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Sample records for binary electrokinetic separation

  1. Binary electrokinetic separation of target DNA from background DNA primers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Conrad D.; Derzon, Mark Steven

    2005-10-01

    This report contains the summary of LDRD project 91312, titled ''Binary Electrokinetic Separation of Target DNA from Background DNA Primers''. This work is the first product of a collaboration with Columbia University and the Northeast BioDefense Center of Excellence. In conjunction with Ian Lipkin's lab, we are developing a technique to reduce false positive events, due to the detection of unhybridized reporter molecules, in a sensitive and multiplexed detection scheme for nucleic acids developed by the Lipkin lab. This is the most significant problem in the operation of their capability. As they are developing the tools for rapidly detecting the entire panel of hemorrhagic fevers this technology will immediately serve an important national need. The goal of this work was to attempt to separate nucleic acid from a preprocessed sample. We demonstrated the preconcentration of kilobase-pair length double-stranded DNA targets, and observed little preconcentration of 60 base-pair length single-stranded DNA probes. These objectives were accomplished in microdevice formats that are compatible with larger detection systems for sample pre-processing. Combined with Columbia's expertise, this technology would enable a unique, fast, and potentially compact method for detecting/identifying genetically-modified organisms and multiplexed rapid nucleic acid identification. Another competing approach is the DARPA funded IRIS Pharmaceutical TIGER platform which requires many hours for operation, and an 800k$ piece of equipment that fills a room. The Columbia/SNL system could provide a result in 30 minutes, at the cost of a few thousand dollars for the platform, and would be the size of a shoebox or smaller.

  2. Hybrid electrokinetics for separation, mixing, and concentration of colloidal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sin, Mandy L Y; Shimabukuro, Yusuke; Wong, Pak Kin

    2009-01-01

    The advent of nanotechnology has facilitated the preparation of colloidal particles with adjustable sizes and the control of their size-dependent properties. Physical manipulation, such as separation, mixing, and concentration, of these colloidal particles represents an essential step for fully utilizing their potential in a wide spectrum of nanotechnology applications. In this study, we investigate hybrid electrokinetics, the combination of dielectrophoresis and electrohydrodynamics, for active manipulation of colloidal particles ranging from nanometers to micrometers in size. A concentric electrode configuration, which is optimized for generating electrohydrodynamic flow, has been designed to elucidate the effectiveness of hybrid electrokinetics and define the operating regimes for different microfluidic operations. The results indicate that the relative importance of electrohydrodynamics increases with decreasing particle size as predicted by a scaling analysis and that electrohydrodynamics is pivotal for manipulating nanoscale particles. Using the concentric electrodes, we demonstrate separation, mixing, and concentration of colloidal particles by adjusting the relative strengths of different electrokinetic phenomena. The effectiveness of hybrid electrokinetics indicates its potential to serve as a generic technique for active manipulation of colloidal particles in various nanotechnology applications.

  3. Separation Of N-Nitrosamines By Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Amira Md Ali; Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A simple and rapid micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for separation of three selected N-Nitrosamines namely N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA). The effects of composition of the buffer and its pH, concentration of surfactants on the separation and migration times of nitrosamines were investigated. The instrumental variables affecting sensitivity and resolution such as power supply and injection mode were carefully optimized. The best separation was achieved using 40 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a surfactant in 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) at a temperature of 25 degree Celsius, applied voltage of 29 kV, wavelength of 230 nm and electrokinetic injection of 9 s at 5 kV within 10 min analysis time. Excellent linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 2 to 100 μg/ mL with coefficients of determination, r 2 ≥0.979. This method showed good reproducibility with relative standard deviation (RSDs) value ranging from 2.46 % to 6.61 %. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.16 to 0.43 μg/ mL and 0.54 to 1.44 μg/mL respectively. (author)

  4. Separation in 5 Msun Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.

  5. Capillary electrokinetic separation techniques for profiling of drugs and related products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.J; Somsen, G.W; de Jong, G.J.

    Capillary electrokinetic separation techniques offer high efficiency and peak capacity, and can be very useful for the analysis of samples containing a large variety of (unknown) compounds. Such samples are frequently met in impurity profiling of drugs (detection of potential impurities in a

  6. Selective micellar electrokinetic chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of some pharmaceutical binary mixtures containing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. El-Kommos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple and selective micellar electrokinetic chromatographic (MEKC method has been developed for the analysis of five pharmaceutical binary mixtures containing three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. The investigated mixtures were Ibuprofen (IP–Paracetamol (PC, Ibuprofen (IP–Chlorzoxazone (CZ, Ibuprofen (IP–Methocarbamol (MC, Ketoprofen (KP–Chlorzoxazone (CZ and Diclofenac sodium (DS–Lidocaine hydrochloride (LC. The separation was run for all mixtures using borate buffer (20 mM, pH 9 containing 15% (v/v methanol and 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS at 15 kV and the components were detected at 214 nm. Different factors affecting the electrophoretic mobility of the seven investigated drugs were studied and optimized. The method was validated according to international conference of harmonization (ICH guidelines and United States pharmacopoeia (USP. The method was applied to the analysis of five pharmaceutical binary mixtures in their dosage forms. The results were compared with other reported high performance liquid chromatographic methods and no significant differences were observed. Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis, Micellar electrokinetic chromatographic method, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Pharmaceutical binary mixtures, Pharmaceutical analysis

  7. Automated electric valve for electrokinetic separation in a networked microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huanchun; Huang, Zheng; Dutta, Prashanta; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2007-02-15

    This paper describes an automated electric valve system designed to reduce dispersion and sample loss into a side channel when an electrokinetically mobilized concentration zone passes a T-junction in a networked microfluidic chip. One way to reduce dispersion is to control current streamlines since charged species are driven along them in the absence of electroosmotic flow. Computer simulations demonstrate that dispersion and sample loss can be reduced by applying a constant additional electric field in the side channel to straighten current streamlines in linear electrokinetic flow (zone electrophoresis). This additional electric field was provided by a pair of platinum microelectrodes integrated into the chip in the vicinity of the T-junction. Both simulations and experiments of this electric valve with constant valve voltages were shown to provide unsatisfactory valve performance during nonlinear electrophoresis (isotachophoresis). On the basis of these results, however, an automated electric valve system was developed with improved valve performance. Experiments conducted with this system showed decreased dispersion and increased reproducibility as protein zones isotachophoretically passed the T-junction. Simulations of the automated electric valve offer further support that the desired shape of current streamlines was maintained at the T-junction during isotachophoresis. Valve performance was evaluated at different valve currents based on statistical variance due to dispersion. With the automated control system, two integrated microelectrodes provide an effective way to manipulate current streamlines, thus acting as an electric valve for charged species in electrokinetic separations.

  8. Capillary sieving electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography produce highly correlated separation of tryptic digests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Jane A.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2011-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis on fluorescently labeled proteins and peptides. Capillary sieving electrophoresis was performed in the first dimension and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography was performed in the second. A cellular homogenate was labeled with the fluorogenic reagent FQ and separated using the system. This homogenate generated a pair of ridges; the first had essentially constant migration time in the CSE dimension, while the second had essentially constant migration time in the MEKC dimension. In addition a few spots were scattered through the electropherogram. The same homogenate was digested using trypsin, and then labeled and subjected to the two dimensional separation. In this case, the two ridges observed from the original two-dimensional separation disappeared, and were replaced by a set of spots that fell along the diagonal. Those spots were identified using a local-maximum algorithm and each was fit using a two-dimensional Gaussian surface by an unsupervised nonlinear least squares regression algorithm. The migration times of the tryptic digest components were highly correlated (r = 0.862). When the slowest migrating components were eliminated from the analysis, the correlation coefficient improved to r = 0.956. PMID:20564272

  9. A device for reduction of metal oxides generated in electrokinetic separation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Kim, Il-Gook; Jeong, Jung-Whan; Choi, Jong-Won

    2015-01-01

    For a reduction of waste electrolyte volume and metal oxide volume, the reuse period of the waste electrolyte in the electrokinetic decontamination experiment and the method of a reduction of metal oxide volume in the cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured 1.2 ton electrokinetic decontamination equipment. The optimum pH of electrolyte in cathode chamber for a reduction of volume of metal oxides was below 2.35. Indoor electrokinetic decontamination equipment for treatment of 1.2 tons of the contaminated soil per batch was manufactured to remove uranium from soil with high removal efficiency during a short time. For a reduction of waste electrolyte volume and metal oxide volume, the reuse period of waste electrolyte in the electrokinetic decontamination experiment and the method of a reduction of metal oxide volume in the cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured electrokinetic equipment. Indoor electrokinetic decontamination equipment for treatment of 1.2 tons of the contaminated soil was manufactured to remove uranium from soil during a short time

  10. A device for reduction of metal oxides generated in electrokinetic separation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Kim, Il-Gook; Jeong, Jung-Whan; Choi, Jong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    For a reduction of waste electrolyte volume and metal oxide volume, the reuse period of the waste electrolyte in the electrokinetic decontamination experiment and the method of a reduction of metal oxide volume in the cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured 1.2 ton electrokinetic decontamination equipment. The optimum pH of electrolyte in cathode chamber for a reduction of volume of metal oxides was below 2.35. Indoor electrokinetic decontamination equipment for treatment of 1.2 tons of the contaminated soil per batch was manufactured to remove uranium from soil with high removal efficiency during a short time. For a reduction of waste electrolyte volume and metal oxide volume, the reuse period of waste electrolyte in the electrokinetic decontamination experiment and the method of a reduction of metal oxide volume in the cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured electrokinetic equipment. Indoor electrokinetic decontamination equipment for treatment of 1.2 tons of the contaminated soil was manufactured to remove uranium from soil during a short time.

  11. Rapid and label-free separation of Burkitt's lymphoma cells from red blood cells by optically-induced electrokinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Liang

    Full Text Available Early stage detection of lymphoma cells is invaluable for providing reliable prognosis to patients. However, the purity of lymphoma cells in extracted samples from human patients' marrow is typically low. To address this issue, we report here our work on using optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP force to rapidly purify Raji cells' (a type of Burkitt's lymphoma cell sample from red blood cells (RBCs with a label-free process. This method utilizes dynamically moving virtual electrodes to induce negative ODEP force of varying magnitudes on the Raji cells and RBCs in an optically-induced electrokinetics (OEK chip. Polarization models for the two types of cells that reflect their discriminate electrical properties were established. Then, the cells' differential velocities caused by a specific ODEP force field were obtained by a finite element simulation model, thereby established the theoretical basis that the two types of cells could be separated using an ODEP force field. To ensure that the ODEP force dominated the separation process, a comparison of the ODEP force with other significant electrokinetics forces was conducted using numerical results. Furthermore, the performance of the ODEP-based approach for separating Raji cells from RBCs was experimentally investigated. The results showed that these two types of cells, with different concentration ratios, could be separated rapidly using externally-applied electrical field at a driven frequency of 50 kHz at 20 Vpp. In addition, we have found that in order to facilitate ODEP-based cell separation, Raji cells' adhesion to the OEK chip's substrate should be minimized. This paper also presents our experimental results of finding the appropriate bovine serum albumin concentration in an isotonic solution to reduce cell adhesion, while maintaining suitable medium conductivity for electrokinetics-based cell separation. In short, we have demonstrated that OEK technology could be a promising tool for

  12. Do stellar clusters form fewer binaries? Using moderate separation binaries to distinguish between nature and nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Megan

    2017-08-01

    Fewer wide-separation binaries are found in dense stellar clusters than in looser stellar associations. It is therefore unclear whether feedback in clusters prevents the formation of multiple systems or dynamical interactions destroy them. Measuring the prevalence of close, bound binary systems provide a key test to distinguish between these possibilities. Systems with separations of 10-50 AU will survive interactions in the cluster environment, and therefore are more representative of the natal population of multiple systems. By fitting a double-star PSF, we will identify visual binaries in the Orion Nebula with separations as small as 0.03. At the distance of Orion, this corresponds to a physical separation of 12 AU, effectively closing the observational gap in the binary separation distribution left between known visual and spectroscopic binaries (>65 AU or PhD thesis.

  13. Chiral separation of amino acids in biological fluids by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsén, G; Bergquist, J

    2000-08-18

    A method is presented for the chiral analysis of amino acids in biological fluids using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The amino acids are derivatized with the chiral reagent (+/-)-1-(9-anthryl)-2-propyl chloroformate (APOC) and separated using a mixed micellar separation system. No tedious pre-purification of samples is required. The excellent separation efficiency and good detection capabilities of the MEKC-LIF system are exemplified in the analysis of urine and cerebrospinal fluid. This is the first time MEKC has been reported for chiral analysis of amino acids in biological fluids. The amino acids D-alanine, D-glutamine, and D-aspartic acid have been observed in cerebrospinal fluid, and D-alanine and D-glutamic acid in urine. To the best of our knowledge no measurements of either D-alanine in cerebrospinal fluid or D-glutamic acid in urine have been presented in the literature before.

  14. Binary Cepheids: Separations and Mass Ratios in 5 M ⊙ Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Evans; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan

    2013-10-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ~5 M ⊙—are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M ⊙. Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M ⊙ binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M ⊙ stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  15. BINARY CEPHEIDS: SEPARATIONS AND MASS RATIOS IN 5 M ☉ BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ∼5 M ☉ —are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M ☉ . Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M ☉ binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M ☉ stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple

  16. BINARY CEPHEIDS: SEPARATIONS AND MASS RATIOS IN 5 M {sub ☉} BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 3965, Atlanta, GA 30302-3965 (United States); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ∼5 M {sub ☉}—are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M {sub ☉}. Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M {sub ☉} binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M {sub ☉} stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple.

  17. Influence of mobile dislocations on phase separation in binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haataja, Mikko; Leonard, Francois

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a continuum model to describe the phase separation of a binary alloy in the presence of mobile dislocations. The kinetics of the local composition and dislocation density are coupled through their elastic fields. We show both analytically and numerically that mobile dislocations modify the standard spinodal decomposition process, and lead to several regimes of growth. Depending on the dislocation mobility and observation time, the phase separation may be accelerated, decelerated, or unaffected by mobile dislocations. For any finite dislocation mobility, we show that the domain growth rate asymptotically becomes independent of the dislocation mobility, and is faster than the dislocation-free growth rate

  18. Benchmark ultra-cool dwarfs in widely separated binary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones H.R.A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-cool dwarfs as wide companions to subgiants, giants, white dwarfs and main sequence stars can be very good benchmark objects, for which we can infer physical properties with minimal reference to theoretical models, through association with the primary stars. We have searched for benchmark ultra-cool dwarfs in widely separated binary systems using SDSS, UKIDSS, and 2MASS. We then estimate spectral types using SDSS spectroscopy and multi-band colors, place constraints on distance, and perform proper motions calculations for all candidates which have sufficient epoch baseline coverage. Analysis of the proper motion and distance constraints show that eight of our ultra-cool dwarfs are members of widely separated binary systems. Another L3.5 dwarf, SDSS 0832, is shown to be a companion to the bright K3 giant η Cancri. Such primaries can provide age and metallicity constraints for any companion objects, yielding excellent benchmark objects. This is the first wide ultra-cool dwarf + giant binary system identified.

  19. Electro-kinetic separation of rare earth elements using a redox-active ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Huayi; Cole, Bren E.; Qiao, Yusen; Bogart, Justin A.; Cheisson, Thibault; Manor, Brian C.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-10-16

    Purification of rare earth elements is challenging due to their chemical similarities. All of the deployed separation methods rely on thermodynamic properties, such as distribution equilibria in solvent extraction. Rare-earth-metal separations based on kinetic differences have not been examined. Herein, we demonstrate a new approach for rare-earth-element separations by exploiting differences in the oxidation rates within a series of rare earth compounds containing the redox-active ligand [{2-(tBuN(O))C_6H_4CH_2}{sub 3}N]{sup 3-}. Using this method, a single-step separation factor up to 261 was obtained for the separation of a 50:50 yttrium-lutetium mixture. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Surfactant-free microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (SF-MEEKC) with UV and MS detection - a novel approach for the separation and ESI-MS detection of neutral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohorič, Urška; Beutner, Andrea; Krickl, Sebastian; Touraud, Didier; Kunz, Werner; Matysik, Frank-Michael

    2016-12-01

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) is a powerful tool to separate neutral species based on differences in their hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. However, as a major drawback the conventionally used SDS based microemulsions are not compatible with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In this work, a surfactant-free microemulsion (SFME) consisting of water, ethanol, and 1-octanol is used for surfactant-free microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (SF-MEEKC). Ammonium acetate was added to the SFME enabling electrophoretic separations. The stability of SFMEs containing ammonium acetate was investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering and dynamic light scattering. A method for the separation of a model system of hydrophobic and hydrophilic neutral vitamins, namely the vitamins B 2 and D 3 , and the cationic vitamin B 1 was developed using UV/VIS detection. The influence of the ammonium acetate concentration on the separation performance was studied in detail. The method was characterized concerning reproducibility of migration times and peak areas and concerning the linearity of the calibration data. Furthermore, SF-MEEKC was coupled to ESI-MS investigating the compatibility between SFMEs and the ESI process. The signal intensities of ESI-MS measurements of the model analytes were comparable for SFMEs and aqueous systems. Finally, the vitamin D 3 content of a drug treating vitamin D 3 deficiency was determined by SF-MEEKC coupled to ESI-MS using 25-hydroxycholecalciferol as an internal standard. Graphical abstract The concept of surfactant-free microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  1. Improvement of calcium mineral separation contrast using anionic reagents: electrokinetics properties and flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafhaj, Z.; Filippov, L. O.; Filippova, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    The flotation separation of salt type calcium minerals is problematic, due to the similarities in their same active Ca2+ related site for interaction with anionic collectors and similar physicochemical characteristics such as solubility, zero-point charge, surface speciation and Ca-site density. The work was performed to achieve effective and selective separation of the calcium-minerals using pure minerals samples: orange calcite with Mg impurities, optic calcite with impurities level and an apatite. The pure samples surface was examined using techniques sensitive near-surface like infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and chemical composition was obtained by ICPMS. The isoelectric point (IEP) and point of zero charge (PZC) in electrolyte were recorded using electrophoresis method at different ionic strengths of the solution. Mechanisms of charge development at the mineral-water interface are discussed. The time of contact as important parameter for the charge equilibrium was deduced from kinetics study and fixed to 30 minutes. The difference in the values obtained between IEP and PZSE can be explained by the presence of a specific adsorption of cations and anions on the surface. The effect of pure anionic collectors such as oleic and linoleic acid were studied. At low pH, both collectors lead to a good recovery for the calcites. The flotation recovery of optic calcite at pH 9 with sodium oleate is higher than with sodium linoleate. At alkaline pH, apatite showed a better recovery with sodium linoleate.

  2. Optimisation methodology in the chiral and achiral separation in electrokinetic chromatography in the case of a multicomponent sample of dansyl amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Alessandro; Messina, Marianna; Contino, Annalinda; Cucinotta, Vincenzo

    2013-11-01

    Two different chiral selectors synthesised in our laboratory were used to test the possibility of separation for a sample consisting of ten different enantiomeric pairs of dansyl-derivatives of α-amino acids in electrokinetic chromatography. It was possible to observe all the peaks, though only partly resolved, due to the twenty analytes through an accurate strategy of choice of the experimental conditions. As a part of this strategy, a procedure of identification of the single peaks in the electropherograms called LACI (lastly added component identification) has been developed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Binary particle separation in droplet microfluidics using acoustophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornell, Anna; Cushing, Kevin; Nilsson, Johan; Tenje, Maria

    2018-02-01

    We show a method for separation of two particle species with different acoustic contrasts originally encapsulated in the same droplet in a continuous two-phase system. This was realized by using bulk acoustic standing waves in a 380 μm wide silicon-glass microfluidic channel. Polystyrene particles (positive acoustic contrast particles) and in-house synthesized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) particles (negative acoustic contrast particles) were encapsulated inside water-in-oil droplets either individually or in a mixture. At acoustic actuation of the system at the fundamental resonance frequency, the polystyrene particles were moved to the center of the droplet (pressure node), while the PDMS particles were moved to the sides of the droplet (pressure anti-nodes). The acoustic particle manipulation step was combined in series with a trifurcation droplet splitter, and as the original droplet passed through the splitter and was divided into three daughter droplets, the polystyrene particles were directed into the center daughter droplet, while the PDMS particles were directed into the two side daughter droplets. The presented method expands the droplet microfluidics tool-box and offers new possibilities to perform binary particle separation in droplet microfluidic systems.

  4. Separation of very hydrophobic analytes by micellar electrokinetic chromatography IV. Modeling of the effective electrophoretic mobility from carbon number equivalents and octanol-water partition coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, Carolin; Pyell, Ute

    2008-07-11

    It is investigated whether those relationships derived within an optimization scheme developed previously to optimize separations in micellar electrokinetic chromatography can be used to model effective electrophoretic mobilities of analytes strongly differing in their properties (polarity and type of interaction with the pseudostationary phase). The modeling is based on two parameter sets: (i) carbon number equivalents or octanol-water partition coefficients as analyte descriptors and (ii) four coefficients describing properties of the separation electrolyte (based on retention data for a homologous series of alkyl phenyl ketones used as reference analytes). The applicability of the proposed model is validated comparing experimental and calculated effective electrophoretic mobilities. The results demonstrate that the model can effectively be used to predict effective electrophoretic mobilities of neutral analytes from the determined carbon number equivalents or from octanol-water partition coefficients provided that the solvation parameters of the analytes of interest are similar to those of the reference analytes.

  5. Electrokinetic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2007-11-20

    A method for altering the surface properties of a particle bed. In application, the method pertains particularly to an electrokinetic pump configuration where nanoparticles are bonded to the surface of the stationary phase to alter the surface properties of the stationary phase including the surface area and/or the zeta potential and thus improve the efficiency and operating range of these pumps. By functionalizing the nanoparticles to change the zeta potential the electrokinetic pump is rendered capable of operating with working fluids having pH values that can range from 2-10 generally and acidic working fluids in particular. For applications in which the pump is intended to handle highly acidic solutions latex nanoparticles that are quaternary amine functionalized can be used.

  6. Selectivity in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, S; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Honoré Hansen, S

    2000-01-01

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) is a most promising separation technique providing good selectivity and high separation efficiency of anionic, cationic as well as neutral solutes. In MEEKC lipophilic organic solvents dispersed as tiny droplets in an aqueous buffer by the use...

  7. Electrokinetics on superhydrophobic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, Periklis; Deng Xu; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    On a superhydrophobic surface a liquid is exposed to a large air-water interface. The reduced wall friction is expected to cause a higher electro-osmotic mobility. On the other hand, the low charge density of a superhydrophobic surface reduces the electro-osmotic mobility. Due to a lack of experimental data it has not been clear so far whether the reduced wall friction or the reduced charge density dominate the electrokinetic mobilities. To separate the relative contributions of electrophoresis and electro-osmosis, the mobilities of colloids on a negatively charged hydrophilic, a superhydrophobic (Cassie) and a partially hydrophilized superhydrophobic (Cassie composite) coating were measured. To vary the charge density as well as its sign with respect to those of the colloids the partially hydrophilized surfaces were coated with polyelectrolytes. We analyzed the electrokinetic mobilities of negatively charged polystyrene colloids dispersed in aqueous medium on porous hydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces by confocal laser scanning electron microscopy. In all cases, the external electric field was parallel to the surface. The total electrokinetic mobilities on the superhydrophobic (Cassie) and negatively charged partially hydrophilized (Cassie composite) surfaces were similar, showing that electro-osmosis is small compared to electrophoresis. The positively charged Cassie composite surfaces tend to ‘trap’ the colloids due to attracting electrostatic interactions and rough morphology, reducing the mobility. Thus, either the charge density of the coatings in the Cassie composite state or its slip length is too low to enhance electro-osmosis.

  8. Overcomplete Blind Source Separation by Combining ICA and Binary Time-Frequency Masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    a novel method for over-complete blind source separation. Two powerful source separation techniques have been combined, independent component analysis and binary time-frequency masking. Hereby, it is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture. By using merely two microphones we...

  9. Separation and Determination of Four Tanshinones in Danshen and Related Medicinal Plants by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography Using Ionic Liquids as Modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiliang; Wei, Jinchao; Xiang, Cheng; Zhang, Mi; Li, Baocai; Wan, Jianbo; Su, Huanxing; Li, Peng

    2016-09-01

    A simple and fast micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method using ionic liquids as modifier was established for simultaneous determination of four hydrophobic tanshinones, including dihydrotanshinone I ( 1: ), cryptotanshinone ( 2: ), tanshinone I ( 3: ) and tanshinone IIA ( 4: ), in Danshen and related medicinal plants. In normal MEKC using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant and organic solvents as additives, the four tanshinones, especially cryptotanshinone and tanshinone I, could not be well separated. Fortunately, further addition of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim]BF4) resulted in a baseline separation of these four analytes. After an optimization study, 10 mM borax-10 mM SDS-10 mM [bmim]BF4 containing 15% acetonitrile (v/v) at pH 9.6 was adopted as the running buffer to complete the separation within 16 min at the voltage of 25 kV, temperature of 25°C and detection wavelength of 254 nm. The relative standard deviations of migration time and peak area were in the range of 0.62-2.21 and 1.33-3.90%, respectively, indicating the good repeatability of the developed method. This method was extensively validated by evaluating the linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9992), limits of detection (0.75-1.11 μg mL(-1)), limits of quantification (2.26-3.32 μg mL(-1)) and recovery (96.11-103.74%). Under the optimum conditions, samples of Danshen and related medicinal plants were well analyzed with high separation efficiency. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Determining the Separation and Position Angles of Orbiting Binary Stars: Comparison of Three Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan; Boule, Cory; Andrews, Katelyn; Penfield, Andrew; Ross, Ian; Lucas, Gaylon; Braught, Trisha; Harfenist, Steven; Goodale, Keith

    2015-07-01

    To initiate a long term binary star research program, undergraduate students compared the accuracy and ease of measuring the separations and position angles of three long period binary pairs using three different measurement techniques. It was found that digital image capture using BackyardEOS software and subsequent analysis in Adobe Photoshop was the most accurate and easiest to use of our three methods. The systems WDS J17419+7209 (STF 2241AB), WDS 19418+5032 (STFA 46AB), and WDS 16362+5255 (STF 2087AB) were found to have separations and position angles of: 30", 16°; 39.7", 133°; and 3.1", 104°, respectively. This method produced separation values within 1.3" and position angle values within 1.3° of the most recently observed values found in the Washington Double Star Catalog.

  11. On the optimity of separation cascade for a binary and a multi-component case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T.M.; Zeng, S.

    2006-01-01

    The optimity discussed in this article means minimum total interstage flow which is studied for two cases, a binary and a multi-component case, using direct numerical optimizations for countercurrent symmetric cascades with the concentrations of the target component specified in the .feed flow, the product and waste withdrawals In binary separation, the ideal cascade in which there are no mixing losses and whose stages are working under symmetric separation is the optimum cascade that has the minimum total flow However when the separation factor is large, there may not exist an ideal cascade for certain prescribed external parameters. Cascades are optimized numerically to minimize mixing losses and total flows, respectively The results are compared for the minimum mixing losses and the minimum total flow, and analyzed with theoretically derived formulas. For the multi-component case, satisfying the non-mixing condition is impossible. There is a counterpart of the binary ideal cascade named MARC which matches the abundance ratio at mixing points. An optimization example for a four-cornponent mixture separation cascade is analyzed with the first and the last components as the targets, respectively. The results show that MARC is not the optimum cascade for the separation of one certain isotope. The separation power of each stage in the optimized cascades is calculated using several different definitions, and the rationality of these definitions is discussed. The Q-iteration method is used to calculate the concentration distribution in both the binary and the multi-component cases. Ns-2 stage cuts out of the Ns stages of the cascade are the optimization variables in the optimization process and a combination of the simulated annealing and the Hooke-Jeeves method is applied as the optimization technique to find the minimum. (authors)

  12. Adsorption chromatographic separation of radioiodine-labelled compounds using binary eluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, G.

    1980-01-01

    An adsorption chromatographic method using Sephadex LH-20 dextran gel as adsorbent and water-organic solvent binary eluents was developed for the systematic separation of low molecular weight radioiodine-labelled substances like iodothyronines, iodobenzoic acids and iodotyrosine methyl ester derivatives of prostaglandins, steroids etc. The adsorbed iodine compounds were separated by water-organic solvent mixture, and the order of the compounds is in accordance with the increasing number of iodine substituents per molecule. A method is reported which enables the calculation of the eluent strength of the water-organic solvent eluents. (author)

  13. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchberger, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) is a special mode of capillary electrophoresis employing a microemulsion as carrier electrolyte. Analytes may partition between the aqueous phase of the microemulsion and its oil droplets which act as a pseudostationary phase. The technique is well suited for the separation of neutral species, in which case charged oil droplets (obtained by addition of an anionic or cationic surfactant) are present. A single set of separation parameters may be sufficient for separation of a wide range of analytes belonging to quite different chemical classes. Fine-tuning of resolution and analysis time may be achieved by addition of organic solvents, by changes in the nature of the surfactants (and cosurfactants) used to stabilize the microemulsion, or by various additives that may undergo some additional interactions with the analytes. Besides the separation of neutral analytes (which may be the most important application area of MEEKC), it can also be employed for cationic and/or anionic species. In this chapter, MEEKC conditions are summarized that have proven their reliability for routine analysis. Furthermore, the mechanisms encountered in MEEKC allow an efficient on-capillary preconcentration of analytes, so that the problem of poor concentration sensitivity of ultraviolet absorbance detection is circumvented.

  14. The critical binary star separation for a planetary system origin of white dwarf pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri; Xu, Siyi; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    The atmospheres of between one quarter and one half of observed single white dwarfs in the Milky Way contain heavy element pollution from planetary debris. The pollution observed in white dwarfs in binary star systems is, however, less clear, because companion star winds can generate a stream of matter which is accreted by the white dwarf. Here, we (i) discuss the necessity or lack thereof of a major planet in order to pollute a white dwarf with orbiting minor planets in both single and binary systems, and (ii) determine the critical binary separation beyond which the accretion source is from a planetary system. We hence obtain user-friendly functions relating this distance to the masses and radii of both stars, the companion wind, and the accretion rate on to the white dwarf, for a wide variety of published accretion prescriptions. We find that for the majority of white dwarfs in known binaries, if pollution is detected, then that pollution should originate from planetary material.

  15. Electrokinetics in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luong, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the PhD research on electrokinetics in porous media. Electrokinetic phenomena are induced by the relative motion between a fluid and a solid surface and are directly related to the existence of an electric double layer between the fluid and the solid grain surface.

  16. Blind Separation of Acoustic Signals Combining SIMO-Model-Based Independent Component Analysis and Binary Masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiekata Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new two-stage blind source separation (BSS method for convolutive mixtures of speech is proposed, in which a single-input multiple-output (SIMO-model-based independent component analysis (ICA and a new SIMO-model-based binary masking are combined. SIMO-model-based ICA enables us to separate the mixed signals, not into monaural source signals but into SIMO-model-based signals from independent sources in their original form at the microphones. Thus, the separated signals of SIMO-model-based ICA can maintain the spatial qualities of each sound source. Owing to this attractive property, our novel SIMO-model-based binary masking can be applied to efficiently remove the residual interference components after SIMO-model-based ICA. The experimental results reveal that the separation performance can be considerably improved by the proposed method compared with that achieved by conventional BSS methods. In addition, the real-time implementation of the proposed BSS is illustrated.

  17. Rule of thumb for binary isotope separations in a gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.H.

    1985-12-01

    A very simple hypothetical model of the binary isotope separation process in a countercurrent Gas Centrifuge is proposed. Like the usual Cohen-Onsager separation theory it involves the internal fluid dynamics, but unlike the usual isotopic separation theory it completely obviates the usual flow integrals for Cohen's E. Thereby allowing an immediate estimate of the flow efficiency of a given design, which can and sometimes should be checked later by the usual analyses. To shed some light on our idea, two simple derivations for assumed idealized hydrodynamics are given, but a rigorous proof remains an open question. Then our hypothesis is tested against a battery of about 10 new ''exact'' formulas for E based upon analytical solutions to several variants of Onsager's pancake equation and found to be ''reasonably'' accurate and surprisingly robust. Finally, some limitations of our rule are explored

  18. Energy of formation for AgIn liquid binary alloys along the line of phase separation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuiyan, G M; Ziauddin-Ahmed, A Z

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the energy of formation for AgIn liquid binary alloys along the solid-liquid phase separation line. A microscopic theory based on the first order perturbation has been applied. The interionic interaction and a reference liquid are the fundamental components of the theory. These are described by a local pseudopotential and the hard sphere liquids, respectively. The results of calculations reveal a characteristic feature that the energy of formation becomes minimum at the equiatomic composition, and thus indicates maximal mix-ability at this concentration. The energy of formation at a particular thermodynamic state that is at T 1173 K predicts the experimental trends fairly well.

  19. Dynamic depletion attraction between colloids suspended in a phase-separating binary liquid mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Takeaki; Tanaka, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    Understanding interactions between colloids (or nanoparticles) immersed in a phase-separating binary mixture is of both fundamental and technological importance. Here we report a novel type of interparticle attractive interaction of a purely dynamic origin, which is found by a coarse-grained numerical simulation. Due to surface wetting effects, there are strong diffusion fluxes towards particles just after the initiation of phase separation of the matrix binary liquid mixture. The flux in the region between particles soon becomes weaker than that in the other regions since the depletion zones formed around particles overlap selectively between the particles. The resulting imbalance of the diffusion flux induces interparticle attractive interactions, i.e., the osmotic force pushes particles closer. We confirm that this wetting-induced 'dynamic' depletion force can be stronger than a van der Waals force and a capillary force that is induced by the interfacial tension, and thus plays a dominant role in the early stage of particle aggregation. We note that this novel interaction originating from the momentum conservation law may be generic to particles acting as diffusional sinks or sources. (fast track communication)

  20. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps

  1. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-03-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps.

  2. Performance and separation occurrence of binary probit regression estimator using maximum likelihood method and Firths approach under different sample size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusiana, Evellin Dewi

    2017-12-01

    The parameters of binary probit regression model are commonly estimated by using Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method. However, MLE method has limitation if the binary data contains separation. Separation is the condition where there are one or several independent variables that exactly grouped the categories in binary response. It will result the estimators of MLE method become non-convergent, so that they cannot be used in modeling. One of the effort to resolve the separation is using Firths approach instead. This research has two aims. First, to identify the chance of separation occurrence in binary probit regression model between MLE method and Firths approach. Second, to compare the performance of binary probit regression model estimator that obtained by MLE method and Firths approach using RMSE criteria. Those are performed using simulation method and under different sample size. The results showed that the chance of separation occurrence in MLE method for small sample size is higher than Firths approach. On the other hand, for larger sample size, the probability decreased and relatively identic between MLE method and Firths approach. Meanwhile, Firths estimators have smaller RMSE than MLEs especially for smaller sample sizes. But for larger sample sizes, the RMSEs are not much different. It means that Firths estimators outperformed MLE estimator.

  3. SPITZER MICROLENS MEASUREMENT OF A MASSIVE REMNANT IN A WELL-SEPARATED BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvartzvald, Y.; Bryden, G.; Henderson, C. B. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Gould, A.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Pogge, R. W.; Wibking, B.; Zhu, W. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Bozza, V.; Novati, S. Calchi [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. R. Caianiello,” Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Friedmann, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Hundertmark, M. [Niels Bohr Institute and Centre for Star and Planet Formation, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Beichman, C. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Carey, S. [Spitzer, Science Center, MS 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kerr, T.; Varricatt, W. [UKIRT, 660 N. Aohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Yee, J. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Collaboration: and; Spitzer team; OGLE group; KMTNet group; Wise group; RoboNet; MiNDSTEp; and others

    2015-12-01

    We report the detection and mass measurement of a binary lens OGLE-2015-BLG-1285La,b, with the more massive component having M{sub 1} > 1.35 M{sub ⊙} (80% probability). A main-sequence star in this mass range is ruled out by limits on blue light, meaning that a primary in this mass range must be a neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH). The system has a projected separation r{sub ⊥} = 6.1 ± 0.4 AU and lies in the Galactic bulge. These measurements are based on the “microlens parallax” effect, i.e., comparing the microlensing light curve as seen from Spitzer, which lay at 1.25 AU projected from Earth, to the light curves from four ground-based surveys, three in the optical and one in the near-infrared. Future adaptive optics imaging of the companion by 30 m class telescopes will yield a much more accurate measurement of the primary mass. This discovery both opens the path and defines the challenges to detecting and characterizing BHs and NSs in wide binaries, with either dark or luminous companions. In particular, we discuss lessons that can be applied to future Spitzer and Kepler K2 microlensing parallax observations.

  4. An electrokinetic pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Duckjong

    2008-01-01

    A new concept for a micro pressure sensor is demonstrated. The pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet of glass nanochannels is obtained by measuring the electrokinetically generated electric potential. To demonstrate the proposed concept, experimental investigations are performed for 100 nm wide nanochannels with sodium chloride solutions having various concentrations. The proposed pressure sensor is able to measure the pressure difference within a 10% deviation from linearity. The sensitivity of the electrokinetic pressure sensor with 10 −5 M sodium chloride solution is 18.5 µV Pa −1 , which is one order of magnitude higher than that of typical diaphragm-based pressure sensors. A numerical model is presented for investigating the effects of the concentration and the channel width on the sensitivity of the electrokinetic pressure sensor. Numerical results show that the sensitivity increases as the concentration decreases and the channel width increases

  5. Experimental, theoretical and numerical interpretation of thermodiffusion separation for a non-associating binary mixture in liquid/porous layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahadi, Amirhossein; Jawad, H.; Saghir, M.Z.; Giraudet, C.; Croccolo, F.; Bataller, H.

    2014-01-01

    Thermodiffusion in a hydrocarbon binary mixture has been investigated experimentally and numerically in a liquid-porous cavity. The solutal separation of the 50% toluene and 50% n-hexane binary mixture induced by a temperature difference at atmospheric pressure has been performed in a new thermodiffusion cell. A new optimized cell design is used in this study. The inner part of the cell is a cylindrical porous medium sandwiched between two liquid layers of the same binary hydrocarbon mixture. Experimental measurement and theoretical estimation of the molecular diffusion and thermodiffusion coefficients showed a good agreement. In order to understand the different regimes occurring in the different parts of the cell, a full transient numerical simulation of the solutal separation of the binary mixture has been performed. Numerical results showed that the lighter species, which are of n-hexane migrated toward the hot surface, while the denser species, which is toluene migrated towards the cold surface. Also, it was found that a good agreement has been reached between experimental measurements and numerical calculations for the solutal separation between the hot and cold surface for different medium porosity. In addition, we used the numerical results to analyse convection and diffusion regions in the cell precisely. (authors)

  6. Detecting phase separation of freeze-dried binary amorphous systems using pair-wise distribution function and multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chieng, Norman; Trnka, Hjalte; Boetker, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of multivariate data analysis for powder X-ray diffraction-pair-wise distribution function (PXRD-PDF) data to detect phase separation in freeze-dried binary amorphous systems. Polymer-polymer and polymer-sugar binary systems at various ratios were...... freeze-dried. All samples were analyzed by PXRD, transformed to PDF and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). These results were validated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) through characterization of glass transition of the maximally freeze-concentrate solute (Tg'). Analysis of PXRD......-PDF data using PCA provides a more clear 'miscible' or 'phase separated' interpretation through the distribution pattern of samples on a score plot presentation compared to residual plot method. In a phase separated system, samples were found to be evenly distributed around the theoretical PDF profile...

  7. Complex Macrophase-Separated Nanostructure Induced by Microphase Separation in Binary Blends of Lamellar Diblock Copolymer Thin Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianqi; Posselt, Dorthe; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2014-01-01

    The nanostructures of thin films spin-coated from binary blends of compositionally symmetric polystyrene-b-polybutadiene (PS-b-PB) diblock copolymer having different molar masses are investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS)...

  8. ELECTROKINETICS, INC. INSITU BIO REMEDIATION BY ELECTROKINETIC INJECTION EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrokinetics, Inc. through a cooperative agreement with USEPA's NRMRL conducted a laboratory evaluation of electrokinetic transport as a means to enhance in-situ bioremediation of trichloroethene (TCE). Four critical aspects of enhancing bioremediation by electrokinetic inject...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS USING MICELLAR ELECTROKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH MOLECULAR MICELLES AND FREE ZONE ELECTROPHORESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of four systems available from the literature, based on cyclodextrins, dioctylsulfosuccinate, bile salts, and molecular micelles consisting of oligomers of undecylenic acid, the most successful separation system in our hands is based on the molecular micelles, oligomers of sodiu...

  10. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomasney, H. [ISOTRON Corp., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. This report discusses the technology and use at the Oak Ridge k-25 plant.

  11. On Darboux's approach to R-separability of variables. Classification of conformally flat 4-dimensional binary metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szereszewski, A; Sym, A

    2015-01-01

    -class of isothermic metrics are binary metrics. In this paper we solve the following problem: to classify all conformally flat (of arbitrary signature) 4-dimensional binary metrics. Among them there are 1) those that are separable in the sense of SRE metrics Kalnins–Miller (1978 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 244 241–61; 1982 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 15 2699–709; 1984 Adv. Math. 51 91–106; 1983 SIAM J. Math. Anal. 14 126–37) and 2) new examples of non-Stäckel R-separability in 4 dimensions. (paper)

  12. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.L.; SenGupta, A.K.; Yachmenev, V.

    1996-01-01

    ELECTROSORB Electrokinetic Extraction Technology, developed by ISOTRON Corp., offers a cost-effective approach to treating contaminated concrete. Heavy metals/radionuclides trapped in concrete can be extracted using this process if they are chemically solubilized; solubilizers used are citric acid alone and a mixture of citric and nitric acids. A DC electric field is applied across the contaminated concrete to electrokinetically transport the solubilized contaminants from the concrete pores to a collector on the concrete surface. The collector is an extraction pad laid on the surface. The pad provides confinement for a planar electrode and solubilizer solution; it is operated under a vacuum to hold the pad against the concrete surface. Operation requires little attendance, reducing the workers' health hazards. The process incorporates a mechanism for recycling the solubilizer solution. A field demonstration of the process took place in Building 21 of DOE's Mound facility in Miamisburg, OH, over 12 days in June 1996. The thorium species present in this building's concrete floors included ThO 2 and thorium oxalate. The nitric acid was found to facilitate Th extraction

  13. Transport of radioactive ions in soil by electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    An electrokinetic approach is being evaluated for in situ soil remediation at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The work discussed in this paper involves the development of a new method to monitor the movement of the radioactive ions within the soil during the electrokinetic process. A closed cell and a gamma counter were used to provide iii situ measurements of 137 Cs and 60 Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results show that for an applied potential of 200 V over approximately 200 hr, 137 Cs and 60 60 were transported a distance of 4 to 5 in. The monitoring technique demonstrated the feasibility of using electrokinetics for soil separation applications

  14. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION: BASICS AND TECHNOLOGY STATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrokinetic remediation, variably named as electrochemical soil processing, electromigration, electrokinetic decontamination or electroreclamation uses electric currents to extract radionuclides, heavy metals, certain organic compounds, or mixed inorganic species and some orga...

  15. Effective separation of propylene/propane binary mixtures by ZIF-8 membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yichang

    2012-02-01

    The separation of propylene/propane mixtures is one of the most important but challenging processes in the petrochemical industry. A novel zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF-8) membrane prepared by a facile hydrothermal seeded growth method showed excellent separation performances for a wide range of propylene/propane mixtures. The membrane showed a permeability of propylene up to 200. barrers and a propylene to propane separation factor up to 50 at optimal separation conditions, well surpassing the "upper-bound trade-off" lines of existing polymer and carbon membranes. The experimental data also showed that the membranes had excellent reproducibility, long-term stability and thermal stability. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effective separation of propylene/propane binary mixtures by ZIF-8 membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yichang; Li, Tao; Lestari, Gabriella; Lai, Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    The separation of propylene/propane mixtures is one of the most important but challenging processes in the petrochemical industry. A novel zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF-8) membrane prepared by a facile hydrothermal seeded growth method showed

  17. Evaluation of the performance of thermal diffusion column separating binary gas mixtures with continuous draw-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamoto, Asashi; Shimizu, Masami; Takashima, Yoichi

    1977-01-01

    Advanced transport relations involving three column constants, H sup(σ), K sub(c)sup(σ) and K sub(d)sup(σ), are developed to describe the separation performance of a thermal diffusion column with continuous draw-off. These constants were related to some integral functions of velocity profile, temperature distribution, density of gas mixture and characteristic values of transport coefficients. The separation of binary gas mixture by this technique was so effective that three reasonable factors had to be introduced into the column constants in the theory. They are a circulation constant of natural convection, a definition of characteristic mean temperature and a definition of mean composition over the column. The separation performance and the column constants also varied with the distortion of velocity profile due to continuous draw-off from the top or the bottom of column. However, its effect was not large, compared with the other factors mentioned above. The theory presented here makes possible to estimate the separation performance of hot-wire type thermal diffusion column with high accuracy. (auth.)

  18. Laboratory Experiment on Electrokinetic Remediation of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed-Ali, Alya H.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is a method of decontaminating soil containing heavy metals and polar organic contaminants by passing a direct current through the soil. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory is described to demonstrate electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with copper. A 30 cm electrokinetic cell with an applied voltage of 30…

  19. Speciation fingerprints of binary mixtures by the optimized sequential two-phase separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the separation methods suitable for chemical speciation of radionuclides and metals, and advantages of sequential (double) distribution technique were discussed. The equilibria are relatively easy to control and the method enables to minimize a matrix composition adjustment, and therefore it minimizes also the disturbance of original (native) state of elements. The technique may consist in the repeat solvent extraction of sample, or the replicate equilibration with sorbent. The common condition of applicability is a linear separation isotherm of the species, what is mostly a reasonable condition in case of trace concentrations. The equations used for simultaneous fitting were written in general form. 1 tab., 1 fig., 2 refs

  20. Separation of Binary Mixtures of Propylene and Propane by Facilitated Transport through Silver Incorporated Poly(Ether-Block-Amide Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Murali R.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The separation of propylene and propane is a challenging task in petroleum refineries due to the similar molecular sizes and physical properties of two gases. Composite Poly(ether-block-amide (Pebax-1657 membranes incorporated with silver tetra fluoroborate (AgBF4 in concentrations of 0-50% of the polymer weight were prepared by solution casting and solvent evaporation technique. The membranes were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR and wide-angle X-ray Diffraction (XRD to study surface and cross-sectional morphologies, effect of incorporation on intermolecular interactions and degree of crystallinity, respectively. Experimental data was measured with an indigenously built high-pressure gas separation manifold having an effective membrane area of 42 cm2. Permeability and selectivity of membranes were determined for three different binary mixtures of propylene-propane at pressures varying in the range 2-6 bar. Selectivity of C3H6/C3H8 enhanced from 2.92 to 17.22 and 2.11 to 20.38 for 50/50 and 66/34 C3H6+C3H8 feed mixtures, respectively, with increasing loading of AgBF4. Pebax membranes incorporated with AgBF4 exhibit strong potential for the separation of C3H6/C3H8 mixtures in petroleum refineries.

  1. Electrokinetic characterization of whey protein separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Kristian; Stougård, Anders; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    Cross flow filtration of whey protein has been performed on 3 different membranes. The rejections have been determined by HPLC analysis of the feed and permeate. The pure membranes as well as the fouled membranes have been characterized by measurements of the streaming potential along the membrane...

  2. Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Gyéresi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis.

  3. Superhydrophobic nanofluidic channels for enhanced electrokinetic conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checco, Antonio; Al Hossain, Aktaruzzaman; Rahmani, Amir; Black, Charles; Doerk, Gregory; Colosqui, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    We present current efforts in the development of novel slit nanofluidic channels with superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces designed to enhance hydrodynamic conductivity and improve selective transport and electrokinetic energy conversion efficiencies (mechanical-electrical energy conversion). The nanochannels are fabricated on silicon wafers using UV lithography, and their internal surface is patterned with conical nanostructures (feature size and spacing 30 nm) defined by block copolymer self-assembly and plasma etching. These nanostructures are rendered superhydrophobic by passivation with a hydrophobic silane monolayer. We experimentally characterize hydrodynamic conductivity, effective zeta potentials, and eletrokinetic flows for the patterned nanochannels, comparing against control channels with bare surfaces. Experimental observations are rationalized using both continuum-based modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Scientific and technical knowledge produced by this work is particularly relevant for sustainable energy conversion and storage, separation processes and water treatment using nanoporous materials. The ONR Contract # N000141613178 and NSF-CBET award# 1605809.

  4. A new electrokinetic technology for revitalization of oily sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibi, S.

    2004-07-01

    Oily sludge is a mixture of hydrocarbons, water, metals and suspended fine solids. The petroleum industry is faced with the challenge of handling large volumes of such sludge whose properties depend on the nature of the crude oil, the processing capacity, the down-stream capacities and the design of effluent treatment plants. The management of oily sludge is both complicated and costly due to its complex composition. For that reason, this study developed a method to improve the separation of phases to allow for greater reuse of oily sludge. The study focused on the use of electrokinetic phenomena for the remediation of oily sludge. An amphoteric surfactant was used to evaluate the effect of surfactant on the electrokinetic mobilization or organic contaminants in oily sludge. A series of electrokinetic cell tests were conducted with varying electrical potentials for a 32 day period. Electrical parameters were measured on a daily basis and samples were collected at specific time intervals for UV/VIS and FTIR analysis. The study involved a range of electrokinetic processes such as electrocoagulation, electro-coalescence, desorption, electrophoresis and electro-osmosis. Study results were used to evaluate the thermodynamics of the proposed process and new theories on the behaviour of colloidal components of oily sludge were derived. The study indicated that there is an excellent separation of water, hydrocarbon and solid phases. Since the recovered solid phase has a high hydrocarbon content, it can be recycled for other processes. Some of the volatile hydrocarbons that were released during the process can also be captured and burned as a fuel. The separated water had a low concentration of hydrocarbon and could be sent to wastewater treatment plants.

  5. Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-02-15

    Although electrokinetic effects are not new, only recently have they been investigated for possible use in energy conversion devices. We have recently reported the electrokinetic generation of molecular hydrogen from rapidly flowing liquid water microjets [Duffin et al. JPCC 2007, 111, 12031]. Here, we describe the use of liquid water microjets for direct conversion of electrokinetic energy to electrical power. Previous studies of electrokinetic power production have reported low efficiencies ({approx}3%), limited by back conduction of ions at the surface and in the bulk liquid. Liquid microjets eliminate energy dissipation due to back conduction and, measuring only at the jet target, yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%.

  6. A Comparison of Electrokinetic Method and Electrokinetic-electrodialytic Method for Soil Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyenam; Kim, Seungsoo; Park, Ukrang; Han, Gyuseong; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The electrokinetic decontamination equipment and electrokinetic-elctrodialytic decontamination equipment were manufactured to decontaminate the contaminated soil. The removal efficiency according to the lapsed time by the electrokinetic decontamination equipment and the electrokinetic-elctrodialytic decontamination equipment was investigated through several experiments. The difference between the removal efficiency of the electrokinetic-elctrodialytic decontamination without anion exchange membrane and that of with anion exchange membrane was investigated through several experiments. In addition, the removal efficiency trend according to different cesium radioactivity of soil was drawn out through several experiments.

  7. A Comparison of Electrokinetic Method and Electrokinetic-electrodialytic Method for Soil Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyenam; Kim, Seungsoo; Park, Ukrang; Han, Gyuseong; Moon, Jeikwon

    2014-01-01

    The electrokinetic decontamination equipment and electrokinetic-elctrodialytic decontamination equipment were manufactured to decontaminate the contaminated soil. The removal efficiency according to the lapsed time by the electrokinetic decontamination equipment and the electrokinetic-elctrodialytic decontamination equipment was investigated through several experiments. The difference between the removal efficiency of the electrokinetic-elctrodialytic decontamination without anion exchange membrane and that of with anion exchange membrane was investigated through several experiments. In addition, the removal efficiency trend according to different cesium radioactivity of soil was drawn out through several experiments

  8. Mesoscopic electrohydrodynamic simulations of binary colloidal suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivas, Nicolas; Frijters, Stefan; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Harting, Jens

    2018-01-01

    A model is presented for the solution of electrokinetic phenomena of colloidal suspensions in fluid mixtures. We solve the discrete Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator using the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate binary fluid flows. Solvent-solvent and solvent-solute

  9. Application of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography for routine analysis of different materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Injac Rade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC has become a popular mode among the several capillary electro-migration techniques. Most drug analysis can be performed by using MEKC because of its wide applicability. Separation of very complex mixtures, determination of drugs in the biological materials, etc., can be successfully achieved by MEKC. This review surveys typical applications of MEKC analysis. Recent advances in MEKC, especially with solid-phase extraction and large-volume sample stacking, are described. Modes of electrokinetic chromatography including MEKC, a separation theory of MEKC, environmental friendly analysis, and selectivity manipulation in MEKC are also briefly mentioned.

  10. Trojan Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans, in the context of giant planet migration models, can be thought of as an extension of the small body populations found beyond Neptune in the Kuiper Belt. Binaries are a distinctive feature of small body populations in the Kuiper Belt with an especially high fraction apparent among the brightest Cold Classicals. The binary fraction, relative sizes, and separations in the dynamically excited populations (Scattered, Resonant) reflects processes that may have eroded a more abundant initial population. This trend continues in the Centaurs and Trojans where few binaries have been found. We review new evidence including a third resolved Trojan binary and lightcurve studies to understand how the Trojans are related to the small body populations that originated in the outer protoplanetary disk.

  11. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques. 23 refs., 7 figs

  12. Nonlinear electrokinetics at large voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazant, Martin Z [Department of Chemical Engineering and Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sabri Kilic, Mustafa; Ajdari, Armand [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Storey, Brian D [Franklin W Olin College of Engineering, Needham, MA 02492 (United States)], E-mail: bazant@mit.edu

    2009-07-15

    The classical theory of electrokinetic phenomena assumes a dilute solution of point-like ions in chemical equilibrium with a surface whose double-layer voltage is of order the thermal voltage, k{sub B}T/e=25 mV. In nonlinear 'induced-charge' electrokinetic phenomena, such as ac electro-osmosis, several volts {approx}100k{sub B}T/e are applied to the double layer, and the theory breaks down and cannot explain many observed features. We argue that, under such a large voltage, counterions 'condense' near the surface, even for dilute bulk solutions. Based on simple models, we predict that the double-layer capacitance decreases and the electro-osmotic mobility saturates at large voltages, due to steric repulsion and increased viscosity of the condensed layer, respectively. The former suffices to explain observed high-frequency flow reversal in ac electro-osmosis; the latter leads to a salt concentration dependence of induced-charge flows comparable to experiments, although a complete theory is still lacking.

