskilde University, Denmark In higher education settings characterized by increasing transnational student and staff mobility, members...... Preisler (eds.) Language alternation, language choice and language encounter in international education. Dordrecht: Springer Preisler, Bent, Ida Klitgård, and Anne H. Fabricius. (2011). Language and learning in the international university: from English uniformity to diversity and hybridity. Bristol...... are required to navigate dynamically fluctuating participation frameworks and their contingent language scenarios. Although some interactional settings have institutionally implemented rules or norms relating to which language is the designated medium-of-interaction, this is not the case across all settings...

  7. Scientific misconduct encountered by APAME journals: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Lai-Meng; Wong, Li Xuan; Koh, Cing Chai

    2015-12-01

    In June 2015, invitations were sent by email to 151 APAME journals to participate in an online survey with an objective of gaining insight into the common publication misconduct encountered by APAME editors. The survey, conducted through SurveyMonkey over a 20-day-period, comprised 10 questions with expansions to allow anecdotes limited to 400 characters, estimated to take less than 10 minutes to complete. Only one invitation was issued per journal, targeting (in order of priority) editors, editorial board members and editorial staff, and limited by email availability. 54 (36%) journals responded. 98% of respondents held Editor or Editorial Board positions. All respondent journals have editorial policies on publication ethics and 96% provide instructions related to ethics. 45% use anti-plagiarism software to screen manuscripts, the most popular being iThenticate, CrossCheck and Turnitin. Up to 50% of journals had encountered studies without IRB approval. Author misconduct encountered were (in rank order): plagiarism (75%), duplicate publication (58%), unjustified authorship (39%), authorship disputes (33%), data falsification (29%), data/image manipulation (27%), conflict of interest (25%), copyright violation (17%) and breach of confidentiality (10%). Reviewer misconduct encountered were: conflict of interest (19%), plagiarism (17%), obstructive behavior (17%), abusive language (13%) and breach of confidentiality (13%). Notwithstanding the limitations of the survey and the response rate, a few insights have been gained: (1) the need for strengthening the ethical culture of researchers/authors and reviewers, (2) anti-plagiarism software can improve plagiarism detection by about 15%, and (3) the need for technical support to detect plagiarism, duplicate publication and image manipulation.

  8. Strengthening student communication through pediatric simulated patient encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Whitt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As medical students enter the role of physician, clinical outcomes not only rely on their mastery of clinical knowledge, but also on the effectiveness in which they can communicate with patients and family members. While students typically have numerous opportunities to practice clinical communication with adult patients, such practice in pediatric settings is limited. This study examines if simulated patient (SP encounters strengthen third-year medical students’ communication skills during the pediatrics clerkship. During 2011-2013, three SP encounters (comprising 3 pediatric scenarios were incorporated into a pediatrics clerkship at one United States medical school to give students a safe venue to practice advanced communication with observation and direct feedback. Third-year medical students engaged in the scenarios and received both written and oral feedback from an evaluator observing the encounter. With IRB approval, students’ self-perceived confidence and abilities at performing the advanced communication skills were measured using an eightitem, Likert scale questionnaire administered pre and post the SP encounter. Pre- and post-questionnaires (n = 215; response rate, 96% analyzed using a Wilcoxon-matched pairs signed-rank test demonstrated statistically significant increases in students’ perception of their confidence and abilities regarding their performance (P < 0.05; Bonferroni correction, P < 0.006. There was an increases in student confidence and self-perceived ability in: first, communicating with children and family members of young patients; second, managing confrontational situations involving parents; third, performing a thorough psychosocial history with an adolescent; and fourth, using Evidence Based Medicine to motivate parents.

  9. Diagnosis by Documentary: Professional Responsibilities in Informal Encounters

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Most work addressing clinical workers' professional responsibilities concerns the norms of conduct within established professional-patient relationships, but such responsibilities may extend beyond the clinical context. We explore health workers' professional responsibilities in such "informal" encounters through the example of a doctor witnessing the misdiagnosis and mistreatment of a serious long-term condition in a television documentary, arguing that neither internalist approaches to prof...

  10. Mildly negative social encounters reduce physical pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsook, Terry K; MacDonald, Geoff

    2010-11-01

    While previous research has demonstrated a reduction in physical pain sensitivity in response to social exclusion, the manipulations employed have arguably been far removed from typical daily experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of relatively ordinary social encounters on the perception of pain. Healthy participants rated the intensity and unpleasantness of painful stimuli before and after engaging in a structured interaction with a confederate who was instructed to either be warm and friendly or indifferent. A control group was asked to perform a similar structured activity, but alone. Consistent with predictions, participants who experienced the mildly negative social exchange reported lower pain intensity and unpleasantness after the encounter relative to baseline, whereas those exposed to the positive social exchange did not evidence any change in pain ratings. These results were not mediated by changes in mood or perceived connectedness. If mildly negative social encounters can provoke an analgesic effect, it is possible that social hypoalgesia may be considerably more commonplace than previously realized. Discussion focuses on the role of stress-induced hypoalgesia, and the implications of the results for clinical assessments of pain.

  11. The phenomenology of shame in the clinical encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Luna

    2015-11-01

    This article examines the phenomenology of body shame in the context of the clinical encounter, using the television program 'Embarrassing Bodies' as illustrative. I will expand on the insights of Aaron Lazare's 1987 article 'Shame and Humiliation in the Medical Encounter' where it is argued that patients often see their diseases and ailments as defects, inadequacies or personal shortcomings and that visits to doctors and medical professionals involve potentially humiliating physical and psychological exposure. I will start by outlining a phenomenology of shame in order to understand more clearly the effect shame about the body can have in terms of one's personal experience and, furthermore, one's interpersonal dynamics. I will then examine shame in the clinical encounter, linking body shame to the cultural stigma attached to illness, dysfunction and bodily frailty. I will furthermore explore how shame can be exacerbated or even incited by physicians through judgment and as a result of the power imbalance inherent to the physician-patient dynamic, compounded by the contemporary tendency to moralise about 'lifestyle' illnesses. Lastly, I will provide some reflections for how health care workers might approach patient shame in clinical practice.

