Kinetic models with randomly perturbed binary collisions
Bassetti, Federico; Toscani, Giuseppe
2010-01-01
We introduce a class of Kac-like kinetic equations on the real line, with general random collisional rules, which include as particular cases models for wealth redistribution in an agent-based market or models for granular gases with a background heat bath. Conditions on these collisional rules which guarantee both the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium profiles and their main properties are found. We show that the characterization of these stationary solutions is of independent interest, since the same profiles are shown to be solutions of different evolution problems, both in the econophysics context and in the kinetic theory of rarefied gases.
Molecular dynamics and binary collision modeling of the primary damage state of collision cascades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heinisch, H.L.; Singh, B.N.
1992-01-01
Quantitative information on defect production in cascades in copper obtained from recent molecular dynamics simulations is compared to defect production information determined earlier with a model based on the binary collision approximation (BCA). The total numbers of residual defects, the fracti...
Binary collisions in popovici’s photogravitational model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mioc V.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of bodies under the combined action of the gravitational attraction and the radiative repelling force has large and deep implications in astronomy. In the 1920s, the Romanian astronomer Constantin Popovici proposed a modified photogravitational law (considered by other scientists too. This paper deals with the collisions of the two-body problem associated with Popovici’s model. Resorting to McGehee-type transformations of the second kind, we obtain regular equations of motion and define the collision manifold. The flow on this boundary manifold is wholly described. This allows to point out some important qualitative features of the collisional motion: existence of the black-hole effect, gradientlikeness of the flow on the collision manifold, regularizability of collisions under certain conditions. Some questions, coming from the comparison of Levi-Civita’s regularizing transformations and McGehee’s ones, are formulated.
Macroscopic Model for Head-On Binary Droplet Collisions in a Gaseous Medium
Li, Jie
2016-11-01
In this Letter, coalescence-bouncing transitions of head-on binary droplet collisions are predicted by a novel macroscopic model based entirely on fundamental laws of physics. By making use of the lubrication theory of Zhang and Law [Phys. Fluids 23, 042102 (2011)], we have modified the Navier-Stokes equations to accurately account for the rarefied nature of the interdroplet gas film. Through the disjoint pressure model, we have incorporated the intermolecular van der Waals forces. Our model does not use any adjustable (empirical) parameters. It therefore encompasses an extreme range of length scales (more than 5 orders of magnitude): from those of the external flow in excess of the droplet size (a few hundred μ m ) to the effective range of the van der Waals force around 10 nm. A state of the art moving adaptive mesh method, capable of resolving all the relevant length scales, has been employed. Our numerical simulations are able to capture the coalescence-bouncing and bouncing-coalescence transitions that are observed as the collision intensity increases. The predicted transition Weber numbers for tetradecane and water droplet collisions at different pressures show good agreement with published experimental values. Our study also sheds new light on the roles of gas density, droplet size, and mean free path in the rupture of the gas film.
Binary droplet collision at high Weber number.
Pan, Kuo-Long; Chou, Ping-Chung; Tseng, Yu-Jen
2009-09-01
By using the techniques developed for generating high-speed droplets, we have systematically investigated binary droplet collision when the Weber number (We) was increased from the range usually tested in previous studies on the order of 10 to a much larger value of about 5100 for water (a droplet at 23 m/s with a diameter of 0.7 mm). Various liquids were also used to explore the effects of viscosity and surface tension. Specifically, beyond the well-known regimes at moderate We's, which exhibited coalescence, separation, and separation followed by satellite droplets, we found different behaviors showing a fingering lamella, separation after fingering, breakup of outer fingers, and prompt splattering into multiple secondary droplets as We was increased. The critical Weber numbers that mark the boundaries between these impact regimes are identified. The specific impact behaviors, such as fingering and prompt splattering or splashing, share essential similarity with those also observed in droplet-surface impacts, whereas substantial variations in the transition boundaries may result from the disparity of the boundary conditions at impacts. To compare the outcomes of both types of collisions, a simple model based on energy conservation was carried out to predict the maximum diameter of an expanding liquid disk for a binary droplet collision. The results oppose the dominance of viscous drag, as proposed by previous studies, as the main deceleration force to effect a Rayleigh-Taylor instability and ensuing periphery fingers, which may further lead to the formations of satellite droplets.
Relativistic Brownian motion: from a microscopic binary collision model to the Langevin equation.
Dunkel, Jörn; Hänggi, Peter
2006-11-01
The Langevin equation (LE) for the one-dimensional relativistic Brownian motion is derived from a microscopic collision model. The model assumes that a heavy pointlike Brownian particle interacts with the lighter heat bath particles via elastic hard-core collisions. First, the commonly known, nonrelativistic LE is deduced from this model, by taking into account the nonrelativistic conservation laws for momentum and kinetic energy. Subsequently, this procedure is generalized to the relativistic case. There, it is found that the relativistic stochastic force is still delta correlated (white noise) but no longer corresponds to a Gaussian white noise process. Explicit results for the friction and momentum-space diffusion coefficients are presented and discussed.
Binary collision model for neon Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface
Pepper, S. V.
1986-01-01
A model is developed to account for the angle-resolved Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface recently obtained by Pepper and Aron. The neon is assumed to be excited in a single asymmetric neon-aluminum-collision and scattered back into the vacuum where it emits an Auger electron. The velocity of the Auger electron acquires a Doppler shift by virtue of the emission from a moving source. The dependence of the Auger peak shape and energy on the incident ion energy, angle of incidence and on the angle of Auger electron emission with respect to the surface is presented. Satisfactory agreement with the angle resolved experimental observations is obtained. The dependence of the angle-integrated Auger yield on the incident ion energy and angle of incidence is also obtained and shown to be in satisfactory agreement with available experimental evidence.
Planet Scattering Around Binaries: Ejections, Not Collisions
Smullen, Rachel A; Shannon, Andrew
2016-01-01
Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically effects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Asid...
Planet scattering around binaries: ejections, not collisions
Smullen, Rachel A.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Shannon, Andrew
2016-09-01
Transiting circumbinary planets discovered by Kepler provide unique insight into binary star and planet formation. Several features of this new found population, for example the apparent pile-up of planets near the innermost stable orbit, may distinguish between formation theories. In this work, we determine how planet-planet scattering shapes planetary systems around binaries as compared to single stars. In particular, we look for signatures that arise due to differences in dynamical evolution in binary systems. We carry out a parameter study of N-body scattering simulations for four distinct planet populations around both binary and single stars. While binarity has little influence on the final system multiplicity or orbital distribution, the presence of a binary dramatically affects the means by which planets are lost from the system. Most circumbinary planets are lost due to ejections rather than planet-planet or planet-star collisions. The most massive planet in the system tends to control the evolution. Systems similar to the only observed multiplanet circumbinary system, Kepler-47, can arise from much more tightly packed, unstable systems. Only extreme initial conditions introduce differences in the final planet populations. Thus, we suggest that any intrinsic differences in the populations are imprinted by formation.
Focke, C; Kuschel, M; Sommerfeld, M
2012-01-01
Binary droplet collisions are of importance in a variety of practical applications comprising dispersed two-phase flows. The background of our research is the prediction of properties of particulate products formed in spray processes. To gain a more thorough understanding of the elementary sub-processes inside a spray, experiments and direct numerical simulations of binary droplet collisions are used. The aim of these investigations is to develop semi-analytical descriptions for the outcome of droplet collisions. Such collision models can then be employed as closure terms for scale-reduced simulations. In the present work we focus on the collision of droplets of different liquids. These kinds of collisions take place in every spray drying process when droplets with different solids contents collide in recirculation zones. A new experimental method has been developed allowing for high spatial and time resolved recordings via Laser-induced fluorescence. The results obtained with the proposed method will be comp...
On non-binary nature of the collisions of heavy hyperthermal particles with solid surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferleger, V.Kh. E-mail: root@ariel.tashkent.su; Wojciechowski, I.A
2000-04-01
The limits of applicability of the binary collision approximation for a description of scattering of atomic particles by a solid surface are discussed. The experimental data of energy losses of atoms of hyperthermal energies (HT) scattered by a solid surface were found to bring in evidence for the non-binary nature of collisions in the hyperthermal energy region (1-30 eV). The dependence of the energy losses on the initial energy of the particles and their angles of incidence was shown to be well described by the following model: the particle is being single-scattered by certain complex of surface atoms forming an effective mass. A contribution of the non-binary collisions to the processes of atomic and cluster sputtering is also discussed.
Smith, Nathan
2010-01-01
This paper discusses a model where a violent periastron collision of stars in an eccentric binary system induces an eruption or explosion seen as a brief transient source, attributed to LBVs, SN impostors, or other transients. The key ingredient is that an evolved primary increases its photospheric radius on relatively short timescales, to a point where the radius is comparable to or larger than the periastron separation in an eccentric binary. In such a configuration, a violent and sudden collision would ensue, possibly leading to substantial mass ejection instead of a binary merger. Repeated periastral grazings in an eccentric system could quickly escalate to a catastrophic encounter, wherein the companion star actually plunges deep inside the photosphere of a bloated primary during periastron, as a result of the primary star increasing its own radius. This is motivated by the case of $\\eta$~Carinae, where such a collision must have occured if conventional estimates of the present-day orbit are correct, and...
A binary collision route for purely hydrodynamic orientational ordering of microswimmers
Oyama, Norihiro; Yamamoto, Ryoichi
2016-01-01
We have investigated the causes for the onset of collective motion in systems of model microswimmers, by performing a comprehensive analysis of the binary collision dynamics using direct numerical simulations (DNS). From this data, we have constructed a simple Vicsek-like model which accurately reproduces the collective behavior obtained from the DNS, which include the full hydrodynamic interactions among the swimmers. Thus, we show that global alignment can arise solely from binary collisions. Although the agreement between both models (DNS and binary-Vicsek) is not perfect, the parameter range in which notable differences appear is also that for which strong density fluctuations are present in the system (where pseudo-sound mode can be observed[1]).
A mesoscopic model for binary fluids
Echeverria, C; Alvarez-Llamoza, O; Orozco-Guillén, E E; Morales, M; Cosenza, M G
2016-01-01
We propose a model to study symmetric binary fluids, based in the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where space and state variables are continuous while time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require the calculation of the interaction forces between particles, thus allowing the description of binary fluids at a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple, computationally efficient, maintains Galilean invariance, and conserves the mass and the energy in the system at micro and macro scales; while momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as density profile, width of the interface, phase separation and phase growth. We also apply the model to study binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.
2015-01-01
When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model...... of the vocal fold collision is proposed, which incorporates different procedures used in contact mechanics and mathematical optimization theories. The penalty approach and the Lagrange multiplier method are investigated. The contact force solution obtained by the penalty formulation is highly dependent...
Parameter estimates in binary black hole collisions using neural networks
Carrillo, M.; Gracia-Linares, M.; González, J. A.; Guzmán, F. S.
2016-10-01
We present an algorithm based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), that estimates the mass ratio in a binary black hole collision out of given gravitational wave (GW) strains. In this analysis, the ANN is trained with a sample of GW signals generated with numerical simulations. The effectiveness of the algorithm is evaluated with GWs generated also with simulations for given mass ratios unknown to the ANN. We measure the accuracy of the algorithm in the interpolation and extrapolation regimes. We present the results for noise free signals and signals contaminated with Gaussian noise, in order to foresee the dependence of the method accuracy in terms of the signal to noise ratio.
Parameter estimates in binary black hole collisions using neural networks
Carrillo, M; González, J A; Guzmán, F S
2016-01-01
We present an algorithm based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), that estimates the mass ratio in a binary black hole collision out of given Gravitational Wave (GW) strains. In this analysis, the ANN is trained with a sample of GW signals generated with numerical simulations. The effectiveness of the algorithm is evaluated with GWs generated also with simulations for given mass ratios unknown to the ANN. We measure the accuracy of the algorithm in the interpolation and extrapolation regimes. We present the results for noise free signals and signals contaminated with Gaussian noise, in order to foresee the dependence of the method accuracy in terms of the signal to noise ratio.
Binary collision rates of relativistic thermal plasmas. I Theoretical framework
Dermer, C. D.
1985-01-01
Binary collision rates for arbitrary scattering cross sections are derived in the case of a beam of particles interacting with a Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) plasma, or in the case of two MB plasmas interacting at generally different temperatures. The expressions are valid for all beam energies and plasma temperatures, from the nonrelativistic to the extreme relativistic limits. The calculated quantities include the reaction rate, the energy exchange rate, and the average rate of change of the squared transverse momentum component of a monoenergetic particle beam as a result of scatterings with particles of a MB plasma. Results are specialized to elastic scattering processes, two-temperature reaction rates, or the cold plasma limit, reproducing previous work.
Mohazzabi, Pirooz
2017-09-01
Using molecular dynamics simulations, binary collision density in a dense non-ideal gas with Lennard-Jones interactions is investigated. It is shown that the functional form of the dependence of collision density on particle density and collision diameter remains the same as that for an ideal gas. The temperature dependence of the collision density, however, has a very different form at low temperatures, where it decreases as temperature increases. But at higher temperatures the functional form becomes the same as that for an ideal gas.
Towards an understanding of staggering effects in dissipative binary collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Agostino, M., E-mail: dagostino@bo.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Bruno, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Gulminelli, F. [CNRS, UMR6534, LPC, F-14050 Caen cedex and ENSICAEN, UMR6534, LPC, F-14050 Caen cedex (France); Morelli, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Baiocco, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); CNRS, UMR6534, LPC, F-14050 Caen cedex and ENSICAEN, UMR6534, LPC, F-14050 Caen cedex (France); Bardelli, L. [INFN, Firenze (Italy); INFN, Catania (Italy); Barlini, S. [INFN, Firenze (Italy); Cannata, F. [INFN, Bologna (Italy); Casini, G. [INFN, Firenze (Italy); Geraci, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Catania (Italy); INFN, Catania (Italy); Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V.L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy); Marchi, T. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Padova,Italy (Italy); Moroni, A. [INFN, Milano (Italy); Ordine, A. [INFN, Napoli (Italy); Raduta, Ad.R. [NIPNE, Bucharest-Magurele, POB-MG6 (Romania)
2012-02-01
The reactions {sup 32}S+{sup 58,64}Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. Evidence is found for important odd-even effects in isotopic observables of selected peripheral collisions corresponding to the decay of a projectile-like source. The influence of secondary decays on the staggering is studied with a correlation function technique. It is shown that this method is a powerful tool to get experimental information on the evaporation chain, in order to constrain model calculations. Specifically, we show that odd-even effects are due to interplay between pairing effects in the nuclear masses and in the level densities.
Towards an understanding of staggering effects in dissipative binary collisions
D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Morelli, L.; Baiocco, G.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Geraci, E.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Marchi, T.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Raduta, Ad. R.
2012-02-01
The reactions S32+58Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. Evidence is found for important odd-even effects in isotopic observables of selected peripheral collisions corresponding to the decay of a projectile-like source. The influence of secondary decays on the staggering is studied with a correlation function technique. It is shown that this method is a powerful tool to get experimental information on the evaporation chain, in order to constrain model calculations. Specifically, we show that odd-even effects are due to interplay between pairing effects in the nuclear masses and in the level densities.
Binary and triple collisions causing instability in the free-fall three-body problem
Umehara, Hiroaki; Tanikawa, Kiyotaka
2000-04-01
Dominant factors for escape after the first triple-encounter are searched for in the three-body problem with zero initial velocities and equal masses. By a global numerical survey on the whole initial-value space, it is found that not only a triple-collision orbit but also a particular family of binary-collision orbits exist in the set of escape orbits. This observation is justified from various viewpoints. Binary-collision orbits experiencing close triple-encounter turn out to be close to isosceles orbits after the encounter and hence lead to escape. Except for a few cases, binary-collision orbits of near-isosceles slingshot also escape.
DROPLET COLLISION AND COALESCENCE MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Qiang; CAI Ti-min; HE Guo-qiang; HU Chun-bo
2006-01-01
A new droplet collision and coalescence model was presented, a quick-sort method for locating collision partners was also devised and based on theoretical and experimental results, further advancement was made to the droplet collision outcome.The advantages of the two implementations of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)method were used to limit the collision of droplets to a given number of nearest droplets and define the probability of coalescence, numerical simulations were carried out for model validation. Results show that the model presented is mesh-independent and less time consuming, it can not only maintains the system momentum conservation perfectly, but not susceptible to initial droplet size distribution as well.
Numerical Simulation on Head-On Binary Collision of Gel Propellant Droplets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zejun Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Binary collision of droplets is a fundamental form of droplet interaction in the spraying flow field. In order to reveal the central collision mechanism of two gel droplets with equal diameters, an axi-symmetric form of the Navier-Stokes equations are firstly solved and the method of VOF (volume of fluid is utilized to track the evolution of the gas-liquid free interface. Then, the numerical computation model is validated with Qian’s experimental results on Newtonian liquids. Phenomena of rebound, coalescence and reflexive separation of droplets after collision are investigated, and structures of the complicated flow fields during the collision process are also analyzed in detail. Results show that the maximum shear rate will appear at the point where the flow is redirected and accelerated. Rebound of droplets is determined by the Weber number and viscosity of the fluid together. It can be concluded that the gel droplets are easier to rebound in comparison with the base fluid droplets. The results also show that the alternant appearance along with the deformation of droplets in the radial and axial direction is the main characteristic of the droplet coalescence process, and the deformation amplitude attenuates gradually. Moreover, the reflexive separation process of droplets can be divided into three distinctive stages including the radial expansion, the recovery of the spherical shape, and the axial extension and reflexive separation. The variation trend of the kinetic energy is opposite to that of the surface energy. The maximum deformation of droplets appears in the radial expansion stage; in the case of a low Weber number, the minimum central thickness of a droplet appears later than its maximum deformation, however, this result is on the contrary in the case of a high Weber number.
Binary cluster collision dynamics and minimum energy conformations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muñoz, Francisco [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avenida Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Rogan, José; Valdivia, J.A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avenida Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Varas, A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Nano-Bio Spectroscopy Group, ETSF Scientific Development Centre, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Av. Tolosa 72, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Kiwi, Miguel, E-mail: m.kiwi.t@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avenida Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile)
2013-10-15
The collision dynamics of one Ag or Cu atom impinging on a Au{sub 12} cluster is investigated by means of DFT molecular dynamics. Our results show that the experimentally confirmed 2D to 3D transition of Au{sub 12}→Au{sub 13} is mostly preserved by the resulting planar Au{sub 12}Ag and Au{sub 12}Cu minimum energy clusters, which is quite remarkable in view of the excess energy, well larger than the 2D–3D potential barrier height. The process is accompanied by a large s−d hybridization and charge transfer from Au to Ag or Cu. The dynamics of the collision process mainly yields fusion of projectile and target, however scattering and cluster fragmentation also occur for large energies and large impact parameters. While Ag projectiles favor fragmentation, Cu favors scattering due to its smaller mass. The projectile size does not play a major role in favoring the fragmentation or scattering channels. By comparing our collision results with those obtained by an unbiased minimum energy search of 4483 Au{sub 12}Ag and 4483 Au{sub 12}Cu configurations obtained phenomenologically, we find that there is an extra bonus: without increase of computer time collisions yield the planar lower energy structures that are not feasible to obtain using semi-classical potentials. In fact, we conclude that phenomenological potentials do not even provide adequate seeds for the search of global energy minima for planar structures. Since the fabrication of nanoclusters is mainly achieved by synthesis or laser ablation, the set of local minima configurations we provide here, and their distribution as a function of energy, are more relevant than the global minimum to analyze experimental results obtained at finite temperatures, and is consistent with the dynamical coexistence of 2D and 3D liquid Au clusters conformations obtained previously.
Polar pattern formation in driven filament systems requires non-binary particle collisions
Suzuki, Ryo; Weber, Christoph A.; Frey, Erwin; Bausch, Andreas R.
2015-10-01
From the self-organization of the cytoskeleton to the synchronous motion of bird flocks, living matter has the extraordinary ability to behave in a concerted manner. The Boltzmann equation for self-propelled particles is frequently used in silico to link a system’s meso- or macroscopic behaviour to the microscopic dynamics of its constituents. But so far such studies have relied on an assumption of simplified binary collisions owing to a lack of experimental data suggesting otherwise. We report here experimentally determined binary-collision statistics by studying a recently introduced molecular system, the high-density actomyosin motility assay. We demonstrate that the alignment induced by binary collisions is too weak to account for the observed ordering transition. The transition density for polar pattern formation decreases quadratically with filament length, indicating that multi-filament collisions drive the observed ordering phenomenon and that a gas-like picture cannot explain the transition of the system to polar order. Our findings demonstrate that the unique properties of biological active-matter systems require a description that goes well beyond that developed in the framework of kinetic theories.
Polar Pattern Formation in Driven Filament Systems Require Non-Binary Particle Collisions.
Suzuki, Ryo; Weber, Christoph A; Frey, Erwin; Bausch, Andreas R
2015-10-01
Living matter has the extraordinary ability to behave in a concerted manner, which is exemplified throughout nature ranging from the self-organisation of the cytoskeleton to flocks of animals [1-4]. The microscopic dynamics of constituents have been linked to the system's meso- or macroscopic behaviour in silico via the Boltzmann equation for propelled particles [5-10]. Thereby, simplified binary collision rules between the constituents had to be assumed due to the lack of experimental data. We report here experimentally determined binary collision statistics by studying the recently introduced molecular system, the high density actomyosin motility assay [11-13]. We demonstrate that the alignment effect of the binary collision statistics is too weak to account for the observed ordering transition. The transition density for polar pattern formation decreases quadratically with filament length, which indicates that multi-filament collisions drive the observed ordering phenomenon and that a gas-like picture cannot explain the transition of the system to polar order. The presented findings demonstrate that the unique properties of biological active matter systems require a description that goes well beyond a gas-like picture developed in the framework of kinetic theories.
Lorentz invariant relative velocity and relativistic binary collisions
Cannoni, Mirco
2017-01-01
This paper reviews the concept of Lorentz invariant relative velocity that is often misunderstood or unknown in high energy physics literature. The properties of the relative velocity allow to formulate the invariant flux and cross-section without recurring to nonphysical velocities or any assumption about the reference frame. Applications such as the luminosity of a collider, the use as kinematic variable, and the statistical theory of collisions in a relativistic classical gas are reviewed. It is emphasized how the hyperbolic properties of the velocity space explain the peculiarities of relativistic scattering.
Lorentz invariant relative velocity and relativistic binary collisions
Cannoni, Mirco
2016-01-01
This article reviews the concept of Lorentz invariant relative velocity that is often misunderstood or unknown in high energy physics literature. The properties of the relative velocity allow to formulate the invariant flux and cross section without recurring to non--physical velocities or any assumption about the reference frame. Applications such as the luminosity of a collider, the use as kinematic variable, and the statistical theory of collisions in a relativistic classical gas are reviewed. It is emphasized how the hyperbolic properties of the velocity space explain the peculiarities of relativistic scattering.
Willis, K.; Orme, M.
An experimental investigation of viscous binary droplet collisions in a vacuum environment is conducted. The fundamental ramifications of conducting such experiments in a vacuum environment are twofold. The first, which is the motivating factor of this work, assures that the collision products are unimpeded by aerodynamic effects which tend to disrupt the collision process at a much earlier stage in the processes than if they were absent, and second, the phenomenon of encapsulation of the host medium between the colliding droplets is not present in this study; a fact that limits the scope of direct application of this study to a number of (but not all) applications. Droplets are generated from capillary stream breakup with the imposition of an amplitude-modulated disturbance which results in the generation of highly uniform pre-collision drops at separations far extending those which are possible from a standard (monochromatic) sinusoidal disturbance. Hence, the collision products are able to deform unimpeded by interactions with neighboring collision products. Measurements over a broad range of Weber number, We, indicate that the value of the critical Weber number, Wec, is more than 100 times greater for the 30-cSt fluid than the corresponding value for similarly sized water drops in a standard ambient environment. Measurements of the oblate and prolate half-cycle oscillation periods resulting from the binary collision reveal a distinct behavior that is observed and documented here for the first time. Additionally, measurements of the radial extent of the deformed mass at the instant of maximum deformation have been conducted and allow quantification of the energy dissipation. These measurements show that the energy dissipation increases with increasing fluid viscosity, which contradicts the results published by others.
Cascade statistics in the binary collision approximation and in full molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hou, M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Physique des Solides Irradies; Pan, Z.Y. [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Physics
1995-08-01
The Binary Collision Approximation (BCA) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) are used to simulate low energy atomic collision cascades in solids. Results are compared and discussed on the example of copper and gold self irradiation. For MD, long range N-body potentials are built, similar to those deduced from the second moment semi-empirical tight binding model. The pair interaction contribution is splined to a Moliere screened Coulomb potential at small separation distances. The BCA calculations are performed with the MARLOWE program, using the same Moliere potential as for MD, and modelling the N-body contribution by a binding of the atoms to their equilibrium lattice sites. The scattering integrals are estimated by means of a 4 points Gauss-Mehler quadrature. In MD, the NVT equations of motion are integrated with a constant time step of 2 fs. For the NVE cascade simulations, the Newton equations of motion are solved with a dynamically adjusted time step, kept lower than 2 fs. The influence of the time step on the simulated trajectories is discussed. The mean number of moving atoms with total energy above threshold values ranging from 1 to 100 eV is estimated as a function of time over 300 fs both with MARLOWE and by MD. This estimate is repeated for external primary energies ranging from 250 eV to 1 keV. In the case of copper, the BCA results are found to be in remarkable agreement with MD over about 200 fs cascade development, provided the size of the crystallite used in MD is sufficiently large in order to account for the early mechanical response of the close environment. This agreement between the two methods is found to be the best when the binding energy of the target atoms as modelled in the BCA is adjusted to a value close to the cohesive energy. In the case of gold, the agreement between BCA and MD is reasonable and the results suggest the need of an accurate modelling of linear collision sequences in the BCA. (orig.).
Markov Modelling of Fingerprinting Systems for Collision Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guénolé C. M. Silvestre
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Multimedia fingerprinting, also known as robust or perceptual hashing, aims at representing multimedia signals through compact and perceptually significant descriptors (hash values. In this paper, we examine the probability of collision of a certain general class of robust hashing systems that, in its binary alphabet version, encompasses a number of existing robust audio hashing algorithms. Our analysis relies on modelling the fingerprint (hash symbols by means of Markov chains, which is generally realistic due to the hash synchronization properties usually required in multimedia identification. We provide theoretical expressions of performance, and show that the use of M-ary alphabets is advantageous with respect to binary alphabets. We show how these general expressions explain the performance of Philips fingerprinting, whose probability of collision had only been previously estimated through heuristics.
Nersisyan, H B; Zwicknagel, G; Toepffer, C
2003-02-01
The energy loss of a heavy ion moving in a magnetized electron plasma is considered within the linear response (LR) and binary collision (BC) treatments with the purpose to look for a connection between these two models. These two complementary approaches yield close results if no magnetic field is present, but there develop discrepancies with growing magnetic field at ion velocities that are lower than, or comparable with, the thermal velocity of the electrons. We show that this is a peculiarity of the Coulomb interaction which requires cutoff procedures to account for its singularity at the origin and its infinite range. The cutoff procedures in the LR and BC treatments are different as the order of integrations in velocity and in ordinary (Fourier) spaces is reversed in both treatments. While BC involves a velocity average of Coulomb logarithms, there appear in LR Coulomb logarithms of velocity averaged cutoffs. The discrepancies between LR and BC vanish, except for small contributions of collective modes, for smoothened potentials that require no cutoffs. This is shown explicitly with the help of an improved BC in which the velocity transfer is treated up to second order in the interaction in Fourier space.
A model for collisions in granular gases
Brilliantov, Nikolai V.; Spahn, Frank; Hertzsch, Jan-Martin; Poeschel, Thorsten
2002-01-01
We propose a model for collisions between particles of a granular material and calculate the restitution coefficients for the normal and tangential motion as functions of the impact velocity from considerations of dissipative viscoelastic collisions. Existing models of impact with dissipation as well as the classical Hertz impact theory are included in the present model as special cases. We find that the type of collision (smooth, reflecting or sticky) is determined by the impact velocity and...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lu Yi-Gang; Dong Yan-Wu
2006-01-01
Based on Schaaff's collision factor theory (CFT) in liquids, the equations for nonlinear ultrasonic parameters in both organic liquid and binary organic liquid mixtures are deduced. The nonlinear ultrasonic parameters, including pressure coefficient, temperature coefficients of ultrasonic velocity, and nonlinear acoustic parameter B/A in both organic liquid and binary organic liquid mixtures, are evaluated for comparison with the measured results and data from other sources. The equations show that the coefficient of ultrasonic velocity and nonlinear acoustic parameter B/A are closely related to molecular interactions. These nonlinear ultrasonic parameters reflect some information of internal structure and outside status of the medium or mixtures. From the exponent of repulsive forces of the molecules,several thermodynamic parameters, pressure and temperature of the medium, the nonlinear ultrasonic parameters and ultrasonic nature of the medium can be evaluated. When evaluating and studying nonlinear acoustic parameter B/A of binary organic liquid mixtures, there is no need to know the nonlinear acoustic parameter B/A of the components.Obviously, the equation reveals the connection between the nonlinear ultrasonic nature and internal structure and outside status of the mixtures more directly and distinctly than traditional mixture law for B/A, e.g. Apfel's and Sehgal's laws for liquid binary mixtures.
Modelling droplet collision outcomes for different substances and viscosities
Sommerfeld, Martin; Kuschel, Matthias
2016-12-01
The main objective of the present study is the derivation of models describing the outcome of binary droplet collisions for a wide range of dynamic viscosities in the well-known collision maps (i.e. normalised lateral droplet displacement at collision, called impact parameter, versus collision Weber number). Previous studies by Kuschel and Sommerfeld (Exp Fluids 54:1440, 2013) for different solution droplets having a range of solids contents and hence dynamic viscosities (here between 1 and 60 mPa s) revealed that the locations of the triple point (i.e. coincidence of bouncing, stretching separation and coalescence) and the critical Weber number (i.e. condition for the transition from coalescence to separation for head-on collisions) show a clear dependence on dynamic viscosity. In order to extend these findings also to pure liquids and to provide a broader data basis for modelling the viscosity effect, additional binary collision experiments were conducted for different alcohols (viscosity range 1.2-15.9 mPa s) and the FVA1 reference oil at different temperatures (viscosity range 3.0-28.2 mPa s). The droplet size for the series of alcohols was around 365 and 385 µm for the FVA1 reference oil, in each case with fixed diameter ratio at Δ= 1. The relative velocity between the droplets was varied in the range 0.5-3.5 m/s, yielding maximum Weber numbers of around 180. Individual binary droplet collisions with defined conditions were generated by two droplet chains each produced by vibrating orifice droplet generators. For recording droplet motion and the binary collision process with good spatial and temporal resolution high-speed shadow imaging was employed. The results for varied relative velocity and impact angle were assembled in impact parameter-Weber number maps. With increasing dynamic viscosity a characteristic displacement of the regimes for the different collision scenarios was also observed for pure liquids similar to that observed for solutions. This
Asteroseismic modelling of the Binary HD 176465
Nsamba, B; Campante, T L; Reese, D R; White, T R; Hernández, A García; Jiang, C
2016-01-01
The detection and analysis of oscillations in binary star systems is critical in understanding stellar structure and evolution. This is partly because such systems have the same initial chemical composition and age. Solar-like oscillations have been detected by Kepler in both components of the asteroseismic binary HD 176465. We present an independent modelling of each star in this binary system. Stellar models generated using MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics) were fitted to both the observed individual frequencies and complementary spectroscopic parameters. The individual theoretical oscillation frequencies for the corresponding stellar models were obtained using GYRE as the pulsation code. A Bayesian approach was applied to find the probability distribution functions of the stellar parameters using AIMS (Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale) as the optimisation code. The ages of HD 176465 A and HD 176465 B were found to be 2.81 $\\pm$ 0.48 Gyr and 2.52 $\\pm$ 0.80 Gyr, respectively. ...
A Model for Contact Binary Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
A model for contact binary systems is presented, which incorporates the following special features: a) The energy exchange between the components is based on the understanding that the energy exchange is due to the release of potential, kinetic and thermal energies of the exchanged mass. b) A special form of mass and angular momentum loss occurring in contact binaries is losses via the outer Lagrangian point. c) The effects of spin, orbital rotation and tidal action on the stellar structure as well as the effect of meridian circulation on the mixing of the chemical elements are considered. d) The model is valid not only for low-mass contact binaries but also for high-mass contact binaries. For illustration, we used the model to trace the evolution of a massive binary system consisting of one 12M⊙ and one 5M⊙ star. The result shows that the start and end of the contact stage fall within the semi-detached phase during which the primary continually transfers mass to the secondary. The time span of the contact stage is short and the mass transfer rate is very large. Therefore, the contact stage can be regarded as a special part of the semi-detached phase with a large mass transfer rate. Both mass loss through the outer Lagrangian point and oscillation between contact and semi-contact states can occur during the contact phase, and the effective temperatures of the primary and the secondary are almost equal.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Swaminathan-Gopalan, Krishnan; Stephani, Kelly A., E-mail: ksteph@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)
2016-02-15
A systematic approach for calibrating the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) collision model parameters to achieve consistency in the transport processes is presented. The DSMC collision cross section model parameters are calibrated for high temperature atmospheric conditions by matching the collision integrals from DSMC against ab initio based collision integrals that are currently employed in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) and Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) high temperature computational fluid dynamics solvers. The DSMC parameter values are computed for the widely used Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) and the Variable Soft Sphere (VSS) models using the collision-specific pairing approach. The recommended best-fit VHS/VSS parameter values are provided over a temperature range of 1000-20 000 K for a thirteen-species ionized air mixture. Use of the VSS model is necessary to achieve consistency in transport processes of ionized gases. The agreement of the VSS model transport properties with the transport properties as determined by the ab initio collision integral fits was found to be within 6% in the entire temperature range, regardless of the composition of the mixture. The recommended model parameter values can be readily applied to any gas mixture involving binary collisional interactions between the chemical species presented for the specified temperature range.
Swaminathan-Gopalan, Krishnan; Stephani, Kelly A.
2016-02-01
A systematic approach for calibrating the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) collision model parameters to achieve consistency in the transport processes is presented. The DSMC collision cross section model parameters are calibrated for high temperature atmospheric conditions by matching the collision integrals from DSMC against ab initio based collision integrals that are currently employed in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) and Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) high temperature computational fluid dynamics solvers. The DSMC parameter values are computed for the widely used Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) and the Variable Soft Sphere (VSS) models using the collision-specific pairing approach. The recommended best-fit VHS/VSS parameter values are provided over a temperature range of 1000-20 000 K for a thirteen-species ionized air mixture. Use of the VSS model is necessary to achieve consistency in transport processes of ionized gases. The agreement of the VSS model transport properties with the transport properties as determined by the ab initio collision integral fits was found to be within 6% in the entire temperature range, regardless of the composition of the mixture. The recommended model parameter values can be readily applied to any gas mixture involving binary collisional interactions between the chemical species presented for the specified temperature range.
Modeling gravitational radiation from coalescing binary black holes
Baker, J; Loustó, C O; Takahashi, R
2002-01-01
With the goal of bringing theory, particularly numerical relativity, to bear on an astrophysical problem of critical interest to gravitational wave observers we introduce a model for coalescence radiation from binary black hole systems. We build our model using the "Lazarus approach", a technique that bridges far and close limit approaches with full numerical relativity to solve Einstein equations applied in the truly nonlinear dynamical regime. We specifically study the post-orbital radiation from a system of equal-mass non-spinning black holes, deriving waveforms which indicate strongly circularly polarized radiation of roughly 3% of the system's total energy and 12% of its total angular momentum in just a few cycles. Supporting this result we first establish the reliability of the late-time part of our model, including the numerical relativity and close-limit components, with a thorough study of waveforms from a sequence of black hole configurations varying from previously treated head-on collisions to rep...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schunert, Sebastian; Schwen, Daniel; Ghassemi, Pedram; Baker, Benjamin; Zabriskie, Adam; Ortensi, Javier; Wang, Yaqi; Gleicher, Frederick; DeHart, Mark; Martineau, Richard
2017-04-01
This work presents a multi-physics, multi-scale approach to modeling the Transient Test Reactor (TREAT) currently prepared for restart at the Idaho National Laboratory. TREAT fuel is made up of microscopic fuel grains (r ˜ 20µm) dispersed in a graphite matrix. The novelty of this work is in coupling a binary collision Monte-Carlo (BCMC) model to the Finite Element based code Moose for solving a microsopic heat-conduction problem whose driving source is provided by the BCMC model tracking fission fragment energy deposition. This microscopic model is driven by a transient, engineering scale neutronics model coupled to an adiabatic heating model. The macroscopic model provides local power densities and neutron energy spectra to the microscpic model. Currently, no feedback from the microscopic to the macroscopic model is considered. TREAT transient 15 is used to exemplify the capabilities of the multi-physics, multi-scale model, and it is found that the average fuel grain temperature differs from the average graphite temperature by 80 K despite the low-power transient. The large temperature difference has strong implications on the Doppler feedback a potential LEU TREAT core would see, and it underpins the need for multi-physics, multi-scale modeling of a TREAT LEU core.
Binary hidden Markov models and varieties
Critch, Andrew J
2012-01-01
The technological applications of hidden Markov models have been extremely diverse and successful, including natural language processing, gesture recognition, gene sequencing, and Kalman filtering of physical measurements. HMMs are highly non-linear statistical models, and just as linear models are amenable to linear algebraic techniques, non-linear models are amenable to commutative algebra and algebraic geometry. This paper examines closely those HMMs in which all the random variables, called nodes, are binary. Its main contributions are (1) minimal defining equations for the 4-node model, comprising 21 quadrics and 29 cubics, which were computed using Gr\\"obner bases in the cumulant coordinates of Sturmfels and Zwiernik, and (2) a birational parametrization for every binary HMM, with an explicit inverse for recovering the hidden parameters in terms of observables. The new model parameters in (2) are hence rationally identifiable in the sense of Sullivant, Garcia-Puente, and Spielvogel, and each model's Zar...
Eclipsing binary stars modeling and analysis
Kallrath, Josef
1999-01-01
This book focuses on the formulation of mathematical models for the light curves of eclipsing binary stars, and on the algorithms for generating such models Since information gained from binary systems provides much of what we know of the masses, luminosities, and radii of stars, such models are acquiring increasing importance in studies of stellar structure and evolution As in other areas of science, the computer revolution has given many astronomers tools that previously only specialists could use; anyone with access to a set of data can now expect to be able to model it This book will provide astronomers, both amateur and professional, with a guide for - specifying an astrophysical model for a set of observations - selecting an algorithm to determine the parameters of the model - estimating the errors of the parameters It is written for readers with knowledge of basic calculus and linear algebra; appendices cover mathematical details on such matters as optimization, coordinate systems, and specific models ...
Modelling colliding wind binaries with RAMSES, extension to special relativity
Lamberts, Astrid; Dubus, Guillaume; Lesur, Geoffroy
2012-01-01
We present high resolution simulations with RAMSES of supersonic colliding stellar winds. The collision results in a double shock structure which is subject to different instabilities. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) introduces some mixing and variability. For isothermal winds, the Non-linear Thin Shell Instability violently affects the interaction region. Properly modelling these instabilities requires a high enough resolution and an adapted numerical method, especially when one of the winds strongly dominates the other one. At large scale, orbital motion is expected to turn the shocked zone into a spiral but we find that in some configurations the KHI may disrupt the spiral. A colliding wind structure is also expected in gamma-ray binaries composed of a massive star and a young pulsar which emits a highly relativistic wind. Numerical simulations are necessary to understand the geometry of such systems and should take into account the relativistic nature of the pulsar wind. We implemented a second ord...
Model-independent inference on compact-binary observations
Mandel, Ilya; Farr, Will M.; Colonna, Andrea; Stevenson, Simon; Tiňo, Peter; Veitch, John
2016-01-01
The recent advanced LIGO detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes enhance the prospect of exploring binary evolution via gravitational-wave observations of a population of compact-object binaries. In the face of uncertainty about binary formation models, model-independent inference provides an appealing alternative to comparisons between observed and modelled populations. We describe a procedure for clustering in the multi-dimensional parameter space of observations t...
Model-independent inference on compact-binary observations
Mandel, Ilya; Farr, Will M.; Colonna, Andrea; Stevenson, Simon; Tiňo, Peter; Veitch, John
2017-03-01
The recent advanced LIGO detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes enhance the prospect of exploring binary evolution via gravitational-wave observations of a population of compact-object binaries. In the face of uncertainty about binary formation models, model-independent inference provides an appealing alternative to comparisons between observed and modelled populations. We describe a procedure for clustering in the multidimensional parameter space of observations that are subject to significant measurement errors. We apply this procedure to a mock data set of population-synthesis predictions for the masses of merging compact binaries convolved with realistic measurement uncertainties, and demonstrate that we can accurately distinguish subpopulations of binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and mixed neutron star-black hole binaries with tens of observations.
Model-independent inference on compact-binary observations
Mandel, Ilya; Colonna, Andrea; Stevenson, Simon; Tiňo, Peter; Veitch, John
2016-01-01
The recent advanced LIGO detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes enhance the prospect of exploring binary evolution via gravitational-wave observations of a population of compact-object binaries. In the face of uncertainty about binary formation models, model-independent inference provides an appealing alternative to comparisons between observed and modelled populations. We describe a procedure for clustering in the multi-dimensional parameter space of observations that are subject to significant measurement errors. We apply this procedure to a mock data set of population-synthesis predictions for the masses of merging compact binaries convolved with realistic measurement uncertainties, and demonstrate that we can accurately distinguish subpopulations of binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and mixed black hole -- neutron star binaries.
Binary progenitor models of type IIb supernovae
Claeys, J S W; Pols, O R; Eldridge, J J; Baes, M
2011-01-01
Massive stars that lose their hydrogen-rich envelope down to a few tenths of a solar mass explode as extended type IIb supernovae, an intriguing subtype that links the hydrogen-rich type II supernovae with the hydrogen-poor type Ib and Ic. The progenitors may be very massive single stars that lose their envelope due to their stellar wind, but mass stripping due to interaction with a companion star in a binary system is currently considered to be the dominant formation channel. We computed an extensive grid of binary models with the Eggleton binary evolution code. The predicted rate from our standard models, which assume conservative mass transfer, is about 6 times smaller than the current rate indicated by observations. It is larger but still comparable to the rate expected from single stars. To recover the observed rate we must generously allow for uncertainties and low accretion efficiencies in combination with limited angular momentum loss from the system. Motivated by the claims of detection and non-detec...
Non-Hertzian behavior in binary collisions of plastic balls derived from impact acoustics.
Riner, Joshua; Petculescu, Andi
2010-07-01
This paper presents slight deviations from Hertz's impact law, inferred from acoustic signatures of polypropylene ball collisions. An impact acoustics model is used to fit the acoustic data. The model is built upon a generalized relationship between impact force (F) and deformation (xi) of the form F=kappaxi(alpha). Agreement with experiment is reached when alpha and kappa differ from Hertz's values by -6.25% and +1%, respectively. The difference is ascribable to non-idealities such as slight material inhomogeneities, impact-point asymmetry, plasticity etc. Also, the collision energy released as sound, which is usually dismissed as negligible, is derived from data fitting. The acoustic-to-incident energy ratio, dependent on impact duration, is constrained to be on the order of 100 ppm.
Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model
Bhattacharjee, Shayak
2012-01-01
The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…
Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model
Bhattacharjee, Shayak
2012-01-01
The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…
A numerical 4D Collision Risk Model
Schmitt, Pal; Culloch, Ross; Lieber, Lilian; Kregting, Louise
2017-04-01
With the growing number of marine renewable energy (MRE) devices being installed across the world, some concern has been raised about the possibility of harming mobile, marine fauna by collision. Although physical contact between a MRE device and an organism has not been reported to date, these novel sub-sea structures pose a challenge for accurately estimating collision risks as part of environmental impact assessments. Even if the animal motion is simplified to linear translation, ignoring likely evasive behaviour, the mathematical problem of establishing an impact probability is not trivial. We present a numerical algorithm to obtain such probability distributions using transient, four-dimensional simulations of a novel marine renewable device concept, Deep Green, Minesto's power plant and hereafter referred to as the 'kite' that flies in a figure-of-eight configuration. Simulations were carried out altering several configurations including kite depth, kite speed and kite trajectory while keeping the speed of the moving object constant. Since the kite assembly is defined as two parts in the model, a tether (attached to the seabed) and the kite, collision risk of each part is reported independently. By comparing the number of collisions with the number of collision-free simulations, a probability of impact for each simulated position in the cross- section of the area is considered. Results suggest that close to the bottom, where the tether amplitude is small, the path is always blocked and the impact probability is 100% as expected. However, higher up in the water column, the collision probability is twice as high in the mid line, where the tether passes twice per period than at the extremes of its trajectory. The collision probability distribution is much more complex in the upper end of the water column, where the kite and tether can simultaneously collide with the object. Results demonstrate the viability of such models, which can also incorporate empirical
ACOUSTIC EFFECTS ON BINARY AEROELASTICITY MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kok Hwa Yu
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Acoustics is the science concerned with the study of sound. The effects of sound on structures attract overwhelm interests and numerous studies were carried out in this particular area. Many of the preliminary investigations show that acoustic pressure produces significant influences on structures such as thin plate, membrane and also high-impedance medium like water (and other similar fluids. Thus, it is useful to investigate the structure response with the presence of acoustics on aircraft, especially on aircraft wings, tails and control surfaces which are vulnerable to flutter phenomena. The present paper describes the modeling of structural-acoustic interactions to simulate the external acoustic effect on binary flutter model. Here, the binary flutter model which illustrated as a rectangular wing is constructed using strip theory with simplified unsteady aerodynamics involving flap and pitch degree of freedom terms. The external acoustic excitation, on the other hand, is modeled using four-node quadrilateral isoparametric element via finite element approach. Both equations then carefully coupled and solved using eigenvalue solution. The mentioned approach is implemented in MATLAB and the outcome of the simulated result are later described, analyzed and illustrated in this paper.
Modeling and analysis of advanced binary cycles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gawlik, K.
1997-12-31
A computer model (Cycle Analysis Simulation Tool, CAST) and a methodology have been developed to perform value analysis for small, low- to moderate-temperature binary geothermal power plants. The value analysis method allows for incremental changes in the levelized electricity cost (LEC) to be determined between a baseline plant and a modified plant. Thermodynamic cycle analyses and component sizing are carried out in the model followed by economic analysis which provides LEC results. The emphasis of the present work is on evaluating the effect of mixed working fluids instead of pure fluids on the LEC of a geothermal binary plant that uses a simple Organic Rankine Cycle. Four resources were studied spanning the range of 265{degrees}F to 375{degrees}F. A variety of isobutane and propane based mixtures, in addition to pure fluids, were used as working fluids. This study shows that the use of propane mixtures at a 265{degrees}F resource can reduce the LEC by 24% when compared to a base case value that utilizes commercial isobutane as its working fluid. The cost savings drop to 6% for a 375{degrees}F resource, where an isobutane mixture is favored. Supercritical cycles were found to have the lowest cost at all resources.
Fan affinity laws from a collision model
Bhattacharjee, Shayak
2012-01-01
The performance of a fan is usually estimated from hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this work we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour of air is incorporated. Our calculations prove the affinity laws and provide numerical estimates of the air delivery, thrust and drag on a rotating fan.
Spectral modelling of massive binary systems
Palate, Matthieu; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Moreno, Edmundo
2013-01-01
Aims: We simulate the spectra of massive binaries at different phases of the orbital cycle, accounting for the gravitational influence of the companion star on the shape and physical properties of the stellar surface. Methods: We used the Roche potential modified to account for radiation pressure to compute the stellar surface of close circular systems and we used the TIDES code for surface computation of eccentric systems. In both cases, we accounted for gravity darkening and mutual heating generated by irradiation to compute the surface temperature. We then interpolated NLTE plane-parallel atmosphere model spectra in a grid to obtain the local spectrum at each surface point. We finally summed all contributions, accounting for the Doppler shift, limb-darkening, and visibility to obtain the total synthetic spectrum. We computed different orbital phases and sets of physical and orbital parameters. Results: Our models predict line strength variations through the orbital cycle, but fail to completely reproduce t...
Quasi-binary incident electron–centre of mass collision in (, 3) process on He and He-like ions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R Choubisa; K K Sud
2005-07-01
We present in this communication the results of our first Born calculation in the three-Coulomb (3C) wave approach for the (, 3) process on He and He-like ions at an incident electron energy 5599 eV in the coplanar constant 12 as well as out-of-plane constant 12 modes. These two geometrical modes are such that the quasi-binary collision between the incident electron and centre of mass of the ejected electrons is in the scattering plane. The theoretical formalism has been developed using plane waves, Le Sech wave function and approximated BBK-type wave function respectively for the incident and scattered, bound and ejected electrons to calculate five-fold differential cross-section (FDCS) of the (, 3) process. We emphasize on the similarities and dissimilarities (asymmetries) in the angular profile of the FDCS in two modes as well as the effects of post-collision interaction (between the ejected electrons) and nuclear charge on the angular profile of the FDCS. We observe that with the increment of nuclear charge the two quasi-binary collisions approach towards identical behaviour at larger mutual angles and thus bringing less asymmetry in FDCS for higher target.
A Lattice Boltzmann Model of Binary Fluid Mixture
Orlandini, E; Yeomans, J M; Orlandini, Enzo; Swift, Michael R.
1995-01-01
We introduce a lattice Boltzmann for simulating an immiscible binary fluid mixture. Our collision rules are derived from a macroscopic thermodynamic description of the fluid in a way motivated by the Cahn-Hilliard approach to non-equilibrium dynamics. This ensures that a thermodynamically consistent state is reached in equilibrium. The non-equilibrium dynamics is investigated numerically and found to agree with simple analytic predictions in both the one-phase and the two-phase region of the phase diagram.
Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries
Centrella, Joan
2008-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the merger of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases in which the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a first step towards this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We report on the results of these initial simulations and discuss their likely importance for future hydrodynamical simulations.
Binary and Ternary Fission Within the Statistical Model
Adamian, Gurgen G.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Antonenko, Nikolai V.; Scheid, Werner
The binary and ternary nuclear fission are treated within the statistical model. At the scission point we calculate the potentials as functions of the deformations of the fragments in the dinuclear model. The potentials give the mass and charge distributions of the fission fragments. The ternary fission is assumed to occur during the binary fission.
Grande, P. L.
2016-10-01
A formula for determining the electronic stopping power and the transport cross section in electron-ion binary collisions is derived from the induced density for spherically symmetric potentials using the partial-wave expansion. In contrast to the previous one found in many textbooks, the present formula converges to the Bethe and Bloch stopping-power formulas at high ion velocities and agrees rather well with experimental stopping-power data, as shown here for Al, C, and H2O targets. It can be employed in plasma physics and particularly in any application that requires electronic stopping-power values of quasifree electrons with high accuracy.
On Sparse, Spectral and Other Parameterizations of Binary Probabilistic Models
Buchman, David; Schmidt, Mark; Mohamed, Shakir; Poole,David; de Freitas, Nando
2012-01-01
International audience; This paper studies issues relating to the parameterization of probability distributions over binary data sets. Several such parameterizations of models for binary data are known, including the Ising, generalized Ising, canonical and full parameterizations. We also discuss a parameterization that we call the "spectral parameterization", which has received significantly less coverage in existing literature. We provide this parameterization with a spectral interpretation ...
Accretion Disks Around Binary Black Holes: A Quasistationary Model
Liu, Yuk Tung
2010-01-01
Tidal torques acting on a gaseous accretion disk around a binary black hole can create a gap in the disk near the orbital radius. At late times, when the binary inspiral timescale due to gravitational wave emission becomes shorter than the viscous timescale in the disk, the binary decouples from the disk and eventually merges. Prior to decoupling the balance between tidal and viscous torques drives the disk to a quasistationary equilibrium state, perturbed slightly by small amplitude, spiral density waves emanating from the edges of the gap. We consider a black hole binary with a companion of smaller mass and construct a simple Newtonian model for a geometrically thin, Keplerian disk in the orbital plane of the binary. We solve the disk evolution equations in steady state to determine the quasistationary, (orbit-averaged) surface density profile prior to decoupling. We use our solution, which is analytic up to simple quadratures, to compute the electromagnetic flux and approximate radiation spectrum during th...
Spectral modelling of the Alpha Virginis (Spica) binary system
Palate, M; Rauw, G; Harrington, D; Moreno, E
2013-01-01
Context: The technique of matching synthetic spectra computed with theoretical stellar atmosphere models to the observations is widely used in deriving fundamental parameters of massive stars. When applied to binaries, however, these models generally neglect the interaction effects present in these systems Aims: The aim of this paper is to explore the uncertainties in binary stellar parameters that are derived from single-star models Methods: Synthetic spectra that include the tidal perturbations and irradiation effects are computed for the binary system alpha Virginis (Spica) using our recently-developed CoMBiSpeC model. The synthetic spectra are compared to S/N~2000 observations and optimum values of Teff and log(g) are derived. Results: The binary interactions have only a small effect on the strength of the photospheric absorption lines in Spica (<2% for the primary and <4% for the secondary). These differences are comparable to the uncertainties inherent to the process of matching synthetic spectra ...
Donahue, C. M.; Hrenya, C. M.; Zelinskaya, A. P.; Nakagawa, K. J.
2008-11-01
Using an apparatus inspired by Newton's cradle, the simultaneous, normal collision between three solid spheres is examined. Namely, an initially touching, motionless pair of "target" particles (doublet) is impacted on one end by a third "striker" particle. Measurements of postcollisional velocities and collision durations are obtained via high-speed photography and an electrical circuit, respectively. Contrary to intuition, the expected Newton's cradle outcome of a motionless, touching particle pair at the bottom of the pendulum arc is not observed in either case. Instead, the striker particle reverses its direction and separates from the middle particle after collision. This reversal is not observed, however, if the target particles are separated by a small distance (not in contact) initially, although a separation still occurs between the striker and middle particle after the collision, with both particles traveling in the same direction. For the case of initially touching target particles, contact duration measurements indicate that the striker separates from the three particles before the two target particles separate. However, when the targets are slightly separated, a three-particle collision is never observed, and the collision is, in fact, a series of two-body collisions. A subsequent implementation of a variety of hard-sphere and soft-sphere collision models indicates that a three-body (soft-sphere) treatment is essential for predicting the velocity reversal, consistent with the experimental findings. Finally, a direct comparison between model predictions and measurements of postcollisional velocities and contact durations provides a gauge of the relative merits of existing collision models for three-body interactions.
Collisions of Small Nuclei in the Thermal Model
Cleymans, J; Oeschler, H.; Redlich, K.; Sharma, N.
2016-01-01
An analysis is presented of the expectations of the thermal model for particle production in collisions of small nuclei. The maxima observed in particle ratios of strange particles to pions as a function of beam energy in heavy ion collisions, are reduced when considering smaller nuclei. Of particular interest is the $\\Lambda/\\pi^+$ ratio shows the strongest maximum which survives even in collisions of small nuclei.
Polishook, D; Prialnik, D
2010-01-01
Durda et al. (2004), using numerical models, suggested that binary asteroids with large separation, called Escaping Ejecta Binaries (EEBs), can be created by fragments ejected from a disruptive impact event. It is thought that six binary asteroids recently discovered might be EEBs because of the high separation between their components (~100 > a/Rp > ~20). However, the rotation periods of four out of the six objects measured by our group and others and presented here show that these suspected EEBs have fast rotation rates of 2.5 to 4 hours. Because of the small size of the components of these binary asteroids, linked with this fast spinning, we conclude that the rotational-fission mechanism, which is a result of the thermal YORP effect, is the most likely formation scenario. Moreover, scaling the YORP effect for these objects shows that its timescale is shorter than the estimated ages of the three relevant Hirayama families hosting these binary asteroids. Therefore, only the largest (D~19 km) suspected astero...
Physics Of Eclipsing Binaries. II. The Increased Model Precision
Prsa, Andrej; Horvat, Martin; Pablo, Herbert; Kochoska, Angela; Bloemen, Steven; Nemravova, Jana; Giammarco, Joseph; Hambleton, Kelly M; Degroote, Pieter
2016-01-01
The precision of photometric and spectroscopic observations has been systematically improved in the last decade, mostly thanks to space-borne photometric missions and ground-based spectrographs dedicated to finding exoplanets. The field of eclipsing binary stars strongly benefited from this development. Eclipsing binaries serve as critical tools for determining fundamental stellar properties (masses, radii, temperatures and luminosities), yet the models are not capable of reproducing observed data well, either because of the missing physics or because of insufficient precision. This led to a predicament where radiative and dynamical effects, insofar buried in noise, started showing up routinely in the data, but were not accounted for in the models. PHOEBE (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs; http://phoebe-project.org) is an open source modeling code for computing theoretical light and radial velocity curves that addresses both problems by incorporating missing physics and by increasing the computational fidelity. ...