  13. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by-weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques

  14. A dearth of short-period massive binaries in the young massive star forming region M 17. Evidence for a large orbital separation at birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, H.; Ramírez-Tannus, M. C.; de Koter, A.; Kaper, L.; Tramper, F.; Bik, A.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: The formation of massive stars remains poorly understood and little is known about their birth multiplicity properties. Here, we aim to quantitatively investigate the strikingly low radial-velocity dispersion measured for a sample of 11 massive pre- and near-main-sequence stars (σ1D= 5.6 ± 0.2 km s-1) in the very young massive star forming region M 17, in order to obtain first constraints on the multiplicity properties of young massive stellar objects. Methods: We compute the radial-velocity dispersion of synthetic populations of massive stars for various multiplicity properties and we compare the obtained σ1D distributions to the observed value. We specifically investigate two scenarios: a low binary fraction and a dearth of short-period binary systems. Results: Simulated populations with low binary fractions () or with truncated period distributions (Pcutoff > 9 months) are able to reproduce the low σ1D observed within their 68%-confidence intervals. Furthermore, parent populations with fbin > 0.42 or Pcutoff < 47 d can be rejected at the 5%-significance level. Both constraints are in stark contrast with the high binary fraction and plethora of short-period systems in few Myr-old, well characterized OB-type populations. To explain the difference in the context of the first scenario would require a variation of the outcome of the massive star formation process. In the context of the second scenario, compact binaries must form later on, and the cut-off period may be related to physical length-scales representative of the bloated pre-main-sequence stellar radii or of their accretion disks. Conclusions: If the obtained constraints for the M 17's massive-star population are representative of the multiplicity properties of massive young stellar objects, our results may provide support to a massive star formation process in which binaries are initially formed at larger separations, then harden or migrate to produce the typical (untruncated) power-law period

  15. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. James Davis

    1999-12-18

    The objective of this research was to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. The specific objectives were: Design and develop a scaleable electrophoresis apparatus to clarify suspensions of colloidal coal and clay particles; Demonstrate the separation process using polluted waste water from the coal-washing facilities at the coal-fired power plants in Centralia, WA; Develop a mathematical model of the process to predict the rate of clarification and the suspension electrical properties needed for scale up.

  16. Electrokinetic Control of Viscous Fingering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Mohammad; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2017-10-01

    We present a theory of the interfacial stability of two immiscible electrolytes under the coupled action of pressure gradients and electric fields in a Hele-Shaw cell or porous medium. Mathematically, our theory describes a phenomenon of "vector Laplacian growth," in which the interface moves in response to the gradient of a vector-valued potential function through a generalized mobility tensor. Physically, we extend the classical Saffman-Taylor problem to electrolytes by incorporating electrokinetic (EK) phenomena. A surprising prediction is that viscous fingering can be controlled by varying the injection ratio of electric current to flow rate. Beyond a critical injection ratio, stability depends only upon the relative direction of flow and current, regardless of the viscosity ratio. Possible applications include porous materials processing, electrically enhanced oil recovery, and EK remediation of contaminated soils.

  17. Effect of the Hartmann number on phase separation controlled by magnetic field for binary mixture system with large component ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heping, Wang; Xiaoguang, Li; Duyang, Zang; Rui, Hu; Xingguo, Geng

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an exploration for phase separation in a magnetic field using a coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The left vertical wall was kept at a constant magnetic field. Simulations were conducted by the strong magnetic field to enhance phase separation and increase the size of separated phases. The focus was on the effect of magnetic intensity by defining the Hartmann number (Ha) on the phase separation properties. The numerical investigation was carried out for different governing parameters, namely Ha and the component ratio of the mixed liquid. The effective morphological evolutions of phase separation in different magnetic fields were demonstrated. The patterns showed that the slant elliptical phases were created by increasing Ha, due to the formation and increase of magnetic torque and force. The dataset was rearranged for growth kinetics of magnetic phase separation in a plot by spherically averaged structure factor and the ratio of separated phases and total system. The results indicate that the increase in Ha can increase the average size of separated phases and accelerate the spinodal decomposition and domain growth stages. Specially for the larger component ratio of mixed phases, the separation degree was also significantly improved by increasing magnetic intensity. These numerical results provide guidance for setting the optimum condition for the phase separation induced by magnetic field.

  18. A simple transferable adaptive potential to study phase separation in large-scale xMgO-(1-x)SiO2 binary glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidault, Xavier; Chaussedent, Stéphane; Blanc, Wilfried

    2015-10-21

    A simple transferable adaptive model is developed and it allows for the first time to simulate by molecular dynamics the separation of large phases in the MgO-SiO2 binary system, as experimentally observed and as predicted by the phase diagram, meaning that separated phases have various compositions. This is a real improvement over fixed-charge models, which are often limited to an interpretation involving the formation of pure clusters, or involving the modified random network model. Our adaptive model, efficient to reproduce known crystalline and glassy structures, allows us to track the formation of large amorphous Mg-rich Si-poor nanoparticles in an Mg-poor Si-rich matrix from a 0.1MgO-0.9SiO2 melt.

  19. Isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibria of binary systems containing butyl acetate for the separation of methoxy aromatic compounds (anisole and guaiacol) from biomass fast pyrolysis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Wu, Meng; Ma, Peisheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The two binary systems related to pyrolysis oil have been reported. • The VLE data were correlated well by the activity coefficient models. • The UNIFAC (Do) model was applied to predict the experimental VLE data. • The interaction parameter (ACOCH 3 –CH 3 COO) was obtained and proved to be reliable. • The obtained interaction parameters by NRTL model were used in the separation process design for the ternary mixture. - Abstract: Developing value-added chemicals from pyrolysis oil has been gaining increasing attention. Thus effective separation and purification of the pyrolysis oil are important and the phase equilibrium data are essential for the design and simulation of the processes. In this study, isobaric vapour–liquid equilibrium (VLE) for the two binary mixtures (butyl acetate + anisole) and (butyl acetate + guaiacol) have been determined at 101.33 kPa, a knowledge of which is essential for the separation of methoxy aromatic compounds (anisole and guaiacol) from biomass fast pyrolysis oil using butyl acetate as a solvent. All the experimental values were confirmed to be thermodynamically consistent using the van Ness method. The NRTL, UNIQUAC, and Wilson activity coefficient models were applied to regress the experimental values. The calculated results agreed well with the measured values. Furthermore, the results were calculated by the UNIFAC (Do) method (modified UNIFAC model) in which aromatic methoxyl is treated as a group (ACOCH 3 ). The new interaction parameter (ACOCH 3 –CH 3 COO) was obtained and proved to be reliable. Based on the preceding results, a feasible separation process for the ternary mixture (butyl acetate + anisole + guaiacol) has been designed to obtain the required products

  20. Electrokinetic microchannel battery by means of electrokinetic and microfluidic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Lu, Fuzhi; Kostiuk, Larry W.; Kwok, Daniel Y.

    2003-11-01

    Pressure-driven flow in a microchannel induces a streaming current due to the presence of an electrical double layer in the interface between the electrolyte solution and channel wall. As the streaming current is of the order of a nano-amphere and is additive, we propose here a method to develop an electrokinetic battery consisting of an array of microchannels that converts the hydrostatic pressure of a liquid into electrical work. We have given oscillating analytical solutions by means of an electrical circuit analysis to model the multi-microchannel battery. Using superposition of the appropriate Fourier series, the derived analytical solutions are useful to predict the current when there is more general time-dependent flow through a microchannel array. To illustrate the idea, we have studied steady-state pressure-driven flow in micropore porous glass filter and compared the results with those predicted from our model. From a 30 cm hydrostatic pressure drop, an external current of 1-2 µA was obtained by means of water passing through the micropore porous glass filter. A larger current can be obtained by simply using a solution with higher salt concentration. This results in a new and potentially useful method of energy conversion by means of an array of microchannels.

  1. Electrokinetic acceleration of DNA hybridization in microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kin Fong; Wang, Yun-Hsiang; Chen, Huai-Yi; Sun, Jia-Hong; Cheng, Ji-Yen

    2015-06-01

    In this work, electrokinetic acceleration of DNA hybridization was investigated by different combinations of frequencies and amplitudes of actuating electric signals. Because the frequencies from low to high can induce different kinds of electrokinetic forces, i.e., electroosmotic to electrothermal forces, this work provides an in-depth investigation of electrokinetic enhanced hybridization. Concentric circular Cr/Au microelectrodes of 350 µm in diameter were fabricated on a glass substrate and probe DNA was immobilized on the electrode surface. Target DNA labeled with fluorescent dyes suspending in solution was then applied to the electrode. Different electrokinetic forces were induced by the application of different electric signals to the circular microelectrodes. Local microfluidic vortexes were generated to increase the collision efficiency between the target DNA suspending in solution and probe DNA immobilized on the electrode surface. DNA hybridization on the electrode surface could be accelerated by the electrokinetic forces. The level of hybridization was represented by the fluorescent signal intensity ratio. Results revealed that such 5-min dynamic hybridization increased 4.5 fold of signal intensity ratio as compared to a 1-h static hybridization. Moreover, dynamic hybridization was found to have better differentiation ability between specific and non-specific target DNA. This study provides a strategy to accelerate DNA hybridization in microsystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. EREM 2001 - 3. symposium and status report on electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czurda, C.; Haus, R. (eds.); Hoetzl, H.

    2001-07-01

    Papers have been submitted by authors from around the world, reflecting the worldwide interest in electrokinetic remediation techniques. Therefore the symposium series plays a significant role in the presentation of recent advancements in electrochemical decontamination of polluted sediments on both scientific and technical level. In the field of potential cost-saving, innovative in-situ remediation technologies electrokinetics are already identified throughout the world. The main topics of the symposium are: electrokinetic models, electrokinetic transport processes, technical installation, combination of electroremediation with different remediation methods and the application in various electrokinetic field test demonstrations.

  3. A design and study of the effects of selectivity on binary separation in a four-zone simulated moving bed for systems with linear isotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cremasco

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The simulated moving bed (SMB is potentially an economical method for the separation and purification of natural products because it is a continuous processes and can achieve higher productivity, higher product recovery, and higher purity than batch chromatographic processes. Despite the advantages of SMB, one of the challenges is to specify its zone flow rates and switching time. In this case it is possible to use the standing wave analysis. In this method, in a binary system, when certain concentration waves are confined to specific zones, high product purity and yield can be assured. Appropriate zone flow rates, zone lengths and step time are chosen to achieve standing waves. In this study the effects of selectivity on yield, throughput, solvent consumption, port switching time, and product purity for a binary system are analyzed. The results show that for a given selectivity the maximum throughput decreases with increasing yield, while solvent consumption and port switching time increase with increasing yield. To achieve the same purity and yield, a system with higher selectivity has a higher throughput and lower solvent consumption.

  4. Electrokinetics of samples treated by electrocoagulation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angle, C.W.; Donini, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose is to study the theory of electrocoagulation during water treatment. Mechanisms proposed in the literature are charge neutralization and dipole-dipole interaction. The electrokinetics of highly concentrated model clay and process clay suspensions, before and after electrocoagulation, are studied experimentally. The charge on treated and untreated dispersions and controls are measured using electrokinetic sonic amplitude and microelectrophoresis techniques. Scanning electron microscopy is used to determine release of aluminum ions onto latex and process clays. The qualitative experimental observations, electrokinetic data, and analysis of aluminum coated particles provide some information on the mechanisms of electrocoagulation, but further studies with dilute dispersions are needed to confirm the charge neutralization mechanism. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Modeling electrokinetics in ionic liquids: General

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Physical and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Bao, Jie [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Pan, Wenxiao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI USA; Sun, Xin [Physical and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-04-07

    Using direct numerical simulations we provide a thorough study on the electrokinetics of ionic liquids. In particular, the modfied Poisson-Nernst-Planck (MPNP) equations are solved to capture the crowding and overscreening effects that are the characteristics of an ionic liquid. For modeling electrokinetic flows in an ionic liquid, the MPNP equations are coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations to study the coupling of ion transport, hydrodynamics, and electrostatic forces. Specifically, we consider the ion transport between two parallel plates, charging dynamics in a 2D straight-walled pore, electro-osmotic ow in a nano-channel, electroconvective instability on a plane ion-selective surface, and electroconvective ow on a curved ion-selective surface. We discuss how the crowding and overscreening effects and their interplay affect the electrokinetic behaviors of ionic liquids in these application problems.

  6. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Important process parameters to optimize in electrokinetic soil remediation are those influencing remediation time and power consumption since these directly affect the cost of a remediation action. This work shows how the electrokinetic remediation (EKR) process could be improved by implementing...... bipolar electrodes in the porous material. The bipolar electrodes in EKR meant two improvements: (1) a shorter migration pathway for the contaminant, and (2) an increased electrical conductivity in the remediation system. All together the remediation proceeded faster with lower electrical resistance than...... in similar experiments but without the bipolar electrodes. The new electrokinetic remediation design was tested on copper mine tailings with different applied electric fields, remediation times and pre-treatment. The results showed that the copper removal was increased from 8% (applying 20V for 8 days...

  7. Modeling electrokinetic transport in phenol contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorn, R.; Haus, R.; Czurda, K. [Dept. of Applied Geology, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Numerical simulations are compared to laboratory experiments of electroremediation in soils contaminated by phenolic pollutants. The developing pH affects the electrokinetic transport behaviour of phenol. It is found that a water chemistry model must be included in an electrokinetic mass transport model to describe the process of electroremediation more accurately, if no buffering system is used at the electrodes. In the case of controlling the pH at the electrode compartments only a simplified chemical reaction model must be included in the numerical code to match the experimental phenolic transport. (orig.)

  8. In situ soil remediation using electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-11-01

    Electrokinetics is emerging as a promising technology for in situ soil remediation. This technique is especially attractive for Superfund sites and government operations which contain large volumes of contaminated soil. The approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The transport mechanisms include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. The feasibility of using electrokinetics to move radioactive 137 Cs and 60 Co at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, is discussed. A closed cell is used to provide in situ measurements of 137 Cs and 60 Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results of ionic movement, along with the corresponding current response, are presented

  9. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  10. Electrokinetic Supercapacitor for Simultaneous Harvesting and Storage of Mechanical Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peihua; Qu, Xiaopeng; Liu, Kang; Duan, Jiangjiang; Li, Jia; Chen, Qian; Xue, Guobin; Xie, Wenke; Xu, Zhimou; Zhou, Jun

    2018-03-07

    Energy harvesting and storage are two distinct processes that are generally achieved using two separated parts based on different physical and chemical principles. Here we report a self-charging electrokinetic supercapacitor that directly couples the energy harvesting and storage processes into one device. The device consists of two identical carbon nanotube/titanium electrodes, separated by a piece of anodic aluminum oxide nanochannels membrane. Pressure-driven electrolyte flow through the nanochannels generates streaming potential, which can be used to charge the capacitive electrodes, accomplishing simultaneous energy generation and storage. The device stores electric charge density of 0.4 mC cm -2 after fully charging under pressure of 2.5 bar. This work may offer a train of thought for the development of a new type of energy unit for self-powered systems.

  11. Enhanced electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil by applying an ammonia continuous circulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Shufa; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Shuangyan [Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang (China)

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of ammonia continuous circulation enhanced electrokinetic remediation of fluorine contaminated soil and to analyze its influence on soil pH after remediation. An experimental study was carried out in self-made electrokinetic apparatus. The voltage gradient was set at 1.0V/cm and ammonia water with different concentrations was used as electrolyte which circulated in series. Comparative studies were made by using deionized water as electrolyte which circulated separately in one experiment and continuously in another. According to the experiment the continuous circulation of ammonia water increased the current value during the remediation process and maintained current through the soil cell stabler, which not only increased fluorine migration but also reduced energy consumption. Among the given ammonia concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 0.2mol/L) the removal rate increased with ammonia concentration. 0.2mol/L had the highest current (26.8mA), and the removal rate amounted up to 57.3%. By using ammonia circulation enhanced electrokinetic technology, the difference between pH values of cathode soil and anode soil became smaller. Ammonia continuous circulation enhanced electrokinetics can effectively remediate fluorine contaminated soil and the residual ammonia in the soil can also improve soil fertility.

  12. Artificially phase-separated binary self-assembled monolayers composed of 11-amino-1-undecanethiolate and 10-carboxy-1-decanethiolate on Au(1 1 1): A comparative study of two preparing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phong, Pham Hong; Tomono, Hyroyuki; Nishi, Naoya; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kakiuchi, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Two methods have been compared for preparing artificially phase-separated two-component SAMs on Au(1 1 1) composed of 11-amino-1-undecanethiolates (AUTe) and 10-carboxyl-1-decanethiolates (CDTe), which would form, thermodynamically, a homogeneously mixed binary SAMs. The first method starts with the formation of a phase-separated binary SAM of AUTe and 2-hydroxy-1-ethanethiolate (HETe) as a template of the artificially phase-separated SAM, followed by the selective desorption of HETe domains and succeeding filling of the vacancy with CDTe. The second method utilizes fluoren-9-ylmethyl N-(11-mercaptoundecyl) carbamate (FMUCe) instead of 11-amino-1-undecanethiol in preparing the template. After the filling with CDTe, the 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group is removed to obtain AUTe domains. Both methods yield artificially phase-separated binary SAMs having AUTe domains of tens nanometer across. The molecularly flat SAM surface with nanometer-scale domains of different acid-base and electrostatic properties are thus created. For preparing binary SAMs with a higher degree of phase separation, the second method is a better choice; a more clear-cut phase separation is achieved

  13. Optimisation of resolution in micellar electrokinetic chromatography by multivariate evaluation of electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaeli, S; Thorsén, G; Karlberg, B

    2001-01-12

    A novel approach to multivariate evaluation of separation electrolytes for micellar electrokinetic chromatography is presented. An initial screening of the experimental parameters is performed using a Plackett-Burman design. Significant parameters are further evaluated using full factorial designs. The total resolution of the separation is calculated and used as response. The proposed scheme has been applied to the optimisation of the separation of phenols and the chiral separation of (+)-1-(9-anthryl)-2-propyl chloroformate-derivatized amino acids. A total of eight experimental parameters were evaluated and optimal conditions found in less than 48 experiments.

  14. 2-D model for electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J.M.; Garcia Delgado, R.A.; Gomez Lahoz, C.; Garcia Herruzo, F. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Univ. de Malaga (Spain); Vereda Alonso, C. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Univ. de Malaga (Spain)]|[Inst. for Geologi and Geoteknik, Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    A simple two-dimensional numerical model is presented in this work. In this case, the model is used to examine the enhanced method of the electrokinetic remediation technique in a 2-D arrangement. Nevertheless the model with minor changes can also be used to study the effect of the electrode configuration in the performance of this technique. (orig.)

  15. Separation of uranium(V I) from binary solution mixtures with thorium(IV), zirconium(IV) and cerium(III) by foaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, K.; Aziz, M.; Benyamin, K.

    1992-01-01

    Foam separation has been investigated for the removal of uranium(V I), thorium(IV), zirconium(IV) and cerium(III) from dilute aqueous solutions at pH values ranging from about I to about II. Sodium laurel sulphate (Na L S) and acetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), being a strong anionic and a strong cationic surfactants, were used as collectors. The results indicate that Na L S can efficiently remove thorium(IV), zirconium(IV) and cerium(III) but not uranium(V I). CTAB, on the other hand, can successfully float only uranium(V I) and zirconium(IV). These differences in flotation properties of the different cations could be used to establish methods for the separation of uranium(V I) from binary mixtures with thorium(IV), zirconium(IV) or cerium(III). The results are discussed in terms of the hydrolytic behaviour of the tested cations and properties of used collectors.2 fig., 1 tab

  16. A method for estimating time-frequency characteristics of compact binary mergers to improve searches for inspiral, merger and ring-down phases separately

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Chad; Megevand, Miguel; Palenzuela, Carlos; Ochsner, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in the description of compact binary systems have produced gravitational waveforms that include inspiral, merger and ring-down phases. Comparing results from numerical simulations with those of post-Newtonian, and related, expansions has provided motivation for employing post-Newtonian waveforms in near merger epochs when searching for gravitational waves and has encouraged the development of analytic fits to full numerical waveforms. Until searches employ full waveforms as templates, data analysts can still conduct separate inspiral, merger and ring-down searches. Improved knowledge about the end of the inspiral phase, the beginning of the merger and the ring-down frequencies will increase the efficiency of searches over each phase separately without needing the exact waveform. We will show that knowledge of the final spin, of which there are many theoretical models and analytic fits to simulations, may give an insight into the time-frequency properties of the merger. We also present implications on the ability to probe the tidal disruption of neutron stars through gravitational waves.

  17. Electrokinetic remediation on cadmium (CD) spiked soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah Jy-Gau [Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung Univ. of Science and Technology, Pingtung (Taiwan); Yu Lin, L. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Christian Bros. Univ. Memphis, TN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study is to examine several variables, such as soil pH, adsorption capacity, fraction of Cd in soils, and organic content for Cd removal in contaminated soil using electrokinetic technology. Two different experimental modules were constructed in the laboratory. In the small module, most Cd was able to move and concentrate at or near the cathode zone in acidic soil and neutral soil under 8 volts after 30 days of electrification. However, the Cd removal efficiency did not improve even when the alkaline soil was soaked in stronger acid solutions. The results indicated that the removal efficiencies were influenced not only by the pH of conducting solutions, but also the pH of the soils. The removal efficiencies of Cd were reduced when a portion of organic peat moss was added into the soils. The increases of organic content in the soils inhibit the removal efficiency in electrokinetic technology. In the larger scale module, the removal efficiency of Cd was lower than that in the smaller module during a short period of time. Nevertheless, the efficiency was improved in the larger module while 16 volts electric pressure and 180 days were applied to the module. The results also showed that the sequence of removal efficiency of the three soils in larger module followed the changes of soil pH. From this study, it concluded that electrokinetic technology has a highly potential to removal Cd in contaminated soils. Within these influence variable studies, the soil pH and organic content are the most important factor in electrokinetic technology. Keywords: Electrokinetic Technique, Heavy Metal, Cd, Soil Remediation. (orig.)

  18. Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid WaterMicrojets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2007-05-31

    We describe a method for generating molecular hydrogen directly from the charge separation effected via rapid flow of liquid water through a metal orifice, wherein the input energy is the hydrostatic pressure times the volume flow rate. Both electrokinetic currents and hydrogen production rates are shown to follow simple equations derived from the overlap of the fluid velocity gradient and the anisotropic charge distribution resulting from selective adsorption of hydroxide ions to the nozzle surface. Pressure-driven fluid flow shears away the charge balancing hydronium ions from the diffuse double layer and carries them out of the aperture. Downstream neutralization of the excess protons at a grounded target electrode produces gaseous hydrogen molecules. The hydrogen production efficiency is currently very low (ca. 10-6) for a single cylindrical jet, but can be improved with design changes.

  19. Wetting-layer formation mechanisms of surface-directed phase separation under different quench depths with off-critical compositions in polymer binary mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Tang; Xie, Xu-Ming

    2007-02-01

    Focusing on the off-critical condition, the quench depth dependence of surface-directed phase separation in the polymer binary mixture is numerically investigated by combination of the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook theory and the Flory-Huggins-de Gennes theory. Two distinct situations, i.e., for the wetting, the minority component is preferred by the surface and the majority component is preferred by the surface, are discussed in detail. The simulated results show that the formation mechanism of the wetting layer is affected by both the quench depth and the off-critical extent. Moreover, a diagram, illustrating the formation mechanisms of the wetting layer with various quench depths and compositions, is obtained on the basis of the simulated results. It is found that, when the minority component is preferred by the surface, the growth of the wetting layer can exhibit pure diffusion limited growth law, logarithmic growth law, and Lifshitz-Slyozov growth law. However, when the majority component is preferred by the surface, the wetting layer always grows logarithmically, regardless of the quench depth and the off-critical extent. It is interesting that the surface-induced nucleation can be observed in this case. The simulated results demonstrate that the surface-induced nucleation only occurs below a certain value of the quench depth, and a detailed range about it is calculated and indicated. Furthermore, the formation mechanisms of the wetting layer are theoretically analyzed in depth by the chemical potential gradient.

  20. Mesoscopic electrohydrodynamic simulations of binary colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Nicolas; Frijters, Stefan; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Harting, Jens

    2018-04-01

    A model is presented for the solution of electrokinetic phenomena of colloidal suspensions in fluid mixtures. We solve the discrete Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator using the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate binary fluid flows. Solvent-solvent and solvent-solute interactions are implemented using a pseudopotential model. The Nernst-Planck equation, describing the kinetics of dissolved ion species, is solved using a finite difference discretization based on the link-flux method. The colloids are resolved on the lattice and coupled to the hydrodynamics and electrokinetics through appropriate boundary conditions. We present the first full integration of these three elements. The model is validated by comparing with known analytic solutions of ionic distributions at fluid interfaces, dielectric droplet deformations, and the electrophoretic mobility of colloidal suspensions. Its possibilities are explored by considering various physical systems, such as breakup of charged and neutral droplets and colloidal dynamics at either planar or spherical fluid interfaces.

  1. Electrokinetic extraction of chromate from unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattson, E.D.; Lindgren, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in industrial nations. Remediation by excavation of such sites may not be cost effective or politically acceptable. Electrokinetic remediation is one possible remediation technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. Previous papers discussing the work performed by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Sat-Unsat, Inc. (SUI) (Lindgren et al., 1991, 1992, 1993) focused on the transport of contaminants and dyes by electrokinetics in unsaturated soils. These experiments were conducted with graphite electrodes with no extraction system. As the contaminants migrated through the soil, they increased in concentration at the electrode creating a diffusion flux in the opposite direction. This paper discusses a technique to remove the contaminants from unsaturated soils once they have reached an electrode

  2. Marble protection: An inorganic electrokinetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meloni, Paola, E-mail: paola.meloni@dimcm.unica.it [Department of Mechanical, Chemical and Materials Engineering (DIMCM), University of Cagliari, Via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Manca, Francesco, E-mail: ing.francesco.manca@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical, Chemical and Materials Engineering (DIMCM), University of Cagliari, Via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Carcangiu, Gianfranco, E-mail: gcarcan@unica.it [Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria (IGAG), CNR, Piazza d’Armi, 09123 Cagliari (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    The influence of an electric potential difference in an aqueous solution was studied as a method for depositing a calcium oxalate coating over a weathered carbonatic stone. Samples of weathered Carrara white marble were treated at 15 and 50 °C for 5 h in an electrokinetic cell, specifically conceived for this study, containing a solution of ammonium oxalate (4% by weight), and were subsequently characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The electrokinetic treatment proved to be a cost effective and time saving process, able to produce a thick and homogeneous calcium oxalate coating over the stone surface that improves its chemical and physical resistance in low pH environments, and is able to protect the stone from the by-products of urban pollution.

  3. Marble protection: An inorganic electrokinetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Paola; Manca, Francesco; Carcangiu, Gianfranco

    2013-05-01

    The influence of an electric potential difference in an aqueous solution was studied as a method for depositing a calcium oxalate coating over a weathered carbonatic stone. Samples of weathered Carrara white marble were treated at 15 and 50 °C for 5 h in an electrokinetic cell, specifically conceived for this study, containing a solution of ammonium oxalate (4% by weight), and were subsequently characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The electrokinetic treatment proved to be a cost effective and time saving process, able to produce a thick and homogeneous calcium oxalate coating over the stone surface that improves its chemical and physical resistance in low pH environments, and is able to protect the stone from the by-products of urban pollution.

  4. Marble protection: An inorganic electrokinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, Paola; Manca, Francesco; Carcangiu, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    The influence of an electric potential difference in an aqueous solution was studied as a method for depositing a calcium oxalate coating over a weathered carbonatic stone. Samples of weathered Carrara white marble were treated at 15 and 50 °C for 5 h in an electrokinetic cell, specifically conceived for this study, containing a solution of ammonium oxalate (4% by weight), and were subsequently characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The electrokinetic treatment proved to be a cost effective and time saving process, able to produce a thick and homogeneous calcium oxalate coating over the stone surface that improves its chemical and physical resistance in low pH environments, and is able to protect the stone from the by-products of urban pollution.

  5. Electrokinetic extraction of chromate from unsaturated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, E.D. [SAT-UNSAT, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lindgren, E.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in industrial nations. Remediation by excavation of such sites may not be cost effective or politically acceptable. Electrokinetic remediation is one possible remediation technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. Previous papers discussing the work performed by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Sat-Unsat, Inc. (SUI) (Lindgren et al., 1991, 1992, 1993) focused on the transport of contaminants and dyes by electrokinetics in unsaturated soils. These experiments were conducted with graphite electrodes with no extraction system. As the contaminants migrated through the soil, they increased in concentration at the electrode creating a diffusion flux in the opposite direction. This paper discusses a technique to remove the contaminants from unsaturated soils once they have reached an electrode.

  6. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bala Ramudu; R. P. Tiwari; R. K. Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself wa...

  7. Electrokinetically controlled fluid injection into unicellular microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuewen; Zhang, Xixi; Boualavong, Jonathan; Durney, Andrew R; Wang, Tonghui; Kirschner, Scott; Wentz, Michaela; Mukaibo, Hitomi

    2017-10-01

    Electrokinetically controlled microinjection is reported as an effective transport mechanism for microinjection into the wild-type strain of the widely studied model microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. A microinjection system using glass capillary pipettes was developed to capture and impale the motile cells. To apply an electric field and induce electrokinetic flow (e.g., electrophoresis and electroosmosis), an electrode was inserted directly into the solution inside the impaling injection pipette and another electrode was inserted into the external cell media. The viability of the impaled cells was confirmed for more than an hour under 0.01 V using the fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide dual fluorescent dye based assay. The viability was also found to increase almost logarithmically with decreasing voltage and to depend strongly on the solution within the injection pipette. Successful electrokinetic microinjection into cells was confirmed by both an increase in cell volume under an applied voltage and electric field dependent delivery of fluorescent fluorescein molecules into an impaled cell. Our study offers novel opportunities for quantitative delivery of biomolecules into microalgae and advancing the research and development of these organisms as biosynthetic factories. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The True Ultracool Binary Fraction Using Spectral Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle; Gelino, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Brown dwarfs bridge the gap between stars and giant planets. While the essential mechanisms governing their formation are not well constrained, binary statistics are a direct outcome of the formation process, and thus provide a means to test formation theories. Observational constraints on the brown dwarf binary fraction place it at 10 ‑ 20%, dominated by imaging studies (85% of systems) with the most common separation at 4 AU. This coincides with the resolution limit of state-of-the-art imaging techniques, suggesting that the binary fraction is underestimated. We have developed a separation-independent method to identify and characterize tightly-separated (dwarfs as spectral binaries by identifying traces of methane in the spectra of late-M and early-L dwarfs. Imaging follow-up of 17 spectral binaries yielded 3 (18%) resolved systems, corroborating the observed binary fraction, but 5 (29%) known binaries were missed, reinforcing the hypothesis that the short-separation systems are undercounted. In order to find the true binary fraction of brown dwarfs, we have compiled a volume-limited, spectroscopic sample of M7-L5 dwarfs and searched for T dwarf companions. In the 25 pc volume, 4 candidates were found, three of which are already confirmed, leading to a spectral binary fraction of 0.95 ± 0.50%, albeit for a specific combination of spectral types. To extract the true binary fraction and determine the biases of the spectral binary method, we have produced a binary population simulation based on different assumptions of the mass function, age distribution, evolutionary models and mass ratio distribution. Applying the correction fraction resulting from this method to the observed spectral binary fraction yields a true binary fraction of 27 ± 4%, which is roughly within 1σ of the binary fraction obtained from high resolution imaging studies, radial velocity and astrometric monitoring. This method can be extended to identify giant planet companions to young brown

  9. In-Situ Electrokinetic Remediation for Metal Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    phytoremediation , and electrokinetic extraction. The US Army Environmental Center (USAEC) and Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC...California (CA) List Metals: Antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury , molybdenum, nickel, selenium...Comparison Technologies with which electrokinetic remediation must compete are "Dig and Haul", Soil Washing, and Phytoremediation . "Dig and haul

  10. Movement of pentachlorophenol in unsaturated soil by electrokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, M.; Sills, G. [Dept. of Engineering Science, Oxford (United Kingdom); Jackman, S. [Dept. of Engineering Science, Oxford (United Kingdom)]|[NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Thompson, I. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Electrokinetic experiments have been performed on unsaturated natural soil specimens artificially contaminated with pentachlorophenol. Movement of pentachlorophenol within the soil mass has been demonstrated, but no contaminant was discovered in any effluent fluids. The results indicate that it may be possible to improve the bioavailability of the pollutant to degradative microorganisms using electrokinetics, by moving the chemical and microbes relative to each others. (orig.)

  11. Interacting binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleton, P.P.; Pringle, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 15 review articles in the field of binary stars. The subjects reviewed span considerably, from the shortest period of interacting binaries to the longest, symbiotic stars. Also included are articles on Algols, X-ray binaries and Wolf-Rayet stars (single and binary). Contents: Preface. List of Participants. Activity of Contact Binary Systems. Wolf-Rayet Stars and Binarity. Symbiotic Stars. Massive X-ray Binaries. Stars that go Hump in the Night: The SU UMa Stars. Interacting Binaries - Summing Up

  12. Towards a selective adsorbent for arsenate and selenite in the presence of phosphate: Assessment of adsorption efficiency, mechanism, and binary separation factors of the chitosan-copper complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, Jamila S; Lounsbury, Amanda W; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2016-01-01

    The potential for a chitosan-copper polymer complex to select for the target contaminants in the presence of their respective competitive ions was evaluated by synthesizing chitosan-copper beads (CCB) for the treatment of (arsenate:phosphate), (selenite:phosphate), and (selenate:sulfate). Based on work by Rhazi et al., copper (II) binds to the amine moiety on the chitosan backbone as a monodentate complex (Type I) and as a bidentate complex crosslinking two polymer chains (Type II), depending on pH and copper loading. In general, the Type I complex exists alone; however, beyond threshold conditions of pH 5.5 during synthesis and a copper loading of 0.25 mol Cu(II)/mol chitosan monomer, the Type I and Type II complexes coexist. Subsequent chelation of this chitosan-copper ligand to oxyanions results in enhanced and selective adsorption of the target contaminants in complex matrices with high background ion concentrations. With differing affinities for arsenate, selenite, and phosphate, the Type I complex favors phosphate chelation while the Type II complex favors arsenate chelation due to electrostatic considerations and selenite chelation due to steric effects. No trend was exhibited for the selenate:sulfate system possibly due to the high Ksp of the corresponding copper salts. Binary separation factors, α12, were calculated for the arsenate-phosphate and selenite-phosphate systems, supporting the mechanistic hypothesis. While, further research is needed to develop a synthesis method for the independent formation of the Type II complexes to select for target contaminants in complex matrices, this work can provide initial steps in the development of a selective adsorbent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Separation of neutral compounds by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Pedersen-Bjergaard, S

    2001-01-01

    by replacement of half the content of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with either sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (SDOSS), 3-(N,N-dimethylmyristylammonio) propanesulfonate (MAPS), polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 21), and polyoxyethylene 23 lauryl ether (Brij 35). MEEKC was also accomplished with 3.......3% of the anionic surfactant sodium cholate and with the cationic surfactant N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTMA). Both provided substantial differences in selectivity as compared to the SDS-based systems. With SDS as surfacant, the concentration was varied within 1.0-4.5%. Minor selectivity changes were...

  14. Assessment and Comparison of Electrokinetic and Electrokinetic-bioremediation Techniques for Mercury Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nabila, A. T. A.; Nurshuhaila, M. S.; Zaidi, E.; Azim, M. A. M.; Farhana, S. M. S.

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are major sources of contamination due to the presence of harmful bacteria and heavy metals. Electrokinetic-Bioremediation (Ek-Bio) is one of the techniques that can be conducted to remediate contaminated soil. Therefore, the most prominent bacteria from landfill soil will be isolated to determine their optimal conditions for culture and growth. The degradation rate and the effectiveness of selected local bacteria were used to reduce soil contamination. Hence, this enhances microbiological activities to degrade contaminants in soil and reduce the content of heavy metals. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of isolated bacteria (Lysinibacillus fusiformis) to remove mercury in landfill soil. 5 kg of landfill soil was mixed with deionized water to make it into slurry condition for the purpose of electrokinetic and bioremediation. This remediation technique was conducted for 7 days by using 50 V/m of electrical gradient and Lysinibacillus fusiformis bacteria was applied at the anode reservoir. The slurry landfill soil was located at the middle of the reservoir while distilled water was placed at the cathode of reservoir. After undergoing treatment for 7 days, the mercury analyzer showed that there was a significant reduction of approximately up to 78 % of mercury concentration for the landfill soil. From the results, it is proven that electrokinetic bioremediation technique is able to remove mercury within in a short period of time. Thus, a combination of Lysinibacillus fusiformis and electrokinetic technique has the potential to remove mercury from contaminated soil in Malaysia.

  15. Development of complex electrokinetic decontamination method for soil contaminated with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Park, Hye-Min; Kim, Wan-Suk; Moon, Jei-Kwon; Hyeon, Jay-Hyeok

    2012-01-01

    520L complex electrokinetic soil decontamination equipment was manufactured to clean up uranium contaminated soils from Korean nuclear facilities. To remove uranium at more than 95% from the radioactive soil through soil washing and electrokinetic technology, decontamination experiments were carried out. To reduce the generation of large quantities of metal oxides in cathode, a pH controller is used to control the pH of the electrolyte waste solution between 0.5 and 1 for the formation of UO 2+ . More than 80% metal oxides were removed through pre-washing, an electrolyte waste solution was circulated by a pump, and a metal oxide separator filtered the metal oxide particles. 80–85% of the uranium was removed from the soil by soil washing as part of the pre-treatment. When the initial uranium concentration of the soil was 21.7 Bq/g, the required electrokinetic decontamination time was 25 days. When the initial concentration of 238 U in the soil was higher, a longer decontamination time was needed, but the removal rate of 238 U from the soil was higher.

  16. Modeling of electrokinetic desalination of bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    A model for the reactive transport of matter through porous media induced by an externally applied electric field is discussed. The Nernst–Planck–Poisson system of equations is used for modeling multi-species electro-diffusion transport phenomena, assuming chemical equilibrium during the process....... The system of equations includes the transport of water and the resulting advective flow of the aqueous species. The model takes into account transient change in porosity and its impact on transport. Test examples were performed and compared to experimental data for electrokinetic desalination treatment...

  17. Electrokinetics in Earth Sciences: A Tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jouniaux

    2012-01-01

    in porous media, to be included in the special issue “Electrokinetics in Earth Sciences” of International Journal of Geophysics. We describe the methodology used for self-potential (SP and for seismoelectromagnetic measurements, for both field and laboratory experiments and for modelling. We give a large bibliography on the studies performed in hydrology to detect at distance the water flow, to deduce the thickness of the aquifer and to predict the hydraulic conductivity. The observation of SP has also been proposed to detect fractures in boreholes, to follow the hydraulic fracturing, and to predict the earthquakes. Moreover, we detail the studies on geothermal applications.

  18. Electrokinetic Fingering In Hele-Shaw Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Mohammad; Bazant, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Large scale flow problems in porous media, such as those encountered in underground oil reservoirs, are typically described by the Darcy's law. However, it is well known that many underground rock formations contain surface groups and minerals that dissociate in the presence of water. Convection of these charges by the pressure driven flow can then set up streaming current and streaming potential that affects the flow. Furthermore, electric fields that are often used to enhance oil recovery, e.g. by reducing the oil's viscosity through electro-thermal heating, drive electro-osmotic flows that could set up very large pressure in small pores. The full description of fluid flow thus requires a solution to the fully coupled electrokinetic problem. In their seminal work, Saffman and Taylor showed that the moving interface between two immiscible fluids in a porous medium becomes unstable if pushed by the low-viscosity fluid. Here we report on the role of electrokinetic phenomena on stability of these viscous fronts in Hele-Shaw cells by using analytic as well as numerical approaches. Interestingly, we find that the instability could be suppressed if the right physical conditions are met or otherwise enhanced, leading to greater mixing of two fluids.

  19. Electrokinetics and flocculation studies of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhawan, N. [Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Coal from India contains 25-35 per cent ash content. This leads to high slag volume, lower calorific value and inferior coke. In order to remove ash content, coal is washed, however, it retains some water that makes it difficult to process. Mechanical dewatering is performed in which a large portion of solids is removed while the remainder remains in centrifuge. There is therefore a need to recover solids and water. This paper discussed the use of flocculation and electrokinetic studies such as the determination of the point of zero charge. The experimental studies considered factors such as turbidity, faster settling, and compactness. Flocculation is brought about by the action of high molecular weight materials such as polyelectrolytes, where the material physically forms a bridge between two or more particles, uniting the sold particles into a random, three-dimensional structure, which is loose and porous. This paper also described the materials and methods of the electrokinetic studies on coal samples. Materials that were described included nephelometer, zeta meter, and a flocculator. It was concluded that in selecting the best flocculant, the preference order should be turbidity; settling rate; dosage; and moisture content. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. Monitoring of electrokinetic in-situ-decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmann, T. [INTUS Inst. fuer Technologie und Umweltschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The need for a monitoring system for in-situ soil decontamination is two-fold: Firstly, to ensure that remediation is attained and secondly to minimize costs and treatment time. A further reason is the potential risk of unexpected mobilization or chemical generation of hazardous compounds which could result in an extension of the contamination into other regions of soil, the ground water or the atmosphere. Electrokinetic in-situ decontamination is based on transport processes in the ground that proceed with relatively low velocity. This results in treatment times of several months. Since the transport processes can be described by a mathematical model, monitoring should always be combined with qualified mathematical processing. This makes it possible to estimate treatment time and costs to be expected. The challenge of in-situ monitoring is to identify relevant parameters describing the state of the ground. These parameters must be independent from influences like weather but they must be sensitive to changes of soil characteristics. In the case of electrokinetic soil remediation, probes and sensors must be resistant to influences of electric fields. The function of sensors or measuring systems can be disturbed or even damaged or destroyed by electric fields (for example by electro-corrosion). (orig.)

  1. Insights into head-column field-amplified sample stacking: Part I. Detailed study of electrokinetic injection of a weak base across a short water plug

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jozef; Thormann, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1502, FEB (2017), s. 51-61 ISSN 0021-9673 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * electrokinetic injection * simulation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  2. Binary Systems and the Initial Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, O. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper we discuss advantages and disadvantages of binary stars, which are important for star formation history determination. We show that to make definite conclusions of the initial mass function shape, it is necessary to study binary population well enough to correct the luminosity function for unresolved binaries; to construct the mass-luminosity relation based on wide binaries data, and to separate observational mass functions of primaries, of secondaries, and of unresolved binaries.

  3. Rapid analysis of caffeine in “smart drugs” and “energy drinks” by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liotta, E.; Gottardo, R.; Seri, C.; Rimondo, C.; Mikšík, Ivan; Serpelloni, G.; Tagliaro, F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 220, 1-3 (2012), s. 279-283 ISSN 0379-0738 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : caffeine * energy drink * smart drug * microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.307, year: 2012

  4. Changes in Electrokinetic Coupling Coefficients of Granite under Triaxial Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kuwano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrokinetic phenomena are believed to be the most likely origin of electromagnetic signals preceding or accompanying earthquakes. The intensity of the source current due to the electrokinetic phenomena is determined by the fluid flux and the electrokinetic coupling coefficient called streaming current coefficient; therefore, how the coefficient changes before rupture is essential. Here, we show how the electrokinetic coefficients change during the rock deformation experiment up to failure. The streaming current coefficient did not increase before failure, but continued to decrease up to failure, which is explained in terms of the elastic closure of capillary. On the other hand, the streaming potential coefficient, which is the product of the streaming current coefficient and bulk resistivity of the rock, increased at the onset of dilatancy. It may be due to change in bulk resistivity. Our result indicates that the zeta potential of the newly created surface does not change so much from that of the preexisting fluid rock interface.

  5. Theory of electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ohshima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate theoretically the electrostatics and electrokinetics of a soft particle, i.e. a hard particle covered with an ion-penetrable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. The electric properties of soft particles in an electrolyte solution, which differ from those of hard particles, are essentially determined by the Donnan potential in the surface layer. In particular, the Donnan potential plays an essential role in the electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles. Furthermore, the concept of zeta potential, which is important in the electrokinetics of hard particles, loses its physical meaning in the electrokinetics of soft particles. In this review, we discuss the potential distribution around a soft particle, the electrostatic interaction between two soft particles, and the motion of a soft particle in an electric field.

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU ELECTROKINETIC EXTRACTION SYSTEM - SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed an in situ soil remediation system that uses electrokinetic principles to remediate hexavalent chromium-contaminated unsaturated or partially saturated soils. The technology involves the in situ application of direct current to the...

  7. Application to electrokinetic data to test the adsorption models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmulski, M.; Eriksson, P.; Gustafsson, J.; Rosenholm, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of adsorption of Gd(III) on the electrokinetic potential of silica (Aerosil, 390 m 2 /g) was studied at various Gd(III) concentrations (ranging from 10 -6 to 10 -2 mol dm -3 ) and at four different solid to liquid ratios (ranging from 0.05 to 8% of silica by weight). Up to some critical concentration of trivalent cations, their effect on the electrokinetic potential of silica is negligible and the sign is negative over the entire studied pH range. This critical concentration increases when the solid to liquid ratio increases. When Gd(III) concentration exceeds the critical value, the magnitude of the negative electrokinetic potential of silica is reduced. This effect is substantial at pH 6 but it is rather insignificant when the pH is very high (pH > 8) or very low (pH < 4). When the Gd(III) concentration is even higher, the sign of the electrokinetic potential is reversed to positive over certain pH range, which depends on the solid to liquid ratio and Gd(III) concentration. The shape of experimental electrokinetic curves of silica in the presence of trivalent cations often shows maximums and double isoelectric points, thus, it is very complex in comparison with the shape of the percentage of uptake vs. pH curves. Therefore, a test of an adsorption model based on electrokinetic curves is much more demanding than a test based merely on uptake vs. pH curves. The parameters of surface complexation model (SCM) derived from analysis of a large set of uptake curves were used to predict the course of electrokinetic curves. The calculated and experimentally observed maximums and isoelectric points do not exactly match (a difference up to one pH unit), but the model curves qualitatively reflect the trends observed in electrokinetic experiments. (orig.)

  8. Electrokinetic desalination of glazed ceramic tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ferreira, Celia; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination is a method where an applied electric DC field is the driving force for removal of salts from porous building materials. In the present paper, the method is tested in laboratory scale for desalination of single ceramic tiles. In a model system, where a tile...... was contaminated with NaCl during submersion and subsequently desalinated by the method, the desalination was completed in that the high and problematic initial Cl(-) concentration was reduced to an unproblematic concentration. Further conductivity measurements showed a very low conductivity in the tile after...... treatment, indicating that supply of ions from the poultice at the electrodes into the tile was limited. Electroosmotic transport of water was seen when low ionic content was reached. Experiments were also conducted with XVIII-century tiles, which had been removed from Palacio Centeno (Lisbon) during...

  9. Faradaic AC Electrokinetic Flow and Particle Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Yuxing; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2004-11-01

    Faradaic reaction at higher voltages can produce co-ion polarization at AC electrodes instead of counter-ion polarization due to capacitive charging from the bulk. The Faradaic co-ion polarization also does not screen the external field and hence can produce large net electro-kinetic flows at frequencies lower than the inverse RC time of the double layer. Due to the opposite polarization of capacitve and Faradaic charging, we can reverse the direction of AC flows on electrodes by changing the voltage and frequency. Particles and bacteria are trapped and then dispersed at stagnation lines, at locations predicted by our theory, by using these two flows sequentially. This technique offers a good way to concentrate and detect bacteria.

  10. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of chromium contaminated soil has been demonstrated for unsaturated 50-100 mesh sand with 10% moisture by weight. The initial region of sand contaminated with 100 ppm w chromate ions was completely cleansed of contamination. After 22 hours of treatment, chromate was found near the anode and apparently migrated at a rate of at least 0.40 cm/hr with a pore water current density of 2.26mA/cm 2 . An analogous run was made using the same sand and FD and C Red No. 40 as the contaminant at a molar concentration equivalent to the 100 ppm w Cr run. The position of the migrating dye was monitored photographically. After similar treatment conditions, the visual dye concentration profile exhibited characteristics similar to the chromate. The migration rate of the dye was slower than the chromate but the qualitative similarity of behavior in an electric field suggests the dye is an analog for chromate ions. The slower migration rate of the dye is not unexpected because the dye molecule is larger than chromate. The use of dye as an analog for chromate greatly accelerates the experimentation process in unsaturated soil because destructive sampling is not required to monitor the contaminant location. Experiments were also conducted to determine the effect of soil heterogeneities on the electrokinetic processes. Unsaturated sands in size fractions of 50-100 mesh (medium) and 100-200 mesh (fine) were studied both individually and in layers. The dye migration rate was accelerated in the tine sand and slowed in the medium sand of the layered experiment when compared with the corresponding individual experiments. This discrepancy was explained by estimating the current density in each layer which was proportionally higher in the fine layer and lower in the medium layer. These preliminary experiments illustrate the significant dependence of electromigration rates on current density. (author)

  11. Binary catalogue of exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard; Bazso, Akos; Zechner, Renate; Funk, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Since 1995 there is a database which list most of the known exoplanets (The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia at http://exoplanet.eu/). With the growing number of detected exoplanets in binary and multiple star systems it became more important to mark and to separate them into a new database, which is not available in the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Therefore we established an online database (which can be found at: http://www.univie.ac.at/adg/schwarz/multiple.html) for all known exoplanets in binary star systems and in addition for multiple star systems, which will be updated regularly and linked to the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. The binary catalogue of exoplanets is available online as data file and can be used for statistical purposes. Our database is divided into two parts: the data of the stars and the planets, given in a separate list. We describe also the different parameters of the exoplanetary systems and present some applications.

  12. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  13. Application to electrokinetic data to test the adsorption models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmulski, M. [Abo Akademi Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physical Chemistry; Technical Univ. of Lublin, Dept. of Electrochemistry (Poland); Eriksson, P.; Gustafsson, J.; Rosenholm, J.B. [Abo Akademi Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    The effect of adsorption of Gd(III) on the electrokinetic potential of silica (Aerosil, 390 m{sup 2}/g) was studied at various Gd(III) concentrations (ranging from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -2} mol dm{sup -3}) and at four different solid to liquid ratios (ranging from 0.05 to 8% of silica by weight). Up to some critical concentration of trivalent cations, their effect on the electrokinetic potential of silica is negligible and the sign is negative over the entire studied pH range. This critical concentration increases when the solid to liquid ratio increases. When Gd(III) concentration exceeds the critical value, the magnitude of the negative electrokinetic potential of silica is reduced. This effect is substantial at pH 6 but it is rather insignificant when the pH is very high (pH > 8) or very low (pH < 4). When the Gd(III) concentration is even higher, the sign of the electrokinetic potential is reversed to positive over certain pH range, which depends on the solid to liquid ratio and Gd(III) concentration. The shape of experimental electrokinetic curves of silica in the presence of trivalent cations often shows maximums and double isoelectric points, thus, it is very complex in comparison with the shape of the percentage of uptake vs. pH curves. Therefore, a test of an adsorption model based on electrokinetic curves is much more demanding than a test based merely on uptake vs. pH curves. The parameters of surface complexation model (SCM) derived from analysis of a large set of uptake curves were used to predict the course of electrokinetic curves. The calculated and experimentally observed maximums and isoelectric points do not exactly match (a difference up to one pH unit), but the model curves qualitatively reflect the trends observed in electokinetic experiments. (orig.)

  14. Electrokinetic demonstration at the unlined chromic acid pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Hankins, M.G.; Mattson, E.D.; Duda, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy-metal contaminated soils are a common problem at Department of Energy (DOE)-operated sites and privately owned facilities throughout the nation. One emerging technology which can remove heavy metals from soil in situ is electrokinetics. To conduct electrokinetic (EK) remediation, electrodes are implanted into the ground, and a direct current is imposed between the electrodes. Metal ions dissolved in the soil pore water migrate towards an electrode where they can be removed. The electrokinetic program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been focusing on electrokinetic remediation for unsaturated soils. A patent was awarded for an electrokinetic electrode system designed at SNL for applications to unsaturated soils. Current research described in this report details an electrokinetic remediation field demonstration of a chromium plume that resides in unsaturated soil beneath the SNL Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL). This report describes the processes, site investigation, operation and monitoring equipment, testing procedures, and extraction results of the electrokinetic demonstration. This demonstration successfully removed chromium contamination in the form of chromium(VI) from unsaturated soil at the field scale. After 2700 hours of operation, 600 grams of Cr(VI) was extracted from the soil beneath the SNL CWL in a series of thirteen tests. The contaminant was removed from soil which has moisture contents ranging from 2 to 12 weight percent. This demonstration was the first EK field trial to successfully remove contaminant ions from and soil at the field scale. Although the new patented electrode system was successful in removing an anionic contaminant (i.e., chromate) from unsaturated sandy soil, the electrode system was a prototype and has not been specifically engineered for commercialization. A redesign of the electrode system as indicated by the results of this research is suggested for future EK field trials

  15. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  16. Electrokinetic sample preconcentration and hydrodynamic sample injection for microchip electrophoresis using a pneumatic microvalve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Yongzheng; Katipamula, Shanta; Geng, Tao; Prost, Spencer A; Tang, Keqi; Kelly, Ryan T

    2016-02-01

    A microfluidic platform was developed to perform online electrokinetic sample preconcentration and rapid hydrodynamic sample injection for zone electrophoresis using a single microvalve. The polydimethylsiloxane microchip comprises a separation channel, a side channel for sample introduction, and a control channel which is used as a pneumatic microvalve aligned at the intersection of the two flow channels. The closed microvalve, created by multilayer soft lithography, serves as a nanochannel preconcentrator under an applied electric potential, enabling current to pass through while preventing bulk flow. Once analytes are concentrated, the valve is briefly opened and the stacked sample is pressure injected into the separation channel for electrophoretic separation. Fluorescently labeled peptides were enriched by a factor of ∼450 in 230 s. This method enables both rapid analyte concentration and controlled injection volume for high sensitivity, high-resolution CE. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  18. Electrokinetics and soil decontamination: concepts and overview (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrokinetic decontamination and extraction have been proven to be one of the most viable, cost effective and emerging techniques in removing contaminants, especially heavy metals from soils for about last five decades. Basic concepts and an overview of the electrokinetic extraction processes and their potential applications in geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering have been reviewed based on the literature and presented in this paper. Primarily, theoretical and laboratory experimental studies related to electroreclamation of soils are summarised in brief with basic concepts of electrokinetic processes. The paper has been divided into different sections that include history of electrokinetics, background and concepts, modelling, parameter effects, instrumentation, contaminant extraction, field applications, and summary and recommendation. Based on the review it is obvious that the field application of electrokinetic technology to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils /sediments is very limited and site specific. Additional laboratory studies and more pilot- and full-scale information from field applications are critical to the further understanding of the technology and to customize the process in different field conditions.

