Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2014-01-01
into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho
2015-01-01
Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary...... resistivity optimization outperforms the surface impedance optimization in terms of the reproducibility....
Regularity of the interband light absorption coefficient
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In experimental studies the absorption coefficient is a means to study the band gaps at ... to l2( ), where. ⊂ Zd is a finite set. (usually taken to be a lattice cube centred at the origin) and λ±,uλ± are eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of H. ±. ,ω . Then the interband light absorption coefficient A for such finite volume models can.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menbari, Amir; Alemrajabi, Ali Akbar; Ghayeb, Yousef
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Viscosity and optical properties of binary nanofluids are investigated. • Effective parameters on stability of binary nanofluids are studied. • At optimal stability condition viscosity and absorbency of nanofluids are optimum. • The extinction coefficient of binary nanofluids is sum of its components ones. - Abstract: Binary nanofluids form a new class of nanofluids made through the simultaneous dispersion of two dissimilar nanoparticles in a base fluid. Two different nanoparticles may behave differently from their constituent components. Given the wide applications of binary nanofluids in a variety of fields, it is important to gain an understanding of the best stability conditions for binary nanofluids. In this work, the effects of such nanofluid properties as pH, surfactant (SHMP) concentration, and ultrasonic time are experimentally investigated on the stability of binary nanofluids. For this purpose, binary nanofluids are prepared using the two-step method. Two dissimilar nanoparticles, i.e. CuO and γ-Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles are dispersed in ethylene glycol and in the ethylene glycol–water mixture to form the desired nanofluids. Results show that at optimal stability conditions, viscosity and absorbency of the nanofluids are minimum and maximum, respectively. Also, the stability optimal parameters of binary nanofluids are found to be different from their corresponding values for each individual nanofluid. The extinction coefficient of the binary nanofluid is found to be approximately equal to the sum of those of the constituent components. Finally, the extinction coefficient of the nanoparticles dispersed in the mixture of ethylene glycol–water is determined to be greater than that of ethylene glycol.
Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos A. Macía M
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.
Regularity of the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC), in a symmetric form, in the case of random operators on the -dimensional lattice. We show that the symmetrized version of ILAC is either continuous or has a component which has the same modulus of continuity as the density of states.
An alternative coefficient for sound absorption
Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Kuipers, E.R.; de Boer, Andries; Sas, P; Jonckheere, S.; Moens, D.
2013-01-01
The acoustic absorption coefficient is a number that indicates which fraction of the incident acoustic power impinging on a surface is being absorbed. The incident acoustic power is obtained by spatial integration of the incident intensity, which is (classically) defined as the time-averaged
Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters
Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.
1980-01-01
The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.
Measurement of chemical diffusion coefficients in liquid binary alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keita, M.; Steinemann, S.; Kuenzi, H.U.
1976-01-01
New measurements of the chemical diffusion coefficient in liquid binary alloys are presented. The wellknown geometry of the 'capillary-reservoir' is used and the concentration is obtained from a resistivity measurement. The method allows to follow continuously the diffusion process in the liquid state. A precision of at least 10% in the diffusion coefficient is obtained with a reproductibility better than 5%. The systems Hg-In, Al-Sn, Al-Si have been studied. Diffusion coefficients are obtained as a function of temperature, concentration, and geometrical factors related to the capillary (diameter, relative orientation of density gradient and gravity). (orig.) [de
Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.
Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.
2007-12-01
Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.
Calculation of effective absorption coefficient for aerosols of internal mixture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Bo; Huang Yinbo; Fan Chengyu; Qiao Chunhong
2012-01-01
The effective absorption coefficient with time of strong absorbing aerosol made of carbon dusts and water of internal mixture is analyzed, and the influence of different wavelengths and radius ratios on it is discussed. The shorter the wavelength is, the larger the effective absorption coefficient is , and more quickly it increases during 1-100 μs, and the largest increase if 132.65% during 1-100 μs. Different ratios between inner and outer radius have large influence on the effective absorption coefficient. The larger the ratio is, the larger the effective absorption coefficient is, and more quickly it increases during 1-100 μs. The increase of the effective absorption coefficient during 1-100 μs is larger than that during 100-1000 μs, and the largest increase is 138.66% during 1-100 μs. (authors)
DETERMINATION OF DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS OF BINARY LIQUID SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erol İNCE
2001-03-01
Full Text Available The diaphragm cell method technique was used to determine the diffusion coefficients of selected binary systems (Cyclopentanol-Acetic acid, Cyclohexanol-Acetic acid and Methylcyclohexanol-Acetic acid. The technique was chosen because of simplicity and accuracy. The stirring rate was 60 rpm. The diaphragm cell was calibrated at 298.15 K by diffusing of 0.1 N KCl solution into distilled water. The experimental diaphragm cell constant (ß was found 0.09293 cm -2 . The temperature of water bath was controlled by a contact thermometer with an accuracy of ± 0.1 °C. The obtained experimental diffusion coefficients for Cyclopentanol-Acetic acid, Cyclohexanol-Acetic acid and Methylcyclohexanol - Acetic acid binary systems were 2.40 x 10 -5 cm 2 /s, 1.16 x 10 -5 cm 2 /s, 3.97 x 10 -5 cm 2 /s, respectively. Furthermore, diffusion coefficients have been estimated by the theoretical methods of Wilke - Chang and Scheibel equations and compared with the experimental results.