Effective-one-body modeling of precessing black hole binaries
Taracchini, Andrea; Babak, Stanislav; Buonanno, Alessandra
2016-03-01
Merging black hole binaries with generic spins that undergo precessional motion emit complicated gravitational-wave signals. We discuss how such waveforms can be accurately modeled within an effective-one-body approach by (i) exploiting the simplicity of the signals in a frame that corotates with the orbital plane of the binary and (ii) relying on an accurate model of nonprecessing black hole binaries. The model is validated by extensive comparisons to 70 numerical relativity simulations of precessing black hole binaries and can generate inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms for mass ratios up to 100 and any spin configuration. This work is an essential tool for studying and characterizing candidate gravitational-wave events in science runs of advanced LIGO.
Modelling binary rotating stars by new population synthesis code BONNFIRES
Lau, Herbert H B; Schneider, Fabian R N
2013-01-01
BONNFIRES, a new generation of population synthesis code, can calculate nuclear reaction, various mixing processes and binary interaction in a timely fashion. We use this new population synthesis code to study the interplay between binary mass transfer and rotation. We aim to compare theoretical models with observations, in particular the surface nitrogen abundance and rotational velocity. Preliminary results show binary interactions may explain the formation of nitrogen-rich slow rotators and nitrogen-poor fast rotators, but more work needs to be done to estimate whether the observed frequencies of those stars can be matched.
Energy and angular momentum radiated for non head-on binary black hole collisions
Moreschi, O M; Lehner, L; Moreschi, Osvaldo; Perez, Alejandro; Lehner, Luis
2002-01-01
We investigate the possible total radiated energy produced by a binary black hole system containing non-vanishing total angular momentum. For the scenearios considered we find that the total radiated energy does not exceed 1%. Additionally we explore the gravitational radiation field and the variation of angular momentum in the process.
Modelling seabird collision risk with off-shore wind farms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mateos, Maria; Arroyo, Gonzalo Munoz; Rosario, Jose Juan Alonso del
2011-07-01
Full text: Recent concern about the adverse effects of collision mortality of avian migrants at wind farms has highlighted the need to understand bird-wind turbine interactions. Here, a stochastic collision model, based on data of seabird behaviour collected on- site, is presented, as a flexible and easy to take tool to assess the collisions probabilities of off-shore wind farms in a pre-construction phase. The collision prediction model considering the wind farm area as a risk window has been constructed as a stochastic model for avian migrants, based on Monte Carlo simulation. The model calculates the probable number of birds collided per time unit. Migration volume, wind farm dimensions, vertical and horizontal distribution of the migratory passage, flight direction and avoidance rates, between other variables, are taken into account in different steps of the model as the input variables. In order to assess the weighted importance of these factors on collision probability predictions, collision probabilities obtained from the set of scenarios resulting from the different combinations of the input variables were modelled by using Generalised Additive Models. The application of this model to a hypothetical project for erecting a wind farm at the Strait of Gibraltar showed that collision probability, and consequently mortality rates, strongly depend on the values of the avoidance rates taken into account, and the distribution of birds into the different altitude layers. These parameters should be considered as priorities to be addressed in post-construction studies. (Author)
Binary outcome variables and logistic regression models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xinhua LIU
2011-01-01
Biomedical researchers often study binary variables that indicate whether or not a specific event,such as remission of depression symptoms,occurs during the study period.The indicator variable Y takes two values,usually coded as one if the event (remission) is present and zero if the event is not present(non-remission).Let p be the probability that the event occurs ( Y =1),then 1-p will be the probability that the event does not occur ( Y =0).
Modeling the Collision with Friction of Rigid Bodies
Zabuga, A. G.
2016-09-01
Different models of a perfectly inelastic collision of rigid bodies in plane motion are compared. Formulas for the impact impulses are derived for the Kane-Levinson-Whittaker model based on the kinematic restitution factor, the Routh model based on the kinetic restitution factor, and the Stronge model based on the energy restitution factor. It is shown that these formulas coincide if the collision of rough rigid bodies in plane motion is perfectly inelastic
Shapiro, Stuart
2017-01-01
Hans A. Bethe elucidated our understanding of the fundamental forces of Nature by exploring and explaining countless phenomena occurring in nuclear laboratories and in stars. With the dawn of gravitational wave astronomy we now can probe compact binary mergers - Nature's cosmic collision experiments - to deepen our understanding, especially where strong-field gravitation is involved. In addition to gravitational waves, some mergers are likely to generate observable electromagnetic and/or neutrino radiation, heralding a new era of multimessenger astronomy. Robust numerical algorithms now allow us to simulate these events in full general relativity on supercomputers. We will describe some recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations that show how binary black hole-neutron star and neutron star-neutron star mergers can launch jets, lending support to the idea that such mergers could be the engines that power short gamma-ray bursts. We will also show how the magnetorotational collapse of very massive stars to spinning black holes immersed in magnetized accretion disks can launch jets as well, reinforcing the belief that such ``collapsars'' are the progenitors of long gamma-ray bursts. Computer-generated movies highlighting some of these simulations will be shown. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF Grants 1300903 and 1602536 and NASA Grant NNX13AH44G.
Binary fish passage models for uniform and nonuniform flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neary, Vincent S [ORNL
2011-01-01
Binary fish passage models are considered by many fisheries managers to be the best 21 available practice for culvert inventory assessments and for fishway and barrier design. 22 Misunderstandings between different binary passage modeling approaches often arise, 23 however, due to differences in terminology, application and presentation. In this paper 24 one-dimensional binary fish passage models are reviewed and refined to clarify their 25 origins and applications. For uniform flow, a simple exhaustion-threshold (ET) model 26 equation is derived that predicts the flow speed threshold in a fishway or velocity barrier 27 that causes exhaustion at a given maximum distance of ascent. Flow speeds at or above 28 the threshold predict failure to pass (exclusion). Flow speeds below the threshold predict 29 passage. The binary ET model is therefore intuitive and easily applied to predict passage 30 or exclusion. It is also shown to be consistent with the distance-maximizing model. The 31 ET model s limitation to uniform flow is addressed by deriving a passage model that 32 accounts for nonuniform flow conditions more commonly found in the field, including 33 backwater profiles and drawdown curves. Comparison of these models with 34 experimental observations of volitional passage for Gambusia affinis in uniform and 35 nonuniform flows indicates reasonable prediction of binary outcomes (passage or 36 exclusion) if the flow speed is not near the threshold flow velocity. More research is 37 needed on fish behavior, passage strategies under nonuniform flow regimes and 38 stochastic methods that account for individual differences in swimming performance at or 39 near the threshold flow speed. Future experiments should track and measure ground 40 speeds of ascending fish to test nonuniform flow passage strategies and to improve model 41 predictions. Stochastic models, such as Monte-Carlo techniques, that account for 42 different passage performance among individuals and allow
VQ-based model for binary error process
Csóka, Tibor; Polec, Jaroslav; Csóka, Filip; Kotuliaková, Kvetoslava
2017-05-01
A variety of complex techniques, such as forward error correction (FEC), automatic repeat request (ARQ), hybrid ARQ or cross-layer optimization, require in their design and optimization phase a realistic model of binary error process present in a specific digital channel. Past and more recent modeling approaches focus on capturing one or more stochastic characteristics with precision sufficient for the desired model application, thereby applying concepts and methods severely limiting the model applicability (eg in the form of modeled process prerequisite expectations). The proposed novel concept utilizing a Vector Quantization (VQ)-based approach to binary process modeling offers a viable alternative capable of superior modeling of most commonly observed small- and large-scale stochastic characteristics of a binary error process on the digital channel. Precision of the proposed model was verified using multiple statistical distances against the data captured in a wireless sensor network logical channel trace. Furthermore, the Pearson's goodness of fit test of all model variants' output was performed to conclusively demonstrate usability of the model for realistic captured binary error process. Finally, the presented results prove the proposed model applicability and its ability to far surpass the capabilities of the reference Elliot's model.
Hydrodynamical Models of Gas Cloud - Galaxy Collisions
Franklin, M.; Dinge, D.; Jones, T.; Benjamin, B.
1999-05-01
Clouds of neutral hydrogen falling toward the Galactic plane with a speed of about 100 km/s or more are among those considered to be "high velocity clouds" (HVCs). As HVCs are often observed approaching the midplane, the collision of such clouds with the gaseous disk of the Galaxy has been proposed as a precursor event to the phenomena known as "supershells" and as a catalyst to star formation. While many previous analytic calculations have assumed that ram pressure of the resisting medium was negligible, and a ballistic approximation was valid, observations showing a correlation between speed and increased height above the plane, the opposite of what is expected for free fall, suggest otherwise. Benjamin & Danly suggested in 1997 that clouds falling at terminal velocity provide a simple explanation for the observed velocity distribution. In this work, numerical models are used to test the above hypotheses with clouds falling through a more modern model of the interstellar medium than that used in the seminal work by Tenorio-Tagle et al. (TT) in 1987. With the addition of more dense material to the model background, clouds were still able to form supershell-like remnants, though star formation does not appear to be triggered. Further, though agreement was not perfect, the terminal velocity model was found to be a better approximation for these clouds' fall than the ballistic case. Cooling was a physical process included in TT's work which was not included here, but was found to be non-negligible. Simulations which include a cooling algorithm must be done to confirm these results. This work was supported in part by NSF grant AST96-19438.
Hydrodynamics of passing-over motion during binary droplet collision in shear flow
Wang, Cheng-Yao; Zhang, Cheng-Bin; Huang, Xiang-Yong; Liu, Xiang-Dong; Chen, Yong-Ping
2016-10-01
A combined experimental and numerical study is undertaken to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of single-phase droplet collision in a shear flow. The passing-over motion of interactive droplets is observed, and the underlying hydrodynamic mechanisms are elucidated by the analysis of the motion trajectory, transient droplet deformation and detailed hydrodynamic information (e.g., pressure and flow fields). The results indicate that the hydrodynamic interaction process under shear could be divided into three stages: approaching, colliding, and separating. With the increasing confinement, the interaction time for the passing-over process is shorter and the droplet processes one higher curvature tip and more stretched profile. Furthermore, the lateral separation Δy/R 1 exhibits larger decrease in the approaching stage and the thickness of the lubrication film is decreased during the interaction. As the initial lateral separation increases, the maximum trajectory shift by the collision interaction is getting smaller. During the collision between two droplets with different sizes, the amplitude of the deformation oscillation of the larger droplet is decreased by reducing the size ratio of the smaller droplet to the bigger one. Project supported by the NSAF (Grants No. U1530260), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51306158), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20130621), and the Special Program for Applied Research on Super Computation of the NSFC-Guangdong Joint Fund (the second phase).
A 3D dynamical model of the colliding winds in binary systems
Parkin, E R
2008-01-01
We present a 3D dynamical model of the orbital induced curvature of the wind-wind collision region in binary star systems. Momentum balance equations are used to determine the position and shape of the contact discontinuity between the stars, while further downstream the gas is assumed to behave ballistically. An archimedean spiral structure is formed by the motion of the stars, with clear resemblance to high resolution images of the so-called ``pinwheel nebulae''. A key advantage of this approach over grid or smoothed particle hydrodynamic models is its significantly reduced computational cost, while it also allows the study of the structure obtained in an eccentric orbit. The model is relevant to symbiotic systems and Gamma-ray binaries, as well as systems with O-type and Wolf-Rayet stars. As an example application, we simulate the X-ray emission from hypothetical O+O and WR+O star binaries, and describe a method of ray tracing through the 3D spiral structure to account for absorption by the circumstellar m...
Polishook, D.; Brosch, N.; Prialnik, D.
2011-03-01
Durda et al. (Durda, D.D., Bottke, W.F., Enke, B.L., Merline, W.J., Asphaug, E., Richardson, D.C., Leinhardt, Z.M. [2004]. Icarus 170, 243-257), using numerical models, suggested that binary asteroids with large separation, called Escaping Ejecta Binaries (EEBs), can be created by fragments ejected from a disruptive impact event. It is thought that six binary asteroids recently discovered might be EEBs because of the high separation between their components (∼100 > a/Rp > ∼20). However, the rotation periods of four out of the six objects measured by our group and others and presented here show that these suspected EEBs have fast rotation rates of 2.5-4 h. Because of the small size of the components of these binary asteroids, linked with this fast spinning, we conclude that the rotational-fission mechanism, which is a result of the thermal YORP effect, is the most likely formation scenario. Moreover, scaling the YORP effect for these objects shows that its timescale is shorter than the estimated ages of the three relevant Hirayama families hosting these binary asteroids. Therefore, only the largest (D ∼ 19 km) suspected asteroid, (317) Roxane, could be, in fact, the only known EEB. In addition, our results confirm the triple nature of (3749) Balam by measuring mutual events on its lightcurve that match the orbital period of a nearby satellite in addition to its distant companion. Measurements of (1509) Esclangona at different apparitions show a unique shape of the lightcurve that might be explained by color variations.
Coulomb Collision for Plasma Simulations: Modelling and Numerical Methods
Geiser, Juergen
2016-09-01
We are motivated to model weakly ionized Plasma applications. The modeling problem is based on an incorporated explicit velocity-dependent small-angle Coulomb collision terms into a Fokker-Planck equation. Such a collision is done with so called test and field particles, which are scattered stochastically based on a Langevin equation. Based on such different model approaches, means the transport part is done with kinetic equations, while the collision part is done via the Langevin equations, we present a splitting of these models. Such a splitting allow us to combine different modeling parts. For the transport part, we can apply particle models and solve them with particle methods, e.g., PIC, while for the collision part, we can apply the explicit Coulomb collision model, e.g., with fast stochastic differential equation solvers. Additional, we also apply multiscale approaches for the different parts of the transport part, e.g., different time-scales of an explicit electric field, and model-order reduction approaches. We present first numerical results for particle simulations with the deterministic-stochastic splitting schemes. Such ideas can be applied to sputtering problems or plasma applications with dominant Coulomb collisions.
Modelling of a collision between two smartphones
de Jesus, V. L. B.; Sasaki, D. G. G.
2016-09-01
In the predominant approach in physics textbooks, the collision between particles is treated as a black box, where no physical quantity can be measured. This approach becomes even more evident in experimental classes where collisions are the simplest and most common way of applying the theorem of conservation of linear momentum in the asymptotic behavior. In this paper we develop and analyse an experiment on collisions using only two smartphones. The experimental setup is amazingly simple; the two devices are aligned on a horizontal table of lacquered wood, in order to slide more easily. At the edge of one of them a piece of common sponge is glued using double-sided tape. By using a free smartphone application, the values generated by the accelerometer of the two devices in full motion are measured and tabulated. Through numerical iteration, the speed graphs of the smartphones before, during, and after the collision are obtained. The main conclusions were: (i) the demonstration of the feasibility of using smartphones as an alternative to air tracks and electronic sensors employed in a teaching lab, (ii) the possibility of investigating the collision itself, its characteristics and effects; this is the great advantage of the use of smartphones over traditional experiments, (iii) the compatibility of the results with the impulse-momentum theorem, within the margin of uncertainty.
Currency Arbitrage Detection Using a Binary Integer Programming Model
Soon, Wanmei; Ye, Heng-Qing
2011-01-01
In this article, we examine the use of a new binary integer programming (BIP) model to detect arbitrage opportunities in currency exchanges. This model showcases an excellent application of mathematics to the real world. The concepts involved are easily accessible to undergraduate students with basic knowledge in Operations Research. Through this…
Model of Centauro and strangelet production in heavy ion collisions
Angelis, Aris L S; Kharlov, Yu V; Korotkikh, V L; Mavromanolakis, G; Panagiotou, A D; Sadovsky, S A; Kharlov, Yu.V.
2004-01-01
We discuss the phenomenological model of Centauro event production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. This model makes quantitative predictions for kinematic observables, baryon number and mass of the Centauro fireball and its decay products. Centauros decay mainly to nucleons, strange hyperons and possibly strangelets. Simulations of Centauro events for the CASTOR detector in Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies are performed. The signatures of these events are discussed in detail.
Structure and selection in an autocatalytic binary polymer model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tanaka, Shinpei; Fellermann, Harold; Rasmussen, Steen
2014-01-01
An autocatalytic binary polymer system is studied as an abstract model for a chemical reaction network capable to evolve. Due to autocatalysis, long polymers appear spontaneously and their concentration is shown to be maintained at the same level as that of monomers. When the reaction starts from....... Stability, fluctuations, and dynamic selection mechanisms are investigated for the involved self-organizing processes. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2014......An autocatalytic binary polymer system is studied as an abstract model for a chemical reaction network capable to evolve. Due to autocatalysis, long polymers appear spontaneously and their concentration is shown to be maintained at the same level as that of monomers. When the reaction starts from...
A complete waveform model for compact binaries on eccentric orbits
Huerta, Eliu; Agarwal, Bhanu; George, Daniel; Kumar, Prayush
2016-03-01
The detection of compact binaries with significant eccentricity in the sensitivity band of gravitational wave detectors will provide critical insights on the dynamics and formation channels of these events. In order to search for these systems and place constraints on their rates, we present an inspiral-merger-ringdown time domain waveform model that describes the GW emission from compact binaries on orbits with low to moderate values of eccentricity. We use this model to explore the detectability of these events in the context of advanced LIGO.
Accuracy of Binary Black Hole Waveform Models for Advanced LIGO
Kumar, Prayush; Fong, Heather; Barkett, Kevin; Bhagwat, Swetha; Afshari, Nousha; Chu, Tony; Brown, Duncan; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Pfeiffer, Harald; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Simulating Extreme Spacetimes (SXS) Team
2016-03-01
Coalescing binaries of compact objects, such as black holes and neutron stars, are the primary targets for gravitational-wave (GW) detection with Advanced LIGO. Accurate modeling of the emitted GWs is required to extract information about the binary source. The most accurate solution to the general relativistic two-body problem is available in numerical relativity (NR), which is however limited in application due to computational cost. Current searches use semi-analytic models that are based in post-Newtonian (PN) theory and calibrated to NR. In this talk, I will present comparisons between contemporary models and high-accuracy numerical simulations performed using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC), focusing at the questions: (i) How well do models capture binary's late-inspiral where they lack a-priori accurate information from PN or NR, and (ii) How accurately do they model binaries with parameters outside their range of calibration. These results guide the choice of templates for future GW searches, and motivate future modeling efforts.
Avian collision risk models for wind energy impact assessments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masden, E.A., E-mail: elizabeth.masden@uhi.ac.uk [Environmental Research Institute, North Highland College-UHI, University of the Highlands and Islands, Ormlie Road, Thurso, Caithness KW14 7EE (United Kingdom); Cook, A.S.C.P. [British Trust for Ornithology, The Nunnery, Thetford IP24 2PU (United Kingdom)
2016-01-15
With the increasing global development of wind energy, collision risk models (CRMs) are routinely used to assess the potential impacts of wind turbines on birds. We reviewed and compared the avian collision risk models currently available in the scientific literature, exploring aspects such as the calculation of a collision probability, inclusion of stationary components e.g. the tower, angle of approach and uncertainty. 10 models were cited in the literature and of these, all included a probability of collision of a single bird colliding with a wind turbine during passage through the rotor swept area, and the majority included a measure of the number of birds at risk. 7 out of the 10 models calculated the probability of birds colliding, whilst the remainder used a constant. We identified four approaches to calculate the probability of collision and these were used by others. 6 of the 10 models were deterministic and included the most frequently used models in the UK, with only 4 including variation or uncertainty in some way, the most recent using Bayesian methods. Despite their appeal, CRMs have their limitations and can be ‘data hungry’ as well as assuming much about bird movement and behaviour. As data become available, these assumptions should be tested to ensure that CRMs are functioning to adequately answer the questions posed by the wind energy sector. - Highlights: • We highlighted ten models available to assess avian collision risk. • Only 4 of the models included variability or uncertainty. • Collision risk models have limitations and can be ‘data hungry’. • It is vital that the most appropriate model is used for a given task.
Collision-free speed model for pedestrian dynamics
Tordeux, Antoine; Seyfried, Armin
2015-01-01
We propose in this paper a minimal speed-based pedestrian model for which particle dynamics are intrinsically collision-free. The speed model is an optimal velocity function depending on the agent length (i.e.\\ particle diameter), maximum speed and time gap parameters. The direction model is a weighted sum of exponential repulsion from the neighbors, calibrated by the repulsion rate and distance. The model's main features like the reproduction of empirical phenomena are analysed by simulation. We point out that phenomena of self-organisation observable in force-based models and field studies can be reproduced by the collision-free model with low computational effort.
Two models with rescattering for high energy heavy ion collisions
Bøggild, H.; Hansen, Ole; Humanic, T. J.
2006-12-01
The effects of hadronic rescattering in high energy relativistic Au+Au collisions are studied using two very different models to describe the early stages of the collision. One model is based on a hadronic thermal picture and the other on a superposition of parton-parton collisions. Operationally, the output hadrons from each of these models are used as input to a hadronic rescattering calculation. The results of the rescattering calculations from each model are then compared with rapidity and transverse momentum distributions from the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider BRAHMS experiment. In spite of the different points of view of the two models of the initial stage, after rescattering, the observed differences between the models are mostly “washed out” and both models give observables that agree roughly with each other and with experimental data.
Phemenological Modeling of Eclipsing Binary Stars
Andronov, Ivan L; Chinarova, Lidia L
2016-01-01
We review the method NAV (New Algol Variable) first introduced in 2012Ap.....55..536A, which uses the locally-dependent shapes of eclipses in an addition to the trigonometric polynomial of the second order (which typically describes the "out-of-eclipse" part of the light curve with effects of reflection, ellipticity and O'Connell). Eclipsing binary stars are believed to show distinct eclipses only if belonging to the EA type. With a decreasing eclipse width, the statistically optimal value of the trigonometric polynomial s (2003ASPC..292..391A) drastically increases from ~2 for elliptic (EL) variables without eclipses, ~6-8 for EW and up to ~30-50 for some EA with narrow eclipses. In this case of large number of parameters, the smoothing curve becomes very noisy and apparent waves (the Gibbs phenomenon) may be seen. The NAV set of the parameters may be used for classification in the GCVS, VSX and similar catalogs. The maximal number of parameters is m=12, which corresponds to s=5, if correcting both the perio...
Guidance on the Choice of Threshold for Binary Forecast Modeling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
This paper proposes useful guidance on the choice of threshold for binary forecasts. In weather forecast systems, the probabilistic forecast cannot be used directly when estimated too smoothly. In this case, the binary forecast, whether a meteorological event will occur or not, is preferable to the probabilistic forecast.A threshold is needed to generate a binary forecast, and the guidance in this paper encompasses the use of skill scores for the choice of threshold according to the forecast pattern. The forecast pattern consists of distribution modes of estimated probabilities, occurrence rates of observations, and variation modes.This study is performed via Monte-Carlo simulation, with 48 forecast patterns considered. Estimated probabilities are generated by random variate sampling from five distributions separately. Varying the threshold from 0 to 1, binary forecasts are generated by threshold. For the assessment of binary forecast models, a 2×2 contingency table is used and four skill scores (Heidke skill score, hit rate, true skill statistic,and threat score) are compared for each forecast pattern. As a result, guidance on the choice of skill score to find the optimal threshold is proposed.
Weibull model of Multiplicity Distribution in hadron-hadron collisions
Dash, Sadhana
2014-01-01
We introduce the Weibull distribution as a simple parametrization of charged particle multiplicities in hadron-hadron collisions at all available energies, ranging from ISR energies to the most recent LHC energies. In statistics, the Weibull distribution has wide applicability in natural processes involving fragmentation processes. This gives a natural connection to the available state-of-the-art models for multi-particle production in hadron hadron collisions involving QCD parton fragmentation and hadronization.
Three-dimensional modeling of radiative disks in binaries
Picogna, Giovanni
2013-01-01
Circumstellar disks in binaries are perturbed by the companion gravity causing significant alterations of the disk morphology. Spiral waves due to the companion tidal force also develop in the vertical direction and affect the disk temperature profile. These effects may significantly influence the process of planet formation. We perform 3D numerical simulations of disks in binaries with different initial dynamical configurations and physical parameters. Our goal is to investigate their evolution and their propensity to grow planets. We use an improved version of the SPH code VINE modified to better account for momentum and energy conservation. The energy equation includes a flux--limited radiative transfer algorithm and the disk cooling is obtained via "boundary particles". We model a system made of star/disk + star/disk where the secondary star (and relative disk) is less massive than the primary. The numerical simulations performed for different values of binary separation and disk density show that the dis...
Trimmed Likelihood-based Estimation in Binary Regression Models
Cizek, P.
2005-01-01
The binary-choice regression models such as probit and logit are typically estimated by the maximum likelihood method.To improve its robustness, various M-estimation based procedures were proposed, which however require bias corrections to achieve consistency and their resistance to outliers is rela
Physics Of Eclipsing Binaries. II. Toward the Increased Model Fidelity
Prša, A.; Conroy, K. E.; Horvat, M.; Pablo, H.; Kochoska, A.; Bloemen, S.; Giammarco, J.; Hambleton, K. M.; Degroote, P.
2016-12-01
The precision of photometric and spectroscopic observations has been systematically improved in the last decade, mostly thanks to space-borne photometric missions and ground-based spectrographs dedicated to finding exoplanets. The field of eclipsing binary stars strongly benefited from this development. Eclipsing binaries serve as critical tools for determining fundamental stellar properties (masses, radii, temperatures, and luminosities), yet the models are not capable of reproducing observed data well, either because of the missing physics or because of insufficient precision. This led to a predicament where radiative and dynamical effects, insofar buried in noise, started showing up routinely in the data, but were not accounted for in the models. PHOEBE (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs; http://phoebe-project.org) is an open source modeling code for computing theoretical light and radial velocity curves that addresses both problems by incorporating missing physics and by increasing the computational fidelity. In particular, we discuss triangulation as a superior surface discretization algorithm, meshing of rotating single stars, light travel time effects, advanced phase computation, volume conservation in eccentric orbits, and improved computation of local intensity across the stellar surfaces that includes the photon-weighted mode, the enhanced limb darkening treatment, the better reflection treatment, and Doppler boosting. Here we present the concepts on which PHOEBE is built and proofs of concept that demonstrate the increased model fidelity.
Vaporization wave model for ion-ion central collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baldo, M.; Giansiracusa, G.; Piccitto, G. (Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy))
1983-09-24
We propose a simple model for central or nearly central ion-ion collisions at intermediate energies. It is based on the ''vaporization wave model'' developed by Bennett for macroscopic objects. The model offers a simple explanation of the observed deuteron/proton abundancy ratio as a function of the beam energy.
Vaporization wave model for ion-ion central collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baldo, M.; Giansiracusa, G.; Piccitto, G. (Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)
1983-09-24
A simple model for central or nearly central ion-ion collisions at intermediate energies is proposed. It is based on the ''vaporization wave model'' developed by Bennet for macroscopic objects. The model offers a simple explanation of the observed deuteron/proton abundancy ratio as a function of the beam energy.
Latent Classification Models for Binary Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre
2009-01-01
One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the naive Bayes models (a special class of Bayesian network models). However, these models rely on the (naive) assumption that all the attributes used to describe an instance are conditionally independent given...
Discovering binary codes for documents by learning deep generative models.
Hinton, Geoffrey; Salakhutdinov, Ruslan
2011-01-01
We describe a deep generative model in which the lowest layer represents the word-count vector of a document and the top layer represents a learned binary code for that document. The top two layers of the generative model form an undirected associative memory and the remaining layers form a belief net with directed, top-down connections. We present efficient learning and inference procedures for this type of generative model and show that it allows more accurate and much faster retrieval than latent semantic analysis. By using our method as a filter for a much slower method called TF-IDF we achieve higher accuracy than TF-IDF alone and save several orders of magnitude in retrieval time. By using short binary codes as addresses, we can perform retrieval on very large document sets in a time that is independent of the size of the document set using only one word of memory to describe each document.
A complete waveform model for compact binaries on eccentric orbits
Huerta, E A; Agarwal, Bhanu; George, Daniel; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Chu, Tony; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel A; Kidder, Lawrence E; Scheel, Mark A; Szilagyi, Bela
2016-01-01
We present a time domain waveform model that describes the inspiral, merger and ringdown of compact binary systems whose components are non-spinning, and which evolve on orbits with low to moderate eccentricity. The inspiral evolution is described using third order post-Newtonian equations both for the equations of motion of the binary, and its far-zone radiation field. This latter component also includes instantaneous, tails and tails-of-tails contributions, and a contribution due to non-linear memory. This framework reduces to the post-Newtonian approximant $\\texttt{TaylorT4}$ at third post-Newtonian order in the zero eccentricity limit. To improve phase accuracy, we also incorporate higher-order post-Newtonian corrections for the energy flux of quasi-circular binaries and gravitational self-force corrections to the binding energy of compact binaries. This enhanced prescription for the inspiral evolution is combined with a fully analytical prescription for the merger-ringdown evolution constructed using a c...
Kuiper Binary Object Formation
Nazzario, R C; Covington, C; Kagan, D; Hyde, T W
2005-01-01
It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction between the KBOs and the third body causes one of four effects; scattering into the Oort cloud, collisions with the growing protoplanets, formation of binary pairs, or creation of a single Kuiper belt object. Additionally, the initial location of the progenitors of the Kuiper belt objects also has a significant effect on binary formation.
Preon Model and a Possible New Physics in ep Collisions
Senju, H.
1993-03-01
The properties of predicted new particles in a preon-subpreon model are discussed. The model contains several new particles which could be detected in the near future. It is shown that ep colliders are especially adequate to study properties of a few of them. Production cross sections and signatures in ep collisions are discussed.
Preon model and a possible new physics in ep collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Senju, Hirofumi (Nagoya Municipal Women' s Coll. (Japan))
1993-03-01
The properties of predicted new particles in a preon-subpreon model are discussed. The model contains several new particles which could be detected in the near future. It is shown that ep colliders are especially adequate to study properties of a few of them. Production cross sections and signatures in ep collisions are discussed. (author).
Comprehensive Gravity and Dynamics Model Determination of Binary Asteroid Systems
Fahnestock, Eugene G.
2009-09-01
I present the development of additional tools within the framework of JPL's in-house Mirage / Orbit Determination Program (ODP) software to allow the determination of a comprehensive gravity and dynamics model for any binary asteroid system potentially visited by a spacecraft rendezvous mission. This involves a concurrent global solution for the gravity fields of both components, sufficient parametric description of their fully-coupled translational and rotational dynamics, the spacecraft state, and all other relevant force model parameters. This estimation process primarily uses spacecraft radio tracking data (range and Doppler measurements), supplemented by in-situ imaging observations data types. A solution for the gravity field (gravity analysis) and a simultaneous solution for the spacecraft motion and other system properties has been performed before using the ODP for solitary irregular small solar system bodies (e.g. Eros, visited by the NEAR mission), but never for any closely gravitationally bound pair of irregular small solar system bodies. I am expanding NASA's tool set to allow the latter, in preparation for potential future spacecraft rendezvous missions. This is nontrivial, because of the need to incorporate propagation of the binary system's fully-coupled rigid-body dynamical model either along with the spacecraft state within Mirage/ODP or "offline", followed by interpolating an appropriate "binary dynamics ephemeris” representation. Further, this model optionally incorporates formulations for body gravity fields not previously used in this context, and it can be computationally very expensive. However, successfully performing this model determination at a binary asteroid yields valuable science results concerning internal mass distributions and structures of the components and insight into the system's formation and evolution. In this poster I present my current progress in the development of this capability and results for the quality of science
Examining of the Collision Breakup Model between Geostationary Orbit Objects
Hata, Hidehiro; Hanada, Toshiya; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; Yasaka, Tetsuo; Harada, Shoji
This paper will examine the applicability of the hypervelocity collision model included in the NASA standard breakup model 2000 revision to low-velocity collisions possible in space, especially in the geosynchronous regime. The analytic method used in the standard breakup model will be applied to experimental data accumulated through low-velocity impact experiments performed at Kyushu Institute of Technology at a velocity about 300m/s and 800m/s. The projectiles and target specimens used were aluminum solid balls and aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels with face sheets of carbon fiber reinforced plastic, respectively. Then, we have found that a kind of lower boundary exists on fragment area-to-mass distribution at a smaller characteristic length range. This paper will describe the theoretical derivation of lower boundary and propose another modification on fragment area-to-mass distribution and it will conclude that the hypervelocity collision model in the standard breakup model can be applied to low-velocity collisions possible with some modifications.
Marginal and Random Intercepts Models for Longitudinal Binary Data with Examples from Criminology
Long, Jeffrey D.; Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.
2009-01-01
Two models for the analysis of longitudinal binary data are discussed: the marginal model and the random intercepts model. In contrast to the linear mixed model (LMM), the two models for binary data are not subsumed under a single hierarchical model. The marginal model provides group-level information whereas the random intercepts model provides…
Marginal and Random Intercepts Models for Longitudinal Binary Data with Examples from Criminology
Long, Jeffrey D.; Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.
2009-01-01
Two models for the analysis of longitudinal binary data are discussed: the marginal model and the random intercepts model. In contrast to the linear mixed model (LMM), the two models for binary data are not subsumed under a single hierarchical model. The marginal model provides group-level information whereas the random intercepts model provides…
Weibull model of multiplicity distribution in hadron-hadron collisions
Dash, Sadhana; Nandi, Basanta K.; Sett, Priyanka
2016-06-01
We introduce the use of the Weibull distribution as a simple parametrization of charged particle multiplicities in hadron-hadron collisions at all available energies, ranging from ISR energies to the most recent LHC energies. In statistics, the Weibull distribution has wide applicability in natural processes that involve fragmentation processes. This provides a natural connection to the available state-of-the-art models for multiparticle production in hadron-hadron collisions, which involve QCD parton fragmentation and hadronization. The Weibull distribution describes the multiplicity data at the most recent LHC energies better than the single negative binomial distribution.
Modeling binary correlated responses using SAS, SPSS and R
Wilson, Jeffrey R
2015-01-01
Statistical tools to analyze correlated binary data are spread out in the existing literature. This book makes these tools accessible to practitioners in a single volume. Chapters cover recently developed statistical tools and statistical packages that are tailored to analyzing correlated binary data. The authors showcase both traditional and new methods for application to health-related research. Data and computer programs will be publicly available in order for readers to replicate model development, but learning a new statistical language is not necessary with this book. The inclusion of code for R, SAS, and SPSS allows for easy implementation by readers. For readers interested in learning more about the languages, though, there are short tutorials in the appendix. Accompanying data sets are available for download through the book s website. Data analysis presented in each chapter will provide step-by-step instructions so these new methods can be readily applied to projects. Researchers and graduate stu...
Binary galaxy models with mond and Mannheim-Kazanas gravity
Soares, D S L
1995-01-01
Binary galaxies are modeled as point-masses obeying non-Newtonian gravity laws, namely, those prescribed by MOND and Mannheim-Kazanas theory of gravity. Random samples of such systems are generated by means of Monte Carlo simulations of binary orbits. Model pairs have equal mass galaxies, for which three cases are considered, with respect to individual galaxy masses, namely, galaxies with (a) 1 x 10^10 M_o, (b) 1 x 10^11 M_o and (c) 1 x 10^12 M_o. General features of synthetic samples are derived from a comparison with observed data of galaxy pairs. The main conclusions, provided that wide pairs be removed from the simulated samples by selection effects, are as follows. Case (a): MOND pairs on circular orbits may represent solutions to the binary dynamics. The galaxy mass-to-light ratio (M/L) implied is ~ 5 solar units, while medium and high eccentricity orbits require unrealistic small M/L, even smaller than 1 solar unit. For pairs obeying Mannheim-Kazanas gravity, even circular orbits give only marginal fit...
Models for Sixty Double-Lined Binaries containing Giants
Eggleton, Peter P
2016-01-01
The observed masses, radii and temperatures of 60 medium- to long-period binaries, most of which contain a cool, evolved star and a hotter less-evolved one, are compared with theoretical models which include (a) core convective overshooting, (b)mass loss, possibly driven by dynamo action as in RS CVn binaries, and (c) tidal friction, including its effect on orbital period through magnetic braking. A reasonable fit is found in about 42 cases, but in 11 other cases the primaries appear to have lost either more mass or less mass than the models predict, and in 4 others the orbit is predicted to be either more or less circular than observed. Of the remaining 3 systems, two ($\\gamma$ Per and HR 8242) have a markedly `over-evolved' secondary, our explanation being that the primary component is the merged remnant of a former short-period sub-binary in a former triple system. The last system (V695 Cyg) defies any agreement at present. Mention is also made of three other systems (V643 Ori, OW Gem and V453 Cep), which ...
Behaviour of ion velocity distributions for a simple collision model
St-Maurice, J.-P.; Schunk, R. W.
1974-01-01
Calculation of the ion velocity distributions for a weakly ionized plasma subjected to crossed electric and magnetic fields. An exact solution to Boltzmann's equation has been obtained by replacing the Boltzmann collision integral with a simple relaxation model. At altitudes above about 150 km, where the ion collision frequency is much less than the ion cyclotron frequency, the ion distribution takes the shape of a torus in velocity space for electric fields greater than 40 mV/m. This shape persists for one to two hours after application of the electric field. At altitudes where the ion collision and cyclotron frequencies are approximately equal (about 120 km), the ion velocity distribution is shaped like a bean for large electric field strengths. This bean-shaped distribution persists throughout the lifetime of ionospheric electric fields. These highly non-Maxwellian ion velocity distributions may have an appreciable affect on the interpretation of ion temperature measurements.
Almog, Assaf; Garlaschelli, Diego
2014-09-01
The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of multiple time series of activity of the constituent units, such as stocks or neurons, respectively. While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relations between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. These relations are a novel quantification of the fact that extreme price increments occur more often when most stocks move in the same direction. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices and their mapping to spin models in statistical physics, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to accurately replicate, and mathematically characterize, the observed binary/non-binary relations. We also obtain a phase diagram allowing us to identify, based only on the instantaneous aggregate return of a set of multiple time series, a regime where the so-called ‘market mode’ has an optimal interpretation in terms of collective (endogenous) effects, a regime where it is parsimoniously explained by pure noise, and a regime where it can be regarded as a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. Our approach allows us to connect spin models, simple stochastic processes, and ensembles of time series inferred from partial information.
Gaussian Process Model for Collision Dynamics of Complex Molecules.
Cui, Jie; Krems, Roman V
2015-08-14
We show that a Gaussian process model can be combined with a small number (of order 100) of scattering calculations to provide a multidimensional dependence of scattering observables on the experimentally controllable parameters (such as the collision energy or temperature) as well as the potential energy surface (PES) parameters. For the case of Ar-C_{6}H_{6} collisions, we show that 200 classical trajectory calculations are sufficient to provide a ten-dimensional hypersurface, giving the dependence of the collision lifetimes on the collision energy, internal temperature, and eight PES parameters. This can be used for solving the inverse scattering problem, for the efficient calculation of thermally averaged observables, for reducing the error of the molecular dynamics calculations by averaging over the PES variations, and for the analysis of the sensitivity of the observables to individual parameters determining the PES. Trained by a combination of classical and quantum calculations, the model provides an accurate description of the quantum scattering cross sections, even near scattering resonances.
Rybczyński, Maciej
2011-01-01
We investigate the influence of the nucleon-nucleon collision profile (probability of interaction as a function of the nucleon-nucleon impact parameter) in the wounded nucleon model and its extensions on several observables measured in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We find that the participant eccentricity coefficient, $\\epsilon^\\ast$, as well as the higher harmonic coefficients, $\\epsilon_n^\\ast$, are reduced by 10-20% for mid-peripheral collisions when the realistic (Gaussian) profile is used, as compared to the case with the commonly-used hard-sphere profile. Similarly, the multiplicity fluctuations, treated as the function of the number of wounded nucleons in one of the colliding nuclei, are reduced by 10-20%. This demonstrates that the Glauber Monte Carlo codes should necessarily use the realistic nucleon-nucleon collision profile in precision studies of these observables. The Gaussian collision profile is built-in in {\\tt GLISSANDO}.
Optimum Binary Search Trees on the Hierarchical Memory Model
Thite, Shripad
2008-01-01
The Hierarchical Memory Model (HMM) of computation is similar to the standard Random Access Machine (RAM) model except that the HMM has a non-uniform memory organized in a hierarchy of levels numbered 1 through h. The cost of accessing a memory location increases with the level number, and accesses to memory locations belonging to the same level cost the same. Formally, the cost of a single access to the memory location at address a is given by m(a), where m: N -> N is the memory cost function, and the h distinct values of m model the different levels of the memory hierarchy. We study the problem of constructing and storing a binary search tree (BST) of minimum cost, over a set of keys, with probabilities for successful and unsuccessful searches, on the HMM with an arbitrary number of memory levels, and for the special case h=2. While the problem of constructing optimum binary search trees has been well studied for the standard RAM model, the additional parameter m for the HMM increases the combinatorial comp...
Thin shell morphology in the circumstellar medium of massive binaries
van Marle, A. -J; Keppens, R.; Meliani, Z.
2011-01-01
Context. In massive binaries, the powerful stellar winds of the two stars collide, leading to the formation of shock-dominated environments that can be modeled only in 3D. Aims. We investigate the morphology of the collision-front shell between the stellar winds of binary components in two long-peri
Structural classification and a binary structure model for superconductors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dong Cheng
2006-01-01
Based on structural and bonding features, a new classification scheme of superconductors is proposed to classify conductors can be partitioned into two parts, a superconducting active component and a supplementary component.Partially metallic covalent bonding is found to be a common feature in all superconducting active components, and the electron states of the atoms in the active components usually make a dominant contribution to the energy band near the Fermi surface. Possible directions to explore new superconductors are discussed based on the structural classification and the binary structure model.
Critical mingling and universal correlations in model binary active liquids
Bain, Nicolas; Bartolo, Denis
2017-06-01
Ensembles of driven or motile bodies moving along opposite directions are generically reported to self-organize into strongly anisotropic lanes. Here, building on a minimal model of self-propelled bodies targeting opposite directions, we first evidence a critical phase transition between a mingled state and a phase-separated lane state specific to active particles. We then demonstrate that the mingled state displays algebraic structural correlations also found in driven binary mixtures. Finally, constructing a hydrodynamic theory, we single out the physical mechanisms responsible for these universal long-range correlations typical of ensembles of oppositely moving bodies.
Modeling adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on microporous media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Shapiro, Alexander
2007-01-01
The goal of this work is to analyze the adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on the basis of the multicomponent potential theory of adsorption (MPTA). In the MPTA, the adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external potential field emitted by the solid adsorbent. This makes...... it possible using the same equation of state to describe the thermodynamic properties of the segregated and the bulk phases. For comparison, we also used the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) to describe adsorption equilibria. The main advantage of these two models is their capabilities to predict...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toia, Alberica, E-mail: alberica.toia@cern.ch [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy); Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany)
2014-06-15
Measurements of particle production in proton–nucleus collisions provide a reference to disentangle final state effects, i.e. signatures of the formation of a deconfined hot medium, from initial state effects, already present in cold nuclear matter. Since many initial state effects are expected to vary as function of the number of collisions suffered by the incoming proton, it is crucial to estimate the centrality of the collision. In p-Pb collisions categorization of events into different centrality classes using a particle multiplicity distribution is complicated by the low particle multiplicities and the large multiplicity fluctuations. We present ALICE measurements of particle production in p-Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=5.02 TeV, including the pseudo-rapidity and transverse momentum dependence, and we discuss the event classification in centrality classes and its implications for the measurements of nuclear modification factors.
Toia, Alberica
2014-01-01
Measurements of particle production in proton-nucleus collisions provide a reference to disentangle final state effects, i.e. signatures of the formation of a deconfined hot medium, from initial state effects, already present in cold nuclear matter. Since many initial state effects are expected to vary as a function of the number of collisions suffered by the incoming proton, it is crucial to estimate the centrality of the collision. In p-Pb collisions categorization of events into different centrality classes using a particle multiplicity distribution is complicated by the low particle multiplicities and the large multiplicity fluctuations. We present ALICE measurements of particle production in p-Pb collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 5.02$ TeV, including the pseudo-rapidity and transverse momentum dependence, we discuss the event classification in centrality classes and its implications for the measurements of nuclear modification factors.
Models of Vortices and Spirals in White Dwarf's Accretion Binaries
Boneva, Daniela
2010-11-01
The main aim in the current survey is to suggest models of the development of structures, such as vortices and spirals, in accretion white dwarf's binaries. On the base of hydrodynamical analytical considerations it is applied numerical methods and simulations. It is suggested in the theoretical model the perturbation's parameters of the accretion flow, caused by the influences of the tidal wave over the flux of accretion matter around the secondary star. To examine such disturbed flow, the numerical code has involved in the calculations. The results reveal us an appearing of structure with spiral shape due to the tidal interaction in the close binaries. Our further simulations give the solution, which expresses the formation of vortical configurations in the accretion disc's zone. The evolution of vortices in areas of the flow's interaction is explored using single vortex and composite vortex models. Gas in the disc matter is considered to be compressible and non-ideal. The longevity of all these structures is different and each depends of time period of the rotation, density and velocity of the accretion matter.
Modified binary encounter Bethe model for electron-impact ionization
Guerra, M; Indelicato, P; Santos, J P
2013-01-01
Theoretical expressions for ionization cross sections by electron impact based on the binary encounter Bethe (BEB) model, valid from ionization threshold up to relativistic energies, are proposed. The new modified BEB (MBEB) and its relativistic counterpart (MRBEB) expressions are simpler than the BEB (nonrelativistic and relativistic) expressions because they require only one atomic parameter, namely the binding energy of the electrons to be ionized, and use only one scaling term for the ionization of all sub-shells. The new models are used to calculate the K-, L- and M-shell ionization cross sections by electron impact for several atoms with Z from 6 to 83. Comparisons with all, to the best of our knowledge, available experimental data show that this model is as good or better than other models, with less complexity.
A new collision avoidance model for pedestrian dynamics
Wang, Qian-Ling; Chen, Yao; Dong, Hai-Rong; Zhou, Min; Ning, Bin
2015-03-01
The pedestrians can only avoid collisions passively under the action of forces during simulations using the social force model, which may lead to unnatural behaviors. This paper proposes an optimization-based model for the avoidance of collisions, where the social repulsive force is removed in favor of a search for the quickest path to destination in the pedestrian’s vision field. In this way, the behaviors of pedestrians are governed by changing their desired walking direction and desired speed. By combining the critical factors of pedestrian movement, such as positions of the exit and obstacles and velocities of the neighbors, the choice of desired velocity has been rendered to a discrete optimization problem. Therefore, it is the self-driven force that leads pedestrians to a free path rather than the repulsive force, which means the pedestrians can actively avoid collisions. The new model is verified by comparing with the fundamental diagram and actual data. The simulation results of individual avoidance trajectories and crowd avoidance behaviors demonstrate the reasonability of the proposed model. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61233001 and 61322307) and the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities of China (Grant No. 2013JBZ007).
3D Hydrodynamic & Radiative Transfer Models of X-ray Emission from Colliding Wind Binaries
Russell, Christopher M P; Owocki, Stanley P; Corcoran, Michael F; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Sugawara, Yasuharu
2014-01-01
Colliding wind binaries (CWBs) are unique laboratories for X-ray astrophysics. The massive stars in these systems possess powerful stellar winds with speeds up to $\\sim$3000 km s$^{-1}$, and their collision leads to hot plasma (up to $\\sim10^8$K) that emit thermal X-rays (up to $\\sim$10 keV). Many X-ray telescopes have observed CWBs, including Suzaku, and our work aims to model these X-ray observations. We use 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to model the wind-wind interaction, and then perform 3D radiative transfer to compute the emergent X-ray flux, which is folded through X-ray telescopes' response functions to compare directly with observations. In these proceedings, we present our models of Suzaku observations of the multi-year-period, highly eccentric systems $\\eta$ Carinae and WR 140. The models reproduce the observations well away from periastron passage, but only $\\eta$ Carinae's X-ray spectrum is reproduced at periastron; the WR 140 model produces too much flux during this more complicated p...
Non-equilibrium of charged particles in swarms and plasmas—from binary collisions to plasma effects
Petrović, Z. Lj; Simonović, I.; Marjanović, S.; Bošnjaković, D.; Marić, D.; Malović, G.; Dujko, S.
2017-01-01
In this article we show three quite different examples of low-temperature plasmas, where one can follow the connection of the elementary binary processes (occurring at the nanoscopic scale) to the macroscopic discharge behavior and to its application. The first example is on the nature of the higher-order transport coefficient (second-order diffusion or skewness); how it may be used to improve the modelling of plasmas and also on how it may be used to discern details of the relevant cross sections. A prerequisite for such modeling and use of transport data is that the hydrodynamic approximation is applicable. In the second example, we show the actual development of avalanches in a resistive plate chamber particle detector by conducting kinetic modelling (although it may also be achieved by using swarm data). The current and deposited charge waveforms may be predicted accurately showing temporal resolution, which allows us to optimize detectors by adjusting the gas mixture composition and external fields. Here kinetic modeling is necessary to establish high accuracy and the details of the physics that supports fluid models that allows us to follow the transition to streamers. Finally, we show an example of positron traps filled with gas that, for all practical purposes, are a weakly ionized gas akin to swarms, and may be modelled in that fashion. However, low pressures dictate the need to apply full kinetic modelling and use the energy distribution function to explain the kinetics of the system. In this way, it is possible to confirm a well established phenomenology, but in a manner that allows precise quantitative comparisons and description, and thus open doors to a possible optimization.
A family of models for Schelling binary choices
Cavalli, Fausto; Naimzada, Ahmad; Pireddu, Marina
2016-02-01
We introduce and study a family of discrete-time dynamical systems to model binary choices based on the framework proposed by Schelling in 1973. The model we propose uses a gradient-like adjustment mechanism by means of a family of smooth maps and allows understanding and analytically studying the phenomena qualitatively described by Schelling. In particular, we investigate existence of steady states and their relation to the equilibria of the static model studied by Schelling, and we analyze local stability, linking several examples and considerations provided by Schelling with bifurcation theory. We provide examples to confirm the theoretical results and to numerically investigate the possible destabilizations, as well as the emergence of coexisting attractors. We show the existence of chaos for a particular example.
Modeling non-radial oscillations on components of close binaries
Latković, Olivera; Cséki, Attila
2014-02-01
We developed an advanced binary system model that includes stellar oscillations on one or both stars, with the goal of mode identification by fitting of the photometric light curves. The oscillations are modeled as perturbations of the local surface temperature and the local gravitational potential. In the case of tidally distorted stars, it is assumed that the pulsation axis coincides with the direction connecting the centers of the components rather than with the rotation axis. The mode identification method, originally devised by B. Bíró, is similar to eclipse mapping in that it utilizes the amplitude, phase and frequency modulation of oscillations during the eclipse; but the identification is achieved by grid-fitting of the observed light curve rather than by image reconstruction. The proposed model and the mode identification method have so far been tested on synthetic data with encouraging results.
Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marwah Almasri
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot navigation based on the fuzzy logic fusion model. Eight distance sensors and a range finder camera are used for the collision avoidance approach where three ground sensors are used for the line or path following approach. The fuzzy system is composed of nine inputs which are the eight distance sensors and the camera, two outputs which are the left and right velocities of the mobile robot’s wheels, and 24 fuzzy rules for the robot’s movement. Webots Pro simulator is used for modeling the environment and the robot. The proposed methodology, which includes the collision avoidance based on fuzzy logic fusion model and line following robot, has been implemented and tested through simulation and real time experiments. Various scenarios have been presented with static and dynamic obstacles using one robot and two robots while avoiding obstacles in different shapes and sizes.
Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation.
Almasri, Marwah; Elleithy, Khaled; Alajlan, Abrar
2015-12-26
Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot navigation based on the fuzzy logic fusion model. Eight distance sensors and a range finder camera are used for the collision avoidance approach where three ground sensors are used for the line or path following approach. The fuzzy system is composed of nine inputs which are the eight distance sensors and the camera, two outputs which are the left and right velocities of the mobile robot's wheels, and 24 fuzzy rules for the robot's movement. Webots Pro simulator is used for modeling the environment and the robot. The proposed methodology, which includes the collision avoidance based on fuzzy logic fusion model and line following robot, has been implemented and tested through simulation and real time experiments. Various scenarios have been presented with static and dynamic obstacles using one robot and two robots while avoiding obstacles in different shapes and sizes.
Modelling the brightness increase signature due to asteroid collisions
McLoughlin, Ev; McLoughlin, Alan
2015-01-01
We have developed a model to predict the post-collision brightness increase of sub-catastrophic collisions between asteroids and to evaluate the likelihood of a survey detecting these events. It is based on the cratering scaling laws of Holsapple and Housen (2007) and models the ejecta expansion following an impact as occurring in discrete shells each with their own velocity. We estimate the magnitude change between a series of target/impactor pairs, assuming it is given by the increase in reflecting surface area within a photometric aperture due to the resulting ejecta. As expected the photometric signal increases with impactor size, but we find also that the photometric signature decreases rapidly as the target asteroid diameter increases, due to gravitational fallback. We have used the model results to make an estimate of the impactor diameter for the (596) Scheila collision of D=49-65m depending on the impactor taxonomy, which is broadly consistent with previous estimates. We varied both the strength regi...
Extended hard-sphere model and collisions of cohesive particles.
Kosinski, Pawel; Hoffmann, Alex C
2011-09-01
In two earlier papers the present authors modified a standard hard-sphere particle-wall and particle-particle collision model to account for the presence of adhesive or cohesive interaction between the colliding particles: the problem is of importance for modeling particle-fluid flow using the Lagrangian approach. This technique, which involves a direct numerical simulation of such flows, is gaining increasing popularity for simulating, e.g., dust transport, flows of nanofluids and grains in planetary rings. The main objective of the previous papers was to formally extend the impulse-based hard-sphere model, while suggestions for quantifications of the adhesive or cohesive interaction were made. This present paper gives an improved quantification of the adhesive and cohesive interactions for use in the extended hard-sphere model for cases where the surfaces of the colliding bodies are "dry," e.g., there is no liquid-bridge formation between the colliding bodies. This quantification is based on the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) analysis of collision dynamics but includes, in addition, dissipative forces using a soft-sphere modeling technique. In this way the cohesive impulse, required for the hard-sphere model, is calculated together with other parameters, namely the collision duration and the restitution coefficient. Finally a dimensional analysis technique is applied to fit an analytical expression to the results for the cohesive impulse that can be used in the extended hard-sphere model. At the end of the paper we show some simulation results in order to illustrate the model.
Quark model and high energy collisions
Anisovich, V V; Nyíri, J; Shabelski, Yu M
2004-01-01
This is an updated version of the book published in 1985. QCD-motivated, it gives a detailed description of hadron structure and soft interactions in the additive quark model, where hadrons are regarded as composite systems of dressed quarks. In the past decade it has become clear that nonperturbative QCD, responsible for soft hadronic processes, may differ rather drastically from perturbative QCD. The understanding of nonperturbative QCD requires a detailed investigation of the experiments and the theoretical approaches. Bearing this in mind, the book has been rewritten paying special attenti
Numerical models of trench migration in continental collision zones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Magni
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Continental collision is an intrinsic feature of plate tectonics. The closure of an oceanic basin leads to the onset of subduction of buoyant continental material, which slows down and eventually stops the subduction process. We perform a parametric study of the geometrical and rheological influence on subduction dynamics during the subduction of continental lithosphere. In 2-D numerical models of a free subduction system with temperature and stress-dependent rheology, the trench and the overriding plate move self-consistently as a function of the dynamics of the system (i.e. no external forces are imposed. This setup enables to study how continental subduction influences the trench migration. We found that in all models the trench starts to advance once the continent enters the subduction zone and continues to migrate until few million years after the ultimate slab detachment. Our results support the idea that the trench advancing is favoured and, in part provided by, the intrinsic force balance of continental collision. We suggest that the trench advance is first induced by the locking of the subduction zone and the subsequent steepening of the slab, and next by the sinking of the deepest oceanic part of the slab, during stretching and break-off of the slab. The amount of trench advancing ranges from 40 to 220 km and depends on the dip angle of the slab before the onset of collision.