  19. Hybrid electrokinetic method applied to mix contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, H.; Maria, E. [Dept. of Building Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Several industrials and municipal areas in North America are contaminated with heavy metals and petroleum products. This mix contamination presents a particularly difficult task for remediation when is exposed in clayey soil. The objective of this research was to find a method to cleanup mix contaminated clayey soils. Finally, a multifunctional hybrid electrokinetic method was investigated. Clayey soil was contaminated with lead and nickel (heavy metals) at the level of 1000 ppm and phenanthrene (PAH) of 600 ppm. Electrokinetic surfactant supply system was applied to mobilize, transport and removal of phenanthrene. A chelation agent (EDTA) was also electrokinetically supplied to mobilize heavy metals. The studies were performed on 8 lab scale electrokinetic cells. The mix contaminated clayey soil was subjected to DC total voltage gradient of 0.3 V/cm. Supplied liquids (surfactant and EDTA) were introduced in different periods of time (22 days, 42 days) in order to optimize the most excessive removal of contaminants. The ph, electrical parameters, volume supplied, and volume discharged was monitored continuously during each experiment. At the end of these tests soil and cathalyte were subjected to physico-chemical analysis. The paper discusses results of experiments including the optimal energy use, removal efficiency of phenanthrene, as well, transport and removal of heavy metals. The results of this study can be applied for in-situ hybrid electrokinetic technology to remediate clayey sites contaminated with petroleum product mixed with heavy metals (e.g. manufacture Gas Plant Sites). (orig.)

  20. Electrokinetic Stabilisation Method of Soft Clay in Pure System using Electrokinetic Geosynthetic Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Jefferson, I.; Madun, A.; Abidin, M. H. Z.; Rogers, C. D. F.

    2018-04-01

    Electrokinetic stabilisation (EKS) method has the ability to solve the problems of soft highly compressibility soil. This study will present the results from an experimental study of EKS on soft soils using inactive kaolinite clay, inert electrode and distilled water (DW) as a pure system mechanism before any chemical stabilisers being used in this research. Therefore, this will provide a baseline study to improve the efficiency of EKS approach. The test model was using inert electrode of Electrokinetic Geosythentic (EKG) developed at the Newcastle University to apply a constant voltage gradient of 50 V/m across a soil sample approximately 400 mm. Distilled water was used at the pore electrolyte fluid compartments supplied under zero hydraulic gradient conditions for the periods of 3, 7 and 14 days. Throughout the monitoring, physical and chemical characteristics were measured. Results from the monitoring data, physical and chemical properties of the pure system showed the development of pH gradient, the changes of electrical conductivity and chemical concentrations with regards to the distance from anode and treatment periods due to the electrochemical effects even though there was no chemical stabilisers were introduced or released from the degradation of electrodes.

  1. Modelling of Electrokinetic Processes in Civil and Environmental Engineering Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2011-01-01

    conditions are assumed between the aqueous species and the solid matrix for a set of feasible chemical equilibrium reactions defined for each specific application. A module for re-establishing the chemical equilibrium has been developed and included in the system for this purpose. Changes in the porosity......A mathematical model for the electrokinetic phenomena is described. Numerical simulations of different applications of electrokinetic techniques to the fields of civil and environmental engineering are included, showing the versatility and consistency of the model. The electrokinetics phenomena......-Nernst-Planck system of equations, accounting for ionic migration, chemical diffusion and advection is used for modeling the transport process. The advection term contributor is studied by including in the system the water transport through the porous media, mainly due to electroosmosis. The pore solution filling...

  2. Method for eliminating gas blocking in electrokinetic pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Don W.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.

    2001-09-11

    A method for eliminating gas bubble blockage of current flow during operation of an electrokinetic pump. By making use of the ability to modify the surface charge on the porous dielectric medium used in electrokinetic pumps, it becomes possible to place electrodes away from the pressurized region of the electrokinetic pump. While gas is still generated at the electrodes they are situated such that the generated gas can escape into a larger buffer reservoir and not into the high pressure region of the pump where the gas bubbles can interrupt current flow. Various combinations of porous dielectric materials and ionic conductors can be used to create pumps that have desirable electrical, material handling, and flow attributes.

  3. Recovery of zinc in phosphor wastes via electrokinetic treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, M.Y.; Wang, H. Paul; Chen, C.Y.; Hsiung, T.-L.; Wei, Yu-Ling; Tai, H.-S.; Chiang, K.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Speciation of zinc in phosphor wastes during electrokinetic treatments has been studied by in situ X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy in the present work. The least-square fits of the in situ XANES spectra show that the major zinc species in the phosphor waste are ZnS (77%), ZnO (10%), and Zn(OH) 2 (13%). During the electrokinetic treatment for 90 min, 25% of ZnS and 4% of ZnO are dissolved. About 42% of zinc is enriched on the cathode under the electric field (5 V/cm). Prolonging the electrokinetic treatment time to 4 h under the electric field of 5 V/cm, at least 80% of zinc in the phosphor waste can be recovered

  4. Comparative study of remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil using electrokinetics combined with bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiaying; He, Chiquan; Chen, Xueping; Liang, Xia; Huang, Tongli; Yang, Xuecheng; Shang, Hai

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to design a new bioremediation-electrokinetic (Bio-EK) remediation process to increase treatment efficiency of chromium contamination in soil. Upon residual chromium analysis, it is shown that traditional electrokinetic-PRB system (control) does not have high efficiency (80.26%) to remove Cr(VI). Bio-electrokinetics of exogenous add with reduction bacteria Microbacterium sp. Y2 and electrokinetics can enhance treatment efficiency Cr(VI) to 90.67% after 8 days' remediation. To optimize the overall performance, integrated bio-electrokinetics were designed by synergy with 200 g humic substances (HS) into the systems. According to our results, Cr(VI) (98.33%) was effectively removed via electrokinetics. Moreover, bacteria and humic substances are natural, sustainable, and economical enhancement agents. The research results indicated that the use of integrated bio-electrokinetics is an effective method to remediate chromium-contaminated soils.

  5. Particle morphology and mineral structure of heavy metal-contaminated kaolin soil before and after electrokinetic remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Nicole; Reddy, Krishna R; Al-Hamdan, Ashraf Z

    2009-06-15

    This study aims to characterize the physical distribution of heavy metals in kaolin soil and the chemical and structural changes in kaolinite minerals that result from electrokinetic remediation. Three bench-scale electrokinetic experiments were conducted on kaolin that was spiked with Cr(VI) alone, Ni (II) alone, and a combination of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II) under a constant electric potential of 1VDC/cm for a total duration of 4 days. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on the soil samples before and after electrokinetic remediation. Results showed that the heavy metal contaminant distribution in the soil samples was not observable using TEM and EDX. EDX detected nickel and chromium on some kaolinite particles and titanium-rich, high-contrast particles, but no separate phases containing the metal contaminants were detected. Small amounts of heavy metal contaminants that were detected by EDX in the absence of a visible phase suggest that ions are adsorbed to kaolinite particle surfaces as a thin coating. There was also no clear correlation between semiquantitative analysis of EDX spectra and measured total metal concentrations, which may be attributed to low heavy metal concentrations and small size of samples used. X-ray diffraction analyses were aimed to detect any structural changes in kaolinite minerals resulting from EK. The diffraction patterns showed a decrease in peak height with decreasing soil pH value, which indicates possible dissolution of kaolinite minerals during electrokinetic remediation. Overall this study showed that the changes in particle morphology were found to be insignificant, but a relationship was found between the crystallinity of kaolin and the pH changes induced by the applied electric potential.

  6. Particle morphology and mineral structure of heavy metal-contaminated kaolin soil before and after electrokinetic remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Nicole; Reddy, Krishna R.; Al-Hamdan, Ashraf Z.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the physical distribution of heavy metals in kaolin soil and the chemical and structural changes in kaolinite minerals that result from electrokinetic remediation. Three bench-scale electrokinetic experiments were conducted on kaolin that was spiked with Cr(VI) alone, Ni (II) alone, and a combination of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II) under a constant electric potential of 1 VDC/cm for a total duration of 4 days. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed on the soil samples before and after electrokinetic remediation. Results showed that the heavy metal contaminant distribution in the soil samples was not observable using TEM and EDX. EDX detected nickel and chromium on some kaolinite particles and titanium-rich, high-contrast particles, but no separate phases containing the metal contaminants were detected. Small amounts of heavy metal contaminants that were detected by EDX in the absence of a visible phase suggest that ions are adsorbed to kaolinite particle surfaces as a thin coating. There was also no clear correlation between semiquantitative analysis of EDX spectra and measured total metal concentrations, which may be attributed to low heavy metal concentrations and small size of samples used. X-ray diffraction analyses were aimed to detect any structural changes in kaolinite minerals resulting from EK. The diffraction patterns showed a decrease in peak height with decreasing soil pH value, which indicates possible dissolution of kaolinite minerals during electrokinetic remediation. Overall this study showed that the changes in particle morphology were found to be insignificant, but a relationship was found between the crystallinity of kaolin and the pH changes induced by the applied electric potential.

  7. Acoustically and Electrokinetically Driven Transport in Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ersin

    Electrokinetically driven flows are widely employed as a primary method for liquid pumping in micro-electromechanical systems. Mixing of analytes and reagents is limited in microfluidic devices due to the low Reynolds number of the flows. Acoustic excitations have recently been suggested to promote mixing in the microscale flow systems. Electrokinetic flows through straight microchannels were investigated using the Poisson-Boltzmann and Nernst-Planck models. The acoustic wave/fluid flow interactions in a microchannel were investigated via the development of two and three-dimensional dynamic predictive models for flows with field couplings of the electrical, mechanical and fluid flow quantities. The effectiveness and applicability of electrokinetic augmentation in flexural plate wave micropumps for enhanced capabilities were explored. The proposed concept can be exploited to integrate micropumps into complex microfluidic chips improving the portability of micro-total-analysis systems along with the capabilities of actively controlling acoustics and electrokinetics for micro-mixer applications. Acoustically excited flows in microchannels consisting of flexural plate wave devices and thin film resonators were considered. Compressible flow fields were considered to accommodate the acoustic excitations produced by a vibrating wall. The velocity and pressure profiles for different parameters including frequency, channel height, wave amplitude and length were investigated. Coupled electrokinetics and acoustics cases were investigated while the electric field intensity of the electrokinetic body forces and actuation frequency of acoustic excitations were varied. Multifield analysis of a piezoelectrically actuated valveless micropump was also presented. The effect of voltage and frequency on membrane deflection and flow rate were investigated. Detailed fluid/solid deformation coupled simulations of piezoelectric valveless micropump have been conducted to predict the

  8. Enantioseparation of palonosetron hydrochloride by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with sodium cholate as chiral selector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kan; Chen, Hongli; Tang, Jianghong; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2006-11-03

    The enantioseparation of four stereoisomers of palonosetron hydrochloride by micellar electrokinetic chromatography using sodium cholate as chiral surfactant was described. Sodium cholate was shown to be effective in separating palonosetron hydrochloride stereoisomers. For method optimization, several parameters such as sodium cholate concentration, buffer pH and concentration, the types and concentration of organic modifiers and applied voltage, on the enantioseparation were evaluated and the optimum conditions were obtained as follows: 30 mM borate buffer (pH 9.40) containing 70 mM sodium cholate and 20% (v/v) methanol with an applied voltage of 20 kV. Under these conditions, baseline separation of palonosetron hydrochloride stereoisomers was achieved within 18 min.

  9. Determination of patulin in commercial apple juice by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, M; González-Peñas, E; Amézqueta, S

    2008-01-01

    A novel and validated micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) method using ultraviolet detection (UV) has been applied to the quantitative analysis of patulin (PAT) in commercial apple juice. Patulin was extracted from samples with an ethylacetate solution. The micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECK) parameters studied for method optimization were buffer composition, voltage, temperature, and a separation between PAT and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (main interference in apple juice PAT analysis) peaks until reaching baseline. The method passes a series of validation tests including selectivity, linearity, limit of detection and quantification (0.7 and 2.5 microgL(-1), respectively), precision (within and between-day variability) and recovery (80.2% RSD=4%), accuracy, and robustness. This method was successfully applied to the measurement of 20 apple juice samples obtained from different supermarkets. One hundred percent of the samples were contaminated with a level greater than the limit of detection, with mean and median values of 41.3 and 35.7 microgL(-1), respectively.

  10. Electrokinetic treatment of contaminated soils, sludges, and lagoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittle, J.K.; Pamukcu, S.

    1993-04-01

    The electrokinetic process is an emerging technology for in-situ soil decontamination, in which chemical species, both ionic and nonionic are transported to an electrode site in soil. These products are subsequently removed from the ground via collection systems engineered for each specific application. Electrokinetics refer to movement of water, ions and charged particles relative to one another under the action of an applied direct current electric field. In a porous compact matrix of surface charged particles such as soil, the ion containing pore fluid may be made to flow to collection sites under the applied field. This report describes the effort undertaken to investigate electrokinetically enhanced transport of soil contaminants in synthetic systems. These systems consisted of clay or clay-sand mixtures containing known concentration of a selected heavy metal salt solution or an organic compound. Metals, surrogate radio nuclides and organic compounds evaluated in the program were representatives of those found at a majority of DOE sites. Degree of removal of these metals from soil by the electrokinetic treatment process was assessed through the metal concentration profiles generated across the soil between the electrodes. The best removals, from about 85 to 95% were achieved at the anode side of the soil specimens. Transient pH change had an effect on the metal movement via transient creation of different metal species with different ionic mobilities, as well as changing of the surface characteristics of the soil medium

  11. Exploring driving forces and liquid properties for electrokinetic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an effort to understand electrokinetic energy conversion systems which are based on motion of ionic charges in micro- and nano-confinements. In particular, both experimentally and theoretically the utilization of different kind of liquids was investigated to convert mechanical

  12. Electrokinetic copper and iron migration in anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virkutyte, J.; Sillanpää, M.J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    The application of low-level direct electric current (0.15 mA cm¿2) as an electrokinetic technique to treat copper-contaminated mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. The sludge was obtained from a full scale UASB reactor treating paper-mill wastewater and was artificially

  13. Electrokinetic remediation of a copper contaminated clay: 2-D experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J.M.; Garcia Delgado, R.A.; Gomez Lahoz, C.; Garcia Herruzo, F. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Univ. de Malaga (Spain); Vereda Alonso, C. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Univ. de Malaga (Spain)]|[Inst. for Geologi and Geoteknik, Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The in-situ electrokinetic soil remediation technique was used to clean-up a commercial standard kaolin that had been contaminated with copper. A number of experiments were carried out at a lab scale with the purpose of testing the performance of this technique in a 2 dimensional arrangement and establishing the base for future studies on the distribution of electrodes. (orig.)

  14. Electrokinetic treatment of contaminated soils, sludges, and lagoons. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittle, J.K. [Electro-Petroleum, Inc., Wayne, PA (United States); Pamukcu, S. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-04-01

    The electrokinetic process is an emerging technology for in-situ soil decontamination, in which chemical species, both ionic and nonionic are transported to an electrode site in soil. These products are subsequently removed from the ground via collection systems engineered for each specific application. Electrokinetics refer to movement of water, ions and charged particles relative to one another under the action of an applied direct current electric field. In a porous compact matrix of surface charged particles such as soil, the ion containing pore fluid may be made to flow to collection sites under the applied field. This report describes the effort undertaken to investigate electrokinetically enhanced transport of soil contaminants in synthetic systems. These systems consisted of clay or clay-sand mixtures containing known concentration of a selected heavy metal salt solution or an organic compound. Metals, surrogate radio nuclides and organic compounds evaluated in the program were representatives of those found at a majority of DOE sites. Degree of removal of these metals from soil by the electrokinetic treatment process was assessed through the metal concentration profiles generated across the soil between the electrodes. The best removals, from about 85 to 95% were achieved at the anode side of the soil specimens. Transient pH change had an effect on the metal movement via transient creation of different metal species with different ionic mobilities, as well as changing of the surface characteristics of the soil medium.

  15. Determination of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in mouse blood by capillary electrophoresis/ fluorescence spectroscopy with sweeping techniques in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ching; Liu, Ju-Tsung; Chou, Shiu-Huey; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2003-03-01

    The separation and on-line concentration of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in mouse blood was achieved by means of capillary electrophoresis/fluorescence spectroscopy using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the surfactant. Techniques involving on-line sample concentration, including sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (sweeping-MEKC) and cation-selective exhaustive injection-sweep-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CSEI-sweep-MEKC) were applied; the optimum on-line concentration and separation conditions were determined. In the analysis of an actual sample, LSD was found in a blood sample from a test mouse (0.1 mg LSD fed to a 20 g mouse; approximately 1/10 to the value of LD(50)). As a result, 120 and 30 ng/mL of LSD was detected at 20 and 60 min, respectively, after ingestion of the doses.

  16. Fate of zinc in an electroplating sludge during electrokinetic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shou-Heng; Wang, H Paul

    2008-08-01

    Chemical structure of zinc in the electrokinetic treatments of an electroplating sludge has been studied by in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structural (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structural (XANES) spectroscopies in the present work. The least-square fitted XANES spectra indicate that the main zinc compounds in the sludge were ZnCO(3) (75%), ZnOSiO(2) (17%) and Zn(OH)(2) (7%). Zinc in the sludge possessed a Zn-O bond distance of 2.07 A with a coordination number (CN) of 5. In the second shells, the bond distance of Zn-(O)-Si was 3.05 A (CN=2). An increase of Zn-(O)-Si (0.05 A) with a decrease of its CN (from 5 to <1) was found in the early stage of the electrokinetic treatment. Prolong the electrokinetic treatment time to 180 min, about 34% of Zn(II) was dissolved into the aqueous phase and about 68% of Zn(II) in the sludge (or 23% of total zinc) was migrated to the cathode under the electric field (5 V cm(-1)). The dissolution and electromigration rates of Zn(II) in the sludge were 1.0 and 0.6 mmol h(-1)g(-1) sludge, respectively during the electrokinetic treatment. This work also exemplifies the utilization of in situ EXAFS and XANES for revealing speciation and possible reaction pathways during the course of zinc recycling from the sludge by electrokinetic treatments.

  17. Potential Electrokinetic Remediation Technologies of Laboratory Scale into Field Application- Methodology Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuni Suied, Anis; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad; Nizam Zakaria, Muhammad; Madun, Aziman

    2018-04-01

    Heavy metal in soil possesses high contribution towards soil contamination which causes to unbalance ecosystem. There are many ways and procedures to make the electrokinetic remediation (EKR) method to be efficient, effective, and potential as a low cost soil treatment. Electrode compartment for electrolyte is expected to treat the contaminated soil through electromigration and enhance metal ions movement. The electrokinetic is applicable for many approaches such as electrokinetic remediation (EKR), electrokinetic stabilization (EKS), electrokinetic bioremediation and many more. This paper presents a critical review on comparison of laboratory scale between EKR, EKS and EK bioremediation treatment by removing the heavy metal contaminants. It is expected to propose one framework of contaminated soil mapping. Electrical Resistivity Method (ERM) is one of famous indirect geophysical tools for surface mapping and subsurface profiling. Hence, ERM is used to mapping the migration of heavy metal ions by electrokinetic.

  18. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  19. Electrical Insulation Of Carbon Nanotube Separation Columns For Microchip Electrochromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Chen, Miaoxiang Max; Mølhave, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been grown in microfluidic glass channels for chemical analysis based on electrokinetic separations. A limitation of CNTs for this type of application is their high conductivity, which prevent them from being used for electroosmotic pumping with electrical field streng...

  20. Electrokinetic Particle Transport in Micro-Nanofluidics Direct Numerical Simulation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Shizhi

    2012-01-01

    Numerous applications of micro-/nanofluidics are related to particle transport in micro-/nanoscale channels, and electrokinetics has proved to be one of the most promising tools to manipulate particles in micro/nanofluidics. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of electrokinetic particle transport in micro-/nanoscale channels is crucial to the development of micro/nano-fluidic devices. Electrokinetic Particle Transport in Micro-/Nanofluidics: Direct Numerical Simulation Analysis provides a fundamental understanding of electrokinetic particle transport in micro-/nanofluidics involving elect

  1. Mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  2. Testing and evaluation of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Harris, M.T.; Ally, M.R.

    1996-10-01

    The goals and objectives of the technical task plan (TTP) are to (1) describe the nature and extent of concrete contamination within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and emerging and commercial technologies applicable to these problems; (2) to match technologies to the concrete problems and recommend up to four demonstrations; (3) to initiate recommended demonstrations; and (4) to continue investigation and evaluation of the application of electrokinetic decontamination processes to concrete. This document presents findings of experimental and theoretical studies of the electrokinetic decontamination (EK) process and their implications for field demonstrations. This effort is an extension of the work performed under TTP 142005, ''Electroosmotic Concrete Decontamination. The goals of this task were to determine the applicability of EK for treating contaminated concrete and, if warranted, to evaluate EK as a potential technology for demonstration. 62 refs

  3. Surfactant-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.W.; Park, J.Y.; Lee, H.H.; Cho, H.J. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    Removal of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) using electrokinetic method was studied in a model system. Kaolinite and phenanthrene were selected as the model clay soil and representative HOC. Three different types of surfactants, APG (alkyl polyglucoside), Brij30 (polyoxyethylene 4 lauryl ether), and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), were used to enhance the solubility of HOCs. Electrokinetic (EK) column experiments were performed using water, surfactant solution, and acetate buffer solution under a constant current condition. Voltage and flow through the soil system were interpreted with time. Electrolyte pH at the anode and cathode compartments was observed for operation time. Removal efficiency of phenanthrene was examined after the end of EK operation during 2, 4, and 6 weeks. (orig.)

  4. Reduction of waste solution volume generated on electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Koo, Dae-Seo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Whan; Han, Gyu-Seong; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, for the reduction of volume of metal oxides generated in cathode chamber, the optimum pH of waste electrolyte in cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured electrokinetic decontamination equipment. Also, the required time to reach to below the clearance concentration level for self- disposal was estimated through experiments using the manufactured electrokinetic decontamination equipment. A diagram of soil decontamination process for the removal of uranium from contaminated soil was drawn out. The optimum pH of waste electrolyte in cathode chamber for the reduction of volume of metal oxides was below 2.35. Also, when the initial uranium concentration of the soils were 7-20 Bq/g, the required times to reach to below the clearance concentration level for self- disposal were 25-40 days. A diagram of soil decontamination process for the removal of uranium from contaminated soil was drawn out.

  5. Electrokinetic remediation of anionic contamination from unsaturated soil: Field application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Mattson, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an in situ technique under development at Sandia National Laboratories for removal of ionic contaminants from soil. While to date most other studies of this technique have focused on saturated soils, usually clays, the work at Sandia has been to extend the process to unsaturated sandy soils typical of arid regions. The impetus for this study is a chromate plume located beneath an old Sandia chemical waste landfill. Working in unsaturated soils is complicated by moisture control requirements, both to prevent undesired hydraulic transport of contamination outside the treatment zone and to optimize soil properties for efficient electrokinetic remediation. Two field tests will be discussed. First, a field test in clean soil is in progress to demonstrate moisture control with the Sandia electrode system. The second field demonstration, planned to begin the Fall of 1995, involves chromate removal from a in a chemical waste landfill

  6. An improved electrokinetic method to consolidate porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feijoo, Jorge; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Nóvoa, X. R.

    2017-01-01

    the consolidation using commercial products have some limitations, such as: (1) low penetrability; (2) no chemical and mineralogical affinity with the material to treat and (3) release of toxic compounds (VOCs), during the solvent evaporation. In the last years, a new consolidation method based on electrokinetic...... the pH of the solutions in contact with the porous material, which can damage it and (2) it is difficult to determine in which area the consolidation takes place. In this study an electrokinetic consolidation method, which has two steps between which the current is reversed, is proposed to solve all...... techniques was developed. This method allows filling some pores by the precipitation of an inorganic compound. As a result the method allows increasing the penetration depth of current consolidation treatments. However, this method needs to be improved since: (1) no special care is taking in controlling...

  7. [Optimization of electrode configuration in soil electrokinetic remediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Fu, Rong-Bing; Xu, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Electric field distributions of several different electrode configurations in non-uniform electric field were simulated using MATLAB software, and the electrokinetic remediation device was constructed according to the best electrode configuration. The changes of soil pH and heavy metal residues in different parts of the device during the electrokinetic remediation were also studied. The results showed that, in terms of the effectiveness of the electric field strength, the square (1-D-1) and hexagonal (2-D-3) were the optimal electrode configurations for one-dimensional and two-dimensional respectively and the changes of soil pH, the removal of heavy metals and the distribution of electric field were closely related to one another. An acidic migration band, which could prevent premature precipitation of heavy metals to a certain extent and promote electrokinetic removal of heavy metals, was formed gradually along with the remediation in the whole hexagon device when the cathodic pH was controlled during the remediation of the four cationic metallic ions, Cd2+, Ni2+, Pb2+ and Cu2+. After 480-hour remediation, the total removals of Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu were 86.6%, 86.2%, 67.7% and 73.0%, respectively. Remediation duration and replacement frequency of the electrodes could be adjusted according to the repair target.

  8. Lead (II) removal from natural soils by enhanced electrokinetic remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altin, Ahmet; Degirmenci, Mustafa

    2005-01-20

    Electrokinetic remediation is a very effective method to remove metal from fine-grained soils having low adsorption and buffering capacity. However, remediation of soil having high alkali and adsorption capacity via the electrokinetic method is a very difficult process. Therefore, enhancement techniques are required for use in these soil types. In this study, the effect of the presence of minerals having high alkali and cation exchange capacity in natural soil polluted with lead (II) was investigated by means of the efficiency of electrokinetic remediation method. Natural soil samples containing clinoptilolite, gypsum and calcite minerals were used in experimental studies. Moreover, a sample containing kaolinite minerals was studied to compare with the results obtained from other samples. Best results for soils bearing alkali and high sorption capacity minerals were obtained upon addition of 3 mol AcH and application of 20 V constant potential after a remediation period of 220 h. In these test conditions, lead (II) removal efficiencies for these samples varied between 60% and 70% up to 0.55 normalized distance. Under the same conditions, removal efficiencies in kaolinite sample varied between 50% and 95% up to 0.9 normalized distance.

  9. Pseudo-stationary separation materials for highly parallel separations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anup K.; Palmer, Christopher (University of Montana, Missoula, MT)

    2005-05-01

    Goal of this study was to develop and characterize novel polymeric materials as pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography. Fundamental studies have characterized the chromatographic selectivity of the materials as a function of chemical structure and molecular conformation. The selectivities of the polymers has been studied extensively, resulting in a large body of fundamental knowledge regarding the performance and selectivity of polymeric pseudostationary phases. Two polymers have also been used for amino acid and peptide separations, and with laser induced fluorescence detection. The polymers performed well for the separation of derivatized amino acids, and provided some significant differences in selectivity relative to a commonly used micellar pseudostationary phase. The polymers did not perform well for peptide separations. The polymers were compatible with laser induced fluorescence detection, indicating that they should also be compatible with chip-based separations.

  10. Rapid determination of water- and fat-soluble vitamins with microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Changna; Cao, Yuhua; Ding, Shaodong; Wang, Yun

    2008-06-06

    A rapid, reliable and reproducible method based on microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) for simultaneous determination of 13 kinds of water- and fat-soluble vitamins has been developed in this work. A novel microemulsion system consisting of 1.2% (w/w) sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS), 21% (v/v) 1-butanol, 18% (v/v) acetonitrile, 0.8% (w/w) n-hexane, 20mM borax buffer (pH 8.7) was applied to improve selectivity and efficiency, as well as shorten analysis time. The composition of microemulsion used as the MEEKC running buffer was investigated thoroughly to obtain stable separation medium, as well as the optimum determination conditions. Acetonitrile as the organic solvent modifier, pH of the running buffer and 1-butanol as the co-surfactant played the most important roles for the separation of the fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins and stabilization of system, respectively. The 13 water- and fat-soluble vitamins were baseline separated within 30 min. The system was applied to determine water- and fat-soluble vitamins in commercial multivitamin pharmaceutical formulation, good accuracy and precision were obtained with recoveries between 97% and 105%, relative standard derivations (RSDs) less than 1.8% except vitamin C, and acceptable quantitative results corresponding to label claim.

  11. GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Khan, Fazeel Mahmood, E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu [Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-09-10

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy.

  12. GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Khan, Fazeel Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy

  13. Spectral induced polarization for monitoring electrokinetic remediation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Losito, Gabriella

    2015-12-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an emerging technology for extracting heavy metals from contaminated soils and sediments. This method uses a direct or alternating electric field to induce the transport of contaminants toward the electrodes. The electric field also produces pH variations, sorption/desorption and precipitation/dissolution of species in the porous medium during remediation. Since heavy metal mobility is pH-dependent, the accurate control of pH inside the material is required in order to enhance the removal efficiency. The common approach for monitoring the remediation process both in laboratory and in the field is the chemical analysis of samples collected from discrete locations. The purpose of this study is the evaluation of Spectral Induced Polarization as an alternative method for monitoring geochemical changes in the contaminated mass during remediation. The advantage of this technique applied to field-scale is to offer higher resolution mapping of the remediation site and lower cost compared to the conventional sampling procedure. We carried out laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments on fine-grained marine sediments contaminated by heavy metal and we made Spectral Induced Polarization measurements before and after each treatment. Measurements were done in the frequency range 10- 3-103 Hz. By the deconvolution of the spectra using the Debye Decomposition method we obtained the mean relaxation time and total chargeability. The main finding of this work is that a linear relationship exists between the local total chargeability and pH, with good agreement. The observed behaviour of chargeability is interpreted as a direct consequence of the alteration of the zeta potential of the sediment particles due to pH changes. Such relationship has a significant value for the interpretation of induced polarization data, allowing the use of this technique for monitoring electrokinetic remediation at field-scale.

  14. Electrokinetics for removal of low-level radioactivity from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamukcu, S. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Wittle, J.K. [Electro-Petroleum, Inc., Wayne, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The electrokinetic process is an emerging technology for in situ soil decontamination in which chemical species, both ionic and nonionic, are transported to an electrode site in soil. These products are subsequently removed from the ground via collection systems engineered for each specific application. The work presented here describes part of the effort undertaken to investigate electrokinetically enhanced transport of soil contaminants in synthetic systems. These systems consisted of clay or clay-sand mixtures containing known concentrations of a selected heavy-metal salt solution. These metals included surrogate radionuclides such as Sr, Cs and U, and an anionic species of Cr. Degree of removal of these metals from soil by the electrokinetic treatment process was assessed through the metal concentration profiles generated across the soil between the electrodes. Removals of some metal species up to 99% were achieved at the anode or cathode end of the soil upon 24 to 48 hours of treatment or a maximum of 1 pore volume of water displacement toward the cathode compartment. Transient pH change through the soil had an effect on the metal movement, as evidenced by accumulation of the metals at the discharge ends of the soil specimens. This accumulation was attributed to the precipitation of the metal and increased cation retention capacity of the clay in high pH environment at the cathode end. In general, the reduced mobility and dissociation of the ionic species as they encounter areas of higher ionic concentration in their path of migration resulted in the accumulation of the metals at the discharge ends of the soil specimens.

  15. Electrokinetic remediation of anionic contaminants from unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in the DOE weapons complex, and for the nation as a whole. Electrokinetic remediation is one possible technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. In previous studies at Sandia National Laboratories, the electromigration of chromate ions and anionic dye ions have been demonstrated. This paper reports on a series of experiments that were conducted to study the effect of moisture content on the electromigration rate of anionic contaminants in unsaturated soil and determine the limiting moisture content for which electromigration occurs

  16. Physicochemical and numerical modeling of electrokinetics in inhomogenous matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel

    A physicochemical model has been proposed based on the Nernst-Planck-Poisson system. The model includes the transport of water through the porous media, the monitoring of the degree of saturation, the pH value and the porosity throughout the domain; and a comprehensive set of chemical and electrochemical reactions...... is mainly based on a finite elements method for the integration of the transient system of partial differential equations coupled with a Newton-Raphson method for computing chemical equilibrium. During the development of the proposed physicochemical and numerical model, different electrokinetic systems have...

  17. Control of electrode processes in electrokinetic soil remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, M.; Marb, C. [Bavarian State Office for Environmental Protection, Waste Technology Centre, Augsburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Technical control of electrode processes induced by water electrolysis is crucial for the effectiveness of electrokinetic soil remediation. A calculation method for the quantification of electrolysis products is derived and its validity by the consumption of neutralizing agents verified. Steel rods used as sacrificial anodes instead of inert materials cannot counteract the acidification of the anolyte due to the acidic property of Fe-cations released as oxidation products. An an alternative to ordinary porous well materials a tubular cation exchange membrane was used as a cathode well. Thereby the migration of anions stemming from the catholyte neutralisation was hampered and no loss in the electric field strength occured. (orig.)

  18. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge by an electrokinetic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, A.B.; Couto, N.; Mateus, E.P.

    to supply P for the next ca. 80 years. Additionaly, the quality of this raw material has deteriorated due to contamination, which has increased processing costs of mineral P fertilizers. The recovery of nutrients, like P, from secondary resources urges. Sewage sludge (SS) and sewage sludge ash (SSA) from...... waste water treatment plants (WWTP) may contain contaminants or unwanted elements regarding specific applications, but they also contain secondary resources of high value. Using these ash as a P resource, while removing the contaminants, seems a sustainable option. The electrokinetic (EK) process can....... This communication aims to discuss preliminary results of the feasibility of EK process to recover P from WWTP target wastes....

  19. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioremediation of organic contaminants: a review of processes and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R T; Harbottle, M J; Smith, J W N; Thornton, S F

    2014-07-01

    There is current interest in finding sustainable remediation technologies for the removal of contaminants from soil and groundwater. This review focuses on the combination of electrokinetics, the use of an electric potential to move organic and inorganic compounds, or charged particles/organisms in the subsurface independent of hydraulic conductivity; and bioremediation, the destruction of organic contaminants or attenuation of inorganic compounds by the activity of microorganisms in situ or ex situ. The objective of the review is to examine the state of knowledge on electrokinetic bioremediation and critically evaluate factors which affect the up-scaling of laboratory and bench-scale research to field-scale application. It discusses the mechanisms of electrokinetic bioremediation in the subsurface environment at different micro and macroscales, the influence of environmental processes on electrokinetic phenomena and the design options available for application to the field scale. The review also presents results from a modelling exercise to illustrate the effectiveness of electrokinetics on the supply electron acceptors to a plume scale scenario where these are limiting. Current research needs include analysis of electrokinetic bioremediation in more representative environmental settings, such as those in physically heterogeneous systems in order to gain a greater understanding of the controlling mechanisms on both electrokinetics and bioremediation in those scenarios. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. The Young Visual Binary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian; Lindstrom, Kyle; Graham, Sean; Sullivan, Kendall; Biddle, Lauren; Skiff, Brian; Nofi, Larissa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Differences in the stellar and circumstellar properties of the components of young binaries provide key information about star and disk formation and evolution processes. Because objects with separations of a few to a few hundred astronomical units share a common environment and composition, multiple systems allow us to control for some of the factors which play into star formation. We are completing analysis of a rich sample of about 100 pre-main sequence binaries and higher order multiples, primarily located in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions. This poster will highlight some of out recent, exciting results. All reduced spectra and the results of our analysis will be publicly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  1. Simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in hen tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubalczyk, Paweł; Borowczyk, Kamila; Chwatko, Grażyna; Głowacki, Rafał

    2015-04-01

    A new method for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in hen tissues has been developed and validated. For estimation of hydrogen sulfide content, a sample (0.1 g) of hen tissue was treated according to the procedure consisted of some essential steps: simultaneous homogenization of a tissue and derivatization of hydrogen sulfide to its S-quinolinium derivative with 2-chloro-1-methylquinolinium tetrafluoroborate, separation of so-formed derivative by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with sweeping, and detection and quantitation with the use of UV detector set to measure analytical signals at 375 nm. Effective electrophoretic separation was achieved using fused silica capillary (effective length 41.5 cm, 75 μm id) and 0.05 mol/L, pH 8 phosphate buffer with the addition of 0.04 mol/L SDS and 26% ACN. The lower limit of quantification was 0.12 μmol hydrogen sulfide in 1 g of tissue. The calibration curve prepared in tissue homogenate for hydrogen sulfide showed linearity in the range from 0.15 to 2.0 μmol/g, with the coefficient of correlation 0.9978. The relative standard deviation of the points of the calibration curve varied from 8.3 to 3.2% RSD. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Can neutral analytes be concentrated by transient isotachophoresis in micellar electrokinetic chromatography and how much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczuk, Magdalena; Foteeva, Lidia S; Jarosz, Maciej; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hirokawa, Takeshi; Timerbaev, Andrei R

    2014-06-06

    Transient isotachophoresis (tITP) is a versatile sample preconcentration technique that uses ITP to focus electrically charged analytes at the initial stage of CE analysis. However, according to the ruling principle of tITP, uncharged analytes are beyond its capacity while being separated and detected by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). On the other hand, when these are charged micelles that undergo the tITP focusing, one can anticipate the concentration effect, resulting from the formation of transient micellar stack at moving sample/background electrolyte (BGE) boundary, which increasingly accumulates the analytes. This work expands the enrichment potential of tITP for MEKC by demonstrating the quantitative analysis of uncharged metal-based drugs from highly saline samples and introducing to the BGE solution anionic surfactants and buffer (terminating) co-ions of different mobility and concentration to optimize performance. Metallodrugs of assorted lipophilicity were chosen so as to explore whether their varying affinity toward micelles plays the role. In addition to altering the sample and BGE composition, optimization of the detection capability was achieved due to fine-tuning operational variables such as sample volume, separation voltage and pressure, etc. The results of optimization trials shed light on the mechanism of micellar tITP and render effective determination of selected drugs in human urine, with practical limits of detection using conventional UV detector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of strobilurin fungicide residues in fruits and vegetables by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with sweeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Chen, Guan-hua; Wu, Xian; Shi, Jie; Guo, Dong-shan

    2014-02-01

    A new assay of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with sweeping was developed to determine azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and pyraclostrobin in fruits and vegetables. The key factors affecting resolution and peak height were studied and the optimum conditions were obtained for separation and enrichment. The running buffer consisted of 40 mM borate, 25 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and 15% acetonitrile, and its pH was adjusted to 8.4. The sample was injected for 677 nL and the separation voltage was 25 kV. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and pyraclostrobin were 861, 550 and 403; the linear dynamic ranges were all 0.01-5.0 mg/L; the limits of detection were 0.002, 0.001 and 0.002 mg/kg; the recoveries of spiked samples were 85.1-98.5%, 87.5-97.0% and 89.1-99.1%, respectively. The assay can meet the requirement of maximum residue limits for these three strobilurin fungicides, and has been applied for determining their residues in fruits and vegetables.

  4. Applications and theory of electrokinetic enrichment in micro-nanofluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueye; Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Lei; Yao, Zhen; Chen, Xiaodong; Zheng, Yue; Liu, Yanlin

    2017-09-01

    This review reports the progress on the recent development of electrokinetic enrichment in micro-nanofluidic chips. The governing equations of electrokinetic enrichment in micro-nanofluidic chips are given. Various enrichment applications including protein analysis, DNA analysis, bacteria analysis, viruses analysis and cell analysis are illustrated and discussed. The advantages and difficulties of each enrichment method are expatiated. This paper will provide a particularly convenient and valuable reference to those who intend to research the electrokinetic enrichment based on micro-nanofluidic chips.

  5. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen.

  6. Electrokinetic Amendment in Phytoremediation of Mixed Contaminated Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirakkara, Reshma A.; Reddy, Krishna R.; Cameselle, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of electrokinetic amendments for phytoremediation of mixed contaminated soil where typical silty clay soil was spiked with organic contaminants (naphthalene and phenanthrene) and heavy metal (lead, cadmium and chromium). The contaminated soil was treated with compost and placed in electrokinetic cells, which were seeded with oat plant or sunflower. Thirty days after germination, 25 V alternating current was applied to selected cells using graphite electrodes for 3 h per day. The plants were harvested after a growth period of 61 days. One cell remained unplanted to evaluate the effect of the electric current on the soil, alone. The results confirm a significant reduction of heavy metals and organic contaminants in soil. However, there was no noticeable improvement of heavy metal phytoextraction or PAH degradation due to the application of electric field despite the increase in biomass production by the plants subjected to the electric current. The electric potential application time and frequency are suggested to be increased to have noticeable effects in heavy metal uptake and PAHs degradation.

  7. Probing size-dependent electrokinetics of hematite aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedra-Królik, Karolina; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zarzycki, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    Aqueous particle suspensions of many kinds are stabilized by the electrostatic potential developed at their surfaces from reaction with water and ions. An important and less well understood aspect of this stabilization is the dependence of the electrostatic surface potential on particle size. Surface electrostatics are typically probed by measuring particle electrophoretic mobilities and quantified in the electrokinetic potential (f), using commercially available Zeta Potential Analyzers (ZPA). Even though ZPAs provide frequency-spectra (histograms) of electrophoretic mobility and hydrodynamic diameter, typically only the maximal-intensity values are reported, despite the information in the remainder of the spectra. Here we propose a mapping procedure that inter-correlates these histograms to extract additional insight, in this case to probe particle size-dependent electrokinetics. Our method is illustrated for a suspension of prototypical iron (III) oxide (hematite, a-Fe2O3). We found that the electrophoretic mobility and f-potential are a linear function of the aggregate size. By analyzing the distribution of surface site types as a function of aggregate size we show that site coordination increases with increasing aggregate diameter. This observation explains why the acidity of the iron oxide particles decreases with increasing particle size.

  8. Electrokinetic Treatment for Model Caissons with Increasing Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltayeb Mohamedelhassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrokinetic treatment has been known in geotechnical engineering for over six decades, yet, the technique is rarely used. This stems from the absence of design guidelines and specifications for electrokinetic treatment systems. An important issue that need to be investigated and understood in order to devise guidelines from experimental results is the effect of the foundation element size on the outcome of the treatment. Also important is determining the optimum distance between the electrodes and estimating the energy consumption prior to treatment. This experimental study is a preliminary step in understanding some of the issues critical for the guidelines and specifications. Four model caissons with surface areas between 16000 and 128000 mm2 were embedded in soft clayey soil under water and treated for 168 hr with a dc voltage of 6 V. From the results, a distance between the anode (model caisson and the cathode equal 0.25 times the outside diameter of the model caisson was identified as optimum. Relationships between the surface area and axial capacity of the model caisson and the surface area and energy consumption were presented. The equations can be used to preliminary estimate the load capacity and the energy consumption for full-scale applications.

  9. Feasibility of electrokinetic oxygen supply for soil bioremediation purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena Ramírez, E; Villaseñor Camacho, J; Rodrigo Rodrigo, M A; Cañizares Cañizares, P

    2014-12-01

    This paper studies the possibility of providing oxygen to a soil by an electrokinetic technique, so that the method could be used in future aerobic polluted soil bioremediation treatments. The oxygen was generated from the anodic reaction of water electrolysis and transported to the soil in a laboratory-scale electrokinetic cell. Two variables were tested: the soil texture and the voltage gradient. The technique was tested in two artificial soils (clay and sand) and later in a real silty soil, and three voltage gradients were used: 0.0 (control), 0.5, and 1.0 V cm(-1). It was observed that these two variables strongly influenced the results. Oxygen transport into the soil was only available in the silty and sandy soils by oxygen diffusion, obtaining high dissolved oxygen concentrations, between 4 and 9 mg L(-1), useful for possible aerobic biodegradation processes, while transport was not possible in fine-grained soils such as clay. Electro-osmotic flow did not contribute to the transport of oxygen, and an increase in voltage gradients produced higher oxygen transfer rates. However, only a minimum fraction of the electrolytically generated oxygen was efficiently used, and the maximum oxygen transport rate observed, approximately 1.4 mgO2 L(-1)d(-1), was rather low, so this technique could be only tested in slow in-situ biostimulation processes for organics removal from polluted soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrokinetic Flow in Microchannels with Finite Reservoir Size Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, D; Yang, C; Nguyen, N-T; Huang, X

    2006-01-01

    In electrokinetically-driven microfluidic applications, reservoirs are indispensable and have finite sizes. During operation processes, as the liquid level difference in reservoirs keeps changing as time elapses, the flow characteristics in a microchannel exhibit a combination of the electroosmotic flow and the time-dependent induced backpressure-driven flow. In this work, an assessment of the finite reservoir size effect on electroosmotic flows is presented theoretically and experimentally. A model is developed to describe the timedependent electrokinetic flow with finite reservoir size effects. The theoretical analysis shows that under certain conditions the finite reservoir size effect is significant. The important parameters that describe the effect of finite reservoir size on the flow characteristics are discussed. A new concept denoted as 'effective pumping period' is introduced to characterize the reservoir size effect. The proposed model clearly identifies the mechanisms of the finitereservoir size effects and is further confirmed by using micro-PIV technique. The results of this study can be used for facilitating the design of microfluidic devices

  11. Application of electrokinetic soil flushing to four herbicides: A comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, E Vieira; Souza, F; Saez, C; Cañizares, P; Lanza, M R V; Martinez-Huitle, C A; Rodrigo, M A

    2016-06-01

    In this work, four bench-scale plants containing soil spiked with four herbicides (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), oxyfluorfen, chlorsulfuron and atrazine) undergo treatment consisting of an electrokinetic soil flushing (EKSF). Results clearly demonstrate that efficiency of EKSF depends on the chemical characteristic of the pesticide used. The amount of pesticide collected in the anode well is more significant than that collected in the cathode wells, indicating that the electromigration is much more important than drainage by electro-osmotic flux for this application. After 15 d of treatment, the 2,4-D is the pesticide most efficiently removed (95% of removal), while chlorsulfuron is the pesticide more resilient to the treatment. Additionally, volatilization was found to be a process of the major significance in the application of electrokinetic techniques to soil polluted with herbicides and because of that it should always be taken into account in the future design of full-scale processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Feedback-controlled electro-kinetic traps for single-molecule ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-11

    Jan 11, 2014 ... limited residence time of a given molecule within the detection volume. A common ... information on individual folding pathways, as well as to the internal dynamics between ..... Essentials for building an electro-kinetic trap.

  13. Integrating Electrokinetic and Bioremediation Process for Treating Oil Contaminated Low Permeability Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Ramadan Bimastyaji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional oil mining activities always ignores environmental regulation which may cause contamination in soil and environment. Crude oil contamination in low-permeability soil complicates recovery process because it requires substantial energy for excavating and crushing the soil. Electrokinetic technology can be used as an alternative technology to treat contaminated soil and improve bioremediation process (biostimulation through transfer of ions and nutrient that support microorganism growth. This study was conducted using a combination of electrokinetic and bioremediation processes. Result shows that the application of electrokinetic and bioremediation in low permeability soils can provide hydrocarbon removal efficiency up to 46,3% in 7 days operation. The highest amount of microorganism can be found in 3-days operation, which is 2x108 CFU/ml using surfactant as flushing fluid for solubilizing hydrocarbon molecules. Enhancing bioremediation using electrokinetic process is very potential to recover oil contaminated low permeability soil in the future.

  14. Analysis of antiepileptic drugs in biological fluids by means of electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Vincenzo; Raggi, Maria Augusta

    2005-02-01

    An overview of the electrokinetic chromatographic methods for the analysis of antiepileptic drug levels in biological samples is presented. In particular, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography is a very suitable method for the determination of these drugs, because it allows a rapid, selective, and accurate analysis. In addition to the electrokinetic chromatographic studies on the determination of antiepileptic drugs, some information regarding sample pretreatment will also be reported: this is a critical step when the analysis of biological fluids is concerned. The electrokinetic chromatographic methods for the determination of recent antiepileptic drugs (e.g., lamotrigine, levetiracetam) and classical anticonvulsants (e.g., carbamazepine, phenytoin, ethosuximide, valproic acid) will be discussed in depth, and their pharmacological profiles will be briefly described as well.

  15. SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES IN SITU ELECTROKINETIC EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency evaluated the In-Situ Electrokinetic Extraction (ISEE) system at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.The SITE demonstration results show ...

  16. Integrating Electrokinetic and Bioremediation Process for Treating Oil Contaminated Low Permeability Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Bimastyaji Surya; Effendi, Agus Jatnika; Helmy, Qomarudin

    2018-02-01

    Traditional oil mining activities always ignores environmental regulation which may cause contamination in soil and environment. Crude oil contamination in low-permeability soil complicates recovery process because it requires substantial energy for excavating and crushing the soil. Electrokinetic technology can be used as an alternative technology to treat contaminated soil and improve bioremediation process (biostimulation) through transfer of ions and nutrient that support microorganism growth. This study was conducted using a combination of electrokinetic and bioremediation processes. Result shows that the application of electrokinetic and bioremediation in low permeability soils can provide hydrocarbon removal efficiency up to 46,3% in 7 days operation. The highest amount of microorganism can be found in 3-days operation, which is 2x108 CFU/ml using surfactant as flushing fluid for solubilizing hydrocarbon molecules. Enhancing bioremediation using electrokinetic process is very potential to recover oil contaminated low permeability soil in the future.

  17. Impact of electrokinetic remediation on microbial communities within PCP contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, G.; Harbottle, M.J.; Sills, G.; Knowles, C.J.; Semple, K.T.; Thompson, I.P.

    2007-01-01

    Electrokinetic techniques have been used to stimulate the removal of organic pollutants within soil, by directing contaminant migration to where remediation may be more easily achieved. The effect of this and other physical remediation techniques on the health of soil microbial communities has been poorly studied and indeed, largely ignored. This study reports the impact on soil microbial communities during the application of an electric field within ex situ laboratory soil microcosms contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP; 100 mg kg -1 oven dry soil). Electrokinetics reduced counts of culturable bacteria and fungi, soil microbial respiration and carbon substrate utilisation, especially close to the acidic anode where PCP accumulated (36 d), perhaps exacerbated by the greater toxicity of PCP at lower soil pH. There is little doubt that a better awareness of the interactions between soil electrokinetic processes and microbial communities is key to improving the efficacy and sustainability of this remediation strategy. - Electrokinetics negatively impacted soil

  18. Effect of electrokinetic remediation on indigenous microbial activity and community within diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Hye; Han, Hyo-Yeol; Lee, You-Jin; Kim, Chul Woong; Yang, Ji-Won

    2010-07-15

    Electrokinetic remediation has been successfully used to remove organic contaminants and heavy metals within soil. The electrokinetic process changes basic soil properties, but little is known about the impact of this remediation technology on indigenous soil microbial activities. This study reports on the effects of electrokinetic remediation on indigenous microbial activity and community within diesel contaminated soil. The main removal mechanism of diesel was electroosmosis and most of the bacteria were transported by electroosmosis. After 25 days of electrokinetic remediation (0.63 mA cm(-2)), soil pH developed from pH 3.5 near the anode to pH 10.8 near the cathode. The soil pH change by electrokinetics reduced microbial cell number and microbial diversity. Especially the number of culturable bacteria decreased significantly and only Bacillus and strains in Bacillales were found as culturable bacteria. The use of EDTA as an electrolyte seemed to have detrimental effects on the soil microbial activity, particularly in the soil near the cathode. On the other hand, the soil dehydrogenase activity was enhanced close to the anode and the analysis of microbial community structure showed the increase of several microbial populations after electrokinetics. It is thought that the main causes of changes in microbial activities were soil pH and direct electric current. The results described here suggest that the application of electrokinetics can be a promising soil remediation technology if soil parameters, electric current, and electrolyte are suitably controlled based on the understanding of interaction between electrokinetics, contaminants, and indigenous microbial community. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrokinetic removal of Pb from tailings and the application of stabilization agents

    OpenAIRE

    Rajić, Ljiljana; Dalmacija, Božo; Dalmacija, Milena

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the possibility of applying the certain stabilization agents was investigated in order to improve the electrokinetic treatment of tailings with high concentrations of Pb. Different stabilization agents were inserted in the cathode region in order to improve the immobilisation of Pb ions that migrate towards the cathode, and thus control Pb movement and behaviour. EK treatments were carried out in the electrokinetic setup using the voltage gradient of 1 V/cm. The applied stabili...