  12. Do Planetary Encounters Reset Surfaces of Near Earth Asteroids?

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, David; Chapman, Clark R; Rafkin, Scot

    2010-01-01

    Processes such as the solar wind sputtering and micrometeorite impacts can modify optical properties of surfaces of airless bodies. This explains why spectra of the main belt asteroids, exposed to these `space weathering' processes over eons, do not match the laboratory spectra of ordinary chondrite (OC) meteorites. In contrast, an important fraction of Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), defined as Q-types in the asteroid taxonomy, display spectral attributes that are a good match to OCs. Here we study the possibility that the Q-type NEAs underwent recent encounters with the terrestrial planets and that the tidal gravity (or other effects) during these encounters exposed fresh OC material on the surface (thus giving it the Q-type spectral properties). We used numerical integrations to determine the statistics of encounters of NEAs to planets. The results were used to calculate the fraction and orbital distribution of Q-type asteroids expected in the model as a function of the space weathering timescale, t_sw (see m...

  13. Service quality, trust, and patient satisfaction in interpersonal-based medical service encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ching-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction between service provider and customer is the primary core of service businesses of different natures, and the influence of trust on service quality and customer satisfaction could not be ignored in interpersonal-based service encounters. However, lack of existing literature on the correlation between service quality, patient trust, and satisfaction from the prospect of interpersonal-based medical service encounters has created a research gap in previous studies. Therefore, this study attempts to bridge such a gap with an evidence-based practice study. Methods We adopted a cross-sectional design using a questionnaire survey of outpatients in seven medical centers of Taiwan. Three hundred and fifty copies of questionnaire were distributed, and 285 valid copies were retrieved, with a valid response rate of 81.43%. The SPSS 14.0 and AMOS 14.0 (structural equation modeling statistical software packages were used for analysis. Structural equation modeling clarifies the extent of relationships between variables as well as the chain of cause and effect. Restated, SEM results do not merely show empirical relationships between variables when defining the practical situation. For this reason, SEM was used to test the hypotheses. Results Perception of interpersonal-based medical service encounters positively influences service quality and patient satisfaction. Perception of service quality among patients positively influences their trust. Perception of trust among patients positively influences their satisfaction. Conclusions According to the findings, as interpersonal-based medical service encounters will positively influence service quality and patient satisfaction, and the differences for patients’ perceptions of the professional skill and communication attitude of personnel in interpersonal-based medical service encounters will influence patients’ overall satisfaction in two ways: (A interpersonal-based medical

  14. Attack diagnosis on binary executables using dynamic program slicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Zheng, Yudi; Zhang, Ruoyu

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, the level of the practically used programs is often complex and of such a large scale so that it is not as easy to analyze and debug them as one might expect. And it is quite difficult to diagnose attacks and find vulnerabilities in such large-scale programs. Thus, dynamic program slicing becomes a popular and effective method for program comprehension and debugging since it can reduce the analysis scope greatly and drop useless data that do not influence the final result. Besides, most of existing dynamic slicing tools perform dynamic slicing in the source code level, but the source code is not easy to obtain in practice. We believe that we do need some kinds of systems to help the users understand binary programs. In this paper, we present an approach of diagnosing attacks using dynamic backward program slicing based on binary executables, and provide a dynamic binary slicing tool named DBS to analyze binary executables precisely and efficiently. It computes the set of instructions that may have affected or been affected by slicing criterion set in certain location of the binary execution stream. This tool also can organize the slicing results by function call graphs and control flow graphs clearly and hierarchically.

  15. PROSPECTS FOR DETECTING ASTEROSEISMIC BINARIES IN KEPLER DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglio, A.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Handberg, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Farmer, R.; Kolb, U. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Girardi, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Appourchaux, T. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR8617, Université Paris XI, Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-03-20

    Asteroseismology may in principle be used to detect unresolved stellar binary systems comprised of solar-type stars and/or red giants. This novel method relies on the detection of the presence of two solar-like oscillation spectra in the frequency spectrum of a single light curve. Here, we make predictions of the numbers of systems that may be detectable in data already collected by the NASA Kepler Mission. Our predictions, which are based upon TRILEGAL and BiSEPS simulations of the Kepler field of view, indicate that as many as 200 or more ''asteroseismic binaries'' may be detectable in this manner. Most of these binaries should be comprised of two He-core-burning red giants. Owing largely to the limited numbers of targets with the requisite short-cadence Kepler data, we expect only a small number of detected binaries containing solar-type stars. The predicted yield of detections is sensitive to the assumed initial mass ratio distribution (IMRD) of the binary components and therefore represents a sensitive calibration of the much debated IMRD near mass ratio unity.

  16. Prospects for detecting asteroseismic binaries in Kepler data

    CERN Document Server

    Miglio, A; Farmer, R; Kolb, U; Girardi, L; Elsworth, Y; Appourchaux, T; Handberg, R

    2014-01-01

    Asteroseismology may in principle be used to detect unresolved stellar binary systems comprised of solar-type stars and/or red giants. This novel method relies on the detection of the presence of two solar-like oscillation spectra in the frequency spectrum of a single lightcurve. Here, we make predictions of the numbers of systems that may be detectable in data already collected by the NASA Kepler Mission. Our predictions, which are based upon TRILEGAL and BiSEPS simulations of the Kepler field of view, indicate that as many as 200 or more ``asteroseismic binaries'' may be detectable in this manner. Most of these binaries should be comprised of two He-core-burning red giants. Owing largely to the limited numbers of targets with the requisite short-cadence Kepler data, we expect only a small number of detected binaries containing solar-type stars. The predicted yield of detections is sensitive to the assumed initial mass ratio distribution of the binary components and therefore represents a sensitive calibrati...