Restricted mass energy absorption coefficients for use in dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brahme, A.
1977-02-01
When matter is irradiated by a photon beam the fraction of energy absorbed locally in some region Rsub(Δ) (where the size of the region Rsub(Δ) is related to the range of secondary electrons of some restriction energy Δ) is expressed by the restricted mass energy absorption coefficient. In this paper an example is given of how restricted mass energy absorption coefficients can be calculated from existing differential photon interaction cross sections. Some applications of restricted mass absorption coefficients in dosimetry are also given. (B.D.)
Retrieving complex surface impedances from statistical absorption coefficients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mondet, Boris Jean-Francois; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2017-01-01
coefficients, prior information about the absorber of interest can be used as constraints, which is shown to help determine the correct impedance from absorption coefficient. Further stability and sensitivity investigations indicate that the method presented constitutes an efficient solution to convert sound......In room acoustic simulations the surface materials are commonly represented with energy parameters, such as the absorption and scattering coefficients, which do not carry phase information. This paper presents a method to transform statistical absorption coefficients into complex surface impedances...... that the impedance found has a physical meaning and respects causality in the time domain. Known material models, such as Miki’s and Maa’s models, are taken as references to assess the validity of the suggested model. Due to the non-uniqueness of retrieving complex-valued impedances from real-valued absorption...
Use of appropriate absorption coefficients in gamma-ray dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gopinath, D.V.; Natarajan, A.; Subbaiah, K.V.
1985-01-01
The current use of the different types of absorption coefficients in the computation of γ-ray energy deposition rates and air dose is critically analyzed. Transport calculations are presented to bring out the errors associated with the use of different absorption coefficients. It is observed that except for source energies in the range of 0.3 to 3.0 MeV the consistent use of the absorption coefficient, μ/sub a/ results in an underestimate of the air dose everywhere and of energy deposition at regions away from source. The underestimate becomes more significant with increased atomic number (Z) of the medium. Based on the computations and analysis it is concluded that the absorption coefficients μ/sub a/ and μ/sub k/ are of very limited use in practical γ-ray dosimetry
Reflection and absorption coefficients for use in room acoustic simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2013-01-01
Two ideas to improve the boundary conditions for room acoustic simulations are presented. First, all rooms have finite boundary surfaces, thereby a reflection coefficient for finite surfaces should be physically more suitable than that for infinitely large surfaces. Second, absorption coefficients...
Theoretical assessment of sound absorption coefficient for anisotropic nonwovens
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Klara Kalinova
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The anisotropy factor as a function of fiber arrangement, fiber fineness and sample thickness has been derived from the theories of soundwave transformation due to phase changing. The sound absorption coefficient of the anisotropic fibrous material is then theoretically calculated. The fibrous materials were prepared so that the fibers are arranged parallel (perpendicularly laid fiber web called STRUTO technology in the direction of soundwave propagation or perpendicularly (longitudinally laid fiber web to the direction of sound propagation. The sound absorption coefficient was measured due to the Impedance tube. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental findings.
First sound absorption and dissipation coefficients of HeII
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamenko, I.N.; Belyaev, N.R.; Tsyganok, V.I.
1988-01-01
The first sound absorption coefficient is obtained on the basis of kinetic equations for phonons and rotons. The second viscosity coefficient of He II is calculated at different pressures in a wide temperature range including the phonon-roton and pure phonon regions and taking into account the inelastic phonon scattering by rotons and the phonon spectrum dispersion. The calculation is compared with experimental results
Lifshitz Tails for the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC) for various models. We show that at the lower and upper edges of the spectrum the Lifshitz tails behaviour of the density of states implies similar behaviour for the ILAC at appropriate energies. The Lifshitz tails property is also exhibited at some points ...