  20. Electrokinetic In Situ Treatment of Metal-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian A., III; Geiger, Cherie; Reinhart, Debra

    2004-01-01

    An electrokinetic technique has been developed as a means of in situ remediation of soils, sludges, and sediments that are contaminated with heavy metals. Examples of common metal contaminants that can be removed by this technique include cadmium, chromium, zinc, lead, mercury, and radionuclides. Some organic contaminants can also be removed by this technique. In the electrokinetic technique, a low-intensity direct current is applied between electrodes that have been implanted in the ground on each side of a contaminated soil mass. The electric current causes electro-osmosis and migration of ions, thereby moving aqueous-phase subsurface contaminants from one electrode to the other. The half reaction at the anode yields H+, thereby generating an acid front that travels from the anode toward the cathode. As this acid front passes through a given location, the local increase in acidity increases the solubility of cations that were previously adsorbed on soil particles. Ions are transported towards one electrode or the other which one depending on their respective electric charges. Upon arrival at the electrodes, the ionic contaminants can be allowed to become deposited on the electrodes or can be extracted to a recovery system. Surfactants and other reagents can be introduced at the electrodes to enhance rates of removal of contaminants. Placements of electrodes and concentrations and rates of pumping of reagents can be adjusted to maximize efficiency. The basic concept of electrokinetic treatment of soil is not new. What is new here are some of the details of application and the utilization of this technique as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., flushing or bioremediation) that are not suitable for treating soils of low hydraulic conductivity. Another novel aspect is the use of this technique as a less expensive alternative to excavation: The cost advantage over excavation is especially large in settings in which contaminated soil lies near and/or under

  1. Self-Consistent Approach to Global Charge Neutrality in Electrokinetics: A Surface Potential Trap Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we treat the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP equations as the basis for a consistent framework of the electrokinetic effects. The static limit of the PNP equations is shown to be the charge-conserving Poisson-Boltzmann (CCPB equation, with guaranteed charge neutrality within the computational domain. We propose a surface potential trap model that attributes an energy cost to the interfacial charge dissociation. In conjunction with the CCPB, the surface potential trap can cause a surface-specific adsorbed charge layer σ. By defining a chemical potential μ that arises from the charge neutrality constraint, a reformulated CCPB can be reduced to the form of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, whose prediction of the Debye screening layer profile is in excellent agreement with that of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation when the channel width is much larger than the Debye length. However, important differences emerge when the channel width is small, so the Debye screening layers from the opposite sides of the channel overlap with each other. In particular, the theory automatically yields a variation of σ that is generally known as the “charge regulation” behavior, attendant with predictions of force variation as a function of nanoscale separation between two charged surfaces that are in good agreement with the experiments, with no adjustable or additional parameters. We give a generalized definition of the ζ potential that reflects the strength of the electrokinetic effect; its variations with the concentration of surface-specific and surface-nonspecific salt ions are shown to be in good agreement with the experiments. To delineate the behavior of the electro-osmotic (EO effect, the coupled PNP and Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically under an applied electric field tangential to the fluid-solid interface. The EO effect is shown to exhibit an intrinsic time dependence that is noninertial in its origin. Under a step-function applied

  2. The improvement of Pilot-scale Electrokinetic for Radioactive Soil Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Min; Kim, Gye Nam; Kim, Wan Suk; Moon, Jai Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Most nuclear facility sites have been contaminated by leakage of radioactive waste-solution due to corrosion of the waste-solution tanks and connection pipes by their long-term operation, set up around underground nuclear facilities. Therefore it was needed that the method to remediate a large volume of radioactive soil should be developed. Until now the soil washing method has studied to remediate soil contaminated with uranium, cobalt, cesium, and so on. But it has a lower removal efficiency of nuclide from soils and generated a large volume of waste-solution. And its application to the soil composed of fine particle is impossible. So, the electrokinetic method has been studied as a new technology for soil remediation recently. In this study, the original electrokinetic equipment of 50L suitable to soil contamination characteristics of Korean nuclear facility sites was manufactured for the remediation of soil contaminated with uranium. During experiment with the original electrokinetic equipment, many metal oxides were generated and were stuck on the cathod plate. Several methods to reduce the generation quantity of metal oxides in the electrokinetic equipment and to take off metal oxides from the cathod plate were improved. The soil with uranium was remediated with the improved electrokinetic equipment. The required time to remediate a radioactive soil to under a clearance concentration level was yielded through demonstration experiment with the improved electrokinetic equipment for its different radioactivity concentration

  3. The improvement of Pilot-scale Electrokinetic for Radioactive Soil Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hye Min; Kim, Gye Nam; Kim, Wan Suk; Moon, Jai Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Most nuclear facility sites have been contaminated by leakage of radioactive waste-solution due to corrosion of the waste-solution tanks and connection pipes by their long-term operation, set up around underground nuclear facilities. Therefore it was needed that the method to remediate a large volume of radioactive soil should be developed. Until now the soil washing method has studied to remediate soil contaminated with uranium, cobalt, cesium, and so on. But it has a lower removal efficiency of nuclide from soils and generated a large volume of waste-solution. And its application to the soil composed of fine particle is impossible. So, the electrokinetic method has been studied as a new technology for soil remediation recently. In this study, the original electrokinetic equipment of 50L suitable to soil contamination characteristics of Korean nuclear facility sites was manufactured for the remediation of soil contaminated with uranium. During experiment with the original electrokinetic equipment, many metal oxides were generated and were stuck on the cathod plate. Several methods to reduce the generation quantity of metal oxides in the electrokinetic equipment and to take off metal oxides from the cathod plate were improved. The soil with uranium was remediated with the improved electrokinetic equipment. The required time to remediate a radioactive soil to under a clearance concentration level was yielded through demonstration experiment with the improved electrokinetic equipment for its different radioactivity concentration

  4. Electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil and its impact on soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Shufa; Liu, Yana; Xu, Jingming

    2015-11-01

    Compared to soil pollution by heavy metals and organic pollutants, soil pollution by fluorides is usually ignored in China. Actually, fluorine-contaminated soil has an unfavorable influence on human, animals, plants, and surrounding environment. This study reports on electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil and the effects of this remediation technology on soil fertility. Experimental results showed that electrokinetic remediation using NaOH as the anolyte was a considerable choice to eliminate fluorine in contaminated soils. Under the experimental conditions, the removal efficiency of fluorine by the electrokinetic remediation method was 70.35%. However, the electrokinetic remediation had a significant impact on the distribution and concentrations of soil native compounds. After the electrokinetic experiment, in the treated soil, the average value of available nitrogen was raised from 69.53 to 74.23 mg/kg, the average value of available phosphorus and potassium were reduced from 20.05 to 10.39 mg/kg and from 61.31 to 51.58 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the contents of soil available nitrogen and phosphorus in the anode regions were higher than those in the cathode regions, but the distribution of soil available potassium was just the opposite. In soil organic matter, there was no significant change. These experiment results suggested that some steps should be taken to offset the impacts, after electrokinetic treatment.

  5. Electrokinetic demonstration at Sandia National Laboratories: Use of transference numbers for site characterization and process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Mattson, E.D.

    1997-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is generally an in situ method using direct current electric potentials to move ionic contaminants and/or water to collection electrodes. The method has been extensively studied for application in saturated clayey soils. Over the past few years, an electrokinetic extraction method specific for sandy, unsaturated soils has been developed and patented by Sandia National Laboratories. A RCRA RD ampersand D permitted demonstration of this technology for the in situ removal of chromate contamination from unsaturated soils in a former chromic acid disposal pit was operated during the summer and fall of 1996. This large scale field test represents the first use of electrokinetics for the removal of heavy metal contamination from unsaturated soils in the United States and is part of the US EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. Guidelines for characterizing a site for electrokinetic remediation are lacking, especially for applications in unsaturated soil. The transference number of an ion is the fraction of the current carried by that ion in an electric field and represents the best measure of contaminant removal efficiency in most electrokinetic remediation processes. In this paper we compare the transference number of chromate initially present in the contaminated unsaturated soil, with the transference number in the electrokinetic process effluent to demonstrate the utility of evaluating this parameter

  6. Influence of buffer zone concentrations on efficiency in partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalke, D; Kolb, S; Welsch, T

    2001-05-04

    The potential of counter pressure-moderated partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography (PF-MEKC) was investigated in this work. Plate numbers of homologous omega-phenylalcohols were measured in a two-plug PF-MEKC system varying the concentrations and hence the ionic strengths of the background buffer compared to the sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing separation buffer and the counter pressure on the cathodic buffer reservoir. It was observed that plate numbers are strongly influenced by both the buffer concentrations and the counter pressure. Highest plate numbers were obtained with a buffer system where the concentrations are adjusted such that the electroosmotic flow velocities in both zones are equal. Differences in the local electroosmotic flow velocities of the zones caused by different buffer concentrations are responsible for tremendously reduced plate numbers. The efficiency drop is explained in several models by the formation of an intersegmental pressure which produces a parabolically shaped laminar flow component in both zones. Thus, the electroosmotic plug-like flow profile is distorted and the efficiency is reduced. The effect of counter pressure on efficiency turned out to be very complex in dependence on the buffer system applied.

  7. Recovery of Drug Delivery Nanoparticles from Human Plasma Using an Electrokinetic Platform Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Stuart; Sonnenberg, Avery; Schutt, Carolyn; Mukthavaram, Rajesh; Yeh, Yasan; Ortac, Inanc; Manouchehri, Sareh; Kesari, Santosh; Esener, Sadik; Heller, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    The effect of complex biological fluids on the surface and structure of nanoparticles is a rapidly expanding field of study. One of the challenges holding back this research is the difficulty of recovering therapeutic nanoparticles from biological samples due to their small size, low density, and stealth surface coatings. Here, the first demonstration of the recovery and analysis of drug delivery nanoparticles from undiluted human plasma samples through the use of a new electrokinetic platform technology is presented. The particles are recovered from plasma through a dielectrophoresis separation force that is created by innate differences in the dielectric properties between the unaltered nanoparticles and the surrounding plasma. It is shown that this can be applied to a wide range of drug delivery nanoparticles of different morphologies and materials, including low-density nanoliposomes. These recovered particles can then be analyzed using different methods including scanning electron microscopy to monitor surface and structural changes that result from plasma exposure. This new recovery technique can be broadly applied to the recovery of nanoparticles from high conductance fluids in a wide range of applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Separation of toluene from n-heptane by liquid–liquid extraction using binary mixtures of [bpy][BF4] and [4bmpy][Tf2N] ionic liquids as solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Silvia; Larriba, Marcos; García, Julián; Torrecilla, José S.; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Binary mixtures of ionic liquids as extraction solvents of aromatics. ► [4bmpy][Tf 2 N] shows higher capacity but lower selectivity than sulfolane. ► [bpy][BF 4 ] shows lower capacity but higher selectivity than sulfolane. ► Mixed {[4bmpy][Tf 2 N] + [bpy][BF 4 ]} improves both extractive properties. - Abstract: The use of binary mixture of ionic liquids N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([bpy][BF 4 ]), and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([4bmpy][Tf 2 N]) in the liquid–liquid extraction of toluene from n-heptane has been investigated at 313.2 K and atmospheric pressure. The experimental capacity of extraction and selectivity for this binary mixture has proved to be intermediate to those corresponding to the pure ionic liquids, and they can be predicted using a logarithmic–linear model of solubility. Furthermore, the results showed that the use of binary mixture of {[bpy][BF 4 ] + [4bmpy][Tf 2 N]} at a mole solvent composition around 0.7 for [bpy][BF 4 ] improves both the capacity of extraction of toluene and the selectivity with respect to those of sulfolane, the organic solvent taken as a benchmark. Thus, this mixed ionic liquid could be likely to be used in the extraction of aromatic from aliphatic in replacement to sulfolane.

  9. Electrokinetic gated injection-based microfluidic system for quantitative analysis of hydrogen peroxide in individual HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Li, Qingling; Chen, Zhenzhen; Li, Hongmin; Xu, Kehua; Zhang, Lisheng; Tang, Bo

    2011-03-21

    A microfluidic system to determine hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in individual HepG2 cells based on the electrokinetic gated injection was developed for the first time. A home-synthesized fluorescent probe, bis(p-methylbenzenesulfonate)dichlorofluorescein (FS), was employed to label intracellular H(2)O(2) in the intact cells. On a simple cross microchip, multiple single-cell operations, including single cell injection, cytolysis, electrophoresis separation and detection of H(2)O(2), were automatically carried out within 60 s using the electrokinetic gated injection and laser-induced fluorescence detection (LIFD). The performance of the method was evaluated under the optimal conditions. The linear calibration curve was over a range of 4.39-610 amol (R(2)=0.9994). The detection limit was 0.55 amol or 9.0×10(-10) M (S/N=3). The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=6) of migration time and peak area were 1.4% and 4.8%, respectively. With the use of this method, the average content of H(2)O(2) in single HepG2 cells was found to be 16.09±9.84 amol (n=15). Separation efficiencies in excess of 17,000 theoretical plates for the cells were achieved. These results demonstrated that the efficient integration and automation of these single-cell operations enabled the sensitive, reproducible, and quantitative examination of intracellular H(2)O(2) at single-cell level. Owing to the advantages of simple microchip structure, controllable single-cell manipulation and ease in building, this platform provides a universal way to automatically determine other intracellular constituents within single cells. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  10. Steady electrodiffusion in hydrogel-colloid composites: macroscale properties from microscale electrokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reghan J. Hill

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous microscale electrokinetic model for hydrogel-colloid composites is adopted to compute macroscale profiles of electrolyte concentration, electrostatic potential, and hydrostatic pressure across membranes that separate electrolytes with different concentrations. The membranes are uncharged polymeric hydrogels in which charged spherical colloidal particles are immobilized and randomly dispersed with a low solid volume fraction. Bulk membrane characteristics and performance are calculated from a continuum microscale electrokinetic model (Hill 2006b, c. The computations undertaken in this paper quantify the streaming and membrane potentials. For the membrane potential, increasing the volume fraction of negatively charged inclusions decreases the differential electrostatic potential across the membrane under conditions where there is zero convective flow and zero electrical current. With low electrolyte concentration and highly charged nanoparticles, the membrane potential is very sensitive to the particle volume fraction. Accordingly, the membrane potential - and changes brought about by the inclusion size, charge and concentration - could be a useful experimental diagnostic to complement more recent applications of the microscale electrokinetic model for electrical microrheology and electroacoustics (Hill and Ostoja-Starzewski 2008, Wang and Hill 2008.Um modelo eletrocinético rigoroso para compósitos formados por um hidrogel e um colóide é adotado para computar os perfis macroscópicos de concentração eletrolítica, potencial eletrostático e pressão hidrostática através de uma membrana que separa soluções com diferentes concentrações eletrolíticas. A membrana é composta por um hidrogel polimérico sem carga elétrica onde partículas esféricas são imobilizadas e dispersas aleatoriamente com baixa fração de volume do sólido. As características da membrana e a sua performance são calculadas a partir de um modelo

  11. Thermodynamic models to elucidate the enantioseparation of drugs with two stereogenic centers by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuming; Liu, Qiuxia; Hu, Shaoqiang; Guo, Wenbo; Yang, Zhuo; Zhang, Yonghua

    2017-08-25

    An equilibrium model depicting the simultaneous protonation of chiral drugs and partitioning of protonated ions and neutral molecules into chiral micelles in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has been introduced. It was used for the prediction and elucidation of complex changes in migration order patterns with experimental conditions in the enantioseparation of drugs with two stereogenic centers. Palonosetron hydrochloride (PALO), a weakly basic drug with two stereogenic centers, was selected as a model drug. Its four stereoisomers were separated by MEKC using sodium cholate (SC) as chiral selector and surfactant. Based on the equilibrium model, equations were derived for a calculation of the effective mobility and migration time of each stereoisomer at a certain pH. The migration times of four stereoisomers at different pHs were calculated and then the migration order patterns were constructed with derived equations. The results were in accord with the experiment. And the contribution of each mechanism to the separation and its influence on the migration order pattern was analyzed separately by introducing virtual isomers, i.e., hypothetical stereoisomers with only one parameter changed relative to a real PALO stereoisomer. A thermodynamic model for a judgment of the correlation of interactions between two stereogenic centers of stereoisomers and chiral selector was also proposed. According to this model, the interactions of two stereogenic centers of PALO stereoisomers in both neutral molecules and protonated ions with chiral selector are not independent, so the chiral recognition in each pair of enantiomers as well as the recognition for diastereomers is not simply the algebraic sum of the contributions of two stereogenic centers due to their correlation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stacking-cyclodextrin-microchip electrokinetic chromatographic determination of gabapentinoid drugs in pharmaceutical and biological matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeid, Abdallah M; Kaji, Noritada; Nasr, Jenny Jeehan M; Belal, Fathalla F; Baba, Yoshinobu; Walash, Mohamed I

    2017-06-23

    A facile, rapid, and highly sensitive microchip-based electrokinetic chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of two gabapentinoid drugs, gabapentin (GPN) and pregabalin (PGN). Both drugs were first reacted with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F) via nucleophilic substitution reactions to yield highly fluorescent products with λ ex/em 470/540nm. Analyses of both fluorescently labeled compounds were achieved within 200s in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchip with a 30mm separation channel. Optimum separation was achieved using a borate buffer (pH 9.0) solution containing methylcellulose and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) as buffer additives. Methylcellulose acted as a dynamic coating to prevent adsorption of the studied compounds on the inner surfaces of the microchannels, while β-CD acted as a pseudo-stationary phase to improve the separation efficiency between the labeled drugs with high resolution (Rs>7). The fluorescence intensities of the labeled drugs were measured using a light emitting diode-induced fluorescence detector at 540nm after excitation at 470nm. The sensitivity of the method was enhanced 14- and 17-fold for PGN and GPN, respectively by field-amplified stacking relative to traditional pinched injection so that it could quantify 10ngmL -1 for both analytes, with a detection limit lower than 3ngmL -1 . The developed method was efficiently applied to analyze PGN and GPN in their pharmaceutical dosage forms and in biological fluids. The extraction recoveries of the studied drugs from plasma and urine samples were more than 89% with%RSD values lower than 6.2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrokinetic treatment of firing ranges containing tungsten-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braida, Washington; Christodoulatos, Christos; Ogundipe, Adebayo; Dermatas, Dimitris; O'Connor, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten-based alloys and composites are being used and new formulations are being considered for use in the manufacturing of different types of ammunition. The use of tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) in new munitions systems and tungsten composites in small caliber ammunition could potentially release substantial amounts of this element into the environment. Although tungsten is widely used in industrial and military applications, tungsten's potential environmental and health impacts have not been thoroughly addressed. This necessitates the research and development of remedial technologies to contain and/or remove tungsten from soils that may serve as a source for water contamination. The current work investigates the feasibility of using electrokinetics for the remediation of tungsten-contaminated soils in the presence of other heavy metals of concern such as Cu and Pb with aim to removing W from the soil while stabilizing in situ, Pb and Cu

  14. Electrokinetic desalination of sandstones for NaCl removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben V.

    2012-01-01

    of reliable methods to remove the damaging salts in order to stop the decay. Electrokinetic desalination of fired clay bricks have previously shown efficient in laboratory scale and in the present work the method is tested for desalination of Cotta and Posta sandstones, which both have lower porosity than...... each stone, but electroosmosis in the poultices may have caused suction/pressure over the interface between stone and poultice causing the differences in poultice water content. The transport numbers for Cl− and Na+ differed in the two stones and were highest in the most porous Cotta sandstone in spite...... of similar high pore water concentrations and the same applied electric current. The hypotheses is that a layered structure of the sandstones could be the cause for this, as the electric current may preferentially flow in certain paths through the stone, which are thus desalinated first. After...

  15. Removal of uranium from contaminated soil using indoor electrokinetic decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gye-Nam Kim; Ilgook Kim; Seung-Soo Kim; Jong-Won Choi

    2016-01-01

    Indoor electrokinetic decontamination equipment was manufactured to treat 1.2 tons of uranium-contaminated soil. For a reduction of waste electrolyte and metal oxide, waste electrolyte was reused and the optimum pH was adjusted to minimize metal oxide volume in the cathode chamber. It was found that the optimum pH of the waste electrolyte in a cathode chamber was below 2.35 at 25 deg C. When the initial uranium concentrations in the soils were 7.0-27.0 Bq/g, the reuse periods of waste electrolyte required for uranium concentrations in the soils to reach below 5.0 Bq/g were 5-25 days. In addition, when the initial concentrations in the soils were 7.0-20.0 Bq/g, the periods required to reach below the clearance concentration level were 25-40 days.

  16. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. James Davis

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. In this experimental and analytical study the authors elucidate the transport processes that control the rate of concentrated colloidal particle removal, demonstrate the process on a laboratory scale, and develop the scale-up laws needed to design commercial-scale processes. The authors are also addressing the fundamental problems associated with particle-particle interactions (electrical and hydrodynamic), the effects of particle concentration on the applied electric field, the electrochemical reactions that occur at the electrodes, and the prediction of power requirements.

  17. Salt Induced Decay of Masonry and Electrokinetic Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    in brick depending on its water content and salts may be precipitated on the outer wall or concentrated under paint layers covering the surface of the brick. Different types of damage may appear in masonry walls due to these concentrating phenomena. Bricks themselves can be destroyed and the mortar can...... of bricks without increased salt content is very low compared to soils in general. Furthermore in a masonry wall there are boundaries with different chemistry (e.g. pH) that the ions must pass, brick-mortar boundaries. From initial experiments with electrokinetic removal of Ca2+ ions from bricks good......Salt induced decay of bricks is caused when salts exert internal pressures, which exceed the strength of the stone. The presence of aqueous electrolyte solutions in the capillary pores of brick materials can under changing climate conditions cause deterioration of wall structures. Ions move...

  18. ELECTROKINETIC DEVICE AND METHOD FOR CONSOLIDATING POROUS MATERIALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a device and an associated electrokinetic method which allows the pores (superficial and deep) of a porous material to be filled, by forcing the precipitation therein of a product of low solubility in water by creating an electric field which will mobilise the cations...... and anions supplied by previously selected solutions. This method comprises two phases. In the first phase, the pores located at a specified distance from the surface of contact between the porous material and the anodic or cathodic compartment are plugged. In a second phase, the rest of the pores, mainly...... those which are on the surface level, are collapsed. As a result of the designed device and the plugging system contained therein, the porous material is not affected at any moment by chemical alteration processes caused by contact with extreme pH values. This device allows the treatment to be applied...

  19. Effect of low concentration sodium dodecyl sulfate on the electromigration of palonosetron hydrochloride stereoisomers in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-Qiang; Wang, Gui-Xia; Guo, Wen-Bo; Guo, Xu-Ming; Zhao, Min

    2014-05-16

    The effect of low concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the separation of palonosetron hydrochloride (PALO) stereoisomers by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has been investigated. It was found that the addition of SDS prolongs the migration time and the migration order of four stereoisomers changes regularly with the SDS concentration. Good separations for all the four stereoisomers were achieved at appropriate SDS concentration. The effect of SDS on the electromigration (mobilities) of PALO stereoisomers has been studied, in order to explain its effect on the separation by MEKC. It was found that low concentrations of SDS added into the separation media forms negatively charged complexes with PALO stereoisomers and hence reverses their electromigration direction. Furthermore, the migration order between two enantiomeric pairs is also reversed because the enantiomeric pair with a bigger positive mobility than that of another pair turns to have a bigger negative mobility when bound with SDS. Based on these results, the effect of SDS on the MEKC separation of PALO stereoisomers was elucidated reasonably. The performance of the developed chiral MEKC method was validated by the analysis of a real sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbially induced separation of quartz from calcite using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padukone, S Usha; Natarajan, K A

    2011-11-01

    Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their metabolites were successfully utilized to achieve selective separation of quartz and calcite through microbially induced flotation and flocculation. S. cerevisiae was adapted to calcite and quartz minerals. Adsorption studies and electrokinetic investigations were carried out to understand the changes in the surface chemistry of yeast cells and the minerals after mutual interaction. Possible mechanisms in microbially induced flotation and flocculation are outlined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrokinetic motion of a rectangular nanoparticle in a nanochannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movahed, Saeid; Li Dongqing, E-mail: dongqing@mme.uwaterloo.ca [University of Waterloo, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering (Canada)

    2012-08-15

    This article presents a theoretical study of electrokinetic motion of a negatively charged cubic nanoparticle in a three-dimensional nanochannel with a circular cross-section. Effects of the electrophoretic and the hydrodynamic forces on the nanoparticle motion are examined. Because of the large applied electric field over the nanochannel, the impact of the Brownian force is negligible in comparison with the electrophoretic and the hydrodynamic forces. The conventional theories of electrokinetics such as the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski slip velocity approach are no longer applicable in the small nanochannels. In this study, and at each time step, first, a set of highly coupled partial differential equations including the Poisson-Nernst-Plank equation, the Navier-Stokes equations, and the continuity equation was solved to find the electric potential, ionic concentration field, and the flow field around the nanoparticle. Then, the electrophoretic and hydrodynamic forces acting on the negatively charged nanoparticle were determined. Following that, the Newton second law was utilized to find the velocity of the nanoparticle. Using this model, effects of surface electric charge of the nanochannel, bulk ionic concentration, the size of the nanoparticle, and the radius of the nanochannel on the nanoparticle motion were investigated. Increasing the bulk ionic concentration or the surface charge of the nanochannel will increase the electroosmotic flow, and hence affect the particle's motion. It was also shown that, unlike microchannels with thin EDL, the change in nanochannel size will change the EDL field and the ionic concentration field in the nanochannel, affecting the particle's motion. If the nanochannel size is fixed, a larger particle will move faster than a smaller particle under the same conditions.

  2. Electrokinetic motion of a rectangular nanoparticle in a nanochannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movahed, Saeid; Li Dongqing

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical study of electrokinetic motion of a negatively charged cubic nanoparticle in a three-dimensional nanochannel with a circular cross-section. Effects of the electrophoretic and the hydrodynamic forces on the nanoparticle motion are examined. Because of the large applied electric field over the nanochannel, the impact of the Brownian force is negligible in comparison with the electrophoretic and the hydrodynamic forces. The conventional theories of electrokinetics such as the Poisson–Boltzmann equation and the Helmholtz–Smoluchowski slip velocity approach are no longer applicable in the small nanochannels. In this study, and at each time step, first, a set of highly coupled partial differential equations including the Poisson–Nernst–Plank equation, the Navier–Stokes equations, and the continuity equation was solved to find the electric potential, ionic concentration field, and the flow field around the nanoparticle. Then, the electrophoretic and hydrodynamic forces acting on the negatively charged nanoparticle were determined. Following that, the Newton second law was utilized to find the velocity of the nanoparticle. Using this model, effects of surface electric charge of the nanochannel, bulk ionic concentration, the size of the nanoparticle, and the radius of the nanochannel on the nanoparticle motion were investigated. Increasing the bulk ionic concentration or the surface charge of the nanochannel will increase the electroosmotic flow, and hence affect the particle’s motion. It was also shown that, unlike microchannels with thin EDL, the change in nanochannel size will change the EDL field and the ionic concentration field in the nanochannel, affecting the particle’s motion. If the nanochannel size is fixed, a larger particle will move faster than a smaller particle under the same conditions.

  3. Electrokinetic-enhanced phytoremediation of soils: status and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameselle, Claudio; Chirakkara, Reshma A; Reddy, Krishna R

    2013-10-01

    Phytoremediation is a sustainable process in which green plants are used for the removal or elimination of contaminants in soils. Both organic and inorganic contaminants can be removed or degraded by growing plants by several mechanisms, namely phytoaccumulation, phytostabilization, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration and rhizodegradation. Phytoremediation has several advantages: it can be applied in situ over large areas, the cost is low, and the soil does not undergo significant damages. However, the restoration of a contaminated site by phytoremediation requires a long treatment time since the remediation depends on the growth and the biological cycles of the plant. It is only applicable for shallow depths within the reach of the roots, and the remediation efficiency largely depends on the physico-chemical properties of the soil and the bioavailability of the contaminants. The combination of phytoremediation and electrokinetics has been proposed in an attempt to avoid, in part, the limitations of phytoremediation. Basically, the coupled phytoremediation-electrokinetic technology consists of the application of a low intensity electric field to the contaminated soil in the vicinity of growing plants. The electric field may enhance the removal of the contaminants by increasing the bioavailability of the contaminants. Variables that affect the coupled technology are: the use of AC or DC current, voltage level and mode of voltage application (continuous or periodic), soil pH evolution, and the addition of facilitating agents to enhance the mobility and bioavailability of the contaminants. Several technical and practical challenges still remain that must be overcome through future research for successful application of this coupled technology at actual field sites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrokinetic Enhanced Permanganate Delivery for Low Permeability Soil Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. I.; Gerhard, J.; Reynolds, D. A.; Sleep, B. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Contaminant mass sequestered in low permeability zones (LPZ) in the subsurface has become a significant concern due to back diffusion of contaminants, leading to contaminant rebound following treatment of the high permeability strata. In-situ remediation technologies such as in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) are promising, however, successful delivery of oxidants into silts and clays remains a challenge. Electrokinetics (EK) has been proposed as a technique that can overcome this challenge by delivering oxidants into low permeability soils. This study demonstrates the ability of EK to facilitate permanganate delivery into silt for treatment of trichloroethene (TCE). A two-dimensional sandbox was packed with alternate vertical layers of coarse sand and silt contaminated with high concentrations of aqueous phase TCE. Nine experiments were conducted to compare EK-enhanced in-situ chemical oxidation (EK-ISCO) to ISCO alone or EK alone. Frequent groundwater sampling at multiple locations combined with image analysis provided detailed mapping of TCE, permanganate, and manganese dioxide mass distributions. EK-ISCO successfully delivered the permanganate throughout the silt cross-section while ISCO without EK resulted in permanganate delivery only to the edges of the silt layer. EK-ISCO resulted in a 4.4 order-of-magnitude (OoM) reduction in TCE concentrations in the coarse sand compared to a 3.5 OoM reduction for ISCO alone. This study suggests that electrokinetics coupled with ISCO can achieve enhanced remediation of lower permeability strata, where remediation technologies for successful contaminant mass removal would otherwise be limited.

  5. Solving a binary puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utomo, P.H.; Makarim, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    A Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0,1} {0,1}. Let n≥4 be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an n×n binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each

  6. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  7. Wide Binaries in TGAS: Search Method and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jeff J.; Chanamé, Julio; Agüeros, Marcel A.

    2018-04-01

    Half of all stars reside in binary systems, many of which have orbital separations in excess of 1000 AU. Such binaries are typically identified in astrometric catalogs by matching the proper motions vectors of close stellar pairs. We present a fully Bayesian method that properly takes into account positions, proper motions, parallaxes, and their correlated uncertainties to identify widely separated stellar binaries. After applying our method to the >2 × 106 stars in the Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution from Gaia DR1, we identify over 6000 candidate wide binaries. For those pairs with separations less than 40,000 AU, we determine the contamination rate to be ~5%. This sample has an orbital separation (a) distribution that is roughly flat in log space for separations less than ~5000 AU and follows a power law of a -1.6 at larger separations.

  8. Interpretation of electrokinetic measurements with porous films: role of electric conductance and streaming current within porous structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshchuk, Andriy; Luxbacher, Thomas

    2010-07-06

    It is shown that in tangential electrokinetic measurements with porous films the porous structure makes contribution not only to the cell electric conductance (as demonstrated previously) but also to the observed streaming current. Both of these contributions give rise to dependences of streaming-potential and streaming-current coefficients on the channel height. However, due to the combined contribution of two phenomena, the dependence of streaming-potential coefficient on the channel height may be rather complicated and not allow for simple extrapolation. At the same time, the dependences of streaming-current coefficient and cell electric conductance on the channel height turn out linear and can be easily extrapolated to zero channel heights. This enables one to determine separately the contributions of external surface of porous film and of its porous structure to the streaming current and of the channel and porous structure to the cell electric conductance. This procedure is illustrated by the measurements of tangential electrokinetic phenomena and electric conductance with Millipore mixed-cellulose membrane filters of various average pore sizes (from 0.025 to 5 mum) in the so-called adjustable-gap cell of SurPASS electrokinetic instrument (Anton Paar GmbH). The design of this cell allows for easy and quasi-continuous variation of channel height as well as accurate determination of cell electric conductance, streaming-current coefficient, and channel height (from the cell hydraulic permeability). The quality of linear fits of experimental data has been found to be very good, and thus, the extrapolation procedures were quite reliable and accurate. Zeta-potentials could be determined of both external film and internal pore surfaces. It is demonstrated that the porous structures make considerable contributions to both streaming-current coefficient and cell electric conductance especially in the case of filters with larger pores. It is also found that, rather

  9. Washing-electrokinetic Decontamination for Concrete Contaminated with Cobalt and Cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Yang, Byeong Il; Choi, Wang Kyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Hyeon, Jay Hyeok

    2009-01-01

    A great volume of radioactive concrete is generated during the operation and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The washing-electrokinetic technology in this study, which combined an electrokinetic method and a washing method, was developed to decontaminate the concrete generated in nuclear facilities. The results of only an electrokinetic decontamination for the concrete showed that cobalt was removed to below 1% from the concrete due to its high pH. Therefore, the washing electrokinetic technology was applied to lower the pH of the concrete. Namely, when the concrete was washed with 3 M of hydrochloric acid for 4 hours (0.17 day), the CaCO 3 in the concrete was decomposed into CO 2 and the pH of the concrete was reduced to 3.7, and the cobalt and cesium in the concrete were removed by up to 85.0% and 76.3% respectively. Next, when the washed concrete was decontaminated by the electrokinetic method with 0.01M of acetic acid in the 1L electrokinetic equipment for 14.83 days, the cobalt and the cesium in the concrete were both removed by up to 99.7% and 99.6% respectively. The removal efficiencies of the cobalt and cesium by 0.01M of acetic acid were increased more than those by 0.05M of acetic acid due to the increase of the concrete zeta potential. The total effluent volume generated from the washing-electrokinetic decontamination was 11.55L (7.2ml/g).

  10. Microlensing discovery of a population of very tight, very low mass binary brown dwarfs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C.; Udalski, A.

    2013-01-01

    the discovery via gravitational microlensing of two very low mass, very tight binary systems. These binaries have directly and precisely measured total system masses of 0.025 M ☉ and 0.034 M ☉, and projected separations of 0.31 AU and 0.19 AU, making them the lowest-mass and tightest field BD binaries known....... The discovery of a population of such binaries indicates that BD binaries can robustly form at least down to masses of ~0.02 M ☉. Future microlensing surveys will measure a mass-selected sample of BD binary systems, which can then be directly compared to similar samples of stellar binaries....

  11. Enhanced electrokinetic remediation of lead-contaminated soil by complexing agents and approaching anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zou, Hua; Ji, Minhui; Li, Xiaolin; Li, Liqiao; Tang, Tang

    2014-02-01

    Optimizing process parameters that affect the remediation time and power consumption can improve the treatment efficiency of the electrokinetic remediation as well as determine the cost of a remediation action. Lab-scale electrokinetic remediation of Pb-contaminated soils was investigated for the effect of complexant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and acetic acid and approaching anode on the removal efficiency of Pb. When EDTA was added to the catholyte, EDTA dissolved insoluble Pb in soils to form soluble Pb-EDTA complexes, increasing Pb mobility and accordingly removal efficiency. The removal efficiency was enhanced from 47.8 to 61.5 % when the EDTA concentration was increased from 0.1 to 0.2 M, showing that EDTA played an important role in remediation. And the migration rate of Pb was increased to 72.3 % when both EDTA and acetic acid were used in the catholyte. The "approaching anode electrokinetic remediation" process in the presence of both EDTA and acetic acid had a higher Pb-removal efficiency with an average efficiency of 83.8 %. The efficiency of electrokinetic remediation was closely related to Pb speciation. Exchangeable and carbonate-bounded Pb were likely the forms which could be removed. All results indicate that the approaching anode method in the presence of EDTA and acetic acid is an advisable choice for electrokinetic remediation of Pb-contaminated soil.

  12. Quantification of the level of fat-soluble vitamins in feed based on the novel microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olędzka, Ilona; Kowalski, Piotr; Bałuch, Alicja; Bączek, Tomasz; Paradziej-Łukowicz, Jolanta; Taciak, Marcin; Pastuszewska, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Simultaneous quantification of liposoluble vitamins is not a new area of interest, since these compounds co-determine the nutritional quality of food and feed, a field widely explored in the human and animal diet. However, the development of appropriate methods is still a matter of concern, especially when the vitamin composition is highly complex, as is the case with feed designated for laboratory animals, representing a higher health and microbiological status. A method combining microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) with liquid-liquid extraction was developed for the determination of four fat-soluble vitamins in animal feed. A separation medium consisting of 25 mmol L⁻¹ phosphate buffer (pH 2.5), 2-propanol, 1-butanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate and octane allowed the simultaneous determination of vitamins A, D, E and K within a reasonable time of 25 min. The polarity of the separation voltage was reversed in view of the strongly suppressed electro-osmotic flow, and the applied voltage was set at 12 kV. The fat-soluble vitamins were separated in the order of decreasing hydrophobicity. It was proved that the proposed MEEKC method was sufficiently specific and sensitive for screening fat-soluble vitamins in animal feed samples after their sterilization. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Rapid determination of piracetam in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with sample direct injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsin-Hua; Yang, Yuan-Han; Ko, Ju-Yun; Chen, Su-Hwei

    2006-07-07

    A simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method with UV detection at 200 nm for analysis of piracetam in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by direct injection without any sample pretreatment is described. The separation of piracetam from biological matrix was performed at 25 degrees C using a background electrolyte consisting of Tris buffer with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the electrolyte solution. Several parameters affecting the separation of the drug from biological matrix were studied, including the pH and concentrations of the Tris buffer and SDS. Under optimal MEKC condition, good separation with high efficiency and short analyses time is achieved. Using imidazole as an internal standard (IS), the linear ranges of the method for the determination of piracetam in plasma and in CSF were all between 5 and 500 microg/mL; the detection limit of the drug in plasma and in CSF (signal-to-noise ratio=3; injection 0.5 psi, 5s) was 1.0 microg/mL. The applicability of the proposed method for determination of piracetam in plasma and CSF collected after intravenous administration of 3g piracetam every 6h and oral administration 1.2g every 6h in encephalopathy patients with aphasia was demonstrated.

  14. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...

  15. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  16. High speed capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry via an electrokinetically pumped sheath flow interface for rapid analysis of amino acids and a protein digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Nicole M; Sarver, Scott A; Sun, Liangliang; Wojcik, Roza; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-06-01

    While capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) has been used to produce very rapid and efficient separations, coupling these high-speed separations with mass spectrometry (MS) has been challenging. Now, with much faster and sensitive mass spectrometers, it is possible to take full advantage of the CZE speed and reconstruct the fast migrating peaks. Here are three high-speed CZE-MS analyses via an electrokinetically pumped sheath-flow interface. The first separation demonstrates CZE-ESI-MS of an amino acid mixture with a 2-min separation, >50,000 theoretical plates, low micromolar concentration detection limits, and subfemtomole mass detection limits (LTQ XL mass spectrometer). The second separation with our recently improved third-generation CE-MS interface illustrates a 20 amino acid separation in ∼7min with an average over 200,000 plate counts, and results in almost-baseline resolution of structural isomers, leucine and isoleucine. The third separation is of a BSA digest with a reproducible CZE separation and mass spectrometry detection in 2min. CZE-MS/MS analysis of the BSA digest identified 31 peptides, produced 52% sequence coverage, and generated a peak capacity of ∼40 across the 1-min separation window (Q-Exactive mass spectrometer). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent Progress and Perspectives in the Electrokinetic Characterization of Polyelectrolyte Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Zimmermann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the charge, structure and molecular interactions of/within polymeric substrates defines an important analytical challenge in materials science. Accordingly, advanced electrokinetic methods and theories have been developed to investigate the charging mechanisms and structure of soft material coatings. In particular, there has been significant progress in the quantitative interpretation of streaming current and surface conductivity data of polymeric films from the application of recent theories developed for the electrohydrodynamics of diffuse soft planar interfaces. Here, we review the theory and experimental strategies to analyze the interrelations of the charge and structure of polyelectrolyte layers supported by planar carriers under electrokinetic conditions. To illustrate the options arising from these developments, we discuss experimental and simulation data for plasma-immobilized poly(acrylic acid films and for a polyelectrolyte bilayer consisting of poly(ethylene imine and poly(acrylic acid. Finally, we briefly outline potential future developments in the field of the electrokinetics of polyelectrolyte layers.

  18. Removal of PAH using electrokinetic transport of biosurfactants in clayey soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, E.; Lin, J. [Dept. of Building Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The electrokinetic introduction of non-toxic, biodegradable surfactants (produced ex-situ) to remediate PAH-contaminated soil was investigated. The lab tests demonstrated the possibility of removal of organic contaminants from clayey soil without hazardous impact to the environment. The rhamnolipids (biosurfactants), produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to increase the solubility of PAHs into the aqueous phase, were used in the enhancement of electrokinetic remediation. This study determined the potential on-site production of biosurfactants that was directly introduced to soil by means of electrokinetics. The average removal of phenanthrene achieved 74% in the presence of biosurfactants above CMC. The remaining compounds are left for biodegradation. These results contribute to the development of a new remediation technology - bioelectrokinetics. (orig.)

  19. Fabrication of Micromixers Utilizing Shedding Effect Induced by Electrokinetic Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, L-M; Tai, C-H; Tsai, C-H; Lin, C-H; Lee, C-Y

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a T-shaped micromixer featuring 45 deg. parallelogram barriers within the mixing channel. The proposed device obtains a rapid mixing of two sample fluids by means of the electrokinetic instability induced by shedding effect which is produced as an appropriate intensity of DC electric field of is applied. The proposed device uses a single high-voltage power source to simultaneously drive and mix the sample fluids. The effectiveness of the mixer is characterized experimentally as a function of the applied electrical field intensity and the extent to which the parallelogram barriers obstruct the mixing channel. The experimental results indicate that the mixing performance reaches 91.2% at a cross-section located 2.3 mm downstream of the T-junction when the barriers obstruct four-fifths of the channel width and an electrical field of 300V/cm is applied. The micromixing method presented in this study provides a simple low-cost solution to mixing problems in lab-on-a-chip systems

  20. Moving charged particles in lattice Boltzmann-based electrokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuron, Michael; Rempfer, Georg; Schornbaum, Florian; Bauer, Martin; Godenschwager, Christian; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost

    2016-12-01

    The motion of ionic solutes and charged particles under the influence of an electric field and the ensuing hydrodynamic flow of the underlying solvent is ubiquitous in aqueous colloidal suspensions. The physics of such systems is described by a coupled set of differential equations, along with boundary conditions, collectively referred to as the electrokinetic equations. Capuani et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 973 (2004)] introduced a lattice-based method for solving this system of equations, which builds upon the lattice Boltzmann algorithm for the simulation of hydrodynamic flow and exploits computational locality. However, thus far, a description of how to incorporate moving boundary conditions into the Capuani scheme has been lacking. Moving boundary conditions are needed to simulate multiple arbitrarily moving colloids. In this paper, we detail how to introduce such a particle coupling scheme, based on an analogue to the moving boundary method for the pure lattice Boltzmann solver. The key ingredients in our method are mass and charge conservation for the solute species and a partial-volume smoothing of the solute fluxes to minimize discretization artifacts. We demonstrate our algorithm's effectiveness by simulating the electrophoresis of charged spheres in an external field; for a single sphere we compare to the equivalent electro-osmotic (co-moving) problem. Our method's efficiency and ease of implementation should prove beneficial to future simulations of the dynamics in a wide range of complex nanoscopic and colloidal systems that were previously inaccessible to lattice-based continuum algorithms.

  1. Micellar electrokinetic chromatographic determination of triazine herbicides in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Shuaihua; Yin, Xiaofang; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2014-09-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with online sweeping preconcentration in micellar electrokinetic chromatography was developed for the simultaneous determination of five triazine herbicides (atrazine, simazine, propazine, prometon and simetryn) in water samples. Several experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies such as the type and volume of both the extraction and dispersive solvents, the addition of salt to sample solution, the extraction time and the pH of the sample solution were investigated. Under optimum conditions, the linearity of the method was good in the range from 0.33 to 20 ng mL(-1) for simazine, propazine, atrazine and simetryn, and from 0.17 to 20 ng mL(-1) for prometon, respectively. The sensitivity enrichment factors were in the range from 1750 to 2100, depending on the compound. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) ranged from 0.05 to 0.10 ng mL(-1). The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of the five triazines in river, ground and well waters. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Electrokinetic transport behavior of phenol in upper Permian soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haus, R.; Zorn, R.; Czurda, K.; Ruthe, H. [Dept. of Applied Geology, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Electrokinetic experiments with upper Permian, phenol contaminated soils ('Solaris'-area Chemnitz) were performed. Bench scale results show the successful removal of phenol. The developing soil-pH during electroremediation tests is found to affect the transport behavior of phenol strongly. If buffer solutions are used at the electrode compartments, phenol could be removed from the soils. By neutralizing the generating hydrogen ions at the anode reservoir the hydroxyl ions developing at the cathode by the electrolysis of water enter the soil and propagate to the anode by increasing the soil pH. The pH dependent dehydroxylation of phenol promotes the electromigration of negative charged phenolate ions from the cathode to the anode. At the anode the coupling of phenoxyl-radicals supports the formation of non toxic, water insoluble polyoxyphenylene by electro-polymerization. In the case of buffering the pH at the cathode uncharged phenol is transported by electroosmosis from the anode to the cathode because of the nonexisting base front and the unhindered production of hydrogen ions at the anode. (orig.)

  3. Electrokinetic extraction of surfactants and heavy metals from sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, Violetta; Ferro, Sergio; Martinez-Huitle, Carlos A.; De Battisti, Achille

    2009-01-01

    Waste management represents a quite serious problem involving aspects of remediation technologies and potential re-utilization in different fields of human activities. Of course, wastes generated in industrial activities deserve more attention because of the nature and amount of xenobiotic components, often difficult to be eliminated. However, also ordinary wastes of urban origin are drawing more and more attention, depending on the concentration of noxious substances like surfactants and some heavy metal, which may eventually require expensive disposal. In the present paper, a research has been carried out on the application of electrokinetic treatments for the abatement of the above xenobiotic components from sewage sludge generated in urban wastewater treatment plants. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory scale, in a 250 mm x 50 mm x 100 mm cell, using 250-300 g of sludge for each test and current densities between 2.4 and 5.7 mA cm -2 . As a general result, quite significant abatements of heavy-metal ions and surfactants were achieved, with relatively low energy consumption

  4. Secondary side TSP deposit buildup: lab test investigation focused on electrokinetic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barale, M.; Guillodo, M.; Foucault, M., E-mail: Morgan.Barale@areva.com [AREVA NP SAS, Technical Centre, Le Creusot (France); Ryckelynck, N.; Clinard, M-H.; Chahma, F.; Brun, C. [AREVA NP SAS, Chemistry and Radiochemistry Group, Paris (France); Corredera, G. [Electricite de France, Centre d' Expertise et d' Inspection dans les domaines de la Realisation et de l' Exploitation, Saint-Denis (France)

    2010-07-01

    Deposit buildup which caused the clogging of the 'foils' of the upper tube-support-plates (TSP) inside a PWR steam generator of French NPPs in 2006 presents certain similarities with deposits observed in lab tests performed in secondary coolant chemistry at the Technical Centre of AREVA NP in 2002. The mechanism of TSP clogging seems not to present obvious phenomenological links with the fouling of the free span of SG since deposits buildup is quite uniform and is currently related to a surface boiling effect due to the surface heat flux. A specific mechanism could account for TSP clogging. In particular, electrokinetic effects were investigated by EDF-CEIDRE and AREVA NP SAS in the framework of a lab test program started in 2007. The electrokinetic approach is to consider that the coupling of local hydrodynamic and surface electrochemistry could lead to the formation of a very localized and heterogeneous deposit at the leading edge between both TSP and SG tubing material. Electrokinetic effects can lead to the oxidation and/or the precipitation of ferrous ions and to a variation of the electrokinetic potential which can produce strong attraction of iron oxide colloids. These electrokinetic effects are dependent of the T/H and local hydrodynamic conditions and surface electrochemistry explaining. The objective of this EDF-AREVA lab test program is to investigate the role of secondary chemistry coolant (pH, DH, N{sub 2}H{sub 4}, amine, redox) and of the nature of materials (SS, Ni base alloy) on deposit buildup. Properties of oxide surface and zeta potential of oxidized metallic materials have been also determined at temperature to understand their potential contribution on mechanism of TSP clogging in secondary side chemistry coolant. In this paper, a set of specific experiments carried out in this frame have been presented and discussed, paying particular attention to the effects of electrokinetic considerations and surface charges at oxide

  5. Secondary side TSP deposit buildup: lab test investigation focused on electrokinetic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barale, M.; Guillodo, M.; Foucault, M.; Ryckelynck, N.; Clinard, M-H.; Chahma, F.; Brun, C.; Corredera, G.

    2010-01-01

    Deposit buildup which caused the clogging of the 'foils' of the upper tube-support-plates (TSP) inside a PWR steam generator of French NPPs in 2006 presents certain similarities with deposits observed in lab tests performed in secondary coolant chemistry at the Technical Centre of AREVA NP in 2002. The mechanism of TSP clogging seems not to present obvious phenomenological links with the fouling of the free span of SG since deposits buildup is quite uniform and is currently related to a surface boiling effect due to the surface heat flux. A specific mechanism could account for TSP clogging. In particular, electrokinetic effects were investigated by EDF-CEIDRE and AREVA NP SAS in the framework of a lab test program started in 2007. The electrokinetic approach is to consider that the coupling of local hydrodynamic and surface electrochemistry could lead to the formation of a very localized and heterogeneous deposit at the leading edge between both TSP and SG tubing material. Electrokinetic effects can lead to the oxidation and/or the precipitation of ferrous ions and to a variation of the electrokinetic potential which can produce strong attraction of iron oxide colloids. These electrokinetic effects are dependent of the T/H and local hydrodynamic conditions and surface electrochemistry explaining. The objective of this EDF-AREVA lab test program is to investigate the role of secondary chemistry coolant (pH, DH, N 2 H 4 , amine, redox) and of the nature of materials (SS, Ni base alloy) on deposit buildup. Properties of oxide surface and zeta potential of oxidized metallic materials have been also determined at temperature to understand their potential contribution on mechanism of TSP clogging in secondary side chemistry coolant. In this paper, a set of specific experiments carried out in this frame have been presented and discussed, paying particular attention to the effects of electrokinetic considerations and surface charges at oxide-solution interfaces

  6. Structure Map for Embedded Binary Alloy Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, C.W.; Shin, S.J.; Liao, C.Y.; Guzman, J.; Stone, P.R.; Watanabe, M.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2008-09-20

    The equilibrium structure of embedded nanocrystals formed from strongly segregating binary-alloys is considered within a simple thermodynamic model. The model identifies two dimensionlessinterface energies that dictate the structure, and allows prediction of the stable structure for anychoice of these parameters. The resulting structure map includes three distinct nanocrystal mor-phologies: core/shell, lobe/lobe, and completely separated spheres.

  7. The removal of Cs-137 from soil using washing-electrokinetic decontamination equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyenam; Kim, Seungsoo; Kim, Geunho; Park, Hyemin; Kim, Wansuk; Park, Ukryang; Kwon, Hyeokju; Ryu, Ohha; Moon, Jeikwon

    2012-01-01

    The radioactive soil at the KAERI radioactive waste storage facility has slightly high hydro-conductivity, and was mainly contaminated with 137 Cs 30-35 years ago. Recently, a soil washing method has been applied to remove 137 Cs from radioactive soil, but it appears that the removal efficiency of 137 Cs had low and a lot of waste solution was generated. Meanwhile, an electrokinetic decontamination method provides high removal efficiency of 137 Cs and generates little waste effluent. Thus, it is suggested that an electrokinetic decontamination method is a suitable technology in consideration of the soil characteristics near South Korean nuclear facilities

  8. The removal of Cs-137 from soil using washing-electrokinetic decontamination equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyenam; Kim, Seungsoo; Kim, Geunho; Park, Hyemin; Kim, Wansuk; Park, Ukryang; Kwon, Hyeokju; Ryu, Ohha; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The radioactive soil at the KAERI radioactive waste storage facility has slightly high hydro-conductivity, and was mainly contaminated with {sup 137}Cs 30-35 years ago. Recently, a soil washing method has been applied to remove {sup 137}Cs from radioactive soil, but it appears that the removal efficiency of {sup 137}Cs had low and a lot of waste solution was generated. Meanwhile, an electrokinetic decontamination method provides high removal efficiency of {sup 137}Cs and generates little waste effluent. Thus, it is suggested that an electrokinetic decontamination method is a suitable technology in consideration of the soil characteristics near South Korean nuclear facilities.

  9. On-line identification of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in tablets using a combination of a sweeping technique and micellar electrokinetic chromatography/77 K fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ching; Liu, Ju-Tsung; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2003-03-01

    This work describes a novel method for the accurate determination of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in tablets. A technique involving sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) was used for the initial on-line concentration and separation, after which a cryogenic molecular fluorescence experiment was performed at 77 K. Using this approach, not only the separation of LSD from the tablet extract was achieved, but on-line spectra were readily distinguishable and could be unambiguously assigned. The results are in agreement with analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thus, this method, which was found to be accurate, sensitive and rapid, has the potential for use as a reliable complementary method to GC-MS in such analyses.

  10. Mining frequent binary expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.; Paredaens, J.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Tjoa, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In data mining, searching for frequent patterns is a common basic operation. It forms the basis of many interesting decision support processes. In this paper we present a new type of patterns, binary expressions. Based on the properties of a specified binary test, such as reflexivity, transitivity

  11. Asteroseismic effects in close binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Ofer M.; Shaviv, Nir J.

    2013-09-01

    Turbulent processes in the convective envelopes of the Sun and stars have been shown to be a source of internal acoustic excitations. In single stars, acoustic waves having frequencies below a certain cut-off frequency propagate nearly adiabatically and are effectively trapped below the photosphere where they are internally reflected. This reflection essentially occurs where the local wavelength becomes comparable to the pressure scale height. In close binary stars, the sound speed is a constant on equipotentials, while the pressure scale height, which depends on the local effective gravity, varies on equipotentials and may be much greater near the inner Lagrangian point (L1). As a result, waves reaching the vicinity of L1 may propagate unimpeded into low-density regions, where they tend to dissipate quickly due to non-linear and radiative effects. We study the three-dimensional propagation and enhanced damping of such waves inside a set of close binary stellar models using a WKB approximation of the acoustic field. We find that these waves can have much higher damping rates in close binaries, compared to their non-binary counterparts. We also find that the relative distribution of acoustic energy density at the visible surface of close binaries develops a ring-like feature at specific acoustic frequencies and binary separations.

  12. Integrating Carbon Nanotubes into Microfluidic Chip for Separating Biochemical Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Miaoxiang Max; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present a new type of device to separate biochemical compounds wherein carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are integrated as chromatographic stationary phase. The CNTs were directly grown on the bottom of microfluidic channels on Si/SiO2 substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetylene was used...... as carbon source and Ni was employed as catalyst. For electrokinetic separations, higher electrical field strength is usually required; therefore, the CNTs were constructed in pillar-array-form by patterning the catalyst layer. Electrical field strength of 2.0 kV/cm has been realized, which is more than one...

  13. Rapid analysis of water- and fat-soluble vitamins by electrokinetic chromatography with polymeric micelle as pseudostationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinjiong; Xing, Xiaoping; Cao, Yuhua; Cao, Guangqun

    2014-11-28

    A novel polymeric micelle, formed by random copolymer poly (stearyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (P(SMA-co-MAA)) has been used as pseudostationary phase (PSP) in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) for simultaneous and rapid determination of 11 kinds of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in this work. The running buffer consisting of 1% (w/v) P(SMA-co-MAA), 10% (v/v) 1-butanol, 20% (v/v) acetonitrile, and 30 mM Palitzsch buffer solution (pH 9.2) was applied to improve the selectivity and efficiency, as well as to shorten analysis time. 1-Butanol and acetonitrile as the organic solvent modifiers played the most important roles for rapid separation of these vitamins. The effects of organic solvents on microstructure of the polymeric micelle were investigated. The organic solvents swell the polymeric micelle by three folds, lower down the surface charge density and enhance the microenviromental polarity of the polymeric micelle. The 11 kinds of water- and fat-soluble vitamins could be baseline separated within 13 min. The method was applied to determine water- and fat-soluble vitamins in commercial vitamin sample; the recoveries were between 93% and 111% with the relative standard derivations (RSDs) less than 5%. The determination results matched the label claim. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Scale-up on electrokinetic remediation: Engineering and technological parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Vizcaíno, Rubén [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical & Environmental Technologies, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Navarro, Vicente; León, María J. [Geoenvironmental Group, Civil Engineering School, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo José Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Risco, Carolina [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical & Environmental Technologies, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Rodrigo, Manuel A., E-mail: manuel.rodrigo@uclm.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Sciences & Technologies, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Sáez, Cristina; Cañizares, Pablo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Sciences & Technologies, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2016-09-05

    Highlights: • Moisture and compaction of soil must be re-establish in Scale-up of EKR. • Degree of compaction of soil depends on moisture, type of soil and EKR reactor. • Scale of EKR process determines the energy consumption in the treatment. • Electroosmosis and electromigration processes are favoured in prototype scale. • In real scale EKR processes it is important determine evaporation and leaks effects. - Abstract: This study analyses the effect of the scale-up of electrokinetic remediation (EKR) processes in natural soils. A procedure is proposed to prepare soils based on a compacting process to obtaining soils with similar moisture content and density to those found in real soils in the field. The soil used here was from a region with a high agrarian activity (Mora, Spain). The scale-up study was performed in two installations at different scales: a mock-up pilot scale (0.175 m{sup 3}) and a prototype with a scale that was very similar to a real application (16 m{sup 3}). The electrode configuration selected consisted of rows of graphite electrodes facing each other located in electrolyte wells. The discharge of 20 mg of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D] per kg of dry soil was treated by applying an electric potential gradient of 1 V cm{sup −1}. An increase in scale was observed to directly influence the amount of energy supplied to the soil being treated. As a result, electroosmotic and electromigration flows and electric heating are more intense than in smaller-scale tests (24%, 1% and 25%, respectively respect to the values in prototype). In addition, possible leaks were evaluated by conducting a watertightness test and quantifying evaporation losses.