  17. LUT observations of the mass-transferring binary AI Dra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Li, Linjia; Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Ergang; Liu, Nianping

    2016-06-01

    Complete UV band light curve of the eclipsing binary AI Dra was observed with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) in October 2014. It is very useful to adopt this continuous and uninterrupted light curve to determine physical and orbital parameters of the binary system. Photometric solutions of the spot model are obtained by using the W-D (Wilson and Devinney) method. It is confirmed that AI Dra is a semi-detached binary with secondary component filling its critical Roche lobe, which indicates that a mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one should happen. Orbital period analysis based on all available eclipse times suggests a secular period increase and two cyclic variations. The secular period increase was interpreted by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 4.12 ×10^{-8}M_{⊙}/yr, which is in agreement with the photometric solutions. Two cyclic oscillations were due to light travel-time effect (LTTE) via the presence of two cool stellar companions in a near 2:1 mean-motion resonance. Both photometric solutions and orbital period analysis confirm that AI Dra is a mass-transferring binary, the massive primary is filling 69 % of its critical Roche lobe. After the primary evolves to fill the critical Roche lobe, the mass transfer will be reversed and the binary will evolve into a contact configuration.

  18. Gravitational Microlensing of Binary and Binary and Multiple Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    1995-08-01

    Recent observations of the effect of microlensing of stars of large Magellanic Clouds by dark bodies of Galactic Halo have led to the discovery of new population in our galaxy - dark bodies with amsses ~ 0.1 M(sun). As a consequence, astronomers have gained a unique possibility of using gravitational microlensing as an effective extraterestrial telescope with extremely high angular resolution. Application of this to binary stars is discussed. of particular interest is to apply microlensing to search for planetary stars . Planets and stars move about the center of gravity of the system , so the appaarent motion of a star in nonuniform and the light curve is asymetrical and colour dependent. This allows to determin basic parameters of binary system

  19. Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.

  20. The Post-Newtonian Approximation for Relativistic Compact Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futamase Toshifumi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss various aspects of the post-Newtonian approximation in general relativity. After presenting the foundation based on the Newtonian limit, we show a method to derive post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries based on a surface integral approach and the strong field point particle limit. As an application we derive third post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries which respect the Lorentz invariance in the post-Newtonian perturbative sense, admit a conserved energy, and are free from any ambiguity.

  1. Black Hole - Neutron Star Binary Simulations at Georgia Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Roland

    2009-05-01

    Mixed compact object binaries consisting of a black hole and a neutron star are expected to be not only one of the primary sources of gravitational radiation to be observed by interferometric detectors but also the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts. We report on the status of our effort at Georgia Tech to model these mixed binary systems using the moving puncture method. The results are obtained with an enhanced version our vacuum MayaKranc code coupled to the hydrodynamics Whisky code. We present preliminary results of gravitational waveforms and the disruption of the neutron star for simple polytropic equations of state.

  2. Southern binary galaxies; 1, a sample of isolated pairs

    CERN Document Server

    De Lima-Soares, D S; De Carvalho, R R; de Souza, R E; de Carvalho, R R

    1994-01-01

    A catalogue of binary galaxies with 621 pairs has been determined by applying a surface density enhancement procedure to {\\it The Surface Photometry Catalogue of the ESO-Uppsala Galaxies}. The method does not require any redshift information. An additional restriction, based on objective criteria that take into account the completeness of the source catalogue, led to a sample of 189 isolated pairs which are listed. We have obtained the optical luminosity function of binary galaxies in the catalogue, from which we estimate that the luminosity density of galaxies in binaries is \\sim4\\% of that found for field galaxies. The general properties of our sample are similar to those from CPG and CMG.

  3. Mass-transfer in close binary and their companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Zhu, Liying; Li, Linjia

    2016-07-01

    Secular and/or cyclical orbital period variations of close binaries can be derived by analyzing the (O-C) diagram. The secular variations are usually explained as mass transfer between components, while the most plausible explanation of the cyclic period changes is the light-travel time effect (LTTE) through the presence of a third body. Mass transfer and additional companions in close binary systems are important for understanding the formation and evolution of the systems. Here, UV light curves of several close binaries based on the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) observations are presented and analyzed with the Wilson-Devinney (W-D) method. Then, based on those light-curve solutions and new analysis of the orbital period variations, the multiplicity, geometrical structure and evolution state of targets are discussed.

  4. Stochastic Background of Gravitational Waves Generated by Compact Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, E F D

    2015-01-01

    Binary Systems are the most studied sources of gravitational waves. The mechanisms of emission and the behavior of the orbital parameters are well known and can be written in analytic form in several cases. Besides, the strongest indication of the existence of gravitational waves has arisen from the observation of binary systems. On the other hand, when the detection of gravitational radiation becomes a reality, one of the observed pattern of the signals will be probably of stochastic background nature, which are characterized by a superposition of signals emitted by many sources around the universe. Our aim here is to develop an alternative method of calculating such backgrounds emitted by cosmological compact binary systems during their periodic or quasiperiodic phases. We use an analogy with a problem of Statistical Mechanics in order to perform this sum as well as taking into account the temporal variation of the orbital parameters of the systems. Such a kind of background is of particular importance sinc...

  5. The early-type close binary CV Velorum revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakut, K.; Aerts, C.; Morel, T.

    2007-01-01

    Aims.Our goal was to improve the fundamental parameters of the massive close double-lined eclipsing B2.5V+B2.5V binary CV Velorum. Methods: We gathered new high-resolution échelle spectroscopy on 13 almost consecutive nights covering two orbits. We computed a simultaneous solution to all the availab

  6. Estimation of the Ideal Binary Mask using Directional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind;

    2008-01-01

    and the requirements to enable calculations of the ideal binary mask using a directional system without the availability of the unmixed signals. The proposed method has a low complexity and is verified using computer simulation in both ideal and non-ideal setups showing promising results....