Modeling the Asymmetric Wind of Massive LBV Binary MWC 314
Lobel, A; Dozinel, K Torres; Gorlova, N; Martayan, C; Raskin, G; Van Winckel, H; Prins, S; Pessemier, W; Waelkens, C; Frémat, Y; Hensberge, H; Dummortier, L; Jorissen, A; Van Eck, S; Lehmann, H
2011-01-01
Spectroscopic monitoring with Mercator-HERMES over the past two years reveals that MWC 314 is a massive binary system composed of an early B-type primary LBV star and a less-luminous supergiant companion. We determine an orbital period Porb of 60.85 d from optical S II and Ne I absorption lines observed in this single-lined spectroscopic binary. We find an orbital eccentricity of e=0.26, and a large amplitude of the radial velocity curve of 80.6 km/s. The ASAS V light-curve during our spectroscopic monitoring reveals two brightness minima (\\Delta V~0.1 mag.) over the orbital period due to partial eclipses at an orbital inclination angle of ~70 degrees. We find a clear correlation between the orbital phases and the detailed shapes of optical and near-IR P Cygni-type line profiles of He I, Si II, and double- or triple-peaked stationary cores of prominent Fe II emission lines. A preliminary 3-D radiative transfer model computed with Wind3D shows that the periodic P Cygni line profile variability results from an ...
A model for the non-thermal emission of the very massive colliding-wind binary HD 93129A
del Palacio, Santiago; Romero, Gustavo E; Benaglia, Paula
2016-01-01
The binary stellar system HD 93129A is one of the most massive known binaries in our Galaxy. This system presents non-thermal emission in the radio band, which can be used to infer its physical conditions and predict its emission in the high-energy band. We intend to constrain some of the unknown parameters of HD 93129A through modelling the non-thermal emitter, and also to analyse the detectability of this source in hard X-rays and $\\gamma$-rays. We develop a broadband radiative model for the wind-collision region taking into account the evolution of the accelerated particles streaming along the shocked region, the emission by different radiative processes, and the attenuation of the emission propagating through the local matter and radiation fields. From the analysis of the radio emission, we find that the binary HD~93129A is more likely to have a low inclination and a high eccentricity. The minimum energy of the non-thermal electrons seems to be between $\\sim 20 - 100$MeV, depending on the intensity of the...
Numerical models of slab migration in continental collision zones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Magni
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Continental collision is an intrinsic feature of plate tectonics. The closure of an oceanic basin leads to the onset of subduction of buoyant continental material, which slows down and eventually stops the subduction process. In natural cases, evidence of advancing margins has been recognized in continental collision zones such as India-Eurasia and Arabia-Eurasia. We perform a parametric study of the geometrical and rheological influence on subduction dynamics during the subduction of continental lithosphere. In our 2-D numerical models of a free subduction system with temperature and stress-dependent rheology, the trench and the overriding plate move self-consistently as a function of the dynamics of the system (i.e. no external forces are imposed. This setup enables to study how continental subduction influences the trench migration. We found that in all models the slab starts to advance once the continent enters the subduction zone and continues to migrate until few million years after the ultimate slab detachment. Our results support the idea that the advancing mode is favoured and, in part, provided by the intrinsic force balance of continental collision. We suggest that the advance is first induced by the locking of the subduction zone and the subsequent steepening of the slab, and next by the sinking of the deepest oceanic part of the slab, during stretching and break-off of the slab. These processes are responsible for the migration of the subduction zone by triggering small-scale convection cells in the mantle that, in turn, drag the plates. The amount of advance ranges from 40 to 220 km and depends on the dip angle of the slab before the onset of collision.
A model for the non-thermal emission of the very massive colliding-wind binary HD 93129A
del Palacio, S.; Romero, G. E.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Benaglia, P.
2016-08-01
Recently, the wind collision region of the system HD 93129A was resolved for the first time using very large baseline interferometry. This system is one of the most massive known binaries in our Galaxy. In this work we develop a broadband radiative model for the wind collision region. The model takes into account the evolution of accelerated particles streaming along the shocked region, their emission through different radiative processes, and the attenuation of the radiation while it propagates across all local fields. We reproduce the available radio data, and analyze the consequent detectability of the source in hard X/gamma-rays. We predict how the emission from the system will evolve in the forthcoming years when the stars come closer, and we also provide synthetic radio maps that allow to interpret the future observations with very large baseline interferometry in 2.3 GHz and 8.6 GHz. According to our results, the non-thermal emission from this system will enhance in the near future. With instruments such as NuSTAR, Fermi, and CTA, it will be possible to determine whether the relativistic particle content is hadron or lepton dominated, and other parameters such as the strength of the magnetic field in the wind collision region and, indirectly, the magnetic field in the surface of the very massive stars.
Atomic collision processes for modelling cool star spectra
Barklem, Paul
2015-05-01
The abundances of chemical elements in cool stars are very important in many problems in modern astrophysics. They provide unique insight into the chemical and dynamical evolution of the Galaxy, stellar processes such as mixing and gravitational settling, the Sun and its place in the Galaxy, and planet formation, to name a just few examples. Modern telescopes and spectrographs measure stellar spectral lines with precision of order 1 per cent, and planned surveys will provide such spectra for millions of stars. However, systematic errors in the interpretation of observed spectral lines leads to abundances with uncertainties greater than 20 per cent. Greater precision in the interpreted abundances should reasonably be expected to lead to significant discoveries, and improvements in atomic data used in stellar atmosphere models play a key role in achieving such advances in precision. In particular, departures from the classical assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) represent a significant uncertainty in the modelling of stellar spectra and thus derived chemical abundances. Non-LTE modelling requires large amounts of radiative and collisional data for the atomic species of interest. I will focus on inelastic collision processes due to electron and hydrogen atom impacts, the important perturbers in cool stars, and the progress that has been made. I will discuss the impact on non-LTE modelling, and what the modelling tells us about the types of collision processes that are important and the accuracy required. More specifically, processes of fundamentally quantum mechanical nature such as spin-changing collisions and charge transfer have been found to be very important in the non-LTE modelling of spectral lines of lithium, oxygen, sodium and magnesium.
Adler, S. S.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Jamel, A.; Alexander, J.; Aoki, K.; Aphecetche, L.; Armendariz, R. (R.); Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R.; T.C. Awes; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.
2013-01-01
Measurements of the midrapidity transverse energy distribution, $d\\Et/d\\eta$, are presented for $p$$+$$p$, $d$$+$Au, and Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV and additionally for Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=62.4$ and 130 GeV. The $d\\Et/d\\eta$ distributions are first compared with the number of nucleon participants $N_{\\rm part}$, number of binary collisions $N_{\\rm coll}$, and number of constituent-quark participants $N_{qp}$ calculated from a Glauber model based on th...
A radiative model of quark masses with binary tetrahedral symmetry
Natale, Alexander
2017-01-01
A radiative model of quark and lepton masses utilizing the binary tetrahedral (T‧) flavor symmetry, or horizontal symmetry, is proposed which produces the first two generation of quark masses through their interactions with vector-like quarks that carry charges under an additional U (1). By softly-breaking the T‧ to a residual Z4 through the vector-like quark masses, a CKM mixing angle close to the Cabibbo angle is produced. In order to generate the cobimaximal neutrino oscillation pattern (θ13 ≠ 0 ,θ23 = π / 4 ,δCP = ± π / 2) and protect the horizontal symmetry from arbitrary corrections in the lepton sector, there are automatically two stabilizing symmetries in the dark sector. Several benchmark cases where the correct relic density is achieved in a multi-component DM scenario, as well as the potential collider signatures of the vector-like quarks are discussed.
Thermodynamic modeling of the Ba - Mg binary system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ren, Xin; Li, Changrong; Du, Zhenmin; Guo, Cuiping; Chen, Sicheng [Univ. of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering
2013-04-15
On the basis of the thermochemical and phase equilibrium experimental data, the phase diagram of the Ba - Mg binary system has been assessed by means of the calculation of phase diagrams technique. The liquid phase is of unlimited solubility and modeled as a solution phase using the Redlich-Kister equation. The intermetallic compounds, Mg{sub 17}Ba{sub 2}, Mg{sub 23}Ba{sub 6} and Mg{sub 2}Ba, with no solubility ranges are treated as strict stoichiometric compounds with the formula Mg{sub m} Ba{sub n}. Two terminal phases, BccBa and HcpMg, are kept as solution phases, since the solubilities of the two phases are of considerable importance. After optimization, a set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters has been obtained. The calculated values agree well with the available experimental data.
Development of topography in 3-D continental-collision models
Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, Boris J. P.
2015-05-01
Understanding the formation and evolution of high mountain belts, such as the Himalayas and the adjacent Tibetan Plateau, has been the focus of many tectonic and numerical models. Here we employ 3-D numerical simulations to investigate the role that subduction, collision, and indentation play on lithosphere dynamics at convergent margins, and to analyze the conditions under which large topographic plateaus can form in an integrated lithospheric and upper mantle-scale model. Distinct dynamics are obtained for the oceanic subduction side (trench retreat, slab rollback) and the continental-collision side (trench advance, slab detachment, topographic uplift, lateral extrusion). We show that slab pull alone is insufficient to generate high topography in the upper plate, and that external forcing and the presence of strong blocks such as the Tarim Basin are necessary to create and shape anomalously high topographic fronts and plateaus. Moreover, scaling is used to predict four different modes of surface expression in continental-collision models: (I) low-amplitude homogeneous shortening, (II) high-amplitude homogeneous shortening, (III) Alpine-type topography with topographic front and low plateau, and (IV) Tibet-Himalaya-type topography with topographic front and high plateau. Results of semianalytical models suggest that the Argand number governs the formation of high topographic fronts, while the amplitude of plateaus is controlled by the initial buoyancy ratio of the upper plate. Applying these results to natural examples, we show that the Alps belong to regime (III), the Himalaya-Tibet to regime (IV), whereas the Andes-Altiplano fall at the boundary between regimes (III) and (IV).
Model-free linkage analysis of a binary trait.
Xu, Wei; Bull, Shelley B; Mirea, Lucia; Greenwood, Celia M T
2012-01-01
Genetic linkage analysis aims to detect chromosomal regions containing genes that influence risk of specific inherited diseases. The presence of linkage is indicated when a disease or trait cosegregates through the families with genetic markers at a particular region of the genome. Two main types of genetic linkage analysis are in common use, namely model-based linkage analysis and model-free linkage analysis. In this chapter, we focus solely on the latter type and specifically on binary traits or phenotypes, such as the presence or absence of a specific disease. Model-free linkage analysis is based on allele-sharing, where patterns of genetic similarity among affected relatives are compared to chance expectations. Because the model-free methods do not require the specification of the inheritance parameters of a genetic model, they are preferred by many researchers at early stages in the study of a complex disease. We introduce the history of model-free linkage analysis in Subheading 1. Table 1 describes a standard model-free linkage analysis workflow. We describe three popular model-free linkage analysis methods, the nonparametric linkage (NPL) statistic, the affected sib-pair (ASP) likelihood ratio test, and a likelihood approach for pedigrees. The theory behind each linkage test is described in this section, together with a simple example of the relevant calculations. Table 4 provides a summary of popular genetic analysis software packages that implement model-free linkage models. In Subheading 2, we work through the methods on a rich example providing sample software code and output. Subheading 3 contains notes with additional details on various topics that may need further consideration during analysis.
Modeling and Observations of Massive Binaries with the B[e] Phenomenon
Lobel, A.; Martayan, C.; Mehner, A.; Groh, J. H.
2017-02-01
We report a long-term high-resolution spectroscopic monitoring program of LBVs and candidate LBVs with Mercator-HERMES. Based on 7 years of data, we recently showed that supergiant MWC 314 is a (Galactic) semi-detached eccentric binary with stationary permitted and forbidden emission lines in the optical and near-IR region. MWC 314 is a luminous and massive probable LBV star showing a strongly orbitally-modulated wind variability. We observe discrete absorption components in P Cyg He I lines signaling large-scale wind structures. In 2014 XMM observed X-rays indicating strong wind-wind collision in the close binary system (a ≃1 AU). A VLT-NACO imaging survey recently revealed that MWC 314 is a triple hierarchical system. We present a 3-D non-LTE radiative transfer model of the extended asymmetric wind structure around the primary B0 supergiant for modeling the orbital variability of P Cyg absorption (v∞˜1200 km s-1) in He I lines. An analysis of the HERMES monitoring spectra of the Galactic LBV star MWC 930 however does not show clear indications of a spectroscopic binary. The detailed long-term spectroscopic variability of this massive B[e] star is very similar to the spectroscopic variability of the prototypical blue hypergiant S Dor in the LMC. We observe prominent P Cyg line shapes in MWC 930 that temporarily transform into split absorption line cores during variability phases of its S Dor cycle over the past decade with a brightening in V of ˜ 1.2 mag. The line splitting phenomenon is very similar to the split metal line cores observed in pulsating Yellow Hypergiants ρ Cas (F-K Ia+) and HR 8752 (A-K Ia+) with [Ca II] and [N II] emission lines. We propose the line core splitting in MWC 930 is due to optically thick central line emission produced in the inner ionized wind region becoming mechanically shock-excited with the increase of R* and decrease of Teff of the LBV.
Lattouf, E; Chesnel, J -Y; Kovács, S T S; Bene, E; Herczku, P; Huber, B A; Méry, A; Poully, J -C; Rangama, J; Sulik, B
2015-01-01
Molecular fragmentation leading to the formation of negatively and positively charged hydrogen ions in 7-keV OH$^+$ + Ar collisions is investigated experimentally. The most striking finding is that negative and positive hydrogen ions are emitted with very similar angular dependences. Also, the kinetic energy distribution of the H$^+$ fragment shows strong similarities with that of the ejected H$^-$ ion. The kinematics of the emitted H core is found to be essentially driven by its scattering on the atomic target. However, in addition to this binary-encounter process, dissociative electronic excitation of the molecular projectile has to be invoked to explain the observed fragmentation patterns. Though the electron capture process is complex, it is shown that the relative population of the different final charge states of the outgoing fragments can be described by simple statistical laws.
Progenitor models of Wolf-Rayet+O binary systems
Petrovic, J.; Langer, N.
2007-01-01
Since close WR+O binaries are the result of a strong interaction of both stars in massive close binary systems, they can be used to constrain the highly uncertain mass and angular momentum budget during the major mass- transfer phase. We explore the progenitor evolution of the three best suited WR+O
Double pendulum model for tennis stroke including a collision process
Youn, Sun-Hyun
2015-01-01
By means of adding a collision process between the ball and racket in double pendulum model, we analyzed the tennis stroke. It is possible that the speed of the rebound ball does not simply depend on the angular velocity of the racket, and higher angular velocity sometimes gives lower ball speed. We numerically showed that the proper time lagged racket rotation increases the speed of the rebound ball by 20%. We also showed that the elbow should move in order to add the angular velocity of the racket.
Model for hypernucleus production in heavy ion collisions
Pop, V Topor
2010-01-01
We estimate the production cross sections of hypernuclei in projectile like fragment (PLF) in heavy ion collisions. The discussed scenario for the formation cross section of hypernucleus is: (a) Lambda particles are produced in the participant region but have a considerable rapidity spread and (b) Lambda with rapidity close to that of the PLF and total momentum (in the rest system of PLF) up to Fermi motion can then be trapped and produce hypernuclei. The process (a) is considered here within Heavy Ion Jet Interacting Generator HIJING-BBbar model and the process (b) in the canonical thermodynamic model (CTM). We estimate the production cross-sections for light hypernuclei for C + C at 3.7 GeV total nucleon-nucleon center of mass energy and for Ne+Ne and Ar+Ar collisions at 5.0 GeV. By taking into account explicitly the impact parameter dependence of the colliding systems, it is found that the cross section is different from that predicted by the coalescence model and large discrepancy is obtained for 6_He and...
Eikonal model analysis of elastic hadron collisions at high energies
Prochazka, Jiri
2016-01-01
Elastic collisions of protons at different energies represent main background in studying the structure of fundamental particles at the present. On the basis of standardly used model proposed by West and Yennie the protons have been then interpreted as transparent objects; elastic events have been interpreted as more central than inelastic ones. It will be shown that using eikonal model the protons may be interpreted in agreement with usual ontological conception; elastic processes being more peripheral than inelastic ones. The corresponding results (differing fundamentally from those of WY model) will be presented by analyzing the most ample elastic data set measured at ISR energy of 53 GeV. Detailed analysis of measured differential cross section will be performed and different alternatives of peripheral behavior on the basis of eikonal model will be presented. The impact of recently established electromagnetic form factors on determination of quantities specifying hadron interaction determined from the fit...
A Simple Model of Wings in Heavy-Ion Collisions
Parikh, Aditya
2015-01-01
We create a simple model of heavy ion collisions independent of any generators as a way of investigating a possible source of the wings seen in data. As a first test, we reproduce a standard correlations plot to verify the integrity of the model. We then proceed to test whether an η dependent v2 could be a source of the wings and take projections along multiple Δφ intervals and compare with data. Other variations of the model are tested by having dN/dφ and v2 depend on η as well as including pions and protons into the model to make it more realistic. Comparisons with data seem to indicate that an η dependent v2 is not the main source of the wings.
An extended topological model for binary phosphate glasses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hermansen, Christian [Section of Chemistry, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark); Rodrigues, Bruno P.; Wondraczek, Lothar [Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research, University of Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Yue, Yuanzheng, E-mail: yy@bio.aau.dk [Section of Chemistry, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark); State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architecture, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)
2014-12-28
We present a topological model for binary phosphate glasses that builds on the previously introduced concepts of the modifying ion sub-network and the strength of modifier constraints. The validity of the model is confirmed by the correct prediction of T{sub g}(x) for covalent polyphosphoric acids where the model reduces to classical constraint counting. The constraints on the modifying cations are linear constraints to first neighbor non-bridging oxygens, and all angular constraints are broken as expected for ionic bonding. For small modifying cations, such as Li{sup +}, the linear constraints are almost fully intact, but for larger ions, a significant fraction is broken. By accounting for the fraction of intact modifying ion related constraints, q{sub γ}, the T{sub g}(x) of alkali phosphate glasses is predicted. By examining alkali, alkaline earth, and rare earth metaphosphate glasses, we find that the effective number of intact constraints per modifying cation is linearly related to the charge-to-distance ratio of the modifying cation to oxygen.
Generalized Fiducial Inference for Binary Logistic Item Response Models.
Liu, Yang; Hannig, Jan
2016-06-01
Generalized fiducial inference (GFI) has been proposed as an alternative to likelihood-based and Bayesian inference in mainstream statistics. Confidence intervals (CIs) can be constructed from a fiducial distribution on the parameter space in a fashion similar to those used with a Bayesian posterior distribution. However, no prior distribution needs to be specified, which renders GFI more suitable when no a priori information about model parameters is available. In the current paper, we apply GFI to a family of binary logistic item response theory models, which includes the two-parameter logistic (2PL), bifactor and exploratory item factor models as special cases. Asymptotic properties of the resulting fiducial distribution are discussed. Random draws from the fiducial distribution can be obtained by the proposed Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm. We investigate the finite-sample performance of our fiducial percentile CI and two commonly used Wald-type CIs associated with maximum likelihood (ML) estimation via Monte Carlo simulation. The use of GFI in high-dimensional exploratory item factor analysis was illustrated by the analysis of a set of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire data.
改进的返回式二进制防碰撞算法%Improved return binary anti-collision algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张航; 唐明浩; 程晖
2011-01-01
As the key technology of Internet of Things applications, Radio Frequency Identification(RFID) is a hot research area in recent years.In the large-scale RFID applications, there will be inevitable collision of tags identification.As a reference to the number of bytes and the number of search instructions sent in a time slot,an improved return binary anti-collision algorithm is proposed to reduce data throughput and search instructions in per time slot.%作为物联网应用中的关键技术,射频识别(RFID)技术是近年来的热门研究领域.在大规模的RFID应用中,不可避免地会有标签识别的碰撞问题.以每个时隙传输数据的字节数以及搜索命令的发送次数作为参考指标,对已有算法进行分析比较,在已有算法的基础上提出一种改进的返回式二进制防碰撞算法,减少每个时隙数据的传输量和命令搜索次数,使得新的改进算法性能有较大的提升.
Unobserved Heterogeneity in the Binary Logit Model with Cross-Sectional Data and Short Panels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier; Pedersen, Morten
This paper proposes a new approach to dealing with unobserved heterogeneity in applied research using the binary logit model with cross-sectional data and short panels. Unobserved heterogeneity is particularly important in non-linear regression models such as the binary logit model because, unlike...... in linear regression models, estimates of the effects of observed independent variables are biased even when omitted independent variables are uncorrelated with the observed independent variables. We propose an extension of the binary logit model based on a finite mixture approach in which we conceptualize...
Petculescu, Andi; Riner, Joshua
2010-10-01
Usually, the energy released as air-coupled sound following a collision is dismissed as negligible. The goal of this Letter is to quantify the value of this small but measurable quantity, since it can be useful to impact studies. Measurements of sound radiation from binary collisions of polypropylene balls were performed in order to constrain the fraction of incident energy radiated as sound in air. In the experiments, one ball is released from rest, directly above a stationary target ball. The transient acoustic waveforms are detected by a microphone rotated about the impact point at a radius of 10 cm. The sound pressure was measured as a function of the polar angle θ (the azimuthal symmetry of the problem was verified by rotating the microphone in the horizontal plane). The angular pattern has two main lobes that are asymmetric with respect to the impact plane. This asymmetry is ascribable to interference and/or scattering effects. Gaps in the acoustic measurements at the "poles" (i.e., around 0° and 180°) pose a challenge similar to that of extrapolating the cosmic microwave background in the galactic "cut." The data was continued in the gaps by polynomial interpolation rather than least-squares fitting, a choice dictated by the accuracy of the reconstructed pattern. The acoustic energy radiated during the impact, estimated by multiplying the collision time by the sound intensity integrated over a spherical surface centered at the impact point, is calculated as four orders of magnitude smaller than the incident energy (0.23 μJ versus 1.6 mJ).
A Covariant OBE Model for $\\eta$ Production in NN Collisions
Gedalin, E; Razdolskaya, L A
1998-01-01
A relativistic covariant one boson exchange model, previously applied to describe elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering, is extended to study $\\eta$ production in NN collisions. The transition amplitude for the elementary BN->$\\eta$N process with B being the meson exchanged (B=$\\pi$, $|sigma$,$\\eta$, corresponding to s and u-channels with a nucleon or a nucleon isobar N*(1535MeV) in the intermediate states. Taking the relative phases of the various exchange amplitudes to be +1, the model reproduces the cross sections for the $NN\\to X\\eta$ reactions in a consistent manner. In the limit where all overall contributions from the exchange of pseudoscalart and scalar mesons with that of vector mesons cancel out. Consequently, much of the ambiguities in the model predictions due to unknown relative phases of different vector pseudoscalar exchanges are strongly reduced.
Phenomenological Modelling of a Group of Eclipsing Binary Stars
Andronov, Ivan L.; Tkachenko, Mariia G.; Chinarova, Lidia L.
2016-03-01
Phenomenological modeling of variable stars allows determination of a set of the parameters, which are needed for classification in the "General Catalogue of Variable Stars" and similar catalogs. We apply a recent method NAV ("New Algol Variable") to eclipsing binary stars of different types. Although all periodic functions may be represented as Fourier series with an infinite number of coefficients, this is impossible for a finite number of the observations. Thus one may use a restricted Fourier series, i.e. a trigonometric polynomial (TP) of order s either for fitting the light curve, or to make a periodogram analysis. However, the number of parameters needed drastically increases with decreasing width of minimum. In the NAV algorithm, the special shape of minimum is used, so the number of parameters is limited to 10 (if the period and initial epoch are fixed) or 12 (not fixed). We illustrate the NAV method by application to a recently discovered Algol-type eclipsing variable 2MASS J11080308-6145589 (in the field of previously known variable star RS Car) and compare results to that obtained using the TP fits. For this system, the statistically optimal number of parameters is 44, but the fit is still worse than that of the NAV fit. Application to the system GSC 3692-00624 argues that the NAV fit is better than the TP one even for the case of EW-type stars with much wider eclipses. Model parameters are listed.
Sparse Representation Based Binary Hypothesis Model for Hyperspectral Image Classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yidong Tang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The sparse representation based classifier (SRC and its kernel version (KSRC have been employed for hyperspectral image (HSI classification. However, the state-of-the-art SRC often aims at extended surface objects with linear mixture in smooth scene and assumes that the number of classes is given. Considering the small target with complex background, a sparse representation based binary hypothesis (SRBBH model is established in this paper. In this model, a query pixel is represented in two ways, which are, respectively, by background dictionary and by union dictionary. The background dictionary is composed of samples selected from the local dual concentric window centered at the query pixel. Thus, for each pixel the classification issue becomes an adaptive multiclass classification problem, where only the number of desired classes is required. Furthermore, the kernel method is employed to improve the interclass separability. In kernel space, the coding vector is obtained by using kernel-based orthogonal matching pursuit (KOMP algorithm. Then the query pixel can be labeled by the characteristics of the coding vectors. Instead of directly using the reconstruction residuals, the different impacts the background dictionary and union dictionary have on reconstruction are used for validation and classification. It enhances the discrimination and hence improves the performance.
A synthetic model of the gravitational wave background from evolving binary compact objects
Dvorkin, Irina; Vangioni, Elisabeth; Silk, Joseph
2016-01-01
Modeling the stochastic gravitational wave background from various astrophysical sources is a key objective in view of upcoming observations with ground- and space-based gravitational wave observatories such as Advanced LIGO, VIRGO, eLISA and PTA. We develop a synthetic model framework that follows the evolution of single and binary compact objects in an astrophysical context. We describe the formation and merger rates of binaries, the evolution of their orbital parameters with time and the spectrum of emitted gravitational waves at different stages of binary evolution. Our approach is modular and allows us to test and constrain different ingredients of the model, including stellar evolution, black hole formation scenarios and the properties of binary systems. We use this framework in the context of a particularly well-motivated astrophysical setup to calculate the gravitational wave background from several types of sources, including inspiraling stellar-mass binary black holes that have not merged during a H...
Modeling and analysis of periodic orbits around a contact binary asteroid
Feng, J.; Noomen, R.; Visser, P.N.A.M.; Yuan, J.
2015-01-01
The existence and characteristics of periodic orbits (POs) in the vicinity of a contact binary asteroid are investigated with an averaged spherical harmonics model. A contact binary asteroid consists of two components connected to each other, resulting in a highly bifurcated shape. Here, it is repre
Modeling and analysis of periodic orbits around a contact binary asteroid
Feng, J.; Noomen, R.; Visser, P.N.A.M.; Yuan, J.
2015-01-01
The existence and characteristics of periodic orbits (POs) in the vicinity of a contact binary asteroid are investigated with an averaged spherical harmonics model. A contact binary asteroid consists of two components connected to each other, resulting in a highly bifurcated shape. Here, it is
Thermal Model Description of Collisions of Small Nuclei
Cleymans, J.; Oeschler, H.; Redlich, K.; Sharma, N.
2016-01-01
The dependence of particle production on the size of the colliding nuclei is analyzed in terms of the thermal model using the canonical ensemble. The concept of strangeness correlation in clusters of sub-volume $V_c$ is used to account for the suppression of strangeness. A systematic analysis is presented of the predictions of the thermal model for particle production in collisions of small nuclei. The pattern of the maxima in particle ratios of strange particles to pions as a function of beam energy is quite special, as they do not occur at the same beam energy and are sensitive to system size. In particular, the $\\Lambda/\\pi^+$ ratio shows a clear maximum even for the smallest systems while the maximum in the K$^+/\\pi^+$ ratio disappears in small systems.
Heavy Ions Collision evolution modeling with ECHO-QGP
Rolando, Valentina; Beraudo, Andrea; Del Zanna, Luca; Becattini, Francesco; Chandra, Vinod; De Pace, Arturo; Nardi, Marzia
2014-01-01
We present a numerical code modeling the evolution of the medium formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions, ECHO-QGP. The code solves relativistic hydrodynamics in $(3+1)-$D, with dissipative terms included within the framework of Israel-Stewart theory; it can work both in Minkowskian and in Bjorken coordinates. Initial conditions are provided through an implementation of the Glauber model (both Optical and Monte Carlo), while freezeout and particle generation are based on the Cooper-Frye prescription. The code is validated against several test problems and shows remarkable stability and accuracy with the combination of a conservative (shock-capturing) approach and the high-order methods employed. In particular it beautifully agrees with the semi-analytic solution known as Gubser flow, both in the ideal and in the viscous Israel-Stewart case, up to very large times and without any ad hoc tuning of the algorithm.
Phemenological Modelling of a Group of Eclipsing Binary Stars
Andronov, Ivan L; Chinarova, Lidia L
2015-01-01
Phenomenological modeling of variable stars allows determination of a set of the parameters, which are needed for classification in the "General Catalogue of Variable Stars" and similar catalogs. We apply a recent method NAV ("New Algol Variable") to eclipsing binary stars of different types. Although all periodic functions may be represented as Fourier series with an infinite number of coefficients, this is impossible for a finite number of the observations. Thus one may use a restricted Fourier series, i.e. a trigonometric polynomial (TP) of order s either for fitting the light curve, or to make a periodogram analysis. However, the number of parameters needed drastically increases with decreasing width of minimum. In the NAV algorithm, the special shape of minimum is used, so the number of parameters is limited to 10 (if the period and initial epoch are fixed) or 12 (not fixed). We illustrate the NAV method by application to a recently discovered Algol-type eclipsing variable 2MASS J11080308-6145589 (in the...
Modeling Mergers of Known Galactic Systems of Binary Neutron Stars
Feo, Alessandra; Maione, Francesco; Löffler, Frank
2016-01-01
We present a study of the merger of six different known galactic systems of binary neutron stars (BNS) of unequal mass with a mass ratio between $0.75$ and $0.99$. Specifically, these systems are J1756-2251, J0737-3039A, J1906+0746, B1534+12, J0453+1559 and B1913+16. We follow the dynamics of the merger from the late stage of the inspiral process up to $\\sim$ 20 ms after the system has merged, either to form a hyper-massive neutron star (NS) or a rotating black hole (BH), using a semi-realistic equation of state (EOS), namely the seven-segment piece-wise polytropic SLy with a thermal component. For the most extreme of these systems ($q=0.75$, J0453+1559), we also investigate the effects of different EOSs: APR4, H4, and MS1. Our numerical simulations are performed using only publicly available open source code such as, the Einstein Toolkit code deployed for the dynamical evolution and the LORENE code for the generation of the initial models. We show results on the gravitational wave signals, spectrogram and fr...
A compact binary merger model for GRB 050509b
Lee, W H; Granot, J; Lee, William H.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Granot, Jonathan
2005-01-01
The first X-ray afterglow for a short (30 ms), hard gamma-ray burst was detected by Swift on 9 May 2005 (GRB 050509b). No optical or radio counterpart was identified in follow--up observations. The tentative association of the GRB with a nearby giant elliptical galaxy at redshift z=0.2248 would imply the progenitor had traveled several tens of kpc from its point of origin, in agreement with expectations linking these events to the final merger of compact binaries driven by gravitational wave emission. We model the dynamical merger of such a system and the time--dependent evolution of the accretion tori thus created. The resulting energetics, variability, and expected durations are consistent with GRB 050509b originating from the tidal disruption of a neutron star by a stellar mass black hole, or of the merger of two neutron stars followed by prompt gravitational collapse of the massive remnant. We discuss how the available gamma-ray and X-ray data provides a probe for the nature of the relativistic ejecta and...
A discrete-time model for binary detection with rectangular hysteresis operators
Korman, Can E.
2006-02-01
The operation of a nonlinear binary detector with hysteresis is investigated. Prior models developed for continuous time inputs are extended for the computationally more efficient discrete-time inputs. The input to the rectangular hysteresis detector is modeled to be a binary signal in the presence of additive independent identically distributed noise. The rectangular hysteresis loop models one of a number of rate independent repeaters in an optical communication link. The link is terminated by a binary discriminator that is tuned to a particular bit duration. The study shows that key calculations to compute the bit error probability can be performed by employing the formalism of discrete Markov chains.
Estimate Lock Bit Binary Anti-collision Algorithm is Applied to RFID%预估计锁位RFID二进制防碰撞算法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王民; 王磊
2014-01-01
As RFID (radio frequency identification technology) from concept to enter the stage of commercial application,The tags collision problems of the RFID affect the completeness and correctness of data transmission. To solve the problem in a better way, DBS algorithm in electronic tag to the reader sends identification number when there are repeated to send information, makes the system channel utilization rate is low, at the same time identify efficiency reduced, an improved algorithm is proposed on the basis of binary anti-collision algorithm. First detect the location of collision bits, with only the collision position informa⁃tion method to reduce the total number of transmission according to the quantity. The fallback strategy is used to reduce the read⁃er sends the request command. After experimental verification, the algorithm is effective to reduce the search times and delay, im⁃prove the efficiency of the system identification.%随着RFID(射频识别技术)逐渐从概念步入到商业应用阶段，标签碰撞问题影响着数据传输的完整性和正确性，为了解决标签冲突，现有的DBS算法在电子标签向阅读器发送识别码时都存在重复信息的发送，使得系统信道利用率低，同时识别效率降低。为了提高RFID系统防冲撞算法的有效性，该文研究了一种改进的二进制冲撞比特搜索算法。首先检测冲撞比特的位置信息，通过只传输具体冲撞位信息的方法减少传输的总数据量。采用回退策略以降低阅读器发送请求命令的次数。经过实验验证，该算法有效的减少了搜索次数和时延，提高了系统识别效率。
A collision model for safety evaluation of autonomous intelligent cruise control.
Touran, A; Brackstone, M A; McDonald, M
1999-09-01
This paper describes a general framework for safety evaluation of autonomous intelligent cruise control in rear-end collisions. Using data and specifications from prototype devices, two collision models are developed. One model considers a train of four cars, one of which is equipped with autonomous intelligent cruise control. This model considers the car in front and two cars following the equipped car. In the second model, none of the cars is equipped with the device. Each model can predict the possibility of rear-end collision between cars under various conditions by calculating the remaining distance between cars after the front car brakes. Comparing the two collision models allows one to evaluate the effectiveness of autonomous intelligent cruise control in preventing collisions. The models are then subjected to Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the probability of collision. Based on crash probabilities, an expected value is calculated for the number of cars involved in any collision. It is found that given the model assumptions, while equipping a car with autonomous intelligent cruise control can significantly reduce the probability of the collision with the car ahead, it may adversely affect the situation for the following cars.
Li, BC; Liu, F; Wen, XJ
2016-01-01
In an improved multisource thermal model, we systematically investigate the transverse momentum spectra in pp collisions at high energies ranging from 62.4 GeV to 7 TeV. The results are compared with the experimental data in RHIC and LHC. Based on the collision energy dependence of the source-excitation factors, we estimate the transverse momentum spectra in pp collisions at higher energies, potential future pp colliders operating at 33 and 100 TeV.
Modelling early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruggieri M.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this study we model early time dynamics of relativistic heavy ion collisions by an initial color-electric field which then decays to a plasma by the Schwinger mechanism. The dynamics of the many particles system produced by the decay is described by relativistic kinetic theory, taking into account the backreaction on the color field by solving self-consistently the kinetic and the field equations. Our main results concern isotropization and thermalization for a 1+1D expanding geometry. In case of small η/s (η/s ≲ 0.3 we find τisotropization ≈ 0.8 fm/c and τthermalization ≈ 1 fm/c in agreement with the common lore of hydrodynamics.
Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.
Hothorn, Torsten; Brandl, Roland; Müller, Jörg
2012-01-01
Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining hunting quota. Open
Simple model of complete precessing black-hole-binary gravitational waveforms.
Hannam, Mark; Schmidt, Patricia; Bohé, Alejandro; Haegel, Leïla; Husa, Sascha; Ohme, Frank; Pratten, Geraint; Pürrer, Michael
2014-10-10
The construction of a model of the gravitational-wave (GW) signal from generic configurations of spinning-black-hole binaries, through inspiral, merger, and ringdown, is one of the most pressing theoretical problems in the buildup to the era of GW astronomy. We present the first such model in the frequency domain, PhenomP, which captures the basic phenomenology of the seven-dimensional parameter space of binary configurations with only three key physical parameters. Two of these (the binary's mass ratio and an effective total spin parallel to the orbital angular momentum, which determines the inspiral rate) define an underlying nonprecessing-binary model. The nonprecessing-binary waveforms are then twisted up with approximate expressions for the precessional motion, which require only one additional physical parameter, an effective precession spin, χ(p). All other parameters (total mass, sky location, orientation and polarization, and initial phase) can be specified trivially. The model is constructed in the frequency domain, which will be essential for efficient GW searches and source measurements. We have tested the model's fidelity for GW applications by comparison against hybrid post-Newtonian-numerical-relativity waveforms at a variety of configurations--although we did not use these numerical simulations in the construction of the model. Our model can be used to develop GW searches, to study the implications for astrophysical measurements, and as a simple conceptual framework to form the basis of generic-binary waveform modeling in the advanced-detector era.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GuoqingWang; YingkeTan
1996-01-01
A combined physical model of bubbel growth is propsed along with a corresponding bubble growth model for binary mixtures on smooth tubes.Using the general model of Wang et al.[1].and the bubble growth model for binary mixtures,an analytical model for nucleate pool boiling heat transfer of binary mixtures on smooth tubes is developed.In addition,nucleate pool boiling heat transfer of pure liquids and binary mixtrues on a horizontal smooth tube was studied experimentally.The pure liquids and binary mixtures included water methanol,ehanol,and their binary mixtures.The analytical models for both pure liquids and binary mixtures are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Hunting for brown dwarf binaries and testing atmospheric models with X-Shooter
Manjavacas, E; Alcalá, J M; Zapatero-Osorio, M R; Béjar, V J S; Homeier, D; Bonnefoy, M; Smart, R L; Henning, T; Allard, F
2015-01-01
The determination of the brown dwarf binary fraction may contribute to the understanding of the substellar formation mechanisms. Unresolved brown dwarf binaries may be revealed through their peculiar spectra or the discrepancy between optical and near-infrared spectral type classification. We obtained medium-resolution spectra of 22 brown dwarfs with these characteristics using the X-Shooter spectrograph at the VLT. We aimed to identify brown dwarf binary candidates, and to test if the BT-Settl 2014 atmospheric models reproduce their observed spectra. To find binaries spanning the L-T boundary, we used spectral indices and compared the spectra of the selected candidates to single spectra and synthetic binary spectra. We used synthetic binary spectra with components of same spectral type to determine as well the sensitivity of the method to this class of binaries. We identified three candidates to be combination of L plus T brown dwarfs. We are not able to identify binaries with components of similar spectral ...
Modeling Vehicle Collision Angle in Traffic Crashes Based on Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nengchao Lyu
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In road traffic accidents, the analysis of a vehicle’s collision angle plays a key role in identifying a traffic accident’s form and cause. However, because accurate estimation of vehicle collision angle involves many factors, it is difficult to accurately determine it in cases in which less physical evidence is available and there is a lack of monitoring. This paper establishes the mathematical relation model between collision angle, deformation, and normal vector in the collision region according to the equations of particle deformation and force in Hooke’s law of classical mechanics. At the same time, the surface reconstruction method suitable for a normal vector solution is studied. Finally, the estimation model of vehicle collision angle is presented. In order to verify the correctness of the model, verification of multi-angle collision experiments and sensitivity analysis of laser scanning precision for the angle have been carried out using three-dimensional (3D data obtained by a 3D laser scanner in the collision deformation zone. Under the conditions with which the model has been defined, validation results show that the collision angle is a result of the weighted synthesis of the normal vector of the collision point and the weight value is the deformation of the collision point corresponding to normal vectors. These conclusions prove the applicability of the model. The collision angle model proposed in this paper can be used as the theoretical basis for traffic accident identification and cause analysis. It can also be used as a theoretical reference for the study of the impact deformation of elastic materials.
Liu, Da; Xu, Ming; Niu, Dongxiao; Wang, Shoukai; Liang, Sai
2016-01-01
Traditional forecasting models fit a function approximation from dependent invariables to independent variables. However, they usually get into trouble when date are presented in various formats, such as text, voice and image. This study proposes a novel image-encoded forecasting method that input and output binary digital two-dimensional (2D) images are transformed from decimal data. Omitting any data analysis or cleansing steps for simplicity, all raw variables were selected and converted to binary digital images as the input of a deep learning model, convolutional neural network (CNN). Using shared weights, pooling and multiple-layer back-propagation techniques, the CNN was adopted to locate the nexus among variations in local binary digital images. Due to the computing capability that was originally developed for binary digital bitmap manipulation, this model has significant potential for forecasting with vast volume of data. The model was validated by a power loads predicting dataset from the Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2012.
Model of two-stream non-radial accretion for binary X-ray pulsars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lipunov, V.M. (Sternberg Astronomical Inst., Moscow (USSR))
1982-03-01
The general case of non-radial accretion is assumed to occur in real binary systems containing X-ray pulsars. The structure and the stability of the magnetosphere, the interaction between the magnetosphere and accreted matter, as well as evolution of neutron star in close binary system are examined within the framework of the two-stream model of nonradial accretion onto a magnetized neutron star. Observable parameters of X-ray pulsars are explained in terms of the model considered.
Modeling AGN outbursts from supermassive black hole binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tanaka T.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available When galaxies merge to assemble more massive galaxies, their nuclear supermassive black holes (SMBHs should form bound binaries. As these interact with their stellar and gaseous environments, they will become increasingly compact, culminating in inspiral and coalescence through the emission of gravitational radiation. Because galaxy mergers and interactions are also thought to fuel star formation and nuclear black hole activity, it is plausible that such binaries would lie in gas-rich environments and power active galactic nuclei (AGN. The primary difference is that these binaries have gravitational potentials that vary – through their orbital motion as well as their orbital evolution – on humanly tractable timescales, and are thus excellent candidates to give rise to coherent AGN variability in the form of outbursts and recurrent transients. Although such electromagnetic signatures would be ideally observed concomitantly with the binary’s gravitational-wave signatures, they are also likely to be discovered serendipitously in wide-field, high-cadence surveys; some may even be confused for stellar tidal disruption events. I discuss several types of possible “smoking gun” AGN signatures caused by the peculiar geometry predicted for accretion disks around SMBH binaries.
Modeling of Ship Collision Risk Index Based on Complex Plane and Its Realization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoqin Xu
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Ship collision risk index is the basic and important concept in the domain of ship collision avoidance. In this paper, the advantages and deficiencies of the various calculation methods of ship collision risk index are pointed out. Then the ship collision risk model based on complex plane, which can well make up for the deficiencies of the widely-used evaluation model proposed by Kearon.J and Liu ruru is proposed. On this basis, the calculation method of collision risk index under the encountering situation of multi-ships is constructed, then the three-dimensional image and spatial curve of the risk index are figured out. Finally, single chip microcomputer is used to realize the model. And attaching this single chip microcomputer to ARPA is helpful to the decision-making of the marine navigators.
Statistical model predictions for p+p and Pb+Pb collisions at LHC
Kraus, I.; Cleymans, J.; Oeschler, H.; Redlich, K.; Wheaton, S.
2009-01-01
Particle production in p+p and central collisions at LHC is discussed in the context of the statistical thermal model. For heavy-ion collisions, predictions of various particle ratios are presented. The sensitivity of several ratios on the temperature and the baryon chemical potential is studied in
Midrapidity inclusive densities in high energy pp collisions in additive quark model
Shabelski, Yu. M.; Shuvaev, A. G.
2016-08-01
High energy (CERN SPS and LHC) inelastic pp (pbar{p}) scattering is treated in the framework of the additive quark model together with Pomeron exchange theory. We extract the midrapidity inclusive density of the charged secondaries produced in a single quark-quark collision and investigate its energy dependence. Predictions for the π p collisions are presented.
A semi-holographic model for heavy-ion collisions
Iancu, Edmond
2014-01-01
We develop a semi-holographic model for the out-of-equilibrium dynamics during the partonic stages of an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision. The model combines a weakly-coupled hard sector, involving gluon modes with energy and momenta of the order of the saturation momentum and relatively large occupation numbers, with a strongly-coupled soft sector, which physically represents the soft gluons radiated by the hard partons. The hard sector is described by perturbative QCD, more precisely, by its semi-classical approximation (the classical Yang-Mills equations) which becomes appropriate when the occupation numbers are large. The soft sector is described by a marginally deformed conformal field theory, which in turn admits a holographic description in terms of classical Einstein's equations in $AdS_5$ with a minimally coupled massless `dilaton'. The model involve two free parameters which characterize the gauge-invariant couplings between the hard and soft sectors. Via these couplings, the hard modes provide...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takeuchi, Wataru, E-mail: take@sp.ous.ac.jp
2016-01-01
The rainbow angles corresponding to pronounced peaks in the angular distributions of scattered projectiles with small angle, attributed to rainbow scattering (RS), under axial surface channeling conditions are strongly dependent on the interatomic potentials between projectiles and target atoms. The dependence of rainbow angles on normal energy of projectile energy to the target surface that has been experimentally obtained by Schüller and Winter (SW) (2007) for RS of He, Ne and Ar atoms from a Ag(1 1 1) surface with projectile energies of 3–60 keV was evaluated by the three-dimensional computer simulations using the ACOCT code based on the binary collision approximation with interatomic pair potentials. Consequently, the ACOCT results employing the Moliere pair potential with screening length correction close to adjustable one of O’Connor and Biersack (OB) formula are almost in agreement with the experimental ones, being self-consistent with the SW’s ones analyzed by computer simulations of classical trajectory calculations as RS from corrugated equipotential planes based on continuum potentials including the Moliere pair potential with screening length correction of the OB formula.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mathews, G.J.; Wilson, J.R.; Evans, C.R.; Detweiler, S.L.
1987-12-01
The dynamics of the final stages of the coalescence of two neturon stars (such as the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16) is an unsolved problem in astrophysics. Such systems are probably efficient generators of gravitational radiation, and may be significant contributors to heavy-element nucleosynthesis. The input physics for the study of such systems is similar to that required for the strudy of heavy-ion collision hydrodynamics; e.g., a finite temperature nuclear equation of state, properties of nuclei away from stability, etc. We discuss the development of a relativistic hydrodynamics code in three spatial dimensions for the purpose of studying such neutron-star systems. The properties of the mass-radius relation (determined by the nuclear equation of state) may lead to a proposed mechanism by which hot, highly neutronized matter is ejected from the coalescing stars. This material is photodisintegrated into a free (mostly) neutron gas which may subsequently experience rapid-neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis. 15 refs., 4 figs.
Replacement collision sequence studies in iron
Hou, M; Becquart, C S
2002-01-01
The properties of replacement collision sequences (RCS) in iron and their contribution to radiation damage are studied as they are generated in atomic collision cascades with the binary collision approximation Marlowe. Length distributions of RCS in collision cascades generated by primaries with a couple of ten keV kinetic energies are predicted short. Whatever the interatomic potential employed, at least 90% of the generated RCS have a length of no more than three successive collisions, whatever the directions. This property was found for all the known phases of iron at standard pressure (bcc and fcc). The RCS length distributions are not significantly influenced by the temperature nor by the accurate form of the model describing the energy loss in RCS. Close to 50% of the stable Frenkel pairs (FP) created result from RCS that are shorter than the vacancy-interstitial recombination distance estimated on the basis of molecular dynamics calculations. The other half results from longer RCS (about five successiv...
Efficient modelling of particle collisions using a non-linear viscoelastic contact force
Ray, Shouryya; Fröhlich, Jochen
2015-01-01
In this paper the normal collision of spherical particles is investigated. The particle interaction is modelled in a macroscopic way using the Hertzian contact force with additional linear damping. The goal of the work is to develop an efficient approximate solution of sufficient accuracy for this problem which can be used in soft-sphere collision models for Discrete Element Methods and for particle transport in viscous fluids. First, by the choice of appropriate units, the number of governing parameters of the collision process is reduced to one, thus providing a dimensionless parameter that characterizes all such collisions up to dynamic similitude. It is a simple combination of known material parameters as well as initial conditions. A rigorous calculation of the collision time and restitution coefficient from the governing equations, in the form of a series expansion in this parameter is provided. Such a first principles calculation is particularly interesting from a theoretical perspective. Since the gov...
Testing eccentricity pumping mechanisms to model eccentric long period sdB binaries with MESA
Vos, Joris; Marchant, Pablo; Van Winckel, Hans
2015-01-01
Hot subdwarf-B stars in long-period binaries are found to be on eccentric orbits, even though current binary-evolution theory predicts those objects to be circularised before the onset of Roche-lobe overflow (RLOF). We aim to find binary-evolution mechanisms that can explain these eccentric long-period orbits, and reproduce the currently observed period-eccentricity diagram. Three different processes are considered; tidally-enhanced wind mass-loss, phase-dependent RLOF on eccentric orbits and the interaction between a circumbinary disk and the binary. The binary module of the stellar-evolution code MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics) is extended to include the eccentricity-pumping processes. The effects of different input parameters on the final period and eccentricity of a binary-evolution model are tested with MESA. The end products of models with only tidally-enhanced wind mass-loss can indeed be eccentric, but these models need to lose too much mass, and invariably end up with a helium ...
Synthetic model of the gravitational wave background from evolving binary compact objects
Dvorkin, Irina; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth; Silk, Joseph
2016-11-01
Modeling the stochastic gravitational wave background from various astrophysical sources is a key objective in view of upcoming observations with ground- and space-based gravitational wave observatories such as Advanced LIGO, VIRGO, eLISA, and the pulsar timing array. We develop a synthetic model framework that follows the evolution of single and binary compact objects in an astrophysical context. We describe the formation and merger rates of binaries, the evolution of their orbital parameters with time, and the spectrum of emitted gravitational waves at different stages of binary evolution. Our approach is modular and allows us to test and constrain different ingredients of the model, including stellar evolution, black hole formation scenarios, and the properties of binary systems. We use this framework in the context of a particularly well-motivated astrophysical setup to calculate the gravitational wave background from several types of sources, including inspiraling stellar-mass binary black holes that have not merged during a Hubble time. We find that this signal, albeit weak, has a characteristic shape that can help constrain the properties of binary black holes in a way complementary to observations of the background from merger events. We discuss possible applications of our framework in the context of other gravitational wave sources, such as supermassive black holes.
Modeling Multi-Wavelength Stellar Astrometry. I. SIM Lite Observations of Interacting Binaries
Coughlin, Jeffrey L; Harrison, Thomas E; Hoard, D W; Ciardi, David R; Benedict, G Fritz; Howell, Steve B; McArthur, Barbara E; Wachter, Stefanie
2010-01-01
Interacting binaries consist of a secondary star which fills or is very close to filling its Roche lobe, resulting in accretion onto the primary star, which is often, but not always, a compact object. In many cases, the primary star, secondary star, and the accretion disk can all be significant sources of luminosity. SIM Lite will only measure the photocenter of an astrometric target, and thus determining the true astrometric orbits of such systems will be difficult. We have modified the Eclipsing Light Curve code (Orosz & Hauschildt 2000) to allow us to model the flux-weighted reflex motions of interacting binaries, in a code we call REFLUX. This code gives us sufficient flexibility to investigate nearly every configuration of interacting binary. We find that SIM Lite will be able to determine astrometric orbits for all sufficiently bright interacting binaries where the primary or secondary star dominates the luminosity. For systems where there are multiple components that comprise the spectrum in the op...
Honda, Hidehito; Matsuka, Toshihiko; Ueda, Kazuhiro
2016-07-20
Some researchers on binary choice inference have argued that people make inferences based on simple heuristics, such as recognition, fluency, or familiarity. Others have argued that people make inferences based on available knowledge. To examine the boundary between heuristic and knowledge usage, we examine binary choice inference processes in terms of attribute substitution in heuristic use (Kahneman & Frederick, 2005). In this framework, it is predicted that people will rely on heuristic or knowledge-based inference depending on the subjective difficulty of the inference task. We conducted competitive tests of binary choice inference models representing simple heuristics (fluency and familiarity heuristics) and knowledge-based inference models. We found that a simple heuristic model (especially a familiarity heuristic model) explained inference patterns for subjectively difficult inference tasks, and that a knowledge-based inference model explained subjectively easy inference tasks. These results were consistent with the predictions of the attribute substitution framework. Issues on usage of simple heuristics and psychological processes are discussed.
Maxted, P F L
2016-01-01
Very high quality light curves are now available for thousands of detached eclipsing binary stars and transiting exoplanet systems as a result of surveys for transiting exoplanets and other large-scale photometric surveys. I have developed a binary star model (ELLC) that can be used to analyse the light curves of detached eclipsing binary stars and transiting exoplanet systems that is fast and accurate, and that can include the effects of star spots, Doppler boosting and light-travel time within binaries with eccentric orbits. The model represents the stars as triaxial ellipsoids. The apparent flux from the binary is calculated using Gauss-Legendre integration over the ellipses that are the projection of these ellipsoids on the sky. The model can also be used to calculate the flux-weighted radial velocity of the stars during an eclipse (Rossiter-McLaughlin effect). The main features of the model have tested by comparison to observed data and other light curve models. The model is found to be accurate enough t...
PREDICTION OF THE MIXING ENTHALPIES OF BINARY LIQUID ALLOYS BY MOLECULAR INTERACTION VOLUME MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
H.W.Yang; D.P.Tao; Z.H.Zhou
2008-01-01
The mixing enthalpies of 23 binary liquid alloys are calculated by molecular interaction volume model (MIVM), which is a two-parameter model with the partial molar infinite dilute mixing enthalpies. The predicted values are in agreement with the experimental data and then indicate that the model is reliable and convenient.
Charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Zeng-Wei; JIANG Zhi-Jin
2009-01-01
Using the Glauber model, we present the formulas for calculating the numbers of participants,spectators and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. Based on this work, we get the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles as the function of the impact parameter in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental observations made by the BRAHMS Collaboration in Au+Au collisions at √SNN=200 GeV in different centrality bins over the whole pseudorapidity range.
A Cross-domain Survey of Metrics for Modelling and Evaluating Collisions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeremy A. Marvel
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper provides a brief survey of the metrics for measuring probability, degree, and severity of collisions as applied to autonomous and intelligent systems. Though not exhaustive, this survey evaluates the state-of-the-art of collision metrics, and assesses which are likely to aid in the establishment and support of autonomous system collision modelling. The survey includes metrics for 1 robot arms; 2 mobile robot platforms; 3 nonholonomic physical systems such as ground vehicles, aircraft, and naval vessels, and; 4 virtual and mathematical models.
Anomalous transport model study of chiral magnetic effects in heavy ion collisions
Sun, Yifeng; Li, Feng
2016-01-01
Using an anomalous transport model for massless quarks, we study the effect of magnetic field on the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks in relativistic heavy ion collisions. With initial conditions from a blast wave model and assuming that the strong magnetic field produced in non-central heavy ion collisions can last for a sufficiently long time, we obtain an appreciable electric quadrupole moment in the transverse plane of a heavy ion collision, which subsequently leads to a splitting between the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks as expected from the chiral magnetic wave formed in the produced QGP and observed in experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).
A Cross-Domain Survey of Metrics for Modelling and Evaluating Collisions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeremy A. Marvel
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper provides a brief survey of the metrics for measuring probability, degree, and severity of collisions as applied to autonomous and intelligent systems. Though not exhaustive, this survey evaluates the state-of-the-art of collision metrics, and assesses which are likely to aid in the establishment and support of autonomous system collision modelling. The survey includes metrics for 1 robot arms; 2 mobile robot platforms; 3 nonholonomic physical systems such as ground vehicles, aircraft, and naval vessels, and; 4 virtual and mathematical models.
Relativistic model of neutron stars in X-ray binary
Kalam, Mehedi; Hossein, Sk Monowar; Islam, Rabiul; Molla, Sajahan
2017-02-01
In this paper, we study the inner structure of some neutron stars from theoretical as well as observational points of view. We calculate the probable radii, compactness (u) and surface redshift (Zs) of five neutron stars (X-ray binaries) namely 4U 1538-52, LMC X-4, 4U 1820-30, 4U 1608-52, EXO 1745-248. Here, we propose a stiff equation of state (EoS) of matter distribution which relates pressure with matter density. Finally, we check the stability of such kind of theoretical structure.
INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENT MODELS OF COMBINED PARALLEL FLASH BINARY CYCLES
A. Jafar Yazdi*
2017-01-01
The aim of this paper is a comparative study of the different geothermal power plant concepts, based on the energy and exergy analysis. The cycles studied in this paper are the combination of single and double flash power plants with two different ORC cycles as basic Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), ORC with IHE, regenerative ORC and regenerative ORC with an IHE. The main gain due to using combined flash-binary power plants with various types of ORCs is to achieve optimum and efficient energy uti...