  15. Electrokinetic and electrochemical corrosion studies related to crud formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenini, Fabio; Palumbo, Gaetano; Stevens, Nicholas; Cook, Tony; Banks, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    A potentially important mechanism for the flow-induced deposition of CRUD from pressurised high temperature primary water is the effect of 'streaming potentials' that develop across the electrochemical double layer of a metallic surface as a result of fluid flow across a pressure gradient or orifice. Thus, under such conditions, streaming currents develop normal to a surface and may result in preferential oxidation, for example of dissolved ferrous to ferric ions with their subsequent deposition as an oxide. The approach presented in this paper was to consider the electrokinetic problem is to firstly consider the magnitude of currents that can be developed under a given set of flow/mass transport conditions and, secondly, to consider the way in which these relatively small currents might give rise to oxide deposition. Electrochemical measurements on 304L samples were carried out over a range of temperatures in hydrogenated, alkaline water. The test conditions were chosen in order to simulate PWR primary water conditions. Furthermore, in order to facilitate the electrochemical studies, the ferrous ion concentration in the solution was also enhanced by the presence of a mild steel plate left in the autoclave to corrode. By employing the cyclic voltammetry technique interpreted using the Randles-Sevcik equation it was possible to calculate the concentration of ferrous ions and their diffusion coefficient. A miniature flow cell was designed for the purpose of creating regions of accelerated flow with consequent formation of anodic and cathodic regions so as to be able to measure the streaming currents. A study was carried out in order to better understand the potential which is associated with the streaming potential as function of the velocity and temperature at fixed pH. (authors)

  16. Application of Electrokinetic Stabilisation (EKS) Method for Soft Soil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, ATS; Azim, MAM; Syakeera, NN; Jefferson, IF; Rogers, CDF

    2017-08-01

    Soil properties such as low shear strength, excessive compression, collapsing behavior, high swell potential are some of the undesirable properties of soils in geotechnical engineering and those properties would cause severe distress to the structures. To solve these, an innovative stabilization of Electrokinetic (EKS) has been introduced. Electrokinetic is an applicable technique to transport charged particles and fluid in an electric potential. The EKS demonstrates changes in soil pH due to electrolysis reactions, water flow between the electrodes and migration of ions towards the cathode. This treatment has proven its efficiency in consolidating organic, peat and clayey silt as well as less expensive than other methods. Otherwise, this method also gives advantage by not disturbing site. The primary objective of this review is to discuss the application of electrokinetic and to investigate the current knowledge of electrokinetic in geotechnical application through a literature search and review, including consideration of certain aspects related to the soft soil application that may be relevant to the future study and at the same time addressing some key issues and their implications on soil behaviors.

  17. Modeling of Electrokinetic Processes Using the Nernst-Plank-Poisson System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic processes are known as the mobilization of species within the pore solution of porous materials under the effect of an external electric field. A finite elements model was implemented and used for the integration of the coupled Nernst-Plank-Poisson system of equations in order...

  18. Removal of Uranium in Soil Using Large-scale Electrokinetic Decontamination Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Kim, Il gook; Jeong, Jung Whan; Kim, Seung Soo; Choi, Jong Won [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A method to remediate a large volume of radioactive soil should be developed. Until now the soil washing method has been studied to remediate soil contaminated with uranium, cobalt, cesium, and so on. However, it has a lower removal efficiency of nuclide from soils and generated a large volume of waste-solution. In addition, its application to the soil composed of fine particle is impossible. Thus, the electrokinetic method has been studied as a new technology for soil remediation recently. In this study, for a reduction of the waste electrolyte volume, the reuse period of waste electrolyte in the electrokinetic decontamination experiment through several experiments with the manufactured 1.2 ton electrokinetic decontamination equipment. In addition, the time required to reach below the clearance concentration level for self- disposal was estimated through several experiments using the manufactured electrokinetic decontamination equipment. When the initial uranium concentrations in the soils were 7.0-20.0 Bq/g, the times required to reach below the clearance concentration level for self-disposal were 25-40 days with the waste and reclaimed electrolytes.

  19. Influence of temperature and hydraulic conductivity of soil on electrokinetic decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Whan; Choi, Jong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The electrokinetic process holds great promise for the decontamination of contaminated soil because it has a high removal efficiency and is time-effective for low permeability. Electrokinetic decontamination can be used to treat soil contaminated with inorganic species and radionuclides. The main mechanisms of a contaminant's movement in an electrical field involved in electrokinetic technology are the electro-migration of the ionic species and electro-osmosis. Electro-migration probably contributes significantly to the removal of contaminants, especially at high concentrations of ionic contaminants and/or a high hydraulic permeability of soil. The cathode reaction should be depolarized to avoid the generation of hydroxides and their transport in soil. The selected liquid, also known as a purging reagent, should induce favorable pH conditions in soil, and/or interact with the incorporated heavy metals so that these heavy metals are removed from the soil. The removal efficiencies of uranium from contaminated soil in manufactured laboratory electrokinetic decontamination equipment were proportional to the elapsed time. The removal efficiencies of uranium for 2 days were 77-87%. In addition, the removal efficiencies according to the elapsed time after 2 days were reduced. When 75, 80, and 85℃ electrolyte temperatures in the cathode chamber were applied, the time required for the removal efficiency of uranium to reach 92% was 6, 5 and 4 days.

  20. Influence of temperature and hydraulic conductivity of soil on electrokinetic decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Whan; Choi, Jong-Won

    2016-01-01

    The electrokinetic process holds great promise for the decontamination of contaminated soil because it has a high removal efficiency and is time-effective for low permeability. Electrokinetic decontamination can be used to treat soil contaminated with inorganic species and radionuclides. The main mechanisms of a contaminant's movement in an electrical field involved in electrokinetic technology are the electro-migration of the ionic species and electro-osmosis. Electro-migration probably contributes significantly to the removal of contaminants, especially at high concentrations of ionic contaminants and/or a high hydraulic permeability of soil. The cathode reaction should be depolarized to avoid the generation of hydroxides and their transport in soil. The selected liquid, also known as a purging reagent, should induce favorable pH conditions in soil, and/or interact with the incorporated heavy metals so that these heavy metals are removed from the soil. The removal efficiencies of uranium from contaminated soil in manufactured laboratory electrokinetic decontamination equipment were proportional to the elapsed time. The removal efficiencies of uranium for 2 days were 77-87%. In addition, the removal efficiencies according to the elapsed time after 2 days were reduced. When 75, 80, and 85℃ electrolyte temperatures in the cathode chamber were applied, the time required for the removal efficiency of uranium to reach 92% was 6, 5 and 4 days

  1. Experimental study and mathematical model on remediation of Cd spiked kaolinite by electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascia, Michele; Palmas, Simonetta; Polcaro, Anna Maria; Vacca, Annalisa; Muntoni, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study on electrokinetic removal of cadmium from kaolinitic clays is presented in this work, which is aimed to investigate the effect of surface reactions on the electrokinetic process. Enhanced electrokinetic tests were performed in which the pH of the compartments was controlled. Cadmium spiked kaolin was adopted in the experimental runs. On the basis of the experimental results, a numerical model was formulated to simulate the cadmium (Cd) transport under an electric field by combining a one-dimensional diffusion-advection model with a geochemical model: the combined model describes the contaminant transport driven by chemical and electrical gradients, as well as the effect of the surface reactions. The geochemical model utilized parameters derived from the literature, and it was validated by experimental data obtained by sorption and titration experiments. Electrokinetic tests were utilized to validate the results of the proposed model. A good prediction of the behaviour of the soil/cadmium ions system under electrical field was obtained: the differences between experimental and model predicted profiles for the species considered were less than 5% in all the examined conditions

  2. Atmospheric pressure photoionization for enhanced compatibility in on-line micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Roelof; De Jong, Gerhardus J.; Somsen, Govert W.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) is presented as a novel means for the combination of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and mass spectrometry (MS). The on-line coupling is achieved using an adapted sheath flow interface installed on an orthogonal APPI source. Acetone or

  3. Electric double layer and electrokinetic potential of pectic macromolecules in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljanin Tatjana A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrokinetic potential is an important property of colloidal particles and, regarding the fact that it is a well defined and easily measurable property, it is considered to be a permanent characteristic of a particular colloidal system. In fact, it is a measure of electrokinetic charge that surrounds the colloidal particle in a solution and is in direct proportion with the mobility of particles in an electric field. Gouy-Chapman-Stern-Graham's model of electric double layer was adopted and it was proven experimentally that the addition of Cu++ ions to sugar beet pectin caused a reduction in the negative electrokinetic potential proportional to the increase of Cu++ concentration. Higher Cu++ concentrations increased the proportion of cation specific adsorption (Cu++ and H+ with regard to electrostatic Coulombic forces. Consequently, there is a shift in the shear plane between the fixed and diffuse layers directed towards the diffuse layer, i.e. towards its compression and decrease in the electrokinetic potential or even charge inversion of pectin macromolecules.

  4. Electrokinetic pumping and detection of low-volume flows in nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mela, P.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Berenschot, Johan W.; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan William; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Electrokinetic pumping of low-volume rates was performed on-chip in channels of small cross sectional area and height in the sub-m range. The flow was detected with the current monitoring technique by monitoring the change in resistance of the fluid in the channel upon the electroosmosis-driven

  5. A Hydromechanic-Electrokinetic Model for CO2 Sequestration in Geological Formations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Khoury, R.I.N.; Talebian, M.; Sluys, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, a finite element model for simulating coupled hydromechanic and electrokinetic flow in a multiphase domain is outlined. The model describes CO2 flow in a deformed, unsaturated geological formation and its associated streaming potential flow. The governing field equations are

  6. Effect of alternating bioremediation and electrokinetics on the remediation of n-hexadecane-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sa; Guo, Shuhai; Li, Fengmei; Yang, Xuelian; Teng, Fei; Wang, Jianing

    2016-04-01

    This study demonstrated the highly efficient degradation of n-hexadecane in soil, realized by alternating bioremediation and electrokinetic technologies. Using an alternating technology instead of simultaneous application prevented competition between the processes that would lower their efficiency. For the consumption of the soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) necessary for bioremediation by electrokinetics, bioremediation was performed first. Because of the utilization and loss of the DOM and water-soluble ions by the microbial and electrokinetic processes, respectively, both of them were supplemented to provide a basic carbon resource, maintain a high electrical conductivity and produce a uniform distribution of ions. The moisture and bacteria were also supplemented. The optimal DOM supplement (20.5 mg·kg-1 glucose; 80-90% of the total natural DOM content in the soil) was calculated to avoid competitive effects (between the DOM and n-hexadecane) and to prevent nutritional deficiency. The replenishment of the water-soluble ions maintained their content equal to their initial concentrations. The degradation rate of n-hexadecane was only 167.0 mg·kg-1·d-1 (1.9%, w/w) for the first 9 days in the treatments with bioremediation or electrokinetics alone, but this rate was realized throughout the whole process when the two technologies were alternated, with a degradation of 78.5% ± 2.0% for the n-hexadecane after 45 days of treatment.

  7. Electrokinetics of diffuse soft interfaces. III. Interpretation of data on the polyacrylamide/water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yezek, L.P.; Duval, J.F.L.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Streaming potential measurements were carried out on a family of polyacrylamide-co-sodium acrylate gels cross-linked with N,N¿- methylenebisacrylamide in a homemade electrokinetic cell. Measurements of the ionic conductivity within thin films of these gels allowed the equilibrium Donnan potential

  8. Effect of Wetting Agents and Approaching Anodes on Lead Migration in Electrokinetic Soil Remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Yee-Sern; Gupta, Bhaskar Sen; Hashim, Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation slides for my conference paper "Effect of Wetting Agents and Approaching Anodes on Lead Migration in Electrokinetic Soil Remediation", which was presented in 5th International Conference on Chemical Engineering and Applications, Taipei on 27 August 2014.

  9. Electrokinetics of diffuse soft interfaces. I. Limit of low Donnan potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, J.F.L.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2004-01-01

    The current theoretical approaches to electrokinetics of gels or polyelectrolyte layers are based on the assumption that the position of the very interface between the aqueous medium and the gel phase is well defined. Within this assumption, spatial profiles for the volume fraction of polymer

  10. Electrokinetics of diffuse soft interfaces. 2. Analysis based on the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, J.F.L.

    2005-01-01

    In a previous study (Langmuir 2004, 20, 10324), the electrokinetic properties of diffuse soft layers were theoretically investigated within the framework of the Debye-H¿ckel approximation valid in the limit of sufficiently low values for the Donnan potential. In the current paper, the

  11. Optimum Remediation Conditions of Vertical Electrokinetic-Flushing Equipment to Decontaminate a Radioactive Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Yang, Byeong IL; Moon, Jei Kwon; Lee, Kune Woo

    2009-01-01

    Vertical electrokintic-flushing remediation equipment was developed for the remediation of a radioactive soil near nuclear facilities. An optimum reagent was selected to decontaminate the radioactive soil near nuclear facilities with the developed vertical electrokintic-flushing remediation equipment, and the optimum remediation conditions were established to obtain a higher remediation efficiency. Namely, acetic acid was selected as an optimum reagent due to its higher remediation efficiency. When the electrokinetic remediation and the electrokinetic-flushing remediation results were compared, the removal efficiency of 4.6% and the soil waste solution volume of 1.5 times were increased in the electrokinetic remediation. When the potential gradient within an electrokinetic soil cell was increased by two times (4.0 V/cm), the removal efficiencies of Co 2+ and Cs + were increased by about 4.3%( Co 2+ : 98.9%, Cs + : 96.7%). Also, when the reagent concentration was increased from 0.01 M to 0.05 M, the removal efficiency of Co 2+ was increased but that of Cs + was decreased. Therefore, the optimum remediation conditions were that the acetic concentration was 0.01 M ∼ 0.05 M, the potential gradient was 4 V/cm, the injection of reagent 2.4 ml/g, and the remediation period was 20 days.

  12. Electrokinetic properties and conductance relaxation of polystyrene and silver iodide plugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoven, van den J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes an experimental study on the electrokinetic and electrical properties of concentrated polystyrene and silver iodide dispersions. The purpose of the study is to obtain information on the structure of the electrical double layer at the solid-liquid interface. Special

  13. Bulk conductivity of soft surface layers : experimental measurement and electrokinetic implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yezek, L.P.

    2005-01-01

    Conductivity measurements were carried out on a family of polyacrylamide-co-sodium acrylate gels cross-linked with N,N¿ -methylenebisacrylamide in a homemade electrokinetic cell. The conductivity data allowed the equilibrium Donnan potential difference between the bulk gel and the bulk electrolyte

  14. Faradaic double layer depolarization in electrokinetics: Onsager relations and substrate limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.P.; Duval, J.F.L.

    2007-01-01

    More often than not, the measurement of interfacial potentials by means of electrokinetic techniques is affected by interfering processes that may relax or even annihilate their primary response function. Among these processes are faradaic ones, provided that the substrate is sufficiently conducting

  15. Electrokinetic applications for environmental restoration, waste volume reduction, and contaminant containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.L.; Lomasney, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the US and all over the world, following over 50 years of nuclear arms production operations, the magnitude of resultant environmental damage is only beginning to surface. The US Department of Energy estimates that by the year 2070, the total volume of high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and low-level mixed waste, generated as a result of past and current nuclear activities, will exceed 20 million cubic meters. In Russia, it is reported that more than 30% of all groundwater is contaminated with agricultural and industrial chemical waste. Government agencies today are faced with the responsibility of developing technologies that are suitable for dealing with severe environmental contamination and accumulating waste inventories. In response to this demand, applications of electrokinetics have emerged in the field of environmental waste management as alternatives for environmental decontamination and ecological protection. Electrokinetics involves the movement of charged species under the influence of an applied electric field and is applicable in several areas of environmental waste management, including cleanup of soil and groundwater, barrier detection, and emergency or protective fencing. The worldwide interest in this technology has steadily escalated over the past decade. Today, state-of-the-art applications of electrokinetics have been demonstrated in the US, The Netherlands, Russia, The Ukraine, and India. This paper addresses the latest advances in the various applications of this technology as well as the most significant breakthroughs in the history of electrokinetics

  16. COSMIC probes into compact binary formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Katelyn

    2018-01-01

    The population of compact binaries in the galaxy represents the final state of all binaries that have lived up to the present epoch. Compact binaries present a unique opportunity to probe binary evolution since many of the interactions binaries experience can be imprinted on the compact binary population. By combining binary evolution simulations with catalogs of observable compact binary systems, we can distill the dominant physical processes that govern binary star evolution, as well as predict the abundance and variety of their end products.The next decades herald a previously unseen opportunity to study compact binaries. Multi-messenger observations from telescopes across all wavelengths and gravitational-wave observatories spanning several decades of frequency will give an unprecedented view into the structure of these systems and the composition of their components. Observations will not always be coincident and in some cases may be separated by several years, providing an avenue for simulations to better constrain binary evolution models in preparation for future observations.I will present the results of three population synthesis studies of compact binary populations carried out with the Compact Object Synthesis and Monte Carlo Investigation Code (COSMIC). I will first show how binary-black-hole formation channels can be understood with LISA observations. I will then show how the population of double white dwarfs observed with LISA and Gaia could provide a detailed view of mass transfer and accretion. Finally, I will show that Gaia could discover thousands black holes in the Milky Way through astrometric observations, yielding view into black-hole astrophysics that is complementary to and independent from both X-ray and gravitational-wave astronomy.

  17. Performance analysis and binary working fluid selection of combined flash-binary geothermal cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeyghami, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the combined flash-binary geothermal power cycle for geofluid temperatures between 150 and 250 °C is studied. A thermodynamic model is developed, and the suitable binary working fluids for different geofluid temperatures are identified from a list of thirty working fluid candidates, consisting environmental friendly refrigerants and hydrocarbons. The overall system exergy destruction and Vapor Expansion Ratio across the binary cycle turbine are selected as key performance indicators. The results show that for low-temperature heat sources using refrigerants as binary working fluids result in higher overall cycle efficiency and for medium and high-temperature resources, hydrocarbons are more suitable. For combined flash-binary cycle, secondary working fluids; R-152a, Butane and Cis-butane show the best performances at geofluid temperatures 150, 200 and 250 °C respectively. The overall second law efficiency is calculated as high as 0.48, 0.55 and 0.58 for geofluid temperatures equal 150, 200 and 250 °C respectively. The flash separator pressure found to has important effects on cycle operation and performance. Separator pressure dictates the work production share of steam and binary parts of the system. And there is an optimal separator pressure at which overall exergy destruction of the cycle achieves its minimum value. - Highlights: • Performance of the combined flash-binary geothermal cycle is investigated. • Thirty different fluids are screened to find the most suitable ORC working fluid. • Optimum cycle operation conditions presented for geofluids between 150 °C and 250 °C. • Refrigerants are more suitable for the ORC at geothermal sources temperature ≤200 °C. • Hydrocarbons are more suitable for the ORC at geothermal sources temperature >200 °C

  18. Researches in increase of efficiency of electrokinetic process of ground cleaning from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, L.B.; Shcheglov, M.Y.; Nikolaevsky, V.B.; Tkachenko, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    Potentially perspective method of decontamination of ground is electrokinetic method, which basic advantage consists in an opportunity of its application for clearing ground with low filtering by ability directly on a place of local contaminated (in situ). Thus moving the large volumes of the contaminated ground is excluded. Base of this method is the processes of electromigration and electro-osmotic, proceeding in a contaminated ground lay at imposing an electrical field of a constant current. Electrokinetic method of cleaning of ground from radionuclides provides their transfer in water-soluble, mobile form, carry as positive or negative ions under influence of an electrical field into electrode chambers with their subsequent recycling.Electrokinetic method in practice can be realized as follows: in the contaminated ground establish special electrode devices, fill their electrolyte and connect to a source of a constant current. Formed in the anode device as a result of electrochemical decomposition of water the ions of hydrogen under action of an electrical field move to the cathode, thus cooperate with a ground and superside cations of radioactive elements. Desorbed cations of contaminate act in catholyte, which periodically or continuously is exposed to clearing, for example, on sorption column. Last years the experts MosNPO Radon carry out complex researches directed on development of electrokinetic technology of cleaning ground from radionuclides and heavy metals. To the present time laboratory and bench tests of electrokinetic method are carried out. The basic attention at study of process of cleaning was given to objects contaminated Cs-137, most difficult recovery an element, which is strongly fixed by clay minerals and can enter into crystal structure. (authors)

  19. Close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson-Leander, G.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)

  20. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  1. Planet formation in Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Thebault, Ph.; Haghighipour, N.

    2014-01-01

    Spurred by the discovery of numerous exoplanets in multiple systems, binaries have become in recent years one of the main topics in planet formation research. Numerous studies have investigated to what extent the presence of a stellar companion can affect the planet formation process. Such studies have implications that can reach beyond the sole context of binaries, as they allow to test certain aspects of the planet formation scenario by submitting them to extreme environments. We review her...

  2. Application of bioassays to evaluate a copper contaminated soil before and after a pilot-scale electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Quanying [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Dongmei [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)], E-mail: dmzhou@issas.ac.cn; Cang Long [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun Tianran [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Remediation programmes are considered to be complete when human risk-based criteria are met. However, these targets are often unsatisfied with the ecological parameters that may be important with regard to future soil use. Five soil subsamples, collecting along a pilot-scale soil column after electrokinetic treatment, were studied, from which about 42.0%-93.3% soil Cu had been successfully removed. A series of biological assays including soil microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, soil urease activity, earthworm assays, and seed assays were used to evaluate their ecological risks. The results showed that the bioassay data from the treatment variants did not supposedly reflecting the decreased soil Cu concentrations after the electrokinetic treatment, but were highly correlated with some soil physicochemical characteristics. It suggests that bioassays are necessary to assess the ecotoxicity of soil after electrokinetic treatment. - There has been a motivation towards using biological indicators for risk assessment of contaminated soil after electrokinetic remediation.

  3. Application of bioassays to evaluate a copper contaminated soil before and after a pilot-scale electrokinetic remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanying; Zhou Dongmei; Cang Long; Sun Tianran

    2009-01-01

    Remediation programmes are considered to be complete when human risk-based criteria are met. However, these targets are often unsatisfied with the ecological parameters that may be important with regard to future soil use. Five soil subsamples, collecting along a pilot-scale soil column after electrokinetic treatment, were studied, from which about 42.0%-93.3% soil Cu had been successfully removed. A series of biological assays including soil microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, soil urease activity, earthworm assays, and seed assays were used to evaluate their ecological risks. The results showed that the bioassay data from the treatment variants did not supposedly reflecting the decreased soil Cu concentrations after the electrokinetic treatment, but were highly correlated with some soil physicochemical characteristics. It suggests that bioassays are necessary to assess the ecotoxicity of soil after electrokinetic treatment. - There has been a motivation towards using biological indicators for risk assessment of contaminated soil after electrokinetic remediation

  4. Electrokinetic investigations on the system polystyrene/aqueous electrolyte solution : verification of model theories on dilute and concentrated dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, van der A.G.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis presents a systematic experimental and theoretical study on electrokinetic and electroconducting properties of disperse systems. The increasing interest in transport processes through charged porous systems has recently brought about a corresponding growth of models and theories since

  5. Sub-Grid Modeling of Electrokinetic Effects in Micro Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in micro-fabrication processes have generated tremendous interests in miniaturizing chemical and biomedical analyses into integrated microsystems (Lab-on-Chip devices). To successfully design and operate the micro fluidics system, it is essential to understand the fundamental fluid flow phenomena when channel sizes are shrink to micron or even nano dimensions. One important phenomenon is the electro kinetic effect in micro/nano channels due to the existence of the electrical double layer (EDL) near a solid-liquid interface. Not only EDL is responsible for electro-osmosis pumping when an electric field parallel to the surface is imposed, EDL also causes extra flow resistance (the electro-viscous effect) and flow anomaly (such as early transition from laminar to turbulent flow) observed in pressure-driven microchannel flows. Modeling and simulation of electro-kinetic effects on micro flows poses significant numerical challenge due to the fact that the sizes of the double layer (10 nm up to microns) are very thin compared to channel width (can be up to 100 s of m). Since the typical thickness of the double layer is extremely small compared to the channel width, it would be computationally very costly to capture the velocity profile inside the double layer by placing sufficient number of grid cells in the layer to resolve the velocity changes, especially in complex, 3-d geometries. Existing approaches using "slip" wall velocity and augmented double layer are difficult to use when the flow geometry is complicated, e.g. flow in a T-junction, X-junction, etc. In order to overcome the difficulties arising from those two approaches, we have developed a sub-grid integration method to properly account for the physics of the double layer. The integration approach can be used on simple or complicated flow geometries. Resolution of the double layer is not needed in this approach, and the effects of the double layer can be accounted for at the same time. With this

  6. CIRCUMBINARY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ACCRETION INTO INSPIRALING BINARY BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Scott C.; Mundim, Bruno C.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela; Zlochower, Yosef [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Krolik, Julian H. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Yunes, Nicolas, E-mail: scn@astro.rit.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We have simulated the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a circumbinary disk surrounding an equal-mass binary comprising two non-spinning black holes during the period in which the disk inflow time is comparable to the binary evolution time due to gravitational radiation. Both the changing spacetime and the binary orbital evolution are described by an innovative technique utilizing high-order post-Newtonian approximations. Prior to the beginning of the inspiral, the structure of the circumbinary disk is predicted well by extrapolation from Newtonian results: a gap of roughly two binary separation radii is cleared, and matter piles up at the outer edge of this gap as inflow is retarded by torques exerted by the binary; the accretion rate is roughly half its value at large radius. During inspiral, the inner edge of the disk initially moves inward in coordination with the shrinking binary, but-as the orbital evolution accelerates-the inward motion of the disk edge falls behind the rate of binary compression. In this stage, the binary torque falls substantially, but the accretion rate decreases by only 10%-20%. When the binary separation is tens of gravitational radii, the rest-mass efficiency of disk radiation is a few percent, suggesting that supermassive binary black holes could be very luminous at this stage of their evolution. Inner disk heating is modulated at a beat frequency comparable to the binary orbital frequency. However, a disk with sufficient surface density to be luminous may be optically thick, suppressing periodic modulation of the luminosity.

  7. EXTRASOLAR BINARY PLANETS. II. DETECTABILITY BY TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, K. M.; Ida, S.; Ochiai, H.; Nagasawa, M.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the detectability of gravitationally bound pairs of gas-giant planets (which we call “binary planets”) in extrasolar planetary systems that are formed through orbital instability followed by planet–planet dynamical tides during their close encounters, based on the results of N-body simulations by Ochiai et al. (Paper I). Paper I showed that the formation probability of a binary is as much as ∼10% for three giant planet systems that undergo orbital instability, and after post-capture long-term tidal evolution, the typical binary separation is three to five times the sum of the physical radii of the planets. The binary planets are stable during the main-sequence lifetime of solar-type stars, if the stellarcentric semimajor axis of the binary is larger than 0.3 AU. We show that detecting modulations of transit light curves is the most promising observational method to detect binary planets. Since the likely binary separations are comparable to the stellar diameter, the shape of the transit light curve is different from transit to transit, depending on the phase of the binary’s orbit. The transit durations and depth for binary planet transits are generally longer and deeper than those for the single planet case. We point out that binary planets could exist among the known inflated gas-giant planets or objects classified as false positive detections at orbital radii ≳0.3 AU, propose a binary planet explanation for the CoRoT candidate SRc01 E2 1066, and show that binary planets are likely to be present in, and could be detected using, Kepler-quality data

  8. The binary white dwarf LHS 3236

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Canzian, Blaise; Guetter, Harry H.; Levine, Stephen E.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Monet, Alice K. B.; Stone, Ronald C.; Subasavage, John P.; Tilleman, Trudy; Walker, Richard L. [US Naval Observatory, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hartkopf, William I. [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109 (Australia); Leggett, S. K., E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    The white dwarf LHS 3236 (WD1639+153) is shown to be a double-degenerate binary, with each component having a high mass. Astrometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory gives a parallax and distance of 30.86 ± 0.25 pc and a tangential velocity of 98 km s{sup –1}, and reveals binary orbital motion. The orbital parameters are determined from astrometry of the photocenter over more than three orbits of the 4.0 yr period. High-resolution imaging at the Keck Observatory resolves the pair with a separation of 31 and 124 mas at two epochs. Optical and near-IR photometry give a set of possible binary components. Consistency of all data indicates that the binary is a pair of DA stars with temperatures near 8000 and 7400 K and with masses of 0.93 and 0.91 M {sub ☉}; also possible is a DA primary and a helium DC secondary with temperatures near 8800 and 6000 K and with masses of 0.98 and 0.69 M {sub ☉}. In either case, the cooling ages of the stars are ∼3 Gyr and the total ages are <4 Gyr. The combined mass of the binary (1.66-1.84 M {sub ☉}) is well above the Chandrasekhar limit; however, the timescale for coalescence is long.

  9. Star formation history: Modeling of visual binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Y. M.; Tessema, S. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sytov, A. Yu.; Tutukov, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    Most stars form in binary or multiple systems. Their evolution is defined by masses of components, orbital separation and eccentricity. In order to understand star formation and evolutionary processes, it is vital to find distributions of physical parameters of binaries. We have carried out Monte Carlo simulations in which we simulate different pairing scenarios: random pairing, primary-constrained pairing, split-core pairing, and total and primary pairing in order to get distributions of binaries over physical parameters at birth. Next, for comparison with observations, we account for stellar evolution and selection effects. Brightness, radius, temperature, and other parameters of components are assigned or calculated according to approximate relations for stars in different evolutionary stages (main-sequence stars, red giants, white dwarfs, relativistic objects). Evolutionary stage is defined as a function of system age and component masses. We compare our results with the observed IMF, binarity rate, and binary mass-ratio distributions for field visual binaries to find initial distributions and pairing scenarios that produce observed distributions.

  10. Impact of carbonate on the efficiency of heavy metal removal from kaolinite soil by the electrokinetic soil remediation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouhadi, V.R.; Yong, R.N.; Shariatmadari, N.; Saeidijam, S.; Goodarzi, A.R.; Safari-Zanjani, M.

    2010-01-01

    While the feasibility of using electrokinetics to decontaminate soils has been studied by several authors, the effects of soil composition on the efficiency of this method of decontamination has yet to be fully studied. This study focuses its attention on the effect of 'calcite or carbonate' (CaCO 3 ) on removal efficiency in electrokinetic soil remediation. Bench scale experiments were conducted on two soils: kaolinite and natural-soil of a landfill in Hamedan, Iran. Prescribed quantities of carbonates were mixed with these soils which were subsequently contaminated with zinc nitrate. After that, electrokinetic experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of electrokinetic remediation. The results showed that an increase in the quantity of carbonate caused a noticeable increase on the contaminant retention of soil and on the resistance of soil to the contaminant removal by electrokinetic method. Because the presence of carbonates in the soil increases its buffering capacity, acidification is reduced, resulting in a decrease in the rate of heavy metal removed from the contaminant soil. This conclusion was validated by the evaluation of efficiency of electrokinetic method on a soil sample from the liner of a waste disposal site, with 28% carbonates.

  11. Citric-acid preacidification enhanced electrokinetic remediation for removal of chromium from chromium-residue-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fansheng; Xue, Hao; Wang, Yeyao; Zheng, Binghui; Wang, Juling

    2018-02-01

    Electrokinetic experiments were conducted on chromium-residue-contaminated soils collected from a chemical plant in China. Acidification-electrokinetic remediation technology was proposed in order to solve the problem of removing inefficient with ordinary electrokinetic. The results showed that electrokinetic remediation removal efficiency of chromium from chromium-contaminated soil was significantly enhanced with acidizing pretreatment. The total chromium [Cr(T)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] removal rate of the group acidized by citric acid (0.9 mol/L) for 5 days was increased from 6.23% and 19.01% in the acid-free experiments to 26.97% and 77.66% in the acidification-treated experiments, respectively. In addition, part of chromium with the state of carbonate-combined will be converted into water-soluble state through acidification to improve the removal efficiency. Within the appropriate concentration range, the higher concentration of acid was, the more chromium was released. So the removal efficiency of chromium depended on the acid concentration. The citric acid is also a kind of complexing agent, which produced complexation with Cr that was released by the electrokinetic treatment and then enhanced the removal efficiency. The major speciation of chromium that was removed from soils by acidification-electrokinetics remediation was acid-soluble speciation, revivification speciation and oxidation speciation, which reduced biological availability of chromium.

  12. Impact of carbonate on the efficiency of heavy metal removal from kaolinite soil by the electrokinetic soil remediation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouhadi, V.R., E-mail: vahidouhadi@yahoo.ca [Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yong, R.N. [RNY Geoenvironmental Research, North Saanich (Canada); Shariatmadari, N. [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saeidijam, S.; Goodarzi, A.R.; Safari-Zanjani, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    While the feasibility of using electrokinetics to decontaminate soils has been studied by several authors, the effects of soil composition on the efficiency of this method of decontamination has yet to be fully studied. This study focuses its attention on the effect of 'calcite or carbonate' (CaCO{sub 3}) on removal efficiency in electrokinetic soil remediation. Bench scale experiments were conducted on two soils: kaolinite and natural-soil of a landfill in Hamedan, Iran. Prescribed quantities of carbonates were mixed with these soils which were subsequently contaminated with zinc nitrate. After that, electrokinetic experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of electrokinetic remediation. The results showed that an increase in the quantity of carbonate caused a noticeable increase on the contaminant retention of soil and on the resistance of soil to the contaminant removal by electrokinetic method. Because the presence of carbonates in the soil increases its buffering capacity, acidification is reduced, resulting in a decrease in the rate of heavy metal removed from the contaminant soil. This conclusion was validated by the evaluation of efficiency of electrokinetic method on a soil sample from the liner of a waste disposal site, with 28% carbonates.

  13. BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  14. BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Mikkola, Seppo, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Seppo.Mikkola@utu.fi [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, Piikkiö (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  15. Field-Amplified Sample Injection-Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography for the Determination of Benzophenones in Food Simulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Félez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A field-amplified sample injection-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (FASI-MEKC method for the determination of 14 benzophenones (BPs in a food simulant used in migration studies of food packaging materials was developed, allowing almost baseline separation in less than 21 min. The use of a 10 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS solution as sample matrix was mandatory to achieve FASI enhancement of the analyzed BPs. A 21- to 784-fold sensitivity enhancement was achieved with FASI-MEKC, obtaining limits of detection down to 5.1–68.4 µg/L, with acceptable run-to-run precisions (RSD values lower than 22.3% and accuracy (relative errors lower than 21.0%. Method performance was evaluated by quantifying BPs in the food simulant spiked at 500 µg/L (bellow the established specific migration limit for BP (600 µg/L by EU legislation. For a 95% confidence level, no statistical differences were observed between found and spiked concentrations (probability at the confidence level, p value, of 0.55, showing that the proposed FASI-MEKC method is suitable for the analysis of BPs in food packaging migration studies at the levels established by EU legislation.

  16. [Analysis of phthalate esters in plastic-packaging bags on-line sample stacking-microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jia; Huang, Ying; Wang, Minyi; Chen, Guonan

    2012-09-01

    Two convenient, effective, and reproducible methods using microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC)-normal stacking mode (NSM) and reversed electrode polarity stacking mode (REPSM) were developed for the on-line sample stacking of phthalate esters (PAEs). REPSM coupled with MEEKC increased the sensitivity of 937.5 to 7,143 times for four PAEs compared to the conventional MEEKC. The separating conditions in the MEEKC method were studied, and many factors influencing the two sample stacking processes were investigated in detail. The optimum sample matrices for the two stacking methods were as follows: 30 mmol/L sodium cholate (SC) and 30.0 mmol/L borate (pH 8.5). Additionally, sample injections as large as 3.45 kPa x 40 s and 3.45 kPa x 90 s were applied for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The linear relationship and reproducibility were also examined. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits (S/N = 3) of the PAEs were in the ranges of 0.021 - 0.33 mg/L and 0.7 - 4 microg/L for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The proposed REPSM-MEEKC has been successfully applied to determine PAEs in plastic-packaging bags, and the spiked recoveries were in the range of 89.1% - 105.6% with satisfactory results.

  17. Capillaries modified by noncovalent anionic polymer adsorption for capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, L; Hansen, S H; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2001-01-01

    A simple coating procedure for generation of a high and pH-independent electroosmotic flow in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) is described. The bilayer coating was formed by noncovalent adsorption of the ionic polymers Polybrene...... capillaries was (4.9+/-0.1) x 10(-4) cm2V(-1)s(-1) in a pH-range of 2-10 (ionic strength = 30 mM). When alkaline compounds were used as test substances intracapillary and intercapillary migration time variations (n = 6) were less than 1% relative standard deviation (RSD) and 2% RSD, respectively in the entire...... pH range. The coating was fairly stable in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and this made it possible to perform fast MEKC separations at low pH. When neutral compounds were used as test substances, the intracapillary migration time variations (n = 6) were less than 2% RSD in a pH range of 2...

  18. Sensitive determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L. by field-amplified, sample-stacking, sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kun; Xu, Yi; Mu, Xiuni; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Renjie; Lv, Junjiang

    2016-11-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are the toxic components in Tussilago farfara L. Due to the lack of standard substances for quantitative analysis and traces of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in total alkaloids, the full quality control of Tussilago farfara L has been limited. In this study, we aimed to solve the difficulty of determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and identify more components in the total alkaloids. An on-line preconcentration method has been applied to improve determining sensitivity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L. in which included field-amplified sample stacking and sweeping in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. The main parameters that affected separation and stacking efficiency were investigated in details. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity enhancement factors obtained by the developed method for the analytes were from 15- to 12-fold, the limits of detection of senkirkine and senecionine were 2∼5 μg/L. Senkirkine and senecionine have been detected in alkaloids (c) of Tussilago farfara L, along ferulic acid methyl ester and methyl caffeate. The developed method was also applied to the analysis of acid extraction (a) of Tussilago farfara L, and senkirkine could be detected directly. The results indicated that the developed method is feasible for the analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L with good recoveries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Filtration device for rapid separation of biological particles from complex matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangil; Naraghi-Arani, Pejman; Liou, Megan

    2018-01-09

    Methods and systems for filtering of biological particles are disclosed. Filtering membranes separate adjacent chambers. Through osmotic or electrokinetic processes, flow of particles is carried out through the filtering membranes. Cells, viruses and cell waste can be filtered depending on the size of the pores of the membrane. A polymer brush can be applied to a surface of the membrane to enhance filtering and prevent fouling.

  20. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  1. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil from heavy metals and cobalt radioactive isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Raouf, M.W.; Abdel Aziz, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present work presents a simple and inexpensive method for the in situ electrokinetic remediation of simulated contamined soil samples. Soil samples were collcted at inshas site (Egypt) at different depths 2-4, 4-6, and 6-8 m, purified from large and hard lumps, and characterized. To improve their hydraulic mobility, equal weights from the simulated soil and sand (0.5kg) were throughly mixed. The soil mixtures were dried under an infrared lamp, ground to a fine powder using a hand mortar. In this study, the soil samples were loaded separately by 250 ml CuSo 4 (1M) for Cu 2+ or CdCl 2 (1M) for Cd 2+ ,/or with simulated aqueous radioactive solution of 60 Co. Contaminated soil samples were left in contact with contaminant solutions for 48 hours in a closed container. Oven dried loaded soils samples were wasted five times by water to remove the free cations; then intial contaminant concentration of copper, calmium, and cobalt in soil samples was measured. To permit for the passage of electric current, loaded soil samples were wet with synthetic ground water (100 ml). A bench scale cell (13.0 cm x 6.0 cm x 6.5 cm) made from plexiglas was packed with 0.2 kg soil sample. A platinum sheet (4 cm x 0.5 cm x 0.05 cm) represented the anode; a graphite bar (iameter 0.5 cm and height 4 cm) represented the cathode, 6.0 cm apart from the anode. In the cell, the applied electric current and potential difference was kept constant at 60 mA and 10V, respectively for three hours treatment duration. The used electrodes were immersed into fired clay pottery bodies (net internal volume 15 ml) full with synthetic ground water. Percent of removal (P r ) of Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , and 60 Co obtained after three hours waslarger than 97% at current density 2.2mA.cm -2 , and energy consumption 0.12 W.h.kg -1 . The advantages of the applied technique included the close control over the direction of movement of water and dissolved contsminants, retention of the contaminants within a confined zone

  2. Separation of the components of the binary mixture ethanol-water by steam flux in solid phase column; Separacao dos componentes da mistura binaria etanol-agua por passagem do vapor em coluna de fase solida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrones, M G.H.; Brune, W; Souza Barcellos, E de; Almeida, P G.V. de [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Fabris, J D [EMBRAPA, Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This paper deals with the energy required to separate ethanol from an aqueous solution in a distillation column containing a solid phase. The solid phases evaluated consisted of either an amylatious (ground corn) or a cellulose (sugar cane bagasse) absorber whit particle sizes smaller than 4 mm. The water-retention capacity of each solid phase was measured by passing vapors or ethanol-water mixtures through the solid phase. When starting with initial concentrations bellow the azeotropic point, ethanol concentrations up to 99,5% (on corn) and 97,2% (on sugar cane) were achieved. The water content was evaluated potentiometrically (Karl`Fischer). Regarding the 2-4 mm ground corn solid phase column, the energy consumed was estimated to be reduced by 15,6% and 60% (by weight) ethanol-water mixture respectively. (author) 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Statistical Analysis of a Comprehensive List of Visual Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaleva D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual binary stars are the most abundant class of observed binaries. The most comprehensive list of data on visual binaries compiled recently by cross-matching the largest catalogues of visual binaries allowed a statistical investigation of observational parameters of these systems. The dataset was cleaned by correcting uncertainties and misclassifications, and supplemented with available parallax data. The refined dataset is free from technical biases and contains 3676 presumably physical visual pairs of luminosity class V with known angular separations, magnitudes of the components, spectral types, and parallaxes. We also compiled a restricted sample of 998 pairs free from observational biases due to the probability of binary discovery. Certain distributions of observational and physical parameters of stars of our dataset are discussed.

  4. EFFICIENT MERGER OF BINARY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN MERGING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Just, Andreas; Merritt, David

    2011-01-01

    In spherical galaxies, binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) have difficulty reaching sub-parsec separations due to depletion of stars on orbits that intersect the massive binary-the 'final parsec problem'. Galaxies that form via major mergers are substantially non-spherical, and it has been argued that the centrophilic orbits in triaxial galaxies might provide stars to the massive binary at a high enough rate to avoid stalling. Here we test that idea by carrying out fully self-consistent merger simulations of galaxies containing central SMBHs. We find hardening rates of the massive binaries that are indeed much higher than in spherical models and essentially independent of the number of particles used in the simulations. Binary eccentricities remain high throughout the simulations. Our results constitute a fully stellar-dynamical solution to the final parsec problem and imply a potentially high rate of events for low-frequency gravitational wave detectors like LISA.

  5. Full Ionisation In Binary-Binary Encounters With Small Positive Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweatman, W. L.

    2006-08-01

    Interactions between binary stars and single stars and binary stars and other binary stars play a key role in the dynamics of a dense stellar system. Energy can be transferred between the internal dynamics of a binary and the larger scale dynamics of the interacting objects. Binaries can be destroyed and created by the interaction. In a binary-binary encounter, full ionisation occurs when both of the binary stars are destroyed in the interaction to create four single stars. This is only possible when the total energy of the system is positive. For very small energies the probability of this occurring is very low and it tends towards zero as the total energy tends towards zero. Here the case is considered for which all the stars have equal masses. An asymptotic power law is predicted relating the probability of full ionisation with the total energy when this latter quantity is small. The exponent, which is approximately 2.31, is compared with the results from numerical scattering experiments. The theoretical approach taken is similar to one used previously in the three-body problem. It makes use of the fact that the most dramatic changes in scale and energies of a few-body system occur when its components pass near to a central configuration. The position, and number, of these configurations is not known for the general four-body problem, however, with equal masses there are known to be exactly five different cases. Separate consideration and comparison of the properties of orbits close to each of these five central configurations enables the prediction of the form of the cross-section for full ionisation for the case of small positive total energy. This is the relation between total energy and the probability of total ionisation described above.

  6. Modelling binary data

    CERN Document Server

    Collett, David

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Some Examples The Scope of this Book Use of Statistical Software STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR BINARY DATA The Binomial Distribution Inference about the Success Probability Comparison of Two Proportions Comparison of Two or More Proportions MODELS FOR BINARY AND BINOMIAL DATA Statistical Modelling Linear Models Methods of Estimation Fitting Linear Models to Binomial Data Models for Binomial Response Data The Linear Logistic Model Fitting the Linear Logistic Model to Binomial Data Goodness of Fit of a Linear Logistic Model Comparing Linear Logistic Models Linear Trend in Proportions Comparing Stimulus-Response Relationships Non-Convergence and Overfitting Some other Goodness of Fit Statistics Strategy for Model Selection Predicting a Binary Response Probability BIOASSAY AND SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS The Tolerance Distribution Estimating an Effective Dose Relative Potency Natural Response Non-Linear Logistic Regression Models Applications of the Complementary Log-Log Model MODEL CHECKING Definition of Re...

  7. Evolution of dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The conditions of mass exchange in close binary systems with masses of components less or equal to one solar mass have been analysed for the case, when the system radiates gravitational waves. It has been shown that the mass exchange rate depends in a certain way on the mass ratio of components and on the mass of component that fills its inner critical lobe. The comparison of observed periods, masses of contact components, and mass exchange rates of observed cataclysmic binaries have led to the conclusion that the evolution of close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G 61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves [ru

  8. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Duncan R

    2008-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 M ⊙ , a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric ( e = 0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-8.

  9. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  10. Unstable mass outflow from a binary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nariai, K [Tokyo Univ., Mitaka (Japan). Tokyo Astronomical Observatory; Sugimoto, D

    1976-12-01

    A contact binary system which fills the outer Lagrangian lobe is unstable against the mass loss from the second Lagrangian point. The effect of the mass loss on the remaining system is studied for several typical cases. It is shown that the separation between the components at the periastron decreases with a high rate in most cases; therefore, the system continues to lose mass once gas begins to flow out from the second Lagrangian point.

  11. BINARY CANDIDATES IN THE JOVIAN TROJAN AND HILDA POPULATIONS FROM NEOWISE LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnett, S.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T., E-mail: Sarah.Sonnett@jpl.nasa.gov [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Determining the binary fraction for a population of asteroids, particularly as a function of separation between the two components, helps describe the dynamical environment at the time the binaries formed, which in turn offers constraints on the dynamical evolution of the solar system. We searched the NEOWISE archival data set for close and contact binary Trojans and Hildas via their diagnostically large light curve amplitudes. We present 48 out of 554 Hilda and 34 out of 953 Trojan binary candidates in need of follow-up to confirm their large light curve amplitudes and subsequently constrain the binary orbit and component sizes. From these candidates, we calculate a preliminary estimate of the binary fraction without confirmation or debiasing of 14%-23% for Trojans larger than ∼12 km and 30%-51% for Hildas larger than ∼4 km. Once the binary candidates have been confirmed, it should be possible to infer the underlying, debiased binary fraction through estimation of survey biases.

  12. Dissipative binary collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The binary character of the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies in the exit channel has been observed under 30 MeV/n in medium and heavy systems. Measurements in light systems at energies approaching ∼ 100 MeV/nucleon as well as in very heavy systems have allowed to extend considerably the investigations of this binary process. Thus, the study of the Pb + Au system showed that the complete charge events indicated two distinct sources: the quasi-projectile and the quasi-target. The characteristics of these two sources are rather well reproduced by a trajectory computation which takes into account the Coulomb and nuclear forces and the friction appearing from the projectile-target interaction. The Wilczynski diagram is used to probe the correlation between the kinetic energy quenching and the deflecting angle. In case of the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon the diagram indicate dissipative binary collisions typical for low energies. This binary aspect was also detected in the systems Xe + Ag at 44 MeV/nucleon, 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. Thus, it was possible to reconstruct the quasi-projectile and to study its mass and excitation energy evolution as a function of the impact parameter. The dissipative binary collisions represent for the systems and energies under considerations the main contribution to the cross section. This does not implies that there are not other processes; particularly, the more or less complete fusion is also observed but with a low cross section which decreases with the increase of bombardment energy. More exclusive measurements with the INDRA detector on quasi-symmetric systems as Ar + KCl and Xe + Sn seem to confirm the importance of the binary collisions. The two source reconstruction of the Xe + Sn data at 50 MeV/nucleon reproduces the same behaviour as that observed in the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon

  13. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.

  14. Electrokinetic desalination of protruded areas of stone avoiding the direct contact with electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feijoo, J.; Matyscák, O.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    of the sandstone highly contaminated with salts. Therefore, these results confirmed that it was possible to desalinate the sandstone using electrokinetic methods without the need to put in contact the affected areas with the equipment, reducing the possibility of altering it by manipulation.......Soluble salts are considered one of the main deterioration factors of porous building materials such as rocks, bricks or granites. The desalination treatments currently used in order to mitigate this alteration process are usually applied directly on the affected areas, which have often a low...... degree of cohesion precisely due to the deteriorating effect of the salts. The present study aimed to investigate the evaluation of a new approach based on electrokinetic techniques to desalinate rocks in monuments, specifically to desalinate carved reliefs. The procedure avoids the direct contact...

  15. Electrokinetic transport of aerobic microorganisms under low-strength electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillacheruvu, Krishnanand Y; Chinchoud, Preethi R

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of utilizing low strength electric fields to transport commonly available mixed cultures such as those from an activated sludge process, bench scale batch reactor studies were conducted in sand and sandy loam soils. A readily biodegradable substrate, dextrose, was used to test the activity of the transported microorganisms. Electric field strengths of 7V, 10.5V, and 14V were used. Results from this investigation showed that an electric field strength of 0.46 Volts per cm was sufficient to transport activated sludge microorganisms across a sandy loam soil across a distance of about 8 cm in 72 h. More importantly, the electrokinetically transported microbial culture remained active and viable after the transport process and was biodegrade 44% of the dextrose in the soil medium. Electrokinetic treatment without microorganisms resulted in removal of 37% and the absence of any treatment yielded a removal of about 15%.

  16. Field Testing of Rapid Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Control of Steel in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Henry E.; Alexander, Joshua B.; Kupwade-Patil,Kunal; Calle, Luz Marina

    2009-01-01

    This work field tested the use of electrokinetics for delivery of concrete sealing nanoparticles concurrent with the extraction of chlorides. Several cylinders of concrete were batched and placed in immersion at the Kennedy Space Center Beach Corrosion Test Site. The specimens were batched with steel reinforcement and a 4.5 wt.% (weight percent) content of sodium chloride. Upon arrival at Kennedy Space Center, the specimens were placed in the saltwater immersion pool at the Beach Corrosion Test Site. Following 30 days of saltwater exposure, the specimens were subjected to rapid chloride extraction concurrent with electrokinetic nanoparticle treatment. The treatments were operated at up to eight times the typical current density in order to complete the treatment in 7 days. The findings indicated that the short-term corrosion resistance of the concrete specimens was significantly enhanced as was the strength of the concrete.

  17. Three-dimensional electrokinetic tweezing: device design, modeling, and control algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probst, Roland; Shapiro, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    We show how to extend electrokinetic tweezing (which can manipulate any visible particles and has more favorable force scaling than optical actuation enabling manipulation of nanoscale objects to nanoscopic precision) from two-dimensional control to the third dimension (3D). A novel and practical multi-layer device is presented that can create both planar and vertical flow and electric field modes. Feedback control algorithms are developed and demonstrated in realistic simulations to show 3D manipulation of one and two particles independently. The design and control results presented here are the essential next step to go from current 2D manipulation capabilities to an experimental demonstration of nano-precise 3D electrokinetic tweezing in a microfluidic system. Doing so requires integration with vision-based nano-precise 3D particle imaging, a capability that has been shown in the literature and which we are now combining with the 3D actuation and control methods demonstrated here. (technical note)

  18. The Frequency Of Binary Star Interlopers Amongst Transitional Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Ruíz-Rodríguez, D.; Ireland, M.; Cieza, L.; Kraus, A.

    2016-01-01

    Using Non-Redundant Mask interferometry (NRM), we searched for binary companions to objects previously classified as Transitional Disks (TD). These objects are thought to be an evolutionary stage between an optically thick disk and optically thin disk. We investigate the presence of a stellar companion as a possible mechanism of material depletion in the inner region of these disks, which would rule out an ongoing planetary formation process in distances comparable to the binary separation. F...

  19. A multiscale theoretical investigation of electric measurements in living bone : piezoelectricity and electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, T; Capiez-Lernout, E; Kaiser, J; Naili, S; Rohan, E; Sansalone, V

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation of the multiphysical phenomena that govern cortical bone behaviour. Taking into account the piezoelectricity of the collagen-apatite matrix and the electrokinetics governing the interstitial fluid movement, we adopt a multiscale approach to derive a coupled poroelastic model of cortical tissue. Following how the phenomena propagate from the microscale to the tissue scale, we are able to determine the nature of macroscopically observed electric phenomena in bone.

  20. Integrating Electrokinetic and Bioremediation Process for Treating Oil Contaminated Low Permeability Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Surya Ramadan Bimastyaji; Jatnika Effendi Agus; Helmy Qomarudin

    2018-01-01

    Traditional oil mining activities always ignores environmental regulation which may cause contamination in soil and environment. Crude oil contamination in low-permeability soil complicates recovery process because it requires substantial energy for excavating and crushing the soil. Electrokinetic technology can be used as an alternative technology to treat contaminated soil and improve bioremediation process (biostimulation) through transfer of ions and nutrient that support microorganism gr...