  7. States recognition in random walk Markov chain via binary Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Khodabin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method for specification of recurrence or transient of states in one and two dimensional simple random walk based on upper and lower bounds of {it r}-combinations from a set of m elements $(C^{m}_{r}$ via binary entropy is introduced.

  8. Searching for gravitational waves from binary inspirals with LIGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Duncan A [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Babak, Stanislav [Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF2 3YB (United Kingdom); Brady, Patrick R [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Christensen, Nelson [Carleton College Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); Cokelaer, Thomas [Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF2 3YB (United Kingdom); Creighton, Jolien D E [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Fairhurst, Stephen [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Gonzalez, Gabriela [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Messaritaki, Eirini [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Sathyaprakash, B S [Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF2 3YB (United Kingdom); Shawhan, Peter [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zotov, Natalia [Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71271 (United States)

    2004-10-21

    We describe the current status of the search for gravitational waves from inspiralling compact binary systems in LIGO data. We review the result from the first scientific run of LIGO (S1). We present the goals of the search of data taken in the second scientific run (S2) and describe the differences between the methods used in S1 and S2.

  9. Onsager coefficients for binary mixture diffusion in nanopores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.; van Baten, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a critical appraisal of current estimation methods for the Onsager coefficients L-11, L-22, and L-12 for binary mixture diffusion inside nanopores using pure component diffusivity data inputs. The appraisal is based on extensive sets of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation data on

  10. Populating the Galaxy with close Be binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kiel, P D; Murray, J R; Hayasaki, K

    2007-01-01

    Be/X-ray binaries comprise roughly two-thirds of the high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), which is a class of X-ray binaries that results from the high mass of the companion or donor star (> 10 solar masses). Currently the formation and evolution of X-ray producing Be binaries is a matter of great debate. Modelling of these systems requires knowledge of Be star evolution and also consideration of how the evolution changes when the star is in close proximity to a companion. Within this work we complete a full population synthesis study of Be binaries for the Galaxy. The results for the first time match aspects of the observational data, most notably the observed upper limit to the period distribution. We conclude that greater detailed studies on the evolution of Be stars within X-ray binaries needs to be completed, so that rapid binary evolution population synthesis packages may best evolve these systems.

  11. Drug use in business bathrooms: An exploratory study of manager encounters in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson-Stofko, Brett; Bennett, Alex S.; Elliott, Luther; Curtis, Ric

    2017-01-01

    Background Though public bathroom drug injection has been documented from the perspective of people who inject drugs, no research has explored the experiences of the business managers who oversee their business bathrooms and respond to drug use. These managers, by default, are first-responders in the event of a drug overdose and thus of intrinsic interest during the current epidemic of opioid-related overdoses in the United States. This exploratory study assists in elucidating the experiences that New York City business managers have with people who inject drugs, their paraphernalia, and their overdoses. Methods A survey instrument was designed to collect data on manager encounters with drug use occurring in their business bathrooms. Recruitment was guided by convenience and purposive approaches. Results More than half of managers interviewed (58%, n = 50/86) encountered drug use in their business bathrooms, more than a third (34%) of these managers also found syringes, and the vast majority (90%) of managers had received no overdose recognition or naloxone training. Seven managers encountered unresponsive individuals who required emergency assistance. Conclusion The results from this study underscore the need for additional research on the experiences that community stakeholders have with public injection as well as educational outreach efforts among business managers. This research also suggests that there is need for a national dialogue about potential interventions, including expanded overdose recognition and naloxone training and supervised injection facilities (SIF)/drug consumption rooms (DCR), that could reduce public injection and its associated health risks. PMID:27768996

  12. Measuring and Modeling Fault Density for Plume-Fault Encounter Probability Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, P.D.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Nicot, J.-P.

    2011-05-15

    Emission of carbon dioxide from fossil-fueled power generation stations contributes to global climate change. Storage of this carbon dioxide within the pores of geologic strata (geologic carbon storage) is one approach to mitigating the climate change that would otherwise occur. The large storage volume needed for this mitigation requires injection into brine-filled pore space in reservoir strata overlain by cap rocks. One of the main concerns of storage in such rocks is leakage via faults. In the early stages of site selection, site-specific fault coverages are often not available. This necessitates a method for using available fault data to develop an estimate of the likelihood of injected carbon dioxide encountering and migrating up a fault, primarily due to buoyancy. Fault population statistics provide one of the main inputs to calculate the encounter probability. Previous fault population statistics work is shown to be applicable to areal fault density statistics. This result is applied to a case study in the southern portion of the San Joaquin Basin with the result that the probability of a carbon dioxide plume from a previously planned injection had a 3% chance of encountering a fully seal offsetting fault.

  13. Numerical investigation of a binary solidification design problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Scott Wayne

    This exposition presents the development and application of a methodology for control of unidirectional solidification of a binary alloy. In particular, it is desired to produce a casting that has a uniform cast structure throughout its entire length. Furthermore, the methodology allows the specification, a priori, of the cast structure with respect to both scale, i.e., fine or coarse, and morphology, i.e., dentritic or cellular. This specification is in the form of a map that relates solidification characteristics, i.e., scale and morphology, to the solidification velocity and liquid-side interfacial temperature gradient. Thus design is accomplished by controlling these two parameters during the solidification process. With this in mind, the goal of what is termed the binary solidification design problem is the prediction of a set of boundary temperatures and heat fluxes which when applied will result in the desired interfacial motion and temperature gradient and therefore cast structure. Mathematical models for problems of this type lead to what are termed ill-posed systems in that they may not exhibit existence, uniqueness, or continuous dependence on boundary data. The resolution of this class of problems requires advanced techniques to overcome the instabilities encountered due to their ill-posed nature. The methodology developed herein employs the classical weight residual approach in a innovative manner. Normally, in the solution of a parabolic partial differential equation, such as the heat equation, a spatial series expansion with time varying coefficients is utilized along with a minimization technique to reduce the partial differential equation to a set of first order ordinary differential equations. This set can be solved using any number of numerical technique, i.e., Runge-Kutta, to obtain the temporal variation of the coefficients. These types of time stepping techniques eventually lead to the onset of instability when employed for the resolution of