Wide low-mass binary model for the origin of axially symmetric non-thermal radio sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kool, M. de; Heuvel, E.P.J. van den
1985-10-17
An accreting binary model has been proposed by recent workers to account for the origin of the axially symmetric non-thermal radio sources. The authors show that the only type of binary system that can produce the observed structural properties, is a relatively wide neutron star binary, in which the companion of the neutron star is a low-mass giant. Binaries of this type are expected to resemble closely the eight brightest galactic bulge X-ray sources as well as the progenitors of the two wide radio pulsar binaries.
Centrality Dependence of Hadron Multiplicities in Nuclear Collisions in the Dual Parton Model
Capella, A
2001-01-01
We show that, even in purely soft processes, the hadronic multiplicity in nucleus-nucleus interactions contains a term that scales with the number of binary collisions. In the absence of shadowing corrections, this term dominates at mid rapidities and high energies. Shadowing corrections are calculated as a function of impact parameter and the centrality dependence of mid-rapidity multiplicities is determined. The multiplicity per participant increases with centrality with a rate that increases between SPS and RHIC energies, in agreement with experiment.
From many body wee partons dynamics to perfect fluid: a standard model for heavy ion collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Venugopalan, R.
2010-07-22
We discuss a standard model of heavy ion collisions that has emerged both from experimental results of the RHIC program and associated theoretical developments. We comment briefly on the impact of early results of the LHC program on this picture. We consider how this standard model of heavy ion collisions could be solidified or falsified in future experiments at RHIC, the LHC and a future Electro-Ion Collider.
X-ray-binary spectra in the lamp post model
Vincent, F H; Zdziarski, A A; Madej, J
2016-01-01
[Abridged] Context. The high-energy radiation from black-hole binaries may be due to the reprocessing of a lamp located on the black hole axis, emitting X-rays. The observed spectrum is made of 3 components: the direct spectrum; the thermal bump; and the reflected spectrum made of the Compton hump and the iron-line complex. Aims. We aim at computing accurately the complete reprocessed spectrum (thermal bump + reflected) of black-hole binaries over the entire X-ray band. We also determine the strength of the direct component. Our choice of parameters is adapted to a source showing an important thermal component. Methods. We compute in full GR the illumination of a thin disk by a lamp along the rotation axis. We use the ATM21 radiative transfer code to compute the spectrum emitted along the disk. We ray trace this local spectrum to determine the reprocessed spectrum as observed at infinity. We discuss the dependence of the local and ray-traced spectra on the emission angle and spin. Results. We show the importa...
Maxted, P. F. L.
2016-06-01
Context. Very high quality light curves are now available for thousands of detached eclipsing binary stars and transiting exoplanet systems as a result of surveys for transiting exoplanets and other large-scale photometric surveys. Aims: I have developed a binary star model (ellc) that can be used to analyse the light curves of detached eclipsing binary stars and transiting exoplanet systems that is fast and accurate, and that can include the effects of star spots, Doppler boosting and light-travel time within binaries with eccentric orbits. Methods: The model represents the stars as triaxial ellipsoids. The apparent flux from the binary is calculated using Gauss-Legendre integration over the ellipses that are the projection of these ellipsoids on the sky. The model can also be used to calculate the flux-weighted radial velocity of the stars during an eclipse (Rossiter-McLaghlin effect). The main features of the model have been tested by comparison to observed data and other light curve models. Results: The model is found to be accurate enough to analyse the very high quality photometry that is now available from space-spaced instruments, flexible enough to model a wide range of eclipsing binary stars and extrasolar planetary systems, and fast enough to enable the use of modern Monte Carlo methods for data analysis and model testing. The software package is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A111
Light curve modeling of eclipsing binaries towards the constellation of Carina
Dey, Aniruddha; Kumar, Subhash; Bhardwaj, Hrishabh; Bhattacharya, Barnmoy; Richa,; Sharma, Angad; Chauhan, Akshyata; Tiwari, Neha; Kaur, Sharanjit; Kumar, Suman; Abhishek,
2015-01-01
We present a detailed V-band photometric light curve modeling of 30 eclipsing binaries using the data from Pietrukowicz et al. (2009) collected with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope (ESO VLT) of diameter 8-m. The light curve of these 30 eclipsing binaries were selected out of 148 of them available in the database on the basis of complete phase coverage, regular and smooth phased light curve shapes. Eclipsing binaries play pivotal role in the direct measurement of astronomical distances more accurately simply from their geometry of light curves. The accurate value of Hubble constant (H0) which measures the rate of expansion of the Universe heavily relies on extragalactic distance scale measurements. Classification of the selected binary stars in the sample were done, preliminarily on the basis of Fourier parameters in the a2-a4 plane and final classification was obtained from the Roche lobe geometry. Out of these 30 eclipsing binaries, only one was found to be detached binary system while...
Jani, Karan; Clark, James; Shoemaker, Deirdre; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2016-03-01
Stellar and Intermediate mass binary black hole systems (10-1000 solar masses) are likely to be among the strongest sources of gravitational wave detection in Advanced LIGO. In this talk we discuss the prospects for the detection and characterization of these extreme astrophysical system using robust, morphology-independent analysis techniques. In particular, we demonstrate how numerical relativity simulations of black hole collisions may be combined with waveform reconstructions to constrain properties of a binary black-hole system using only exact solutions from general relativity and any potential gravitational wave signal in the data.
Beyond the thermal model in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Wolschin, Georg
2016-01-01
Deviations from thermal distribution functions of produced particles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are discussed as indicators for nonequilibrium processes. The focus is on rapidity distributions of produced charged hadrons as functions of collision energy and centrality which are used to infer the fraction of produced particles from a central fireball as compared to the one from the fragmentation sources that are out of equilibrium with the rest of the system. Overall thermal equilibrium would only be reached for large times t -> infinity.
Chen, Han; Wang, Chaolong; Conomos, Matthew P.; Stilp, Adrienne M.; Li, Zilin; Sofer, Tamar; Szpiro, Adam A.; Chen, Wei; Brehm, John M.; Celedón, Juan C.; Redline, Susan; Papanicolaou, George J.; Thornton, Timothy A.; Laurie, Cathy C.; Rice, Kenneth; Lin, Xihong
2016-01-01
Linear mixed models (LMMs) are widely used in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to account for population structure and relatedness, for both continuous and binary traits. Motivated by the failure of LMMs to control type I errors in a GWAS of asthma, a binary trait, we show that LMMs are generally inappropriate for analyzing binary traits when population stratification leads to violation of the LMM’s constant-residual variance assumption. To overcome this problem, we develop a computationally efficient logistic mixed model approach for genome-wide analysis of binary traits, the generalized linear mixed model association test (GMMAT). This approach fits a logistic mixed model once per GWAS and performs score tests under the null hypothesis of no association between a binary trait and individual genetic variants. We show in simulation studies and real data analysis that GMMAT effectively controls for population structure and relatedness when analyzing binary traits in a wide variety of study designs. PMID:27018471
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abe, M.; Morisawa, M. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, T. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, K. [Molex-Japan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1997-10-01
The past study of safety at vehicle collision pays attention to phenomena within the short time from starting collision, and the behavior of rollover is studied separating from that at collision. Most simulations of traffic accident are two-dimensional simulations. Therefore, it is indispensable for vehicle design to the analyze three-dimensional and continuous behavior from crash till stopping. Accordingly, in this study, the three-dimensional behavior of two vehicles at collision was simulated by computer using dynamic models. Then, by comparison of the calculated results with real vehicles` collision test data, it was confirmed that dynamic model of this study was reliable. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.
Almog, Assaf
2014-01-01
The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of time series of activity of their fundamental elements (such as stocks or neurons respectively). While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relationships between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to replicate the observed binary/non-binary relations very well, and to mathematically...
Updates to the dust-agglomerate collision model and implications for planetesimal formation
Blum, Jürgen; Brisset, Julie; Bukhari, Mohtashim; Kothe, Stefan; Landeck, Alexander; Schräpler, Rainer; Weidling, René
2016-10-01
Since the publication of our first dust-agglomerate collision model in 2010, several new laboratory experiments have been performed, which have led to a refinement of the model. Substantial improvement of the model has been achieved in the low-velocity regime (where we investigated the abrasion in bouncing collisions), in the high-velocity regime (where we have studied the fragmentation behavior of colliding dust aggregates), in the erosion regime (in which we extended the experiments to impacts of small projectile agglomerates into large target agglomerates), and in the very-low velocity collision regime (where we studied further sticking collisions). We also have applied the new dust-agglomerate collision model to the solar nebula conditions and can constrain the potential growth of planetesimals by mass transfer to a very small parameter space, which makes this growth path very unlikely. Experimental examples, an outline of the new collision model, and applications to dust agglomerate growth in the solar nebula will be presented.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Xiaopeng; SU Xueli; SUN Yan
2007-01-01
A study of nonlinear competitive adsorption equilibria of proteins is of fundamental importance in understanding the behavior of preparative chromatographic separation.This work describes the nonlinear binary protein adsorption equilibria on ion exchangers by the statistical thermodynamic (ST) model.The single-component and binary protein adsorption isotherms of bovine hemoglobin (Hb) and bovine serum albumin(BSA)on SP Sepharose FF were determined by batch adsorption experiments in 0.05 mol/L sodium acetate buffer at three pH values(4.5,5.0 and 5.5)and three NaCl concentrations(0.05,0.10 and 0.15 mol/L)at pH 5.0.The ST model was found to depict the effects of pH and ionic strength on the single-component equilibria well,with model parameters depending on the pH and ionic strength.Moreover,the ST model gave acceptable fitting to the binary adsorption data with the fltted singlecomponent model parameters,leading to the estimation of the binary ST model parameter.The effects of pH and ionic strength on the model parameters are reasonably interpreted by the electrostatic and thermodynamic theories.Results demonstrate the availability of the ST model for describing nonlinear competitive protein adsorption equilibria in the presence of two proteins.
Large-scale model-based assessment of deer-vehicle collision risk.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Torsten Hothorn
Full Text Available Ungulates, in particular the Central European roe deer Capreolus capreolus and the North American white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, are economically and ecologically important. The two species are risk factors for deer-vehicle collisions and as browsers of palatable trees have implications for forest regeneration. However, no large-scale management systems for ungulates have been implemented, mainly because of the high efforts and costs associated with attempts to estimate population sizes of free-living ungulates living in a complex landscape. Attempts to directly estimate population sizes of deer are problematic owing to poor data quality and lack of spatial representation on larger scales. We used data on >74,000 deer-vehicle collisions observed in 2006 and 2009 in Bavaria, Germany, to model the local risk of deer-vehicle collisions and to investigate the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions and both environmental conditions and browsing intensities. An innovative modelling approach for the number of deer-vehicle collisions, which allows nonlinear environment-deer relationships and assessment of spatial heterogeneity, was the basis for estimating the local risk of collisions for specific road types on the scale of Bavarian municipalities. Based on this risk model, we propose a new "deer-vehicle collision index" for deer management. We show that the risk of deer-vehicle collisions is positively correlated to browsing intensity and to harvest numbers. Overall, our results demonstrate that the number of deer-vehicle collisions can be predicted with high precision on the scale of municipalities. In the densely populated and intensively used landscapes of Central Europe and North America, a model-based risk assessment for deer-vehicle collisions provides a cost-efficient instrument for deer management on the landscape scale. The measures derived from our model provide valuable information for planning road protection and defining
Logic functions and equations binary models for computer science
Posthoff, Christian
2004-01-01
Logic functions and equations are (some of) the most important concepts of Computer Science with many applications such as Binary Arithmetics, Coding, Complexity, Logic Design, Programming, Computer Architecture and Artificial Intelligence. They are very often studied in a minimum way prior to or together with their respective applications. Based on our long-time teaching experience, a comprehensive presentation of these concepts is given, especially emphasising a thorough understanding as well as numerical and computer-based solution methods. Any applications and examples from all the respective areas are given that can be dealt with in a unified way. They offer a broad understanding of the recent developments in Computer Science and are directly applicable in professional life. Logic Functions and Equations is highly recommended for a one- or two-semester course in many Computer Science or computer Science-oriented programmes. It allows students an easy high-level access to these methods and enables sophist...
Testing Models of Circum-Binary-AGN Accretion for PSO J334.2028+01.4075
Foord, Adi; Gultekin, Kayhan; Reynolds, Mark
2017-08-01
We present analysis of new Chandra data of PSO J334.2028+01.4075 (PSO J334 hereafter), a strong binary AGN candidate discovered by Liu et al. (2015) based on periodic variation of the optical flux. Recent radio coverage presented in Mooley et al. (2017) further supports that PSO J334 is a binary black hole system, as the quasar was found to be lobe-dominated with a twisted radio structure, possibly due to a precessing jet. With no prior X-ray coverage for PSO J334, our new 50 ksec Chandra observation allows for the unique opportunity to differentiate between a single or binary-AGN system, and if a binary, can characterize the mode of accretion. The two most basic sets of predictions via simulations of circum-binary accretion model are a “cavity”, where the inner region of the accretion disk is mostly empty and emission is truncated blueward of the wavelength associated with the temperature of the innermost ring, or “minidisks”, where there is substantial accretion onto one or both of the members of the binary, each with their own shock-heated thin-disk accretion system. We find the X-ray emission to be well-fit with a heavily absorbed power-law, incompatible with the cavity scenario. Further, we construct an SED of PSO J334 by combining radio through X-ray observations and compare it to standard QSO SEDs. We discuss the implications of the comparison between the SED of PSO J334 and that of a single AGN, and assess the likelihood of the binary model for PSO J334.
Model-Based Optimization of Airborne Collision Avoidance Logic
2010-01-26
According to Kuchar and Drumm [4], the mid-air collision of a Russian Tu-154 and a DHL B-757 over Uberlingen in 2002 may have been averted if TCAS...had properly reversed the RA it had issued to the DHL aircraft. The current version of TCAS incorporates reversal logic. According to TCAS monitoring
Integrating economic and psychological insights in binary choice models with social interactions
Ostasiewicz, K; Magnuszewski, P; Radosz, A; Sendzimir, J; Tyc, M H; Goliczewski, Piotr; Magnuszewski, Piotr; Ostasiewicz, Katarzyna; Radosz, Andrzej; Sendzimir, Jan; Tyc, Michal H.
2006-01-01
We investigate a class of binary choice models with social interactions. We propose a unifying perspective that integrates economic models using a utility function and psychological models using an impact function. A general approach for analyzing the equilibrium structure of these models within mean-field approximation is developed. It is shown that within a mean-field approach both the utility function and the impact function models are equivalent to threshold models. The interplay between heterogeneity and randomness in model formulation is discussed. A general framework is applied in a number of examples leading to some well-known models but also showing the possibility of more complex dynamics related to multiple equilibria. Our synthesis can provide a basis for many practical applications extending the scope of binary choice models.
Wee, Loo Kang
2012-01-01
We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In the field of designing computer simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations such as 1) consistent simulation world view with pen paper representation, 2) data table, scientific graphs and symbolic mathematical representations for ease of data collection and multiple representational visualizations and 3) game for simple concept testing that can further support learning. We also suggest using physical world setup to be augmented complimentarily with simulation while highlighting three advantages of real collision carts equipment like tacit 3D experience, random errors in measurement and conceptual significance of conservation of momentum applied to just before and after collision. General feedback from the students has been relatively positive,...
Krasnitz, A; Venugopalan, R; Krasnitz, Alex; Nara, Yasushi; Venugopalan, Raju
2003-01-01
We extend previous work on high energy nuclear collisions in the Color Glass Condensate model to study collisions of finite ultrarelativistic nuclei. The changes implemented include a) imposition of color neutrality at the nucleon level and b) realistic nuclear matter distributions of finite nuclei. The saturation scale characterizing the fields of color charge is explicitly position dependent, $\\Lambda_s=\\Lambda_s(x_T)$. We compute gluon distributions both before and after the collisions. The gluon distribution in the nuclear wavefunction before the collision is significantly suppressed below the saturation scale when compared to the simple McLerran-Venugopalan model prediction, while the behavior at large momentum $p_T\\gg \\Lambda_s$ remains unchanged. We study the centrality dependence of produced gluons and compare it to the centrality dependence of charged hadrons exhibited by the RHIC data. We demonstrate the geometrical scaling property of the initial gluon transverse momentum distributions for differen...
Characteristics of particle production in high energy nuclear collisions a model-based analysis
Guptaroy, P; Bhattacharya, S; Bhattacharya, D P
2002-01-01
The present work pertains to the production of some very important negatively charged secondaries in lead-lead and gold-gold collisions at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies. We would like to examine here the role of the particular version of sequential chain model (SCM), which was applied widely in the past in analysing data on various high-energy hadronic collisions, in explaining now the latest findings on the features of particle production in the relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The agreement between the model of our choice and the measured data is found to be modestly satisfactory in cases of the most prominent and abundantly produced varieties of the secondaries in the above-stated two nuclear collisions. (25 refs).
Wee, Loo Kang
2012-05-01
We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In designing the simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations namely (1) a consistent simulation world view with a pen and paper representation, (2) a data table, scientific graphs and symbolic mathematical representations for ease of data collection and multiple representational visualizations and (3) a game for simple concept testing that can further support learning. We also suggest using a physical world setup augmented by simulation by highlighting three advantages of real collision carts equipment such as a tacit 3D experience, random errors in measurement and the conceptual significance of conservation of momentum applied to just before and after collision. General feedback from the students has been relatively positive, and we hope teachers will find the simulation useful in their own classes.
On the multiplicity distribution in statistical model: (II) most central collisions
Xu, Hao-jie
2016-01-01
This work is a continuation of our effort [arXiv:1602.06378] to investigate the statistical expectations for cumulants of (net-conserved) charge distributions in relativistic heavy ion collisions, by using a simple but quantitatively more realistic geometric model, i.e. optical Glauber model. We suggest a new approach for centrality definition in studying of multiplicity fluctuations, which aim at eliminating the uncertainties between experimental measurements and theoretical calculations, as well as redoubling the statistics. We find that the statistical expectations of multiplicity distribution mimic the negative binomial distribution at non-central collisions, but tend to approach the Poisson one at most central collisions due to the "boundary effect" from distribution of volume. We conclude that the collisional geometry (distribution of volume and its fluctuations) play a crucial role in studying of event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations in relativistic heavy ion collisions.
Hannam, Mark
2013-01-01
The inspiral and merger of two orbiting black holes is among the most promising sources for the first (hopefully imminent) direct detection of gravitational waves (GWs), and measurements of these signals could provide a wealth of information about astrophysics, fundamental physics and cosmology. Detection and measurement require a theoretical description of the GW signals from all possible black-hole-binary configurations, which can include complicated precession effects due to the black-hole spins. Modelling the GW signal from generic precessing binaries is therefore one of the most urgent theoretical challenges facing GW astronomy. This article briefly reviews the phenomenology of generic-binary dynamics and waveforms, and recent advances in modelling them.
Wilderjans, T F; Ceulemans, E; Kuppens, P
2012-06-01
In many areas of the behavioral sciences, different groups of objects are measured on the same set of binary variables, resulting in coupled binary object × variable data blocks. Take, as an example, success/failure scores for different samples of testees, with each sample belonging to a different country, regarding a set of test items. When dealing with such data, a key challenge consists of uncovering the differences and similarities between the structural mechanisms that underlie the different blocks. To tackle this challenge for the case of a single data block, one may rely on HICLAS, in which the variables are reduced to a limited set of binary bundles that represent the underlying structural mechanisms, and the objects are given scores for these bundles. In the case of multiple binary data blocks, one may perform HICLAS on each data block separately. However, such an analysis strategy obscures the similarities and, in the case of many data blocks, also the differences between the blocks. To resolve this problem, we proposed the new Clusterwise HICLAS generic modeling strategy. In this strategy, the different data blocks are assumed to form a set of mutually exclusive clusters. For each cluster, different bundles are derived. As such, blocks belonging to the same cluster have the same bundles, whereas blocks of different clusters are modeled with different bundles. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of Clusterwise HICLAS by means of an extensive simulation study and by applying the strategy to coupled binary data regarding emotion differentiation and regulation.
Thermal Radio Emission from Radiative Shocks in Colliding Wind Binaries
Montes, G.; González, R. F.; Cantó, J.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Alberdi, A.
2011-10-01
We present a semi-analytic model for computing the thermal radio continuum emission from radiative shocks within colliding wind binaries. Assuming a thin shell approximation, we calculate the contribution of the wind collision region (WCR) to the total thermal emission for close binaries. We investigate the effect of the binary separation on the total spectrum. In addition, we point out the relevance of taking into account this contribution for the correct interpretation of the observations, and the accuracy of parameters derived from them.
D-meson observables in heavy-ion collisions at LHC with EPOSHQ model
Ozvenchuk, Vitalii; Aichelin, Joerg; Gossiaux, Pol-Bernard; Guiot, Benjamin; Nahrgang, Marlene; Werner, Klaus
2016-11-01
We study the propagation of charm quarks in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at LHC within EPOSHQ model. The interactions of heavy quarks with the light partons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions through the collisional and radiative processes lead to a large suppression of final D-meson spectra at high transverse momentum and a finite D-meson elliptic flow. Our results are in a good agreement with the available experimental data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Altsybeev, Igor [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)
2016-01-22
In the present work, Monte-Carlo toy model with repulsing quark-gluon strings in hadron-hadron collisions is described. String repulsion creates transverse boosts for the string decay products, giving modifications of observables. As an example, long-range correlations between mean transverse momenta of particles in two observation windows are studied in MC toy simulation of the heavy-ion collisions.
Towards a construction of inclusive collision cross-sections in the massless Nelson model
2011-01-01
The conventional approach to the infrared problem in perturbative quantum electrodynamics relies on the concept of inclusive collision cross-sections. A non-perturbative variant of this notion was introduced in algebraic quantum field theory. Relying on these insights, we take first steps towards a non-perturbative construction of inclusive collision cross-sections in the massless Nelson model. We show that our proposal is consistent with the standard scattering theory in the absence of the i...
Collision detection and modeling of rigid and deformable objects in laparoscopic simulator
Dy, Mary-Clare; Tagawa, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiromi T.; Komori, Masaru
2015-03-01
Laparoscopic simulators are viable alternatives for surgical training and rehearsal. Haptic devices can also be incorporated with virtual reality simulators to provide additional cues to the users. However, to provide realistic feedback, the haptic device must be updated by 1kHz. On the other hand, realistic visual cues, that is, the collision detection and deformation between interacting objects must be rendered at least 30 fps. Our current laparoscopic simulator detects the collision between a point on the tool tip, and on the organ surfaces, in which haptic devices are attached on actual tool tips for realistic tool manipulation. The triangular-mesh organ model is rendered using a mass spring deformation model, or finite element method-based models. In this paper, we investigated multi-point-based collision detection on the rigid tool rods. Based on the preliminary results, we propose a method to improve the collision detection scheme, and speed up the organ deformation reaction. We discuss our proposal for an efficient method to compute simultaneous multiple collision between rigid (laparoscopic tools) and deformable (organs) objects, and perform the subsequent collision response, with haptic feedback, in real-time.
Removing Specification Errors from the Usual Formulation of Binary Choice Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.A.V.B. Swamy
2016-06-01
Full Text Available We develop a procedure for removing four major specification errors from the usual formulation of binary choice models. The model that results from this procedure is different from the conventional probit and logit models. This difference arises as a direct consequence of our relaxation of the usual assumption that omitted regressors constituting the error term of a latent linear regression model do not introduce omitted regressor biases into the coefficients of the included regressors.
Bayesian inference for joint modelling of longitudinal continuous, binary and ordinal events.
Li, Qiuju; Pan, Jianxin; Belcher, John
2016-12-01
In medical studies, repeated measurements of continuous, binary and ordinal outcomes are routinely collected from the same patient. Instead of modelling each outcome separately, in this study we propose to jointly model the trivariate longitudinal responses, so as to take account of the inherent association between the different outcomes and thus improve statistical inferences. This work is motivated by a large cohort study in the North West of England, involving trivariate responses from each patient: Body Mass Index, Depression (Yes/No) ascertained with cut-off score not less than 8 at the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Pain Interference generated from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey with values returned on an ordinal scale 1-5. There are some well-established methods for combined continuous and binary, or even continuous and ordinal responses, but little work was done on the joint analysis of continuous, binary and ordinal responses. We propose conditional joint random-effects models, which take into account the inherent association between the continuous, binary and ordinal outcomes. Bayesian analysis methods are used to make statistical inferences. Simulation studies show that, by jointly modelling the trivariate outcomes, standard deviations of the estimates of parameters in the models are smaller and much more stable, leading to more efficient parameter estimates and reliable statistical inferences. In the real data analysis, the proposed joint analysis yields a much smaller deviance information criterion value than the separate analysis, and shows other good statistical properties too.
Numerical modelling of the binary alloys solidification with solutal undercooling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Skrzypczak
2008-03-01
Full Text Available In thc papcr descrip~ion of mathcmn~icaI and numerical modcl of binay alloy sot idification is prcscntcd. Mctal alloy consisting of maincomponent and solulc is introduced. Moving, sharp solidification rmnt is assumcd. Conaitulional undcrcooling phcnomcnon is tnkcn intoconsidcralion. As a solidifica~ionf ront advances, solutc is rcdistributcd at thc intcrfacc. Commonly, solutc is rejccted into Itlc liquid. whcrcit accumuIatcs into solittc boundary laycr. Depending on thc tcmpcrature gradient, such tiquid may be undcrcoolcd hclow its mclting point,cvcn though it is hot~crth an liquid at thc Front. This phcnomcnon is orten callcd constitutional or soIr~talu ndcrcool ing, to cmphasizc that itariscs from variations in solutal distribution or I iquid. An important conscqucncc of this accurnulntion of saIutc is that it can cause thc frontto brcak down into cclls or dendri~csT. his occurs bccausc thcrc is a liquid ahcad of thc front with lowcr solutc contcnt, and hcncc a highcrme1 ting tcmpcraturcs than liquid at thc front. In rhc papcr locarion and shapc of wndcrcoolcd rcgion dcpcnding on solidification pararnctcrsis discussed. Nurncrical mcthod basing on Fini tc Elelncnt Mctbod (FEM allowi~lgp rcdiction of breakdown of inoving planar front duringsolidification or binary alloy is proposed.
Photometric Modelling of Close Binary Star CN And
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
D. M. Z. Jassur; A. Khodadadi
2006-03-01
The results of two color photometry of active close binary CN And are presented and analyzed. The light curves of the system are obviously asymmetric, with the primary maximum brighter than the secondary maximum, which is known as the O’Conell effect. The most plausible explanation of the asymmetry is expected to be due to spot activity of the primary component. For the determination of physical and geometrical parameters, the most new version of W–D code was used, but the presence of asymmetry prevented the convergence of the method when the whole light curves were used. The solutions were obtained by applying mode 3 of W–D code to the first half of the light curves, assuming synchronous rotation and zero eccentricity. Absolute parameters of the system were obtained from combining the photometric solution with spectroscopic data obtained from radial velocity curve analysis. The results indicate the poor thermal contact of the components and transit primary minimum. Finally the O–C diagram was analyzed. It was found that the orbital period of the system is changing with a rate of / = -2.2(6) × 10-10 which corresponds to mass transfer from more massive component to less massive with the rate of / ∼ 4.82 × 10-88sun/year.
Wind mass transfer in S-type symbiotic binaries I. Focusing by the wind compression model
Skopal, Augustin
2014-01-01
Context: Luminosities of hot components in symbiotic binaries require accretion rates that are higher than those that can be achieved via a standard Bondi-Hoyle accretion. This implies that the wind mass transfer in symbiotic binaries has to be more efficient. Aims: We suggest that the accretion rate onto the white dwarfs (WDs) in S-type symbiotic binaries can be enhanced sufficiently by focusing the wind from their slowly rotating normal giants towards the binary orbital plane. Methods: We applied the wind compression model to the stellar wind of slowly rotating red giants in S-type symbiotic binaries. Results: Our analysis reveals that for typical terminal velocities of the giant wind, 20 to 50 km/s, and measured rotational velocities between 6 and 10 km/s, the densities of the compressed wind at a typical distance of the accretor from its donor correspond to the mass-loss rate, which can be a factor of $\\sim$10 higher than for the spherically symmetric wind. This allows the WD to accrete at rates of $10^{-...
Collision Energy Evolution of Elliptic and Triangular Flow in a Hybrid Model
Auvinen, Jussi
2013-01-01
While the existence of a strongly interacting state of matter, known as 'quark-gluon plasma' (QGP), has been established in heavy ion collision experiments in the past decade, the task remains to map out the transition from the hadronic matter to the QGP. This is done by measuring the dependence of key observables (such as particle suppression and elliptic flow) on the collision energy of the heavy ions. This procedure, known as 'beam energy scan', has been most recently performed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Utilizing a Boltzmann+hydrodynamics hybrid model, we study the collision energy dependence of initial state eccentricities and the final state elliptic and triangular flow. This approach is well suited to investigate the relative importance of hydrodynamics and hadron transport at different collision energies.
Measurement and modelling of hydrogen bonding in 1-alkanol plus n-alkane binary mixtures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
von Solms, Nicolas; Jensen, Lars; Kofod, Jonas L.;
2007-01-01
Two equations of state (simplified PC-SAFT and CPA) are used to predict the monomer fraction of 1-alkanols in binary mixtures with n-alkanes. It is found that the choice of parameters and association schemes significantly affects the ability of a model to predict hydrogen bonding in mixtures, even...... studies, which is clarified in the present work. New hydrogen bonding data based on infrared spectroscopy are reported for seven binary mixtures of alcohols and alkanes. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation
Marwah Almasri; Khaled Elleithy; Abrar Alajlan
2015-01-01
Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot...
Benchmarking binary classification models on data sets with different degrees of imbalance
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ligang ZHOU; Kin Keung LAI
2009-01-01
In practice, there are many binary classification problems, such as credit risk assessment, medical testing for determining if a patient has a certain disease or not, etc.However, different problems have different characteristics that may lead to different difficulties of the problem. One important characteristic is the degree of imbalance of two classes in data sets. For data sets with different degrees of imbalance, fire the commonly used binary classification methods still feasible? In this study, various binary classifi-cation models, including traditional statistical methods andnewly emerged methods from artificial intelligence, such as linear regression, discriminant analysis, decision tree, neural network, support vector machines, etc., are reviewed, and their performance in terms of the measure of classification accuracy and area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve are tested and compared on fourteen data sets with different imbalance degrees. The results help to select the appropriate methods for problems with different degrees of imbalance.
A dynamic analysis of Schelling’s binary corruption model : A competitive equilibrium approach
Caulkins, J.P.; Feichtinger, G.; Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.; Novak, A.J.; Seidl, A.; Wirl, F.
2014-01-01
Schelling (in Micromotives and Macrobehavior, Norton, New York, 1978) suggested a simple binary choice model to explain the variation of corruption levels across societies. His basic idea was that the expected profitability of engaging in corruption depends on its prevalence. The key result of the s
Exploiting mid-range DNA patterns for sequence classification: binary abstraction Markov models
Shepard, Samuel S.; McSweeny, Andrew; Serpen, Gursel; Fedorov, Alexei
2012-01-01
Messenger RNA sequences possess specific nucleotide patterns distinguishing them from non-coding genomic sequences. In this study, we explore the utilization of modified Markov models to analyze sequences up to 44 bp, far beyond the 8-bp limit of conventional Markov models, for exon/intron discrimination. In order to analyze nucleotide sequences of this length, their information content is first reduced by conversion into shorter binary patterns via the application of numerous abstraction schemes. After the conversion of genomic sequences to binary strings, homogenous Markov models trained on the binary sequences are used to discriminate between exons and introns. We term this approach the Binary Abstraction Markov Model (BAMM). High-quality abstraction schemes for exon/intron discrimination are selected using optimization algorithms on supercomputers. The best MM classifiers are then combined using support vector machines into a single classifier. With this approach, over 95% classification accuracy is achieved without taking reading frame into account. With further development, the BAMM approach can be applied to sequences lacking the genetic code such as ncRNAs and 5′-untranslated regions. PMID:22344692
Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wu, Jiawei; Radwan, Essam; Zhang, Yuting
2016-12-01
Driver's collision avoidance performance has a direct link to the collision risk and crash severity. Previous studies demonstrated that the distracted driving, such as using a cell phone while driving, disrupted the driver's performance on road. This study aimed to investigate the manner and extent to which cell phone use and driver's gender affected driving performance and collision risk in a rear-end collision avoidance process. Forty-two licensed drivers completed the driving simulation experiment in three phone use conditions: no phone use, hands-free, and hand-held, in which the drivers drove in a car-following situation with potential rear-end collision risks caused by the leading vehicle's sudden deceleration. Based on the experiment data, a rear-end collision risk assessment model was developed to assess the influence of cell phone use and driver's gender. The cell phone use and driver's gender were found to be significant factors that affected the braking performances in the rear-end collision avoidance process, including the brake reaction time, the deceleration adjusting time and the maximum deceleration rate. The minimum headway distance between the leading vehicle and the simulator during the rear-end collision avoidance process was the final output variable, which could be used to measure the rear-end collision risk and judge whether a collision occurred. The results showed that although cell phone use drivers took some compensatory behaviors in the collision avoidance process to reduce the mental workload, the collision risk in cell phone use conditions was still higher than that without the phone use. More importantly, the results proved that the hands-free condition did not eliminate the safety problem associated with distracted driving because it impaired the driving performance in the same way as much as the use of hand-held phones. In addition, the gender effect indicated that although female drivers had longer reaction time than male drivers in
Blackman, Jonathan; Galley, Chad R; Szilagyi, Bela; Scheel, Mark A; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A
2015-01-01
Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. In this paper, we construct an accurate and fast-to-evaluate surrogate model for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from non-spinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios from $1$ to $10$ and durations corresponding to about $15$ orbits before merger. Our surrogate, which is built using reduced order modeling techniques, is distinct from traditional modeling efforts. We find that the full multi-mode surrogate model agrees with waveforms generated by NR to within the numerical error of the NR code. In particular, we show that our modeling strategy produces surrogates which can correctly predict NR waveforms that were {\\em not} used for the surrogate's training. For all practical purposes, then, the surrogate waveform model is equivalent to the high-accuracy, large-scale simulation waveform but can be evaluated in a millisecond to a second dependin...
Model of the humanoid body for self collision detection based on elliptical capsules
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dube, C
2011-12-01
Full Text Available . The humanoid body is modeled using elliptical capsules, while the moving segments, i.e. arms and legs, of the humanoid are modeled using circular capsules. This collision detection model provides a good fit to the humanoid body shape while being simple...
Pseudorapidity distribution of multiplicity in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV
Dong, Ya-Fei; Jiang, Zhi-Jin; Wang, Zeng-Wei
2008-04-01
Using the Glauber model, we discuss the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions in heavy-ion collisions. Based on the latter, after considering the effect of energy loss of the nucleons in multiple collisions, we derive the pseudorapidity distribution of the multiplicity as a function of the impact parameter in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Using this, we analyze the experimental measurements carried out by the BRAHMS Collaboration in Au + Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV. The results are in good agreement with the experimental observations. Supported by Key Foundation of Shanghai (06JC14075)
Pseudorapidity distribution of multiplicity in Au+Au collisions at √SNN=200 GeV
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONG Ya-Fei; JIANG Zhi-Jin; WANG ZengWei
2008-01-01
Using the Glauber model,we discuss the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions in heavy-ion collisions.Based on the latter,after considering the effect of energy loss of the nucleons in multiple collisions,we derive the pseudorapidity distribution of the multiplicity as a function of the impact parameter in nucleus-nucleus collisions.Using this,we analyze the experimental measurements carried out by the BRAHMS Collaboration in Au+Au collisions at √SNN=200 GeV.The results are in good agreement with the experimental observations.
Azimuthal Anisotropy in U +U and Au +Au Collisions at RHIC
Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Li, Z. M.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B. J.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbaek, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration
2015-11-01
Collisions between prolate uranium nuclei are used to study how particle production and azimuthal anisotropies depend on initial geometry in heavy-ion collisions. We report the two- and four-particle cumulants, v2{2 } and v2{4 }, for charged hadrons from U +U collisions at √{sNN }=193 GeV and Au +Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV . Nearly fully overlapping collisions are selected based on the energy deposited by spectators in zero degree calorimeters (ZDCs). Within this sample, the observed dependence of v2{2 } on multiplicity demonstrates that ZDC information combined with multiplicity can preferentially select different overlap configurations in U +U collisions. We also show that v2 vs multiplicity can be better described by models, such as gluon saturation or quark participant models, that eliminate the dependence of the multiplicity on the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions.
Wang, Zeng-Wei; Jiang, Zhi-Jin
2009-04-01
Using the Glauber model, we present the formulas for calculating the numbers of participants, spectators and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. Based on this work, we get the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles as the function of the impact parameter in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental observations made by the BRAHMS Collaboration in Au + Au collisions at GeV in different centrality bins over the whole pseudorapidity range.
Pittard, J M
2009-01-01
The X-ray emission from the wind-wind collision in short-period massive O+O-star binaries is investigated. The emission is calculated from three-dimensional hydrodynamical models which incorporate gravity, the driving of the winds, orbital motion of the stars, and radiative cooling of the shocked plasma. Changes in the amount of stellar occultation and circumstellar attenuation introduce phase-dependent X-ray variability in systems with circular orbits, while strong variations in the intrinsic emission also occur in systems with eccentric orbits. The X-ray emission in eccentric systems can display strong hysteresis, with the emission softer after periastron than at corresponding orbital phases prior to periastron, reflecting the physical state of the shocked plasma at these times. Furthermore, the rise of the luminosity to maximum does not necessarily follow a 1/D law. Our models further demonstrate that the effective circumstellar column can be highly energy dependent. We simulate Chandra and Suzaku observat...
A model for energy transfer in collisions of atoms with highly excited molecules.
Houston, Paul L; Conte, Riccardo; Bowman, Joel M
2015-05-21
A model for energy transfer in the collision between an atom and a highly excited target molecule has been developed on the basis of classical mechanics and turning point analysis. The predictions of the model have been tested against the results of trajectory calculations for collisions of five different target molecules with argon or helium under a variety of temperatures, collision energies, and initial rotational levels. The model predicts selected moments of the joint probability distribution, P(Jf,ΔE) with an R(2) ≈ 0.90. The calculation is efficient, in most cases taking less than one CPU-hour. The model provides several insights into the energy transfer process. The joint probability distribution is strongly dependent on rotational energy transfer and conservation laws and less dependent on vibrational energy transfer. There are two mechanisms for rotational excitation, one due to motion normal to the intermolecular potential and one due to motion tangential to it and perpendicular to the line of centers. Energy transfer is found to depend strongly on the intermolecular potential and only weakly on the intramolecular potential. Highly efficient collisions are a natural consequence of the energy transfer and arise due to collisions at "sweet spots" in the space of impact parameter and molecular orientation.
Using Gaussian Processes to Model Noise in Eclipsing Binary Light Curves
Prsa, Andrej; Hambleton, Kelly M.
2017-01-01
The most precise data we have at hand arguably comes from NASA's Kepler mission, for which there is no good flux calibration available since it was designed to measure relative flux changes down to ~20ppm level. Instrumental artifacts thus abound in the data, and they vary with the module, location on the CCD, target brightness, electronic cross-talk, etc. In addition, Kepler's near-uninterrupted mode of observation reveals astrophysical signals and transient phenomena (i.e. spots, flares, protuberances, pulsations, magnetic field features, etc) that are not accounted for in the models. These "nuisance" signals, along with instrumental artifacts, are considered noise when modeling light curves; this noise is highly correlated and it cannot be considered poissonian or gaussian. Detrending non-white noise from light curve data has been an ongoing challenge in modeling eclipsing binary star and exoplanet transit light curves. Here we present an approach using Gaussian Processes (GP) to model noise as part of the overall likelihood function. The likelihood function consists of the eclipsing binary light curve generator PHOEBE, correlated noise model using GP, and a poissonian (shot) noise attributed to the actual stochastic component of the entire noise model. We consider GP parameters and poissonian noise amplitude as free parameters that are being sampled within the likelihood function, so the end result is the posterior probability not only for eclipsing binary model parameters, but for the noise parameters as well. We show that the posteriors of principal parameters are significantly more robust when noise is modeled rigorously compared to modeling detrended data with an eclipsing binary model alone. This work has been funded by NSF grant #1517460.
Modeling the Formation and Evolution of Wind-Capture Disks In Binary Systems
Huarte-Espinosa, M.; Carroll-Nellenback, J.; Nordhaus, J.; Frank, A.; Blackman, E.
2014-04-01
In this talk I will present results of recent models of the formation, evolution and physical properties of accretion disks formed via wind capture in binary systems. Using the AMR code AstroBEAR, we have carried out high resolution 3D simulations that follow a stellar mass secondary in the co-rotating frame as it orbits a wind producing AGB primary. A resolution criteria, based on considerations of Bondi-Hoyle flows, must be met in order to properly resolve the formation of accretion disks around the secondary. We then compare simulations of binaries with three different orbital radii (10, 15, 20 AU). Disks are formed in all three cases, however the size of the disk and, most importantly, its accretion rate decreases with orbital radii. In addition, the shape of the orbital motions of material within the disk becomes increasingly elliptical with increasing binary separation. The flow is mildly unsteady with "fluttering" around the bow shock observed. The disks are generally well aligned with the orbital plane after a few binary orbits. We do not observe the presence of any large scale, violent instabilities (such as the flip-flop mode). For the first time it is observed that the wind component that is accreted towards the secondary has a vortex tube-like structure. In the context of AGB binary systems that might be precursors to Pre-Planetary and Planetary Nebula, we find that the wind accretion rates at the chosen orbital separations are generally too small to produce the most powerful outflows observed in these systems if the companions are main sequence stars but marginally capable if the companions are white dwarfs. It is likely that many of the more powerful PPN and PN involve closer binaries than the ones considered here.
Understanding discs in binary YSOs - detailed modelling of VV CrA
Scicluna, P.; Wolf, S.; Ratzka, T.; Costigan, G.; Launhardt, R.; Leinert, C.; Ober, F.; Manara, C. F.; Testi, L.
2016-05-01
Given that a majority of stars form in multiple systems, in order to fully understand the star- and planet-formation processes we must seek to understand them in multiple stellar systems. With this in mind, we present an analysis of the enigmatic binary T-Tauri system VV Corona Australis, in which both components host discs, but only one is visible at optical wavelengths. We seek to understand the peculiarities of this system by searching for a model for the binary which explains all the available continuum observations of the system. We present new mid-infrared interferometry and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy along with archival millimetre-wave observations, which resolve the binary at 1.3 mm for the first time. We compute a grid of pre-main-sequence radiative transfer models and calculate their posterior probabilities given the observed spectral energy distributions and mid-infrared interferometric visibilities of the binary components, beginning with the assumption that the only differences between the two components are their inclination and position angles. Our best-fitting solution corresponds to a relatively low-luminosity T-tauri binary, with each component's disc having a large scaleheight and viewed at moderate inclination (˜50°), with the infrared companion inclined by ˜5° more than the primary. Comparing the results of our model to evolutionary models suggests stellar masses ˜1.7 M⊙ and an age for the system of 3.5 Myr, towards the upper end of previous estimates. Combining these results with accretion indicators from NIR spectroscopy, we determine an accretion rate of 4.0 × 10-8 M⊙ yr-1 for the primary. We suggest that future observations of VV Corona Australis and similar systems should prioritize high angular resolution sub-mm and NIR imaging of the discs and high-resolution optical/NIR spectroscopy of the central stars.
Modeling and optimization of a binary geothermal power plant
2012-01-01
A model is developed for an existing organic Rankine cycle (ORC) utilizing a low temperature geothermal source. The model is implemented in Aspen Plus® and used to simulate the performance of the existing ORC equipped with an air-cooled condensation system. The model includes all the actual characteristics of the components. The model is validated by approximately 5000 measured data in a wide range of ambient temperatures. The net power output of the system is maximized. The results suggest d...
Schmidt, Patricia; Hannam, Mark
2014-01-01
Gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by generic black-hole binaries show a rich structure that directly reflects the complex dynamics introduced by the precession of the orbital plane, which poses a real challenge to the development of generic waveform models. Recent progress in modelling these signals relies on an approximate decoupling between the non-precessing secular inspiral and a precession-induced rotation. However, the latter depends in general on all physical parameters of the binary which makes modelling efforts as well as understanding parameter-estimation prospects prohibitively complex. Here we show that the dominant precession effects can be captured by a reduced set of spin parameters. Specifically, we introduce a single \\emph{effective precession spin} parameter, $\\chi_p$, which is defined from the spin components that lie in the orbital plane at some (arbitrary) instant during the inspiral. We test the efficacy of this parameter by considering binary inspiral configurations specified by the phy...
A combined model for pseudorapidity distributions in Cu-Cu collisions at BNL-RHIC energies
Jiang, Zhjin; Huang, Yan
2016-01-01
The charged particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions come from leading particles and those frozen out from the hot and dense matter created in collisions. The leading particles are conventionally supposed having Gaussian rapidity distributions normalized to the number of participants. The hot and dense matter is assumed to expand according to the unified hydrodynamics, a hydro model which unifies the features of Landau and Hwa-Bjorken model, and freeze out into charged particles from a space-like hypersurface with a proper time of Tau_FO . The rapidity distribution of this part of charged particles can be derived out analytically. The combined contribution from both leading particles and unified hydrodynamics is then compared against the experimental data performed by BNL-RHIC-PHOBOS Collaboration in different centrality Cu-Cu collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 and 62.4 GeV, respectively. The model predictions are in well consistent with experimental measurements.
A numerical strategy for finite element modeling of frictionless asymmetric vocal fold collision
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Granados, Alba; Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Brunskog, Jonas;
2016-01-01
Analysis of voice pathologies may require vocal fold models that include relevant features such as vocal fold asymmetric collision. The present study numerically addresses the problem of frictionless asymmetric collision in a self-sustained three-dimensional continuum model of the vocal folds....... Theoretical background and numerical analysis of the finite-element position-based contact model are presented, along with validation. A novel contact detection mechanism capable to detect collision in asymmetric oscillations is developed. The effect of inexact contact constraint enforcement on vocal fold...... dynamics is examined by different variational methods for inequality constrained minimization problems, namely the Lagrange multiplier method and the penalty method. In contrast to the penalty solution, which is related to classical spring-like contact forces, numerical examples show that the parameter...
Understanding discs in binary YSOs: detailed modelling of VV CrA
Scicluna, P; Ratzka, T; Costigan, G; Launhardt, R; Leinert, C; Ober, F; Manara, C F; Testi, L
2016-01-01
Given that a majority of stars form in multiple systems, in order to fully understand the star- and planet-formation processes we must seek to understand them in multiple stellar systems. With this in mind, we present an analysis of the enigmatic binary T-Tauri system VV Corona Australis, in which both components host discs, but only one is visible at optical wavelengths. We seek to understand the peculiarities of this system by searching for a model for the binary which explains all the available continuum observations of the system. We present new mid-infrared interferometry and near-infrared spectroscopy along with archival millimetre-wave observations, which resolve the binary at 1.3mm for the first time. We compute a grid of pre-main-sequence radiative transfer models and calculate their posterior probabilities given the observed spectral energy distributions and mid-infrared interferometric visibilities of the binary components, beginning with the assumption that the only differences between the two com...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Hong; YI Guodong; TAN Jianrong; LIU Zhenyu
2008-01-01
Collision avoidance decision-making models of multiple agents in virtual driving environ- ment are studied. Based on the behavioral characteristics and hierarchical structure of the collision avoidance decision-making in real life driving, delphi approach and mathematical statistics method are introduced to construct pair-wise comparison judgment matrix of collision avoidance decision choices to each collision situation. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is adopted to establish the agents' collision avoidance decision-making model. To simulate drivers' characteristics, driver factors are added to categorize driving modes into impatient mode, normal mode, and the cautious mode. The results show that this model can simulate human's thinking process, and the agents in the virtual environment can deal with collision situations and make decisions to avoid collisions without intervention. The model can also reflect diversity and uncertainty of real life driving behaviors, and solves the multi-objective, multi-choice ranking priority problem in multi-vehicle collision scenarios. This collision avoidance model of multi-agents model is feasible and effective, and can provide richer and closer-to-life virtual scene for driving simulator, reflecting real-life traffic environment more truly, this model can also promote the practicality of driving simulator.
Efficient and robust estimation for longitudinal mixed models for binary data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holst, René
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a longitudinal mixed model for binary data. The model extends the classical Poisson trick, in which a binomial regression is fitted by switching to a Poisson framework. A recent estimating equations method for generalized linear longitudinal mixed models, called GEEP, is used...... as a vehicle for fitting the conditional Poisson regressions, given a latent process of serial correlated Tweedie variables. The regression parameters are estimated using a quasi-score method, whereas the dispersion and correlation parameters are estimated by use of bias-corrected Pearson-type estimating...... equations, using second moments only. Random effects are predicted by BLUPs. The method provides a computationally efficient and robust approach to the estimation of longitudinal clustered binary data and accommodates linear and non-linear models. A simulation study is used for validation and finally...
On models of the genetic code generated by binary dichotomic algorithms.
Gumbel, Markus; Fimmel, Elena; Danielli, Alberto; Strüngmann, Lutz
2015-02-01
In this paper we introduce the concept of a BDA-generated model of the genetic code which is based on binary dichotomic algorithms (BDAs). A BDA-generated model is based on binary dichotomic algorithms (BDAs). Such a BDA partitions the set of 64 codons into two disjoint classes of size 32 each and provides a generalization of known partitions like the Rumer dichotomy. We investigate what partitions can be generated when a set of different BDAs is applied sequentially to the set of codons. The search revealed that these models are able to generate code tables with very different numbers of classes ranging from 2 to 64. We have analyzed whether there are models that map the codons to their amino acids. A perfect matching is not possible. However, we present models that describe the standard genetic code with only few errors. There are also models that map all 64 codons uniquely to 64 classes showing that BDAs can be used to identify codons precisely. This could serve as a basis for further mathematical analysis using coding theory, for example. The hypothesis that BDAs might reflect a molecular mechanism taking place in the decoding center of the ribosome is discussed. The scan demonstrated that binary dichotomic partitions are able to model different aspects of the genetic code very well. The search was performed with our tool Beady-A. This software is freely available at http://mi.informatik.hs-mannheim.de/beady-a. It requires a JVM version 6 or higher.
Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. D. Bottrill
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Dynamic models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict dynamic topography changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of topography on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs basin on the overriding plate after initial collision. This "collisional mantle dynamic basin" (CMDB is caused by slab steepening drawing, material away from the base of the overriding plate. Also, during this initial collision phase, surface uplift is predicted on the overriding plate between the suture zone and the CMDB, due to the subduction of buoyant continental material and its isostatic compensation. After slab detachment, redistribution of stresses and underplating of the overriding plate cause the uplift to spread further into the overriding plate. This topographic evolution fits the stratigraphy found on the overriding plate of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran and south east Turkey. The sedimentary record from the overriding plate contains Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene marine carbonates deposited between terrestrial clastic sedimentary rocks, in units such as the Qom Formation and its lateral equivalents. This stratigraphy shows that during the Late Oligocene–Early Miocene the surface of the overriding plate sank below sea level before rising back above sea level, without major compressional deformation recorded in the same area. Our modelled topography changes fit well with this observed uplift and subsidence.
Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations
Bottrill, A. D.; van Hunen, J.; Allen, M. B.
2012-11-01
Dynamic models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict dynamic topography changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of topography on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs) basin on the overriding plate after initial collision. This "collisional mantle dynamic basin" (CMDB) is caused by slab steepening drawing, material away from the base of the overriding plate. Also, during this initial collision phase, surface uplift is predicted on the overriding plate between the suture zone and the CMDB, due to the subduction of buoyant continental material and its isostatic compensation. After slab detachment, redistribution of stresses and underplating of the overriding plate cause the uplift to spread further into the overriding plate. This topographic evolution fits the stratigraphy found on the overriding plate of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran and south east Turkey. The sedimentary record from the overriding plate contains Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene marine carbonates deposited between terrestrial clastic sedimentary rocks, in units such as the Qom Formation and its lateral equivalents. This stratigraphy shows that during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene the surface of the overriding plate sank below sea level before rising back above sea level, without major compressional deformation recorded in the same area. Our modelled topography changes fit well with this observed uplift and subsidence.
Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. D. Bottrill
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Dynamic models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict dynamic topography changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of topography on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs deepening in the area of the back arc-basin after initial collision. This collisional mantle dynamic basin (CMDB is caused by slab steepening drawing material away from the base of the overriding plate. Also during this initial collision phase, surface uplift is predicted on the overriding plate between the suture zone and the CMDB, due to the subduction of buoyant continental material and its isostatic compensation. After slab detachment, redistribution of stresses and underplating of the overriding plate causes the uplift to spread further into the overriding plate. This topographic evolution fits the stratigraphy found on the overriding plate of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran and south east Turkey. The sedimentary record from the overriding plate contains Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene marine carbonates deposited between terrestrial clastic sedimentary rocks, in units such as the Qom Formation and its lateral equivalents. This stratigraphy shows that during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene the surface of the overriding plate sank below sea level before rising back above sea level, without major compressional deformation recorded in the same area. This uplift and subsidence pattern correlates well with our modelled topography changes.
Assessment of high-fidelity collision models in the direct simulation Monte Carlo method
Weaver, Andrew B.
Advances in computer technology over the decades has allowed for more complex physics to be modeled in the DSMC method. Beginning with the first paper on DSMC in 1963, 30,000 collision events per hour were simulated using a simple hard sphere model. Today, more than 10 billion collision events can be simulated per hour for the same problem. Many new and more physically realistic collision models such as the Lennard-Jones potential and the forced harmonic oscillator model have been introduced into DSMC. However, the fact that computer resources are more readily available and higher-fidelity models have been developed does not necessitate their usage. It is important to understand how such high-fidelity models affect the output quantities of interest in engineering applications. The effect of elastic and inelastic collision models on compressible Couette flow, ground-state atomic oxygen transport properties, and normal shock waves have therefore been investigated. Recommendations for variable soft sphere and Lennard-Jones model parameters are made based on a critical review of recent ab-initio calculations and experimental measurements of transport properties.
A Clustering-Based Model-Building EA for Optimization Problems with Binary and Real-Valued Variables
Sadowski, Krzysztof L.; Bosman, Peter A. N.; Thierens, Dirk
2015-01-01
We propose a novel clustering-based model-building evolutionary algorithm to tackle optimization problems that have both binary and real-valued variables. The search space is clustered every generation using a distance metric that considers binary and real-valued variables jointly in order to captur
Prediction of vapor-liquid equilibriafor hydrocarbon binary systems by regular solution model
下山, 裕介; 米澤, 節子; 小渕, 茂寿; 福地, 賢治; 荒井, 康彦; Shimoyama, Yusuke; Yonezawa, Setsuko; Kobuchi, Shigetoshi; Fukuchi, Kenii; Arai, Yasuhiko
2007-01-01
Vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) of hydrocarbon binary systems : hexane + benzene (25 °C)， toluene + octane (60°C) and cyclohexane + toluene (50°C) were predicted by using a regular solution model. In the present model, the mixing entropy term (Flory-Huggins equation) is included and an interaction parameter between unlike molecules is introduced. Solubility parameters and molar volumes at each temperature required in calculation are estimated by previously proposed methods. VLE of hexane + benz...
Modeling diffusion coefficients in binary mixtures of polar and non-polar compounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Medvedev, Oleg; Shapiro, Alexander
2005-01-01
The theory of transport coefficients in liquids, developed previously, is tested on a description of the diffusion coefficients in binary polar/non-polar mixtures, by applying advanced thermodynamic models. Comparison to a large set of experimental data shows good performance of the model. Only...... components and to only one parameter for mixtures consisting of non-polar components. A possibility of complete prediction of the parameters is discussed....
Karandashev, Yakov M
2016-01-01
In this paper we propose and realize (the code is publicly available at https://github.com/Thrawn1985/2D-Partition-Function) an algorithm for exact calculation of partition function for planar graph models with binary spins. The complexity of the algorithm is O(N^2). Test experiments shows good agreement with Onsager's analytical solution for two-dimensional Ising model of infinite size.
Chaturvedi, O. S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Kumar, Ashwini; Singh, B. K.