  1. Towards an understanding of induced-charge electrokinetics at large applied voltages in concentrated solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazant, Martin Z; Kilic, Mustafa Sabri; Storey, Brian D; Ajdari, Armand

    2009-11-30

    The venerable theory of electrokinetic phenomena rests on the hypothesis of a dilute solution of point-like ions in quasi-equilibrium with a weakly charged surface, whose potential relative to the bulk is of order the thermal voltage (kT/e approximately 25 mV at room temperature). In nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena, such as AC or induced-charge electro-osmosis (ACEO, ICEO) and induced-charge electrophoresis (ICEP), several V approximately 100 kT/e are applied to polarizable surfaces in microscopic geometries, and the resulting electric fields and induced surface charges are large enough to violate the assumptions of the classical theory. In this article, we review the experimental and theoretical literatures, highlight discrepancies between theory and experiment, introduce possible modifications of the theory, and analyze their consequences. We argue that, in response to a large applied voltage, the "compact layer" and "shear plane" effectively advance into the liquid, due to the crowding of counterions. Using simple continuum models, we predict two general trends at large voltages: (i) ionic crowding against a blocking surface expands the diffuse double layer and thus decreases its differential capacitance, and (ii) a charge-induced viscosity increase near the surface reduces the electro-osmotic mobility; each trend is enhanced by dielectric saturation. The first effect is able to predict high-frequency flow reversal in ACEO pumps, while the second may explain the decay of ICEO flow with increasing salt concentration. Through several colloidal examples, such as ICEP of an uncharged metal sphere in an asymmetric electrolyte, we show that nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena are generally ion-specific. Similar theoretical issues arise in nanofluidics (due to confinement) and ionic liquids (due to the lack of solvent), so the paper concludes with a general framework of modified electrokinetic equations for finite-sized ions.

  2. Effects of triethyl phosphate and nitrate on electrokinetically enhanced biodegradation of diesel in low permeability soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G T; Ro, H M; Lee, S M

    2007-08-01

    Bench-scale experiments for electrokinetically enhanced bioremediation of diesel in low permeability soils were conducted. An electrokinetic reactor (ER) was filled with kaolin that was artificially contaminated with diesel at a level of 2500 mg kg(-1). A constant voltage gradient of 1.0 V cm(-1) was applied. In phosphorus transport experiments, KH2PO4 was not distributed homogeneously along the ER, and most of the transported phosphorus was converted to water-insoluble aluminum phosphate after 12 days of electrokinetic (EK) operation. However, the advancing P front of triethyl phosphate (TEP) progressed with time and resulted in uniform P distribution. The treatments employed in the electrokinetically enhanced bioremediation of diesel were control (no addition of nitrogen and phosphorus), NP (KNO3+ KH2PO4), NT (KNO3+ TEP), UP (urea+ KH2PO4), and UT (urea+TEP). Analysis of effluent collected during the first 12 days of EK operation showed that diesel was not removed from the kaolin. After nutrient delivery, using the EK operation, the ER was transferred into an incubator for the biodegradation process. After 60 days of biodegradation, the concentrations of diesel in the kaolin for the NP, NT, UP, UT, and control treatments were 1356, 1002, 1658, 1612, and 2003 mg kg(-1), respectively. The ratio of biodegraded diesel concentration to initial concentration (2465 mg kg(-1)) in NP, NT, UP, UT, and control were 45.0%, 59.4%, 32.7%, 34.6%, and 18.7%, respectively. This result showed that TEP, treated along with NO3-, was most effective for the biodegradation of diesel. TEP was delivered more efficiently to the target zones and with less phosphorus loss than KH2PO4. However, this facilitated phosphorus delivery was effective in biodegrading diesel under anaerobic conditions only when electron acceptors, such as NO3-, were present.

  3. Electrokinetic remediation of a copper contaminated soil - experiments and 1-D model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vereda Alonso, C.; Hansen, H.K. [Inst. for Geologi and Geoteknik, Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark); Gomez Lahoz, C.; Rodriguez Maroto, J.M. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Univ. de Malaga (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    In this work, a set of electrokinetic soil remediation experiments has been performed in a column containing a commercial standard kaolin that was previously contaminated with copper. The profile evolution of copper concentration and pH along the soil column was obtained from these experiments. A one-dimensional numerical model has been developed to simulate the experimental results obtained from these experiments. (orig.)

  4. Experimental Validation of the Electrokinetic Theory and Development of Seismoelectric Interferometry by Cross-Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Schoemaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally validate a relatively recent electrokinetic formulation of the streaming potential (SP coefficient as developed by Pride (1994. The start of our investigation focuses on the streaming potential coefficient, which gives rise to the coupling of mechanical and electromagnetic fields. It is found that the theoretical amplitude values of this dynamic SP coefficient are in good agreement with the normalized experimental results over a wide frequency range, assuming no frequency dependence of the bulk conductivity. By adopting the full set of electrokinetic equations, a full-waveform wave propagation model is formulated. We compare the model predictions, neglecting the interface response and modeling only the coseismic fields, with laboratory measurements of a seismic wave of frequency 500 kHz that generates electromagnetic signals. Agreement is observed between measurement and electrokinetic theory regarding the coseismic electric field. The governing equations are subsequently adopted to study the applicability of seismoelectric interferometry. It is shown that seismic sources at a single boundary location are sufficient to retrieve the 1D seismoelectric responses, both for the coseismic and interface components, in a layered model.

  5. Electrokinetic migration studies on removal of chromium and uranyl ions from 904-A trench soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.; Meaker, T.F.; O'Steen, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a laboratory-scale study, in which electrokinetic migration technology was used to remove chromium and uranium, as well as other ions, from soil taken from a bore hole adjacent to the 904-A trench at the Savannah River Technology Center. Imposition of an electric current on humid (not saturated) soil successfully caused cations to migrate through the pore water of the soil to the cathode, where they were captured in an ISOLOCKTm polymer matrix and in a cation exchange resin incorporated in the polymer. Chemicals circulated through the anode/polymer and cathode/polymer were able to control pH excursions in the electrokinetic-cells by reacting with the H + and OH - generated at the anode and cathode, respectively. The study indicates that ions adsorbed on the surface of the soil as well as those in the pores of soil particles can be caused to migrate through the soil to an appropriate electrode. After 10 days of operation at 20--25 V and 2 mA, approximately 65% of the chromium was removed from two 3.5 kg soil samples. A 57% removal of uranium was achieved. The study shows that electrokinetic migration, using the ISOLOCK trademark polymer will be effective as an in situ treatment method for the removal of metal ion contaminants in soil adjacent to the 904-A trench

  6. Pyrene removal from contaminated soil using electrokinetic process combined with surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Enayat Hashemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrene is one of the stable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that is considered as an important pollutants, because of extensive distribution in the environment and carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Among the various treatment techniques, electrokinetic method is an environmental- friendly process for organic and mineral pollutants adsorbed to soil with fine pore size the same as clay and low hydraulic conductivity soils. For improving the efficiency of pyrene removal from soil, soulobilization of pyrene from soil could be used by surfactants. Materials and Methods : In this study, clay soil was selected as model because of the specific properties. Combined method using surfactant and electrokinetic was applied for pyrene removal from soil. Experiments were designed using response surface methodology (RSM, and effect of three variables includes surfactant concentration, voltage and surfactant type were evaluated for pyrene removal from contaminated soil. Results: Pyrene removal using anionic surfactants(SDS and nonionic surfactants(TX100 as a solubilizing agents has high removal efficiency. In the optimum condition with 95% confidence coefficient, utilizing mixed surfactants of sodium dodecyl sulfate and triton X-100 with the same volume, induced of 18.54 volt and 6.53 percent surfactant concentration have 94.6% pyrene removal efficiency. Conclusion:: Results of this study shows that electrokinetic process combined with surfactant as solubilizing agent could be applied as an efficient method for treating the pyrene-contaminated soils.

  7. Microbial fuel cell driving electrokinetic remediation of toxic metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibul, Nuzahat; Hu, Yi; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-11-15

    An investigation of the feasibility of in-situ electrokinetic remediation for toxic metal contaminated soil driven by microbial fuel cell (MFC) is presented. Results revealed that the weak electricity generated from MFC could power the electrokinetic remediation effectively. The metal removal efficiency and its influence on soil physiological properties were also investigated. With the electricity generated through the oxidation of organics in soils by microorganisms, the metals in the soils would mitigate from the anode to the cathode. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the soils increased gradually through the anode to the cathode regions after remediation. After about 143days and 108 days' operation, the removal efficiencies of 31.0% and 44.1% for Cd and Pb at the anode region could be achieved, respectively. Soil properties such as pH and soil conductivity were also significantly redistributed from the anode to the cathode regions. The study shows that the MFC driving electrokinetic remediation technology is cost-effective and environmental friendly, with a promising application in soil remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of sequential extraction analysis to electrokinetic remediation of cadmium, nickel and zinc from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannis, Apostolos; Pentari, Despina; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    An enhanced electrokinetic process for the removal of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soils was performed. The efficiency of the chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and diaminocycloexanetetraacetic acid (DCyTA) was examined under constant potential gradient (1.23 V/cm). The results showed that chelates were effective in desorbing metals at a high pH, with metal-chelate anion complexes migrating towards the anode. At low pH, metals existing as dissolved cations migrated towards the cathode. In such conflicting directions, the metals accumulated in the middle of the cell. Speciation of the metals during the electrokinetic experiments was performed to provide an understanding of the distribution of the Cd, Ni and Zn. The results of sequential extraction analysis revealed that the forms of the metals could be altered from one fraction to another due to the variation of physico-chemical conditions throughout the cell, such as pH, redox potential and the chemistry of the electrolyte solution during the electrokinetic treatment. It was found that binding forms of metals were changed from the difficult type to easier extraction type.

  9. Application of sequential extraction analysis to electrokinetic remediation of cadmium, nickel and zinc from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannis, Apostolos, E-mail: apostolos.giannis@enveng.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Pentari, Despina [Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Wang, Jing-Yuan [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre (R3C), Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Gidarakos, Evangelos, E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece)

    2010-12-15

    An enhanced electrokinetic process for the removal of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soils was performed. The efficiency of the chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and diaminocycloexanetetraacetic acid (DCyTA) was examined under constant potential gradient (1.23 V/cm). The results showed that chelates were effective in desorbing metals at a high pH, with metal-chelate anion complexes migrating towards the anode. At low pH, metals existing as dissolved cations migrated towards the cathode. In such conflicting directions, the metals accumulated in the middle of the cell. Speciation of the metals during the electrokinetic experiments was performed to provide an understanding of the distribution of the Cd, Ni and Zn. The results of sequential extraction analysis revealed that the forms of the metals could be altered from one fraction to another due to the variation of physico-chemical conditions throughout the cell, such as pH, redox potential and the chemistry of the electrolyte solution during the electrokinetic treatment. It was found that binding forms of metals were changed from the difficult type to easier extraction type.

  10. Electrokinetic enhancement of phenanthrene biodegradation in creosote-polluted clay soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niqui-Arroyo, Jose-Luis; Bueno-Montes, Marisa; Posada-Baquero, Rosa; Ortega-Calvo, Jose-Julio

    2006-01-01

    Given the difficulties caused by low-permeable soils in bioremediation, a new electrokinetic technology is proposed, based on laboratory results with phenanthrene, to afford bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in clay soils. Microbial activity in a clay soil historically polluted with creosote was promoted using a specially designed electrokinetic cell with a permanent anode-to-cathode flow and controlled pH. The rates of phenanthrene losses during treatment were tenfold higher in soil treated with an electric field than in the control cells without current or microbial activity. Results from experiments with Tenax-assisted desorption and mineralization of 14 C-labeled phenanthrene indicated that phenanthrene biodegradation was limited by mass-transfer of the chemical. We suggest that the enhancement effect of the applied electric field on phenanthrene biodegradation resulted from mobilization of the PAH and nutrients dissolved in the soil fluids. - Electrokinetic bioremediation is a potentially effective technology to treat PAH-polluted, clay-rich soils

  11. Data on flow cell optimization for membrane-based electrokinetic energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nicolas Østedgaard-Munck

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates on the design and optimization of a specialized flow cell for the measurement of direct conversion of pressure into electrical energy (Electrokinetic Energy Conversion, EKEC which has been presented in Østedgaard-Munck et al. (2017 [1]. Two main flow cell parameters have been monitored and optimized: A the hydraulic pressure profile on each side of the membrane introduced by pumps recirculating the electrolyte solution through the flow fields and B the electrical resistance between the current collectors across the combined flow cell. The latter parameter has been measured using four-point Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy (EIS for different flow rates and concentrations. The total cell resistance consists of contributions from different components: the membrane (Rmem, anode charge transfer (RA, cathode charge transfer (RC, and ion diffusion in the porous electrodes (RD.The intrinsic membrane properties of Nafion 117 has been investigated experimentally in LiI/I2 solutions with concentrations ranging between 0.06 and 0.96 M and used to identify the preferred LiI/I2 solution concentration. This was achieved by measuring the solution uptake, internal solution concentration and ion exchange capacity. The membrane properties were further used to calculate the transport coefficients and electrokinetic Figure of merit in terms of the Uniform potential and Space charge models. Special attention has been put on the streaming potential coefficient which is an intrinsic property. Keywords: Electrokinetic energy conversion, Electrochemical flow cell, Conversion efficiency

  12. Ligand-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Iannelli, Renato; Losito, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The suitability of electrokinetic remediation for removing heavy metals from dredged marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity was investigated. Laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments were carried out by applying two different voltage gradients to the sediment (0.5 and 0.8 V/cm) while circulating water or two different chelating agents at the electrode compartments. Tap water, 0.1 M citric acid and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were used respectively. The investigated metals were Zn, Pb, V, Ni and Cu. In the unenhanced experiment, the acid front could not propagate due to the high acid buffering capacity of the sediments; the production of OH(-) ions at the cathode resulted in a high-pH environment causing the precipitation of CaCO3 and metal hydroxides. The use of citric acid prevented the formation of precipitates, but solubilisation and mobilisation of metal species were not sufficiently achieved. Metal removal was relevant when EDTA was used as the conditioning agent, and the electric potential was raised up to 0.8 V/cm. EDTA led to the formation of negatively charged complexes with metals which migrated towards the anode compartment by electromigration. This result shows that metal removal from sediments with high acid buffering capacity may be achieved by enhancing the electrokinetic process by EDTA addition when the acidification of the medium is not economically and/or environmentally sustainable.

  13. Self-assembled silver nanoparticles monolayers on mica-AFM, SEM, and electrokinetic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oćwieja, Magdalena; Morga, Maria; Adamczyk, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    A monodisperse silver particle suspension was produced by a chemical reduction method in an aqueous medium using sodium citrate. The average particle size determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was 28.5 nm. The DLS measurements confirmed that the suspension was stable for the ionic strength up to 3 × 10 −2 M NaCl. The electrophoretic mobility measurements revealed that the electrokinetic charge of particles was negative for pH range 3–10, assuming −50 e for pH = 9 and 0.01 M NaCl. Using the suspension, silver particle monolayers on mica modified by poly(allylamine hydrochloride) were produced under diffusion-controlled transport. Monolayer coverage, quantitatively determined by AFM and SEM, was regulated within broad limits by adjusting the nanoparticle deposition time. This allowed one to uniquely express the zeta potential of silver monolayers, determined by the in situ streaming potential measurements, in terms of particle coverage. Such dependencies obtained for various ionic strengths and pH, were successfully interpreted in terms of the 3D electrokinetic model. A universal calibrating graph was produced in this way, enabling one to determine silver monolayer coverage from the measured value of the streaming potential. Our experimental data prove that it is feasible to produce uniform and stable silver particle monolayers of well-controlled coverage and defined electrokinetic properties.

  14. Self-assembled silver nanoparticles monolayers on mica-AFM, SEM, and electrokinetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oćwieja, Magdalena; Morga, Maria; Adamczyk, Zbigniew

    2013-03-01

    A monodisperse silver particle suspension was produced by a chemical reduction method in an aqueous medium using sodium citrate. The average particle size determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was 28.5 nm. The DLS measurements confirmed that the suspension was stable for the ionic strength up to 3 × 10 -2  M NaCl. The electrophoretic mobility measurements revealed that the electrokinetic charge of particles was negative for pH range 3-10, assuming -50  e for pH = 9 and 0.01 M NaCl. Using the suspension, silver particle monolayers on mica modified by poly(allylamine hydrochloride) were produced under diffusion-controlled transport. Monolayer coverage, quantitatively determined by AFM and SEM, was regulated within broad limits by adjusting the nanoparticle deposition time. This allowed one to uniquely express the zeta potential of silver monolayers, determined by the in situ streaming potential measurements, in terms of particle coverage. Such dependencies obtained for various ionic strengths and pH, were successfully interpreted in terms of the 3D electrokinetic model. A universal calibrating graph was produced in this way, enabling one to determine silver monolayer coverage from the measured value of the streaming potential. Our experimental data prove that it is feasible to produce uniform and stable silver particle monolayers of well-controlled coverage and defined electrokinetic properties.

  15. Physicochemical effects on uncontaminated kaolinite due to electrokinetic treatment using inert electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaki, Christina; Rogers, Christopher D F; Boardman, David I

    2008-07-01

    To determine the consequences of applying electrokinetics to clay soils, in terms of mechanisms acting and resulting effects on the clay, tests were conducted in which an electrical gradient was applied across controlled specimens of English China Clay (ECC) using 'inert' electrodes and a 'Reverse Osmosis' water feed to the electrodes (i.e., to mimic electrokinetic stabilisation without the stabiliser added or electrokinetic remediation without the contaminant being present). The specimens in which electromigration was induced over time periods of 3, 7, 14 and 28 days were subsequently tested for Atterberg Limits, undrained shear strength using a hand shear vane, water content, pH, conductivity and zeta potential. Water flowed through the system from anode to cathode and directly affected the undrained shear strength of the clay. Acid and alkali fronts were created around the anode and cathode, respectively, causing changes in the pH, conductivity and zeta potential of the soil. Variations in zeta potential were linked to flocculation and dispersion of the soil particles, thus raising or depressing the Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit, and influencing the undrained shear strength. Initial weakening around the anode and cathode was replaced by a regain of strength at the anode once acidic conditions had been created, while highly alkaline conditions at the cathode induced a marked improvement in strength. A novel means of indicating strength improvement by chemical means, i.e., free from water content effects, is presented to assist in interpretation of the results.

  16. Reversible electrokinetic adsorption barriers for the removal of atrazine and oxyfluorfen from spiked soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Dos Santos, E; Sáez, C; Cañizares, P; Martínez-Huitle, C A; Rodrigo, M A

    2017-01-15

    This study demonstrates the application of reversible electrokinetic adsorption barrier (REKAB) technology to soils spiked with low-solubility pollutants. A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) of granular activated carbon (GAC) was placed between the anode and cathode of an electrokinetic (EK) soil remediation bench-scale setup with the aim of enhancing the removal of two low-solubility herbicides (atrazine and oxyfluorfen) using a surfactant solution (sodium dodecyl sulfate) as the flushing fluid. This innovative study focused on evaluating the interaction between the EK system and the GAC-PRB, attempting to obtain insights into the primary mechanisms involved. The obtained results highlighted the successful treatment of atrazine and oxyfluorfen in contaminated soils. The results obtained from the tests after 15days of treatment were compared with those obtained using the more conventional electrokinetic soil flushing (EKSF) technology, and very important differences were observed. Although both technologies are efficient for removing the herbicides from soils, REKAB outperforms EKSF. After the 15-day treatment tests, only approximately 10% of atrazine and oxyfluorfen remained in the soil, and adsorption onto the GAC bed was an important removal mechanism (15-17% of herbicide retained). The evaporation loses in REKAB were lower than those obtained in EKSF (45-50% compared to 60-65%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  18. Binary tense and modality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.; Verkuyl, H.J

    2014-01-01

    The present paper adopts as its point of departure the claim by Te Winkel (1866) and Verkuyl (2008) that mental temporal representations are built on the basis of three binary oppositions: Present/Past, Synchronous/Posterior and Imperfect/Perfect. Te Winkel took the second opposition in terms of the

  19. N-Bit Binary Resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping

    1989-01-01

    Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.

  20. Dual cloud point extraction coupled with hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace phenolic estrogens in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Junshen; Lu, Wenhui; Ma, Jiping; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    A dual cloud point extraction (dCPE) off-line enrichment procedure coupled with a hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection online enrichment technique was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace phenolic estrogens (hexestrol, dienestrol, and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) analysis. Several parameters affecting the extraction and online injection conditions were optimized. Under optimal dCPE-two-step injection-MEKC conditions, detection limits of 7.9-8.9 ng/mL and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 5 μg/mL with correlation coefficients R(2) ≥ 0.9990 were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 83 to 108% were obtained with lake and tap water spiked at 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of 1.3-3.1%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative to existing methods for analyzing trace residues of phenolic estrogens in water samples.

  1. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  2. Flip-flopping binary black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousto, Carlos O; Healy, James

    2015-04-10

    We study binary spinning black holes to display the long term individual spin dynamics. We perform a full numerical simulation starting at an initial proper separation of d≈25M between equal mass holes and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles, and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t=20 000M and displays a total change in the orientation of the spin of one of the black holes from an initial alignment with the orbital angular momentum to a complete antialignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects this dynamics may have on spin growth in accreting binaries and on the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes.

  3. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    star determines its fate . Massive stars (with masses more than 50 times that of the Sun) lead a glorious, but short life. They are hot and very luminous and exhaust their energy supply in just a few million years. At the other end of the scale, low-mass stars like the Sun are more economical with their resources. Being cooler and dimmer, they are able to shine for billions of years [2]. But although the mass determines the fate of a star, it is not a trivial matter to measure this crucial parameter. In fact, it can only be determined directly if the star happens to be gravitationally bound to another star in a binary stellar system. Observations of the orbital motions of the two stars as they circle each other allows to "weigh" them, and also provide other important information, e.g. about their sizes and temperatures. Orbital motions The understanding of orbital motions has a long history in astronomy. The basic laws of Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) are still used to calculate the masses of orbiting objects, in the solar system as well as in binary stellar systems. However, while the observations of the motion of the nine planets and moons have allowed us to measure quite accurately the masses of objects in our vicinity, the information needed to "weigh" the binary stellar systems is not that easy to obtain. As a result, the mass estimates of the stars in binary systems are often rather uncertain. A main problem is that the individual stars in many binary systems can not be visually separated, even in the best telescopes. The information about the orbit may then come from the motions of the stars, if these are revealed by spectroscopic observations of the combined light (such systems are referred to as "spectroscopic binaries"). If absorption lines from both components are present in the spectrum, the measured wavelength of these double lines will shift periodically back and forth. This is the well-known Doppler effect and it directly reflects the changing velocities

  4. Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  5. Remediation of 137Cs contaminated concrete using electrokinetic phenomena and ionic salt washes in nuclear energy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew J; Joyce, Malcolm J; Boxall, Colin

    2017-10-15

    This work describes the first known the use of electrokinetic treatments and ionic salt washes to remediate concrete contaminated with 137 Cs. A series of experiments were performed on concrete samples, contaminated with K + and 137 Cs, using a bespoke migration cell and an applied electric field (60V potential gradient and current limit of 35mA). Additionally, two samples were treated with an ionic salt wash (≤400molm -3 of KCl) alongside the electrokinetic treatment. The results show that the combined treatment produces removal efficiencies three times higher (>60%) than the electrokinetic treatment alone and that the decontamination efficiency appears to be proportional to the initial degree of contamination. Furthermore, the decontamination efficiencies are equivalent to previous electrokinetic studies that utilised hazardous chemical enhancement agents demonstrating the potential of the technique for use on nuclear licensed site. The results highlight the relationship between the initial contamination concentration within the concrete and achievable removal efficiency of electrokinetic treatment and other treatments. This information would be useful when selecting the most appropriate decontamination techniques for particular contamination scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SLoWPoKES (GAMBLES): Identifying Ultra-wide Binary Pairs with Components of Diverse Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Dhital, Saurav, E-mail: ryan.j.oelkers@vanderbilt.edu [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The formation and evolution of binary star systems are some of the remaining key questions in modern astronomy. Wide binary pairs (separations >10{sup 3} au) are particularly intriguing because their low binding energies make it difficult for the stars to stay gravitationally bound over extended timescales, and thus to probe the dynamics of binary formation and dissolution. Our previous SLoWPoKES catalogs, I and II, provided the largest and most complete sample of wide-binary pairs of low masses. Here we present an extension of these catalogs to a broad range of stellar masses: the Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SloWPoKES (GAMBLES), comprising 8660 statistically significant wide pairs that we make available in a living online database. Within this catalog we identify a subset of 543 long-lived (dissipation timescale >1.5 Gyr) candidate binary pairs, of assorted mass, with typical separations between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 5.5} au (0.002–1.5 pc), using the published distances and proper motions from the Tycho -Gaia Astrometric Solution and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. Each pair has at most a false positive probability of 0.05; the total expectation is 2.44 false binaries in our sample. Among these, we find 22 systems with 3 components, 1 system with 4 components, and 15 pairs consisting of at least 1 possible red giant. We find the largest long-lived binary separation to be nearly 3.2 pc; even so, >76% of GAMBLES long-lived binaries have large binding energies and dissipation lifetimes longer than 1.5 Gyr. Finally, we find that the distribution of binary separations is clearly bimodal, corroborating the findings from SloWPoKES and suggesting multiple pathways for the formation and dissipation of the widest binaries in the Galaxy.

  7. Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SLoWPoKES (GAMBLES): Identifying Ultra-wide Binary Pairs with Components of Diverse Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Dhital, Saurav

    2017-01-01

    The formation and evolution of binary star systems are some of the remaining key questions in modern astronomy. Wide binary pairs (separations >10 3 au) are particularly intriguing because their low binding energies make it difficult for the stars to stay gravitationally bound over extended timescales, and thus to probe the dynamics of binary formation and dissolution. Our previous SLoWPoKES catalogs, I and II, provided the largest and most complete sample of wide-binary pairs of low masses. Here we present an extension of these catalogs to a broad range of stellar masses: the Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SloWPoKES (GAMBLES), comprising 8660 statistically significant wide pairs that we make available in a living online database. Within this catalog we identify a subset of 543 long-lived (dissipation timescale >1.5 Gyr) candidate binary pairs, of assorted mass, with typical separations between 10 3 and 10 5.5 au (0.002–1.5 pc), using the published distances and proper motions from the Tycho -Gaia Astrometric Solution and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. Each pair has at most a false positive probability of 0.05; the total expectation is 2.44 false binaries in our sample. Among these, we find 22 systems with 3 components, 1 system with 4 components, and 15 pairs consisting of at least 1 possible red giant. We find the largest long-lived binary separation to be nearly 3.2 pc; even so, >76% of GAMBLES long-lived binaries have large binding energies and dissipation lifetimes longer than 1.5 Gyr. Finally, we find that the distribution of binary separations is clearly bimodal, corroborating the findings from SloWPoKES and suggesting multiple pathways for the formation and dissipation of the widest binaries in the Galaxy.

  8. Processing Of Binary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H. S.

    1985-07-01

    An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

  9. Integrated electrokinetically driven microfluidic devices with pH-mediated solid-phase extraction coupled to microchip electrophoresis for preterm birth biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonker, Mukul; Knob, Radim; Sahore, Vishal; Woolley, Adam T

    2017-07-01

    Integration in microfluidics is important for achieving automation. Sample preconcentration integrated with separation in a microfluidic setup can have a substantial impact on rapid analysis of low-abundance disease biomarkers. Here, we have developed a microfluidic device that uses pH-mediated solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the enrichment and elution of preterm birth (PTB) biomarkers. Furthermore, this SPE module was integrated with microchip electrophoresis for combined enrichment and separation of multiple analytes, including a PTB peptide biomarker (P1). A reversed-phase octyl methacrylate monolith was polymerized as the SPE medium in polyethylene glycol diacrylate modified cyclic olefin copolymer microfluidic channels. Eluent for pH-mediated SPE of PTB biomarkers on the monolith was optimized using different pH values and ionic concentrations. Nearly 50-fold enrichment was observed in single channel SPE devices for a low nanomolar solution of P1, with great elution time reproducibility (electrophoresis in our integrated device with ∼15-fold enrichment. This device shows important progress towards an integrated electrokinetically operated platform for preconcentration and separation of biomarkers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Determination of strobilurin fungicide residues in fruits and vegetables by nonaqueous micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with indirect laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Wang, Kun; Chen, Guan-Hua; Shi, Jie; Wu, Xian; Di, Lu-Lu; Wang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    A nonaqueous micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method with indirect LIF was developed for the determination of strobilurin fungicide residues in fruits and vegetables. Hydrophobic CdTe quantum dots (QDs) synthesized in aqueous phase were used as background fluorescent substance. The BGE solution, QD concentration, and separation voltage were optimized to obtain the best separation efficiency and the highest signal intensity. The optimal BGE solution consists of 40 mM phosphate, 120 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, 15% v/v water and 15% v/v hydrophobic CdTe QDs in formamide, of which apparent pH is 9.5. The optimized separation voltage is controlled as 25 kV. The resultant detection limits of azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, and pyraclostrobin are all 0.001 mg/kg, their linear dynamic ranges are 0.005-2.5 mg/kg, and the recoveries of the spiked samples are 81.7-96.1%, 86.5-95.7%, and 87.3-97.4%, respectively. This method has been proved to be sensitive enough to detect the aforementioned fungicides in fruits and vegetables at the maximum residue limits. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation for heavy metals and radioactivity contamination on Holyrood-Lunas soil (acrisol species) in Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Johar, S.; Embong, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation of an alluvial soil, locally named as Holyrood-Lunas from Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia, had been conducted in this research. This particular soil was chosen due to its relatively high level of background radiation in a range between 139.2 and 539.4 nGy h -1 . As the background radiation is correlated to the amount of parent nuclides, 238 U and 232 Th, hence, a remediation technique, such as electrokinetic, is very useful in reducing these particular concentrations of heavy metal and radionuclides in soils. Several series of electrokinetics experiments were performed in laboratory scale in order to study the influence of certain electrokinetic parameters in soil. The concentration before (pre-electrokinetic) and after the experiment (post-electrokinetic) was determined via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis technique. The best electrokinetic parameter that contributed to the highest achievable concentration removal of heavy metals and radionuclides on each experimental series was incorporated into a final electrokinetic experiment. Here, High Pure Germanium (HPGe) was used for radioactivity elemental analysis. The XRF results suggested that the most optimised electrokinetic parameters for Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, Th and U were 3.0 h, 90 volts, 22.0 cm, plate-shaped electrode by 8 x 8 cm and in 1-D configuration order whereas the selected optimised electrokinetic parameters gave very low reduction of 238 U and 232 Th at 0.23 ± 2.64 and 2.74 ± 23.78 ppm, respectively. (authors)

  12. The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation for heavy metals and radioactivity contamination on Holyrood-Lunas soil (acrisol species) in Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Johar, S; Embong, Z

    2015-11-01

    The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation of an alluvial soil, locally named as Holyrood-Lunas from Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia, had been conducted in this research. This particular soil was chosen due to its relatively high level of background radiation in a range between 139.2 and 539.4 nGy h(-1). As the background radiation is correlated to the amount of parent nuclides, (238)U and (232)Th, hence, a remediation technique, such as electrokinetic, is very useful in reducing these particular concentrations of heavy metal and radionuclides in soils. Several series of electrokinetics experiments were performed in laboratory scale in order to study the influence of certain electrokinetic parameters in soil. The concentration before (pre-electrokinetic) and after the experiment (post-electrokinetic) was determined via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis technique. The best electrokinetic parameter that contributed to the highest achievable concentration removal of heavy metals and radionuclides on each experimental series was incorporated into a final electrokinetic experiment. Here, High Pure Germanium (HPGe) was used for radioactivity elemental analysis. The XRF results suggested that the most optimised electrokinetic parameters for Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, Th and U were 3.0 h, 90 volts, 22.0 cm, plate-shaped electrode by 8 × 8 cm and in 1-D configuration order whereas the selected optimised electrokinetic parameters gave very low reduction of (238)U and (232)Th at 0.23 ± 2.64 and 2.74 ± 23.78 ppm, respectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. THE CLOSE BINARY FRACTION OF DWARF M STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Benjamin M.; Blake, Cullen H.; Knapp, Gillian R.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a search for close spectroscopic dwarf M star binaries using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to address the question of the rate of occurrence of multiplicity in M dwarfs. We use a template-fitting technique to measure radial velocities from 145,888 individual spectra obtained for a magnitude-limited sample of 39,543 M dwarfs. Typically, the three or four spectra observed for each star are separated in time by less than four hours, but for ∼17% of the stars, the individual observations span more than two days. In these cases we are sensitive to large-amplitude radial velocity variations on timescales comparable to the separation between the observations. We use a control sample of objects having observations taken within a four-hour period to make an empirical estimate of the underlying radial velocity error distribution and simulate our detection efficiency for a wide range of binary star systems. We find the frequency of binaries among the dwarf M stars with a < 0.4 AU to be 3%-4%. Comparison with other samples of binary stars demonstrates that the close binary fraction, like the total binary fraction, is an increasing function of primary mass.

  14. THE CLOSE BINARY FRACTION OF DWARF M STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Benjamin M. [Penn Manor High School, 100 East Cottage Avenue, Millersville, PA 17551 (United States); Blake, Cullen H.; Knapp, Gillian R. [Princeton University, Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We describe a search for close spectroscopic dwarf M star binaries using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to address the question of the rate of occurrence of multiplicity in M dwarfs. We use a template-fitting technique to measure radial velocities from 145,888 individual spectra obtained for a magnitude-limited sample of 39,543 M dwarfs. Typically, the three or four spectra observed for each star are separated in time by less than four hours, but for {approx}17% of the stars, the individual observations span more than two days. In these cases we are sensitive to large-amplitude radial velocity variations on timescales comparable to the separation between the observations. We use a control sample of objects having observations taken within a four-hour period to make an empirical estimate of the underlying radial velocity error distribution and simulate our detection efficiency for a wide range of binary star systems. We find the frequency of binaries among the dwarf M stars with a < 0.4 AU to be 3%-4%. Comparison with other samples of binary stars demonstrates that the close binary fraction, like the total binary fraction, is an increasing function of primary mass.

  15. Basic principles of electrolyte chemistry for microfluidic electrokinetics. Part II: Coupling between ion mobility, electrolysis, and acid-base equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persat, Alexandre; Suss, Matthew E; Santiago, Juan G

    2009-09-07

    We present elements of electrolyte dynamics and electrochemistry relevant to microfluidic electrokinetics experiments. In Part I of this two-paper series, we presented a review and introduction to the fundamentals of acid-base chemistry. Here, we first summarize the coupling between acid-base equilibrium chemistry and electrophoretic mobilities of electrolytes, at both infinite and finite dilution. We then discuss the effects of electrode reactions on microfluidic electrokinetic experiments and derive a model for pH changes in microchip reservoirs during typical direct-current electrokinetic experiments. We present a model for the potential drop in typical microchip electrophoresis device. The latter includes finite element simulation to estimate the relative effects of channel and reservoir dimensions. Finally, we summarize effects of electrode and electrolyte characteristics on potential drop in microfluidic devices. As a whole, the discussions highlight the importance of the coupling between electromigration and electrophoresis, acid-base equilibria, and electrochemical reactions.

  16. Some basic requirements for the application of electrokinetic methods for the reconstruction of masonry with rising humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, P; Jacobasch, H J; Boerner, M

    1987-12-01

    Based on some theoretical statements concerning the electro-osmosis the most important requirements for the application of electrokinetic methods for drying masonry with rising humidity are described. Samples of brick masonry (brick and mortar) were examined by means of an electrokinetic measuring system (EKM) with different electrolytes (CaSO/sub 4/ and KCl) being used for different concentrations. It was found for all samples, that the zeta potential is provided with a negative sign and that the absolute value of the zeta potential approaches zero with increasing electrolyte concentration. Based on these measurements, an upper limit of the electrolyte concentration of 0.1 Mol/liter is established for the application of electrokinetic methods for drying masonry.

  17. Basic principles of electrolyte chemistry for microfluidic electrokinetics. Part I: Acid-base equilibria and pH buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persat, Alexandre; Chambers, Robert D; Santiago, Juan G

    2009-09-07

    We review fundamental and applied acid-base equilibrium chemistry useful to microfluidic electrokinetics. We present elements of acid-base equilibrium reactions and derive rules for pH calculation for simple buffers. We also present a general formulation to calculate pH of more complex, arbitrary mixtures of electrolytes, and discuss the effects of ionic strength and temperature on pH calculation. More practically, we offer advice on buffer preparation and on buffer reporting. We also discuss "real world" buffers and likely contamination sources. In particular, we discuss the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide on buffer systems, namely, the increase in ionic strength and acidification of typical electrokinetic device buffers. In Part II of this two-paper series, we discuss the coupling of acid-base equilibria with electrolyte dynamics and electrochemistry in typical microfluidic electrokinetic systems.

  18. The characterizations of rheological, electrokinetical and structural properties of ODTABr/MMT and HDTABr/MMT organoclays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isci, S.; Uslu, Y.O.; Ece, O.I.

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, we have investigated as a function of surfactant concentration the rheological (yield value, plastic viscosity) and electrokinetic (mobility, zeta potential) properties of montmorillonite (MMT) dispersions. The influence of surfactants (Octadeccyltrimethylammonium bromide, ODTABr and Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, HDTABr) on dispersions of Na-activated bentonite was evaluated by rheological and electrokinetic measurements, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The interactions between clay minerals and surfactants in water-based Na-activated MMT dispersions (2 wt.%) were examined in detail using rheologic parameters, such as viscosity, yield point, apparent and plastic viscosity, hysteresis area, and electrokinetic parameters of mobility and zeta potentials, and XRD also analyses helped to determine swelling properties of d-spacings. MMT and organoclay dispersions showed Bingham Plastic flow behavior. The zeta potential measurements displayed that the surfactant molecules hold on the clay particle surfaces and the XRD analyses displayed that they get into the basal layers

  19. A separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopyuk, S.G.; Dyachenko, A.Ye.; Mukhametov, M.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    A separator is proposed which contains separating slanted plates and baffle plates installed at a distance to them at an acute angle to them. To increase the effectiveness of separating a gas and liquid stream and the throughput through reducing the secondary carry away of the liquid drops and to reduce the hydraulic resistance, as well, openings are made in the plates. The horizontal projections of each opening from the lower and upper surfaces of the plate do not overlap each other.

  20. Binary neutron star merger simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruegmann, Bernd [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Our research focuses on the numerical tools necessary to solve Einstein's equations. In recent years we have been particularly interested in spacetimes consisting of two neutron stars in the final stages of their evolution. Because of the emission of gravitational radiation, the objects are driven together to merge; the emitted gravitational wave signal is visualized. This emitted gravitational radiation carries energy and momentum away from the system and contains information about the system. Late last year the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) began searches for these gravitational wave signals at a sensitivity at which detections are expected. Although such systems can radiate a significant amount of their total mass-energy in gravitational waves, the gravitational wave signals one expects to receive on Earth are not strong, since sources of gravitational waves are often many millions of light years away. Therefore one needs accurate templates for the radiation one expects from such systems in order to be able to extract them out of the detector's noise. Although analytical models exist for compact binary systems when the constituents are well separated, we need numerical simulation to investigate the last orbits before merger to obtain accurate templates and validate analytical approximations. Due to the strong nonlinearity of the equations and the large separation of length scales, these simulations are computationally demanding and need to be run on large supercomputers. When matter is present the computational cost as compared to pure black hole (vacuum) simulations increases even more due to the additional matter fields. But also more interesting astrophysical phenomena can happen. In fact, there is the possibility for a strong electromagnetic signal from the merger (e.g., a short gamma-ray burst or lower-energy electromagnetic signatures from the ejecta) and significant neutrino emission. Additionally, we can expect that

  1. Analysis of plant hormones by microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography coupled with on-line large volume sample stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongbao; Lin, Zian; Zhang, Lin; Cai, Yan; Zhang, Lan

    2012-04-07

    A novel method of microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEEKC) coupled with on-line large volume sample stacking was developed for the analysis of six plant hormones including indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, indole-3-propionic acid, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, abscisic acid and salicylic acid. Baseline separation of six plant hormones was achieved within 10 min by using the microemulsion background electrolyte containing a 97.2% (w/w) 10 mM borate buffer at pH 9.2, 1.0% (w/w) ethyl acetate as oil droplets, 0.6% (w/w) sodium dodecyl sulphate as surfactant and 1.2% (w/w) 1-butanol as cosurfactant. In addition, an on-line concentration method based on a large volume sample stacking technique and multiple wavelength detection was adopted for improving the detection sensitivity in order to determine trace level hormones in a real sample. The optimal method provided about 50-100 fold increase in detection sensitivity compared with a single MEEKC method, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) were between 0.005 and 0.02 μg mL(-1). The proposed method was simple, rapid and sensitive and could be applied to the determination of six plant hormones in spiked water samples, tobacco leaves and 1-naphthylacetic acid in leaf fertilizer. The recoveries ranged from 76.0% to 119.1%, and good reproducibilities were obtained with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6.6%.

  2. Enantioresolution in electrokinetic chromatography-complete filling technique using sulfated gamma-cyclodextrin. Software-free topological anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Martín-Biosca, Yolanda; Medina-Hernández, María José; Sagrado, Salvador

    2016-10-07

    Few papers have tried to predict the resolution ability of chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis for the separation of the enantiomers of chiral compounds. In a previous work, we have used molecular information available on-line to establish enantioresolution levels of basic compounds using highly sulfated β-CD (HS-β-CD) as chiral selector in electrokinetic chromatography-complete filling technique (EKC-CFT). The present study is a continuation of this previous work, introducing some novelties. In this work, the ability of sulfated γ-cyclodextrin (S-γ-CD) as chiral selector in EKC-CFT is modelled for the first time. Thirty-three structurally unrelated cationic and neutral compounds (drugs and pesticides) are studied. Categorical enantioresolution levels (RsC, 0 or 1) are assigned from experimental enantioresolution values obtained at different S-γ-CD concentrations. Novel topological parameters connected to the chiral carbon (C * -parameters) are introduced. Four C * -parameters and a topological parameter of the whole molecule (aromatic atom count) are the most important variables according to a discriminant partial least squares-variable selection process. It suggests the preponderance of the topology adjacent to the chiral carbon to anticipate the RsC levels. A software-free anticipation protocol for new molecules is proposed. Over the current set of molecules evaluated, 100% of correct anticipations (resolved and non-resolved compounds) are obtained, while anticipation of some compounds remains undetermined. A criterion is introduced to alert on compounds which should not be anticipated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. UNUSUALLY WIDE BINARIES: ARE THEY WIDE OR UNUSUAL?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an astrometric and spectroscopic campaign to confirm the youth and association of a complete sample of candidate wide companions in Taurus and Upper Sco. Our survey found 15 new binary systems (three in Taurus and 12 in Upper Sco) with separations of 3''-30'' (500-5000 AU) among all of the known members with masses of 2.5-0.012 M sun . The total sample of 49 wide systems in these two regions conforms to only some expectations from field multiplicity surveys. Higher mass stars have a higher frequency of wide binary companions, and there is a marked paucity of wide binary systems near the substellar regime. However, the separation distribution appears to be log-flat, rather than declining as in the field, and the mass ratio distribution is more biased toward similar-mass companions than the initial mass function or the field G-dwarf distribution. The maximum separation also shows no evidence of a limit at ∼ sun . We attribute this result to the post-natal dynamical sculpting that occurs for most field systems; our binary systems will escape to the field intact, but most field stars are formed in denser clusters and undergo significant dynamical evolution. In summary, only wide binary systems with total masses ∼ sun appear to be 'unusually wide'.

  4. Robust analysis of the hydrophobic basic analytes loratadine and desloratadine in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids by sweeping-cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, Mohamed; Belal, Fathalla; Pyell, Ute

    2013-09-27

    The analysis of hydrophobic basic analytes by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) is usually challenging because of the tendency of these analytes to be adsorbed onto the inner capillary wall in addition to the difficulty to separate these compounds as they exhibit extremely high retention factors. A robust and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of loratadine (LOR) and its major metabolite desloratadine (DSL) is developed based on cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) with acidic sample matrix and basic background electrolyte (BGE). The influence of the sample matrix on the reachable focusing efficiency is studied. It is shown that the application of a low pH sample solution mitigates problems associated with the low solubility of the hydrophobic basic analytes in aqueous solution while having advantages with regard to on-line focusing. Moreover, the use of a basic BGE reduces the adsorption of these analytes in the separation compartment. The separation of the studied analytes is achieved in less than 7min using a BGE consisting of 10mmolL(-1) disodium tetraborate buffer, pH 9.30 containing 40mmolL(-1) SDS and 20mmolL(-1) hydroxypropyl-β-CD while the sample solution is composed of 10mmolL(-1) phosphoric acid, pH 2.15. A full validation study of the developed method based on the pharmacopeial guidelines is performed. The method is successfully applied to the analysis of the studied drugs in tablets without interference of tablet additives as well as the analysis of spiked human urine without any sample pretreatment. Furthermore, DSL can be detected as an impurity in LOR bulk powder at the stated pharmacopeial limit (0.1%, w/w). The selectivity of the developed method allows the analysis of LOR and DSL in combination with the co-formulated drug pseudoephedrine. It is shown that in CD-MEKC with basic BGE, solute-wall interactions are effectively suppressed allowing the development of efficient and precise

  5. KIC 7177553: A QUADRUPLE SYSTEM OF TWO CLOSE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, H. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Borkovits, T. [Baja Astronomical Observatory of Szeged University, H-6500 Baja, Szegedi út, Kt. 766 (Hungary); Rappaport, S. A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Ngo, H. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 E. California Boulevard, MC 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mawet, D. [California Institute of Technology, Astronomy Dept. MC 249-17, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Csizmadia, Sz. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institut für Planeten-forschung, Rutherfordstraße 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Forgács-Dajka, E., E-mail: lehm@tls-tautenburg.de, E-mail: borko@electra.bajaobs.hu, E-mail: sar@mit.edu, E-mail: hngo@caltech.edu, E-mail: dmawet@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: szilard.csizmadia@dlr.de, E-mail: e.forgacs-dajka@astro.elte.hu [Astronomical Department, Eötvös University, H-1118 Budapest, Pázmány Péter stny. 1/A (Hungary)

    2016-03-01

    KIC 7177553 was observed by the Kepler satellite to be an eclipsing eccentric binary star system with an 18-day orbital period. Recently, an eclipse timing study of the Kepler binaries has revealed eclipse timing variations (ETVs) in this object with an amplitude of ∼100 s and an outer period of 529 days. The implied mass of the third body is that of a super-Jupiter, but below the mass of a brown dwarf. We therefore embarked on a radial velocity (RV) study of this binary to determine its system configuration and to check the hypothesis that it hosts a giant planet. From the RV measurements, it became immediately obvious that the same Kepler target contains another eccentric binary, this one with a 16.5-day orbital period. Direct imaging using adaptive optics reveals that the two binaries are separated by 0.″4 (∼167 AU) and have nearly the same magnitude (to within 2%). The close angular proximity of the two binaries and very similar γ velocities strongly suggest that KIC 7177553 is one of the rare SB4 systems consisting of two eccentric binaries where at least one system is eclipsing. Both systems consist of slowly rotating, nonevolved, solar-like stars of comparable masses. From the orbital separation and the small difference in γ velocity, we infer that the period of the outer orbit most likely lies in the range of 1000–3000 yr. New images taken over the next few years, as well as the high-precision astrometry of the Gaia satellite mission, will allow us to set much narrower constraints on the system geometry. Finally, we note that the observed ETVs in the Kepler data cannot be produced by the second binary. Further spectroscopic observations on a longer timescale will be required to prove the existence of the massive planet.

  6. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  7. Singular deposit formation in PWR due to electrokinetic phenomena - application to SG clogging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillodo, M.; Muller, T.; Barale, M.; Foucault, M. [AREVA NP SAS, Technical Centre (France); Clinard, M.-H.; Brun, C.; Chahma, F. [AREVA NP SAS, Chemistry and Radiochemistry Group (France); Corredera, G.; De Bouvier, O. [Electricite de France, Centre d' Expertise de I' inspection dans les domaines de la Realisation et de l' Exploitation (France)

    2009-07-01

    The deposits which cause clogging of the 'foils' of the tube support plates (TSP) in Steam Generators (SG) of PWR present two characteristics which put forward that the mechanism at the origin of their formation is different from the mechanism that drives the formation of homogeneous deposits leading to the fouling of the free spans of SG tubes. Clogging occurs near the leading edge of the TSP and the deposits appear as diaphragms localized between both TSP and SG tubing materials, while the major part of the tube/TSP interstice presents little or no significant clogging. This type of deposit seems rather comparable to the ones which were reproduced in Lab tests to explain the flow rate instabilities observed on a French unit during hot shutdown in the 90's. The deposits which cause TSP clogging are owed to a discontinuity of the streaming currents in the vicinity of a surface singularity (orifices, scratches ...) which, in very low conductivity environment, produce local potential variations and/or current loop in the metallic pipe material due to electrokinetic effects. Deposits can be built by two mechanisms which may or not coexist: (i) accumulation of particles stabilized by an electrostatic attraction due to the local variation of electrokinetic potential, and (ii) crystalline growth of magnetite produced by the oxidation of ferrous ions on the anodic branch of a current loop. Lab investigations carried out by AREVA NP Technical Centre since the end of the 90's showed that this type of deposit occurs when the redox potential is higher than a critical value, and can be gradually dissolved when the potential becomes lower than this value which depends on the 'Material - Chemistry' couple. Special emphasis will be given in this paper to the TSP clogging of SG in PWR secondary coolant dealing particularly with the potential strong effect of electrokinetic phenomena in low conductive environment and in high temperature conditions

  8. Experimental and numerical study of deposit formation in secondary side SG TSP by electrokinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillodo, Michael; Foucault, Marc; Ryckelynck, Natacha; Chahma, Farah; Guingo, Mathieu; Mansour, Carine; Alos-Ramos, Olga; Corredera, Geraldine

    2012-09-01

    Corrosion products deposit formation observed in PWR steam generators (SGs) - related to SG free span fouling and SG clogging - is now reported since several years. SG clogging is a localized phenomenon observed between the leading edge of the Tube Support Plate (TSP) and SG tubing materials. Based on visual inspections, it was found that the gaps between SG tubing material and TSP at the lower part of the broached holes were getting progressively blocked. Therefore, for safe operation, most affected PWRs had to be operated at reduced power. TSP blockage was mainly observed for low-pH water chemistry conditioning, which directly depends on the operating water chemistry. The TSP blockage mechanism is complex due to the localized conditions in which flow pattern change, chemistry and electrochemical conditions are not well understood. Electrokinetic considerations could be pointed out to explain the coupling of chemistry, materials and thermohydraulic (T/H) conditions. In this frame AREVA and EDF have launched a long-term R and D program in order to understand the mechanisms driving the formation of SG clogging. This study based on parametric laboratory tests aims to assess the role of secondary water chemistry, material and T/H conditions on deposit formation. The experimental approach focused on electrokinetic measurements of metallic substrates and on the assessment of oxidation properties of materials in secondary side chemistry. An overall analysis of recent results is presented to address SG deposit formation in secondary water chemistry for various conditioning amines - morpholine, ethanolamine and dimethylamine. To complete the study, the experimental results have been correlated to CFD simulations of particle deposition, by means of stochastic Lagrangian models. These calculations have in particular reproduced correctly the location of the most important particle deposit (the leading edge of the test tube), and have stressed the influence of the

  9. Particle acceleration in binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cygnus X-3 massive binary system is one of the powerful sources of radio and X-ray emission consisting of an accreting compact object, probably a black hole, with a Wolf-Rayet star companion. Based on the detections of ultra high energy gamma-rays by Kiel and Havera Park, Cygnus X-3 has been proposed to be one of the most powerful sources of charged cosmic ray particles in the Galaxy. The results of long-term observations of the Cyg X-3 binary at energies 800 GeV–85 TeV detected by SHALON in 1995 are presented with images, integral spectra and spectral energy distribution. The identification of source with Cygnus X-3 detected by SHALON was secured by the detection of its 4.8 hour orbital period in TeV gamma-rays. During the whole observation period of Cyg X-3 with SHALON significant flux increases were detected at energies above 0.8 TeV. These TeV flux increases are correlated with flaring activity at a lower energy range of X-ray and/or at observations of Fermi LAT as well as with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The variability of very high-energy gamma-radiation and correlation of radiation activity in the wide energy range can provide essential information on particle mechanism production up to very high energies. Whereas, modulation of very high energy emission connected to the orbital motion of the binary system, provides an understanding of the emission processes, nature and location of particle acceleration.

  10. Sinusoidal masks for single channel speech separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for binary and soft masks used in single-channel speech separation. We present a novel approach called the sinusoidal mask (binary mask and Wiener filter) in a sinusoidal space. Theoretical analysis is presented for the proposed method, and we show...... that the proposed method is able to minimize the target speech distortion while suppressing the crosstalk to a predetermined threshold. It is observed that compared to the STFTbased masks, the proposed sinusoidal masks improve the separation performance in terms of objective measures (SSNR and PESQ) and are mostly...

  11. Electrokinetically Emplaced Amendments for Enhanced Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents in Clay: a Pilot Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, D. M.; Inglis, A.; Head, N.; Chowdhury, A. I.; Garcia, A. N.; Reynolds, D. A.; Hogberg, D.; Edwards, E.; Lomheim, L.; Austrins, L. M.; Hayman, J.; Auger, M.; Sidebottom, A.; Eimers, J.; Gerhard, J.

    2017-12-01

    Bioremediation is an increasingly popular treatment technology for contaminated sites due to the proven success of biostimulation and bioaugmentation. However, bioremediation, along with other in-situ remediation technologies, faces limitations due to challenges with amendment delivery in low permeability media. Studies have suggested that electrokinetics (EK) can enhance the delivery of amendments in low permeability soils, such as clay. A pilot field trial was conducted to evaluate the potential for electrokinetics to support anaerobic dechlorination in clay by improving the transport of lactate and microorganisms. The study was performed on a former chlorinated solvent production facility in Ontario, Canada. Five transect cells were set up within the contaminated clay test area. Different amendments were injected in three of these cells to test various remediation strategies under the influence of EK. The other two cells were used as controls, one with EK applied and the other with no EK. This study focuses on the cell that applied electrokinetics for lactate emplacement followed by bioremediation (EK-Bio). This cell had an initial single injection of KB-1 bioaugmentation culture (SiREM, Canada) followed by injection of sodium lactate as a biostimulant while direct current was applied for 45 days between two electrodes 3 m apart. EK can enhance lactate migration by electromigration, while microorganisms have the potential to be influenced by electroosmosis of the bulk fluid or by electrophoresis of the charged bacteria themselves. All monitoring well locations in the EK-Bio cell exhibited evidence of successful lactate delivery corresponding to an increase in dissolved organic carbon. Reduction in chlorinated volatile organic compound (cVOC) concentrations, in particular 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), were evident in monitoring locations coinciding with significant lactate breakthrough. Further investigation into the influence of EK-Bio on the abundance and

  12. A multiphase electrokinetic flow model for electrolytes with liquid/liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.D., E-mail: joe.d.berry@gmail.com; Davidson, M.R., E-mail: m.davidson@unimelb.edu.au; Harvie, D.J.E., E-mail: daltonh@unimelb.edu.au

    2013-10-15

    A numerical model for electrokinetic flow of multiphase systems with deformable interfaces is presented, based on a combined level set-volume of fluid technique. A new feature is a multiphase formulation of the Nernst–Planck transport equation for advection, diffusion and conduction of individual charge carrier species that ensures their conservation in each fluid phase. The numerical model is validated against the analytical results of Zholkovskij et al. (2002) [1], and results for the problem of two drops coalescing in the presence of mobile charge carriers are presented. The time taken for two drops containing ions to coalesce decreases with increasing ion concentration.