  14. Coupled binary embedding for large-scale image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang; Wang, Shengjin; Tian, Qi

    2014-08-01

    Visual matching is a crucial step in image retrieval based on the bag-of-words (BoW) model. In the baseline method, two keypoints are considered as a matching pair if their SIFT descriptors are quantized to the same visual word. However, the SIFT visual word has two limitations. First, it loses most of its discriminative power during quantization. Second, SIFT only describes the local texture feature. Both drawbacks impair the discriminative power of the BoW model and lead to false positive matches. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes to embed multiple binary features at indexing level. To model correlation between features, a multi-IDF scheme is introduced, through which different binary features are coupled into the inverted file. We show that matching verification methods based on binary features, such as Hamming embedding, can be effectively incorporated in our framework. As an extension, we explore the fusion of binary color feature into image retrieval. The joint integration of the SIFT visual word and binary features greatly enhances the precision of visual matching, reducing the impact of false positive matches. Our method is evaluated through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets (Ukbench, Holidays, DupImage, and MIR Flickr 1M). We show that our method significantly improves the baseline approach. In addition, large-scale experiments indicate that the proposed method requires acceptable memory usage and query time compared with other approaches. Further, when global color feature is integrated, our method yields competitive performance with the state-of-the-arts.

  15. Close supermassive binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, C. Martin

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that when the peaks of the broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are significantly blueshifted or redshifted from the systemic velocity of the host galaxy, this could be a consequence of orbital motion of a supermassive blackhole binary (SMB). The AGN J1536+0441 (=SDSS J153636.22+044127.0) has recently been proposed as an example of this phenomenon. It is proposed here instead that 1536+044 is an example of line emission from a disc. If this is correct, the lack of clear optical spectral evidence for close SMBs is significant and argues either that the merging of close SMBs is much faster than has generally been hitherto thought, or if the approach is slow, that when the separation of the binary is comparable to the size of the torus and broad-line region, the feeding of the black holes is disrupted.

  16. Desktop setup for binary holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Olaf; Rothe, Hendrik

    1996-08-01

    Binary gratings as holograms itself or as photographic masking tools for further fabrication steps can fulfill a lot of applications. The commonly used semiconductor technologies for direct writing of high resolution structures are often too expensive. On the other hand computer plots at a reasonable price with photographic reduction do not meet the needs of precision e.g. for interferometric inspection. The lack of cheap and reliable instruments for direct writing in an appropriate resolution is still a problem in fabricating synthetic holograms. Using off-the-shelf components a direct writing plotter for binary patterns can be built at moderate costs. Typical design rules as well as experimental results are given and the final setup is introduced.

  17. Slim Sets of Binary Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Grünewald, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    A classical problem in phylogenetic tree analysis is to decide whether there is a phylogenetic tree $T$ that contains all information of a given collection $\\cP$ of phylogenetic trees. If the answer is "yes" we say that $\\cP$ is compatible and $T$ displays $\\cP$. This decision problem is NP-complete even if all input trees are quartets, that is binary trees with exactly four leaves. In this paper, we prove a sufficient condition for a set of binary phylogenetic trees to be compatible. That result is used to give a short and self-contained proof of the known characterization of quartet sets of minimal cardinality which are displayed by a unique phylogenetic tree.

  18. Mass transfer between binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modisette, J. L.; Kondo, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of mass from one component of a binary system to another by mass ejection is analyzed through a stellar wind mechanism, using a model which integrates the equations of motion, including the energy equation, with an initial static atmosphere and various temperature fluctuations imposed at the base of the star's corona. The model is applied to several situations and the energy flow is calculated along the line of centers between the two binary components, in the rotating frame of the system, thereby incorporating the centrifugal force. It is shown that relatively small disturbances in the lower chromosphere or photosphere can produce mass loss through a stellar wind mechanism, due to the amplification of the disturbance propagating into the thinner atmosphere. Since there are many possible sources of the disturbance, the model can be used to explain many mass ejection phenomena.

  19. Classification with binary gene expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Tuna, Salih; Niranjan, Mahesan

    2009-01-01

    Microarray gene expression measurements are reported, used and archived usually to high numerical precision. However, properties of mRNA molecules, such as their low stability and availability in small copy numbers, and the fact that measurements correspond to a population of cells, rather than a single cell, makes high precision meaningless. Recent work shows that reducing measurement precision leads to very little loss of information, right down to binary levels. In this paper we show how p...

  20. Binary neuron with optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeratu, Vasile; Degeratu, Ştefania; Şchiopu, Paul; Şchiopu, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the authors present a model of binary neuron, a model of McCulloch-Pitts neuron with optical devices. This model of neuron can be implemented not only in the optic integrated circuits but also in the classic optical circuits it being cheap and immune not only into electromagnetic fields but also into any kind of radiation. The transfer speed of information through the neuron is very higher, it being limited only by the light speed from the received medium.

  1. Multilevel Cross-Dependent Binary Longitudinal Data

    KAUST Repository

    Serban, Nicoleta

    2013-10-16

    We provide insights into new methodology for the analysis of multilevel binary data observed longitudinally, when the repeated longitudinal measurements are correlated. The proposed model is logistic functional regression conditioned on three latent processes describing the within- and between-variability, and describing the cross-dependence of the repeated longitudinal measurements. We estimate the model components without employing mixed-effects modeling but assuming an approximation to the logistic link function. The primary objectives of this article are to highlight the challenges in the estimation of the model components, to compare two approximations to the logistic regression function, linear and exponential, and to discuss their advantages and limitations. The linear approximation is computationally efficient whereas the exponential approximation applies for rare events functional data. Our methods are inspired by and applied to a scientific experiment on spectral backscatter from long range infrared light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The models are general and relevant to many new binary functional data sets, with or without dependence between repeated functional measurements.

  2. Binary Black Holes: Mergers, Dynamics, and Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2007-04-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, data analysis, and astrophysics.