Determination of sedimentation rates and absorption coefficient of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
DR. MIKE HORSFALL
particles have pores that can absorb radiation. Gamma rays have been used to study the absorption coefficients of cobalt(II) insoluble compounds (Essien and Ekpe, 1998), densities of marine sediments. (Gerland and Villinger, 1995) and soil particle-size distribution (Vaz et al., 1992). In this study, sedimentation rates of ...
The mass energy transfer and mass absorption coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomljenovic, I.; Stankovic, S.; Ninkovic, M.
2002-01-01
The calculation of the mass energy transfer and the mass absorption coefficients is presented and data for their change by energy, in range from 0,01 MeV to 10 MeV, are given. Data are numerically and graphically presented for following materials: air, water, polyethylene, lucite and polystyrene (author)
Theoretical assessment of sound absorption coefficient for anisotropic nonwovens
Klara Kalinova
2012-01-01
The anisotropy factor as a function of fiber arrangement, fiber fineness and sample thickness has been derived from the theories of soundwave transformation due to phase changing. The sound absorption coefficient of the anisotropic fibrous material is then theoretically calculated. The fibrous materials were prepared so that the fibers are arranged parallel (perpendicularly laid fiber web called STRUTO technology) in the direction of soundwave propagation or perpendicularly (longitudinally la...
Estimation of water absorption coefficient using the TDR method
Suchorab, Zbigniew; Majerek, Dariusz; Brzyski, Przemysław; Sobczuk, Henryk; Raczkowski, Andrzej
2017-07-01
Moisture accumulation and transport in the building barriers is an important feature that influences building performance, causing serious exploitation problems as increased energy use, mold and bacteria growth, decrease of indoor air parameters that may lead to sick building syndrome (SBS). One of the parameters that is used to describe moisture characteristic of the material is water absorption coefficient being the measure of capillary behavior of the material as a function of time and the surface area of the specimen. As usual it is determined using gravimetric methods according to EN 1925:1999 standard. In this article we demonstrate the possibility of determination of water absorption coefficient of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) using the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) method. TDR is an electric technique that had been adopted from soil science and can be successfully used for real-time monitoring of moisture transport in building materials and envelopes. Data achieved using TDR readouts show high correlation with standard method of moisture absorptivity coefficient determination.
The viscous slip coefficient for a binary gas mixture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knackfuss, Rosenei F.
2009-01-01
For a moderately small rarefaction, the Navier-Stokes equations are associated with of the slip boundary condition, i e the velocity of the gas on the surface is different from zero at the surface, but its tangential component, depends on the profile distribution of velocity and temperature near the surface. The slip for the velocity profile near the surface is determined by the viscous slip coefficient. The viscous slip coefficient can be determined solving the equation of the Boltzmann or the kinetic equations which are simplified forms of Boltzmann equation with respect to the operator of collision. For this reason, in this work is presented the derivation of the solution of the viscous-slip problem for the mixtures of two noble gases, based on the McCormack model that is developed in terms of an analytical version of the discrete ordinates method has been applied with excellent results, to derive solutions to several problems in rarefied gas dynamics. To complete the problem, include the gas-surface interaction, based on the model of Cercignani-Lampis, which, unlike the model of Maxwell, has two accommodation coefficients: the coefficient of accommodation of tangential moment and the energy accommodation coefficient kinetics due to normal component of velocity. (author)
Modeling diffusion coefficients in binary mixtures of polar and non-polar compounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Medvedev, Oleg; Shapiro, Alexander
2005-01-01
The theory of transport coefficients in liquids, developed previously, is tested on a description of the diffusion coefficients in binary polar/non-polar mixtures, by applying advanced thermodynamic models. Comparison to a large set of experimental data shows good performance of the model. Only...
Photosensitizer absorption coefficient modeling and necrosis prediction during Photodynamic Therapy.