  13. Influence of the Chemical Interactions on the Removal Rate of Different Salts in Electrokinetic Desalination Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination techniques have been successfully applied for the prevention of salt-induced deterioration problems of masonry and other construction materials. A mathematical model for electrochemical desalination treatments is described, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system...... of equations and accounting for the chemical interactions between the species in the pore solution and the solid matrix. Due to their high abundance in the natural environment, chlorides, nitrates and sulfates are considered the main ions responsible to the salt decay processes in buildings materials...

  14. Electrokinetic soil decontamination - summary of results of various studies in laboratory, bench-scale and field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutschan, B.; Wutzler, R.; Goldmann, T. [INTUS Inst. fuer Technologie und Umweltschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In electroremediation, contaminants are removed form soil and groundwater by the action of an electric potential applied across electrodes embedded in the contaminated medium. Driving the remediation are the electrokinetic phenomena of electro-osmosis, ion migration and electrophoresis. Other common physicochemical phenomena that are also present are diffusion, chemical reactions, hydrolysis (change of pH-value), ion exchange, complexation and others. The complex interactions between all these phenomena determine the processes. Important process parameters are transition rates, bulk liquid velocity, {zeta}-potential (Helmholtz-Smoluchowski-equation) and others. Some parameters are determined at laboratory-, bench- and field scale. (orig.)

  15. Electrokinetic mobilisation of toluene and chlorinated ethenes in low permeable soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middeldorp, P.; Sinke, A. [TNO Environment Energy and Process Innovation, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    An electrokinetic horizontal soil column setup was developed to study the effect of electric current on the mobilisation and biodegradation of organic pollutants in soil. Toluene and tetrachloroethene (PCE) were injected between the two electrodes in the center of the soil column and a DC current of 1 V/cm was applied. We observed a breakthrough of PCE and toluene at the cathode side after 8 days and 11 days respectively. This short experiment shows the possibility to enhance the mobility of non-ionic organic pollutants through electro-osmosis. (orig.)

  16. ac electrokinetic micropumps: The effect of geometrical confinement, Faradaic current injection, and nonlinear surface capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Bruus, Henrik; Ajdari, A.

    2006-01-01

    therefore extend the latter theories to account for three experimentally relevant effects: (i) vertical confinement of the pumping channel, (ii) Faradaic currents from electrochemical reactions at the electrodes, and (iii) nonlinear surface capacitance of the Debye layer. We report here that these effects......Recent experiments have demonstrated that ac electrokinetic micropumps permit integrable, local, and fast pumping (velocities similar to mm/s) with low driving voltage of a few volts only. However, they also displayed many quantitative and qualitative discrepancies with existing theories. We...

  17. Tidal Disruption of Inclined or Eccentric Binaries by Massive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Harriet; Kobayashi, Shiho; Rossi, Elena M.; Sari, Re'em

    2018-04-01

    Binary stars that are on close orbits around massive black holes (MBH) such as Sgr A* in the centre of the Milky Way are liable to undergo tidal disruption and eject a hypervelocity star. We study the interaction between such a MBH and circular binaries for general binary orientations and penetration depths (i.e. binaries penetrate into the tidal radius around the BH). We show that for very deep penetrators, almost all binaries are disrupted when the binary rotation axis is roughly oriented toward the BH or it is in the opposite direction. The surviving chance becomes significant when the angle between the binary rotation axis and the BH direction is between 0.15π and 0.85π. The surviving chance is as high as ˜20% when the binary rotation axis is perpendicular to the BH direction. However, for shallow penetrators, the highest disruption chance is found in such a perpendicular case, especially in the prograde case. This is because the dynamics of shallow penetrators is more sensitive to the relative orientation of the binary and orbital angular momenta. We provide numerical fits to the disruption probability and energy gain at the the BH encounter as a function of the penetration depth. The latter can be simply rescaled in terms of binary masses, their initial separation and the binary-to-BH mass ratio to evaluate the ejection velocity of a binary members in various systems. We also investigate the disruption of coplanar, eccentric binaries by a MBH. It is shown that for highly eccentric binaries retrograde orbits have a significantly increased disruption probability and ejection velocities compared to the circular binaries.

  18. Modeling of Multicomponent Mixture Separation Processes Using Hollow fiber Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sin-Ah; Kim, Jin-Kuk; Lee, Young Moo; Yeo, Yeong-Koo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    So far, most of research activities on modeling of membrane separation processes have been focused on binary feed mixture. But, in actual separation operations, binary feed is hard to find and most separation processes involve multicomponent feed mixture. In this work models for membrane separation processes treating multicomponent feed mixture are developed. Various model types are investigated and validity of proposed models are analysed based on experimental data obtained using hollowfiber membranes. The proposed separation models show quick convergence and exhibit good tracking performance.

  19. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  20. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Mendoza, N.; Goyanes, S.; Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V.; Rubiolo, G.; Candal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 °C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 μm) and sample B (smaller than 50 μm). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of α-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing α-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 μm showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 μm. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  1. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Mendoza, N. [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V. [LBT, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA. Ciudad Universitaria, Pab1, C1428EGA CABA (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Prov. de Bs As (Argentina); Candal, R., E-mail: candal@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 3iA, Universidad de Gral. San Martin, San Martin, Prov. Bs As (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 Degree-Sign C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 {mu}m) and sample B (smaller than 50 {mu}m). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 {mu}m showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 {mu}m. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  2. Microparticle Separation by Cyclonic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karback, Keegan; Leith, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ability to separate particles based on their size has wide ranging applications from the industrial to the medical. Currently, cyclonic separators are primarily used in agriculture and manufacturing to syphon out contaminates or products from an air supply. This has led us to believe that cyclonic separation has more applications than the agricultural and industrial. Using the OpenFoam computational package, we were able to determine the flow parameters of a vortex in a cyclonic separator in order to segregate dust particles to a cutoff size of tens of nanometers. To test the model, we constructed an experiment to separate a test dust of various sized particles. We filled a chamber with Arizona test dust and utilized an acoustic suspension technique to segregate particles finer than a coarse cutoff size and introduce them into the cyclonic separation apparatus where they were further separated via a vortex following our computational model. The size of the particles separated from this experiment will be used to further refine our model. Metropolitan State University of Denver, Colorado University of Denver, Dr. Randall Tagg, Dr. Richard Krantz.

  3. Disordered multihyperuniformity derived from binary plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomba, Enrique; Weis, Jean-Jacques; Torquato, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    Disordered multihyperuniform many-particle systems are exotic amorphous states that allow exquisite color sensing capabilities due to their anomalous suppression of density fluctuations for distinct subsets of particles, as recently evidenced in photoreceptor mosaics in avian retina. Motivated by this biological finding, we present a statistical-mechanical model that rigorously achieves disordered multihyperuniform many-body systems by tuning interactions in binary mixtures of nonadditive hard-disk plasmas. We demonstrate that multihyperuniformity competes with phase separation and stabilizes a clustered phase. Our work provides a systematic means to generate disordered multihyperuniform solids, and hence lays the groundwork to explore their potentially unique photonic, phononic, electronic, and transport properties.

  4. Pycnonuclear reaction rates for binary ionic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimaru, S.; Ogata, S.; Van Horn, H. M.

    1992-01-01

    Through a combination of compositional scaling arguments and examinations of Monte Carlo simulation results for the interparticle separations in binary-ionic mixture (BIM) solids, we have derived parameterized expressions for the BIM pycnonuclear rates as generalizations of those in one-component solids obtained previously by Salpeter and Van Horn and by Ogata et al. We have thereby discovered a catalyzing effect of the heavier elements, which enhances the rates of reactions among the lighter elements when the charge ratio exceeds a critical value of approximately 2.3.

  5. [Simultaneous determination of five alkaloids in Niuhuang Shangqing Tablets by micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometry using laurel acyl malic acid ester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengdi; Su, Di; Fan, Xiaosu; Yu, Jianhua; Xu, Yuanjin

    2012-12-01

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometric method based on laurel acyl malic acid ester (LMAE) for the separation and determination of coptisine, berberine, jatrorrhizine, phellodendrine and ligustrazine in Niuhuang Shangqing Tablets was established. The baseline separation of the five compounds was attained within 18 min by an uncoated capillary (88 cm x 50 microm) on the operating voltage of 25 kV using 7.5 mmol/L LMAE-15 mmol/L ammonia-50 mmol/L ammonium acetate mixture (pH = 7.0) containing 12.5% (v/v) acetonitrile as the electrophoretic medium and 50% 2-propanol aqueous solution (containing 3 mmol/L acetic acid) as the sheath liquid. The peak area of each component to its concentration showed a good linear relationship. The relative standard deviations of migration times and peak areas of the five components were less than 5% and the recoveries were between 96.0% and 105%. The developed method is simple, rapid, accurate and is suitable for the routine analysis of the five alkaloid components in Niuhuang Shangqing Tablets.

  6. Study of flow profile distortions and efficiency in counter pressure moderated partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography in relation to the relative buffer zone lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalke, Daniela; Welsch, Thomas

    2002-06-25

    The influence of the relative buffer zone lengths on the efficiency was investigated in partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography using sodium dodecyl sulfate as separation additive. Varying relative zone lengths were obtained by applying identical initial separation zone lengths but different total lengths of the capillaries. Plate numbers of a homologous series of omega-phenylalcohols were measured to indicate the effect of both a changing relative zone length during the run and a counter pressure applied on the cathodic buffer reservoir. The magnitude and the course of these plate numbers are discussed on the basis of models for flow profile superposition and flow profile deformation which are caused by an intersegmental pressure arising at the boundary between the two buffer zones with different electroosmotic flow velocities. Calculation of the intersegmental pressure and of the resulting laminar flow components in the buffer zones on the basis of some equations for electroosmotic and hydrodynamic flow supported the interpretation that a long background buffer zone should be avoided

  7. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  8. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  9. Steady-state organization of binary mixtures by active impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Mads Christian; Gilhøj, Henriette; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1998-01-01

    The structural reorganization of a phase-separated binary mixture in the presence of an annealed dilution of active impurities is studied by computer-simulation techniques via a simple two-dimensional lattice-gas model. The impurities, each of which has two internal states with different affinity...

  10. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies on the photochemistry of aqueous Pu solutions and the stability of iodine in liquid and gaseous CO 2 are reported. Progress is reported in studies on: the preparation of macroporous bodies filled with oxides and sulfides to be used as adsorbents; the beneficiation of photographic wastes; the anion exchange adsorption of transition elements from thiosulfate solutions; advanced filtration applications of energy significance; high-resolution separations; and, the examination of the separation agents, octylphenylphosphoric acid (OPPA) and trihexyl phosphate (THP)

  11. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  12. Basic separative power of multi-component isotopes separation in a gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hongmin; Lei, Zengguang; Zhuge, Fu

    2008-01-01

    On condition that the overall separation factor per unit exists in centrifuge for multi-component isotopes separation, the relations between separative power of each component and molecular weight have been investigated in the paper while the value function and the separative power of binary-component separation are adopted. The separative power of each component is proportional to the square of the molecular weight difference between its molecular weight and the average molecular weight of other remnant components. In addition, these relations are independent on the number of the components and feed concentrations. The basic separative power and related expressions, suggested in the paper, can be used for estimating the separative power of each component and analyzing the separation characteristics. The most valuable application of the basic separative power is to evaluate the separative capacity of centrifuge for multi-component isotopes. (author)

  13. Exact results in a lattice model of a binary reactant mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.B.

    1995-01-01

    We study phase separation in a binary mixture of two particles, which can react with each other and form a third compound. We determine the exact phase boundaries for a restricted range of the interaction parameters

  14. Electrokinetic label-free screening chip: a marriage of multiplexing and high throughput analysis using surface plasmon resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnamoorthy, G.; Carlen, Edwin; Bomer, Johan G.; Wijnperle, Daniël; de Boer, Hans L.; van den Berg, Albert; Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.

    2010-01-01

    We present an electrokinetic label-free biomolecular screening chip (Glass/PDMS) to screen up to 10 samples simultaneously using surface plasmon resonance imaging (iSPR). This approach reduces the duration of an experiment when compared to conventional experimental methods. This new device offers a

  15. Comparison of migration modeling in micellar electrokinetic chromatography by linear regression and by use of an artificial neural network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metting, HJ; van Zomeren, PV; van der Ley, CP; Coenegracht, PMJ; de Jong, GJ

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of modifier (methanol or acetonitrile) and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS) in the running buffer are important factors influencing the mobility of analytes in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Response surfaces of the effective mobility can be used to predict

  16. Relationships between Electrokinetic Index of buccal epithelium and some functional and metabolic parameters at men with chronic pyelonephrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna G. Kyrylenko

    2016-01-01

      Abstracts   Background. Known for a number of parameters of the body, which through regression equations derived can assess biological age. We examined relationships between electrokinetic mobility buccal epithelium cell nuclei, named Electrokinetic Index (EKI, and some functional and metabolic parameters of body. Methods. Under a observations were 23 men by age 24-70 years with chronic pyelonephrite in the phase of remission. We estimated the EKI, state of the vegetative and hormonal regulation as well as metabolism of cholesterol. Results. We confirned closely correlation (r=-0,89 between Metric Age and EKI. Baevskiy’s Adaptation Potential and Stange’s Test together determines EKI on 28%. RMSSD, VLF and Baevskiy’s Stress Index determines EKI on 31%. Plasma Colesterol and Klimov’s Atherogenicity Coefficient determines EKI on 56%. In summary model of multiple regression with stepwise excluding are currently two last parameters as well as Plasma Testosterone and relative Power Spectral VLF HRV, which together determines EKI on 73%: R=0,868; R2=0,754; Adjusted R2=0,730;F(4,4=31,4; χ2(4=58,9; p<10-5. Conclusion. Electrokinetic Index of buccal epithelium really rellects neuro-endocrine regulation and metabolism of Cholesterol.   Keywords: Electrokinetic Index, Biological Age, HRV, Cholesterol, Testosterone, Cortisol, Relationships.

  17. Modeling of electrokinetic processes by finite element integration of the Nernst–Planck–Poisson system of equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2011-01-01

    equilibrium is continuously assured and the pH value is monitored. Results from some selected test simulations of the electrokinetic desalination of a sample of porous material are presented, outlining the versatility of the model as well as showing the effect of the counterion in the removal rate of a target...

  18. Selecting enhancing solutions for electrokinetic remediation of dredged sediments polluted with fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, F; Castellote, M

    2015-03-15

    In this paper a procedure for selecting the enhancing solutions in electrokinetic remediation experiments is proposed. For this purpose, dredged marine sediment was contaminated with fuel, and a total of 22 different experimental conditions were tested, analysing the influence of different enhancing solutions by using three commercial non-ionic surfactants, one bio-surfactant, one chelating agent, and one weak acid. Characterisation, microelectrophoretic and electrokinetic remediation trials were carried out. The results are explained on the basis of the interactions between the fuel, the enhancing electrolytes and the matrix. For one specific system, the electrophoretic zeta potential, (ζ), of the contaminated matrix in the solution was found to be related to the electroosmotic averaged ζ in the experiment and not to the efficiency in the extraction. This later was correlated to a parameter accounting for both contributions, the contaminant and the enhancing solution, calculated on the basis of differences in the electrophoretic ζ in different conditions which has allowed to propose a methodology for selection of enhancing solutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synergistic effects of bioremediation and electrokinetics in the remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuhai; Fan, Ruijuan; Li, Tingting; Hartog, Niels; Li, Fengmei; Yang, Xuelian

    2014-08-01

    The present study evaluated the coupling interactions between bioremediation (BIO) and electrokinetics (EK) in the remediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) by using bio-electrokinetics (BIO-EK) with a rotatory 2-D electric field. The results demonstrated an obvious positive correlation between the degradation extents of TPH and electric intensity both in the EK and BIO-EK tests. The use of BIO-EK showed a significant improvement in degradation of TPH as compared to BIO or EK alone. The actual degradation curve in BIO-EK tests fitted well with the simulated curve obtained by combining the degradation curves in BIO- and EK-only tests during the first 60 d, indicating a superimposed effect of biological degradation and electrochemical stimulation. The synergistic effect was particularly expressed during the later phase of the experiment, concurrent with changes in the microbial community structure. The community composition changed mainly according to the duration of the electric field, leading to a reduction in diversity. No significant spatial shifts in microbial community composition and bacterial numbers were detected among different sampling positions. Soil pH was uniform during the experimental process, soil temperature showed no variations between the soil chambers with and without an electric field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sludge reduction in a small wastewater treatment plant by electro-kinetic disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavola, Agostina; Ridolfi, Alessandra; D'Amato, Emilio; Bongirolami, Simona; Cima, Ennio; Sirini, Piero; Gavasci, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Sludge reduction in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) has recently become a key issue for the managing companies, due to the increasing constraints on the disposal alternatives. Therefore, all the solutions proposed with the aim of minimizing sludge production are receiving increasing attention and are tested either at laboratory or full-scale to evaluate their real effectiveness. In the present paper, electro-kinetic disintegration has been applied at full-scale in the recycle loop of the sludge drawn from the secondary settlement tank of a small WWTP for domestic sewage. After the disintegration stage, the treated sludge was returned to the biological reactor. Three different percentages (50, 75 and 100%) of the return sludge flow rate were subjected to disintegration and the effects on the sludge production and the WWTP operation efficiency evaluated. The long-term observations showed that the electro-kinetic disintegration was able to drastically reduce the amount of biological sludge produced by the plant, without affecting its treatment efficiency. The highest reduction was achieved when 100% return sludge flow rate was subjected to the disintegration process. The reduced sludge production gave rise to a considerable net cost saving for the company which manages the plant.

  1. Zn (II) Removal from River Water Samples of Sembrong, Johor State, Malaysia by Electrokinetic Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, E.; Husna, MNF; Shakila, A.; Azhar, ATS; Arif, AM; Norshuhaila, MS

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metals pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. The treatment of heavy metals is of special concern due to their recalcitrance and persistence in the environment. Even many physical, chemical and biological treatment processes have been proposed to remove heavy metals from river water, the use of these treatment processes are not efficient and relatively costly. This study focused on the potential application of electrokinetic (EK) remediation in Sembrong River water to remove zinc (Zn2+). The physicochemical and biological parameters and water quality index (WQI) of Sembrong River water was characterized. The electrokinetic remediation experiments were performed by controlling pH, and electric density on voltage were observed and investigated. The results indicated that all physicochemical and biological parameters of Sembrong River complied with the standard discharged limit set by the Department of Environment (DOE). However, suspended solids (SS) and pH can be categorized as Class III according to INWQS. The best performance of 88% efficiency of zinc can be achieved EK experiment run at a fixed voltage of 30 V at pH 5.14 after 60 min of the process operate. This technology may be proposed for faster and eco-friendly removal of heavy metals in the environment.

  2. The Use of Electrical Resistivity Method to Mapping The Migration of Heavy Metals by Electrokinetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Ayuni, S. A.; Ezree, A. M.; Nizam, Z. M.; Aziman, M.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Norshuhaila, M. S.; Zaidi, E.

    2017-08-01

    The presence of heavy metals contamination in soil environment highly needs innovative remediation. Basically, this contamination was resulted from ex-mining sites, motor workshop, petrol station, landfill and industrial sites. Therefore, soil treatment is very important due to metal ions are characterized as non-biodegradable material that may be harmful to ecological system, food chain, human health and groundwater sources. There are various techniques that have been proposed to eliminate the heavy metal contamination from the soil such as bioremediation, phytoremediation, electrokinetic remediation, solidification and stabilization. The selection of treatment needs to fulfill some criteria such as cost-effective, easy to apply, green approach and high remediation efficiency. Electrokinetic remediation technique (EKR) offers those solutions in certain area where other methods are impractical. While, electrical resistivity method offers an alternative geophysical technique for soil subsurface profiling to mapping the heavy metals migration by the influece of electrical gradient. Consequently, this paper presents an overview of the use of EKR to treat contaminated soil by using ERM method to verify their effectiveness to remove heavy metals.

  3. The Physical Behavior of Stabilised Soft Clay by Electrokinetic Stabilisation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nordin, N. S.; Azmi, M. A. M.; Embong, Z.; Sunar, N.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Aziman, M.

    2018-04-01

    Electrokinetic Stabilisation (EKS) technology is the combination processes of electroosmosis and chemical grouting. This technique is most effective in silty and clayey soils where the hydraulic conductivity is very low. Stabilising agents will assist the EKS treatment by inducing it into soil under direct current. The movement of stabilising agents into soil is governed by the principle of electrokinetics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical behavior of soft soil using the EKS technology as an effective method to strengthen soft clay soils with calcium chloride (CaCl2) as the stabilising agent. Stainless steel plates were used as the electrodes, while 1.0 mol/l of CaCl2 was used as the electrolyte that fed at the anode compartment. Soft marine clay at Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia was used as the soil sample. The EKS treatment was developed at Research Centre for Soft Soil (RECESS), UTHM with a constant voltage gradient (50 V/m) in 21 days. The result shows that the shear strength of treated soil was increased across the soil sample. The treated soil near the cathode showed the highest value of shear strength (24.5 – 33 kPa) compared with the anode and in the middle of the soil sample.

  4. Geotechnical behaviour of low-permeability soils in surfactant-enhanced electrokinetic remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vizcaíno, Rubén; Navarro, Vicente; Alonso, Juan; Yustres, Ángel; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Sáez, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Electrokinetic processes provide the basis of a range of very interesting techniques for the remediation of polluted soils. These techniques consist of the application of a current field in the soil that develops different transport mechanisms capable of mobilizing several types of pollutants. However, the use of these techniques could generate nondesirable effects related to the geomechanical behavior of the soil, reducing the effectiveness of the processes. In the case of the remediation of polluted soils with plasticity index higher than 35, an excessive shrinkage can be observed in remediation test. For this reason, the continued evaporation that takes place in the sample top can lead to the development of cracks, distorting the electrokinetic transport regime, and consequently, the development of the operation. On the other hand, when analyzing silty soils, in the surroundings of injection surfactant wells, high seepages can be generated that give rise to the development of piping processes. In this article methods are described to allow a reduction, or to even eliminate, both problems.

  5. Washing enhanced electrokinetic remediation for removal cadmium from real contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannis, Apostolos; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the combination of electrokinetic remediation and soil washing technology in order to remove cadmium from contaminated soil. This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different washing and purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from a real contaminated soil during electrokinetic remediation. Two different experimental modules were applied in the laboratory. Soil was saturated with tap water, while acetic and hydrochloric acids, as well as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used as purging solutions in the first module. Results show that there was a decrease of cadmium concentration near anode, but a significant increase in the middle of the cell, due to the increasing pH. Citric, nitric and acetic acids were used for soil washing and purging solutions in the second module. In this case, an 85% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved. Therefore, results indicate that soil pH and washing solutions are the most important factors in governing the dissolution and/or desorption of Cd in a soil system under electrical fields

  6. Chelating agent-assisted electrokinetic removal of cadmium, lead and copper from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannis, Apostolos; Nikolaou, Aris; Pentari, Despina; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    An integrated experimental program was conducted to remove Cd, Pb and Cu from contaminated soil. The chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ethyleneglycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) were used as washing solutions under different pH conditions and concentrations. Results showed that the extraction efficiency for Cd in decreasing order was NTA > EGTA > DTPA, while for Pb and Cu it was DTPA > NTA > EGTA. The use of higher chelate concentrations did not necessarily result in greater extraction efficiency. Electrokinetic remediation was applied by conditioning anolyte-catholyte pH to neutral values in order to avoid any potential alterations to the physicochemical soil properties. The removal efficiency for Cd was 65-95%, for Cu 15-60%, but for Pb was less than 20%. The phytotoxicity of the treated soil showed that the soil samples from the anode section were less phytotoxic than the untreated soil, but the phytotoxicity was increased in the samples from the cathode section. - Cadmium, lead and copper were extracted from contaminated soil by integrated electrokinetic and soil washing studies.

  7. Chelating agent-assisted electrokinetic removal of cadmium, lead and copper from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannis, Apostolos, E-mail: apostolos.giannis@enveng.tuc.g [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Nikolaou, Aris [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Pentari, Despina [Laboratory of Inorganic and Organic Geochemistry and Organic Petrography, Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Gidarakos, Evangelos, E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.g [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece)

    2009-12-15

    An integrated experimental program was conducted to remove Cd, Pb and Cu from contaminated soil. The chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ethyleneglycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) were used as washing solutions under different pH conditions and concentrations. Results showed that the extraction efficiency for Cd in decreasing order was NTA > EGTA > DTPA, while for Pb and Cu it was DTPA > NTA > EGTA. The use of higher chelate concentrations did not necessarily result in greater extraction efficiency. Electrokinetic remediation was applied by conditioning anolyte-catholyte pH to neutral values in order to avoid any potential alterations to the physicochemical soil properties. The removal efficiency for Cd was 65-95%, for Cu 15-60%, but for Pb was less than 20%. The phytotoxicity of the treated soil showed that the soil samples from the anode section were less phytotoxic than the untreated soil, but the phytotoxicity was increased in the samples from the cathode section. - Cadmium, lead and copper were extracted from contaminated soil by integrated electrokinetic and soil washing studies.

  8. Effects of surface roughness and electrokinetic heterogeneity on electroosmotic flow in microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masilamani, Kannan; Ganguly, Suvankar; Feichtinger, Christian; Bartuschat, Dominik; Rüde, Ulrich, E-mail: suva_112@yahoo.co.in [Department of Computer Science 10 University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr.11 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann and finite-difference (LB-FD) model is applied to simulate the effects of three-dimensional surface roughness and electrokinetic heterogeneity on electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a microchannel. The lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method has been employed to obtain the flow field and a finite-difference (FD) method is used to solve the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation for the electrostatic potential distribution. Numerical simulation of flow through a square cross-section microchannel with designed roughness is conducted and the results are critically analysed. The effects of surface heterogeneity on the electroosmotic transport are investigated for different roughness height, width, roughness interval spacing, and roughness surface potential. Numerical simulations reveal that the presence of surface roughness changes the nature of electroosmotic transport through the microchannel. It is found that the electroosmotic velocity decreases with the increase in roughness height and the velocity profile becomes asymmetric. For the same height of the roughness elements, the EOF velocity rises with the increase in roughness width. For the heterogeneously charged rough channel, the velocity profile shows a distinct deviation from the conventional plug-like flow pattern. The simulation results also indicate locally induced flow vortices which can be utilized to enhance the flow and mixing within the microchannel. The present study has important implications towards electrokinetic flow control in the microchannel, and can provide an efficient way to design a microfluidic system of practical interest. (paper)

  9. Electrokinetic migration across artificial liquid membranes. New concept for rapid sample preparation of biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Rasmussen, Knut Einar

    2006-03-24

    Basic drug substances were transported across a thin artificial organic liquid membrane by the application of 300 V d.c. From a 300 microl aqueous donor compartment (containing 10 mM HCl), the drugs migrated through a 200 microm artificial liquid membrane of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether immobilized in the pores of a polypropylene hollow fiber, and into a 30 microl aqueous acceptor solution of 10 mM HCl inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The transport was forced by an electrical potential difference sustained over the liquid membrane, resulting in electrokinetic migration of drug substances from the donor compartment to the acceptor solution. Within 5 min of operation at 300 V, pethidine, nortriptyline, methadone, haloperidol, and loperamide were extracted with recoveries in the range 70-79%, which corresponded to enrichments in the range 7.0-7.9. The chemical composition of the organic liquid membrane strongly affected the permeability, and may serve as an efficient tool for controlling the transport selectivity. Water samples, human plasma, and human urine were successfully processed, and in light of the present report, electrokinetic migration across thin artificial liquid membranes may be an interesting tool for future isolation within chemical analysis.

  10. Copper and trace element fractionation in electrokinetically treated methanogenic anaerobic granular sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virkutyte, Jurate; Hullebusch, Eric van; Sillanpaeae, Mika; Lens, Piet

    2005-01-01

    The effect of electrokinetic treatment (0.15 mA cm -2 ) on the metal fractionation in anaerobic granular sludge artificially contaminated with copper (initial copper concentration 1000 mg kg -1 wet sludge) was studied. Acidification of the sludge (final pH 4.2 in the sludge bed) with the intention to desorb the copper species bound to the organic/sulfides and residual fractions did not result in an increased mobility, despite the fact that a higher quantity of copper was measured in the more mobile (i.e. exchangeable/carbonate) fractions at final pH 4.2 compared to circum-neutral pH conditions. Also addition of the chelating agent EDTA (Cu 2+ :EDTA 4- ratio 1.2:1) did not enhance the mobility of copper from the organic/sulfides and residual fractions, despite the fact that it induced a reduction of the total copper content of the sludge. The presence of sulfide precipitates likely influences the copper mobilisation from these less mobile fractions, and thus makes EDTA addition ineffective to solubilise copper from the granules. - Electrokinetic treatment of copper contaminated anaerobic granular sludge at 0.15 mA cm -2 for 14 days induces copper and trace metal mobility as well as changes in their fractionation (i.e. bonding forms)

  11. Planetary Formation and Dynamics in Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    As of today, over 500 exoplanets have been detected since the first exoplanet was discovered around a solar-like star in 1995. The planets in binaries could be common as stars are usually born in binary or multiple star systems. Although current observations show that the planet host rate in multiple star systems is around 17%, this fraction should be considered as a lower limit because of noticeable selection effects against binaries in planet searches. Most of the current known planet-bearing binary systems are S-types, meaning the companion star acts as a distant satellite, typically orbiting the inner star-planet system over 100 AU away. Nevertheless, there are four systems with a smaller separation of 20 AU, including the Gamma Cephei, GJ 86, HD 41004, and HD 196885. In addition to the planets in circumprimary (S-type) orbits discussed above, planets in circumbinary (P-type) orbits have been found in only two systems. In this thesis, we mainly study the planet formation in the S-type binary systems. In chapter 1, we first summarize current observational facts of exoplanets both in single-star and binary systems, then review the theoretical models of planet formation, with special attention to the application in binary systems. Perturbative effects from stellar companions render the planet formation process in binary systems even more complex than that in single-star systems. The perturbations from a binary companion can excite planetesimal orbits, and increase their mutual impact velocities to the values that might exceed their escape velocity or even the critical velocity for the onset of eroding collisions. The intermediate stage of the formation process---from planetesimals to planetary embryos---is thus the most problematic. In the following chapters, we investigate whether and how the planet formation goes through such a problematic stage. In chapter 2, we study the effects of gas dissipation on the planetesimals' mutual accretion. We find that in a

  12. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  13. Dynamical evolution of a fictitious population of binary Neptune Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, Adrián

    2018-03-01

    We present numerical simulations of the evolution of a synthetic population of Binary Neptune Trojans, under the influence of the solar perturbations and tidal friction (the so-called Kozai cycles and tidal friction evolution). Our model includes the dynamical influence of the four giant planets on the heliocentric orbit of the binary centre of mass. In this paper, we explore the evolution of initially tight binaries around the Neptune L4 Lagrange point. We found that the variation of the heliocentric orbital elements due to the libration around the Lagrange point introduces significant changes in the orbital evolution of the binaries. Collisional processes would not play a significant role in the dynamical evolution of Neptune Trojans. After 4.5 × 109 yr of evolution, ˜50 per cent of the synthetic systems end up separated as single objects, most of them with slow diurnal rotation rate. The final orbital distribution of the surviving binary systems is statistically similar to the one found for Kuiper Belt Binaries when collisional evolution is not included in the model. Systems composed by a primary and a small satellite are more fragile than the ones composed by components of similar sizes.

  14. ADDITIONAL MASSIVE BINARIES IN THE CYGNUS OB2 ASSOCIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiminki, Daniel C.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Ewing, Ian; Lundquist, Michael; Alexander, Michael; Vargas-Alvarez, Carlos; Choi, Heather; Bagley Kiminki, Megan M.; Henderson, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery and orbital solutions for two new OB binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association, MT311 (B2V + B3V) and MT605 (B0.5V + B2.5:V). We also identify the system MT429 as a probable triple system consisting of a tight eclipsing 2.97 day B3V+B6V pair and a B0V at a projected separation of 138 AU. We further provide the first spectroscopic orbital solutions to the eclipsing, double-lined, O-star binary MT696 (O9.5V + B1:V), the double-lined, early B binary MT720 (B0-1V + B1-2V), and the double-lined, O-star binary MT771 (O7V + O9V). These systems exhibit orbital periods between 1.5 days and 12.3 days, with the majority having P <6 days. The two new binary discoveries and six spectroscopic solutions bring the total number of known massive binaries in the central region of the Cygnus OB2 Association to 20, with all but two having full orbital solutions.

  15. ADDITIONAL MASSIVE BINARIES IN THE CYGNUS OB2 ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiminki, Daniel C.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Ewing, Ian; Lundquist, Michael; Alexander, Michael; Vargas-Alvarez, Carlos; Choi, Heather [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070 (United States); Bagley Kiminki, Megan M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Henderson, C. B. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We report the discovery and orbital solutions for two new OB binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association, MT311 (B2V + B3V) and MT605 (B0.5V + B2.5:V). We also identify the system MT429 as a probable triple system consisting of a tight eclipsing 2.97 day B3V+B6V pair and a B0V at a projected separation of 138 AU. We further provide the first spectroscopic orbital solutions to the eclipsing, double-lined, O-star binary MT696 (O9.5V + B1:V), the double-lined, early B binary MT720 (B0-1V + B1-2V), and the double-lined, O-star binary MT771 (O7V + O9V). These systems exhibit orbital periods between 1.5 days and 12.3 days, with the majority having P <6 days. The two new binary discoveries and six spectroscopic solutions bring the total number of known massive binaries in the central region of the Cygnus OB2 Association to 20, with all but two having full orbital solutions.

  16. MICROLENSING BINARIES DISCOVERED THROUGH HIGH-MAGNIFICATION CHANNEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, I.-G.; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, S.-Y.; Han, C. [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Sumi, T. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Beaulieu, J.-P. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Dominik, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Allen, W. [Vintage Lane Observatory, Blenheim (New Zealand); Bos, M. [Molehill Astronomical Observatory, North Shore (New Zealand); Christie, G. W. [Auckland Observatory, P.O. Box 24-180, Auckland (New Zealand); Depoy, D. L. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Dong, S. [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Drummond, J. [Possum Observatory, Patutahi (New Zealand); Gal-Yam, A. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, the Weizmann Institute (Israel); Hung, L.-W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Janczak, J. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kaspi, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Collaboration: muFUN Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; and others

    2012-02-20

    Microlensing can provide a useful tool to probe binary distributions down to low-mass limits of binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of eight binary-lensing events detected through the channel of high-magnification events during the seasons from 2007 to 2010. The perturbations, which are confined near the peak of the light curves, can be easily distinguished from the central perturbations caused by planets. However, the degeneracy between close and wide binary solutions cannot be resolved with a 3{sigma} confidence level for three events, implying that the degeneracy would be an important obstacle in studying binary distributions. The dependence of the degeneracy on the lensing parameters is consistent with a theoretical prediction that the degeneracy becomes severe as the binary separation and the mass ratio deviate from the values of resonant caustics. The measured mass ratio of the event OGLE-2008-BLG-510/MOA-2008-BLG-369 is q {approx} 0.1, making the companion of the lens a strong brown dwarf candidate.

  17. Spectral properties of binary asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Myriam; Birlan, Mirel; Carry, Benoît; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Berthier, Jérôme

    2018-04-01

    We present the first attempt to characterize the distribution of taxonomic class among the population of binary asteroids (15% of all small asteroids). For that, an analysis of 0.8-2.5{μ m} near-infrared spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument on the NASA/IRTF is presented. Taxonomic class and meteorite analog is determined for each target, increasing the sample of binary asteroids with known taxonomy by 21%. Most binary systems are bound in the S-, X-, and C- classes, followed by Q and V-types. The rate of binary systems in each taxonomic class agrees within uncertainty with the background population of small near-Earth objects and inner main belt asteroids, but for the C-types which are under-represented among binaries.

  18. Planets in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...

  19. RS CVn binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsky, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author attempts to place in context the vast amount of data obtained in the last few years as a result of X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and microwave observations of RS CVn and similar spectroscopic binary systems. He concentrates on the RS CVn systems and their long-period analogs, and restricts the scope by attempting to answer on the basis of the recent data and theory following questions: (1) Are the original defining characteristics still valid and still adequate? (2) What is the evidence for discrete active regions? (3) Have we derived any meaningful physical properties for the atmospheres of RS CVn systems? (4) What are the flare observations telling us about magnetic fields in the RS CVn systems? (5) Is there evidence for systematic trends in RS CVn systems with spectral type?

  20. A NEW APPLICATION OF THE ASTROMETRIC METHOD TO BREAK SEVERE DEGENERACIES IN BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sun-Ju; Park, Byeong-Gon; Humphrey, Andrew; Ryu, Yoon-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    When a source star is microlensed by one stellar component of widely separated binary stellar components, after finishing the lensing event, the event induced by the other binary star can be additionally detected. In this paper, we investigate whether the close/wide degeneracies in binary lensing events can be resolved by detecting the additional centroid shift of the source images induced by the secondary binary star in wide binary lensing events. From this investigation, we find that if the source star passes close to the Einstein ring of the secondary companion, the degeneracy can be easily resolved by using future astrometric follow-up observations with high astrometric precision. We determine the probability of detecting the additional centroid shift in binary lensing events with high magnification. From this, we find that the degeneracy of binary lensing events with a separation of ∼<20.0 AU can be resolved with a significant efficiency. We also estimate the waiting time for the detection of the additional centroid shift in wide binary lensing events. We find that for typical Galactic lensing events with a separation of ∼<20.0 AU, the additional centroid shift can be detected within 100 days, and thus the degeneracy of those events can be sufficiently broken within a year.

  1. Separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A disposal container is described for use in disposal of radioactive waste materials consisting of: top wall structure, bottom wall structure, and circumferential side wall structure interconnecting the top and bottom wall structures to define an enclosed container, separation structure in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure for allowing passage of liquid and retention of solids, inlet port structure in the top wall structure, discharge port structure at the periphery of the container in communication with the outer surface of the separation structure for receiving liquid that passes through the separation structure, first centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the inlet port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the inlet port structure, second centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the discharge port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the discharge port structure, and coupling structure integral with wall structure of the container for releasable engagement with centrifugal drive structure

  2. Separable algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory of separable algebras over commutative rings. After a thorough introduction to the general theory, the fundamental roles played by separable algebras are explored. For example, Azumaya algebras, the henselization of local rings, and Galois theory are rigorously introduced and treated. Interwoven throughout these applications is the important notion of étale algebras. Essential connections are drawn between the theory of separable algebras and Morita theory, the theory of faithfully flat descent, cohomology, derivations, differentials, reflexive lattices, maximal orders, and class groups. The text is accessible to graduate students who have finished a first course in algebra, and it includes necessary foundational material, useful exercises, and many nontrivial examples.

  3. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  4. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  5. Segregation of granular binary mixtures by a ratchet mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Zénó; Szalai, Ferenc; Wolf, Dietrich E; Vicsek, Tamás

    2002-02-01

    We report on a segregation scheme for granular binary mixtures, where the segregation is performed by a ratchet mechanism realized by a vertically shaken asymmetric sawtooth-shaped base in a quasi-two-dimensional box. We have studied this system by computer simulations and found that most binary mixtures can be segregated using an appropriately chosen ratchet, even when the particles in the two components have the same size and differ only in their normal restitution coefficient or friction coefficient. These results suggest that the components of otherwise nonsegregating granular mixtures may be separated using our method.

  6. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    1963-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  7. Radio emission from symbiotic stars: a binary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.R.; Seaquist, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    The authors examine a binary model for symbiotic stars to account for their radio properties. The system is comprised of a cool, mass-losing star and a hot companion. Radio emission arises in the portion of the stellar wind photo-ionized by the hot star. Computer simulations for the case of uniform mass loss at constant velocity show that when less than half the wind is ionized, optically thick spectral indices greater than +0.6 are produced. Model fits to radio spectra allow the binary separation, wind density and ionizing photon luminosity to be calculated. They apply the model to the symbiotic star H1-36. (orig.)

  8. SpeX spectroscopy of unresolved very low mass binaries. II. Identification of 14 candidate binaries with late-M/early-L and T dwarf components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Nicholls, Christine P.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Looper, Dagny L.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Cruz, Kelle; West, Andrew A.; Gizis, John E.; Metchev, Stanimir

    2014-01-01

    Multiplicity is a key statistic for understanding the formation of very low mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs. Currently, the separation distribution of VLM binaries remains poorly constrained at small separations (≤1 AU), leading to uncertainty in the overall binary fraction. We approach this problem by searching for late-M/early-L plus T dwarf spectral binaries whose combined light spectra exhibit distinct peculiarities, allowing for separation-independent identification. We define a set of spectral indices designed to identify these systems, and we use a spectral template fitting method to confirm and characterize spectral binary candidates from a library of 815 spectra from the SpeX Prism Spectral Libraries. We present 11 new binary candidates, confirm 3 previously reported candidates, and rule out 2 previously identified candidates, all with primary and secondary spectral types in the range M7-L7 and T1-T8, respectively. We find that subdwarfs and blue L dwarfs are the primary contaminants in our sample and propose a method for segregating these sources. If confirmed by follow-up observations, these systems may add to the growing list of tight separation binaries, whose orbital properties may yield further insight into brown dwarf formation scenarios.

  9. Gas dynamics of semidetached binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubow, S.H.; Shu, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    We analyze the gas dynamics of semidetached binary systems within the context of the Rohce model. With the adoption of the assumptions that the contact component rotates synchronously and that the flow occurs isothermally with the thermal speed being a small fraction epsilon of the relative orbital speed, Ωd, of the two stars, we show that the steady flow can be formulated in terms of a problem with multiple length scales. Using this concept, we demonstrate the following by semianalytical methods. (1) The escape of material from the surface of the contact component is accomplished by a highly nonisotropic stellar wind which reaches sonic velocities in a neighborhood of the inner Lagrangian point, L1, of size epsilon in comparison with the orbit separation d. (2) This wind throttles into a narrow stram of material which makes a prescribed angle with respect to the line joining the stellar centers ranging from 19 0 5 to 28 0 4 for the full range of possible stellar mass ratios. (3) The width of the stream scales epsilond while its density scales with epsilon -2 M-dot/Ωd 3 , where M-dot is the mass transfer rate. (4) The stream width remains nearly constant over the part of the stream which is nearly straight, and narrows somewhat as the stream curves toward the detached component. (5) If the detached component is smaller than a certain specified size, the stream results in the formation of a disk of material of prescribed size orbiting the detached component in a direct sense. A subsidi []ry issue examined briefly in this paper is the flow mechanism responsible for moving material to the equator of the contact component, and from there to the L1 region where it is lost by the directed stellar wind. Comparisons of our work are made with previous theoretical studies, and some applications are indicated

  10. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.

    2017-10-01

    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  11. Evolution of microbial communities during electrokinetic treatment of antibiotic-polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongna; Li, Binxu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhu, Changxiong; Tian, Yunlong; Ye, Jing

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of microbial communities during the electrokinetic treatment of antibiotic-polluted soil (EKA) was investigated with chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and tetracycline (TC) as template antibiotics. The total population of soil microorganisms was less affected during the electrokinetic process, while living anti-CTC, anti-OTC, anti-TC and anti-MIX bacteria were inactivated by 10.48%, 31.37%, 34.76%, and 22.08%, respectively, during the 7-day treatment compared with antibiotic-polluted soil without an electric field (NOE). Accordingly, samples with NOE treatment showed a higher Shannon index than those with EKA treatment, indicating a reduction of the microbial community diversity after electrokinetic processes. The major taxonomic phyla found in the samples of EKA and NOE treatment were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. And the distribution of Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Chloroflexi was greatly decreased compared with blank soil. In the phylum Proteobacteria, the abundance of Alphaproteobacteria was greatly reduced in the soils supplemented with antibiotics (from 13.40% in blank soil to 6.43-10.16% after treatment); while Betaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria showed a different trend with their abundance increased compared to blank soil, and Gammaproteobacteria remained unchanged for all treatments (2.36-2.78%). The varied trends for different classes indicated that the major bacterial groups changed with the treatments due to their different adaptability to the antibiotics as well as to the electric field. SulI being an exception, the reduction ratio of the observed antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) including tetC, tetG, tetW, tetM, intI1, and sulII in the 0-2cm soil sampled with EKA versus NOE treatment reached 55.17%, 3.59%, 99.26%, 89.51%, 30.40%, and 27.92%, respectively. Finally, correlation analysis was conducted between antibiotic-resistant bacteria, ARGs and taxonomic bacterial classes. It

  12. Determination of phthalic acid esters in Chinese white spirit using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with sweeping β-cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianzhi; He, Hui; Liu, Shuhui

    2014-07-01

    A simple method that consumes low organic solvent is proposed for the analysis of phthalic acid esters in Chinese white spirit using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Tetrachloromethane and white-spirit-containing ethanol were used as the extraction and dispersing solvents, respectively. The electrophoresis separation buffer was composed of 5 mM β-cyclodextrin, 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and 25 mM borate buffer (pH 9.2) with 9% acetonitrile, enabling the baseline resolution of the analytes within 13 min. Under the optimum conditions, satisfactory linearities (5-1000 ng/mL, r ≥ 0.9909), good reproducibility (RSD ≤ 6.7% for peak area, and RSD ≤ 2.8% for migration time), low detection limits (0.4-0.8 ng/mL) and acceptable recovery rates (89.6-105.7%) were obtained. The proposed method was successfully applied to 22 Chinese white spirits, and the content of dibutyl phthalate in 55% of the samples exceeded the Specific Migration Limit of 0.3 mg/kg established by the domestic and international regulations. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Harnessing electro driven separation technique for the separation of selected agrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Alam, S.M. Monjurul; Azli Sulaiman

    2008-01-01

    Electro driven separation techniques offer a different approach to the analysis of complex mixtures than do traditional pressure-driven chromatographic system; it may rely on electrophoresis, the transport of charged species through a medium by an applied field or may rely on electro driven mobile phase to provide a true chromatographic separation. In the current work the potential of an electro driven separation technique viz. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), is harnessed for the separation of selected agrochemicals (organophosphorus pesticides, OPPs) widely used in the agriculture sector in Malaysia. The current study compares the use of MEKC in normal mode (NM) and reverse mode (RM) for the separation of the selected OPPS. This study also highlights the difference in separations produced by performing separations in normal mode-MEKC (NM-MEKC) and reverse mode-MEKC (RM-MEKC) for the selected OPPs. In RM-MEKC, separation is conducted at acidic pH (pH 2.5 in the current work) where the electro osmotic flow (EOF) is weak whereas in NM-MEKC, the separation is carried out under basic pH (9.3 in this work) where the EOF is strong. A reverse migration order of the OPPs was observed under RM-MEKC. Separation under NM-MEKC was found to be superior to those of RM- MEKC. A comparison is also made between separations performed under sweeping-NM-MEKC and sweeping-RM-MEKC. In sweeping, the OPPs are prepared in the same background solution (BGS) minus the micelles and is adjusted to the same conductivity as the BGS. The study showed that NM-MEKC is more sensitive than RM-MEKC but sweeping-RM-MEKC is superior to sweeping-NM-MEKC. However, sweeping-RM-MEKC only separates two of the OPPs in a single run whereas sweeping-NM-MEKC separates four OPPs in a single run. The better choice of separation mode would be sweeping-NM- MEKC for more OPPs separation in a single run. (author)

  14. Binary mixtures of condensates in generic confining potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchi, P [Dipartimento di Matematica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Pepe, F V, E-mail: Francesco.Pepe@ba.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2011-12-16

    We study a binary mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates, confined in a generic potential, in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We search for the zero-temperature ground state of the system, both in the case of fixed numbers of particles and fixed chemical potentials. For generic potentials, we analyze the transition from mixed to separated ground-state configurations as the inter-species interaction increases. We derive a simple formula that enables one to determine the location of the domain walls. Finally, we find criteria for the energetic stability of separated configurations, depending on the number and the position of the domain walls separating the two species. (paper)

  15. Binary mixtures of condensates in generic confining potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.; Pepe, F. V.

    2011-12-01

    We study a binary mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates, confined in a generic potential, in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We search for the zero-temperature ground state of the system, both in the case of fixed numbers of particles and fixed chemical potentials. For generic potentials, we analyze the transition from mixed to separated ground-state configurations as the inter-species interaction increases. We derive a simple formula that enables one to determine the location of the domain walls. Finally, we find criteria for the energetic stability of separated configurations, depending on the number and the position of the domain walls separating the two species.

  16. Binary mixtures of condensates in generic confining potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P; Florio, G; Pascazio, S; Pepe, F V

    2011-01-01

    We study a binary mixture of Bose–Einstein condensates, confined in a generic potential, in the Thomas–Fermi approximation. We search for the zero-temperature ground state of the system, both in the case of fixed numbers of particles and fixed chemical potentials. For generic potentials, we analyze the transition from mixed to separated ground-state configurations as the inter-species interaction increases. We derive a simple formula that enables one to determine the location of the domain walls. Finally, we find criteria for the energetic stability of separated configurations, depending on the number and the position of the domain walls separating the two species. (paper)

  17. Evaluation of a commercial electro-kinetically pumped sheath-flow nanospray interface coupled to an automated capillary zone electrophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuchen, Elizabeth H; Zhu, Guije; Sun, Liangliang; Dovichi, Norman J

    2017-03-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CZE-ESI-MS) is attracting renewed attention for proteomic and metabolomic analysis. An important reason for this interest is the maturation and commercialization of interfaces for coupling CZE with ESI-MS. One of these interfaces is an electro-kinetically pumped sheath flow nanospray interface developed by the Dovichi group, in which a very low sheath flow is generated based on electroosmosis within a glass emitter. CMP Scientific has commercialized this interface as the EMASS-II ion source. In this work, we compared the performance of the EMASS-II ion source with our in-house system. The performance of the systems is equivalent. We also coupled the EMASS-II ion source with a PrinCE Next|480 capillary electrophoresis autosampler and an Orbitrap mass spectrometer, and analyzed this system's performance in terms of sensitivity, reproducibility, and separation performance for separation of tryptic digests, intact proteins, and amino acids. The system produced reproducible analysis of BSA digest; the RSDs of peptide intensity and migration time across 24 runs were less than 20 and 6%, respectively. The system produced a linear calibration curve of intensity across a 30-fold range of tryptic digest concentration. The combination of a commercial autosampler and electrospray interface efficiently separated amino acids, peptides, and intact proteins, and only required 5 μL of sample for analysis. Graphical Abstract The commercial and locally constructed versions of the interface provide similar numbers of protein identifications from a Xenopus laevis fertilized egg digest.

  18. Electrokinetically Enhanced Delivery for ERD Remediation of Chlorinated Ethenes in a Fractured Limestone Aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Hyldegaard, Bente Højlund; With Nedergaard, Lærke

    causing very long remediation timeframes. Electrokinetics (EK) offers some unique transport processes, which can potentially overcome the diffusion limitations in the matrix. A novel technology combines ERD and EK for enhanced delivery. The combined technology (EK-BIO) has shown promising results in clay....... Experimental work on EK-BIO in limestone was conducted in a laboratory setup with limestone cores. EK was demonstrated to be promising in establishing enhanced contact between the donor lactate, bacteria, and cis-DCE within the limestone matrix. Complete dechlorination is expected to take place in the matrix......, since back diffusion limitations in the limestone matrix are overcome. This is essential for the overall time perspective of a remediation in limestone aquifers....

  19. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete. Final report, August 3, 1993 - September 15, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The ELECTROSORB reg-sign open-quotes Cclose quotes process is an electrokinetic process for decontaminating concrete. ELECTROSORB reg-sign open-quotes Cclose quotes uses a carpet-like extraction pad which is placed on the contaminated concrete surface. An electrolyte solution is circulated from a supporting module. This module keeps the electrolyte solution clean. The work is advancing through the engineering development stage with steady progress toward a full scale demonstration unit which will be ready for incorporation in the DOE Large Scale Demonstration Program by Summer 1997. A demonstration was carried out at the Mound Facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, in June 1996. Third party verification by EG ampersand G verified the effectiveness of the process. Results of this work and the development work that proceeded are described herein

  20. Flow reversal at low voltage and low frequency in a microfabricated ac electrokinetic pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Misha Marie; Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Brask, Anders

    2007-01-01

    measured in a regime, where both the applied voltage and the frequency are low, Vrms1.5 V and f20 kHz, compared to previously investigated parameter ranges. The impedance spectrum has been thoroughly measured and analyzed in terms of an equivalent circuit diagram to rule out trivial circuit explanations......Microfluidic chips have been fabricated in Pyrex glass to study electrokinetic pumping generated by a low-voltage ac bias applied to an in-channel asymmetric metallic electrode array. A measurement procedure has been established and followed carefully resulting in a high degree of reproducibility...... of the measurements over several days. A large coverage fraction of the electrode array in the microfluidic channels has led to an increased sensitivity allowing for pumping measurements at low bias voltages. Depending on the ionic concentration a hitherto unobserved reversal of the pumping direction has been...

  1. Electrokinetic migration across artificial liquid membranes Tuning the membrane chemistry to different types of drug substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2006-08-18

    Twenty different basic drugs were electrokinetically extracted across a thin artificial organic liquid membrane with a 300 V d.c. electrical potential difference as the driving force. From a 300 microl aqueous sample (acidified corresponding to 10mM HCl), the drugs were extracted for 5 min through a 200 microm artificial liquid membrane of a water immiscible organic solvent immobilized in the pores of a polypropylene hollow fiber, and into a 30 microl aqueous acceptor solution of 10mM HCl inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. Hydrophobic basic drugs (logP>1.7) were effectively isolated utilizing 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) as the artificial liquid membrane, with recoveries up to 83%. For more hydrophilic basic drugs (logPpermeation of the interface.

  2. Interactions of structurally modified surfactants with reservoir minerals: Calorimetric, spectroscopic and electrokinetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, P.; Sivakumar, A.; Xu, Q.