2016-12-01
The charged particle multiplicity (n_{ch}) and pseudorapidity density (dn_{ch}/dη) are key observables to characterize the properties of matter created in heavy-ion collisions. The dependence of these observables on collision energy and the collision geometry are a key tool to understand the underlying particle production mechanism. Recently much interest has been focused on asymmetric and deformed nuclei collisions since these collisions can provide a deeper understanding about the nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). From the phenomenological perspective, a unified model which describes the experimental data coming from various kinds of collision experiments is much needed to provide physical insights on the production mechanism. In this paper, we have calculated the charged hadron multiplicities for nucleon-nucleus, such as proton-lead ( p-Pb) and asymmetric nuclei collisions like deutron-gold ( d-Au), and copper-gold (Cu-Au) within a new version of the wounded quark model (WQM) and we have shown their variation with respect to centrality. Further we have used a suitable density function within our WQM to calculate pseudorapidity density of charged hadrons at midrapidity in the collisions of deformed uranium nuclei. We found that our model with suitable density functions describes the experimental data for symmetric, asymmetric and deformed nuclei collisions simultaneously over a wide range of the collision energy.
Functionally unidimensional item response models for multivariate binary data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ip, Edward; Molenberghs, Geert; Chen, Shyh-Huei;
2013-01-01
The problem of fitting unidimensional item response models to potentially multidimensional data has been extensively studied. The focus of this article is on response data that have a strong dimension but also contain minor nuisance dimensions. Fitting a unidimensional model to such multidimensio......The problem of fitting unidimensional item response models to potentially multidimensional data has been extensively studied. The focus of this article is on response data that have a strong dimension but also contain minor nuisance dimensions. Fitting a unidimensional model...... to such multidimensional data is believed to result in ability estimates that represent a combination of the major and minor dimensions. We conjecture that the underlying dimension for the fitted unidimensional model, which we call the functional dimension, represents a nonlinear projection. In this article we investigate...... tool. An example regarding a construct of desire for physical competency is used to illustrate the functional unidimensional approach....
Non-linear mixed models in the analysis of mediated longitudinal data with binary outcomes.
Blood, Emily A; Cheng, Debbie M
2012-01-24
Structural equation models (SEMs) provide a general framework for analyzing mediated longitudinal data. However when interest is in the total effect (i.e. direct plus indirect) of a predictor on the binary outcome, alternative statistical techniques such as non-linear mixed models (NLMM) may be preferable, particularly if specific causal pathways are not hypothesized or specialized SEM software is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the NLMM in a setting where the SEM is presumed optimal. We performed a simulation study to assess the performance of NLMMs relative to SEMs with respect to bias, coverage probability, and power in the analysis of mediated binary longitudinal outcomes. Both logistic and probit models were evaluated. Models were also applied to data from a longitudinal study assessing the impact of alcohol consumption on HIV disease progression. For the logistic model, the NLMM adequately estimated the total effect of a repeated predictor on the repeated binary outcome and were similar to the SEM across a variety of scenarios evaluating sample size, effect size, and distributions of direct vs. indirect effects. For the probit model, the NLMM adequately estimated the total effect of the repeated predictor, however, the probit SEM overestimated effects. Both logistic and probit NLMMs performed well relative to corresponding SEMs with respect to bias, coverage probability and power. In addition, in the probit setting, the NLMM may produce better estimates of the total effect than the probit SEM, which appeared to overestimate effects.
Modeling of Inelastic Collisions in a Multifluid Plasma: Ionization and Recombination
Le, H P
2016-01-01
A model for ionization and recombination collisions in a multifluid plasma is formulated using the framework introduced in previous work [{Phys. Plasmas} \\textbf{22}, 093512 (2015)]. The exchange source terms for density, momentum and energy are detailed for the case of electron induced ionization and three body recombination collisions with isotropic scattering. The principle of detailed balance is enforced at the microscopic level. We describe how to incorporate the standard collisional-radiative model into the multifluid equations using the current formulation. Numerical solutions of the collisional-radiative rate equations for atomic hydrogen are presented to highlight the impact of the multifluid effect on the kinetics.
Evolution of Binaries in Dense Stellar Systems
Ivanova, Natalia
2011-01-01
In contrast to the field, the binaries in dense stellar systems are frequently not primordial, and could be either dynamically formed or significantly altered from their primordial states. Destruction and formation of binaries occur in parallel all the time. The destruction, which constantly removes soft binaries from a binary pool, works as an energy sink and could be a reason for cluster entering the binary-burning phase. The true binary fraction is greater than observed, as a result, the observable binary fraction evolves differently from the predictions. Combined measurements of binary fractions in globular clusters suggest that most of the clusters are still core-contracting. The formation, on other hand, affects most the more evolutionary advanced stars, which significantly enhances the population of X-ray sources in globular clusters. The formation of binaries with a compact objects proceeds mainly through physical collisions, binary-binary and single-binary encounters; however, it is the dynamical for...
Particle Production in Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions: A Statistical-Thermal Model Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. K. Tiwari
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The current status of various thermal and statistical descriptions of particle production in the ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions experiments is presented in detail. We discuss the formulation of various types of thermal models of a hot and dense hadron gas (HG and the methods incorporated in the implementing of the interactions between hadrons. It includes our new excluded-volume model which is thermodynamically consistent. The results of the above models together with the experimental results for various ratios of the produced hadrons are compared. We derive some new universal conditions emerging at the chemical freeze-out of HG fireball showing independence with respect to the energy as well as the structure of the nuclei used in the collision. Further, we calculate various transport properties of HG such as the ratio of shear viscosity-to-entropy using our thermal model and compare with the results of other models. We also show the rapidity as well as transverse mass spectra of various hadrons in the thermal HG model in order to outline the presence of flow in the fluid formed in the collision. The purpose of this review article is to organize and summarize the experimental data obtained in various experiments with heavy-ion collisions and then to examine and analyze them using thermal models so that a firm conclusion regarding the formation of quark-gluon plasma (QGP can be obtained.
Binary choices in small and large groups: A unified model
Bischi, Gian-Italo; Merlone, Ugo
2010-02-01
Two different ways to model the diffusion of alternative choices within a population of individuals in the presence of social externalities are known in the literature. While Galam’s model of rumors spreading considers a majority rule for interactions in several groups, Schelling considers individuals interacting in one large group, with payoff functions that describe how collective choices influence individual preferences. We incorporate these two approaches into a unified general discrete-time dynamic model for studying individual interactions in variously sized groups. We first illustrate how the two original models can be obtained as particular cases of the more general model we propose, then we show how several other situations can be analyzed. The model we propose goes beyond a theoretical exercise as it allows modeling situations which are relevant in economic and social systems. We consider also other aspects such as the propensity to switch choices and the behavioral momentum, and show how they may affect the dynamics of the whole population.
Model reductions for inference: generality of pairwise, binary, and planar factor graphs.
Eaton, Frederik; Ghahramani, Zoubin
2013-05-01
We offer a solution to the problem of efficiently translating algorithms between different types of discrete statistical model. We investigate the expressive power of three classes of model-those with binary variables, with pairwise factors, and with planar topology-as well as their four intersections. We formalize a notion of "simple reduction" for the problem of inferring marginal probabilities and consider whether it is possible to "simply reduce" marginal inference from general discrete factor graphs to factor graphs in each of these seven subclasses. We characterize the reducibility of each class, showing in particular that the class of binary pairwise factor graphs is able to simply reduce only positive models. We also exhibit a continuous "spectral reduction" based on polynomial interpolation, which overcomes this limitation. Experiments assess the performance of standard approximate inference algorithms on the outputs of our reductions.
Verification of a binary fluid solidification model in the finite-volume flow solver
Waclawczyk, Tomasz
2015-01-01
The aim of this paper is to verify the new numerical implementation of a binary fluid, heat conduction dominated solidification model. First, we extend a semi-analytical solution to the heat diffusion equation, next, the range of its applicability is investigated. It was found that the linearization introduced to the heat diffusion equation negatively affects the ability to predict solidus and liquidus lines positions whenever the magnitude of latent heat of fusion exceeds a certain value. Next, a binary fluid solidification model is coupled with a flow solver, and is used in a numerical study of Al-4.1%Cu alloy solidification in a two-dimensional rectangular cavity. An accurate coupling between the solidification model and the flow solver is crucial for the correct forecast of solidification front positions and macrosegregation patterns.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mansoori, Zohreh; Saffar-Avval, Majid; Basirat-Tabrizi, Hassan; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Lain, Santiago
2002-12-01
A thermo-mechanical turbulence model is developed and used for predicting heat transfer in a gas-solid flow through a vertical pipe with constant wall heat flux. The new four-way interaction model makes use of the thermal k{sub {theta}}-{tau}{sub {theta}} equations, in addition to the hydrodynamic k-{tau} transport, and accounts for the particle-particle and particle-wall collisions through a Eulerian/Lagrangian formulation. The simulation results indicate that the level of thermal turbulence intensity and the heat transfer are strongly affected by the particle collisions. Inter-particle collisions attenuate the thermal turbulence intensity near the wall but somewhat amplify the temperature fluctuations in the pipe core region. The hydrodynamic-to-thermal times-scale ratio and the turbulent Prandtl number in the region near the wall increase due to the inter-particle collisions. The results also show that the use of a constant or the single-phase gas turbulent Prandtl number produces error in the thermal eddy diffusivity and thermal turbulent intensity fields. Simulation results also indicate that the inter-particle contact heat conduction during collision has no significant effect in the range of Reynolds number and particle diameter studied.
Modeling of Emission Signatures of Massive Black Hole Binaries: I Methods
Bogdanovic, Tamara; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Eracleous, Michael
2007-01-01
We model the electromagnetic signatures of massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) with an associated gas component. The method comprises numerical simulations of relativistic binaries and gas coupled with calculations of the physical properties of the emitting gas. We calculate the UV/X-ray and the Halpha light curves and the Halpha emission profiles. The simulations are carried out with a modified version of the parallel tree SPH code Gadget. The heating, cooling, and radiative processes are calculated for two different physical scenarios, where the gas is approximated as a black-body or a solar metallicity gas. The calculation for the solar metallicity scenario is carried out with the photoionization code Cloudy. We focus on sub-parsec binaries which have not yet entered the gravitational radiation phase. The results from the first set of calculations, carried out for a coplanar binary and gas disk, suggest that there are pronounced outbursts in the X-ray light curve during pericentric passages. If such outbur...
High-Performance Computer Modeling of the Cosmos-Iridium Collision
Olivier, S.
This paper describes the application of a new, integrated modeling and simulation framework, encompassing the space situational awareness (SSA) enterprise, to the recent Cosmos-Iridium collision. This framework is based on a flexible, scalable architecture to enable efficient simulation of the current SSA enterprise, and to accommodate future advancements in SSA systems. In particular, the code is designed to take advantage of massively parallel computer systems available, for example, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We will describe the application of this framework to the recent collision of the Cosmos and Iridium satellites, including (1) detailed hydrodynamic modeling of the satellite collision and resulting debris generation, (2) orbital propagation of the simulated debris and analysis of the increased risk to other satellites (3) calculation of the radar and optical signatures of the simulated debris and modeling of debris detection with space surveillance radar and optical systems (4) determination of simulated debris orbits from modeled space surveillance observations and analysis of the resulting orbital accuracy, (5) comparison of these modeling and simulation results with Space Surveillance Network observations. We will also discuss the use of this integrated modeling and simulation framework to analyze the risks and consequences of future satellite collisions and to assess strategies for mitigating or avoiding future incidents, including the addition of new sensor systems, used in conjunction with the Space Surveillance Network, for improving space situational awareness.
High-Performance Computer Modeling of the Cosmos-Iridium Collision
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olivier, S; Cook, K; Fasenfest, B; Jefferson, D; Jiang, M; Leek, J; Levatin, J; Nikolaev, S; Pertica, A; Phillion, D; Springer, K; De Vries, W
2009-08-28
This paper describes the application of a new, integrated modeling and simulation framework, encompassing the space situational awareness (SSA) enterprise, to the recent Cosmos-Iridium collision. This framework is based on a flexible, scalable architecture to enable efficient simulation of the current SSA enterprise, and to accommodate future advancements in SSA systems. In particular, the code is designed to take advantage of massively parallel, high-performance computer systems available, for example, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We will describe the application of this framework to the recent collision of the Cosmos and Iridium satellites, including (1) detailed hydrodynamic modeling of the satellite collision and resulting debris generation, (2) orbital propagation of the simulated debris and analysis of the increased risk to other satellites (3) calculation of the radar and optical signatures of the simulated debris and modeling of debris detection with space surveillance radar and optical systems (4) determination of simulated debris orbits from modeled space surveillance observations and analysis of the resulting orbital accuracy, (5) comparison of these modeling and simulation results with Space Surveillance Network observations. We will also discuss the use of this integrated modeling and simulation framework to analyze the risks and consequences of future satellite collisions and to assess strategies for mitigating or avoiding future incidents, including the addition of new sensor systems, used in conjunction with the Space Surveillance Network, for improving space situational awareness.
Binary tree models of high-Reynolds-number turbulence
Aurell, Erik; Dormy, Emmanuel; Frick, Peter
1997-08-01
We consider hierarchical models for turbulence, that are simple generalizations of the standard Gledzer-Ohkitani-Yamada shell models (E. B. Gledzer, Dokl, Akad. Nauk SSSR 209, 5 (1973) [Sov. Phys. Dokl. 18, 216 (1973)]; M. Yamada and K. Ohkitani, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 4210 (1987)). The density of degrees of freedom is constant in wave-number space. Looking only at this behavior and at the quadratic invariants in the inviscid unforced limit, the models can be thought of as systems living naturally in one spatial dimension, but being qualitatively similar to hydrodynamics in two (2D) and three dimensions. We investigated cascade phenomena and intermittency in the different cases. We observed and studied a forward cascade of enstrophy in the 2D case.
Functionally Unidimensional Item Response Models for Multivariate Binary Data.
Ip, Edward H; Molenberghs, Geert; Chen, Shyh-Huei; Goegebeur, Yuri; De Boeck, Paul
2013-07-01
The problem of fitting unidimensional item response models to potentially multidimensional data has been extensively studied. The focus of this article is on response data that have a strong dimension but also contain minor nuisance dimensions. Fitting a unidimensional model to such multidimensional data is believed to result in ability estimates that represent a combination of the major and minor dimensions. We conjecture that the underlying dimension for the fitted unidimensional model, which we call the functional dimension, represents a nonlinear projection. In this article we investigate 2 issues: (a) can a proposed nonlinear projection track the functional dimension well, and (b) what are the biases in the ability estimate and the associated standard error when estimating the functional dimension? To investigate the second issue, the nonlinear projection is used as an evaluative tool. An example regarding a construct of desire for physical competency is used to illustrate the functional unidimensional approach.
A Simple Quantum Model of Ultracold Polar Molecule Collisions
Idziaszek, Zbigniew; Bohn, John L; Julienne, Paul S
2010-01-01
We present a unified formalism for describing chemical reaction rates of trapped, ultracold molecules. This formalism reduces the scattering to its essential features, namely, a propagation of the reactant molecules through a gauntlet of long-range forces before they ultimately encounter one another, followed by a probability for the reaction to occur once they do. In this way, the electric-field dependence should be readily parametrized in terms of a pair of fitting parameters (along with a $C_6$ coefficient) for each asymptotic value of partial wave quantum numbers $|L,M \\rangle$. From this, the electric field dependence of the collision rates follows automatically. We present examples for reactive species such as KRb, and non-reactive species, such as RbCs.
An extended topological model for binary phosphate glasses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hermansen, Christian; Rodrigues, B.P.; Wondraczek, L.
2014-01-01
the model reduces to classical constraint counting. The constraints on the modifying cations are linear constraints to first neighbor NBOs, and all angular constraints are broken as expected for ionic bonding. For small modifying cations, such as Li+, the linear constraints are almost fully intact...
From p+p to Pb+Pb Collisions: Wounded Nucleon versus Statistical Models
Gazdzicki, Marek
2013-01-01
System size dependence of hadron production properties is discussed within the Wounded Nucleon Model and the Statistical Model in the grand canonical, canonical and micro-canonical formulations. Similarities and differences between predictions of the models related to the treatment of conservation laws are exposed. A need for models which would combine a hydrodynamical-like expansion with conservation laws obeyed in individual collisions is stressed.
Littlest Higgs model with T-parity and single top production in ep collisions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEN Jia; YUE Chong-Xing; LIU Jin-Yan; LIU Wei
2009-01-01
Based on calculating the contributions of the littlest Higgs model with T-parity (called LHT model) to the anomalous top coupling tqγ (q=u or c), we consider single top production via the t-channel partonic process eq → et in ep collisions. Our numerical results show that the production cross section in the LHT model can be significantly enhanced relative to that in the standard model (SM).
Radar Shape Modeling of Binary Near-Earth Asteroid 2000 CO101
Jimenez, Nicholas; Howell, E. S.; Nolan, M. C.; Taylor, P. A.; Benner, L. A. M.; Brozovic, M.; Giorgini, J. D.; Vervack, R. J.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Mueller, M.; Margot, J.; Shepard, M. K.
2010-10-01
We observed the near-Earth binary system 2000 CO101 in 2009 September using the Goldstone and Arecibo radar systems and inverted these images to create shape models of the primary. Asteroid 2000 CO101 was discovered to be a binary system from Arecibo images taken on 2009 September 26 (Taylor et al. 2009). Analyzing the images, we were able to determine approximate values for the radius of the primary (310 m) and the radius of the secondary (22 m). The maximum observed range separation was approximately 610 m. The images show it to appear spherical. Shape modeling of the primary of this system will constrain the asteroid's size, spin rate, and pole orientation. Because other NEA binary systems have exhibited shapes similar to that of 1999 KW4 (Ostro et al. 2006, Scheeres et al. 2006), we initially adopted this shape for 2000 CO101 and have allowed only the linear scales along the three principal axes to adjust to the radar data. This enables us to constrain the volume. With some constraints on the orbit of the satellite we will place limits on the density of the primary. The near-infrared spectrum of 2000 CO101 was measured on 2009 September 21 and 2010 March 13. The 0.8-2.5 micron spectrum was measured on both dates, and shows a featureless, red-sloped spectrum. On September 21 we also measured the thermal emission between 2-4 microns to determine the albedo and thermal properties. Both standard thermal models and thermophysical models have been applied to these data. The albedo we derive from the thermal modeling must also be consistent with the radar size. Characterization of this unusual NEA binary system will be presented.
A probabilistic model for hydrokinetic turbine collision risks: exploring impacts on fish.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Linus Hammar
Full Text Available A variety of hydrokinetic turbines are currently under development for power generation in rivers, tidal straits and ocean currents. Because some of these turbines are large, with rapidly moving rotor blades, the risk of collision with aquatic animals has been brought to attention. The behavior and fate of animals that approach such large hydrokinetic turbines have not yet been monitored at any detail. In this paper, we conduct a synthesis of the current knowledge and understanding of hydrokinetic turbine collision risks. The outcome is a generic fault tree based probabilistic model suitable for estimating population-level ecological risks. New video-based data on fish behavior in strong currents are provided and models describing fish avoidance behaviors are presented. The findings indicate low risk for small-sized fish. However, at large turbines (≥5 m, bigger fish seem to have high probability of collision, mostly because rotor detection and avoidance is difficult in low visibility. Risks can therefore be substantial for vulnerable populations of large-sized fish, which thrive in strong currents. The suggested collision risk model can be applied to different turbine designs and at a variety of locations as basis for case-specific risk assessments. The structure of the model facilitates successive model validation, refinement and application to other organism groups such as marine mammals.
A probabilistic model for hydrokinetic turbine collision risks: exploring impacts on fish.
Hammar, Linus; Eggertsen, Linda; Andersson, Sandra; Ehnberg, Jimmy; Arvidsson, Rickard; Gullström, Martin; Molander, Sverker
2015-01-01
A variety of hydrokinetic turbines are currently under development for power generation in rivers, tidal straits and ocean currents. Because some of these turbines are large, with rapidly moving rotor blades, the risk of collision with aquatic animals has been brought to attention. The behavior and fate of animals that approach such large hydrokinetic turbines have not yet been monitored at any detail. In this paper, we conduct a synthesis of the current knowledge and understanding of hydrokinetic turbine collision risks. The outcome is a generic fault tree based probabilistic model suitable for estimating population-level ecological risks. New video-based data on fish behavior in strong currents are provided and models describing fish avoidance behaviors are presented. The findings indicate low risk for small-sized fish. However, at large turbines (≥5 m), bigger fish seem to have high probability of collision, mostly because rotor detection and avoidance is difficult in low visibility. Risks can therefore be substantial for vulnerable populations of large-sized fish, which thrive in strong currents. The suggested collision risk model can be applied to different turbine designs and at a variety of locations as basis for case-specific risk assessments. The structure of the model facilitates successive model validation, refinement and application to other organism groups such as marine mammals.
STELLAR LOCI II. A MODEL-FREE ESTIMATE OF THE BINARY FRACTION FOR FIELD FGK STARS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuan, Haibo; Liu, Xiaowei [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xiang, Maosheng; Huang, Yang; Chen, Bingqiu [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wu, Yue [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Hou, Yonghui; Zhang, Yong, E-mail: yuanhb4861@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: x.liu@pku.edu.cn [Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210042 (China)
2015-02-01
We propose a stellar locus outlier (SLOT) method to determine the binary fraction of main-sequence stars statistically. The method is sensitive to neither the period nor mass ratio distributions of binaries and is able to provide model-free estimates of binary fraction for large numbers of stars of different populations in large survey volumes. We have applied the SLOT method to two samples of stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82, constructed by combining the recalibrated SDSS photometric data with the spectroscopic information from the SDSS and LAMOST surveys. For the SDSS spectroscopic sample, we find an average binary fraction for field FGK stars of 41% ± 2%. The fractions decrease toward late spectral types and are 44% ± 5%, 43% ± 3%, 35% ± 5%, and 28% ± 6% for stars with g – i colors in the range 0.3-0.6 mag, 0.6-0.9 mag, 0.9-1.2 mag, and 1.2-1.6 mag, respectively. A modest metallicity dependence is also found. The fraction decreases with increasing metallicity. For stars with [Fe/H] between –0.5 and 0.0 dex, –1.0 and –0.5 dex, –1.5 and –1.0 dex, and –2.0 and –1.5 dex, the inferred binary fractions are 37% ± 3%, 39% ± 3%, 50% ± 9%, and 53% ± 20%, respectively. We have further divided the sample into stars from the thin disk, the thick disk, the transition zone between them, and the halo. The results suggest that the Galactic thin and thick disks have comparable binary fractions, whereas the Galactic halo contains a significantly larger fraction of binaries. Applying the method to the LAMOST spectroscopic sample yields consistent results. Finally, other potential applications and future work with the method are discussed.
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Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kremin, A; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C -H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, J; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Roux, A Le; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Litvine, V; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Lodhia, D; Loew, K; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Luijten, E; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E P; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Manca, G M; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mangini, N; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martinelli, L; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R A; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyers, P; Miao, H; Michel, C; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Milde, S; Miller, J; Minenkov, Y; Mingarelli, C M F; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moesta, P; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morgado, N; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Kumar, D Nanda; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Paoletti, F; Paoletti, R; Papa, M A; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rhoades, E; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rodruck, M; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; 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Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Torre, O; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C Van Den; van der Putten, S; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Verma, S S; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyachanin, S P; Wade, A; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; West, M; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Williams, K; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williams, T; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, H; Yang, Z; Yoshida, S; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J; Boyle, M; Brügmann, B; Buchman, L T; Campanelli, M; Chu, T; Etienne, Z B; Hannam, M; Healy, J; Hinder, I; Kidder, L E; Laguna, P; Liu, Y T; London, L; Lousto, C O; Lovelace, G; MacDonald, I; Marronetti, P; Mösta, P; Müller, D; Mundim, B C; Nakano, H; Paschalidis, V; Pekowsky, L; Pollney, D; Pfeiffer, H P; Ponce, M; Pürrer, M; Reifenberger, G; Reisswig, C; Santamaría, L; Scheel, M A; Shapiro, S L; Shoemaker, D; Sopuerta, C F; Sperhake, U; Szilágyi, B; Taylor, N W; Tichy, W; Tsatsin, P; Zlochower, Y
2014-01-01
The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave astrophysics communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the ability to detect gravitational waves emitted from merging binary black holes and recover their parameters with next-generation gravitational-wave observatories. We report here on the results of the second NINJA project, NINJA-2, which employs 60 complete binary black hole hybrid waveforms consisting of a numerical portion modelling the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown stitched to a post-Newtonian portion modelling the early inspiral. In a "blind injection challenge" similar to that conducted in recent LIGO and Virgo science runs, we added 7 hybrid waveforms to two months of data recolored to predictions of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo sensitivity curves during their first observing runs. The resulting data was analyzed by gravitational-wave detection algorithms and 6 of the waveforms were recovered w...
Modelling variability in black hole binaries: linking simulations to observations
Ingram, Adam
2011-01-01
Black hole accretion flows show rapid X-ray variability. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) of this is typically fit by a phenomenological model of multiple Lorentzians for both the broad band noise and Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs). Our previous paper (Ingram & Done 2011) developed the first physical model for the PSD and fit this to observational data. This was based on the same truncated disc/hot inner flow geometry which can explain the correlated properties of the energy spectra. This assumes that the broad band noise is from propagating fluctuations in mass accretion rate within the hot flow, while the QPO is produced by global Lense-Thirring precession of the same hot flow. Here we develop this model, making some significant improvements. Firstly we specify that the viscous frequency (equivalently, surface density) in the hot flow has the same form as that measured from numerical simulations of precessing, tilted accretion flows. Secondly, we refine the statistical techniques which we use to fit...
Erebholo, Francis; Apprey, Victor; Bezandry, Paul; Kwagyan, John
2016-04-01
Incomplete data are common phenomenon in research that adopts the longitudinal design approach. If incomplete observations are present in the longitudinal data structure, ignoring it could lead to bias in statistical inference and interpretation. We adopt the disposition model and extend it to the analysis of longitudinal binary outcomes in the presence of monotone incomplete data. The response variable is modeled using a conditional logistic regression model. The nonresponse mechanism is assumed ignorable and developed as a combination of Markov's transition and logistic regression model. MLE method is used for parameter estimation. Application of our approach to rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials is presented.
Three-dimensional simulations of phase separation in model binary alloy systems with elasticity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orlikowski, D.; Roland, C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Sagui, C. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Somoza, A.S. [Univ. de Murcia (Spain). Dept. de Fisica
1998-12-31
The authors report on large-scale three-dimensional simulations of phase separation in model binary alloy systems in the presence of elastic fields. The elastic field has several important effects on the morphology of the system: the ordered domains are subject to shape transformations, and spatial ordering. In contrast to two-dimensional system, no significant slowing down in the growth is observed. There is also no evidence of any reverse coarsening of the domains.
Double pendulum model for a tennis stroke including a collision process
Youn, Sun-Hyun
2015-10-01
By means of adding a collision process between the ball and racket in the double pendulum model, we analyzed the tennis stroke. The ball and the racket system may be accelerated during the collision time; thus, the speed of the rebound ball does not simply depend on the angular velocity of the racket. A higher angular velocity sometimes gives a lower rebound ball speed. We numerically showed that the proper time-lagged racket rotation increased the speed of the rebound ball by 20%. We also showed that the elbow should move in the proper direction in order to add the angular velocity of the racket.
D-meson observables in heavy-ion collisions at LHC with EPOSHQ model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ozvenchuk Vitalii
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study the propagation of charm quarks in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at LHC within EPOSHQ model. The interactions of heavy quarks with the light partons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions through the collisional and radiative processes lead to a large suppression of final D-meson spectra at high transverse momentum and a finite D-meson elliptic flow. Our results are in a good agreement with the available experimental data.
Dynamical Analysis of Sputtering at Threshold Energy Range: Modelling of Ar+Ni(100) Collision System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUNDUR Yakup; G(U)VEN(C) Ziya B; HIPPLER Rainer
2008-01-01
The sputtering process of Ar+Ni(100) collision systems is investigated by means of constant energy molecular dynamics simulations.The Ni(100) slab is mimicked by an embedded-atom potential,and the interaction between the projectile and the surface is modelled by using the reparametrized ZBL potential.Ni atom emission from the lattice is analysed over the range of 20-50 eV collision energy.Sputtering yield,angular and energy distributions of the scattered Ar and of the sputtered Ni atoms are calculated,and compared to the available theoretical and experimental data.
Towards a construction of inclusive collision cross-sections in massless Nelson's model
Dybalski, Wojciech
2011-01-01
The conventional approach to the infrared problem in perturbative quantum electrodynamics relies on the concept of inclusive collision cross-sections. A non-perturbative variant of this notion was introduced in algebraic quantum field theory. Relying on these insights, we take first steps towards a non-perturbative construction of inclusive collision cross-sections in massless Nelson's model. We show that our proposal is consistent with the standard scattering theory in the absence of the infrared problem and discuss its status in the infrared-singular case.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parsons, Neal, E-mail: neal.parsons@cd-adapco.com; Levin, Deborah A., E-mail: deblevin@illinois.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 233 Hammond Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Duin, Adri C. T. van, E-mail: acv13@engr.psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 136 Research East, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Zhu, Tong, E-mail: tvz5037@psu.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 136 Research East, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)
2014-12-21
The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method typically used for simulating hypersonic Earth re-entry flows requires accurate total collision cross sections and reaction probabilities. However, total cross sections are often determined from extrapolations of relatively low-temperature viscosity data, so their reliability is unknown for the high temperatures observed in hypersonic flows. Existing DSMC reaction models accurately reproduce experimental equilibrium reaction rates, but the applicability of these rates to the strong thermal nonequilibrium observed in hypersonic shocks is unknown. For hypersonic flows, these modeling issues are particularly relevant for nitrogen, the dominant species of air. To rectify this deficiency, the Molecular Dynamics/Quasi-Classical Trajectories (MD/QCT) method is used to accurately compute collision and reaction cross sections for the N{sub 2}({sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +})-N{sub 2}({sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}) collision pair for conditions expected in hypersonic shocks using a new potential energy surface developed using a ReaxFF fit to recent advanced ab initio calculations. The MD/QCT-computed reaction probabilities were found to exhibit better physical behavior and predict less dissociation than the baseline total collision energy reaction model for strong nonequilibrium conditions expected in a shock. The MD/QCT reaction model compared well with computed equilibrium reaction rates and shock-tube data. In addition, the MD/QCT-computed total cross sections were found to agree well with established variable hard sphere total cross sections.
A circumbinary disc model for the variability of the eclipsing binary CoRoT 223992193
Terquem, Caroline; Bouvier, Jérôme
2015-01-01
We calculate the flux received from a binary system obscured by a circumbinary disc. The disc is modelled using two dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, and the vertical structure is derived by assuming it is isothermal. The gravitational torque from the binary creates a cavity in the disc's inner parts. If the line of sight along which the system is observed has a high inclination $I$, it intersects the disc and some absorption is produced. As the system is not axisymmetric, the resulting light curve displays variability. We calculate the absorption and produce light curves for different values of the dust disc aspect ratio $H/r$ and mass of dust in the cavity $M_{\\rm dust}$. This model is applied to the high inclination ($I=85^{\\circ}$) eclipsing binary CoRoT 223992193, which shows 5-10% residual photometric variability after the eclipses and a spot model are subtracted. We find that such variations for $I \\sim 85^{\\circ}$ can be obtained for $H/r=10^{-3}$ and $M_{\\rm dust} \\ge 10^{-12}$ M$_{\\odot}$. For...
Binary Classifier Calibration using an Ensemble of Near Isotonic Regression Models
Naeini, Mahdi Pakdaman; Cooper, Gregory F.
2017-01-01
Learning accurate probabilistic models from data is crucial in many practical tasks in data mining. In this paper we present a new non-parametric calibration method called ensemble of near isotonic regression (ENIR). The method can be considered as an extension of BBQ [20], a recently proposed calibration method, as well as the commonly used calibration method based on isotonic regression (IsoRegC) [27]. ENIR is designed to address the key limitation of IsoRegC which is the monotonicity assumption of the predictions. Similar to BBQ, the method post-processes the output of a binary classifier to obtain calibrated probabilities. Thus it can be used with many existing classification models to generate accurate probabilistic predictions. We demonstrate the performance of ENIR on synthetic and real datasets for commonly applied binary classification models. Experimental results show that the method outperforms several common binary classifier calibration methods. In particular on the real data, ENIR commonly performs statistically significantly better than the other methods, and never worse. It is able to improve the calibration power of classifiers, while retaining their discrimination power. The method is also computationally tractable for large scale datasets, as it is O(N log N) time, where N is the number of samples.
Effective-one-body waveforms for binary neutron stars using surrogate models
Lackey, Benjamin D; Galley, Chad R; Meidam, Jeroen; Broeck, Chris Van Den
2016-01-01
Gravitational-wave observations of binary neutron star systems can provide information about the masses, spins, and structure of neutron stars. However, this requires accurate and computationally efficient waveform models that take <1s to evaluate for use in Bayesian parameter estimation codes that perform 10^7 - 10^8 waveform evaluations. We present a surrogate model of a nonspinning effective-one-body waveform model with l = 2, 3, and 4 tidal multipole moments that reproduces waveforms of binary neutron star numerical simulations up to merger. The surrogate is built from compact sets of effective-one-body waveform amplitude and phase data that each form a reduced basis. We find that 12 amplitude and 7 phase basis elements are sufficient to reconstruct any binary neutron star waveform with a starting frequency of 10Hz. The surrogate has maximum errors of 3.8% in amplitude (0.04% excluding the last 100M before merger) and 0.043 radians in phase. The version implemented in the LIGO Algorithm Library takes ~...
Modelling of binary alloy solidification in the MEPHISTO experiment
Leonardi, Eddie; de Vahl Davis, Graham; Timchenko, Victoria; Chen, Peter; Abbaschian, Reza
2004-05-01
A modified enthalpy method was used to numerically model experiments on solidification of a bismuth-tin alloy which were performed during the 1997 flight of the MEPHISTO-4 experiment on the US Space Shuttle Columbia. This modified enthalpy method was incorporated into an in-house code SOLCON and a commercial CFD code CFX; Soret effect was taken into account by including an additional thermo-diffusion term into the solute transport equation and the effects of thermal and solutal convection in the microgravity environment and of concentration-dependent melting temperature on the phase change processes were also included. In this paper an overview of the results obtained as part of MEPHISTO project is presented. The numerical solutions are compared with actual microprobe results obtained from the MEPHISTO experiment. To cite this article: E. Leonardi et al., C. R. Mecanique 332 (2004).
MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR ACCESS MODE OF CONTENTION-COLLISION CANCELLATION IN A STAR LAN
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lu Zhaoyi; Sun Lijun
2004-01-01
I type system model of CCCAM(Contention-Collision Cancellation Access Mode)is studied through mathematical modelling and simulation. There are two innovations: (1) in the account; (2) the time at which customers depart after having been served successfully are chosen to be the embedded point, thereby "free period" is introduced reasonably. So the mathematical modelling and analysis result in this paper are significant for application of wire star LAN and wireless star LAN.
MHD Wind Models in X-Ray Binaries and AGN
Behar, Ehud; Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris R.; Tombesi, Francesco; Contopoulos, Ioannis
2017-08-01
Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind models that can explain both the kinematics and the ionization structure of outflows from accretion sources will be presented.The X-ray absorption-line properties of these outflows are diverse, their velocity ranging from 0.001c to 0.1c, and their ionization ranging from neutral to fully ionized.We will show how the velocity structure and density profile of the wind can be tightly constrained, by finding the scaling of the magnetic flux with the distance from the center that best matches observations, and with no other priors.It will be demonstrated that the same basic MHD wind structure that successfully accounts for the X-ray absorber properties of outflows from supermassive black holes, also reproduces the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the accreting stellar-mass black hole GRO J1655-40 for a series of ions between ~1A and ~12A.These results support both the magnetic nature of these winds, as well as the universal nature of magnetic outflows across all black hole sizes.
The Be/X-ray Binary LSI+61303 in terms of Ejector-Propeller Model
Zamanov, R K; Marziani, P
2001-01-01
We tested the ejector-propeller model of the Be/X-ray binary LSI+61303 (V 615 Cas, GT 0236+620) by using the parameters predicted by the model in the calculations of the X-ray and radio variability. The results are: (1) in terms of the Ejector-Propeller model, the X-ray maximum is due to the periastron passage; (2) the radio outburst can be really a result of the transition from the propeller to ejector regimes; (3) the radio outburst will delay with respect to the X-ray maximum every orbital period. The proposed scenario seems to be in good agreement with the observations.
Modelling the energy dependencies of high-frequency QPO in black hole X-ray binaries
Zycki, P. T.; A. Niedzwiecki(University of Lodz, Poland); Sobolewska, M. A.
2007-01-01
We model energy dependencies of the quasi periodic oscillations (QPO) in the model of disc epicyclic motions, with X-ray modulation caused by varying relativistic effects. The model was proposed to explain the high frequency QPO observed in X-ray binaries. We consider two specific scenarios for the geometry of accretion flow and spectral formation. Firstly, a standard cold accretion disc with an active X-ray emitting corona is assumed to oscillate. Secondly, only a hot X-ray emitting accretio...
Trending in Probability of Collision Measurements via a Bayesian Zero-Inflated Beta Mixed Model
Vallejo, Jonathon; Hejduk, Matt; Stamey, James
2015-01-01
We investigate the performance of a generalized linear mixed model in predicting the Probabilities of Collision (Pc) for conjunction events. Specifically, we apply this model to the log(sub 10) transformation of these probabilities and argue that this transformation yields values that can be considered bounded in practice. Additionally, this bounded random variable, after scaling, is zero-inflated. Consequently, we model these values using the zero-inflated Beta distribution, and utilize the Bayesian paradigm and the mixed model framework to borrow information from past and current events. This provides a natural way to model the data and provides a basis for answering questions of interest, such as what is the likelihood of observing a probability of collision equal to the effective value of zero on a subsequent observation.
Palate, Matthieu
2011-01-01
Context: Some secondary effects are known to introduce variations in spectra of massive binaries. These phenomena (such as the Struve--Sahade effect, difficulties to determine properly the spectral type,...) have been reported and documented in the literature. Aims: We simulate the spectra of circular massive binaries at different phases of the orbital cycle and accounting for the gravitational influence of the companion star on the shape and physical properties of the stellar surface. Methods: We use the Roche potential to compute the stellar surface, von Zeipel theorem and reflection effects to compute the surface temperature. We then interpolate in a grid of NLTE plan-parallel atmosphere model spectra to obtain the local spectrum at each surface point. We finally sum all the contributions (accounting for the Doppler shift, limb-darkening, ...) to obtain the total spectrum. The computation is done for different orbital phases and for different sets of physical and orbital parameters. Results: Our first mode...
A new non-randomized model for analysing sensitive questions with binary outcomes.
Tian, Guo-Liang; Yu, Jun-Wu; Tang, Man-Lai; Geng, Zhi
2007-10-15
We propose a new non-randomized model for assessing the association of two sensitive questions with binary outcomes. Under the new model, respondents only need to answer a non-sensitive question instead of the original two sensitive questions. As a result, it can protect a respondent's privacy, avoid the usage of any randomizing device, and be applied to both the face-to-face interview and mail questionnaire. We derive the constrained maximum likelihood estimates of the cell probabilities and the odds ratio for two binary variables associated with the sensitive questions via the EM algorithm. The corresponding standard error estimates are then obtained by bootstrap approach. A likelihood ratio test and a chi-squared test are developed for testing association between the two binary variables. We discuss the loss of information due to the introduction of the non-sensitive question, and the design of the co-operative parameters. Simulations are performed to evaluate the empirical type I error rates and powers for the two tests. In addition, a simulation is conducted to study the relationship between the probability of obtaining valid estimates and the sample size for any given cell probability vector. A real data set from an AIDS study is used to illustrate the proposed methodologies.
Models of galaxy collisions in Stephan's quintet and other interacting systems
Hwang, Jeong-Sun
2010-12-01
This dissertation describes numerical studies of three interacting galaxy systems. First, hydrodynamical models of the collisions in the famous compact galaxy group, Stephan's Quintet, were constructed to investigate the dynamical interaction history and evolution of the intergalactic gas. It has been found that with a sequence of two-at-a-time collisions, most of the major morphological and kinematical features of the group were well reproduced in the models. The models suggest the two long tails extending from NGC 7319 toward NGC 7320c may be formed simultaneously from a strong collisional encounter between the two galaxies, resulting in a thinner and denser inner tail than the outer one. The tails then also run parallel to each other as observed. The model results support the idea that the group-wide shock detected in multi-wavelength observations between NGC 7319 and 7318b and the starburst region north of NGC 7318b are triggered by the current high-speed collision between NGC 7318b and the intergalactic gas. It is expected that other compact groups containing rich extended features like Stephan's Quintet can be modeled in similar ways, and that sequences of two-at-a-time collisions will be the general rule. The second set of hydrodynamical simulations were performed to model the peculiar galaxy pair, Arp 285. This system possesses a series of star-forming complexes in an unusual tail-like feature extending out perpendicular to the disk of the northern galaxy. Several conceptual ideas for the origin of the tail-like feature were examined. The models suggest that the bridge material falling into the gravitational potential of the northern disk overshoots the disk; as more bridge material streams into the region, compression drives star formation. This work on star-formation in the pile-up region can be extended to the studies of the formation of tidal dwarf galaxies or globular clusters. Thirdly, the development of spiral waves was studied with numerical models
SU-E-T-754: Three-Dimensional Patient Modeling Using Photogrammetry for Collision Avoidance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Popple, R; Cardan, R [Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: To evaluate photogrammetry for creating a three-dimensional patient model. Methods: A mannequin was configured on the couch of a CT scanner to simulate a patient setup using an indexed positioning device. A CT fiducial was placed on the indexed CT table-overlay at the reference index position. Two dimensional photogrammetry targets were placed on the table in known positions. A digital SLR camera was used to obtain 27 images from different positions around the CT table. The images were imported into a commercial photogrammetry package and a 3D model constructed. Each photogrammetry target was identified on 2 to 5 images. The CT DICOM metadata and the position of the CT fiducial were used to calculate the coordinates of the photogrammetry targets in the CT image frame of reference. The coordinates were transferred to the photogrammetry software to orient the 3D model. The mannequin setup was transferred to the treatment couch of a linear accelerator and positioned at isocenter using in-room lasers. The treatment couch coordinates were noted and compared with prediction. The collision free regions were measured over the full range of gantry and table motion and were compared with predictions obtained using a general purpose polygon interference algorithm. Results: The reconstructed 3D model consisted of 180000 triangles. The difference between the predicted and measured couch positions were 5 mm, 1 mm, and 1 mm for longitudinal, lateral, and vertical, respectively. The collision prediction tested 64620 gantry table combinations in 11.1 seconds. The accuracy was 96.5%, with false positive and negative results occurring at the boundaries of the collision space. Conclusion: Photogrammetry can be used as a tool for collision avoidance during treatment planning. The results indicate that a buffer zone is necessary to avoid false negatives at the boundary of the collision-free zone. Testing with human patients is underway. Research partially supported by a grant
Meta-analysis of studies with bivariate binary outcomes: a marginal beta-binomial model approach.
Chen, Yong; Hong, Chuan; Ning, Yang; Su, Xiao
2016-01-15
When conducting a meta-analysis of studies with bivariate binary outcomes, challenges arise when the within-study correlation and between-study heterogeneity should be taken into account. In this paper, we propose a marginal beta-binomial model for the meta-analysis of studies with binary outcomes. This model is based on the composite likelihood approach and has several attractive features compared with the existing models such as bivariate generalized linear mixed model (Chu and Cole, 2006) and Sarmanov beta-binomial model (Chen et al., 2012). The advantages of the proposed marginal model include modeling the probabilities in the original scale, not requiring any transformation of probabilities or any link function, having closed-form expression of likelihood function, and no constraints on the correlation parameter. More importantly, because the marginal beta-binomial model is only based on the marginal distributions, it does not suffer from potential misspecification of the joint distribution of bivariate study-specific probabilities. Such misspecification is difficult to detect and can lead to biased inference using currents methods. We compare the performance of the marginal beta-binomial model with the bivariate generalized linear mixed model and the Sarmanov beta-binomial model by simulation studies. Interestingly, the results show that the marginal beta-binomial model performs better than the Sarmanov beta-binomial model, whether or not the true model is Sarmanov beta-binomial, and the marginal beta-binomial model is more robust than the bivariate generalized linear mixed model under model misspecifications. Two meta-analyses of diagnostic accuracy studies and a meta-analysis of case-control studies are conducted for illustration.
A New Algorithm for Self-Consistent 3-D Modeling of Collisions in Dusty Debris Disks
Stark, Christopher C
2009-01-01
We present a new "collisional grooming" algorithm that enables us to model images of debris disks where the collision time is less than the Poynting Robertson time for the dominant grain size. Our algorithm uses the output of a collisionless disk simulation to iteratively solve the mass flux equation for the density distribution of a collisional disk containing planets in 3 dimensions. The algorithm can be run on a single processor in ~1 hour. Our preliminary models of disks with resonant ring structures caused by terrestrial mass planets show that the collision rate for background particles in a ring structure is enhanced by a factor of a few compared to the rest of the disk, and that dust grains in or near resonance have even higher collision rates. We show how collisions can alter the morphology of a resonant ring structure by reducing the sharpness of a resonant ring's inner edge and by smearing out azimuthal structure. We implement a simple prescription for particle fragmentation and show how Poynting-Ro...
A Distributed and Deterministic TDMA Algorithm for Write-All-With-Collision Model
Arumugam, Mahesh
2008-01-01
Several self-stabilizing time division multiple access (TDMA) algorithms are proposed for sensor networks. In addition to providing a collision-free communication service, such algorithms enable the transformation of programs written in abstract models considered in distributed computing literature into a model consistent with sensor networks, i.e., write all with collision (WAC) model. Existing TDMA slot assignment algorithms have one or more of the following properties: (i) compute slots using a randomized algorithm, (ii) assume that the topology is known upfront, and/or (iii) assign slots sequentially. If these algorithms are used to transform abstract programs into programs in WAC model then the transformed programs are probabilistically correct, do not allow the addition of new nodes, and/or converge in a sequential fashion. In this paper, we propose a self-stabilizing deterministic TDMA algorithm where a sensor is aware of only its neighbors. We show that the slots are assigned to the sensors in a concu...
A viscous blast-wave model for high energy heavy-ion collisions
Jaiswal, Amaresh; Koch, Volker
2016-07-01
Employing a viscosity-based survival scale for initial geometrical perturbations formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, we model the radial flow velocity at freeze-out. Subsequently, we use the Cooper-Frye freeze-out prescription, with viscous corrections to the distribution function, to extract the transverse momentum dependence of particle yields and flow harmonics. We fit the model parameters for central collisions, by fitting the spectra of identified particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and estimate them for other centralities using simple hydrodynamic relations. We use the results of Monte Carlo Glauber model for initial eccentricities. We demonstrate that this improved viscous blast-wave model leads to good agreement with transverse momentum distribution of elliptic and triangular flow for all centralities and estimate the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s ≃ 0.24 at the LHC.
Activity Calculation by Application of Sub-Regular Solution Model in Binary Oxide Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU Yan-qing; XIE Gang; TAO Dong-ping; LI Rong-xing; YU Xiao-hua
2012-01-01
To confirm sub-regular solution model valid for predicting the activity of component in binary oxide systems, seven systems in the whole concentration and twelve systems presenting saturation concentration have been studied. The total average relative errors of component 1 and 2 are 3.2 % and 4.1% respectively by application of the sub-regular solution model into the systems within the whole concentration. However, the total average relative errors are 16 % and 1088 % in the systems presenting saturation concentration. The results show that sub-regular solu- tion model is not good for predicting the systems presenting saturation concentration, especially for the systems con- taining acidic or neutral oxide. The reason may be that the influence of the two types of oxide on the configuration is greater in binary oxide systems. These oxides can be present in the form of complex anion partly, Si-O, Al-O, Ti-O and so on, for example （SiO4）4-. That is contrary to sub-regular solution model which is supposed that the oxide systems consist of cation and O2-. But compared with regular solution model and quasi-regular solution model, sub- regular solution model is closer to the characteristics of actual solution and the calculated results are superior.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiekata Takashi
2006-01-01
Full Text Available A new two-stage blind source separation (BSS method for convolutive mixtures of speech is proposed, in which a single-input multiple-output (SIMO-model-based independent component analysis (ICA and a new SIMO-model-based binary masking are combined. SIMO-model-based ICA enables us to separate the mixed signals, not into monaural source signals but into SIMO-model-based signals from independent sources in their original form at the microphones. Thus, the separated signals of SIMO-model-based ICA can maintain the spatial qualities of each sound source. Owing to this attractive property, our novel SIMO-model-based binary masking can be applied to efficiently remove the residual interference components after SIMO-model-based ICA. The experimental results reveal that the separation performance can be considerably improved by the proposed method compared with that achieved by conventional BSS methods. In addition, the real-time implementation of the proposed BSS is illustrated.
Non-linear mixed models in the analysis of mediated longitudinal data with binary outcomes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Blood Emily A
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural equation models (SEMs provide a general framework for analyzing mediated longitudinal data. However when interest is in the total effect (i.e. direct plus indirect of a predictor on the binary outcome, alternative statistical techniques such as non-linear mixed models (NLMM may be preferable, particularly if specific causal pathways are not hypothesized or specialized SEM software is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the NLMM in a setting where the SEM is presumed optimal. Methods We performed a simulation study to assess the performance of NLMMs relative to SEMs with respect to bias, coverage probability, and power in the analysis of mediated binary longitudinal outcomes. Both logistic and probit models were evaluated. Models were also applied to data from a longitudinal study assessing the impact of alcohol consumption on HIV disease progression. Results For the logistic model, the NLMM adequately estimated the total effect of a repeated predictor on the repeated binary outcome and were similar to the SEM across a variety of scenarios evaluating sample size, effect size, and distributions of direct vs. indirect effects. For the probit model, the NLMM adequately estimated the total effect of the repeated predictor, however, the probit SEM overestimated effects. Conclusions Both logistic and probit NLMMs performed well relative to corresponding SEMs with respect to bias, coverage probability and power. In addition, in the probit setting, the NLMM may produce better estimates of the total effect than the probit SEM, which appeared to overestimate effects.
New approach in modeling Cr(VI) sorption onto biomass from metal binary mixtures solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Chang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Anhui Normal University, South Jiuhua Road, 189, 241002 Wuhu (China); Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politècnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Ma Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17071 Girona (Spain); Fiol, Núria [Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politècnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Ma Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17071 Girona (Spain); Villaescusa, Isabel, E-mail: Isabel.Villaescusa@udg.edu [Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politècnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Ma Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17071 Girona (Spain); Poch, Jordi [Applied Mathematics Department, Escola Politècnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Ma Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17071 Girona (Spain)
2016-01-15
In the last decades Cr(VI) sorption equilibrium and kinetic studies have been carried out using several types of biomasses. However there are few researchers that consider all the simultaneous processes that take place during Cr(VI) sorption (i.e., sorption/reduction of Cr(VI) and simultaneous formation and binding of reduced Cr(III)) when formulating a model that describes the overall sorption process. On the other hand Cr(VI) scarcely exists alone in wastewaters, it is usually found in mixtures with divalent metals. Therefore, the simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and divalent metals in binary mixtures and the interactive mechanism governing Cr(VI) elimination have gained more and more attention. In the present work, kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption onto exhausted coffee from Cr(VI)–Cu(II) binary mixtures has been studied in a stirred batch reactor. A model including Cr(VI) sorption and reduction, Cr(III) sorption and the effect of the presence of Cu(II) in these processes has been developed and validated. This study constitutes an important advance in modeling Cr(VI) sorption kinetics especially when chromium sorption is in part based on the sorbent capacity of reducing hexavalent chromium and a metal cation is present in the binary mixture. - Highlights: • A kinetic model including Cr(VI) reduction, Cr(VI) and Cr(III) sorption/desorption • Synergistic effect of Cu(II) on Cr(VI) elimination included in the model • Model validation by checking it against independent sets of data.
PACIAE 2.0: An Updated Parton and Hadron Cascade Model (Program) for Relativistic Nuclear Collisions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SA; Ben-hao; ZHOU; Dai-mei; YAN; Yu-liang; LI; Xiao-mei; FENG; Sheng-qing; DONG; Bao-guo; CAI; Xu
2012-01-01
<正>We have updated the parton and hadron cascade model PACIAE for the relativistic nuclear collisions, from based on JETSET 6.4 and PYTHIA 5.7, and referred to as PACIAE 2.0. The main physics concerning the stages of the parton initiation, parton rescattering, hadronization, and hadron rescattering were discussed. The structures of the programs were briefly explained. In addition, some calculated examples were compared with the experimental data. It turns out that this model (program) works well.
Compactified pulsar wind nebula model of gamma-ray loud binary LSI +61 303
Neronov, A
2007-01-01
We show that radio-to-TeV properties of the binary system LSI +61 303 can be explained by interaction of the compact object (a young pulsar) with the inhomogeneities of the wind from companion Be star. We develop a model scenario of "compactified" pulsar wind nebula formed in result of such interaction. To test the model assumptions about geometry of the system we re-analyze the available X-ray observations to study in more details the variations of the hydrogen column density on long (orbital) and short (several kilosecond) time scales.
Phase-field modeling of binary alloy solidification with coupled heat and solute diffusion.
Ramirez, J C; Beckermann, C; Karma, A; Diepers, H-J
2004-05-01
A phase-field model is developed for simulating quantitatively microstructural pattern formation in solidification of dilute binary alloys with coupled heat and solute diffusion. The model reduces to the sharp-interface equations in a computationally tractable thin-interface limit where (i). the width of the diffuse interface is about one order of magnitude smaller than the radius of curvature of the interface but much larger than the real microscopic width of a solid-liquid interface, and (ii). kinetic effects are negligible. A recently derived antitrapping current [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 115701 (2001)
Abate, C; Stancliffe, R J; Izzard, R G; Karakas, A I; Beers, T C; Lee, Y S
2015-01-01
The stellar population in the Galactic halo is characterised by a large fraction of CEMP stars. Most CEMP stars are enriched in $s$-elements (CEMP-$s$ stars), and some of these are also enriched in $r$-elements (CEMP-$s/r$ stars). One formation scenario proposed for CEMP stars invokes wind mass transfer in the past from a TP-AGB primary star to a less massive companion star which is presently observed. We generate low-metallicity populations of binary stars to reproduce the observed CEMP-star fraction. In addition, we aim to constrain our wind mass-transfer model and investigate under which conditions our synthetic populations reproduce observed abundance distributions. We compare the CEMP fractions and the abundance distributions determined from our synthetic populations with observations. Several physical parameters of the binary stellar population of the halo are uncertain, e.g. the initial mass function, the mass-ratio and orbital-period distributions, and the binary fraction. We vary the assumptions in o...
Reconstruction of binary geological images using analytical edge and object models
Abdollahifard, Mohammad J.; Ahmadi, Sadegh
2016-04-01
Reconstruction of fields using partial measurements is of vital importance in different applications in geosciences. Solving such an ill-posed problem requires a well-chosen model. In recent years, training images (TI) are widely employed as strong prior models for solving these problems. However, in the absence of enough evidence it is difficult to find an adequate TI which is capable of describing the field behavior properly. In this paper a very simple and general model is introduced which is applicable to a fairly wide range of binary images without any modifications. The model is motivated by the fact that nearly all binary images are composed of simple linear edges in micro-scale. The analytic essence of this model allows us to formulate the template matching problem as a convex optimization problem having efficient and fast solutions. The model has the potential to incorporate the qualitative and quantitative information provided by geologists. The image reconstruction problem is also formulated as an optimization problem and solved using an iterative greedy approach. The proposed method is capable of recovering the image unknown values with accuracies about 90% given samples representing as few as 2% of the original image.
Application of JAERI quantum molecular dynamics model for collisions of heavy nuclei
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ogawa Tatsuhiko
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The quantum molecular dynamics (QMD model incorporated into the general-purpose radiation transport code PHITS was revised for accurate prediction of fragment yields in peripheral collisions. For more accurate simulation of peripheral collisions, stability of the nuclei at their ground state was improved and the algorithm to reject invalid events was modified. In-medium correction on nucleon-nucleon cross sections was also considered. To clarify the effect of this improvement on fragmentation of heavy nuclei, the new QMD model coupled with a statistical decay model was used to calculate fragment production cross sections of Ag and Au targets and compared with the data of earlier measurement. It is shown that the revised version can predict cross section more accurately.