  3. Modeling and analysis of advanced binary cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, K.

    1997-12-31

    A computer model (Cycle Analysis Simulation Tool, CAST) and a methodology have been developed to perform value analysis for small, low- to moderate-temperature binary geothermal power plants. The value analysis method allows for incremental changes in the levelized electricity cost (LEC) to be determined between a baseline plant and a modified plant. Thermodynamic cycle analyses and component sizing are carried out in the model followed by economic analysis which provides LEC results. The emphasis of the present work is on evaluating the effect of mixed working fluids instead of pure fluids on the LEC of a geothermal binary plant that uses a simple Organic Rankine Cycle. Four resources were studied spanning the range of 265{degrees}F to 375{degrees}F. A variety of isobutane and propane based mixtures, in addition to pure fluids, were used as working fluids. This study shows that the use of propane mixtures at a 265{degrees}F resource can reduce the LEC by 24% when compared to a base case value that utilizes commercial isobutane as its working fluid. The cost savings drop to 6% for a 375{degrees}F resource, where an isobutane mixture is favored. Supercritical cycles were found to have the lowest cost at all resources.

  4. Excitation of the orbital inclination of Iapetus during planetary encounters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio; Walsh, Kevin J., E-mail: davidn@boulder.swri.edu [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Saturn's moon, Iapetus, has an orbit in a transition region where the Laplace surface is bending from the equator to the orbital plane of Saturn. The orbital inclination of Iapetus to the local Laplace plane is ≅ 8°, which is unexpected because the inclination should be ≅ 0 if Iapetus formed from a circumplanetary disk on the Laplace surface. It thus appears that some process has pumped up Iapetus's inclination while leaving its eccentricity near zero (e ≅ 0.03 at present). Here, we examined the possibility that Iapetus's inclination was excited during the early solar system instability when encounters between Saturn and ice giants occurred. We found that the dynamical effects of planetary encounters on Iapetus's orbit sensitively depend on the distance of the few closest encounters. In 4 out of 10 instability cases studied here, the orbital perturbations were too large to be plausible. In one case, Iapetus's orbit was practically unaffected. In the remaining five cases, the perturbations of Iapetus's inclination were adequate to explain its present value. In three of these cases, however, Iapetus's eccentricity was excited to >0.1-0.25, and it is not clear whether it could have been damped to its present value (≅ 0.03) by a subsequent process (e.g., tides and dynamical friction from captured irregular satellites do not seem to be strong enough). Our results therefore imply that only 2 out of 10 instability cases (∼20%) can excite Iapetus's inclination to its current value (∼30% of trials lead to >5°) while leaving its orbital eccentricity low.

  5. Be/X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to review the observational properties of Be/X-ray binaries. The open questions in Be/X-ray binaries include those related to the Be star companion, that is, the so-called "Be phenomenon", such as, timescales associated to the formation and dissipation of the equatorial disc, mass-ejection mechanisms, V/R variability, and rotation rates; those related to the neutron star, such as, mass determination, accretion physics, and spin period evolution; but also, those that result from the interaction of the two constituents, such as, disc truncation and mass transfer. Until recently, it was thought that the Be stars' disc was not significantly affected by the neutron star. In this review, I present the observational evidence accumulated in recent years on the interaction between the circumstellar disc and the compact companion. The most obvious effect is the tidal truncation of the disc. As a result, the equatorial discs in Be/X-ray binaries are smaller and denser than those around isolat...

  6. Using systematically observed clinical encounters (SOCEs to assess medical students’ skills in clinical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R Bergus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available George R Bergus1–3, Jerold C Woodhead4, Clarence D Kreiter2,51Performance Based Assessment Program, Office of Student Affairs and Curriculum, 2Department of Family Medicine, 3Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Pediatrics, 5Office of Consultation and Research in Medical Education, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USAIntroduction: The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE is widely used to assess the clinical performance of medical students. However, concerns related to cost, availability, and validity, have led educators to investigate alternatives to the OSCE. Some alternatives involve assessing students while they provide care to patients – the mini-CEX (mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise and the Long Case are examples. We investigated the psychometrics of systematically observed clinical encounters (SOCEs, in which physicians are supplemented by lay trained observers, as a means of assessing the clinical performances of medical students.Methods: During the pediatrics clerkship at the University of Iowa, trained lay observers assessed the communication skills of third-year medical students using a communication checklist while the students interviewed and examined pediatric patients. Students then verbally presented their findings to faculty, who assessed students’ clinical skills using a standardized form. The reliability of the combined communication and clinical skills scores was calculated using generalizability theory.Results: Fifty-one medical students completed 199 observed patient encounters. The mean combined clinical and communication skills score (out of a maximum 45 points was 40.8 (standard deviation 3.3. The calculated reliability of the SOCE scores, using generalizability theory, from 10 observed patient encounters was 0.81. Students reported receiving helpful feedback from faculty after 97% of their observed clinical encounters.Conclusion: The SOCE can

  7. Black-Hole Binaries, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard J.; Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the predictions of general relativity for the dynamical interactions of two black holes has been a long-standing unsolved problem in theoretical physics. Black-hole mergers are monumental astrophysical events ' releasing tremendous amounts of energy in the form of gravitational radiation ' and are key sources for both ground- and spacebased gravitational wave detectors. The black-hole merger dynamics and the resulting gravitational waveforms can only he calculated through numerical simulations of Einstein's equations of general relativity. For many years, numerical relativists attempting to model these mergers encountered a host of problems, causing their codes to crash after just a fraction of a binary orbit cnuld be simulated. Recently ' however, a series of dramatic advances in numerical relativity has ' for the first time, allowed stable / robust black hole merger simulations. We chronicle this remarkable progress in the rapidly maturing field of numerical relativity, and the new understanding of black-hole binary dynamics that is emerging. We also discuss important applications of these fundamental physics results to astrophysics, to gravitationalwave astronomy, and in other areas.