    1991-03-01

    The objective of this project is to elucidate mechanisms of adsorption of structurally modified surfactants on reservoir minerals and to develop a full understanding of the effect of the surfactant structure on the nature of the adsorbed layers at the molecular level. An additional aim is to study the adsorption of surfactant mixtures on simple well-characterized minerals and on complex minerals representing real conditions. The practical goal of these studies is the identification of the optimum surfactant structures and their combinations for micellar flooding. In this work, the experiments on adsorption were focussed on the position of sulfonate and methyl groups on the aromatic ring of alkyl xylene sulfonates. A multi-pronged approach consisting of calorimetry, electrokinetics, wettability and spectroscopy is planned to elucidate the adsorption mechanism of surfactants and their mixtures on minerals such as alumina and kaolinite. 32 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Precipitation-filtering technology for uranium waste solution generated on washing-electrokinetic decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam, E-mail: kimsum@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Uk-Ryang; Kim, Seung-Soo; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2015-05-15

    Graphical abstract: A recycling process diagram for the volume reduction of waste solution generated from washing-electrokinetic decontamination. - Highlights: • A process for recycling a waste solution generated was developed. • The total metal precipitation rate by NaOH in a supernatant after precipitation was the highest at pH 9. • The uranium radioactivity in the treated solution upon injection of 0.2 g of alum was lower. • After drying, the volume of sludge was reduced to 35% of the initial sludge volume. - Abstract: Large volumes of uranium waste solution are generated during the operation of washing-electrokinetic decontamination equipment used to remove uranium from radioactive soil. A treatment technology for uranium waste solution generated upon washing-electrokinetic decontamination for soil contaminated with uranium has been developed. The results of laboratory-size precipitation experiments were as follows. The total amount of metal precipitation by NaOH for waste solution was highest at pH 11. Ca(II), K(I), and Al(III) ions in the supernatant partially remained after precipitation, whereas the concentration of uranium in the supernatant was below 0.2 ppm. Also, when NaOH was used as a precipitant, the majority of the K(I) ions in the treated solution remained. The problem of CaO is to need a long dissolution time in the precipitation tank, while Ca(OH){sub 2} can save a dissolution time. However, the volume of the waste solution generated when using Ca(OH){sub 2} increased by 8 mL/100 mL (waste solution) compared to that generated when using CaO. NaOH precipitant required lower an injection volume lower than that required for Ca(OH){sub 2} or CaO. When CaO was used as a precipitant, the uranium radioactivity in the treated solution at pH 11 reached its lowest value, compared to values of uranium radioactivity at pH 9 and pH 5. Also, the uranium radioactivity in the treated solution upon injection of 0.2 g of alum with CaO or Ca(OH){sub 2} was

  4. Electrokinetic control of sample splitting at a channel bifurcation using isotachophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persat, Alexandre; Santiago, Juan G

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel method for accurately splitting ionic samples at microchannel bifurcations. We leverage isotachophoresis (ITP) to focus and transport sample through a one-inlet, two-outlet microchannel bifurcation. We actively control the proportion of splitting by controlling potentials at end-channel reservoirs (and thereby controlling the current ratio). We explore the effect of buffer chemistry and local electric field on splitting dynamics and propose and validate a simple Kirchoff-type rule controlling the split ratio. We explore the effects of large applied electric fields on sample splitting and attribute a loss of splitting accuracy to electrohydrodynamic instabilities. We propose a scaling analysis to characterize the onset of this instability. This scaling is potentially useful for other electrokinetic flow problems with self-sharpening interfaces.

  5. Removal of heavy metals from sludge of Sanaru-Lake by electrokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seno, T.; Shiba, S.; Hirata, Y. [Dept. of Systems Engineering, Shizuoka Univ., Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Two kinds of experiments were carried out for the removal of heavy metals from soils by electrokinetic technique. One was the removal of lead from kaolinite by using a small-sized test cell. The effect of the kind of purging solutions (such as distilled water, tap water, acetic acid and nitric acid) on removal efficiency was examined. High removal efficiency was obtained for the acetic acid solution. It was found that the controlling pH of solution surrounding cathode had a significant influence on the removal efficiency. The other experiment was the removal of heavy metals from the bottom sludge of Sanaru Lake. Zinc, nickel and copper in the sludge were successfully removed, but lead and chromium were hardly able to remove from the sludge. The simplified one-dimensional mathematical model was proposed. The prediction by the model was qualitatively agreed with the experimental result. (orig.)

  6. Role of Bismuth in the Electrokinetics of Silicon Photocathodes for Solar Rechargeable Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flox, Cristina; Murcia-López, Sebastián; Carretero, Nina M; Ros, Carles; Morante, Juan R; Andreu, Teresa

    2018-01-10

    The ability of crystalline silicon to photoassist the V 3+ /V 2+ cathodic reaction under simulated solar irradiation, combined with the effect of bismuth have led to important electrochemical improvements. Besides the photovoltage supplied by the photovoltaics, additional decrease in the onset potentials, high reversibility of the V 3+ /V 2+ redox pair, and improvement in the electrokinetics were attained thanks to the addition of bismuth. In fact, Bi 0 deposition has shown to slightly decrease the photocurrent, but the significant enhancement in the charge transfer, reflected in the overall electrochemical performance clearly justifies its use as additive in a photoassisted system for maximizing the efficiency of solar charge to battery. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Microchannel electrokinetics of charged analytes in buffered solutions near floating electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; Wolfcale, Trevor; Gregersen, Misha Marie

    to accurately predict such behavior in these flow regimes. Experimentally, using conventional fluorescence microscopy, we investigated the concentration gradient (as well as the associated electroosmosis, induced-charge electro-osmosis, and electrophoresis) of the charged analyte near the floating electrode......We present both experimental and numerical studies of nonlinear electrokinetic flow of buffered solutions seeded with dilute analytes in a straight microchannel (0.6 μm high, 250 μm wide, and 9000 μm long) with a 0.15 μm high 60 μm wide electrode situated at the bottom center of the channel...... as a function of analyte (1 to 10 μM fluorescein and bodipy) and buffer (1 to 10 mM borate and posphate) concentrations and an externally applied voltage drop (50 to 100 V) along the channel. We have implemented a nonlinear continuum kinetics model of the system involving the electric potential, the buffer flow...

  8. Some properties of spectral binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcheva, Z.T.; Popova, E.I.; Tutukov, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1978-01-01

    Statistical investigations of spectra binary stars are carried out. Binary systems consisting of main sequence stars are considered. For 826 binary stars masses of components, ratios of component masses, semiaxes of orbits and orbital angular momenta are calculated. The distributions of these parameters and their correlations are analyzed. The dependences of statistical properties of spectral binary stars on their origin and evolution are discussed

  9. Field Testing of High Current Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Mitigation in Reinforced Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Henry; Alexander, Joshua; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal; Calle, Luz marina

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic Nanoparticle (EN) treatment was used as a rapid repair measure to mitigate chloride induced corrosion of reinforced concrete in the field. EN treatment uses an electric field to transport positively charged nanoparticles to the reinforcement through the concrete capillary pores. Cylindrical reinforced concrete specimens were batched with 4.5 wt % salt content (based on cement mass). Three distinct electrokinetic treatments were conducted using high current density (up to 5 A/m2) to form a chloride penetration barrier that was established in 5 days, as opposed to the traditional 6-8 weeks, generally required for electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE). These treatments included basic EN treatment, EN with additional calcium treatment, and basic ECE treatment. Field exposures were conducted at the NASA Beachside Corrosion Test Site, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA. The specimens were subjected to sea water immersion at the test site as a posttreatment exposure. Following a 30-day post-treatment exposure period, the specimens were subjected to indirect tensile testing to evaluate treatment impact. The EN treated specimens exhibited 60% and 30% increases in tensile strength as compared to the untreated controls and ECE treated specimens respectively. The surfaces of the reinforcement bars of the control specimens were 67% covered by corrosion products. In contrast, the EN treated specimens exhibited corrosion coverage of only 4%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a dense concrete microstructure adjacent to the bars of the treated specimens as compared to the control and ECE specimens. Energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analysis of the polished EN treated specimens showed a reduction in chloride content by a factor of 20 adjacent to the bars. This study demonstrated that EN treatment was successful in forming a chloride penetration barrier rapidly. This work also showed that the chloride barrier was effective when samples were exposed to

  10. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of chlorinated solvents contaminated clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Xuhui; Wang, James; Ciblak, Ali; Cox, Evan E.; Riis, Charlotte; Terkelsen, Mads; Gent, David B.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simultaneous delivery of electron donors and bacteria into low permeability clays. ► Bacteria injection, growth and consequent transformation of contaminants are viable. ► EK injection is more effective than advection-based injection for clay soil. ► Electroosmosis appears to be the driving mechanism for bacteria injection. ► Both EK transport and biodegradation contribute the removal of VOCs in clay. - Abstract: Successful bioremediation of contaminated soils is controlled by the ability to deliver bioremediation additives, such as bacteria and/or nutrients, to the contaminated zone. Because hydraulic advection is not practical for delivery in clays, electrokinetic (EK) injection is an alternative for efficient and uniform delivery of bioremediation additive into low-permeability soil and heterogeneous deposits. EK-enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of clays contaminated with chlorinated solvents is evaluated. Dehalococcoides (Dhc) bacterial strain and lactate ions are uniformly injected in contaminated clay and complete dechlorination of chlorinated ethene is observed in laboratory experiments. The injected bacteria can survive, grow, and promote effective dechlorination under EK conditions and after EK application. The distribution of Dhc within the clay suggests that electrokinetic transport of Dhc is primarily driven by electroosmosis. In addition to biodegradation due to bioaugmentation of Dhc, an EK-driven transport of chlorinated ethenes is observed in the clay, which accelerates cleanup of chlorinated ethenes from the anode side. Compared with conventional advection-based delivery, EK injection is significantly more effective for establishing microbial reductive dechlorination capacity in low-permeability soils.

  11. Preliminary tests of an electrokinetic barrier to prevent heavy metal pollution of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, R.J.; Muntoni, A.; Ruggeri, R.; Winfield, K.C.

    2007-01-01

    Sardinia has to deal with significant environmental problems related to heavy-metal contamination, mainly located at its abandoned mining districts. In particular, acid mine drainage management and groundwater pollution are typical problems associated with mining activities which constitute a serious threat to human health. To prevent contaminant spread over the adjacent environment, it is of great interest to consider using an electric field as a containment fence to counteract pollutant transport. In this application, contaminant transport due to a hydraulic gradient driving force is prevented by the combined effect of electro-osmosis and electro-migration. Although there are other alternative containment technologies, the electrokinetic fence offers many advantages, as it is easy to operate, there is a minimal exposure to the operating personnel and it is likely to be effective for a wide range of contaminants. In this work, both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) tests have been carried out. In the 1D tests, the efficiency of an electrokinetic barrier to prevent cadmium from polluting an uncontaminated sample was investigated; soil pH, metal concentration and current intensity have been monitored; results indicate that the barrier can prevent or significantly reduce heavy-metal contamination from spreading against a hydraulic gradient of 7. In 2D tests, two rows of electrodes inserted in a horizontally flat soil tank were used to generate an electric field. It was found that an electric field of 125 V m -1 was sufficient to prevent significant copper incursion from a contaminant flow under a hydraulic gradient of 1.3

  12. Investigation of electrokinetic and electrorheological properties of polyindole prepared in the presence of a surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, H. Ibrahim, E-mail: hiunal@gazi.edu.tr [Gazi University, Chemistry Department, Smart Materials Research Lab., Ankara (Turkey); Sahan, Bekir; Erol, Ozlem [Gazi University, Chemistry Department, Smart Materials Research Lab., Ankara (Turkey)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aggregated morphology was determined for PIN, spherical and porous hollows and everniae form morphologies were recorded for SPIN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PIN/SO and SPIN/SO systems showed almost similar electrokinetic attitudes and a typical shear thinning non-Newtonian viscoelastic behavior, vibration damping capability at elevated frequencies, and enhanced storage moduli with increasing temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-linear recoverable viscoelastic manner was revealed from the creep-recovery experiments under external electric field. - Abstract: In this study, synthesis of polyindole (PIN) was carried out without and with the presence of a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant (SPIN), using FeCl{sub 3} as an oxidizing agent. The synthesized materials were subjected to various characterizations techniques namely: particle size, magnetic susceptibility, elemental analysis, density, conductivity, dielectric constant, FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, TGA, XRD, and SEM. Characterization results revealed the successful preparation of the homopolymers of PIN and SPIN. Zeta ({zeta})-potentials of the samples were measured in aqueous and non-aqueous (silicone oil, SO) media. Electrokinetic properties of PIN and SPIN in aqueous media were determined by {zeta}-potential measurements in the presence of various electrolytes (NaCl, BaCl{sub 2}, AlCl{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and surfactants (cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, SDS, and Triton X-100). Besides, the effect of pH onto {zeta}-potentials of the materials was also examined. The suspensions prepared in SO were subjected to external electric field strength and their electrorheological (ER) properties were investigated. Then the effects of shear rate, frequency, and temperature onto ER activities of the suspensions were examined. Further, creep and creep-recovery tests were applied to the PIN/SO and SPIN/SO suspension systems and reversible non-linear viscoelastic

  13. Removal of heavy metals from kaolin using an upward electrokinetic soil remedial (UESR) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.-Y.; Huang, X.-J.; Kao, Jimmy C.M.; Stabnikova, Olena

    2006-01-01

    An upward electrokinetic soil remedial (UESR) technology was proposed to remove heavy metals from contaminated kaolin. Unlike conventional electrokinetic treatment that uses boreholes or trenches for horizontal migration of heavy metals, the UESR technology, applying vertical non-uniform electric fields, caused upward transportation of heavy metals to the top surface of the treated soil. The effects of current density, treatment duration, cell diameter, and different cathode chamber influent (distilled water or 0.01 M nitric acid) were studied. The removal efficiencies of heavy metals positively correlated to current density and treatment duration. Higher heavy metals removal efficiency was observed for the reactor cell with smaller diameter. A substantial amount of heavy metals was accumulated in the nearest to cathode 2 cm layer of kaolin when distilled water was continuously supplied to the cathode chamber. Heavy metals accumulated in this layer of kaolin can be easily excavated and disposed off. The main part of the removed heavy metals was dissolved in cathode chamber influent and moved away with cathode chamber effluent when 0.01 M nitric acid was used, instead of distilled water. Energy saving treatment by UESR technology with highest metal removal efficiencies was provided by two regimes: (1) by application of 0.01 M nitric acid as cathode chamber influent, cell diameter of 100 mm, duration of 18 days, and constant voltage of 3.5 V (19.7 kWh/m 3 of kaolin) and (2) by application of 0.01 M nitric acid as cathode chamber influent, cell diameter of 100 cm, duration of 6 days, and constant current density of 0.191 mA/cm 2 (19.1 kWh/m 3 of kaolin)

  14. Electrokinetics of diffuse soft interfaces. 1. Limit of low Donnan potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Jérôme F L; van Leeuwen, Herman P

    2004-11-09

    The current theoretical approaches to electrokinetics of gels or polyelectrolyte layers are based on the assumption that the position of the very interface between the aqueous medium and the gel phase is well defined. Within this assumption, spatial profiles for the volume fraction of polymer segments (phi), the density of fixed charges in the porous layer (rho fix), and the coefficient modeling the friction to hydrodynamic flow (k) follow a step-function. In reality, the "fuzzy" nature of the charged soft layer is intrinsically incompatible with the concept of a sharp interface and therefore necessarily calls for more detailed spatial representations for phi, rho fix, and k. In this paper, the notion of diffuse interface is introduced. For the sake of illustration, linear spatial distributions for phi and rho fix are considered in the interfacial zone between the bulk of the porous charged layer and the bulk electrolyte solution. The corresponding distribution for k is inferred from the Brinkman equation, which for low phi reduces to Stokes' equation. Linear electrostatics, hydrodynamics, and electroosmosis issues are analytically solved within the context of streaming current and streaming potential of charged surface layers in a thin-layer cell. The hydrodynamic analysis clearly demonstrates the physical incorrectness of the concept of a discrete slip plane for diffuse interfaces. For moderate to low electrolyte concentrations and nanoscale spatial transition of phi from zero (bulk electrolyte) to phi o (bulk gel), the electrokinetic properties of the soft layer as predicted by the theory considerably deviate from those calculated on the basis of the discontinuous approximation by Ohshima.

  15. On Developing Field-Effect-Tunable Nanofluidic Ion Diodes with Bipolar, Induced-Charge Electrokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We introduce herein the induced-charge electrokinetic phenomenon to nanometer fluidic systems; the design of the nanofluidic ion diode for field-effect ionic current control of the nanometer dimension is developed by enhancing internal ion concentration polarization through electrochemical transport of inhomogeneous inducing-counterions resulting from double gate terminals mounted on top of a thin dielectric layer, which covers the nanochannel connected to microfluidic reservoirs on both sides. A mathematical model based on the fully-coupled Poisson-Nernst-Plank-Navier-Stokes equations is developed to study the feasibility of this structural configuration causing effective ionic current rectification. The effect of various physiochemical and geometrical parameters, such as the native surface charge density on the nanochannel sidewalls, the number of gate electrodes (GE, the gate voltage magnitude, and the solution conductivity, permittivity, and thickness of the dielectric coating, as well as the size and position of the GE pair of opposite gate polarity, on the resulted rectification performance of the presented nanoscale ionic device is numerically analyzed by using a commercial software package, COMSOL Multiphysics (version 5.2. Three types of electrohydrodynamic flow, including electroosmosis of 1st kind, induced-charge electroosmosis, and electroosmosis of 2nd kind that were originated by the Coulomb force within three distinct charge layers coexist in the micro/nanofluidic hybrid network and are shown to simultaneously influence the output current flux in a complex manner. The rectification factor of a contrast between the ‘on’ and ‘off’ working states can even exceed one thousand-fold in the case of choosing a suitable combination of several key parameters. Our demonstration of field-effect-tunable nanofluidic ion diodes of double external gate electrodes proves invaluable for the construction of a flexible electrokinetic platform

  16. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  17. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.; Sims, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    sup(195m)Au for medical usage is separated from sup(195m)Hg in a solution containing ions of sup(195m)Hg by contacting the solution with an adsorbing agent to adsorb 195 Hgsup(H) thereon, followed by selective elution of sup(195m)Au generated by radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg. The adsorbing agent comprises a composite material in the form of an inert porous inorganic substrate (e.g. Kieselguhr),the pores of which are occupied by a hydrogel of a polysaccharide (e.g. agarose) carrying terminal thiol groups for binding Hgsup(H) ions. (author)

  18. Numerical Simulations of Electrokinetic Processes Comparing the Use of a Constant Voltage Difference or a Constant Current as Driving Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Electrokinetic techniques are characterized by the use of a DC current for the removal of contaminants from porous materials. The method can be applied for several purposes, such as the recuperation of soil contaminated by heavy metals or organic compounds, the desalination of construction...... materials and the prevention of the reinforced concrete corrosion. The electrical energy applied in an electrokinetic process produces electrochemical reactions at the electrodes. Different electrode processes can occur. When considering inert electrodes in aqueous solutions, the reduction of water...... at the cathode is usually the dominant in the process. On the other hand, the electrode processes at the anode depend on the ions present in its vicinity. Oxidation of water and chloride are typically assumed to be the most common processes taking place. Electrons produced in the electrode processes...

  19. Electrokinetic characteristics fused quartz in solutions of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 charge electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanova, N.F.; Sidorova, M.P.; Ermakova, L.Eh.; Savina, I.A.

    1997-01-01

    Electrokinetic characteristics of silicon oxide have been studied using a model system - a plane-parallel capillary in chloride solutions containing mono-(H + , Na + , Cs + ), two-(Ba 2+ ) and three-(La 3+ ) charge counterions in a wide range of pH and concentrations. It has been revealed that isoelectric point (IEP) of silicon oxide studied coincides with the one usually quoted in literature and corresponds to pH2 in the absence of specific adsorption. Specific adsorption of cesium ions resulting in IEP displacement to pH 3.3 at the back-ground of 0.1M CsCl solution has been detected. Specific adsorption of lanthanum ions increases with increase in the surface charge, involving appearance of a positive electrokinetic potential range at pH>3.3 at the background of 0.1g-eq/l LaCl 3 solution

  20. Electrokinetic properties of tantalum oxide deposited on model substrate in NaCl and LiCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorova, M.P.; Bogdanova, N.F.; Ermakova, L.Eh.; Bobrov, P.V.

    1997-01-01

    Electrokinetic characteristics of tantalum oxide have been studied using a model system - a plane-parallel capillary in chloride solutions containing monocharge (H + , Na + , Li + ) counterions in a wide range of pH and concentrations. It is shown that position of isoelectric point (IEP) of Ta 2 O 5 depends on concentration and type of counterion, moreover, the dependence is not explained in the framework of classical notions of the influence of counterion specific adsorption on IEP position. Electrokinetic potential of Ta 2 O-5 surface at the background of diluted LiCl solutions is higher in its absolute value, than at the background of NaCl solutions according to direct lyotropic series. The results of measurements of the capillary resistance dependence on pH at the background of NaCl and LiCl solutions 10 -3 -10 -1 M are used for the calculation of efficiency and specific surface conductivity factors

  1. ON THE MASS RADIATED BY COALESCING BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barausse, E.; Morozova, V.; Rezzolla, L.

    2012-01-01

    We derive an analytic phenomenological expression that predicts the final mass of the black hole (BH) remnant resulting from the merger of a generic binary system of BHs on quasi-circular orbits. Besides recovering the correct test-particle limit for extreme mass-ratio binaries, our formula reproduces well the results of all the numerical-relativity simulations published so far, both when applied at separations of a few gravitational radii and when applied at separations of tens of thousands of gravitational radii. These validations make our formula a useful tool in a variety of contexts ranging from gravitational-wave (GW) physics to cosmology. As representative examples, we first illustrate how it can be used to decrease the phase error of the effective-one-body waveforms during the ringdown phase. Second, we show that, when combined with the recently computed self-force correction to the binding energy of nonspinning BH binaries, it provides an estimate of the energy emitted during the merger and ringdown. Finally, we use it to calculate the energy radiated in GWs by massive BH binaries as a function of redshift, using different models for the seeds of the BH population.

  2. Precessional Instability in Binary Black Holes with Aligned Spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Davide; Kesden, Michael; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Klein, Antoine; Berti, Emanuele; Sperhake, Ulrich; Trifirò, Daniele

    2015-10-02

    Binary black holes on quasicircular orbits with spins aligned with their orbital angular momentum have been test beds for analytic and numerical relativity for decades, not least because symmetry ensures that such configurations are equilibrium solutions to the spin-precession equations. In this work, we show that these solutions can be unstable when the spin of the higher-mass black hole is aligned with the orbital angular momentum and the spin of the lower-mass black hole is antialigned. Spins in these configurations are unstable to precession to large misalignment when the binary separation r is between the values r(ud±)=(√(χ(1))±√(qχ(2)))(4)(1-q)(-2)M, where M is the total mass, q≡m(2)/m(1) is the mass ratio, and χ(1) (χ(2)) is the dimensionless spin of the more (less) massive black hole. This instability exists for a wide range of spin magnitudes and mass ratios and can occur in the strong-field regime near the merger. We describe the origin and nature of the instability using recently developed analytical techniques to characterize fully generic spin precession. This instability provides a channel to circumvent astrophysical spin alignment at large binary separations, allowing significant spin precession prior to merger affecting both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic signatures of stellar-mass and supermassive binary black holes.

  3. Electro-Kinetic Pumping with Slip Irreversibility in Heat Exchange of CSP-Powered Bio-Digester Assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Ogedengbe, Emmanuel; Rosen, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Parametric studies of the effects of slip irreversibility in concentrating solar power (CSP)-powered bio-digester assemblies are investigated. Complexities regarding the identification of the appropriate electro-kinetic phenomena for certain electrolyte phases are reviewed. The application of exergy analysis to the design of energy conversion devices, like solar thermal collectors, for the required heat of formation in a downdraft waste food bio-digester, is discussed. Thermal management in t...

  4. Binary operators and their Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheff, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three topics are considered. First, the Langevin approach to neutron noise is used as a basis and guide to develop solutions and solution techniques for the ChapmanKolmogorov forward equation approach to neutron noise. The approach followed throughout this first part is that of solution by means of Green's functions. A particular form for the binary operator Green's function was picked on the basis of the Langevin method. Second, the basic solution technique using the particular Green's function form mentioned above is proven to be a correct and a general result. It is proven that the binary operator is always separable and that the Green's function could be written as the product of two single operator Green's functions. This is a new result. Third and finally, the forward equation approach of Chapman-Kolmogorov is generalized to include time allowing differential equations for second and higher order correlation functions to be developed directly. The principal result of the last section, the differential equation for correlation function of the neutron density, is new. Its derivation is really outside of or broader than the scope indicated by the title of the paper

  5. CHARACTERIZING THE GALACTIC WHITE DWARF BINARY POPULATION WITH SPARSELY SAMPLED RADIAL VELOCITY DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maoz, Dan; Badenes, Carles; Bickerton, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method to characterize statistically the parameters of a detached binary sample—binary fraction, separation distribution, and mass-ratio distribution—using noisy radial velocity data with as few as two, randomly spaced, epochs per object. To do this, we analyze the distribution of ΔRV max , the maximum radial velocity difference between any two epochs for the same object. At low values, the core of this distribution is dominated by measurement errors, but for large enough samples there is a high-velocity tail that can effectively constrain the parameters of the binary population. We discuss our approach for the case of a population of detached white dwarf (WD) binaries with separations that are decaying via gravitational wave emission. We derive analytic expressions for the present-day distribution of separations, integrated over the star formation history of the Galaxy, for parameterized initial WD separation distributions at the end of the common-envelope phase. We use Monte Carlo techniques to produce grids of simulated ΔRV max distributions with specific binary population parameters, and the same sampling cadences and radial velocity errors as the observations, and we compare them to the real ΔRV max distribution to constrain the properties of the binary population. We illustrate the sensitivity of the method to both the model and observational parameters. In the particular case of binary WDs, every model population predicts a merger rate per star which can easily be compared to specific Type Ia supernova rates. In a companion paper, we apply the method to a sample of ∼4000 WDs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The binary fractions and separation distribution parameters allowed by the data indicate a rate of WD-WD mergers per unit stellar mass in the Galactic disk, ∼1 × 10 –13 mergers yr –1 M –1 ☉ , remarkably similar to the rate per unit mass of Type Ia supernovae in Milky Way like galaxies.

  6. Electrokinetic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    In their search for improved and new exploration tools, geophysicists have improved seismic and electromagnetic techniques. Since the 1930s it is known that there is a coupling between seismic and electromagnetic waves in the shallow subsurface of the earth. Electroseismic surveying and its

  7. Kernel and divergence techniques in high energy physics separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouř, Petr; Kůs, Václav; Franc, Jiří

    2017-10-01

    Binary decision trees under the Bayesian decision technique are used for supervised classification of high-dimensional data. We present a great potential of adaptive kernel density estimation as the nested separation method of the supervised binary divergence decision tree. Also, we provide a proof of alternative computing approach for kernel estimates utilizing Fourier transform. Further, we apply our method to Monte Carlo data set from the particle accelerator Tevatron at DØ experiment in Fermilab and provide final top-antitop signal separation results. We have achieved up to 82 % AUC while using the restricted feature selection entering the signal separation procedure.

  8. Coupled Electrokinetics-Adsorption Technique for Simultaneous Removal of Heavy Metals and Organics from Saline-Sodic Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, Salihu; Essa, Mohammed Hussain; Mu'azu, Nuhu Dalhat; Bukhari, Alaadin

    2013-01-01

    In situ remediation technologies for contaminated soils are faced with significant technical challenges when the contaminated soil has low permeability. Popular traditional technologies are rendered ineffective due to the difficulty encountered in accessing the contaminants as well as when employed in settings where the soil contains mixed contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and polar organics. In this study, an integrated in situ remediation technique that couples electrokinetics with adsorption, using locally produced granular activated carbon from date palm pits in the treatment zones that are installed directly to bracket the contaminated soils at bench-scale, is investigated. Natural saline-sodic soil, spiked with contaminant mixture (kerosene, phenol, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg), was used in this study to investigate the efficiency of contaminant removal. For the 21-day period of continuous electrokinetics-adsorption experimental run, efficiency for the removal of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, phenol, and kerosene was found to reach 26.8, 55.8, 41.0, 34.4, 75.9, 92.49, 100.0, and 49.8%, respectively. The results obtained suggest that integrating adsorption into electrokinetic technology is a promising solution for removal of contaminant mixture from saline-sodic soils. PMID:24235885

  9. Simultaneous removal of organic contaminants and heavy metals from kaolin using an upward electrokinetic soil remediation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.-Y.; Huang, X.-J.; Kao, Jimmy C.M.; Stabnikova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Kaolins contaminated with heavy metals, Cu and Pb, and organic compounds, p-xylene and phenanthrene, were treated with an upward electrokinetic soil remediation (UESR) process. The effects of current density, cathode chamber flushing fluid, treatment duration, reactor size, and the type of contaminants under the vertical non-uniform electric field of UESR on the simultaneous removal of the heavy metals and organic contaminants were studied. The removal efficiencies of p-xylene and phenanthrene were higher in the experiments with cells of smaller diameter or larger height, and with distilled water flow in the cathode chamber. The removal efficiency of Cu and Pb were higher in the experiments with smaller diameter or shorter height cells and 0.01 M HNO 3 solution as cathode chamber flow. In spite of different conditions for removal of heavy metals and organics, it is possible to use the upward electrokinetic soil remediation process for their simultaneous removal. Thus, in the experiments with duration of 6 days removal efficiencies of phenanthrene, p-xylene, Cu and Pb were 67%, 93%, 62% and 35%, respectively. The experiment demonstrated the feasibility of simultaneous removal of organic contaminants and heavy metals from kaolin using the upward electrokinetic soil remediation process

  10. Coupled Electrokinetics-Adsorption Technique for Simultaneous Removal of Heavy Metals and Organics from Saline-Sodic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salihu Lukman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ remediation technologies for contaminated soils are faced with significant technical challenges when the contaminated soil has low permeability. Popular traditional technologies are rendered ineffective due to the difficulty encountered in accessing the contaminants as well as when employed in settings where the soil contains mixed contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and polar organics. In this study, an integrated in situ remediation technique that couples electrokinetics with adsorption, using locally produced granular activated carbon from date palm pits in the treatment zones that are installed directly to bracket the contaminated soils at bench-scale, is investigated. Natural saline-sodic soil, spiked with contaminant mixture (kerosene, phenol, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg, was used in this study to investigate the efficiency of contaminant removal. For the 21-day period of continuous electrokinetics-adsorption experimental run, efficiency for the removal of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, phenol, and kerosene was found to reach 26.8, 55.8, 41.0, 34.4, 75.9, 92.49, 100.0, and 49.8%, respectively. The results obtained suggest that integrating adsorption into electrokinetic technology is a promising solution for removal of contaminant mixture from saline-sodic soils.

  11. Effect of physical, chemical and electro-kinetic properties of pumice samples on radiation shielding properties of pumice material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapan, Mücip; Yalçın, Zeynel; İçelli, Orhan; Kara, Hüsnü; Orak, Salim; Özvan, Ali; Depci, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiation shielding properties of pumice materials are studied. • The relationship between physical, chemical and electro-kinetic properties pumice samples is identified. • The photon atomic parameters are important for the absorber peculiarity of the pumices. - Abstract: Pumice has been used in cement, concrete, brick, and ceramic industries as an additive and aggregate material. In this study, some gamma-ray photon absorption parameters such as the total mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic number and electronic density have been investigated for six different pumice samples. Numerous values of energy related parameters from low energy (1 keV) to high energy (100 MeV) were calculated using WinXCom programme. The relationship between radiation shielding properties of the pumice samples and their physical, chemical and electro-kinetic properties was evaluated using simple regression analysis. Simple regression analysis indicated a strong correlation between photon energy absorption parameters and density and SiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , CaO, MgO, TiO 2 content of pumice samples in this study. It is found that photon energy absorption parameters are not related to electro-kinetic properties of pumice samples

  12. Coupled electrokinetics-adsorption technique for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organics from saline-sodic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, Salihu; Essa, Mohammed Hussain; Mu'azu, Nuhu Dalhat; Bukhari, Alaadin

    2013-01-01

    In situ remediation technologies for contaminated soils are faced with significant technical challenges when the contaminated soil has low permeability. Popular traditional technologies are rendered ineffective due to the difficulty encountered in accessing the contaminants as well as when employed in settings where the soil contains mixed contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and polar organics. In this study, an integrated in situ remediation technique that couples electrokinetics with adsorption, using locally produced granular activated carbon from date palm pits in the treatment zones that are installed directly to bracket the contaminated soils at bench-scale, is investigated. Natural saline-sodic soil, spiked with contaminant mixture (kerosene, phenol, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg), was used in this study to investigate the efficiency of contaminant removal. For the 21-day period of continuous electrokinetics-adsorption experimental run, efficiency for the removal of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, phenol, and kerosene was found to reach 26.8, 55.8, 41.0, 34.4, 75.9, 92.49, 100.0, and 49.8%, respectively. The results obtained suggest that integrating adsorption into electrokinetic technology is a promising solution for removal of contaminant mixture from saline-sodic soils.

  13. A laboratory feasibility study on a new electrokinetic nutrient injection pattern and bioremediation of phenanthrene in a clayey soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wei; Wang Cuiping; Liu Haibin; Zhang Zhiyuan; Sun Hongwen

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) injection has recently been proposed to supply nutrients and electron acceptors in bioremediation of low permeable soils. However, effective pH control and uniform injection of inorganic ions have yet to be developed. The present study investigated a new EK injection pattern, which combined electrolyte circulation and electrode polarity reversal on a clayey soil. Soil pH could be controlled ranging from 7.0 to 7.6 by circulating the mixed electrolyte at a suitable rate (800 mL/h in this study) without any buffer. Ammonium and nitrate ions were distributed more uniformly in soil by electrode polarity reversal. The developed electrokinetic injection technology was applied primarily in bioremediation of phenanthrene contaminated soil. Over 80% of the initial 200 mg/kg phenanthrene in soil could be removed in 20 d, and greater phenanthrene removal was achieved using electrode polarity reversal. Hence, the present study provides a promising electrokinetic injection technology for bioremediation of contaminated soils.

  14. Hidden slow pulsars in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.

  15. Separation of short-lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Tadaharu; Ohyoshi, Emiko; Ohyoshi, Akira; Kiso, Yoshiyuki; Shinagawa, Mutsuaki.

    1976-01-01

    A rbief review is presented on the various methods of separation available for both gaseous and liquid states, for the separation of short-lived fission products formed by binary fission of neutron irradiated uranium. The means available for gaseous state are the hot atom reaction, the hydride method and on-line mass separation. For liquid state, use can be made of precipitation, ionic or atomic exchange, solvent extraction and paper electrophoresis. Particular reference is made to electrophoretic separation of ions produced by fission in aqueous solution of uranium. The principle of electrophoretic separation and the procedures for separating the element of interest from the other fission products are outlined, with reference made to the results obtained with the method by the present authors. The elements in question are alkalines, alkaline earths, rare earths, halogens, selenium and

  16. Validation of a rapid micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of isoniazid and pyridoxine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemutlu, E; Celebier, M; Uyar, B; Altinöz, S

    2007-07-01

    An efficient and reliable micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of isoniazid (ISO) and pyridoxine hydrochloride (PYR) in pharmaceutical formulations. A chemometric two level full factorial design approach was used to search for the optimum conditions of separation. Three parameters were selected for this study: the buffer pH, the buffer concentration and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) concentrations. Resolution, peak symmetry and analysis time were established as response. The two analytes were separated within 6 min with the optimized conditions: 50 mM borate buffer, 25 mM SDS pH 7.8, 35 degrees C, at 50 mbar 4s injection and 30 kV by using a fused silica capillary (72 cm effective length, 50 microm i.d.). The detection wavelength was set to 205 nm. Meloxicam was used as internal standard. The method was validated with respect to stability, linearity range, limit of quantitation and detection, precision, accuracy, specificity and robustness. The detection limits of the method were 1.0 microg mL(-1) for ISO and 0.40 microg mL(-1) for PYR and the method was linear at least in the range of 3.0-100 microg mL(-1) for ISO and 1.0-100 microg mL(-1) for PYR with excellent correlation coefficients (0.9995 for ISO and 0.9998 for PYR). Relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) of the described method ranged between 0.54 and 2.27% for intra-day precision and between 0.65 and 2.69% for inter-day precision. The developed method was applied to the tablet form of ISO and PYR-containing the pharmaceutical preparations and the data were compared with obtained from the standard addition method. No statistically significant difference was found.

  17. Dynamics of binary mixtures in inhomogeneous temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonnella, G; Piscitelli, A [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Lamura, A [Istituto Applicazioni Calcolo, CNR, via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2008-03-14

    A dynamical description for fluid binary mixtures with variable temperature and concentration gradient contributions to entropy and internal energy is given. By using mass, momentum and energy balance equations together with the standard expression for entropy production, a generalized Gibbs-Duhem relation is obtained which takes into account thermal and concentration gradient contributions. Then an expression for the pressure tensor is derived. As examples of applications, interface behavior and phase separation have been numerically studied in two dimensions neglecting the contributions of the velocity field. In the simplest case with a constant thermal gradient, the growth exponent for the averaged size of domains is found to have the usual value z = 1/3 and the domains appear elongated in the direction of the thermal gradient. When the system is quenched by contact with external walls, the evolution of temperature profiles in the system is shown and the domain morphology is characterized by interfaces perpendicular to the thermal gradient.

  18. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectra of Pu(IV) polymer show effects of CO 2 adsorption and of aging. Uv light (300 nm) increases the rate of reduction of PuO 2 2+ and Pu 4+ to Pu 3+ and the Pu--U separation factor using TBP. Distribution ratios for Zr and Hf between Dowex 50W--X8 resin and H 2 SO 4 solutions were found to decrease sharply with H 2 SO 4 content. Octylphenyl acid phosphate, a mixture of monooctylphenyl and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids, is being studied for U recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid. A study of HNO 3 leaching of Ra from U ores was completed. Effects of particle size of the packed bed on the dispersion of the boundary of the miscible phase used in oil recovery are being studied. Effects of sulfonates on toluene--n-butanol--water phase relations were determined, as were the effects of salts and solutes on the max water content of 1:1 toluene--alcohol solutions. A study was begun of hydrocarbon solubility in water--surfactant--alcohol. The mechanism of the formation of hydrous ZrO 2 --polyacrylate membranes and their use for sulfate rejection were studied. Salt rejection through hyperfiltration by clay membranes (bentonite and kaolin) was also investigated. Preliminary results are given for hyperfiltration of wood-pulping wastes by ZrO 2 membranes. 13 figures

  19. Evolution in close binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yungel'son, L.R.; Masevich, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    Duality is the property most typical of stars. If one investigates how prevalent double stars are, making due allowance for selection effects, one finds that as many as 90 percent of all stars are paired. Contrary to tradition it is single stars that are out of the ordinary, and as will be shown presently even some of these may have been formed by coalescence of the members of binary systems. This review deals with the evolution of close binaries, defined as double-star systems whose evolution entails exchange of material between the two components

  20. The Frequency of Binary Stars in the Globular Cluster M71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, S. C.; Armandroff, T. E.; Pryor, C. P.

    1994-12-01

    The frequency of binary stars is a fundamental property of a stellar population. A comparison of the frequency of binaries in globular clusters with those in the field halo and disk populations tests the similarity of star formation in those environments. Binary stars in globular clusters also act as an energy source which ``heats" the cluster through super-elastic encounters with other stars and binaries. Such encounters can not only profoundly affect the dynamical evolution of the cluster, they can disrupt the widely separated binaries and catalyze the formation of exotic objects such as blue stragglers, x-ray binaries, and milli-second pulsars. We have used the KPNO 4-m and the multi-fiber instruments Nessie and Hydra to measure radial velocities at 4 epochs over two years for a sample of 126 stars in the globular cluster M71. Velocity errors are under 1 km s(-1) for the brighter stars and under 2 km s(-1) for the majority of our data set. These velocities will be valuable for studying the kinematics of M71, but here we focus on searching for binaries. The faintest stars are at V=17, or just above the main sequence turnoff. Our sample is thus deeper than any published globular cluster binary search utilizing spectroscopic techniques. By observing smaller stars, we double the number of decades of binary periods sampled compared to previous studies and come within a factor of 4 of the shortest possible periods for turnoff stars. This wider period window has produced the largest known sample of binaries in a globular cluster. Four stars show velocity ranges larger than 20 km s(-1) , nine have ranges larger than 10 km s(-1) , and others are clearly variable. We will compare the radial distribution of these stars to that predicted by theory and derive the main-sequence binary fraction.

  1. Shell structure of natural rubber particles: evidence of chemical stratification by electrokinetics and cryo-TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Christophe N; Crassous, Jérôme J; Drechsler, Markus; Gaboriaud, Fabien; Eloy, Marie; de Gaudemaris, Benoît; Duval, Jérôme F L

    2013-11-26

    The interfacial structure of natural rubber (NR) colloids is investigated by means of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and electrokinetics over a broad range of KNO3 electrolyte concentrations (4-300 mM) and pH values (1-8). The asymptotic plateau value reached by NR electrophoretic mobility (μ) in the thin double layer limit supports the presence of a soft (ion- and water-permeable) polyelectrolytic type of layer located at the periphery of the NR particles. This property is confirmed by the analysis of the electron density profile obtained from cryo-TEM that evidences a ∼2-4 nm thick corona surrounding the NR polyisoprene core. The dependence of μ on pH and salt concentration is further marked by a dramatic decrease of the point of zero electrophoretic mobility (PZM) from 3.6 to 0.8 with increasing electrolyte concentration in the range 4-300 mM. Using a recent theory for electrohydrodynamics of soft multilayered particles, this "anomalous" dependence of the PZM on electrolyte concentration is shown to be consistent with a radial organization of anionic and cationic groups across the peripheral NR structure. The NR electrokinetic response in the pH range 1-8 is indeed found to be equivalent to that of particles surrounded by a positively charged ∼3.5 nm thick layer (mean dissociation pK ∼ 4.2) supporting a thin and negatively charged outermost layer (0.6 nm in thickness, pK ∼ 0.7). Altogether, the strong dependence of the PZM on electrolyte concentration suggests that the electrostatic properties of the outer peripheral region of the NR shell are mediated by lipidic residues protruding from a shell containing a significant amount of protein-like charges. This proposed NR shell interfacial structure questions previously reported NR representations according to which the shell consists of either a fully mixed lipid-protein layer, or a layer of phospholipids residing exclusively beneath an outer proteic film.

  2. Visual Measurements of the Binary Star S 654

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Thomas; Achildiyev, Irina; Alduenda, Chandra; Bridgeman, Reid; Chamberlain, Rebecca; Hendrix, Alex

    2011-01-01

    A member of the faculty and students from The Evergreen State College, Olympia, Washington, participated in the 2010 summer astronomy workshop at Pine Mountain Observatory. They learned the proper techniques and skills required for measuring the separation and position angle of binary star S 654. They learned how to calibrate an astrometric eyepiece, make appropriate measurements, do a statistical analysis, and analyze the data. The separation and position angle values obtained were 69.9 arc seconds and 237 degrees, respectively. The percent difference for each value was less than 0.5% from the literature value.

  3. The Binary Ties that Bind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mike

    2008-01-01

    As any reader of "About Campus" knows, binary oppositions contribute to the definitions of institutional types--the trade school versus the liberal arts college, for example. They help define disciplines and subdisciplines and the status differentials among them: consider the difference in intellectual cachet as one moves from linguistics to…

  4. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch

    2017-01-01

    their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal...

  5. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  6. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-07603Y Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  7. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  8. Binary logic is rich enough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapatrin, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs

  9. Systematic screening methodology and energy efficient design of ionic liquid-based separation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulajanpeng, Kusuma; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    in size of the target solute was investigated using the same separation process and IL entrainer to obtain the same product purity. The proposed methodology has been evaluated through a case study of binary alcoholic aqueous azeotropic separation: water+ethanol and water+isopropanol.......A systematic methodology for the screening of ionic liquids (ILs) as entrainers and for the design of ILs-based separation processes in various homogeneous binary azeotropic mixtures has been developed. The methodology focuses on the homogeneous binary aqueous azeotropic systems (for example, water...

  10. Astronomy of binary and multiple stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Various types of binary stars and methods for their observation are described in a popular form. Some models of formation and evolution of binary and multiple star systems are presented. It is concluded that formation of binary and multiple stars is a regular stage in the process of star production

  11. Coevolution of Binaries and Circumbinary Gaseous Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2018-04-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, and how the disk and binary interact. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disk that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disk. To probe how these interactions impact both binary eccentricity and disk structure evolution, we ran N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 for 10^4 binary orbital periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disk via a parametric instability and excite disk eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk causing eccentricity growth for both the disk and binary. Disks around sufficiently eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk and develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance (EOLR). This wave corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. We find that in all simulations, the binary semi-major axis decays due to dissipation from the viscous disk.

  12. Formation and evolution of compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain

  13. A case of biliary stones and anastomotic biliary stricture after liver transplant treated with the rendez - vous technique and electrokinetic lithotritor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta Di Pisa; Mario Traina; Roberto Miraglia; Luigi Maruzzelli; Riccardo Volpes; Salvatore Piazza; Angelo Luca; Bruno Gridelli

    2008-01-01

    The paper studies the combined radiologic and endoscopic approach (rendezvous technique) to the treatment of the biliary complications following liver transplant. The "rendez-vous" technique was used with an electrokinetic lithotripter, in the treatment of a biliary anastomotic stricture with multiple biliary stones in a patient who underwent orthotopic liver transplant. In this patient, endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic management of the biliary complication failed. The combined approach, percutaneous transhepatic and endoscopic treatment (rendez-vous technique) with the use of an electrokinetic lithotritor, was used to solve the biliary stenosis and to remove the stones.Technical success, defined as disappearance of the biliary stenosis and stone removal, was obtained in just one session, which definitively solved the complications.The combined approach of percutaneous transhepatic and endoscopic (rendez-vous technique) treatment, in association with an electrokinetic lithotritor, is a safe and feasible alternative treatment, especially after the failure of endoscopic and/or percutaneous trans-hepatic isolated procedures.

  14. Searching for Signatures of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Megan; Gezari, Suvi; Liu, Tingting

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical studies suggest that supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are an inevitable consequence of major galaxy mergers. Additionally, as SMBHBs coalesce they are expected to be sources of tremendous gravitational wave emission. Interest in these sources motivates the search for detection of the first definitive SMBHB and observational signatures to methodize the search. We present spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for a sample of candidate SMBHBs selected from quasars demonstrating optical periodic variability from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. The SEDs were constructed using existing archival data spanning from radio to X-ray emission. For each candidate SMBHB, we also present models of the theoretical spectrum emitted from the circumbinary and minidisks of the SMBHB system using the predictions of Roedig et al. (2014) and inferred parameters of the candidates (combined mass, mass ratio, binary separation, accretion rate). We compare the observational SED for each source to its respective binary model as well as to the expected mean SED of a normal non-binary system quasar to look for supporting evidence of a SMBHB system. This project was supported in part by the NSF REU grant AST-1358980 and by the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  15. Generation of two-dimensional binary mixtures in complex plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieben, Frank; Block, Dietmar

    2016-10-01

    Complex plasmas are an excellent model system for strong coupling phenomena. Under certain conditions the dust particles immersed into the plasma form crystals which can be analyzed in terms of structure and dynamics. Previous experiments focussed mostly on monodisperse particle systems whereas dusty plasmas in nature and technology are polydisperse. Thus, a first and important step towards experiments in polydisperse systems are binary mixtures. Recent experiments on binary mixtures under microgravity conditions observed a phase separation of particle species with different radii even for small size disparities. This contradicts several numerical studies of 2D binary mixtures. Therefore, dedicated experiments are required to gain more insight into the physics of polydisperse systems. In this contribution first ground based experiments on two-dimensional binary mixtures are presented. Particular attention is paid to the requirements for the generation of such systems which involve the consideration of the temporal evolution of the particle properties. Furthermore, the structure of these two-component crystals is analyzed and compared to simulations. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG in the framework of the SFB TR24 Greifswald Kiel, Project A3b.

  16. Numerical Simulations of Wind Accretion in Symbiotic Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, M.; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D.

    2009-08-01

    About half of the binary systems are close enough to each other for mass to be exchanged between them at some point in their evolution, yet the accretion mechanism in wind accreting binaries is not well understood. We study the dynamical effects of gravitational focusing by a binary companion on winds from late-type stars. In particular, we investigate the mass transfer and formation of accretion disks around the secondary in detached systems consisting of an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) mass-losing star and an accreting companion. The presence of mass outflows is studied as a function of mass-loss rate, wind temperature, and binary orbital parameters. A two-dimensional hydrodynamical model is used to study the stability of mass transfer in wind accreting symbiotic binary systems. In our simulations we use an adiabatic equation of state and a modified version of the isothermal approximation, where the temperature depends on the distance from the mass losing star and its companion. The code uses a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement method that allows us to have high resolution at the position of the secondary and resolve the formation of bow shocks and accretion disks. We explore the accretion flow between the components and formation of accretion disks for a range of orbital separations and wind parameters. Our results show the formation of stream flow between the stars and accretion disks of various sizes for certain orbital configurations. For a typical slow and massive wind from an AGB star the flow pattern is similar to a Roche lobe overflow with accretion rates of 10% of the mass loss from the primary. Stable disks with exponentially decreasing density profiles and masses of the order 10-4 solar masses are formed when wind acceleration occurs at several stellar radii. The disks are geometrically thin with eccentric streamlines and close to Keplerian velocity profiles. The formation of tidal streams and accretion disks is found to be weakly dependent on

  17. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF WIND ACCRETION IN SYMBIOTIC BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Val-Borro, M.; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D.

    2009-01-01

    About half of the binary systems are close enough to each other for mass to be exchanged between them at some point in their evolution, yet the accretion mechanism in wind accreting binaries is not well understood. We study the dynamical effects of gravitational focusing by a binary companion on winds from late-type stars. In particular, we investigate the mass transfer and formation of accretion disks around the secondary in detached systems consisting of an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) mass-losing star and an accreting companion. The presence of mass outflows is studied as a function of mass-loss rate, wind temperature, and binary orbital parameters. A two-dimensional hydrodynamical model is used to study the stability of mass transfer in wind accreting symbiotic binary systems. In our simulations we use an adiabatic equation of state and a modified version of the isothermal approximation, where the temperature depends on the distance from the mass losing star and its companion. The code uses a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement method that allows us to have high resolution at the position of the secondary and resolve the formation of bow shocks and accretion disks. We explore the accretion flow between the components and formation of accretion disks for a range of orbital separations and wind parameters. Our results show the formation of stream flow between the stars and accretion disks of various sizes for certain orbital configurations. For a typical slow and massive wind from an AGB star the flow pattern is similar to a Roche lobe overflow with accretion rates of 10% of the mass loss from the primary. Stable disks with exponentially decreasing density profiles and masses of the order 10 -4 solar masses are formed when wind acceleration occurs at several stellar radii. The disks are geometrically thin with eccentric streamlines and close to Keplerian velocity profiles. The formation of tidal streams and accretion disks is found to be weakly dependent

  18. Enhanced electrokinetic properties and antimicrobial activities of biodegradable chitosan/organo-bentonite composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabuk, Mehmet; Alan, Yusuf; Unal, H Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    In this study, chitosan (CS), Na + -bentonite (Na + -BNT) and chitosan/organo-bentonite (CS/O-BNT) biodegradable composites having three different compositions were investigated. Electrokinetic measurements were examined in aqueous medium by taking the effects pH, electrolytes (NaCl and BaCl 2 ), surfactants (CTAB and SDS), and temperature into account. It was noticed that the initial ζ-potential of Na + -BNT shifted from negative (ζ=-35mV) to positive region (ζ=+13mV) with increasing polycationic CS content in the composite structure as aimed. Divalent 2:1 electrolyte (BaCl 2 ) caused to shift the ζ-potentials of all the dispersions to more positive regions. While the most negative effect on ζ-potential of the composites was reached with SDS, which reduced the value of ζ-potential to -39mV for CS(1)/O-BNT composite, the most positive effect was monitored with CTAB (ζ=+40mV) for CS(3)/O-BNT composite. Further, the composites were tested against various bacterial (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and fungal microorganisms at various concentrations and results obtained were compared with the reference antibiotics and fungicide. According to inhibition zone values accomplished, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the CS/O-BNT composites are increased with increasing CS content as proportional with their positive ζ-potential values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrokinetic Analysis of Energy Harvest from Natural Salt Gradients in Nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuhui; Huang, Zhuo; Chen, Bowei; Tsutsui, Makusu; Shui Miao, Xiang; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2017-10-13

    The Gibbs free energy released during the mixing of river and sea water has been illustrated as a promising source of clean and renewable energy. Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is one major strategy to gain electrical power from this natural salinity, and recently by utilizing nanochannels a novel mode of this approach has shown improved power density and energy converting efficiency. In this work, we carry out an electrokinetic analysis of the work extracted from RED in the nanochannels. First, we outline the exclusion potential effect induced by the inhomogeneous distribution of extra-counterions along the channel axis. This effect is unique in nanochannel RED and how to optimize it for energy harvesting is the central topic of this work. We then discuss two important indexes of performance, which are the output power density and the energy converting efficiency, and their dependence on the nanochannel parameters such as channel material and geometry. In order to yield maximized output electrical power, we propose a device design by stepwise usage of the saline bias, and the lengths of the nanochannels are optimized to achieve the best trade-off between the input thermal power and the energy converting efficiency.

  20. Electrokinetic enhanced bioventing of gasoline in clayey soil: A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, W.W.; Wang, I.S.; Fan, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a case history on the bioventing of gasoline in soil with electrokinetic enhancement. The gasoline in soil was related to a 10,000-gallon underground storage tank spill, San Diego, California. The gasoline soil plume covers an area of about 2,400 square feet and to a depth of about 30 feet. The upper 15 feet of the soil plume consists of highly conductive marine clay. The lower 15 feet of the soil plume consists of dense cemented conglomerate sandstone. The gasoline concentration in the soil plume range from 100 to 2,200 mg/Kg(ppm) and the target cleanup level is below 100 ppm. Total gasoline in soil plume is estimated at about 1,000 pounds of gasoline in about 3,500 tons of soil. The soil remediation effort was completed after about 90 days of treatment. The concentration of gasoline in soil after treatment was way below the proposed cleanup level of less than 100 mg/Kg(ppm). The cost of treatment is about $50 per ton for this advanced soil treatment process which provides a cost effective solution to this soil plume with minimum disruption to business operation at the facility