Modeling chiral criticality and its consequences for heavy-ion collisions
Almási, Gábor András; Redlich, Krzysztof
2016-01-01
We explore the critical fluctuations near the chiral critical endpoint (CEP) in a chiral effective model and discuss possible signals of the CEP, recently explored experimentally in nuclear collision. Particular attention is paid to the dependence of such signals on the location of the phase boundary and the EP relative to the chemical freeze-out conditions in nuclear collisions. We argue that in effective models, standard freeze-out fits to heavy-ion data should not be used directly. Instead, the relevant quantities should be examined on lines in the phase diagram that are defined self-consistently, within the framework of the model. We discuss possible choices for such an approach.
Model for fast, nonadiabatic collisions between alkali atoms and diatomic molecules
Hickman, A. P.
1980-11-01
Equations for collisions involving two potential surfaces are presented in the impact parameter approximation. In this approximation, a rectilinear classical trajectory is assumed for the translational motion, leading to a time-dependent Schroedinger's equation for the remaining degrees of freedom. Model potentials are considered for collisions of alkali atoms with diatomic molecules that lead to a particularly simple form of the final equations. Using the Magnus approximation, these equations are solved for parameters chosen to model the process Cs+O2→Cs++O2-, and total cross sections for ion-pair formation are obtained as a function of energy. The results exhibit oscillations that correspond qualitatively to those seen in recent measurements. In addition, the model predicts that the oscillations will become less pronounced as the initial vibrational level of O2 is increased.
Gharami, Prabir; Ghosh, Koushik; Rahaman, Farook
2016-01-01
In contact binaries mass transfer is usually non-conservative which ends into loss of mass as well as angular momentum in the system. In the present work we have presented a new mathematical model of the non-conservative mass transfer with a uniform mass accretion rate in a contact binary system with lower angular momentum. The model has been developed under the consideration of reverse mass transfer which may occur simultaneously with the original mass transfer as a result of the large scale circulations encircling the entire donor and a significant portion of the gainer. These circulations in contact binaries with lower angular momentum are caused by the overflow of the critical equipotential surface by both the components of the binary system making the governing system more intricate and uncertain.
Charged-particle rapidity density in Au+Au collisions in a quark combination model
Shao, Feng-Lan; Yao, Tao; Xie, Qu-Bing
2007-03-01
Rapidity/pseudorapidity densities for charged particles and their centrality, rapidity, and energy dependence in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider are studied in a quark combination model. Using a Gaussian-type rapidity distribution for constituent quarks as a result of Landau hydrodynamic evolution, the data at sNN=130,200 GeV at various centralities in full pseudorapidity range are well described, and the charged-particle multiplicities are reproduced as functions of the number of participants. The energy dependence of the shape of the dNch/dη distribution is also described at various collision energies sNN=200,130,62.4 GeV in central collisions with same value of parameters except 19.6 GeV. The calculated rapidity distributions and yields for the charged pions and kaons in central Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV are compared with experimental data of the BRAHMS Collaboration.
Modelling spatiotemporal olfactory data in two steps: from binary to Hodgkin-Huxley neurones.
Quenet, Brigitte; Dubois, Rémi; Sirapian, Sevan; Dreyfus, Gérard; Horn, David
2002-01-01
Network models of synchronously updated McCulloch-Pitts neurones exhibit complex spatiotemporal patterns that are similar to activities of biological neurones in phase with a periodic local field potential, such as those observed experimentally by Wehr and Laurent (1996, Nature 384, 162-166) in the locust olfactory pathway. Modelling biological neural nets with networks of simple formal units makes the dynamics of the model analytically tractable. It is thus possible to determine the constraints that must be satisfied by its connection matrix in order to make its neurones exhibit a given sequence of activity (see, for instance, Quenet et al., 2001, Neurocomputing 38-40, 831-836). In the present paper, we address the following question: how can one construct a formal network of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type neurones that reproduces experimentally observed neuronal codes? A two-step strategy is suggested in the present paper: first, a simple network of binary units is designed, whose activity reproduces the binary experimental codes; second, this model is used as a guide to design a network of more realistic formal HH neurones. We show that such a strategy is indeed fruitful: it allowed us to design a model that reproduces the Wehr-Laurent olfactory codes, and to investigate the robustness of these codes to synaptic noise.
Frequency domain reduced order models for gravitational waves from aligned-spin black-hole binaries
Pürrer, Michael
2014-01-01
Black-hole binary coalescences are one of the most promising sources for the first detection of gravitational waves. Fast and accurate theoretical models of the gravitational radiation emitted from these coalescences are highly important for the detection and extraction of physical parameters. Spinning effective-one-body (EOB) models for binaries with aligned spins have been shown to be highly faithful, but are slow to generate and thus have not yet been used for parameter estimation studies. I provide a frequency-domain singular value decomposition (SVD)-based surrogate reduced order model that is thousands to hundred thousands times faster for typical system masses and has a faithfulness mismatch of better than $\\sim 0.1\\%$ with the original SEOBNRv1 model for advanced LIGO detectors. This model enables parameter estimation studies up to signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 20 and even up to SNR 50 for masses below $50 M_\\odot$. This article discusses various choices for approximations and interpolation over th...
Freitas, ACD; Cunico, LP; M. Aznar; Guirardello,R.
2013-01-01
Ionic liquids (IL) have been described as novel environmentally benign solvents because of their remarkable characteristics. Numerous applications of these solvents continue to grow at an exponential rate. In this work, high pressure vapor liquid equilibria for 17 different IL + gas binary systems were modeled at different temperatures with Peng-Robinson (PR) and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equations of state, combined with the van der Waals mixing rule with two binary interaction parameters (v...
An effective model for entropy deposition in high-energy pp, pA, and AA collisions
Moreland, J Scott; Bass, Steffen A
2014-01-01
We introduce TRENTO, a new initial condition model for high-energy nuclear collisions based on eikonal entropy deposition via a "reduced thickness" function. The model simultaneously predicts the shapes of experimental proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus multiplicity distributions, and generates nucleus-nucleus eccentricity harmonics consistent with experimental flow constraints. In addition, the model provides a possible resolution to the "knee" puzzle in ultra-central uranium-uranium collisions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Victoria Y.; Tran, Angelia; Nguyen, Dan; Cao, Minsong; Ruan, Dan; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)
2015-11-15
Purpose: Significant dosimetric benefits had been previously demonstrated in highly noncoplanar treatment plans. In this study, the authors developed and verified an individualized collision model for the purpose of delivering highly noncoplanar radiotherapy and tested the feasibility of total delivery automation with Varian TrueBeam developer mode. Methods: A hand-held 3D scanner was used to capture the surfaces of an anthropomorphic phantom and a human subject, which were positioned with a computer-aided design model of a TrueBeam machine to create a detailed virtual geometrical collision model. The collision model included gantry, collimator, and couch motion degrees of freedom. The accuracy of the 3D scanner was validated by scanning a rigid cubical phantom with known dimensions. The collision model was then validated by generating 300 linear accelerator orientations corresponding to 300 gantry-to-couch and gantry-to-phantom distances, and comparing the corresponding distance measurements to their corresponding models. The linear accelerator orientations reflected uniformly sampled noncoplanar beam angles to the head, lung, and prostate. The distance discrepancies between measurements on the physical and virtual systems were used to estimate treatment-site-specific safety buffer distances with 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001% probability of collision between the gantry and couch or phantom. Plans containing 20 noncoplanar beams to the brain, lung, and prostate optimized via an in-house noncoplanar radiotherapy platform were converted into XML script for automated delivery and the entire delivery was recorded and timed to demonstrate the feasibility of automated delivery. Results: The 3D scanner measured the dimension of the 14 cm cubic phantom within 0.5 mm. The maximal absolute discrepancy between machine and model measurements for gantry-to-couch and gantry-to-phantom was 0.95 and 2.97 cm, respectively. The reduced accuracy of gantry-to-phantom measurements was
Modeling the dynamics of tidally-interacting binary neutron stars up to merger
Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Dietrich, Tim; Damour, Thibault
2014-01-01
We propose an effective-one-body (EOB) model that describes the general relativistic dynamics of neutron star binaries from the early inspiral up to merger. Our EOB model incorporates an enhanced attractive tidal potential motivated by recent analytical advances in the post-Newtonian and gravitational self-force description of relativistic tidal interactions. No fitting parameters are introduced for the description of tidal interaction in the late, strong-field dynamics. We compare the model dynamics (described by the gauge invariant relation between binding energy and orbital angular momentum), and the gravitational wave phasing, with new high-resolution multi-orbit numerical relativity simulations of equal-mass configurations with different equations of state. We find agreement essentially within the uncertainty of the numerical data for all the configurations. Our model is the first semi-analytical model which captures the tidal amplification effects close to merger. It thereby provides the most accurate a...
The role of metallicity in high mass X-ray binaries in galaxy formation models
Artale, M C; Tissera, P B
2014-01-01
Context: Recent theoretical works claim that high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) could have been important sources of energy feedback into the interstellar and intergalactic media, playing a major role in the reionization epoch. A metallicity dependence of the production rate or luminosity of the sources is a key ingredient generally assumed but not yet probed. Aims: Our goal is to explore the relation between the X-ray luminosity (Lx) and star formation rate of galaxies as a possible tracer of a metallicity dependence of the production rates and/or X-ray luminosities of HMXBs. Methods: We developed a model to estimate the Lx of star forming galaxies based on stellar evolution models which include metallicity dependences. We applied our X-ray binary models to galaxies selected from hydrodynamical cosmological simulations which include chemical evolution of the stellar populations in a self-consistent way. Results: Our models successfully reproduce the dispersion in the observed relations as an outcome of the com...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huber, H.D.; Walter, R.A.; Bloomster, C.H.
1976-03-01
A computer model called GEOCOST has been developed to simulate the production of electricity from geothermal resources and calculate the potential costs of geothermal power. GEOCOST combines resource characteristics, power recovery technology, tax rates, and financial factors into one systematic model and provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate their impacts on the cost of geothermal power. Both the geothermal reservoir and power plant are simulated to model the complete energy production system. In the version of GEOCOST in this report, geothermal fluid is supplied from wells distributed throughout a hydrothermal reservoir through insulated pipelines to a binary power plant. The power plant is simulated using a binary fluid cycle in which the geothermal fluid is passed through a series of heat exchangers. The thermodynamic state points in basic subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles are calculated for a variety of working fluids. Working fluids which are now in the model include isobutane, n-butane, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-113, R-114, and ammonia. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at the state points are calculated using empirical equations of state. The Starling equation of state is used for hydrocarbons and the Martin-Hou equation of state is used for fluorocarbons and ammonia. Physical properties of working fluids at the state points are calculated.
Dynamical model of binary asteroid systems through patched three-body problems
Ferrari, Fabio; Lavagna, Michèle; Howell, Kathleen C.
2016-08-01
The paper presents a strategy for trajectory design in the proximity of a binary asteroid pair. A novel patched approach has been used to design trajectories in the binary system, which is modeled by means of two different three-body systems. The model introduces some degrees of freedom with respect to a classical two-body approach and it is intended to model to higher accuracy the peculiar dynamical properties of such irregular and low gravity field bodies, while keeping the advantages of having a full analytical formulation and low computational cost required. The neighborhood of the asteroid couple is split into two regions of influence where two different three-body problems describe the dynamics of the spacecraft. These regions have been identified by introducing the concept of surface of equivalence (SOE), a three-dimensional surface that serves as boundary between the regions of influence of each dynamical model. A case of study is presented, in terms of potential scenario that may benefit of such an approach in solving its mission analysis. Cost-effective solutions to land a vehicle on the surface of a low gravity body are selected by generating Poincaré maps on the SOE, seeking intersections between stable and unstable manifolds of the two patched three-body systems.
Symmetrization of excess Gibbs free energy: A simple model for binary liquid mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castellanos-Suarez, Aly J., E-mail: acastell@ivic.gob.v [Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios de la Fisica (CEIF), Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Garcia-Sucre, Maximo, E-mail: mgs@ivic.gob.v [Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios de la Fisica (CEIF), Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)
2011-03-15
A symmetric expression for the excess Gibbs free energy of liquid binary mixtures is obtained using an appropriate definition for the effective contact fraction. We have identified a mechanism of local segregation as the main cause of the contact fraction variation with the concentration. Starting from this mechanism we develop a simple model for describing binary liquid mixtures. In this model two parameters appear: one adjustable, and the other parameter depending on the first one. Following this procedure we reproduce the experimental data of (liquid + vapor) equilibrium with a degree of accuracy comparable to well-known more elaborated models. The way in which we take into account the effective contacts between molecules allows identifying the compound which may be considered to induce one of the following processes: segregation, anti-segregation and dispersion of the components in the liquid mixture. Finally, the simplicity of the model allows one to obtain only one resulting interaction energy parameter, which makes easier the physical interpretation of the results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Springer, H K; Miller, W O; Levatin, J L; Pertica, A J; Olivier, S S
2010-09-06
Satellite collision debris poses risks to existing space assets and future space missions. Predictive models of debris generated from these hypervelocity collisions are critical for developing accurate space situational awareness tools and effective mitigation strategies. Hypervelocity collisions involve complex phenomenon that spans several time- and length-scales. We have developed a satellite collision debris modeling approach consisting of a Lagrangian hydrocode enriched with smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH), advanced material failure models, detailed satellite mesh models, and massively parallel computers. These computational studies enable us to investigate the influence of satellite center-of-mass (CM) overlap and orientation, relative velocity, and material composition on the size, velocity, and material type distributions of collision debris. We have applied our debris modeling capability to the recent Iridium 33-Cosmos 2251 collision event. While the relative velocity was well understood in this event, the degree of satellite CM overlap and orientation was ill-defined. In our simulations, we varied the collision CM overlap and orientation of the satellites from nearly maximum overlap to partial overlap on the outermost extents of the satellites (i.e, solar panels and gravity boom). As expected, we found that with increased satellite overlap, the overall debris cloud mass and momentum (transfer) increases, the average debris size decreases, and the debris velocity increases. The largest predicted debris can also provide insight into which satellite components were further removed from the impact location. A significant fraction of the momentum transfer is imparted to the smallest debris (< 1-5mm, dependent on mesh resolution), especially in large CM overlap simulations. While the inclusion of the smallest debris is critical to enforcing mass and momentum conservation in hydrocode simulations, there seems to be relatively little interest in their
Lüdde, H. J.; Achenbach, A.; Kalkbrenner, T.; Jankowiak, H. C.; Kirchner, T.
2016-05-01
A recently introduced model to account for geometric screening corrections in an independent-atom-model description of ion-molecule collisions is applied to proton collisions from amino acids and DNA and RNA nucleobases. The correction coefficients are obtained from using a pixel counting method (PCM) for the exact calculation of the effective cross sectional area that emerges when the molecular cross section is pictured as a structure of (overlapping) atomic cross sections. This structure varies with the relative orientation of the molecule with respect to the projectile beam direction and, accordingly, orientation-independent total cross sections are obtained from averaging the pixel count over many orientations. We present net capture and net ionization cross sections over wide ranges of impact energy and analyze the strength of the screening effect by comparing the PCM results with Bragg additivity rule cross sections and with experimental data where available. Work supported by NSERC, Canada.
An Oriented-Eddy Collision Model for Turbulence Prediction
2007-06-15
kinetic energy, K, and dissipation rate, E). There is also a hypothesized algebraic constitutive equation relating these two scalar quantities and the...elliptic relaxation ( Durbin ) have even expanded the predictive scope of these models. Nevertheless, it is well understood at this time, even by CFD users...Publisher, 1993 P.A. Durbin , Near-wall turbulence closure modeling without ’damping functions’, Theoret. Comput. Fluid Dynamics 3, 1-13, 1991. W. C
Ellis, Jules L
2014-04-01
It is shown that a unidimensional monotone latent variable model for binary items implies a restriction on the relative sizes of item correlations: The negative logarithm of the correlations satisfies the triangle inequality. This inequality is not implied by the condition that the correlations are nonnegative, the criterion that coefficient H exceeds 0.30, or manifest monotonicity. The inequality implies both a lower bound and an upper bound for each correlation between two items, based on the correlations of those two items with every possible third item. It is discussed how this can be used in Mokken's (A theory and procedure of scale-analysis, Mouton, The Hague, 1971) scale analysis.
Correlation of liquid-liquid equilibria of non-ideal binary systems by NRTL model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grozdanić Nikola D.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Non Random Two Liquid model (NRTL with three different forms of temperature dependant parameters was used to correlate the liquid - liquid equilibrium data for systems of alcohols with alkanes, and alcohols with two ionic liquids: 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmmim][BF4] and 1-butyl-3-ethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([beim][BF4]. Different temperature dependences of NRTL parameters were tested on thirteen literature experimental liquid - liquid equilibrium data for binary systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172063
Goal-oriented error estimation for Cahn-Hilliard models of binary phase transition
van der Zee, Kristoffer G.
2010-10-27
A posteriori estimates of errors in quantities of interest are developed for the nonlinear system of evolution equations embodied in the Cahn-Hilliard model of binary phase transition. These involve the analysis of wellposedness of dual backward-in-time problems and the calculation of residuals. Mixed finite element approximations are developed and used to deliver numerical solutions of representative problems in one- and two-dimensional domains. Estimated errors are shown to be quite accurate in these numerical examples. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sun Qiang; Zhang Yutuo; Cui Haixia; Wang Chengzhi
2008-01-01
Phase field method offers the prospect of being able to perform realistic numerical experiments on dendrite growth in metallic systems. In this study, the growth process of multiple dendrites in Ai-2-mole-%-Si binary alloy under isothermal solidification was simulated using phase field model. The simulation results showed the impingement of arbitrarily oriented crystals and the competitive growth among the grains during solidification. With the increase of growing time, the grains begin to coalesce and impinge the adjacent grains. When the dendrites start to impinge, the dendrite growth is obviously inhibited.
Testing Lorentz violation with binary pulsars: constraints on standard model extension
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yi Xie
2013-01-01
Under the standard model extension (SME) framework,Lorentz invariance is tested in five binary pulsars:PSR J0737-3039,PSR B 1534+ 12,PSR J 1756-2251,PSR B1913+16 and PSR B2127+11C.By analyzing the advance of periastron,we obtain the constraints on a dimensionless combination of SME parameters that is sensitive to timing observations.The results imply no evidence for the break of Lorentz invariance at the 10-10 level,one order of magnitude larger than the previous estimation.
Non-convex model of the binary asteroid (809) Lundia and its density estimation
Kryszczynska, A.; Bartczak, P.; Polinska, M.; Colas, F.
2014-07-01
Introduction: (809) Lundia was classified as a V-type asteroid in the Flora family (Florczak et.al. 2002). The binary nature of (809) Lundia was discovered in September 2005 based on photometric observations. The first modeling of the Lundia synchronous binary system was based on 22 lightcurves obtained at Borowiec and Pic du Midi Observatories during two oppositions in 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. Two methods of modeling --- modified Roche ellipsoids and kinematic --- gave similar parameters for the system (Kryszczynska et al. 2009). The poles of the orbit in ecliptic coordinates were: longitude 118° and latitude 28° in the modified Roche model and 120°, 18°, respectively, in the kinematic model. The orbital period obtained from the lightcurve analysis as well as from modeling was 15.418 h. The obtained bulk density of both components was 1.64 or 1.71 g/ccm. Observations: We observed (809) Lundia in the 2008, 2009/2010, 2011, and 2012 oppositions at the Borowiec, Pic du Midi, Prompt, and Rozhen Observatories. As predicted, the visible eclipses/occultation events were observed only in 2011. Currently, our dataset consists of 45 individual lightcurves and they were all used in the new modeling. Method: We used new method of modeling based on a genetic algorithm that is able to create a non-convex asteroid shape model, rotational period, and spin-axis orientation of a single or binary asteroid, using only photometric observations. The details of the method are presented in the poster by Bartczak et al., at this conference. Results: The new non-convex model of (809) Lundia is presented in the figure. The parameters of the system in the ecliptic coordinates are: longitude 122°, latitude 22°, and sidereal period 15.41574 h. They are very similar to the values obtained before. However, assuming an equivalent diameter of a single body of 9.1 km from the Spitzer observations (Marchis et al. 2012) and the volume of the two modeled bodies, the separation of the components
Modeling the Collision Phenomena of Ø11X19 Size Rolls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiberiu Manescu jr.
2011-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical comparison using dynamic modeling techniques, of physical phenomena occurring at collisions between two rollers in a lot of distinct situations: impact on the edge at angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, 50°, 60°, 70°, 80° and impact on generator. These situations occur frequently in the manufacturing process of small cylindrical rollers.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李双; 冯笙琴
2012-01-01
The net-baryon number is essentially transported by valence quarks that probe the saturation regime in the target by multiple scattering. The net-baryon distributions, nuclear stopping power and gluon saturation features in the SPS and RHIC energy regions are investigated by taking advantage of the gluon saturation model with geometric scaling. Predications are made for the net-baryon rapidity distributions, mean rapidity loss and gluon saturation features in central Pb ＋ Pb collisions at LHC.
Modeling and simulation for a new virtual-clock-based collision resolution algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yin rupo; Cai yunze; He xing; Zhang weidong; Xu xiaoming
2006-01-01
Virtual time Ethernet is a multiple access protocol proposed to provide FCFS transmission service over the predominant Ethernet bus. It incorporates a novel message-rescheduling algorithm based on the virtual clock mechanism. By manipulating virtual clocks back up over a common virtual time axis and performing timely collision resolution, the algorithm guarantees the system's queuing strictness. The protocol is particularly modeled as a finite state machine and implemented using OPNET tools. Simulation studies prove its correctness and effectiveness.
A Habitat-based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forcey, Greg, M.
2012-08-28
Most previous studies on collision impacts at wind facilities have taken place at the site-specific level and have only examined small-scale influences on mortality. In this study, we examine landscape-level influences using a hierarchical spatial model combined with existing datasets and life history knowledge for: Horned Lark, Red-eyed Vireo, Mallard, American Avocet, Golden Eagle, Whooping Crane, red bat, silver-haired bat, and hoary bat. These species were modeled in the central United States within Bird Conservation Regions 11, 17, 18, and 19. For the bird species, we modeled bird abundance from existing datasets as a function of habitat variables known to be preferred by each species to develop a relative abundance prediction for each species. For bats, there are no existing abundance datasets so we identified preferred habitat in the landscape for each species and assumed that greater amounts of preferred habitat would equate to greater abundance of bats. The abundance predictions for bird and bats were modeled with additional exposure factors known to influence collisions such as visibility, wind, temperature, precipitation, topography, and behavior to form a final mapped output of predicted collision risk within the study region. We reviewed published mortality studies from wind farms in our study region and collected data on reported mortality of our focal species to compare to our modeled predictions. We performed a sensitivity analysis evaluating model performance of 6 different scenarios where habitat and exposure factors were weighted differently. We compared the model performance in each scenario by evaluating observed data vs. our model predictions using spearmans rank correlations. Horned Lark collision risk was predicted to be highest in the northwestern and west-central portions of the study region with lower risk predicted elsewhere. Red-eyed Vireo collision risk was predicted to be the highest in the eastern portions of the study region and in
A Habitat-based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forcey, Greg, M.
2012-08-28
Most previous studies on collision impacts at wind facilities have taken place at the site-specific level and have only examined small-scale influences on mortality. In this study, we examine landscape-level influences using a hierarchical spatial model combined with existing datasets and life history knowledge for: Horned Lark, Red-eyed Vireo, Mallard, American Avocet, Golden Eagle, Whooping Crane, red bat, silver-haired bat, and hoary bat. These species were modeled in the central United States within Bird Conservation Regions 11, 17, 18, and 19. For the bird species, we modeled bird abundance from existing datasets as a function of habitat variables known to be preferred by each species to develop a relative abundance prediction for each species. For bats, there are no existing abundance datasets so we identified preferred habitat in the landscape for each species and assumed that greater amounts of preferred habitat would equate to greater abundance of bats. The abundance predictions for bird and bats were modeled with additional exposure factors known to influence collisions such as visibility, wind, temperature, precipitation, topography, and behavior to form a final mapped output of predicted collision risk within the study region. We reviewed published mortality studies from wind farms in our study region and collected data on reported mortality of our focal species to compare to our modeled predictions. We performed a sensitivity analysis evaluating model performance of 6 different scenarios where habitat and exposure factors were weighted differently. We compared the model performance in each scenario by evaluating observed data vs. our model predictions using spearmans rank correlations. Horned Lark collision risk was predicted to be highest in the northwestern and west-central portions of the study region with lower risk predicted elsewhere. Red-eyed Vireo collision risk was predicted to be the highest in the eastern portions of the study region and in
Modelling of the Internal Mechanics in Ship Collisions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paik, Jeom Kee; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup
1996-01-01
on the stiffness and the strength is considered as well. In order to include the coupling effects between local and global failure of the structure, the usual non-linear finite-element technique is applied. In order to deal with the gap and contact conditions between the striking and the struck ships, gap....../contact elements are employed. Dynamic effects are considered by inclusion of the influence of strain-Rate sensitivity in the material model. On the basis of the theory a computer program has been written. The procedure is verified by a comparison of experimental results obtained from test models of double...
Improved lattice Boltzmann modeling of binary flow based on the conservative Allen-Cahn equation
Ren, Feng; Song, Baowei; Sukop, Michael C.; Hu, Haibao
2016-08-01
The primary and key task of binary fluid flow modeling is to track the interface with good accuracy, which is usually challenging due to the sharp-interface limit and numerical dispersion. This article concentrates on further development of the conservative Allen-Cahn equation (ACE) [Geier et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 063309 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.063309] under the framework of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), with incorporation of the incompressible hydrodynamic equations [Liang et al., Phys. Rev. E 89, 053320 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.053320]. Utilizing a modified equilibrium distribution function and an additional source term, this model is capable of correctly recovering the conservative ACE through the Chapman-Enskog analysis. We also simulate four phase-tracking benchmark cases, including one three-dimensional case; all show good accuracy as well as low numerical dispersion. By coupling the incompressible hydrodynamic equations, we also simulate layered Poiseuille flow and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, illustrating satisfying performance in dealing with complex flow problems, e.g., high viscosity ratio, high density ratio, and high Reynolds number situations. The present work provides a reliable and efficient solution for binary flow modeling.
Thiele, Uwe; Frastia, Lubor
2007-01-01
A dynamical model is proposed to describe the coupled decomposition and profile evolution of a free surface film of a binary mixture. An example is a thin film of a polymer blend on a solid substrate undergoing simultaneous phase separation and dewetting. The model is based on model-H describing the coupled transport of the mass of one component (convective Cahn-Hilliard equation) and momentum (Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations) supplemented by appropriate boundary conditions at the solid substrate and the free surface. General transport equations are derived using phenomenological non-equilibrium thermodynamics for a general non-isothermal setting taking into account Soret and Dufour effects and interfacial viscosity for the internal diffuse interface between the two components. Focusing on an isothermal setting the resulting model is compared to literature results and its base states corresponding to homogeneous or vertically stratified flat layers are analysed.
A magnetic model for low/hard state of black hole binaries
Ye, Yong-Chun; Huang, Chang-Yin; Cao, Xiao-Feng
2015-01-01
A magnetic model for low/hard state (LHS) of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs),H1743-322 and GX 339-4, is proposed based on the transportation of magnetic field from a companion into an accretion disk around a black hole (BH). This model consists of a truncated thin disk with an inner advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF). The spectral profiles of the sources are fitted in agreement with the data observed at four different dates corresponding to the rising phase of the LHS. In addition, the association of the LHS with quasi-steady jet is modelled based on transportation of magnetic field, where the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) and Blandford-Payne (BP) processes are invoked to drive the jets from BH and inner ADAF. It turns out that the steep radio/X-ray correlations observed in H1743-322 and GX 339-4 can be interpreted based on our model.
Phase-field simulation of dendritic growth for binary alloys with complicate solution models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xin-zhong; GUO Jing-jie; SU Yan-qing; WU Shi-ping; FU Heng-zhi
2005-01-01
A phase-field method for simulation of dendritic growth in binary alloys with complicate solution models was studied. The free energy densities of solid and liquid used to construct the free energy of a solidification system in the phase-field model were derived from the Calphad thermodynamic modeling of phase diagram. The dendritic growth of Ti-Al alloy with a quasi-sub regular solution model was simulated in both an isothermal and a nonisothermal regime. In the isothermal one, different initial solute compositions and melt temperatures were chosen.And in the non-isothermal one, release of latent heat during solidification was considered. Realistic growth patterns of dendrite are derived. Both the initial compositions and melt temperatures affect isothermal dendritic morphology and solute distributions much, especially the latter. Release of latent heat will cause a less developed structure of dendrite and a lower interfacial composition.
Bhadra, Shubhra J; Ebner, Armin D; Ritter, James A
2012-05-01
Analytic expressions for unary and binary isosteric heats of adsorption as a function of the adsorbed phase loading were derived from the dual process Langmuir (DPL) model using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Unary isosteric heats of adsorption predicted from these expressions for several adsorbate-adsorbent systems were compared to values in the literature predicted from the well-accepted graphical approach using Toth and unilan models (Adsorption Equilibrium Data Handbook; Prentice Hall: NJ, 1989). Predictions from the DPL model were also compared to rare experimental unary and binary isosteric heats of adsorption in the literature for another adsorbate-adsorbent system. In all cases, very good agreement was obtained, showing that the DPL model can be used in adsorption process modeling for accurately predicting not only ideal and nonideal mixed-gas adsorption equilibria (Langmuir 2011, 27, 4700), but also unary and even binary isosteric heats of adsorption.
A Data-Based Approach for Modeling and Analysis of Vehicle Collision by LPV-ARMAX Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiugang Lu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Vehicle crash test is considered to be the most direct and common approach to assess the vehicle crashworthiness. However, it suffers from the drawbacks of high experiment cost and huge time consumption. Therefore, the establishment of a mathematical model of vehicle crash which can simplify the analysis process is significantly attractive. In this paper, we present the application of LPV-ARMAX model to simulate the car-to-pole collision with different initial impact velocities. The parameters of the LPV-ARMAX are assumed to have dependence on the initial impact velocities. Instead of establishing a set of LTI models for vehicle crashes with various impact velocities, the LPV-ARMAX model is comparatively simple and applicable to predict the responses of new collision situations different from the ones used for identification. Finally, the comparison between the predicted response and the real test data is conducted, which shows the high fidelity of the LPV-ARMAX model.
Zavyalov, Sergey; Zakharov, Vladimir
2016-04-01
A number of issues concerning Precambrian geodynamics still remain unsolved because of uncertainity of many physical (thermal regime, lithosphere thickness, crust thickness, etc.) and chemical (mantle composition, crust composition) parameters, which differed considerably comparing to the present day values. In this work, we show results of numerical supercomputations based on petrological and thermomechanical 2D model, which simulates the process of collision between two continental plates, each 80-160 km thick, with various convergence rates ranging from 5 to 15 cm/year. In the model, the upper mantle temperature is 150-200 ⁰C higher than the modern value, while the continental crust radiogenic heat production is higher than the present value by the factor of 1.5. These settings correspond to Archean conditions. The present study investigates the dependence of collision style on various continental crust parameters, especially on crust composition. The 3 following archetypal settings of continental crust composition are examined: 1) completely felsic continental crust; 2) basic lower crust and felsic upper crust; 3) basic upper crust and felsic lower crust (hereinafter referred to as inverted crust). Modeling results show that collision with completely felsic crust is unlikely. In the case of basic lower crust, a continental subduction and subsequent continental rocks exhumation can take place. Therefore, formation of ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks is possible. Continental subduction also occurs in the case of inverted continental crust. However, in the latter case, the exhumation of felsic rocks is blocked by upper basic layer and their subsequent interaction depends on their volume ratio. Thus, if the total inverted crust thickness is about 15 km and the thicknesses of the two layers are equal, felsic rocks cannot be exhumed. If the total thickness is 30 to 40 km and that of the felsic layer is 20 to 25 km, it breaks through the basic layer leading to
Galilean invariance in the exponential model of atomic collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
del Pozo, A.; Riera, A.; Yaez, M.
1986-11-01
Using the X/sup n//sup +/(1s/sup 2/)+He/sup 2+/ colliding systems as specific examples, we study the origin dependence of results in the application of the two-state exponential model, and we show the relevance of polarization effects in that study. Our analysis shows that polarization effects of the He/sup +/(1s) orbital due to interaction with X/sup (//sup n//sup +1)+/ ion in the exit channel yield a very small contribution to the energy difference and render the dynamical coupling so strongly origin dependent that it invalidates the basic premises of the model. Further study, incorporating translation factors in the formalism, is needed.
Border Collision Bifurcations in a Generalized Model of Population Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lilia M. Ladino
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We analyze the dynamics of a generalized discrete time population model of a two-stage species with recruitment and capture. This generalization, which is inspired by other approaches and real data that one can find in literature, consists in considering no restriction for the value of the two key parameters appearing in the model, that is, the natural death rate and the mortality rate due to fishing activity. In the more general case the feasibility of the system has been preserved by posing opportune formulas for the piecewise map defining the model. The resulting two-dimensional nonlinear map is not smooth, though continuous, as its definition changes as any border is crossed in the phase plane. Hence, techniques from the mathematical theory of piecewise smooth dynamical systems must be applied to show that, due to the existence of borders, abrupt changes in the dynamic behavior of population sizes and multistability emerge. The main novelty of the present contribution with respect to the previous ones is that, while using real data, richer dynamics are produced, such as fluctuations and multistability. Such new evidences are of great interest in biology since new strategies to preserve the survival of the species can be suggested.
Yan Gao; Zhiqiang Hu; Jin Wang
2014-01-01
The increasing marine activities in Arctic area have brought growing interest in ship-iceberg collision study. The purpose of this paper is to study the iceberg geometry shape effect on the collision process. In order to estimate the sensitivity parameter, five different geometry iceberg models and two iceberg material models are adopted in the analysis. The FEM numerical simulation is used to predict the scenario and the related responses. The simulation results including energy dissipation ...
Radar observations and physical modeling of binary near-Earth asteroid (1862) Apollo
Ford, Thomas F.; Benner, Lance A.; Brozovic, Marina; Leford, Bruce; Nolan, Michael C.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Ostro, Steve J.; Margot, Jean-Luc
2014-11-01
Binary asteroid 1862 Apollo has an extensive observational history allowing many of its characteristics to be investigated. Apollo was one of the first objects to show evidence for the YORP effect (Kaasalainen et al. 2007, Nature 446, 420) and its mass has been estimated by detection of the Yarkovsky effect (Nugent et al. 2012, AJ 144, 60; Farnocchia et al. 2013, Icarus 224, 1). We observed Apollo at Arecibo and Goldstone from Oct. 29-Nov. 13, 2005, obtaining a series of echo power spectra and delay-Doppler images that achieved resolutions as high as 7.5 m/pixel. The Arecibo images show that Apollo is a binary system with a rounded primary that has two large protrusions about 120 deg apart in longitude. We used the Arecibo data and published lightcurves to estimate the primary's 3D shape. Our best fit has major axes of ~1.8x1.5x1.3 km and a volume of ~1.6 km^3. The protrusions have lengths of ~300 and 200 m, are on the primary's equator, and give Apollo a distinctly different appearance from the primaries with equatorial ridges seen with other binary near-Earth asteroids. We estimated the pole by starting with the Kaasalainen et al. spin vector of ecliptic (longitude, latitude)=(50 deg, -71 deg) +- 7 deg and letting it float. Our best fit has a pole within 11 deg of (longitude, latitude)=(71, -72). Convex models produced from inversion of lightcurves by Kaasalainen et al. and thermal infrared data by Rozitis et al. (2013, A&A 555, A20) are more oblate than our model, do not show protrusions, and have somewhat different pole directions. The Arecibo images reveal weak but persistent echoes from a satellite on Nov. 1 and 2 but cover only a fraction of its orbit. The images are insufficient to estimate the satellite's shape and yield a rough estimate for its long axis of 190 m. Preliminary fits give an orbital period of ~27.0-27.5 h and a semimajor axis of ~3.5-4.0 km, implying a mass of 2.8-3.9E12 kg and a bulk density of 1.7-2.4 g/cm^3. The density is consistent with
Kulschewski, Tobias; Pleiss, Jürgen
2016-09-06
The binding of solvent molecules to a protein surface was modeled by molecular dynamics simulations of of Candida antarctica (C. antarctica) lipase B in binary mixtures of water, methanol, and toluene. Two models were analyzed: a competitive Langmuir model which assumes identical solvent binding sites with a different affinity toward water (KWat), methanol (KMet), and toluene (KTol) and a competitive Langmuir model with an additional interaction between free water and already bound water (KWatWat). The numbers of protein-bound molecules of both components of a binary mixture were determined for different compositions as a function of their thermodynamic activities in the bulk phase, and the binding constants were simultaneously fitted to the six binding curves (two components of three different mixtures). For both Langmuir models, the values of KWat, KMet, and KTol were highly correlated. The highest binding affinity was found for methanol, which was almost 4-fold higher than the binding affinities of water and toluene (KMet ≫ KWat ≈ KTol). Binding of water was dominated by the water-water interaction (KWatWat). Even for the three protein surface patches of highest water affinity, the binding affinity of methanol was 2-fold higher than water and 8-fold higher than toluene (KMet > KWat > KTol). The Langmuir model provides insights into the protein destabilizing mechanism of methanol which has a high binding affinity toward the protein surface. Thus, destabilizing solvents compete with intraprotein interactions and disrupt the tertiary structure. In contrast, benign solvents such as water or toluene have a low affinity toward the protein surface. Water is a special solvent: only few water molecules bind directly to the protein; most water molecules bind to already bound water molecules thus forming water patches. A quantitative mechanistic model of protein-solvent interactions that includes competition and miscibility of the components contributes a robust basis
Experimental determination and thermodynamic modeling of the Ni-Re binary system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yaqoob, Khurram [Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares (CMTR), Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux Paris-Est (ICMPE), 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais Cedex (France); Joubert, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.joubert@icmpe.cnrs.fr [Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares (CMTR), Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux Paris-Est (ICMPE), 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais Cedex (France)
2012-12-15
The phase diagram of the Ni-Re binary system has been partially reinvestigated by chemical, structural and thermal characterization of the arc melted alloys. The experimental results obtained during the present investigation were combined with the literature data and a new phase diagram of the Ni-Re binary system is proposed. In comparison with the Ni-Re phase diagram proposed by Nash et al. in 1985 [1], significant differences in the homogeneity domains, freezing ranges and peritectic reaction temperature were evidenced. On the other hand, thermodynamic modeling of the studied system by using the new experimental information has also been carried out with the help of the CALPHAD method. The calculated Ni-Re phase diagram showed a good agreement with the selected experimental information. - Graphical abstract: Ni-Re phase diagram according to the present study. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Re-investigation of the Ni-Re phase diagram. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extended phase field of the hcp phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different freezing ranges and peritectic reaction temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic modeling of the studied system by using the CALPHAD method.
Analytic modeling of tidal effects in the relativistic inspiral of binary neutron stars.
Baiotti, Luca; Damour, Thibault; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Nagar, Alessandro; Rezzolla, Luciano
2010-12-31
To detect the gravitational-wave (GW) signal from binary neutron stars and extract information about the equation of state of matter at nuclear density, it is necessary to match the signal with a bank of accurate templates. We present the two longest (to date) general-relativistic simulations of equal-mass binary neutron stars with different compactnesses, C=0.12 and C=0.14, and compare them with a tidal extension of the effective-one-body (EOB) model. The typical numerical phasing errors over the ≃22 GW cycles are Δϕ≃±0.24 rad. By calibrating only one parameter (representing a higher-order amplification of tidal effects), the EOB model can reproduce, within the numerical error, the two numerical waveforms essentially up to the merger. By contrast, the third post-Newtonian Taylor-T4 approximant with leading-order tidal corrections dephases with respect to the numerical waveforms by several radians.
FUV Emission from AGB Stars: Modeling Accretion Activity Associated with a Binary Companion
Stevens, Alyx Catherine; Sahai, Raghvendra
2012-01-01
It is widely believed that the late stages of evolution for Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars are influenced by the presence of binary companions. Unfortunately, there is a lack of direct observational evidence of binarity. However, more recently, strong indirect evidence comes from the discovery of UV emission in a subsample of these objects (fuvAGB stars). AGB stars are comparatively cool objects (< or =3000 K), thus their fluxes falls off drastically for wavelengths 3000 Angstroms and shorter. Therefore, ultraviolet observations offer an important, new technique for detecting the binary companions and/or associated accretion activity. We develop new models of UV emission from fuvAGB stars constrained by GALEX photometry and spectroscopy of these objects. We compare the GALEX UV grism spectra of the AGB M7 star EY Hya to predictions using the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, specifically investigating the ultraviolet wavelength range (1344-2831 Angstroms). We investigate models composed of contributions from a photoionized "hot spot" due to accretion activity around the companion, and "chromospheric" emission from collisionally ionized plasma, to fit the UV observations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kovalenko A. V.
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In the article we have derived mathematical models of non-stationary transport binary electrolyte in EMS (electromembrane systems: electrodialysis apparatus, electromembrane cell, etc. for the galvanostatic mode. To be specific, as EMS viewed channel of desalting of EDA (electrodialysis apparatus and EMS with RMD (rotating membrane disk. We present a formula expressing the intensity of the electric field through the current density and concentration. Also, we have received the differential equation for the current density. The fundamental point here is derived new equation for the unknown vector function of current density of the initial system of equations of Nernst-Planck. In addition, the article shows the output equation for the current density in three dimensions; we have proposed various methods for solving the equation of the current density and the boundary conditions for the current density. The proposed mathematical models of transport binary electrolyte are easy to be generalized to an arbitrary electrolyte. However, the corresponding equations are cumbersome. It should be also noted that the boundary conditions can be varied and depend on the purpose of a particular study in this regard, in this work are just the equation having the general form
Gamma-ray binaries beyond one-zone models: an application to LS 5039
del Palacio, Santiago; Romero, Gustavo E
2014-01-01
Context. Several binary systems hosting massive stars present gamma-ray emission. In most of these systems, despite detailed observational information is available, the nature and the structure of the emitter are still poorly known. Aims. We investigate the validity of the so-called one-zone approximation for the high-energy emitter in binary systems hosting a massive star. In particular, the case of LS 5039 is considered. Methods. Assuming a point-like emitter at rest, the presence of a nearby massive star, and taking as a reference the observed MeV and GeV fluxes, a non-thermal leptonic model is systematically applied for di?erent locations, magnetic fields, and non-radiative losses. This allows the identification of both the emitter configurations most compatible with observations and inconsistencies between model predictions and the available data. Results. In the case of LS 5039, the best parameter combination is fast non-radiative cooling and a low magnetic field. However, discrepancies appear when comp...
Barnes, M; Dorland, W; Ernst, D R; Hammett, G W; Ricci, P; Rogers, B N; Schekochihin, A A; Tatsuno, T
2008-01-01
A set of key properties for an ideal dissipation scheme in gyrokinetic simulations is proposed, and implementation of a model collision operator satisfying these properties is described. This operator is based on the exact linearized test-particle collision operator, with approximations to the field-particle terms that preserve conservation laws and an H-Theorem. It includes energy diffusion, pitch-angle scattering, and finite Larmor radius effects corresponding to classical (real-space) diffusion. The numerical implementation in the continuum gyrokinetic code GS2 is fully implicit and guarantees exact satisfaction of conservation properties. Numerical results are presented showing that the correct physics is captured over the entire range of collisionalities, from the collisionless to the strongly collisional regimes, without recourse to artificial dissipation.
A simplified model of collision-driven dynamo action in small bodies
Wei, Xing
2013-01-01
We investigate numerically the self-sustained dynamo action in a spinning sphere whose sense of rotation reverses periodically. This system serves as a simple model of a dynamo in small bodies powered by frequent collisions. It is found that dynamo action is possible in some intervals of collision rates. At high Ekman numbers the laminar spin-up flow is helical in the boundary layers and the Ekman circulation together with the azimuthal shear powers the dynamo action. At low Ekman number a non-axisymmetric instability helps the dynamo action. The intermittency of magnetic field occurs at low Ekman number. A lower bound of magnetic energy is numerically obtained, and the space-averaged field in the fluid core and the surface field of a small body are roughly estimated.
Anomalous transport model study of chiral magnetic effects in heavy ion collisions
Sun, Yifeng; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Feng
2016-10-01
Using an anomalous transport model for massless quarks and antiquarks, we study the effect of a magnetic field on the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks in relativistic heavy ion collisions. With initial conditions from a blast wave model and assuming that the strong magnetic field produced in noncentral heavy ion collisions can last for a sufficiently long time, we obtain an appreciable electric quadrupole moment in the transverse plane of a heavy ion collision. The electric quadrupole moment subsequently leads to a splitting between the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks. The slope of the charge asymmetry dependence of the elliptic flow difference between positively and negatively charged particles is positive, which is expected from the chiral magnetic wave formed in the produced QGP and observed in experiments at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, only if the Lorentz force acting on the charged particles is neglected and the quark-antiquark scattering is assumed to be dominated by the chirality changing channel.
A selection model for longitudinal binary responses subject to non-ignorable attrition.
Alfò, Marco; Maruotti, Antonello
2009-08-30
Longitudinal studies collect information on a sample of individuals which is followed over time to analyze the effects of individual and time-dependent characteristics on the observed response. These studies often suffer from attrition: individuals drop out of the study before its completion time and thus present incomplete data records. When the missing mechanism, once conditioned on other (observed) variables, does not depend on current (eventually unobserved) values of the response variable, the dropout mechanism is known to be ignorable. We propose a selection model extending semiparametric variance component models for longitudinal binary responses to allow for dependence between the missing data mechanism and the primary response process. The model is applied to a data set from a methadone maintenance treatment programme held in Sidney, 1986.
A binary logistic regression model for discriminating real protein-protein interface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
The selection and study of descriptive variables of protein-protein complex interface is a major question that many biologists come across when the research of protein-protein recognition is concerned. Several variables have been proposed to understand the structural or energetic features of complex interfaces. Here a systematic study of some of these "traditional" variables, as well as a few new ones, is introduced. With the values of these variables extracted from 42 PDB samples with real or false complex interfaces, a binary logistic regression analysis is performed, which results in an effective empirical model for the evaluation of binding probabilities of protein-protein interfaces. The model is validated with 12 samples, and satisfactory results are obtained for both the training and validation sets. Meanwhile, three potential dimeric interfaces of staphylokinase have been investigated and one with the best suitability to our model is proposed.
Shape model of the binary near-Earth asteroid (285263) 1998 QE_2
Springmann, A.; Taylor, P.; Nolan, M.; Howell, E.; Benner, L.; Brozović, M.; Giorgini, J.; Busch, M.; Margot, J.; Lee, C.; Gao, J.
2014-07-01
Binary systems comprise ˜1/6 of the near-Earth object population larger than 200 meters in diameter, providing important clues to asteroids' masses and densities. On May 31, 2013, the binary near-Earth-asteroid system (285263) 1998 QE_2 had a 0.04-au close approach to the Earth. We observed the binary system from May 30 to June 27 with the Goldstone Solar System Radar (which discovered the system's binary nature, operating at 3.5 cm / 8.56 GHz) and Arecibo Observatory planetary radar system (operating at 12.6 cm / 2.38 GHz). The size of the QE_2 primary and the short light travel time afforded us an excellent data set of high resolution delay-Doppler images as fine as 7.5 meters/pixel of this asteroid and its moon. We used the extensive radar dataset to fit 3D shape models for both primary and secondary using a nonlinear iterative inverse process [1,2]. A preliminary scale model for both system components is shown in the figure. The preliminary primary model is a roughly spherical body, 3.2 ± 0.3 km in effective diameter. Some radar-bright spots in the delay-Doppler images may be indicative of boulders. Lightcurve data show a rotation period of 4.749 ± 0.002 h for the primary [3]. The best fit to a subset of radar data suggests a prograde pole at (119°, +35°) in ecliptic coordinates [4]. The secondary model indicates an effective diameter of 800 ± 80 m (for a primary:secondary diameter ratio of ≈4:1) for an elongated object with a concavity on one side of the long axis. The secondary is in a tidally locked spin state with an orbital period of 31.31 ± 0.01 h hours derived from radar, and a semimajor orbital axis of 6.2 ± 0.1 km (approximately quadruple the radius of the primary). The orbit is approximately circular (e Earth-asteroid binary-system orbits. We assume that the primary and secondary poles are aligned with the best-fit mutual-orbit pole. All orbital parameters were derived from radar data. From orbital fits, we estimate the system mass to be 1
Bertrand, Olivier J N; Lindemann, Jens P; Egelhaaf, Martin
2015-11-01
Avoiding collisions is one of the most basic needs of any mobile agent, both biological and technical, when searching around or aiming toward a goal. We propose a model of collision avoidance inspired by behavioral experiments on insects and by properties of optic flow on a spherical eye experienced during translation, and test the interaction of this model with goal-driven behavior. Insects, such as flies and bees, actively separate the rotational and translational optic flow components via behavior, i.e. by employing a saccadic strategy of flight and gaze control. Optic flow experienced during translation, i.e. during intersaccadic phases, contains information on the depth-structure of the environment, but this information is entangled with that on self-motion. Here, we propose a simple model to extract the depth structure from translational optic flow by using local properties of a spherical eye. On this basis, a motion direction of the agent is computed that ensures collision avoidance. Flying insects are thought to measure optic flow by correlation-type elementary motion detectors. Their responses depend, in addition to velocity, on the texture and contrast of objects and, thus, do not measure the velocity of objects veridically. Therefore, we initially used geometrically determined optic flow as input to a collision avoidance algorithm to show that depth information inferred from optic flow is sufficient to account for collision avoidance under closed-loop conditions. Then, the collision avoidance algorithm was tested with bio-inspired correlation-type elementary motion detectors in its input. Even then, the algorithm led successfully to collision avoidance and, in addition, replicated the characteristics of collision avoidance behavior of insects. Finally, the collision avoidance algorithm was combined with a goal direction and tested in cluttered environments. The simulated agent then showed goal-directed behavior reminiscent of components of the navigation
Chaturvedi, O S K; Kumar, Ashwini; Singh, B K
2016-01-01
The charged particle multiplicity ($n_{ch}$) and pseudorapidity density $(dn_{ch}/d\\eta)$ are key observables to characterize the properties of matter created in heavy ion collisions. The dependence of these observables on collision energy and the collision geometry are a key tool to understand the underlying particle production mechanism. Recently a lot of focus on asymmetric nuclei as well as deformed nuclei collisions has been made as these collisions can provide a deeper understanding of the nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). On phenomenological perspective a unified model which describes the experimental data coming from various kind of collision experiments, is much needed to provide the physical insights about the production mechanism. In this paper, firstly we have calculated the charged hadron multiplicities for nucleon-nucleus (such as proton-lead (p-Pb) and asymmetric nuclei collisions like deutron-gold (d-Au), and copper-gold (Cu-Au) within our recently proposed wounded quark model (WQM) and ...
Taani, Ali
2016-07-01
The kick velocity which arises during the binary interaction plays an important role in disruption or surviving the binary systems. This paper attempts to draw an evolutionary connection of the long-period (Porb ≥ 2 d) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) with orbits of low eccentricity (e ≤ 0.2). We propose that a kick velocity caused by dynamical effects of asymmetric collapse imparted to the companion star through an accretion induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs-that become unstable once they approach the Chandrasekhar limit-can account for the differences in their orbital period distributions. Furthermore, in some cases, an appropriate kick can disrupt the binary system and result in the birth of isolated MSPs. Otherwise, the binary survives and an eccentric binary MSP is formed. In this case only the binding energy equivalent (0.2M⊙) of mass is lost and the system remains intact in a symmetric collapse. Consequently, the AIC decreases the mass of the neutron star and increases the orbital period leading to orbit circularization. We present the results of our model and discuss the possible implications for the binary MSPs in galactic disk and globular clusters.
Eckersall, A. J.; Vaughan, S.; Wynn, G. A.
2017-10-01
All observations of Galactic X-ray binaries are affected by absorption from gas and dust in the interstellar medium (ISM) which imprints narrow (line) and broad (photoelectric edges) features on the continuum emission spectrum of the binary. Any spectral model used to fit data from a Galactic X-ray binary must therefore take account of these features; when the absorption is strong (as for most Galactic sources) it becomes important to accurately model the ISM absorption in order to obtain unbiased estimates of the parameters of the (emission) spectrum of the binary system. In this paper, we present analysis of some of the best spectroscopic data from the XMM-Newton RGS instrument using the most up-to-date photoabsorption model of the gaseous ISM ISMabs. We calculate column densities for H, O, Ne and Fe for seven transient black hole X-ray binary systems. We find that the hydrogen column densities in particular can vary greatly from those presented elsewhere in the literature. We assess the impact of using inaccurate column densities and older X-ray absorption models on spectral analysis using simulated data. We find that poor treatment of absorption can lead to large biases in inferred disc properties and that an independent analysis of absorption parameters can be used to alleviate such issues.
Quistberg, D. Alex; Howard, Eric J.; Ebel, Beth E.; Moudon, Anne V.; Saelens, Brian E.; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Curtin, James E.; Rivara, Frederick P.
2015-01-01
Walking is a popular form of physical activity associated with clear health benefits. Promoting safe walking for pedestrians requires evaluating the risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions at specific roadway locations in order to identify where road improvements and other interventions may be needed. The objective of this analysis was to estimate the risk of pedestrian collisions at intersections and mid-blocks in Seattle, WA. The study used 2007-2013 pedestrian-motor vehicle collision data from police reports and detailed characteristics of the microenvironment and macroenvironment at intersection and mid-block locations. The primary outcome was the number of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions over time at each location (incident rate ratio [IRR] and 95% confidence interval [95% CI]). Multilevel mixed effects Poisson models accounted for correlation within and between locations and census blocks over time. Analysis accounted for pedestrian and vehicle activity (e.g., residential density and road classification). In the final multivariable model, intersections with 4 segments or 5 or more segments had higher pedestrian collision rates compared to mid-blocks. Non-residential roads had significantly higher rates than residential roads, with principal arterials having the highest collision rate. The pedestrian collision rate was higher by 9% per 10 feet of street width. Locations with traffic signals had twice the collision rate of locations without a signal and those with marked crosswalks also had a higher rate. Locations with a marked crosswalk also had higher risk of collision. Locations with a one-way road or those with signs encouraging motorists to cede the right-of-way to pedestrians had fewer pedestrian collisions. Collision rates were higher in locations that encourage greater pedestrian activity (more bus use, more fast food restaurants, higher employment, residential, and population densities). Locations with higher intersection density had a lower
Constraints on Planetesimal Collision Models in Debris Disks
MacGregor, Meredith A; Chandler, Claire; Ricci, Luca; Maddison, Sarah T; Cranmer, Steven R; Andrews, Sean M; Hughes, A Meredith; Steele, Amy
2016-01-01
Observations of debris disks offer a window into the physical and dynamical properties of planetesimals in extrasolar systems through the size distribution of dust grains. In particular, the millimeter spectral index of thermal dust emission encodes information on the grain size distribution. We have made new VLA observations of a sample of seven nearby debris disks at 9 mm, with 3" resolution and $\\sim5$ $\\mu$Jy/beam rms. We combine these with archival ATCA observations of eight additional debris disks observed at 7 mm, together with up-to-date observations of all disks at (sub)millimeter wavelengths from the literature to place tight constraints on the millimeter spectral indices and thus grain size distributions. The analysis gives a weighted mean for the slope of the power law grain size distribution, $n(a)\\propto a^{-q}$, of $\\langle q \\rangle = 3.36\\pm0.02$, with a possible trend of decreasing $q$ for later spectral type stars. We compare our results to a range of theoretical models of collisional casca...
D-meson observables in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at LHC with EPOSHQ model
Ozvenchuk, V.; Aichelin, J.; Gossiaux, P. B.; Guiot, B.; Nahrgang, M.; Werner, K.
2017-01-01
We study the propagation of charm quarks in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion and proton-nucleus collisions at LHC within EPOSHQ model. The interactions of heavy quarks with the light partons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions through the collisional and radiative processes lead to a large suppression of nal D-meson spectra at high transverse momentum and a nite D-meson elliptic ow, v 2, whereas in proton-nucleus collisions the D-meson nuclear modi cation factor, RpA , at high transverse momentum is compatible with unity. Our results are in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Predictions from a Simple Hadron Rescattering Model for pp Collisions at the LHC
Truesdale, David C.