  8. Tidal disruption events by a massive black hole binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricarte, Angelo; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Dai, Lixin; Coppi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    Massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) are a natural byproduct of galaxy mergers. Previous studies have shown that flares from stellar tidal disruption events (TDEs) are modified by the presence of a secondary perturber, causing interruptions in the light curve. We study the dynamics of TDE debris in the presence of a milliparsec-separated MBHB by integrating ballistic particle orbits in the time-varying potential of the binary. We find that gaps in the light curve appear when material misses the accretion radius on its first return to pericentre. Subsequent recurrences can be decomposed into `continuous' and `delayed' components, which exhibit different behaviour. We find that this potential can substantially alter the locations of stream self-intersections. When debris is confined to the plane, we find that close encounters with the secondary massive black hole (MBH) leave noticeable signatures on the fallback rate and can result in significant accretion on to the secondary MBH. Tight, equal-mass MBHBs accrete equally, periodically trading the infalling stream.

  9. Doing Research in a Conflict Situation Encounters and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Dhakal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fieldwork, an anthropologist's vocation, is full of tensions and dilemmas. However, the experiences of any or all tensions, troubles and even failures are a 'source of ethnographic knowledge in themselves'. During the fieldwork for my PhD research, I encountered several such incidents, which have made my work more interesting and my experience richer. This article describes the situation of doing fieldwork in the conflict period, when the 'peace process' was not yet come to the conclusion.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v8i0.10723Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 8, 2014; 87-98

  10. Challenges Encountered Using Ophthalmic Anesthetics in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, T.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Moynihan, S.; LeBlanc, C.; Langford, K.; Magalhaes, L.

    2015-01-01

    On orbit, ophthalmic anesthetics are used for tonometry and off-nominal corneal examinations. Proparacaine has been flown traditionally. However, the manufacturers recently changed its storage requirements from room temperature storage to refrigerated storage to preserve stability and prolong the shelf-life. Since refrigeration on orbit is not readily available and there were stability concerns about flying proparacaine unrefrigerated, tetracaine was selected as an alternative ophthalmic anesthetic in 2013. We will discuss the challenges encountered flying and using these anesthetics on the International Space Station.

  11. Coordination of head movements and speech in first encounter dialogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paggio, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    slightly after, but also that there are delays in both directions in the range of -/+ 1s. Various factors that may influence delay duration are investigated. Correlations are found between delay length and the duration of the speech sequences associated with the head movements. Effects due to the different......This paper presents an analysis of the temporal alignment be- tween head movements and associated speech segments in the NOMCO corpus of first encounter dialogues [1]. Our results show that head movements tend to start slightly before the onset of the corresponding speech sequence and to end...

  12. The joy of discovery great encounters along the way

    CERN Document Server

    Thirring, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Walter Thirring is the last offspring of an Austrian family of scientists. In this moving narrative, he describes how he survived the Nazi occupation and became instrumental in reconstructing European science. Thirring is one of the last living physicists who worked on the greatest discoveries and with the greatest scientists of the 20th century. He recollects encounters with the old masters like Einstein, Schrodinger, Heisenberg, Pauli and others as well as his collaborations with the present stars like Murray Gell-Mann and Elliott Lieb. The book presents the challenges faced when one of the

  13. Alignment of Communicative Behaviors and Familiarity in First Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarretta, Costanza

    2014-01-01

    especially in psychological studies. Determining to which extent alignment of verbal and non-verbal behaviors takes place in conversations in which a large amount of information is exchanged, is important a) for understanding how humans communicate and b) providing empirical based models for designing...... and whether it increases when the participants get more acquainted as suggested, at least for speech, in the literature. Alignment of verbal and non verbal behaviors is investigated by extracting overlapping spoken contributions and facial expressions in the first encounters and comparing their occurrences...

  14. Public confidence in the police : the impact of verbal encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Rønneberg, Kari

    2012-01-01

    The main part of ordinary police work consists of patrolling and answering calls, which means that most police officers are in a daily and direct contact with members of the public. During such encounters, especially if they take place by means of a telephone, language not only provides an important means to solve problems and exert social control, but it also helps to build relations, as well as to inspire confidence and trust. In this way, the communication process between police and the pu...

  15. A thermodynamic assessment of the iron-lead binary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaajamo, I., E-mail: Iina.Vaajamo@aalto.fi [Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Metallurgical Thermodynamics and Modelling Research Group PL 16200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Taskinen, P., E-mail: Pekka.Taskinen@aalto.fi [Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Metallurgical Thermodynamics and Modelling Research Group PL 16200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-09-20

    Highlights: {center_dot} Isothermal equilibration experiments of the Fe-Pb binary were conducted in a special quartz ampoule and analyzed with ICP and EPMA. {center_dot} The method enables to obtain two experimental points from each end of the phase diagram in one experiment. {center_dot} New experimental data of the Pb solubility to Fe(s) below the monotectic temperature was obtained. {center_dot} This study consists of the widest critical compilation of the literature data done of the Fe-Pb binary system done so far, corrected also some errors in previous assessments. {center_dot} More accurate thermodynamic description of the Fe-Pb binary and its phases were obtained. - Abstract: The thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of the Fe-Pb binary system were assessed using the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) method based upon available literature data and results of isothermal equilibration experiments reported in this paper. The phase diagram and excess Gibbs energy values of the solution phases, namely the molten alloy and the {gamma}-fcc and {alpha}- and {delta}-bcc solid solutions were expressed using Redlich-Kister polynomials. The experimental data were fitted by a least squares method using the MTDATA software. Agreement between experimental and calculated values is good. In particular the description of the solubility of lead in iron below the monotectic temperature has been improved.