With studies of heavy ion and pp physics already under way at the LHC, it is necessary to consider how hadron rescattering will effect the observed results from experiments such as ALICE, ATLAS and CMS. Through the use of a simple, relativistic kinematics based hadron rescattering model, this dissertation shows that the hadron rescattering phase can obscure some signals for radial flow in pp collisions at LHC energies. This dissertation presents an in depth description of the hardware based alignment monitoring system developed for the ALICE Inner Tracking System. It details the development of the ITSAMS, which uses geometric optics and a CMOS array to measure micron scale motion between two points. By monitoring three strategic points on the ITS in relation to the TPC endplate, the ITSAMS can determine translational shifts between the two detectors to a resolution of 9.4 mum in the transverse plane and 78 mum along the longitudinal axis. The ITSAMS can measure rotational shifts to 10 murad or better about all three axes. After a brief discussion of the ALICE experiment and the theory and practice of two-particle intensity interferometry, this dissertation details a simple hadron rescattering computer model developed by Dr. T. J. Humanic. The process of porting the model to the C++ computer language is presented here, along with the improvements made. The model has been updated with a new space-time distribution scheme that is more appropriate for pp collision studies. The model is then compared with final-state PYTHIA generated Monte-Carlo data. It is shown that the hadron rescattering model accurately reproduces pseudorapidity distributions for pp collisions at s = 0.9, 7, 10, and 14 TeV. Moreover, except for a slight overprediction of kaons and a slight underprediction of protons, the rescattering model accurately reproduces PYTHIA pT spectra. This dissertation then endeavours compare results to the HBT radii present in the ALICE collaboration's analysis of
Hwang, Beom Seuk; Pennell, Michael L
2014-03-30
Many dose-response studies collect data on correlated outcomes. For example, in developmental toxicity studies, uterine weight and presence of malformed pups are measured on the same dam. Joint modeling can result in more efficient inferences than independent models for each outcome. Most methods for joint modeling assume standard parametric response distributions. However, in toxicity studies, it is possible that response distributions vary in location and shape with dose, which may not be easily captured by standard models. To address this issue, we propose a semiparametric Bayesian joint model for a binary and continuous response. In our model, a kernel stick-breaking process prior is assigned to the distribution of a random effect shared across outcomes, which allows flexible changes in distribution shape with dose shared across outcomes. The model also includes outcome-specific fixed effects to allow different location effects. In simulation studies, we found that the proposed model provides accurate estimates of toxicological risk when the data do not satisfy assumptions of standard parametric models. We apply our method to data from a developmental toxicity study of ethylene glycol diethyl ether.
Multi-fluid modeling of density segregation in a dense binary fluidized bed
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhongxi Chao; Yuefa Wang; Jana P.Jakobsen; Maria Fernandino; Hugo A.Jakobsen
2012-01-01
This paper presents simulation results of the density segregation in a dense binary gas fluidized bed using a multi-fluid model from Chao et al.(2011).The segregation behavior of two types of particles with approximately same particle diameters and different particle densities was studied and validated using the experimental data from Formisani et al.(2008),Some detailed information regarding the gas,particle velocity profiles,the distributions of the particle volume fractions and the flotsam-to-total particle volume fraction ratios is presented.The simulation results show that the simulated axial average flotsam-to-total particle volume fraction ratio distribution agrees reasonably with the experimental data of Formisani et al.(2008).The binary particle velocities are closely coupled though the segregation exists.The segregation behavior and the particle velocity profiles are superficial gas velocity dependent.The number and distribution of particle velocity vortices change dramatically with superficial gas velocity:at a comparatively low superficial gas velocity,the particles mainly segregate axially,and at a comparatively high superficial gas velocity,the particles segregate both axially and radially.
Modelling of Sigma Scorpii, a high-mass binary with a Beta Cep variable primary component
Tkachenko, A; Pavlovski, K; Degroote, P; Papics, P I; Moravveji, E; Lehmann, H; Kolbas, V; Clemer, K
2014-01-01
High-mass binary stars are known to show an unexplained discrepancy between the dynamical masses of the individual components and those predicted by models. In this work, we study Sigma Scorpii, a double-lined spectroscopic binary system consisting of two B-type stars residing in an eccentric orbit. The more massive primary component is a Beta Cep-type pulsating variable star. Our analysis is based on a time-series of some 1000 high-resolution spectra collected with the CORALIE spectrograph in 2006, 2007, and 2008. We use two different approaches to determine the orbital parameters of the star; the spectral disentangling technique is used to separate the spectral contributions of the individual components in the composite spectra. The non-LTE based spectrum analysis of the disentangled spectra reveals two stars of similar spectral type and atmospheric chemical composition. Combined with the orbital inclination angle estimate found in the literature, our orbital elements allow a mass estimate of 14.7 +/- 4.5 a...
Analytic modelling of tidal effects in the relativistic inspiral of binary neutron stars
Baiotti, Luca; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Nagar, Alessandro; Rezzolla, Luciano
2010-01-01
To detect the gravitational-wave signal from binary neutron stars and extract information about the equation of state of matter at nuclear density, it is necessary to match the signal with a bank of accurate templates. We have performed the longest (to date) general-relativistic simulations of binary neutron stars with different compactnesses and used them to constrain a tidal extension of the effective-one-body model so that it reproduces the numerical waveforms accurately and essentially up to the merger. The typical errors in the phase over the $\\simeq 22$ gravitational-wave cycles are $\\Delta \\phi\\simeq \\pm 0.24$ rad, thus with relative phase errors $\\Delta \\phi/\\phi \\simeq 0.2%$. We also show that with a single choice of parameters, the effective-one-body approach is able to reproduce all of the numerically-computed phase evolutions, in contrast with what found when adopting a tidally corrected post-Newtonian Taylor-T4 expansion.
Modelling the asymmetric wind of the luminous blue variable binary MWC 314
Lobel, A; Martayan, C; Frémat, Y; Dozinel, K Torres; Raskin, G; Van Winckel, H; Prins, S; Pessemier, W; Waelkens, C; Hensberge, H; Dummortier, L; Jorissen, A; Van Eck, S; Lehmann, H
2013-01-01
We present a spectroscopic analysis of MWC 314, a luminous blue variable (LBV) candidate with an extended bipolar nebula. The detailed spectroscopic variability is investigated to determine if MWC 314 is a massive binary system with a supersonically accelerating wind or a low-mass B[e] star. We compare the spectrum and spectral energy distribution to other LBVs (such as P Cyg) and find very similar physical wind properties, indicating strong kinship. We combined long-term high-resolution optical spectroscopic monitoring and V-band photometric observations to determine the orbital elements and stellar parameters and to investigate the spectral variability with the orbital phases. We developed an advanced model of the large-scale wind-velocity and wind-density structure with 3-D radiative transfer calculations that fit the orbitally modulated P Cyg profile of He I lam5876, showing outflow velocities above 1000 km/s. We find that MWC 314 is a massive semi-detached binary system of ~1.22 AU, observed at an inclin...
Extension of the hard-sphere particle-wall collision model to account for particle deposition.
Kosinski, Pawel; Hoffmann, Alex C
2009-06-01
Numerical simulations of flows of fluids with granular materials using the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach involve the problem of modeling of collisions: both between the particles and particles with walls. One of the most popular techniques is the hard-sphere model. This model, however, has a major drawback in that it does not take into account cohesive or adhesive forces. In this paper we develop an extension to a well-known hard-sphere model for modeling particle-wall interactions, making it possible to account for adhesion. The model is able to account for virtually any physical interaction, such as van der Waals forces or liquid bridging. In this paper we focus on the derivation of the new model and we show some computational results.
A new non-convex model of the binary asteroid 90 Antiope obtained with the SAGE modelling technique
Bartczak, P.; Michałowski, T.; Santana-Ros, T.; Dudziński, G.
2014-09-01
We present a new non-convex model of the 90 Antiope binary asteroid, derived with a modified version of the Shaping Asteroids with Genetic Evolution (SAGE) method using disc-integrated photometry only. A new variant of the SAGE algorithm capable of deriving models of binary systems is described. The model of 90 Antiope confirms the system's pole solution (λ = 199°, β = 38°, σ = ±5°) and the orbital period (16.505 046 ± 0.000 005 h). A comparison between the stellar occultation chords obtained during the 2011 occultation and the projected shape solution has been used to scale the model. The resulting scaled model allowed us to obtain the equivalent radii (R1 = 40.4 ± 0.9 km and R2 = 40.2 ± 0.9 km) and the distance between the two system components (176 ± 4 km), leading to a total system mass of (9.14 ± 0.62) · 1017 kg. The non-convex shape description of the components permitted a refined calculation of the components' volumes, leading to a density estimation of 1.67 ± 0.23 g cm-3. The intermediate-scale features of the model may also offer new clues on the components' origin and evolution.
Hetmaniok, Edyta; Hristov, Jordan; Słota, Damian; Zielonka, Adam
2017-05-01
The paper presents the procedure for solving the inverse problem for the binary alloy solidification in a two-dimensional space. This is a continuation of some previous works of the authors investigating a similar problem but in the one-dimensional domain. Goal of the problem consists in identification of the heat transfer coefficient on boundary of the region and in reconstruction of the temperature distribution inside the considered region in case when the temperature measurements in selected points of the alloy are known. Mathematical model of the problem is based on the heat conduction equation with the substitute thermal capacity and with the liquidus and solidus temperatures varying in dependance on the concentration of the alloy component. For describing this concentration the Scheil model is used. Investigated procedure involves also the parallelized Ant Colony Optimization algorithm applied for minimizing a functional expressing the error of approximate solution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nacer Tabib
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new framework based on Binary Decision Diagrams (BDD for the graph distribution problem in the context of explicit model checking. The BDD are yet used to represent the state space for a symbolic verification model checking. Thus, we took advantage of high compression ratio of BDD to encode not only the state space, but also the place where each state will be put. So, a fitness function that allows a good balance load of states over the nodes of an homogeneous network is used. Furthermore, a detailed explanation of how to calculate the inter-site edges between different nodes based on the adapted data structure is presented.
Erosion study of Fe–W binary mixed layer prepared as model system for RAFM steel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugiyama, K., E-mail: kazuyoshi.sugiyama@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Roth, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Alimov, V.Kh. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan); Schmid, K.; Balden, M.; Elgeti, S.; Koch, F.; Höschen, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P. [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Maier, H.; Jacob, W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)
2015-08-15
Fe–W binary mixed layers were prepared as a model system for reduced-activation ferritic–martensitic (RAFM) steel for studying their dynamic erosion behavior resulting from energetic deuterium (D) irradiation. This investigation aims toward an assessment of RAFM steels as plasma-facing material. The surface composition of the model layers is modified by D irradiation. W is enriched at the surface with D irradiation fluence due to the preferential sputtering of Fe. It depends on the D impinging energy as well as the initial W fraction of the Fe–W layer. No significant development of surface topography was observed within the examined conditions. The erosion yield of a Fe–W layer is comparable to that of pure Fe in the low-fluence range and decreases with increasing D fluence. These results indicate that the dynamic change of erosion yield is significantly correlated with the surface W enrichment.
Modelling of an eclipsing RS CVn-binary: V405 And
Vida, K; Kővári, Zs; 10.1017/S1743921311027347
2012-01-01
V405 And is an ultrafast-rotating (P_rot ~ 0.46 days) eclipsing binary. The system consists of a primary star with radiative core and convective envelope, and a fully convective secondary. Theories have shown, that stellar structure can depend on magnetic activity, i.e., magnetically active M-dwarfs should have larger radii. Earlier light curve modelling of V405 And indeed showed this behaviour: we found that the radius of the primary is significantly larger than the theoretically predicted value for inactive main sequence stars (the discrepancy is the largest of all known objects), while the secondary fits well to the mass-radius relation. By modelling our recently obtained light curves, which show significant changes of the spotted surface of the primary, we can find further proof for this phenomenon.
Relativistic Accretion Disk Models of High State Black Hole X-ray Binary Spectra
Davis, S W; Hubeny, I; Turner, N J; Davis, Shane W.; Blaes, Omer M.; Hubeny, Ivan; Turner, Neal J.
2004-01-01
We present calculations of non-LTE, relativistic accretion disk models applicable to the high/soft state of black hole X-ray binaries. We include the effects of thermal Comptonization and bound-free and free-free opacities of all abundant ion species. We present spectra calculated for a variety of accretion rates, black hole spin parameters, disk inclinations, and stress prescriptions. We also consider nonzero inner torques on the disk, and explore different vertical dissipation profiles, including some which are motivated by recent radiation MHD simulations of magnetorotational turbulence. Bound-free metal opacity generally produces significantly less spectral hardening than previous models which only considered Compton scattering and free-free opacity. It also tends to keep the effective photosphere near the surface, resulting in spectra which are remarkably independent of the stress prescription and vertical dissipation profile, provided little dissipation occurs above the effective photosphere. We provide...
Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Eracleous, Michael; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Sigurdsson, Steinn
2017-01-01
Motivated by observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) we develop a semi-analytic model to describe the spectral emission line signatures of these systems. We are particularly interested in modeling the profiles of the broad emission lines, which have been used as a tool to search for SBHBs. The goal of this work is to test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this context, we model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk that forms a common envelope about a gravitationally bound binary. Our first generation model shows that emission line profiles tend to have different statistical properties depending on the semi-major axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the alignment of the triple-disk system, and can in principle be used to constrain the statistical distribution of these parameters. We present the results of a second generation model, which improves upon the treatment of radiative transfer by taking into account the effect of line-driven winds on the properties of the model emission line profiles. This improvement allows a preliminary comparison of the model profiles with the observed SBHB candidates and AGN population in general.
Modeling near-barrier collisions of heavy ions based on a Langevin-type approach
Karpov, A. V.; Saiko, V. V.
2017-08-01
Background: Multinucleon transfer in low-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is proposed as a method of production of yet-unknown neutron-rich nuclei hardly reachable by other methods. Purpose: Modeling of dynamics of nuclear reactions induced by heavy ions in their full complexity of competing reaction channels remains to be a challenging task. The work is aimed at development of such a model and its application to the analysis of multinucleon transfer in deep inelastic collisions of heavy ions leading, in particular, to formation of neutron-rich isotopes in the vicinity of the N =126 shell closure. Method: Multidimensional dynamical model of nucleus-nucleus collisions based on the Langevin equations has been proposed. It is combined with a statistical model for simulation of de-excitation of primary reaction fragments. The model provides a continuous description of the system evolution starting from the well-separated target and projectile in the entrance channel of the reaction up to the formation of final reaction products. Results: A rather complete set of experimental data available for reactions 136Xe+198Pt,208Pb,209Bi was analyzed within the developed model. The model parameters have been determined. The calculated energy, mass, charge, and angular distributions of reaction products, their various correlations as well as cross sections for production of specific isotopes agree well with the data. On this basis, optimal experimental conditions for synthesizing the neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of the N =126 shell were formulated and the corresponding cross sections were predicted. Conclusions: The production yields of neutron-rich nuclei with N =126 weakly depend on the incident energy. At the same time, the corresponding angular distributions are strongly energy dependent. They are peaked at grazing angles for larger energies and extend up to the forward angles at low near-barrier collision energies. The corresponding cross sections exceed 100 nb for
A Search for Collision Orbits in the Free-Fall Three-Body Problem. I. Numerical Procedure
Tanikawa, Kiyotaka; Umehara, Hiroaki; Abe, Hiroshi
1995-12-01
A numerical procedure is devised to find binary collision orbits in the free-fall three-body problem. Applying this procedure, families of binary collision orbits are found and a sequence of triple collision orbits are positioned. A property of sets of binary collision orbits which is convenient to search triple collision orbits is found. Important numerical results are formulated and summarized in the final section.
A model for the non-thermal emission of the very massive colliding-wind binary HD 93129A
del Palacio, Santiago; Bosch-Ramon, Valentí; Romero, Gustavo E.; Benaglia, Paula
2016-01-01
The binary stellar system HD 93129A is one of the most massive known binaries in our Galaxy. This system presents non-thermal emission in the radio band, which can be used to infer its physical conditions and predict its emission in the high-energy band. We intend to constrain some of the unknown parameters of HD 93129A through modelling the non-thermal emitter, and also to analyse the detectability of this source in hard X-rays and $\\gamma$-rays. We develop a broadband radiative model for th...
A new non-convex model of the binary asteroid 90 Antiope obtained with the SAGE modelling technique
Bartczak, P; Santana-Ros, T; Dudziński, G
2014-01-01
We present a new non-convex model of the 90 Antiope binary asteroid, derived with a modified version of the SAGE (Shaping Asteroids with Genetic Evolution) method using disk-integrated photometry only. A new variant of the SAGE algorithm capable of deriving models of binary systems is described. The model of 90 Antiope confirms the system's pole solution ($\\lambda=199^{\\circ}$, $\\beta=38^{\\circ}$, $\\sigma=\\pm5^{\\circ}$) and the orbital period ($16.505046 \\pm 0.000005$ h). A comparison between the stellar occultation chords obtained during the 2011 occultation and the projected shape solution has been used to scale the model. The resulting scaled model allowed us to obtain the equivalent radii ($R_{1}=40.4\\pm0.9$ km and $R_{2}=40.2\\pm0.9$ km) and the distance between the two system components ($176\\pm4$ km), leading to a total system mass of ($9.14\\pm0.62$)$\\cdot10^{17}$ kg. The non-convex shape description of the components permitted a refined calculation of the components' volumes, leading to a density estim...
Probabilistic model for vessel-bridge collisions in the Three Gorges Reservoir
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bo GENG; Hong WANG; Junjie WANG
2009-01-01
Based on a field observation on vessel transit path of three bridges over the Yangtze River in the Three Gorges Reservoir, and an analysis of the geometric probabilistic model of transiting vessels in collision probability calculation, the aberrancy angle and vessel velocity probabilistic model related with impact force, a probabilistic model is established and also verified by goodness-of-fit test. The vessel transit path distribution can be expressed by the normal distribution model. For the Three Gorges Reservoir, the mean and standard deviation adopt 0.2w and 0.1w, respectively (w is the channel width).The aberrancy angle distribution of vessels accepts maximum I distribution model, and its distribution parameters can be taken as 0.314 and 4.354. The velocity distribution of up-bound and down-bound vessels can also be expressed by the normal distribution model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liran Carmel
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Evolutionary binary characters are features of species or genes, indicating the absence (value zero or presence (value one of some property. Examples include eukaryotic gene architecture (the presence or absence of an intron in a particular locus, gene content, and morphological characters. In many studies, the acquisition of such binary characters is assumed to represent a rare evolutionary event, and consequently, their evolution is analyzed using various flavors of parsimony. However, when gain and loss of the character are not rare enough, a probabilistic analysis becomes essential. Here, we present a comprehensive probabilistic model to describe the evolution of binary characters on a bifurcating phylogenetic tree. A fast software tool, EREM, is provided, using maximum likelihood to estimate the parameters of the model and to reconstruct ancestral states (presence and absence in internal nodes and events (gain and loss events along branches.
Taylor, Stephen; Sampson, Laura; Simon, Joseph
2016-03-01
There has recently been significant interest in how the galactic environments of supermassive black-hole binaries influences the stochastic gravitational-wave background signal from a population of these systems, and in how the resulting detection prospects for pulsar-timing arrays are effected. Tackling these problems requires us to have robust and computationally-efficient models for the strain spectrum as a function of different environment influences or the binary orbital eccentricity. In this talk we describe a new method of constructing these models from a small number of synthesized black-hole binary populations which have varying input physics. We use these populations to train an interpolant via Gaussian-process regression, allowing us to carry real physics into our subsequent pulsar-timing array inferences, and to also correctly propagate forward uncertainties from our interpolation.
Modeling of Sunspot Numbers by a Modified Binary Mixture of Laplace Distribution Functions
Sabarinath, A.; Anilkumar, A. K.
2008-07-01
This paper presents a new approach for describing the shape of 11-year sunspot cycles by considering the monthly averaged values. This paper also brings out a prediction model based on the analysis of 22 sunspot cycles from the year 1749 onward. It is found that the shape of the sunspot cycles with monthly averaged values can be described by a functional form of modified binary mixture of Laplace density functions, modified suitably by introducing two additional parameters in the standard functional form. The six parameters, namely two locations, two scales, and two area parameters, characterize this model. The nature of the estimated parameters for the sunspot cycles from 1749 onward has been analyzed and finally we arrived at a sufficient set of the parameters for the proposed model. It is seen that this model picks up the sunspot peaks more closely than any other model without losing the match at other places at the same time. The goodness of fit for the proposed model is also computed with the Hathaway Wilson Reichmann overline{χ} measure, which shows, on average, that the fitted model passes within 0.47 standard deviations of the actual averaged monthly sunspot numbers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
BOJAN D. DJORDJEVIC
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Although many cubic equations of state coupled with van der Waals-one fluid mixing rules including temperature dependent interaction parameters are sufficient for representing phase equilibria and excess properties (excess molar enthalpy HE, excess molar volume VE, etc., difficulties appear in the correlation and prediction of thermodynamic properties of complex mixtures at various temperature and pressure ranges. Great progress has been made by a new approach based on CEOS/GE models. This paper reviews the last six-year of progress achieved in modelling of the volumetric properties for complex binary and ternary systems of non-electrolytes by the CEOS and CEOS/GE approaches. In addition, the vdW1 and TCBT models were used to estimate the excess molar volume VE of ternary systems methanol + chloroform + benzene and 1-propanol + chloroform + benzene, as well as the corresponding binaries methanol + chloroform, chloroform + benzene, 1-propanol + chloroform and 1-propanol + benzene at 288.15–313.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Also, prediction of VE for both ternaries by empirical models (Radojković, Kohler, Jackob–Fitzner, Colinet, Tsao–Smith, Toop, Scatchard, Rastogi was performed.
Complexity modeling for context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) in H.264/AVC decoder
Lee, Szu-Wei; Kuo, C.-C. Jay
2007-09-01
One way to save the power consumption in the H.264 decoder is for the H.264 encoder to generate decoderfriendly bit streams. By following this idea, a decoding complexity model of context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) for H.264/AVC is investigated in this research. Since different coding modes will have an impact on the number of quantized transformed coeffcients (QTCs) and motion vectors (MVs) and, consequently, the complexity of entropy decoding, the encoder with a complexity model can estimate the complexity of entropy decoding and choose the best coding mode to yield the best tradeoff between the rate, distortion and decoding complexity performance. The complexity model consists of two parts: one for source data (i.e. QTCs) and the other for header data (i.e. the macro-block (MB) type and MVs). Thus, the proposed CABAC decoding complexity model of a MB is a function of QTCs and associated MVs, which is verified experimentally. The proposed CABAC decoding complexity model can provide good estimation results for variant bit streams. Practical applications of this complexity model will also be discussed.
Kamaruddin, Ainur Amira; Ali, Zalila; Noor, Norlida Mohd.; Baharum, Adam; Ahmad, Wan Muhamad Amir W.
2014-07-01
Logistic regression analysis examines the influence of various factors on a dichotomous outcome by estimating the probability of the event's occurrence. Logistic regression, also called a logit model, is a statistical procedure used to model dichotomous outcomes. In the logit model the log odds of the dichotomous outcome is modeled as a linear combination of the predictor variables. The log odds ratio in logistic regression provides a description of the probabilistic relationship of the variables and the outcome. In conducting logistic regression, selection procedures are used in selecting important predictor variables, diagnostics are used to check that assumptions are valid which include independence of errors, linearity in the logit for continuous variables, absence of multicollinearity, and lack of strongly influential outliers and a test statistic is calculated to determine the aptness of the model. This study used the binary logistic regression model to investigate overweight and obesity among rural secondary school students on the basis of their demographics profile, medical history, diet and lifestyle. The results indicate that overweight and obesity of students are influenced by obesity in family and the interaction between a student's ethnicity and routine meals intake. The odds of a student being overweight and obese are higher for a student having a family history of obesity and for a non-Malay student who frequently takes routine meals as compared to a Malay student.
A multiscale transport model for binary Lennard Jones mixtures in slit nanopores
Bhadauria, Ravi; Aluru, N. R.
2016-11-01
We present a quasi-continuum multiscale hydrodynamic transport model for one dimensional isothermal, non-reacting binary mixture confined in slit shaped nanochannels. We focus on species transport equation that includes the viscous dissipation and interspecies diffusion term of the Maxwell-Stefan form. Partial viscosity variation is modeled by van der Waals one fluid approximation and the Local Average Density Method. We use friction boundary conditions where the wall-species friction parameter is computed using a novel species specific Generalized Langevin Equation model. The transport model accuracy is tested by predicting the velocity profiles of Lennard-Jones (LJ) methane-hydrogen and LJ methane-argon mixtures in graphene slit channels of different width. The resultant slip length from the continuum model is found to be invariant of channel width for a fixed mixture molar concentration. The mixtures considered are observed to behave as single species pseudo fluid, with the friction parameter displaying a linear dependence on the molar composition. The proposed model yields atomistic level accuracy with continuum scale efficiency.
Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Varadhan, Ravi; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Wacholder, Sholom; Katki, Hormuzd A
2013-02-28
Estimates of absolute risks and risk differences are necessary for evaluating the clinical and population impact of biomedical research findings. We have developed a linear-expit regression model (LEXPIT) to incorporate linear and nonlinear risk effects to estimate absolute risk from studies of a binary outcome. The LEXPIT is a generalization of both the binomial linear and logistic regression models. The coefficients of the LEXPIT linear terms estimate adjusted risk differences, whereas the exponentiated nonlinear terms estimate residual odds ratios. The LEXPIT could be particularly useful for epidemiological studies of risk association, where adjustment for multiple confounding variables is common. We present a constrained maximum likelihood estimation algorithm that ensures the feasibility of risk estimates of the LEXPIT model and describe procedures for defining the feasible region of the parameter space, judging convergence, and evaluating boundary cases. Simulations demonstrate that the methodology is computationally robust and yields feasible, consistent estimators. We applied the LEXPIT model to estimate the absolute 5-year risk of cervical precancer or cancer associated with different Pap and human papillomavirus test results in 167,171 women undergoing screening at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. The LEXPIT model found an increased risk due to abnormal Pap test in human papillomavirus-negative that was not detected with logistic regression. Our R package blm provides free and easy-to-use software for fitting the LEXPIT model.
Reduced order model for binary neutron star waveforms with tidal interactions
Lackey, Benjamin; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Galley, Chad
2016-03-01
Observations of inspiralling binary neutron star (BNS) systems with Advanced LIGO can be used to determine the unknown neutron-star equation of state by measuring the phase shift in the gravitational waveform due to tidal interactions. Unfortunately, this requires computationally efficient waveform models for use in parameter estimation codes that typically require 106-107 sequential waveform evaluations, as well as accurate waveform models with phase errors less than 1 radian over the entire inspiral to avoid systematic errors in the measured tidal deformability. The effective one body waveform model with l = 2 , 3, and 4 tidal multipole moments is currently the most accurate model for BNS systems, but takes several minutes to evaluate. We develop a reduced order model of this waveform by constructing separate orthonormal bases for the amplitude and phase evolution. We find that only 10-20 bases are needed to reconstruct any BNS waveform with a starting frequency of 10 Hz. The coefficients of these bases are found with Chebyshev interpolation over the waveform parameter space. This reduced order model has maximum errors of 0.2 radians, and results in a speedup factor of more than 103, allowing parameter estimation codes to run in days to weeks rather than decades.
Inelastic e+Mg collision data and its impact on modelling stellar and supernova spectra
Barklem, P. S.; Osorio, Y.; Fursa, D. V.; Bray, I.; Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K.; Jerkstrand, A.
2017-09-01
Results of calculations for inelastic e+Mg effective collision strengths for the lowest 25 physical states of Mg i (up to 3s6p1P), and thus 300 transitions, from the convergent close-coupling (CCC) and the B-spline R-matrix (BSR) methods are presented. At temperatures of interest, 5000 K, the results of the two calculations differ on average by only 4%, with a scatter of 27%. As the methods are independent, this suggests that the calculations provide datasets for e+Mg collisions accurate to this level. Comparison with the commonly used dataset compiled by Mauas et al. (1988, ApJ, 330, 1008), covering 25 transitions among 12 states, suggests the Mauas et al. data are on average 57% too low, and with a very large scatter of a factor of 6.5. In particular the collision strength for the transition corresponding to the Mg i intercombination line at 457 nm is significantly underestimated by Mauas et al., which has consequences for models that employ this dataset. In giant stars the new data leads to a stronger line compared to previous non-LTE calculations, and thus a reduction in the non-LTE abundance correction by 0.1 dex ( 25%). A non-LTE calculation in a supernova ejecta model shows this line becomes significantly stronger, by a factor of around two, alleviating the discrepancy where the 457 nm line in typical models with Mg/O ratios close to solar tended to be too weak compared to observations. Full Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/606/A11
Binary logistic regression modelling: Measuring the probability of relapse cases among drug addict
Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Alias, Siti Nor Shadila
2014-07-01
For many years Malaysia faced the drug addiction issues. The most serious case is relapse phenomenon among treated drug addict (drug addict who have under gone the rehabilitation programme at Narcotic Addiction Rehabilitation Centre, PUSPEN). Thus, the main objective of this study is to find the most significant factor that contributes to relapse to happen. The binary logistic regression analysis was employed to model the relationship between independent variables (predictors) and dependent variable. The dependent variable is the status of the drug addict either relapse, (Yes coded as 1) or not, (No coded as 0). Meanwhile the predictors involved are age, age at first taking drug, family history, education level, family crisis, community support and self motivation. The total of the sample is 200 which the data are provided by AADK (National Antidrug Agency). The finding of the study revealed that age and self motivation are statistically significant towards the relapse cases..
Contour-based models for 3D binary reconstruction in X-ray tomography
Soussen, C.; Mohammad-Djafari, A.
2001-05-01
We study the reconstruction of a 3D compact homogeneous object lying inside a homogeneous background for computer aided design (CAD) or nondestructive testing (NDT) applications. Such a binary scene describes either a solid object or an homogeneous material in which a fault is sought. The goal in both cases is to reconstruct the shape of the scene from sparse radiographic data. This problem is under-determined and one needs to use all prior information about the scene to find a satisfactory solution. A natural approach is to model the exterior contour of the fault by a deformable geometric template, which we reconstruct directly from the radiographic data. In this communication, we give a synthetic view of these contour-based methods and compare their relative performances and limitations to recover complex faults. .
Model investigation of non-thermal phase transition in high energy collisions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The non-thermal phase transition in high energy collisions is studied in detail in the framework of random cascade model. The relation between the characteristic parameter λq of phase transition and the rank q of moment is obtained using Monte Carlo simulation, and the existence of two phases in self-similar cascading multiparticle systems is shown. The relation between the critical point qc of phase transition on the fluctuation parameter α is obtained and compared with the experimental results from NA22. The same study is carried out also by analytical calculation under central limit approximation. The range of validity of the central limit approximation is discussed.
Parity-odd effects in heavy-ion collisions in the HSD model
Teryaev, O
2014-01-01
Helicity separation effect in non-central heavy ion collisions is investigated using the Hadron-String Dynamics (HSD) model. Computer simulations are done to calculate velocity and hydrodynamic helicity on a mesh in a small volume around the center of the reaction. The time dependence of hydrodynamic helicity is observed for various impact parameters and different calculation methods. Comparison with a similar earlier work is carried out. A new quantity is used to ananlyze particles in the final state. It is used to probe for p-odd effects in the final state.
Bartczak, P.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Dudziński, G.; Polińska, M.; Colas, F.; Vachier, F.; Marciniak, A.; Pollock, J.; Apostolovska, G.; Santana-Ros, T.; Hirsch, R.; Dimitrow, W.; Murawiecka, M.; Wietrzycka, P.; Nadolny, J.
2017-10-01
We present a new non-convex model of the binary asteroid (809) Lundia. A SAGE (Shaping Asteroids with Genetic Evolution) method using disc-integrated photometry only was used for deriving physical parameters of this binary system. The model of (809) Lundia improves former system's pole solution and gives the ecliptic coordinates of the orbit pole - λ = 122°, β = 22°, σ = ±5° - and the orbital period of 15.415 74 ± 0.000 01 h. For scaling our results, we used an effective diameter (Deff) of 9.6 ± 1.1 km obtained from Spitzer observations. The non-convex shape description of the components permitted a refined calculation of the components' volumes, leading to a density estimation of 2.5 ± 0.2 g cm-3 and a macroporosity of 13-23 per cent. The intermediate-scale features of the model may also offer new clues on the components' origin and evolution.
A poromechanical model for coal seams saturated with binary mixtures of CH4 and CO2
Nikoosokhan, Saeid; Vandamme, Matthieu; Dangla, Patrick
2014-11-01
Underground coal bed reservoirs naturally contain methane which can be produced. In parallel of the production of this methane, carbon dioxide can be injected, either to enhance the production of methane, or to have this carbon dioxide stored over geological periods of time. As a prerequisite to any simulation of an Enhanced Coal Bed Methane recovery process (ECBM), we need state equations to model the behavior of the seam when cleats are saturated with a miscible mixture of CH4 and CO2. This paper presents a poromechanical model of coal seams exposed to such binary mixtures filling both the cleats in the seam and the porosity of the coal matrix. This model is an extension of a previous work which dealt with pure fluid. Special care is dedicated to keep the model consistent thermodynamically. The model is fully calibrated with a mix of experimental data and numerical data from molecular simulations. Predicting variations of porosity or permeability requires only calibration based on swelling data. With the calibrated state equations, we predict numerically how porosity, permeability, and adsorbed amounts of fluid vary in a representative volume element of coal seam in isochoric or oedometric conditions, as a function of the pressure and of the composition of the fluid in the cleats.
Ma, Xu; Arce, Gonzalo R
2009-07-01
Recently, a set of generalized gradient-based optical proximity correction (OPC) optimization methods have been developed to solve for the forward and inverse lithography problems under the thin-mask assumption, where the mask is considered a thin 2D object. However, as the critical dimension printed on the wafer shrinks into the subwavelength regime, thick-mask effects become prevalent, and thus these effects must be taken into account in OPC optimization methods. OPC methods derived under the thin-mask assumption have inherent limitations and perform poorly in the subwavelength regime. This paper focuses on developing model-based forward binary mask optimization methods that account for the thick-mask effects of coherent imaging systems. The boundary layer (BL) model is exploited to simplify and characterize the thick-mask effects, leading to a model-based OPC method. The BL model is simpler than other thick-mask models, treating the near field of the mask as the superposition of the interior transmission areas and the boundary layers. The advantages and limitations of the proposed algorithm are discussed, and several illustrative simulations are presented.
Poberezhnyuk, R V; Gorenstein, M I
2015-01-01
The Statistical Model of the Early Stage, SMES, describes a transition between confined and deconfined phases of strongly interacting matter created in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The model was formulated in the late 1990s for central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS energies. It predicted several signals of the transition (onset of deconfinement) which were later observed by the NA49 experiment. The grand canonical ensemble was used to calculate entropy and strangeness production. This approximation is valid for reactions with mean multiplicities of particles carrying conserved charges being significantly larger than one. Recent results of NA61/SHINE on hadron production in inelastic p+p interactions suggest that the deconfinement may also take place in these reactions. However, in this case mean multiplicity of particles with non-zero strange charge is smaller than one. Thus for the modeling of p+p interactions the exact strangeness conservation has to be implemented in the SMES. This extension of the SMES ...
An evaluation of collision models in the Method of Moments for rarefied gas problems
Emerson, David; Gu, Xiao-Jun
2014-11-01
The Method of Moments offers an attractive approach for solving gaseous transport problems that are beyond the limit of validity of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations. Recent work has demonstrated the capability of the regularized 13 and 26 moment equations for solving problems when the Knudsen number, Kn (where Kn is the ratio of the mean free path of a gas to a typical length scale of interest), is in the range 0.1 and 1.0-the so-called transition regime. In comparison to numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation, the Method of Moments has captured both qualitatively, and quantitatively, results of classical test problems in kinetic theory, e.g. velocity slip in Kramers' problem, temperature jump in Knudsen layers, the Knudsen minimum etc. However, most of these results have been obtained for Maxwell molecules, where molecules repel each other according to an inverse fifth-power rule. Recent work has incorporated more traditional collision models such as BGK, S-model, and ES-BGK, the latter being important for thermal problems where the Prandtl number can vary. We are currently investigating the impact of these collision models on fundamental low-speed problems of particular interest to micro-scale flows that will be discussed and evaluated in the presentation. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council under Grant EP/I011927/1 and CCP12.
Rovibrationally Inelastic Atom-Molecule Collision Cross Sections from a Hard Sphere Model
Lashner, Jacob; Stewart, Brian
2016-05-01
Hard-shell models have long been used to elucidate the principal features of molecular energy transfer and exchange reaction in the A + BC system. Nevertheless, no three-dimensional hard-shell calculation of inelastic collision cross sections has been reported. This work aims to fill that void. A particular motivation comes from our experimental results, which show the importance of equatorial impacts in the vibrational excitation process. Working with the simple hard-sphere model, we incorporated secondary impacts, defined as those in which A strikes C after striking B. Such collisions are important in systems such as Li2 - X, in which vibrational energy transfer occurs principally through side impacts. We discuss the complexity this adds to the model and present fully three-dimensional cross sections for rovibrational excitation of an initially stationary molecule in the homonuclear A + B2 system, examining the cross section as a function of the masses and radii of the atoms. We show how the features in the cross section evolve as these parameters are varied and calculate the contribution of secondary (near-equatorial) impacts to the dynamics. We compare with recent measurements in our laboratory and with the results of quasiclassical trajectories.
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Claudia Pedroza
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reporting of absolute risk difference (RD is recommended for clinical and epidemiological prospective studies. In analyses of multicenter studies, adjustment for center is necessary when randomization is stratified by center or when there is large variation in patients outcomes across centers. While regression methods are used to estimate RD adjusted for baseline predictors and clustering, no formal evaluation of their performance has been previously conducted. Methods We performed a simulation study to evaluate 6 regression methods fitted under a generalized estimating equation framework: binomial identity, Poisson identity, Normal identity, log binomial, log Poisson, and logistic regression model. We compared the model estimates to unadjusted estimates. We varied the true response function (identity or log, number of subjects per center, true risk difference, control outcome rate, effect of baseline predictor, and intracenter correlation. We compared the models in terms of convergence, absolute bias and coverage of 95 % confidence intervals for RD. Results The 6 models performed very similar to each other for the majority of scenarios. However, the log binomial model did not converge for a large portion of the scenarios including a baseline predictor. In scenarios with outcome rate close to the parameter boundary, the binomial and Poisson identity models had the best performance, but differences from other models were negligible. The unadjusted method introduced little bias to the RD estimates, but its coverage was larger than the nominal value in some scenarios with an identity response. Under the log response, coverage from the unadjusted method was well below the nominal value (<80 % for some scenarios. Conclusions We recommend the use of a binomial or Poisson GEE model with identity link to estimate RD for correlated binary outcome data. If these models fail to run, then either a logistic regression, log Poisson
A viscous blast-wave model for relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Jaiswal, Amaresh
2015-01-01
Using a viscosity-based survival scale for geometrical perturbations formed in the early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, we model the radial flow velocity during freeze-out. Subsequently, we employ the Cooper-Frye freeze-out prescription, with first-order viscous corrections to the distribution function, to obtain the transverse momentum distribution of particle yields and flow harmonics. For initial eccentricities, we use the results of Monte Carlo Glauber model. We fix the blast-wave model parameters by fitting the transverse momentum spectra of identified particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and demonstrate that this leads to a fairly good agreement with transverse momentum distribution of elliptic and triangular flow for various centralities. Within this viscous blast-wave model, we estimate the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio $\\eta/s\\simeq 0.24$ at the LHC.
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Zbisław Tabor
2011-05-01
Full Text Available In the study an algorithm based on a lattice gas model is proposed as a tool for enhancing quality of lowresolution images of binary structures. Analyzed low-resolution gray-level images are replaced with binary images, in which pixel size is decreased. The intensity in the pixels of these new images is determined by corresponding gray-level intensities in the original low-resolution images. Then the white phase pixels in the binary images are assumed to be particles interacting with one another, interacting with properly defined external field and allowed to diffuse. The evolution is driven towards a state with maximal energy by Metropolis algorithm. This state is used to estimate the imaged object. The performance of the proposed algorithm and local and global thresholding methods are compared.
A model for emission from jets in X-ray binaries: consequences of a single acceleration episode
A. Pe'er; P. Casella
2009-01-01
There is strong evidence for powerful jets in the low/hard state of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXRBs). Here, we present a model in which electrons are accelerated once at the base of the jet, and are cooled by synchrotron emission and possible adiabatic energy losses. The accelerated electrons assu
Investigating the X-ray emission from the massive WR+O binary WR 22 using 3D hydrodynamical models
Parkin, E R
2011-01-01
We examine the dependence of the wind-wind collision and subsequent X-ray emission from the massive WR+O star binary WR~22 on the acceleration of the stellar winds, radiative cooling, and orbital motion. Simulations were performed with instantaneously accelerated and radiatively driven stellar winds. Radiative transfer calculations were performed on the simulation output to generate synthetic X-ray data, which are used to conduct a detailed comparison against observations. When instantaneously accelerated stellar winds are adopted in the simulation, a stable wind-wind collision region (WCR) is established at all orbital phases. In contrast, when the stellar winds are radiatively driven, and thus the acceleration regions of the winds are accounted for, the WCR is far more unstable. As the stars approach periastron, the ram pressure of the WR's wind overwhelms the O star's and, following a significant disruption of the shocks by non-linear thin-shell instabilities (NTSIs), the WCR collapses onto the O star. X-r...
Asteroid fission, binaries and the small main belt population
Rossi, A.; Jacobson, S.; Marzari, F.; Scheeres, D.
2011-10-01
Using a Monte Carlo method we model the spin evolution of small Main Belt asteroids under the joint effects of YORP and collisions. Our simulations allow us to estimate the fraction of asteroids undergoing rotational fission in different size ranges. When an asteroid reaches its disruption spin limit we determine the outcome of its subsequent evolution based on accumulated statistics on their evolution based on numerical integrations (i.e., binary or ternary formation, binary disruption, etc..). Our aim is to predict the percentage of binary asteroids and their properties in the Belt, the number of objects like P/2010 A2 per year and the effects of YORP-induced fission on the overall asteroid size distribution at the small size end.
Numerical modeling of two-phase binary fluid mixing using mixed finite elements
Sun, Shuyu
2012-07-27
Diffusion coefficients of dense gases in liquids can be measured by considering two-phase binary nonequilibrium fluid mixing in a closed cell with a fixed volume. This process is based on convection and diffusion in each phase. Numerical simulation of the mixing often requires accurate algorithms. In this paper, we design two efficient numerical methods for simulating the mixing of two-phase binary fluids in one-dimensional, highly permeable media. Mathematical model for isothermal compositional two-phase flow in porous media is established based on Darcy\\'s law, material balance, local thermodynamic equilibrium for the phases, and diffusion across the phases. The time-lag and operator-splitting techniques are used to decompose each convection-diffusion equation into two steps: diffusion step and convection step. The Mixed finite element (MFE) method is used for diffusion equation because it can achieve a high-order and stable approximation of both the scalar variable and the diffusive fluxes across grid-cell interfaces. We employ the characteristic finite element method with moving mesh to track the liquid-gas interface. Based on the above schemes, we propose two methods: single-domain and two-domain methods. The main difference between two methods is that the two-domain method utilizes the assumption of sharp interface between two fluid phases, while the single-domain method allows fractional saturation level. Two-domain method treats the gas domain and the liquid domain separately. Because liquid-gas interface moves with time, the two-domain method needs work with a moving mesh. On the other hand, the single-domain method allows the use of a fixed mesh. We derive the formulas to compute the diffusive flux for MFE in both methods. The single-domain method is extended to multiple dimensions. Numerical results indicate that both methods can accurately describe the evolution of the pressure and liquid level. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Chan, Jennifer S K
2016-05-01
Dropouts are common in longitudinal study. If the dropout probability depends on the missing observations at or after dropout, this type of dropout is called informative (or nonignorable) dropout (ID). Failure to accommodate such dropout mechanism into the model will bias the parameter estimates. We propose a conditional autoregressive model for longitudinal binary data with an ID model such that the probabilities of positive outcomes as well as the drop-out indicator in each occasion are logit linear in some covariates and outcomes. This model adopting a marginal model for outcomes and a conditional model for dropouts is called a selection model. To allow for the heterogeneity and clustering effects, the outcome model is extended to incorporate mixture and random effects. Lastly, the model is further extended to a novel model that models the outcome and dropout jointly such that their dependency is formulated through an odds ratio function. Parameters are estimated by a Bayesian approach implemented using the user-friendly Bayesian software WinBUGS. A methadone clinic dataset is analyzed to illustrate the proposed models. Result shows that the treatment time effect is still significant but weaker after allowing for an ID process in the data. Finally the effect of drop-out on parameter estimates is evaluated through simulation studies.
Binary mask optimization for forward lithography based on boundary layer model in coherent systems
Ma, Xu; Arce, Gonzalo R.
2010-04-01
Recently, a set of generalized gradient-based optical proximity correction (OPC) optimization methods have been developed to solve for the forward and inverse lithography problem under the thin-mask assumption, where the mask is considered a thin 2-D object. However, as the critical dimension printed on the wafer shrinks into the subwavelength regime, thick-mask effects become prevalent and thus these effects must be taken into account in OPC optimization methods. OPC methods derived under the thin-mask assumption have inherent limitations and perform poorly in the subwavelength scenario. This paper focuses on developing model-based forward binary mask optimization methods which account for the thick-mask effects of coherent imaging systems. The boundary layer (BL) model is exploited to simplify and characterize the thick-mask effects, leading to a computationally efficient OPC method. The BL model is simpler than other thick-mask models, treating the near field of the mask as the superposition of the interior transmission areas and the boundary layers. The advantages and limitations of the proposed algorithm are discussed and several illustrative simulations are presented.
HARDWARE MODELING OF BINARY CODED DECIMAL ADDER IN FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Ibn Ibrahimy
2013-01-01
Full Text Available There are insignificant relevant research works available which are involved with the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA based hardware implementation of Binary Coded Decimal (BCD adder. This is because, the FPGA based hardware realization is quiet new and still developing field of research. The article illustrates the design and hardware modeling of a BCD adder. Among the types of adders, Carry Look Ahead (CLA and Ripple Carry (RC adder have been studied, designed and compared in terms of area consumption and time requirement. The simulation results show that the CLA adder performs faster with optimized area consumption. Verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL is used for designing the model with the help of Altera Quartus II Electronic Design Automation (EDA tool. EDA synthesis tools make it easy to develop an HDL model and which can be synthesized into target-specific architectures. Whereas, the HDL based modeling provides shorter development phases with continuous testing and verification of the system performance and behavior. After successful functional and timing simulations of the CLA based BCD adder, the design has been downloaded to physical FPGA device. For FPGA implementation, the Altera DE2 board has been used which contains Altera Cyclone II 2C35 FPGA device.
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Giulia Barbati
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Background: Focus of this work was on evaluating the prognostic accuracy of two approaches for modelling binary longitudinal outcomes, a Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE and a likelihood based method, Marginalized Transition Model (MTM, in which a transition model is combined with a marginal generalized linear model describing the average response as a function of measured predictors.Methods: A retrospective study on cardiovascular patients and a prospective study on sciatic pain were used to evaluate discrimination by computing the Area Under the Receiver-Operating-Characteristics curve, (AUC, the Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI and the Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI at different time occasions. Calibration was also evaluated. A simulation study was run in order to compare model’s performance in a context of a perfect knowledge of the data generating mechanism. Results: Similar regression coefficients estimates and comparable calibration were obtained; an higher discrimination level for MTM was observed. No significant differences in calibration and MSE (Mean Square Error emerged in the simulation study, that instead confirmed the MTM higher discrimination level. Conclusions: The choice of the regression approach should depend on the scientific question being addressed, i.e. if the overall population-average and calibration or the subject-specific patterns and discrimination are the objectives of interest, and some recently proposed discrimination indices are useful in evaluating predictive accuracy also in a context of longitudinal studies.
A New Model of Roche Lobe Overflow for Short-period Gaseous Planets and Binary Stars
Jackson, Brian; Arras, Phil; Penev, Kaloyan; Peacock, Sarah; Marchant, Pablo
2017-02-01
Some close-in gaseous exoplanets are nearly in Roche lobe contact, and previous studies show that tidal decay can drive hot Jupiters into contact during the main sequence of their host stars. Improving on a previous model, we present a revised model for mass transfer in a semidetached binary system that incorporates an extended atmosphere around the donor and allows for an arbitrary mass ratio. We apply this new formalism to hypothetical, confirmed, and candidate planetary systems to estimate mass-loss rates and compare with models of evaporative mass loss. Overflow may be significant for hot Neptunes out to periods of ∼2 days, while for hot Jupiters, it may only be important inward of 0.5 days. We find that CoRoT-24 b may be losing mass at a rate of more than an Earth mass in a gigayear. The hot Jupiter WASP-12 b may lose an Earth mass in a megayear, while the putative planet PTFO8-8695 orbiting a T Tauri star might shed its atmosphere in a few megayears. We point out that the orbital expansion that can accompany mass transfer may be less effective than previously considered because the gas accreted by the host star removes some of the angular momentum from the orbit, but simple scaling arguments suggest that the Roche lobe overflow might remain stable. Consequently, the recently discovered small planets in ultrashort periods (model presented here has been incorporated into Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA).
Self Regulated Shocks in Massive Star Binary Systems
Parkin, E R
2013-01-01
In an early-type, massive star binary system, X-ray bright shocks result from the powerful collision of stellar winds driven by radiation pressure on spectral line transitions. We examine the influence of the X-rays from the wind-wind collision shocks on the radiative driving of the stellar winds using steady state models that include a parameterized line force with X-ray ionization dependence. Our primary result is that X-ray radiation from the shocks inhibits wind acceleration and can lead to a lower pre-shock velocity, and a correspondingly lower shocked plasma temperature, yet the intrinsic X-ray luminosity of the shocks, LX remains largely unaltered, with the exception of a modest increase at small binary separations. Due to the feedback loop between the ionizing X-rays from the shocks and the wind-driving, we term this scenario as self regulated shocks. This effect is found to greatly increase the range of binary separations at which a wind-photosphere collision is likely to occur in systems where the m...
The Binary Fission Model for the Formation of the Pluto system
Prentice, Andrew
2016-10-01
The ratio F of the mass of Pluto (P) to Charon (C), viz. F ≈ 8:1, is the largest ratio of any planet-satellite pair in the solar system. Another measure of the PC binary is its normalized angular momentum density J (see McKinnon 1989). Analysis of astrometric data (Brozovic et al 2015) acquired before the New Horizons (NH) arrival at Pluto and new measurements made by NH (Stern et al 2015) show that J = 0.39. Yet these F & J values are ones expected if the PC binary had formed by the rotational fission of a single liquid mass (Darwin 1902; Lyttleton 1953). At first glance, therefore, the fission model seems to be a viable model for the formation of the Pluto system. In fact, Prentice (1993 Aust J Astron 5 111) had used this model to successfully predict the existence of several moons orbiting beyond Charon, before their discovery in 2005-2012. The main problem with the fission model is that the observed mean density of Charon, namely 1.70 g/cm3, greatly exceeds that of water ice. Charon thus could not have once been a globe of pure water. Here I review the fission model within the framework of the modern Laplacian theory of solar system origin (Prentice 1978 Moon Planets 19 341; 2006 PASA 23 1) and the NH results. I assume that Pluto and Charon were initially a single object (proto-Pluto [p-P]) which had condensed within the same gas ring shed by the proto-solar cloud at orbital distance ~43 AU, where the Kuiper belt was born. The temperature of this gas ring is 26 K and the mean orbit pressure is 1.3 × 10-9 bar. After the gas ring is shed, chemical condensation takes place. The bulk chemical composition of the condensate is anhydrous rock (mass fraction 0.5255), graphite (0.0163), water ice (0.1858), CO2 ice (0.2211) and methane ice (0.0513). Next I assume that melting of the ices in p-P takes place through the decay of short-lived radioactive nuclides, thus causing internal segregation of the rock & graphite. Settling of heavy grains to the centre lowers the
Xu, Jun
2016-01-01
Based on an extended multiphase transport model, which includes mean-field potentials in both the partonic and hadronic phases, uses the mix-event coalescence, and respects charge conservation during the hadronic evolution, we have studied the collision energy dependence of the elliptic flow splitting between particles and their antiparticles. This extended transport model reproduces reasonably well the experimental data at lower collision energies but only describes qualitatively the elliptic flow splitting at higher beam energies. The present study thus indicates the existence of other mechanisms for the elliptic flow splitting besides the mean-field potentials and the need of further improvements of the multiphase transport model.
Alekseenko, Alexander; Euler, Craig
2016-05-01
We propose a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) kinetic model in which the collision frequency is a linear combination of polynomials in the velocity variable. The coefficients of the linear combination are determined so as to enforce proper relaxation rates for a selected group of moments. The relaxation rates are obtained by a direct numerical evaluation of the full Boltzmann collision operator. The model is conservative by construction. Simulations of the problem of spatially homogeneous relaxation of hard spheres gas show improvement in accuracy of controlled moments as compared to solutions obtained by the classical BGK, ellipsoidal-statistical BGK and the Shakhov models in cases of strong deviations from continuum.
Modelling of Be Disks in Binary Systems Using the Hydrodynamic Code PLUTO
Cyr, I. H.; Panoglou, D.; Jones, C. E.; Carciofi, A. C.
2016-11-01
The study of the gas structure and dynamics of Be star disks is critical to our understanding of the Be star phenomenon. The central star is the major force driving the evolution of these disks, however other external forces may also affect the formation of the disk, for example, the gravitational torque produced in a close binary system. We are interested in understanding the gravitational effects of a low-mass binary companion on the formation and growth of a disk in a close binary system. To study these effects, we used the grid-based hydrodynamic code PLUTO. Because this code has not been used to study such systems before, we compared our simulations against codes used in previous work on binary systems. We were able to simulate the formation of a disk in both an isolated and binary system. Our current results suggest that PLUTO is in fact a well suited tool to study the dynamics of Be disks.
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Jing Yang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We systematically investigate the pion transverse momentum spectrum, elliptic flow, and Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT interferometry in the granular source model for the heavy ion collisions of Au-Au at sNN=200 GeV and Pb-Pb at sNN=2.76 TeV with different centralities. The granular source model can well reproduce the experimental results of the heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC. We examine the parameters involved in the granular source model. The experimental data of the momentum spectrum, elliptic flow, and HBT radii for the two collision energies and different centralities impose very strict constraints on the model parameters. They exhibit certain regularities for collision centrality and energy. The space-time structure and expansion velocities of the granular sources for the heavy ion collisions at the RHIC and LHC energies with different centralities are investigated.
Modeling X-Ray Binary Evolution in Normal Galaxies: Insights from SINGS
Tzanavaris, P.; Fragos, T.; Tremmel, M.; Jenkins, L.; Zezas, A.; Lehmer, B. D.; Hornschemeier, A.; Kalogera, V.; Ptak, A; Basu-Zych, A.
2013-01-01
We present the largest-scale comparison to date between observed extragalactic X-ray binary (XRB) populations and theoretical models of their production. We construct observational X-ray luminosity functions (oXLFs) using Chandra observations of 12 late-type galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey (SINGS). For each galaxy, we obtain theoretical XLFs (tXLFs) by combining XRB synthetic models, constructed with the population synthesis code StarTrack, with observational star formation histories (SFHs). We identify highest-likelihood models both for individual galaxies and globally, averaged over the full galaxy sample. Individual tXLFs successfully reproduce about half of oXLFs, but for some galaxies we are unable to find underlying source populations, indicating that galaxy SFHs and metallicities are not well matched and/or XRB modeling requires calibration on larger observational samples. Given these limitations, we find that best models are consistent with a product of common envelope ejection efficiency and central donor concentration approx.. = 0.1, and a 50% uniform - 50% "twins" initial mass-ratio distribution. We present and discuss constituent subpopulations of tXLFs according to donor, accretor and stellar population characteristics. The galaxy-wide X-ray luminosity due to low-mass and high-mass XRBs, estimated via our best global model tXLF, follows the general trend expected from the L(sub X) - star formation rate and L(sub X) - stellar mass relations of Lehmer et al. Our best models are also in agreement with modeling of the evolution both of XRBs over cosmic time and of the galaxy X-ray luminosity with redshift.
The SED in the hot continuum of the symbiotic binary AR Pavonis. I. Tests with the current models
Skopal, A
2003-01-01
We present the spectral energy distribution (SED) in the continuum of the eclipsing symbiotic binary AR Pav between 0.12 and 3.4 microns. This revealed a high luminosity of the hot object in the binary, L(hot) = 2200(d/4.9 kpc)**2 L(Sun). We introduce a method of disentangling the total continuum spectrum into its individual components of radiation for current models of symbiotic binaries. Applying a standard ionization model we show that the configuration of AR Pav differs significantly from that typical for symbiotic binaries during their quiescent phases. The best fit of the observed SED is provided by radiation of a simple blackbody accretion disk with L(AD)=1700(d/4.9 kpc)**2 L(Sun), which is embedded in an extended hot corona with Te=40000+/-5000K and L(neb)=500 (d/4.9 kpc)**2 L(Sun). This basic configuration of the hot object explains also the observed wavelength-dependent depth and width of the eclipse profile. The standard thin disk model requires a high accretion rate dot M(acc) > 2x1E-4M(Sun)/yr on...
Strangeness production in heavy ion collisions at SPS and RHIC within two-source statistical model
Lu, Z D; Fuchs, C; Zabrodin, E E; Lu, Zhong-Dao; Faessler, Amand
2002-01-01
The experimental data on hadron yields and ratios in central Pb+Pb and Au+Au collisions at SPS and RHIC energies, respectively, are analysed within a two-source statistical model of an ideal hadron gas. These two sources represent the expanding system of colliding heavy ions, where the hot central fireball is embedded in a larger but cooler fireball. The volume of the central source increases with rising bombarding energy. Results of the two-source model fit to RHIC experimental data at midrapidity coincide with the results of the one-source thermal model fit, indicating the formation of an extended fireball, which is three times larger than the corresponding core at SPS.
Anomalous dynamical scaling in anharmonic chains and plasma models with multi-particle collisions
Di Cintio, Pierfrancesco; Bufferand, Hugo; Ciraolo, Guido; Lepri, Stefano; Straka, Mika J
2015-01-01
We study the anomalous dynamical scaling of equilibrium correlations in one dimensional systems. Two different models are compared: the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain with cubic and quartic nonlinearity and a gas of point particles interacting stochastically through the Multi-Particle Collision dynamics. For both models -that admit three conservation laws- by means of detailed numerical simulations we verify the predictions of Nonlinear Fluctuating Hydrodynamics for the structure factors of density and energy fluctuations at equilibrium. Despite of this, violations of the expected scaling in the currents correlation are found in some regimes, hindering the observation of the asymptotic scaling predicted by the theory. In the case of the gas model this crossover is clearly demonstrated upon changing the coupling constant.
Knijnenburg, Theo A.; Klau, Gunnar W.; Iorio, Francesco; Garnett, Mathew J.; McDermott, Ultan; Shmulevich, Ilya; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.
2016-01-01
Mining large datasets using machine learning approaches often leads to models that are hard to interpret and not amenable to the generation of hypotheses that can be experimentally tested. We present ‘Logic Optimization for Binary Input to Continuous Output’ (LOBICO), a computational approach that infers small and easily interpretable logic models of binary input features that explain a continuous output variable. Applying LOBICO to a large cancer cell line panel, we find that logic combinations of multiple mutations are more predictive of drug response than single gene predictors. Importantly, we show that the use of the continuous information leads to robust and more accurate logic models. LOBICO implements the ability to uncover logic models around predefined operating points in terms of sensitivity and specificity. As such, it represents an important step towards practical application of interpretable logic models. PMID:27876821
Knijnenburg, Theo A.; Klau, Gunnar W.; Iorio, Francesco; Garnett, Mathew J.; McDermott, Ultan; Shmulevich, Ilya; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.
2016-11-01
Mining large datasets using machine learning approaches often leads to models that are hard to interpret and not amenable to the generation of hypotheses that can be experimentally tested. We present ‘Logic Optimization for Binary Input to Continuous Output’ (LOBICO), a computational approach that infers small and easily interpretable logic models of binary input features that explain a continuous output variable. Applying LOBICO to a large cancer cell line panel, we find that logic combinations of multiple mutations are more predictive of drug response than single gene predictors. Importantly, we show that the use of the continuous information leads to robust and more accurate logic models. LOBICO implements the ability to uncover logic models around predefined operating points in terms of sensitivity and specificity. As such, it represents an important step towards practical application of interpretable logic models.
Soot modeling of counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene-based binary mixture fuels
Wang, Yu
2015-03-01
A soot model was developed based on the recently proposed PAH growth mechanism for C1-C4 gaseous fuels (KAUST PAH Mechanism 2, KM2) that included molecular growth up to coronene (A7) to simulate soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene and its binary mixtures with methane, ethane and propane based on the method of moments. The soot model has 36 soot nucleation reactions from 8 PAH molecules including pyrene and larger PAHs. Soot surface growth reactions were based on a modified hydrogen-abstraction-acetylene-addition (HACA) mechanism in which CH3, C3H3 and C2H radicals were included in the hydrogen abstraction reactions in addition to H atoms. PAH condensation on soot particles was also considered. The experimentally measured profiles of soot volume fraction, number density, and particle size were well captured by the model for the baseline case of ethylene along with the cases involving mixtures of fuels. The simulation results, which were in qualitative agreement with the experimental data in the effects of binary fuel mixing on the sooting structures of the measured flames, showed in particular that 5% addition of propane (ethane) led to an increase in the soot volume fraction of the ethylene flame by 32% (6%), despite the fact that propane and ethane are less sooting fuels than is ethylene, which is in reasonable agreement with experiments of 37% (14%). The model revealed that with 5% addition of methane, there was an increase of 6% in the soot volume fraction. The average soot particle sizes were only minimally influenced while the soot number densities were increased by the fuel mixing. Further analysis of the numerical data indicated that the chemical cross-linking effect between ethylene and the dopant fuels resulted in an increase in PAH formation, which led to higher soot nucleation rates and therefore higher soot number densities. On the other hand, the rates of soot surface growth per unit surface area through the HACA mechanism were
MODELING DISPERSION FROM CHEMICALS RELEASED AFTER A TRAIN COLLISION IN GRANITEVILLE, SOUTH CAROLINA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buckley, R; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Addis, R; Matt Parker, M
2006-08-07
The Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Weather INformation and Display (WIND) System was used to provide meteorological and atmospheric modeling/consequence assessment support to state and local agencies following the collision of two Norfolk Southern freight trains on the morning of January 6, 2005. This collision resulted in the release of several toxic chemicals to the environment, including chlorine. The dense and highly toxic cloud of chlorine gas that formed in the vicinity of the accident was responsible for nine fatalities, and caused injuries to more than five hundred others. Transport model results depicting the forecast path of the ongoing release were made available to emergency managers in the county's Unified Command Center shortly after SRNL received a request for assistance. Support continued over the ensuing two days of the active response. The SRNL also provided weather briefings and transport/consequence assessment model results to responders from South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Emergency Operations Center (EOC), Department of Energy Headquarters, and hazmat teams dispatched from the SRS. Although model-generated forecast winds used in consequence assessments conducted during the incident were provided at 2-km horizontal grid spacing during the accident response, a high-resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 4.3.0) simulation was later performed to examine potential influences of local topography on plume migration. The detailed RAMS simulation was used to determine meteorology using multiple grids with an innermost grid spacing of 125 meters. Results from the two simulations are shown to generally agree with meteorological observations at the time; consequently, local topography did not significantly affect wind in the area. Use of a dense gas dispersion model to simulate localized plume behavior using the higher resolution
Modeling dispersion from toxic gas released after a train collision in Graniteville, SC.
Buckley, Robert L; Hunter, Charles H; Addis, Robert P; Parker, Matthew J
2007-03-01
The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Weather Information and Display System was used to provide meteorological and atmospheric modeling/consequence assessment support to state and local agencies after the collision of two Norfolk Southern freight trains on the morning of January 6, 2005. This collision resulted in the release of several toxic chemicals to the environment, including chlorine. The dense and highly toxic cloud of chlorine gas that formed in the vicinity of the accident was responsible for 9 fatalities and caused injuries to more than 500 others. Transport model results depicting the forecast path of the ongoing release were made available to emergency managers in the county's Unified Command Center shortly after SRNL received a request for assistance. Support continued over the ensuing 2 days of the active response. The SRNL also provided weather briefings and transport/consequence assessment model results to responders from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, the Savannah River Site (SRS) Emergency Operations Center, Department of Energy headquarters, and hazard material teams dispatched from the SRS. Operational model-generated forecast winds used in consequence assessments conducted during the incident were provided at 2-km horizontal grid spacing during the accident response. High-resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 4.3.0) simulation was later performed to examine potential influences of local topography on plume migration in greater detail. The detailed RAMS simulation was used to determine meteorology using multiple grids with an innermost grid spacing of 125 m. Results from the two simulations are shown to generally agree with meteorological observations at the time; consequently, local topography did not significantly affect wind in the area. Use of a dense gas dispersion model to simulate localized plume behavior using the higher-resolution winds indicated agreement with
A New Dynamical Model for the Black Hole Binary LMC X-1
Orosz, Jerome A; McClintock, Jeffrey E; Torres, Manuel A P; Bochkov, Ivan; Gou, Lijun; Narayan, Ramesh; Blaschak, Michael; Levine, Alan M; Remillard, Ronald A; Bailyn, Charles D; Dwyer, Morgan M; Buxton, Michelle
2008-01-01
We present a dynamical model of the high mass X-ray binary LMC X-1 based on high-resolution optical spectroscopy and extensive optical and near-infrared photometry. From our new optical data we find an orbital period of P=3.90917 +/- 0.00005 days. We present a refined analysis of the All Sky Monitor data from RXTE and find a period of P=3.9093 +/- 0.0008 days, which is consistent with the optical period. A simple model of Thomson scattering in the stellar wind accounts for the modulation seen in the X-ray light curves. The V-K color of the star (1.17 +/- 0.05) implies A_V=2.28 +/- 0.06, which is much larger than previously assumed. For the secondary star we measure a radius of R_2=17.0 +/- 0.8 solar radii and a projected rotational velocity of V_{rot}*sin(i)= 129.9 +/- 2.22 km/sec. Using these measured properties to constrain the dynamical model, we find an orbital eccentricity of e=0.0256 +/- 0.0066, an inclination of i=37.00 +/- 1.87 deg, a secondary star mass of M_2=30.62 +/- 3.22 solar masses, and a black...
Features of non-congruent phase transition in modified Coulomb model of the binary ionic mixture
Stroev, N. E.; Iosilevskiy, I. L.
2016-11-01
Non-congruent gas-liquid phase transition (NCPT) have been studied previously in modified Coulomb model of a binary ionic mixture C(+6) + O(+8) on a uniformly compressible ideal electronic background /BIM(∼)/. The features of NCPT in improved version of the BIM(∼) model for the same mixture on background of non-ideal electronic Fermi-gas and comparison it with the previous calculations are the subject of present study. Analytical fits for Coulomb corrections to equation of state of electronic and ionic subsystems were used in present calculations within the Gibbs-Guggenheim conditions of non-congruent phase equilibrium. Parameters of critical point-line were calculated on the entire range of proportions of mixed ions 0 BIM(∼) model. Just similar distillation was obtained in the variant of NCPT in dense nuslear matter. The absence of azeotropic compositions was revealed in studied variants of BIM(∼) in contrast to an explicit existence of the azeotropic compositions for the NCPT in chemically reacting plasmas and in astrophysical applications.
Features of non-congruent phase transition in modified Coulomb model of the binary ionic mixture
Stroev, N E
2016-01-01
Non-congruent gas-liquid phase transition (NCPT) have been studied in modified Coulomb model of a binary ionic mixture C(+6) + O(+8) on a \\textit{uniformly compressible} ideal electronic background /BIM($\\sim$)/. The features of NCPT in improved version of the BIM($\\sim$) model for the same mixture on background of \\textit{non-ideal} electronic Fermi-gas and comparison it with the previous calculations are the subject of present study. Analytical fits for Coulomb corrections to EoS of electronic and ionic subsystems were used in present calculations within the Gibbs--Guggenheim conditions of non-congruent phase equilibrium.Parameters of critical point-line (CPL) were calculated on the entire range of proportions of mixed ions $0
Modeling Equal and Unequal Mass Binary Neutron Star Mergers Using Public Codes
De Pietri, Roberto; Maione, Francesco; Löffler, Frank
2015-01-01
We present three-dimensional simulations of the dynamics of binary neutron star (BNS) mergers from the late stage of the inspiral process up to $\\sim 20$ ms after the system has merged, either to form a hyper-massive neutron star (NS) or a rotating black hole (BH). We investigate five equal-mass models of total gravitational mass $2.207$, $2.373$, $2.537$, $2.697$ and $2.854 M_\\odot$, respectively, and four unequal mass models with $M_{\\mathrm{ADM}}\\simeq 2.53\\ M_\\odot$ and $q\\simeq 0.94$, $0.88$, $0.82$, and $0.77$ (where $q = M^{(1)}/M^{(2)}$ is the mass ratio). We use a semi-realistic equation of state (EOS) namely, the seven-segment piece-wise polytropic SLyPP with a thermal component given by $\\Gamma_{th} = 1.8$. We have also compared the resulting dynamics (for one model) using both, the BSSN-NOK and CCZ4 methods for the evolution of the gravitational sector, and also different reconstruction methods for the matter sector, namely PPM, WENO and MP5. Our results show agreement and high resolution, but sup...
Dubus, Guillaume; Fromang, Sébastien
2015-01-01
Detailed modeling of the high-energy emission from gamma-ray binaries has been propounded as a path to pulsar wind physics. Fulfilling this ambition requires a coherent model of the flow and its emission in the region where the pulsar wind interacts with the stellar wind of its companion. We developed a code that follows the evolution and emission of electrons in the shocked pulsar wind based on inputs from a relativistic hydrodynamical simulation. The code is used to model the well-documented spectral energy distribution and orbital modulations from LS 5039. The pulsar wind is fully confined by a bow shock and a back shock. The particles are distributed into a narrow Maxwellian, emitting mostly GeV photons, and a power law radiating very efficiently over a broad energy range from X-rays to TeV gamma rays. Most of the emission arises from the apex of the bow shock. Doppler boosting shapes the X-ray and VHE lightcurves, constraining the system inclination to $i\\approx 35^{\\rm o}$. There is a tension between th...
Babak, Stanislav; Taracchini, Andrea; Buonanno, Alessandra
2017-01-01
In Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. X 6, 041014 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041014], the properties of the first gravitational wave detected by LIGO, GW150914, were measured by employing an effective-one-body (EOB) model of precessing binary black holes whose underlying dynamics and waveforms were calibrated to numerical-relativity (NR) simulations. Here, we perform the first extensive comparison of such an EOBNR model to 70 precessing NR waveforms that span mass ratios from 1 to 5, dimensionless spin magnitudes up to 0.5, generic spin orientations, and length of about 20 orbits. We work in the observer's inertial frame and include all ℓ=2 modes in the gravitational-wave polarizations. We introduce new prescriptions for the EOB ringdown signal concerning its spectrum and time of onset. For total masses between 10 M⊙ and 200 M⊙ , we find that precessing EOBNR waveforms have unfaithfulness within about 3% to NR waveforms when considering the Advanced-LIGO design noise curve. This result is obtained without recalibration of the inspiral-plunge signal of the underlying nonprecessing EOBNR model. The unfaithfulness is computed with maximization over time and phase of arrival, sky location, and polarization of the EOBNR waveform, and it is averaged over sky location and polarization of the NR signal. We also present comparisons between NR and EOBNR waveforms in a frame that tracks the orbital precession.
Modelling the energy dependencies of high-frequency QPO in black hole X-ray binaries
Zycki, P T; Sobolewska, M A
2007-01-01
We model energy dependencies of the quasi periodic oscillations (QPO) in the model of disc epicyclic motions, with X-ray modulation caused by varying relativistic effects. The model was proposed to explain the high frequency QPO observed in X-ray binaries. We consider two specific scenarios for the geometry of accretion flow and spectral formation. Firstly, a standard cold accretion disc with an active X-ray emitting corona is assumed to oscillate. Secondly, only a hot X-ray emitting accretion flow oscillates, while the cold disc is absent at the QPO radius. We find that the QPO spectra are generally similar to the spectrum of radiation emitted at the QPO radius, and they are broadened by the relativistic effects. In particular, the QPO spectrum contains the disc component in the oscillating disc with a corona scenario. We also review the available data on energy dependencies of high frequency QPO, and we point out that they appear to lack the disc component in their energy spectra. This would suggest the hot...
Calculating the Probability of Returning a Loan with Binary Probability Models
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Julian Vasilev
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give a new approach in calculating the probability of returning a loan. A lot of factors affect the value of the probability. In this article by using statistical and econometric models some influencing factors are proved. The main approach is concerned with applying probit and logit models in loan management institutions. A new aspect of the credit risk analysis is given. Calculating the probability of returning a loan is a difficult task. We assume that specific data fields concerning the contract (month of signing, year of signing, given sum and data fields concerning the borrower of the loan (month of birth, year of birth (age, gender, region, where he/she lives may be independent variables in a binary logistics model with a dependent variable “the probability of returning a loan”. It is proved that the month of signing a contract, the year of signing a contract, the gender and the age of the loan owner do not affect the probability of returning a loan. It is proved that the probability of returning a loan depends on the sum of contract, the remoteness of the loan owner and the month of birth. The probability of returning a loan increases with the increase of the given sum, decreases with the proximity of the customer, increases for people born in the beginning of the year and decreases for people born at the end of the year.
Radiative-transfer models for supernovae IIb/Ib/Ic from binary-star progenitors
Dessart, Luc; Woosley, Stan; Livne, Eli; Waldman, Roni; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Langer, Norbert
2015-01-01
We present 1-D non-Local-Thermodynamic-Equilibrium time-dependent radiative-transfer simulations for supernovae (SNe) of type IIb, Ib, and Ic that result from the terminal explosion of the mass donor in a close-binary system. Here, we select three ejecta with a total kinetic energy of ~1.2e51erg, but characterised by different ejecta masses (2-5Msun), composition, and chemical mixing. The type IIb/Ib models correspond to the progenitors that have retained their He-rich shell at the time of explosion. The type Ic model arises from a progenitor that has lost its helium shell, but retains 0.32Msun of helium in a CO-rich core of 5.11Msun. We discuss their photometric and spectroscopic properties during the first 2-3 months after explosion, and connect these to their progenitor and ejecta properties including chemical stratification. For these three models, Arnett's rule overestimates the 56Ni mass by ~50% while the procedure of Katz et al., based on an energy argument, yields a more reliable estimate. The presenc...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rulin Huang
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Existing collision avoidance methods for autonomous vehicles, which ignore the driving intent of detected vehicles, thus, cannot satisfy the requirements for autonomous driving in urban environments because of their high false detection rates of collisions with vehicles on winding roads and the missed detection rate of collisions with maneuvering vehicles. This study introduces an intent-estimation- and motion-model-based (IEMMB method to address these disadvantages. First, a state vector is constructed by combining the road structure and the moving state of detected vehicles. A Gaussian mixture model is used to learn the maneuvering patterns of vehicles from collected data, and the patterns are used to estimate the driving intent of the detected vehicles. Then, a desirable long-term trajectory is obtained by weighting time and comfort. The long-term trajectory and the short-term trajectory, which are predicted using a constant yaw rate motion model, are fused to achieve an accurate trajectory. Finally, considering the moving state of the autonomous vehicle, collisions can be detected and avoided. Experiments have shown that the intent estimation method performed well, achieving an accuracy of 91.7% on straight roads and an accuracy of 90.5% on winding roads, which is much higher than that achieved by the method that ignores the road structure. The average collision detection distance is increased by more than 8 m. In addition, the maximum yaw rate and acceleration during an evasive maneuver are decreased, indicating an improvement in the driving comfort.
Seismotectonics of New Guinea: a Model for Arc Reversal Following Arc-Continent Collision
Cooper, Patricia; Taylor, Brian
1987-02-01
The structure and evolution of the northern New Guinea collision zone is deduced from International Seismological Center (ISC) seismicity (1964-1985), new and previously published focal mechanisms and a reexamination of pertinent geological data. A tectonic model for the New Guinea margin is derived which illustrates the sequential stages in the collision and suturing of the Bewani-Toricelli-Adelbert-Finisterre-Huon-New Britain arc to central New Guinea followed by subduction polarity reversal in the west. East of 149°E, the Solomon plate is being subducted both to the north and south; bringing the New Britain and Trobriand forearcs toward collision. West of 149°E the forearcs have collided, and together they override a fold in the doubly subducted Solomon plate lithosphere, which has an axis that is parallel to the strike of the Ramu-Markham suture and that plunges westward at an angle of 5° beneath the coast ranges of northern New Guinea. Active volcanism off the north coast of New Guinea is related to subduction of the Solomon plate beneath the Bismarck plate. Active volcanism of the Papuan peninsula and Quaternary volcanism of the New Guinea highlands are related to slow subduction of the Solomon plate beneath the Indo-Australian plate along the Trobriand Trough and the trough's former extension to the west, respectively. From 144°-148°E, seismicity and focal mechanisms reveal that convergence between the sutured Bismarck and Indo-Australian plates is accommodated by thrusting within the Finisterre and Adelbert ranges and compression of the New Guinea orogenic belt, together with basement-involved foreland folding and thrusting to the south. The Finisterre block overthrusts the New Guinea orogenic belt, whereas the Adelbert block is sutured to New Guinea and overthrusts the oceanic lithosphere of the Bismarck Sea. Along the New Guinea Trench, west of 144°E, seismicity defines a southward dipping Wadati-Benioif zone, and focal mechanisms indicate oblique
Higgs boson contributions to neutrino production in e-e+ collisions in a left-right symmetric model
Gluza, J; Gluza, J; Zralek, M
1995-01-01
In gauge models with bigger number of Higgs particles their couplings to fermions are more complicated then in the standard model (SM). The influence of the Higgs bosons exchange on the neutrino production cross section in e^-e^+ collision (e^-e^+ \\rightarrow \
Winds in collision. III - Modeling the interaction nebulae of eruptive symbiotics
Girard, T.; Willson, L. A.
1987-09-01
Observations of HM Sge and V1016 Cyg have been interpreted (Wallerstein et al., 1984; Wilson et al., 1984) in terms of two colliding stellar winds in an interacting binary. Here, a simplified model for the structure of the nebula which forms at the interface of the colliding winds is developed, based on momentum conservation. From this model, the geometry, mass distribution, and velocity distribution of the nebula can be found as a function of the parameters of the colliding stellar winds which sustain it. Under the assumption of negligible orbital motion, the nebular shell reaches a steady-state configuration. Its shape is roughly conical, with the cone apex angle determined by a single parameter. The time development of a cross-section of the nebula which forms in a system with nonnegligible orbital motion is also calculated, under the assumption that the nebular shell is thin relative to its overall dimensions.
Model investigation on the mechanism of QGP formation in relativistic heavy ion collisions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓胜华; 李家荣
1995-01-01
On the basis of the nontopological soliton bag model, it is proposed that the quark decon-finement may be indicated by the unstability and disappearance of solition solutions at finite-temperature and finite-density. The thermal effects on the vacuum structure of strongly interacting matter are investigated, and the soliton field equation of the model is solved directly in the whole range of temperature via a numerical method. The phase structure of the system and the features of deconfining phase transition are analysed in detail. In addition, the collective excitations in the vacuum caused by thermal effects are investigated by making use of an order parameter which is given to describe the vacuum condensation at finite temperature. A physical mechanism and an intuitive picture are presented for the formation of QGP from both deconfined hardon matter and the vacuum excitation in relativistic heavy ion collisions.
Production of excitons in grazing collisions of protons with LiF surfaces: An onion model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miraglia, J. E.; Gravielle, M. S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, (C1428EGA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2011-12-15
In this work we evaluate the production of excitons of a lithium fluoride crystal induced by proton impact in the intermediate and high energy regime (from 100 keV to 1 MeV). A simple model is proposed to account for the influence of the Coulomb grid of the target by dressing crystal ions to transform them in what we call onions. The excited states of these onions can be interpreted as excitons. Within this model, total cross section and stopping power are calculated by using the first Born and the continuum distorted-wave (CDW) eikonal initial-state (EIS) approximations. We found that between 7 and 30 excitons per incident proton are produced in grazing collisions with LiF surfaces, becoming a relevant mechanism of inelastic transitions.
Predicting the "graduate on time (GOT)" of PhD students using binary logistics regression model
Shariff, S. Sarifah Radiah; Rodzi, Nur Atiqah Mohd; Rahman, Kahartini Abdul; Zahari, Siti Meriam; Deni, Sayang Mohd
2016-10-01
Malaysian government has recently set a new goal to produce 60,000 Malaysian PhD holders by the year 2023. As a Malaysia's largest institution of higher learning in terms of size and population which offers more than 500 academic programmes in a conducive and vibrant environment, UiTM has taken several initiatives to fill up the gap. Strategies to increase the numbers of graduates with PhD are a process that is challenging. In many occasions, many have already identified that the struggle to get into the target set is even more daunting, and that implementation is far too ideal. This has further being progressing slowly as the attrition rate increases. This study aims to apply the proposed models that incorporates several factors in predicting the number PhD students that will complete their PhD studies on time. Binary Logistic Regression model is proposed and used on the set of data to determine the number. The results show that only 6.8% of the 2014 PhD students are predicted to graduate on time and the results are compared wih the actual number for validation purpose.
Babak, Stanislav; Buonanno, Alessandra
2016-01-01
In Ref. [1], the properties of the first gravitational wave detected by LIGO, GW150914, were measured by employing an effective-one-body (EOB) model of precessing binary black holes whose underlying dynamics and waveforms were calibrated to numerical-relativity (NR) simulations. Here, we perform the first extensive comparison of such EOBNR model to 70 precessing NR waveforms that span mass ratios from 1 to 5, dimensionless spin magnitudes up to 0.5, generic spin orientations, and length of about 20 orbits. We work in the observer's inertial frame and include all $\\ell=2$ modes in the gravitational-wave polarizations. We introduce new prescriptions for the EOB ringdown signal concerning its spectrum and time of onset. For total masses between 10Msun and 200Msun, we find that precessing EOBNR waveforms have unfaithfulness within about 3% to NR waveforms when considering the Advanced-LIGO design noise curve. This result is obtained without recalibration of the inspiral-plunge of the underlying nonprecessing EOBN...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Gao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The increasing marine activities in Arctic area have brought growing interest in ship-iceberg collision study. The purpose of this paper is to study the iceberg geometry shape effect on the collision process. In order to estimate the sensitivity parameter, five different geometry iceberg models and two iceberg material models are adopted in the analysis. The FEM numerical simulation is used to predict the scenario and the related responses. The simulation results including energy dissipation and impact force are investigated and compared. It is shown that the collision process and energy dissipation are more sensitive to iceberg local shape than other factors when the elastic-plastic iceberg material model is applied. The blunt iceberg models act rigidly while the sharp ones crush easily during the simulation process. With respect to the crushable foam iceberg material model, the iceberg geometry has relatively small influence on the collision process. The spherical iceberg model shows the most rigidity for both iceberg material models and should be paid the most attention for ice-resist design for ships.
Conceptual model for collision detection and avoidance for runway incursion prevention
Latimer, Bridgette A.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Transportation and Safety Board (NTSB), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), numerous corporate entities, and research facilities have each come together to determine ways to make air travel safer and more efficient. These efforts have resulted in the development of a concept known as the Next Generation (Next Gen) of Aircraft or Next Gen. The Next Gen concept promises to be a clear departure from the way in which aircraft operations are performed today. The Next Gen initiatives require that modifications are made to the existing National Airspace System (NAS) concept of operations, system level requirements, software (SW) and hardware (HW) requirements, SW and HW designs and implementations. A second example of the changes in the NAS is the shift away from air traffic controllers having the responsibility for separation assurance. In the proposed new scheme of free flight, each aircraft would be responsible for assuring that it is safely separated from surrounding aircraft. Free flight would allow the separation minima for enroute aircraft to be reduced from 2000 nautical miles (nm) to 1000 nm. Simply put "Free Flight is a concept of air traffic management that permits pilots and controllers to share information and work together to manage air traffic from pre-flight through arrival without compromising safety [107]." The primary goal of this research project was to create a conceptual model that embodies the essential ingredients needed for a collision detection and avoidance system. This system was required to operate in two modes: air traffic controller's perspective and pilot's perspective. The secondary goal was to demonstrate that the technologies, procedures, and decision logic embedded in the conceptual model were able to effectively detect and avoid collision risks from both perspectives. Embodied in the conceptual model are five distinct software modules: Data Acquisition, State
Multifrequency Behaviour of the Gamma-Ray Binary System PSR B1259-63: Modelling the FERMI Flare
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Brian van Soelen
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a brief overview of the multifrequency properties of the gamma-ray binary system PSR B1259-63 from radio to very high energy gamma-rays. A summary is also presented of the various models put forward to explain the Fermi "flare" detected in 2011. Initial results are presented of a new turbulence driven model to explain the GeV observations.
A model-based circular binary segmentation algorithm for the analysis of array CGH data
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Tu Shih-Hsin
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Circular Binary Segmentation (CBS is a permutation-based algorithm for array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH data analysis. CBS accurately segments data by detecting change-points using a maximal-t test; but extensive computational burden is involved for evaluating the significance of change-points using permutations. A recent implementation utilizing a hybrid method and early stopping rules (hybrid CBS to improve the performance in speed was subsequently proposed. However, a time analysis revealed that a major portion of computation time of the hybrid CBS was still spent on permutation. In addition, what the hybrid method provides is an approximation of the significance upper bound or lower bound, not an approximation of the significance of change-points itself. Results We developed a novel model-based algorithm, extreme-value based CBS (eCBS, which limits permutations and provides robust results without loss of accuracy. Thousands of aCGH data under null hypothesis were simulated in advance based on a variety of non-normal assumptions, and the corresponding maximal-t distribution was modeled by the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV distribution. The modeling results, which associate characteristics of aCGH data to the GEV parameters, constitute lookup tables (eXtreme model. Using the eXtreme model, the significance of change-points could be evaluated in a constant time complexity through a table lookup process. Conclusions A novel algorithm, eCBS, was developed in this study. The current implementation of eCBS consistently outperforms the hybrid CBS 4× to 20× in computation time without loss of accuracy. Source codes, supplementary materials, supplementary figures, and supplementary tables can be found at http://ntumaps.cgm.ntu.edu.tw/eCBSsupplementary.
Adler, S S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Jamel, A; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, Y; Bjorndal, M T; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Campbell, S; Chai, J -S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Cussonneau, J P; Dahms, T; Das, K; David, G; Deák, F; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Dubey, A K; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Fields, D E; Finck, C; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Fung, S -Y; Gadrat, S; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -Å; Hachiya, T; Henni, A Hadj; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hidas, P; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Horaguchi, T; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Iinuma, H; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inuzuka, M; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Katou, K; Kawabata, T; Kawagishi, T; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E J; Kim, G -B; Kim, H J; Kim, Y -S; Kinney, E; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Boesing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Kohara, R; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Bornec, Y Le; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, M K; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Martinez, G; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McCain, M C; McGaughey, P L; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nakamura, T; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Norman, B E; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Omiwade, O O; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Penev, V; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pierson, A; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Qualls, J M; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Rykov, V L; Ryu, S S; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shohjoh, T; Shoji, K; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skutnik, S; Smith, W C; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sullivan, J P; Sziklai, J; Tabaru, T; Takagi, S; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V-N; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Uam, T J; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Vértesi, R; Veszprémi, V; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wagner, M; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; Wessels, J; White, S N; Willis, N; Winter, D; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zimányi, J; Zolin, L; Zong, X
2013-01-01
Measurements of the midrapidity transverse energy distribution, $d\\Et/d\\eta$, are presented for $p$$+$$p$, $d$$+$Au, and Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV and additionally for Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=62.4$ and 130 GeV. The $d\\Et/d\\eta$ distributions are first compared with the number of nucleon participants $N_{\\rm part}$, number of binary collisions $N_{\\rm coll}$, and number of constituent-quark participants $N_{qp}$ calculated from a Glauber model based on the nuclear geometry. For Au$+$Au, $\\mean{d\\Et/d\\eta}/N_{\\rm part}$ increases with $N_{\\rm part}$, while $\\mean{d\\Et/d\\eta}/N_{qp}$ is approximately constant for all three energies. This indicates that the two component ansatz, $dE_{T}/d\\eta \\propto (1-x) N_{\\rm part}/2 + x N_{\\rm coll}$, which has been used to represent $E_T$ distributions, is simply a proxy for $N_{qp}$, and that the $N_{\\rm coll}$ term does not represent a hard-scattering component in $E_T$ distributions. The $dE_{T}/d\\eta$ distributions of Au$+$Au and $...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, Subash L., E-mail: sharma55@purdue.edu [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1290 (United States); Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1290 (United States); Brooks, Caleb S. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Schlegel, Joshua P. [Nuclear Engineering Program, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Liu, Yang [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Buchanan, John R. [Bechtel Marine Propulsion Corporation, Bettis Laboratory, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Void distribution in narrow rectangular channel with various non-uniform inlet conditions. • Modeling of void diffusion due to bubble collision force. • Validation of new modeling in adiabatic air–water two-phase flow in a narrow channel. - Abstract: The prediction capability of the two-fluid model for gas–liquid dispersed two-phase flow depends on the accuracy of the closure relations for the interfacial forces. In previous studies of two-phase flow Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), interfacial force models for a single isolated bubble has been extended to disperse two-phase flow assuming the effect in a swarm of bubbles is similar. Limited studies have been performed investigating the effect of the bubble concentration on the lateral phase distribution. Bubbles, while moving through the liquid phase, may undergo turbulence-driven random collision with neighboring bubbles without significant coalescence. The rate of these collisions depends upon the bubble approach velocity and bubble spacing. The bubble collision frequency is expected to be higher in locations with higher bubble concentrations, i.e., volume fraction. This turbulence-driven random collision causes the diffusion of the bubbles from high concentration to low concentration. Based on experimental observations, a phenomenological model has been developed for a “turbulence-induced bubble collision force” for use in the two-fluid model. For testing the validity of the model, two-phase flow data measured at Purdue University are utilized. The geometry is a 10 mm × 200 mm cross section channel. Experimentally, non-uniform inlet boundary conditions are applied with different sparger combinations to vary the volume fraction distribution across the wider dimension. Examining uniform and non-uniform inlet data allows for the influence of the volume fraction to be studied as a separate effect. The turbulence-induced bubble collision force has been implemented in ANSYS CFX. The
Binary oscillations in the Kok model of oxygen evolution in oxygenic photosynthesis.
Shinkarev, V P
1996-06-01
The flash-induced kinetics of various characteristics of Photosystem II (PS II) in the thylakoids of oxygenic plants are modulated by a period of two, due to the function of a two-electron gate in the electron acceptor side, and by a period of four, due to the changes in the state of the oxygen-evolving complex. In the absence of inhibitors of PS II, the assignment of measured signal to the oxygen-evolving complex or to quinone acceptor side has frequently been done on the basis of the periodicity of its flash-induced oscillations, i.e. four or two. However, in some circumstances, the period four oscillatory processes of the donor side of PS II can generate period two oscillations. It is shown here that in the Kok model of oxygen evolution (equal misses and equal double hits), the sum of the concentrations of the S 0 and S 2 states (as well as the sum of concentrations of S 1 and S 3 states) oscillates with period of two: S 0+S 2→S 1+S 3→S 0+S 2→S 1+S 3. Moreover, in the generalized Kok model (with specific miss factors and double hits for each S-state) there always exist such ε0, ε1, ε2, ε3 that the sum ε0[S0] + ε1[S1] + ε2[S2] + ε3[S3] oscillates with period of two as a function of flash number. Any other coefficients which are linearly connected with these coefficients, % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr% 4rNCHbGeaGak0dh9WrFfpC0xh9vqqj-hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0-OqFf% ea0dXdd9vqaq-JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar-Jb9hs0dXdbPYxe9vr0-vr% 0-vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiqbew7aLzaaja% aaaa!3917!\\[\\hat \\varepsilon \\]i = c1εi + c2, also generate binary oscillations of this sum. Therefore, the decomposition of the flash-induced oscillations of some measured parameters into binary oscillations, depending only on the acceptor side of PS II, and quaternary oscillations, depending only on the donor side of PS II, becomes practically impossible when measured with
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steyerberg Ewout W
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Logistic random effects models are a popular tool to analyze multilevel also called hierarchical data with a binary or ordinal outcome. Here, we aim to compare different statistical software implementations of these models. Methods We used individual patient data from 8509 patients in 231 centers with moderate and severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI enrolled in eight Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs and three observational studies. We fitted logistic random effects regression models with the 5-point Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS as outcome, both dichotomized as well as ordinal, with center and/or trial as random effects, and as covariates age, motor score, pupil reactivity or trial. We then compared the implementations of frequentist and Bayesian methods to estimate the fixed and random effects. Frequentist approaches included R (lme4, Stata (GLLAMM, SAS (GLIMMIX and NLMIXED, MLwiN ([R]IGLS and MIXOR, Bayesian approaches included WinBUGS, MLwiN (MCMC, R package MCMCglmm and SAS experimental procedure MCMC. Three data sets (the full data set and two sub-datasets were analysed using basically two logistic random effects models with either one random effect for the center or two random effects for center and trial. For the ordinal outcome in the full data set also a proportional odds model with a random center effect was fitted. Results The packages gave similar parameter estimates for both the fixed and random effects and for the binary (and ordinal models for the main study and when based on a relatively large number of level-1 (patient level data compared to the number of level-2 (hospital level data. However, when based on relatively sparse data set, i.e. when the numbers of level-1 and level-2 data units were about the same, the frequentist and Bayesian approaches showed somewhat different results. The software implementations differ considerably in flexibility, computation time, and usability. There are also differences in
Bayesian model comparison for one-dimensional azimuthal correlations in 200GeV AuAu collisions
Eggers, Hans C.; de Kock, Michiel B.; Trainor, Thomas A.
2016-07-01
In the context of data modeling and comparisons between different fit models, Bayesian analysis calls that model best which has the largest evidence, the prior-weighted integral over model parameters of the likelihood function. Evidence calculations automatically take into account both the usual chi-squared measure and an Occam factor which quantifies the price for adding extra parameters. Applying Bayesian analysis to projections onto azimuth of 2D angular correlations from 200 GeV AuAu collisions, we consider typical model choices including Fourier series and a Gaussian plus combinations of individual cosine components. We find that models including a Gaussian component are consistently preferred over pure Fourier-series parametrizations, sometimes strongly so. For 0-5% central collisions the Gaussian-plus-dipole model performs better than Fourier Series models or any other combination of Gaussian-plus-multipoles.
Bayesian model comparison for one-dimensional azimuthal correlations in 200GeV AuAu collisions
Eggers, Hans C; Trainor, Thomas A
2015-01-01
In the context of data modeling and comparisons between different fit models, Bayesian analysis calls that model best which has the largest evidence, the prior-weighted integral over model parameters of the likelihood function. Evidence calculations automatically take into account both the usual chi-squared measure and an Occam factor which quantifies the price for adding extra parameters. Applying Bayesian analysis to projections onto azimuth of 2D angular correlations from 200 GeV AuAu collisions, we consider typical model choices including Fourier series and a Gaussian plus combinations of individual cosine components. We find that models including a Gaussian component are consistently preferred over pure Fourier-series parametrizations, sometimes strongly so. For 0-5% central collisions the Gaussian-plus-dipole model performs better than Fourier Series models or any other combination of Gaussian-plus-multipoles.
Bayesian model comparison for one-dimensional azimuthal correlations in 200GeV AuAu collisions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eggers Hans C.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the context of data modeling and comparisons between different fit models, Bayesian analysis calls that model best which has the largest evidence, the prior-weighted integral over model parameters of the likelihood function. Evidence calculations automatically take into account both the usual chi-squared measure and an Occam factor which quantifies the price for adding extra parameters. Applying Bayesian analysis to projections onto azimuth of 2D angular correlations from 200 GeV AuAu collisions, we consider typical model choices including Fourier series and a Gaussian plus combinations of individual cosine components. We find that models including a Gaussian component are consistently preferred over pure Fourier-series parametrizations, sometimes strongly so. For 0–5% central collisions the Gaussian-plus-dipole model performs better than Fourier Series models or any other combination of Gaussian-plus-multipoles.
Canary, Jana D; Blizzard, Leigh; Barry, Ronald P; Hosmer, David W; Quinn, Stephen J
2016-05-01
Generalized linear models (GLM) with a canonical logit link function are the primary modeling technique used to relate a binary outcome to predictor variables. However, noncanonical links can offer more flexibility, producing convenient analytical quantities (e.g., probit GLMs in toxicology) and desired measures of effect (e.g., relative risk from log GLMs). Many summary goodness-of-fit (GOF) statistics exist for logistic GLM. Their properties make the development of GOF statistics relatively straightforward, but it can be more difficult under noncanonical links. Although GOF tests for logistic GLM with continuous covariates (GLMCC) have been applied to GLMCCs with log links, we know of no GOF tests in the literature specifically developed for GLMCCs that can be applied regardless of link function chosen. We generalize the Tsiatis GOF statistic originally developed for logistic GLMCCs, (TG), so that it can be applied under any link function. Further, we show that the algebraically related Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) and Pigeon-Heyse (J(2) ) statistics can be applied directly. In a simulation study, TG, HL, and J(2) were used to evaluate the fit of probit, log-log, complementary log-log, and log models, all calculated with a common grouping method. The TG statistic consistently maintained Type I error rates, while those of HL and J(2) were often lower than expected if terms with little influence were included. Generally, the statistics had similar power to detect an incorrect model. An exception occurred when a log GLMCC was incorrectly fit to data generated from a logistic GLMCC. In this case, TG had more power than HL or J(2) .
3-D Computational Modelling of Oblique Continental Collision near South Island, New Zealand
Karatun, L.; Pysklywec, R. N.
2015-12-01
The research explores the highly oblique continental convergence at the South Island of New Zealand, considering the fundamental geodynamic mechanisms of sub-crustal lithospheric deformation during the orogenesis. In addition to the high velocity of along-strike plate motion, the oppositely verging subduction zones bounding the collision make the problem inherently three-dimensional. To study such factors during orogenesis, we conduct 3D computational modelling and present the results of a series of new experiments configured for the oblique South Island collision. The geodynamic modelling uses ASPECT - a robust highly-scalable and extendable geodynamic code featuring adaptive mesh refinement and complex rheologies. The model domain is defined by a box with prescribed velocities on the left and right faces with varied ratio of convergent versus strike-slip components, periodic boundary conditions for the front and back faces, free surface on top, and free slip at the bottom. Two different rheology types are used: brittle (pressure-, strain rate-, and material strength-dependent) for crust and visco-plastic (temperature-, pressure- and strain rate-dependent) for mantle. The obtained results provide insight into the behaviour of the lithosphere under the situation of young oblique convergence. We focus on the development of the mantle lithosphere, considering how the morphology of the sub-crustal orogenic root evolves during the convergent/strike-slip plate motions. The numerical experiments explore the dependence of this process on such factors as ratio of convergent versus strike-slip motion at the plate boundary, and rheological parameters of crust and mantle. The behaviour of the crust is also tracked to determine how the deep 3D tectonics may manifest at the surface.
A parallel Discrete Element Method to model collisions between non-convex particles
Rakotonirina, Andriarimina Daniel; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Wachs, Anthony
2017-06-01
In many dry granular and suspension flow configurations, particles can be highly non-spherical. It is now well established in the literature that particle shape affects the flow dynamics or the microstructure of the particles assembly in assorted ways as e.g. compacity of packed bed or heap, dilation under shear, resistance to shear, momentum transfer between translational and angular motions, ability to form arches and block the flow. In this talk, we suggest an accurate and efficient way to model collisions between particles of (almost) arbitrary shape. For that purpose, we develop a Discrete Element Method (DEM) combined with a soft particle contact model. The collision detection algorithm handles contacts between bodies of various shape and size. For nonconvex bodies, our strategy is based on decomposing a non-convex body into a set of convex ones. Therefore, our novel method can be called "glued-convex method" (in the sense clumping convex bodies together), as an extension of the popular "glued-spheres" method, and is implemented in our own granular dynamics code Grains3D. Since the whole problem is solved explicitly, our fully-MPI parallelized code Grains3D exhibits a very high scalability when dynamic load balancing is not required. In particular, simulations on up to a few thousands cores in configurations involving up to a few tens of millions of particles can readily be performed. We apply our enhanced numerical model to (i) the collapse of a granular column made of convex particles and (i) the microstructure of a heap of non-convex particles in a cylindrical reactor.
Sengar, Rahul; Tauris, Thomas M.; Langer, Norbert; Istrate, Alina G.
2017-09-01
Tight binaries of helium white dwarfs (He WDs) orbiting millisecond pulsars (MSPs) will eventually `merge' due to gravitational damping of the orbit. The outcome has been predicted to be the production of long-lived ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs), in which the WD transfers material to the accreting neutron star (NS). Here we present complete numerical computations, for the first time, of such stable mass transfer from a He WD to a NS. We have calculated a number of complete binary stellar evolution tracks, starting from pre-low-mass X-ray binary systems, and evolved these to detached MSP+WD systems and further on to UCXBs. The minimum orbital period is found to be as short as 5.6 min. We followed the subsequent widening of the systems until the donor stars become planets with a mass of ˜0.005 M⊙ after roughly a Hubble time. Our models are able to explain the properties of observed UCXBs with high helium abundances and we can identify these sources on the ascending or descending branch in a diagram displaying mass-transfer rate versus orbital period.
Schmidt, Patricia; Husa, Sascha
2012-01-01
One of the greatest theoretical challenges in the build-up to the era of second-generation gravitational-wave detectors is the modeling of generic binary waveforms. We introduce an approximation that has the potential to significantly simplify this problem. We show that generic precessing-binary inspiral waveforms (covering a seven-dimensional parameter space) can be mapped to only a two-dimensional space of non-precessing binaries, characterized by the mass ratio and a single effective total spin. The mapping consists of a time-dependent rotation of the waveforms into the quadrupole-aligned frame, and is extremely accurate (matches $> 0.99$ with parameter biases in the total spin of $\\Delta \\chi \\leq 0.04$), even in the case of transitional precession. In addition, we demonstrate a simple method to construct hybrid post-Newtonian--numerical-relativity precessing-binary waveforms in the quadrupole-aligned frame, and provide evidence that our approximate mapping can be used all the way to the merger. Finally, ...
Solano, Eduardo A.; Mohamed, Sabria; Mayer, Paul M.
2016-10-01
The internal energy transferred when projectile molecular ions of naphthalene collide with argon gas atoms was extracted from the APCI-CID (atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization collision-induced dissociation) mass spectra acquired as a function of collision energy. Ion abundances were calculated by microcanonical integration of the differential rate equations using the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus rate constants derived from a UB3LYP/6-311G+(3df,2p)//UB3LYP/6-31G(d) fragmentation mechanism and thermal-like vibrational energy distributions p M (" separators=" E , T char ) . The mean vibrational energy excess of the ions was characterized by the parameter Tchar ("characteristic temperature"), determined by fitting the theoretical ion abundances to the experimental breakdown graph (a plot of relative abundances of the ions as a function of kinetic energy) of activated naphthalene ions. According to these results, the APCI ion source produces species below Tchar = 1457 K, corresponding to 3.26 eV above the vibrational ground state. Subsequent collisions heat the ions up further, giving rise to a sigmoid curve of Tchar as a function of Ecom (center-of-mass-frame kinetic energy). The differential internal energy absorption per kinetic energy unit (dEvib/dEcom) changes with Ecom according to a symmetric bell-shaped function with a maximum at 6.38 ± 0.32 eV (corresponding to 6.51 ± 0.27 eV of vibrational energy excess), and a half-height full width of 6.30 ± 1.15 eV. This function imposes restrictions on the amount of energy that can be transferred by collisions, such that a maximum is reached as kinetic energy is increased. This behavior suggests that the collisional energy transfer exhibits a pronounced increase around some specific value of energy. Finally, the model is tested against the CID mass spectra of anthracene and pyrene ions and the corresponding results are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Almasi, Mohammad, E-mail: m.almasi@khouzestan.srbiau.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khouzestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-03-01
Densities and viscosities for binary mixtures of dimethyl carbonate with 2-propanol up to 2-heptanol were measured at various temperatures and ambient pressure. From experimental data, excess molar volumes, V{sub m}{sup E}. were calculated and correlated by the Redlich–Kister equation to obtain the binary coefficients and the standard deviations. Excess molar volumes, V{sub m}{sup E}, are positive for all studied mixtures over the entire range of the mole fraction. The ERAS-model has been applied for describing the binary excess molar volumes and also Peng–Robinson–Stryjek–Vera (PRSV) equation of state (EOS) has been used to predict the binary excess molar volumes and viscosities. Also several semi-empirical models were used to correlate the viscosity of binary mixtures.
Tidal heating and mass loss in neutron star binaries - Implications for gamma-ray burst models
Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.
1992-01-01
A neutron star in a close binary orbit around another neutron star (or stellar-mass black hole) spirals inward owing to gravitational radiation. We discuss the effects of tidal dissipation during this process. Tidal energy dissipated in the neutron star's core escapes mainly as neutrinos, but heating of the crust, and outward diffusion of photons, blows off the outer layers of the star. This photon-driven mass loss precedes the final coalescence. The presence of this eject material impedes the escape of gamma-rays created via neutrino interactions. If an e(+) - e(-) fireball, created in the late stages of coalescence, were loaded with (or surrounded by) material with the mean column density of the ejecta, it could not be an efficient source of gamma-rays. Models for cosmologically distant gamma-rays burst that involve neutron stars must therefore be anisotropic, so that the fireball expands preferentially in directions where the column density of previously blown-off material is far below the spherically averaged value which we have calculated. Some possible 'scenarios' along these lines are briefly discussed.
Sze, N N; Wong, S C; Lee, C Y
2014-12-01
In past several decades, many countries have set quantified road safety targets to motivate transport authorities to develop systematic road safety strategies and measures and facilitate the achievement of continuous road safety improvement. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between the setting of quantified road safety targets and road fatality reduction, in both the short and long run, by comparing road fatalities before and after the implementation of a quantified road safety target. However, not much work has been done to evaluate whether the quantified road safety targets are actually achieved. In this study, we used a binary logistic regression model to examine the factors - including vehicle ownership, fatality rate, and national income, in addition to level of ambition and duration of target - that contribute to a target's success. We analyzed 55 quantified road safety targets set by 29 countries from 1981 to 2009, and the results indicate that targets that are in progress and with lower level of ambitions had a higher likelihood of eventually being achieved. Moreover, possible interaction effects on the association between level of ambition and the likelihood of success are also revealed.
Exact Scale Invariance in Mixing of Binary Candidates in Voting Model
Mori, Shintaro; Hisakado, Masato
2010-03-01
We introduce a voting model and discuss the scale invariance in the mixing of candidates. The Candidates are classified into two categories μ\\in \\{0,1\\} and are called as “binary” candidates. There are in total N=N0+N1 candidates, and voters vote for them one by one. The probability that a candidate gets a vote is proportional to the number of votes. The initial number of votes (“seed”) of a candidate μ is set to be sμ. After infinite counts of voting, the probability function of the share of votes of the candidate μ obeys gamma distributions with the shape exponent sμ in the thermodynamic limit Z0=N1s1+N0s0\\to ∞. Between the cumulative functions \\{xμ\\} of binary candidates, the power-law relation 1-x1 ˜ (1-x0)α with the critical exponent α=s1/s0 holds in the region 1-x0,1-x1≪ 1. In the double scaling limit (s1,s0)\\to (0,0) and Z0 \\to ∞ with s1/s0=α fixed, the relation 1-x1=(1-x0)α holds exactly over the entire range 0≤ x0,x1 ≤ 1. We study the data on horse races obtained from the Japan Racing Association for the period 1986 to 2006 and confirm scale invariance.
Arnarez, Clement; Webb, Alexis; Rouvière, Eric; Lyman, Edward
2016-12-29
Extensive Martini simulation data, totaling 5 ms, is presented for binary mixtures of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterol. Using simulation initiated from both gel (so) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases, significant and strongly cholesterol-dependent hysteresis in the enthalpy as a function of temperature is observed for cholesterol mole fractions from 0 to 20 mol %. Although the precise phase transition temperature cannot be determined due to the hysteresis, the data are consistent with a first order gel to fluid transition, which increases in temperature with cholesterol. At 30 mol % cholesterol, no hysteresis is observed, and there is no evidence for a continuous transition, in either structural parameters like the area per lipid or in the heat capacity as a function of temperature. The results are consistent with a single uniform phase above a critical cholesterol composition between 20 and 30 mol % in Martini, while highlighting the importance and difficulty of obtaining the equilibrium averages to locate phase boundaries precisely in computational models of lipid bilayers.
Tidal heating and mass loss in neutron star binaries - Implications for gamma-ray burst models
Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.
1992-01-01
A neutron star in a close binary orbit around another neutron star (or stellar-mass black hole) spirals inward owing to gravitational radiation. We discuss the effects of tidal dissipation during this process. Tidal energy dissipated in the neutron star's core escapes mainly as neutrinos, but heating of the crust, and outward diffusion of photons, blows off the outer layers of the star. This photon-driven mass loss precedes the final coalescence. The presence of this eject material impedes the escape of gamma-rays created via neutrino interactions. If an e(+) - e(-) fireball, created in the late stages of coalescence, were loaded with (or surrounded by) material with the mean column density of the ejecta, it could not be an efficient source of gamma-rays. Models for cosmologically distant gamma-rays burst that involve neutron stars must therefore be anisotropic, so that the fireball expands preferentially in directions where the column density of previously blown-off material is far below the spherically averaged value which we have calculated. Some possible 'scenarios' along these lines are briefly discussed.
A Neutron Star-White Dwarf Binary Model for Repeating Fast Radio Burst 121102
Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Tong; Ma, Renyi; Wang, Junfeng
2016-01-01
We propose a compact binary model for the fast radio burst (FRB) repeaters, where the system consists of a magnetic white dwarf (WD) and a neutron star (NS) with strong bipolar magnetic fields. When the WD fills its Roche lobe, mass transfer will occur from the WD to the NS through the inner Lagrange point. The accreted magnetized materials may trigger magnetic reconnection when they approach the NS surface, and therefore the electrons can be accelerated to an ultra-relativistic speed. In this scenario, the curvature radiation of the electrons moving along the NS magnetic field lines can account for the characteristic frequency and the timescale of an FRB. Owing to the conservation of angular momentum, the WD may be kicked away after a burst, and the next burst may appear when the system becomes semi-detached again through the gravitational radiation. By comparing our analyses with the observations, we show that such an intermittent Roche lobe overflow mechanism can be responsible for the observed repeating b...
Model-Driven Verifying Compilation of Synchronous Distributed Applications
2014-10-01
Portable to different OSes (Windows, Linux, Android etc.) and networking technology (TCP/IP, UDP, DDS etc.) Binary MADARA Middleware Guarantee...0,3) Potential Collision Reservation Contention Resolved based on Node ID. No collision possible if no over- booking . X Y 15 Model
Kotte, Jens; Schmeichel, Carsten; Zlocki, Adrian; Gathmann, Hauke; Eckstein, Lutz
2017-04-03
Objective State-of-the-art collision avoidance and collision mitigation systems predict the behavior of pedestrians based on trivial models that assume a constant acceleration or velocity. New sources of sensor information, for example smart devices (smartphones, tablets, smartwatches, …), can support enhanced pedestrian behavior models. The objective of this paper is the development and implementation of a V2X pedestrian collision avoidance system that uses new information sources. Methods A literature review of existing state-of-the-art pedestrian collision avoidance systems, pedestrian behavior models in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), and traffic simulations is conducted together with an analysis of existing studies on typical pedestrian patterns in traffic. Based on this analysis, possible parameters for predicting pedestrian behavior were investigated. The results led to new requirements from which a concept was developed and implemented. Results The analysis of typical pedestrian behavior patterns in traffic situations showed the complexity of predicting pedestrian behavior. Requirements for an improved behavior prediction were derived. A concept for a V2X collision avoidance system, based on a cost function that predicts pedestrian near future presence, and its implementation, is presented. The concept presented considers several challenges such as information privacy, inaccuracies of the localization, and inaccuracies of the prediction. Conclusion A concept for an enhanced V2X pedestrian collision avoidance system was developed and introduced. The concept uses new information sources such as smart devices to improve the prediction of the pedestrian's presence in the near future and considers challenges that come along with the usage of these information sources.