  16. SIMPLE QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR BINARY IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chun'e; Qiu Zhengding

    2007-01-01

    Usually image assessment methods could be classified into two categories: subjective assessments and objective ones. The latter are judged by the correlation coefficient with subjective quality measurement MOS (Mean Opinion Score). This paper presents an objective quality assessment algorithm special for binary images. In the algorithm, noise energy is measured by Euclidean distance between noises and signals and the structural effects caused by noise are described by Euler number change. The assessment on image quality is calculated quantitatively in terms of PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio). Our experiments show that the results of the algorithm are highly correlative with subjective MOS and the algorithm is more simple and computational saving than traditional objective assessment methods.

  17. A possible mechanism to explain the lack of binary asteroids among the Plutinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compère, A.; Farrelly, D.; Lemaître, A.; Hestroffer, D.

    2013-10-01

    Context. Binary asteroids are common in the solar system, including in the Kuiper belt. However, there seems to be a marked disparity between the binary populations in the classical part of the Kuiper belt and the part of the belt in the 3:2 resonance with Neptune - i.e., the region inhabited by the Plutinos. In particular, binary Plutinos are extremely rare. Aims: We study the impact of the 3:2 resonance on the formation of Kuiper belt binaries, according to the Nice model, in order to explain such phenomenon. Methods: Numerical simulations are performed within the 2 + 2 body approximation (Sun/Neptune + binary partners). The MEGNO chaos indicator is used to map out regular and chaotic regions of phase space. Residence times of test (binary) particles within the Hill sphere are compared inside and outside of the 3:2 resonance. The effect of increasing the heliocentric eccentricity of the centre of mass of the binary system is studied. This is done because mean-motion resonances between a planet and an asteroid usually have the effect of increasing the eccentricity of the asteroid. Results: The stable zones in the MEGNO maps are mainly disrupted in the resonant, eccentric case: the number of binary asteroids created in this case is significantly lower than outside the 3:2 resonance. Conclusions: In the 2 + 2 body approximation, the pumping of the eccentricity of the centre of mass of a potential binary destabilises the formation of binaries. This may be a factor in explaining the scarcity of binaries in the Plutino population.

  18. Visual Binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Reipurth, Bo; Connelley, Michael S; Bally, John

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out a major survey for visual binaries towards the Orion Nebula Cluster using HST images obtained with an H-alpha filter. Among 781 likely ONC members more than 60" from theta-1 Ori C, we find 78 multiple systems (75 binaries and 3 triples), of which 55 are new discoveries, in the range from 0.1" to 1.5". About 9 binaries are likely line-of-sight associations. We find a binary fraction of 8.8%+-1.1% within the limited separation range from 67.5 to 675 AU. The field binary fraction in the same range is a factor 1.5 higher. Within the range 150 AU to 675 AU we find that T Tauri associations have a factor 2.2 more binaries than the ONC. The binary separation distribution function of the ONC shows unusual structure, with a sudden steep decrease in the number of binaries as the separation increases beyond 0.5", corresponding to 225 AU. We have measured the ratio of binaries wider than 0.5" to binaries closer than 0.5" as a function of distance from the Trapezium, and find that this ratio is signifi...

  19. Binary white dwarfs in the halo of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G. A.; Helmi, Amina; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2014-09-01

    Aims: We study single and binary white dwarfs in the inner halo of the Milky Way in order to learn more about the conditions under which the population of halo stars was born, such as the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history, or the binary fraction. Methods: We simulate the evolution of low-metallicity halo stars at distances up to ~3 kpc using the binary population synthesis code SeBa. We use two different white dwarf cooling models to predict the present-day luminosities of halo white dwarfs. We determine the white dwarf luminosity functions (WDLFs) for eight different halo models and compare these with the observed halo WDLF of white dwarfs in the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey. Furthermore, we predict the properties of binary white dwarfs in the halo and determine the number of halo white dwarfs that is expected to be observed with the Gaia satellite. Results: By comparing the WDLFs, we find that a standard IMF matches the observations more accurately than a top-heavy one, but the difference with a bottom-heavy IMF is small. A burst of star formation 13 Gyr ago fits slightly better than a star formation burst 10 Gyr ago and also slightly better than continuous star formation 10-13 Gyr ago. Gaia will be the first instument to constrain the bright end of the field halo WDLF, where contributions from binary WDs are considerable. Many of these will have He cores, of which a handful have atypical surface gravities (log g 0 in our standard model for WD cooling. These so called pre-WDs, if observed, can help us to constrain white dwarf cooling models and might teach us something about the fraction of halo stars that reside in binaries. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Binary fish passage models for uniform and nonuniform flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Binary fish passage models are considered by many fisheries managers to be the best 21 available practice for culvert inventory assessments and for fishway and barrier design. 22 Misunderstandings between different binary passage modeling approaches often arise, 23 however, due to differences in terminology, application and presentation. In this paper 24 one-dimensional binary fish passage models are reviewed and refined to clarify their 25 origins and applications. For uniform flow, a simple exhaustion-threshold (ET) model 26 equation is derived that predicts the flow speed threshold in a fishway or velocity barrier 27 that causes exhaustion at a given maximum distance of ascent. Flow speeds at or above 28 the threshold predict failure to pass (exclusion). Flow speeds below the threshold predict 29 passage. The binary ET model is therefore intuitive and easily applied to predict passage 30 or exclusion. It is also shown to be consistent with the distance-maximizing model. The 31 ET model s limitation to uniform flow is addressed by deriving a passage model that 32 accounts for nonuniform flow conditions more commonly found in the field, including 33 backwater profiles and drawdown curves. Comparison of these models with 34 experimental observations of volitional passage for Gambusia affinis in uniform and 35 nonuniform flows indicates reasonable prediction of binary outcomes (passage or 36 exclusion) if the flow speed is not near the threshold flow velocity. More research is 37 needed on fish behavior, passage strategies under nonuniform flow regimes and 38 stochastic methods that account for individual differences in swimming performance at or 39 near the threshold flow speed. Future experiments should track and measure ground 40 speeds of ascending fish to test nonuniform flow passage strategies and to improve model 41 predictions. Stochastic models, such as Monte-Carlo techniques, that account for 42 different passage performance among individuals and allow