Salas-García, Irene; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Arce-Diego, José Luis
2012-09-03
The development of accurate predictive models for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has emerged as a valuable tool to adjust the current therapy dosimetry to get an optimal treatment response, and definitely to establish new personal protocols. Several attempts have been made in this way, although the influence of the photosensitizer depletion on the optical parameters has not been taken into account so far. We present a first approach to predict the spatio-temporal variation of the photosensitizer absorption coefficient during PDT applied to dermatological diseases, taking into account the photobleaching of a topical photosensitizer. This permits us to obtain the photons density absorbed by the photosensitizer molecules as the treatment progresses and to determine necrosis maps to estimate the short term therapeutic effects in the target tissue. The model presented also takes into account an inhomogeneous initial photosensitizer distribution, light propagation in biological media and the evolution of the molecular concentrations of different components involved in the photochemical reactions. The obtained results allow to investigate how the photosensitizer depletion during the photochemical reactions affects light absorption by the photosensitizer molecules as the optical radiation propagates through the target tissue, and estimate the necrotic tumor area progression under different treatment conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Estimating the Sabine absorption coefficient of fibrous materials for various backing conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2017-01-01
Since absorber manufacturers cannot provide the absorption coefficients for all possible mounting conditions, acousticians have difficulties knowing the absorption characteristics of their own configurations. This paper aims to predict the Sabine absorption coefficient for various mounting...... conditions by extracting the air flow resistivity of the test specimen and the frequency-dependent effect of the chamber on the measured absorption coefficients. Two homogeneous fibrous absorbers are measured for experimental validation, showing good agreements between the predictions and measurements...
Yamaguchi, H.; Takamori, K.; Perrier, P.; Graur, I.; Matsuda, Y.; Niimi, T.
2016-01-01
The viscous slip coefficient for helium-argon binary gas mixture is extracted from the experimental values of the mass flow rate through a microtube. The mass flow rate is measured by the constant-volume method. The viscous slip coefficient was obtained by identifying the measured mass flow rate through a microtube with the corresponding analytical expression, which is a function of the Knudsen number. The measurements were carried out in the slip flow regime where the first-order slip bounda...
Measured and numerically partitioned phytoplankton spectral absorption coefficients in inland waters
Zhang, Y.; Liu, M.; Van Dijk, M.A.; Zhu, G.; Gong, Z.; Li, Y.M.; Qin, B.
2009-01-01
Total particulate, tripton and phytoplankton absorption coefficients were measured for eutrophic (Lake Taihu), meso-eutrophic (Lake Tianmuhu) and mesotrophic waters (the Three Gorges Reservoir) in China using the quantitative filter technique. Meanwhile, tripton and phytoplankton absorption
Light Absorption Coefficients for Soluble Species in Snow, Dome C, Antarctica, Version 1
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains light absorption coefficients for soluble chromophores (light-absorbing chemicals) and concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (HOOH) and nitrate...
Prabhakaran, Sai Shri; Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Dev, Pravin Jeba; Shanmugam, Palanisamy
2018-05-01
Spectral absorption coefficients of particulate (algal and non-algal components) and dissolved substances are modelled and combined with the pure seawater component to determine the total light absorption coefficients of seawater in the Bay of Bengal. Two parameters namely chlorophyll-a (Chl) concentration and turbidity were measured using commercially available instruments with high sampling rates. For modelling the light absorption coefficients of oceanic waters, the measured data are classified into two broad groups - algal dominant and non-algal particle (NAP) dominant. With these criteria the individual absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAP were established based on their concentrations using an iterative method. To account for the spectral dependence of absorption by phytoplankton, the wavelength-dependent coefficients were introduced into the model. The CDOM absorption was determined by subtracting the individual absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAP from the measured total absorption data and then related to the Chl concentration. Validity of the model is assessed based on independent in-situ data from certain discrete locations in the Bay of Bengal. The total absorption coefficients estimated using the new model by considering the contributions of algal, non-algal and CDOM have good agreement with the measured total absorption data with the error range of 6.9 to 28.3%. Results obtained by the present model are important for predicting the propagation of the radiant energy within the ocean and interpreting remote sensing observation data.
R package to estimate intracluster correlation coefficient with confidence interval for binary data.
Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Hossain, Akhtar
2018-03-01
The Intracluster Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is a major parameter of interest in cluster randomized trials that measures the degree to which responses within the same cluster are correlated. There are several types of ICC estimators and its confidence intervals (CI) suggested in the literature for binary data. Studies have compared relative weaknesses and advantages of ICC estimators as well as its CI for binary data and suggested situations where one is advantageous in practical research. The commonly used statistical computing systems currently facilitate estimation of only a very few variants of ICC and its CI. To address the limitations of current statistical packages, we developed an R package, ICCbin, to facilitate estimating ICC and its CI for binary responses using different methods. The ICCbin package is designed to provide estimates of ICC in 16 different ways including analysis of variance methods, moments based estimation, direct probabilistic methods, correlation based estimation, and resampling method. CI of ICC is estimated using 5 different methods. It also generates cluster binary data using exchangeable correlation structure. ICCbin package provides two functions for users. The function rcbin() generates cluster binary data and the function iccbin() estimates ICC and it's CI. The users can choose appropriate ICC and its CI estimate from the wide selection of estimates from the outputs. The R package ICCbin presents very flexible and easy to use ways to generate cluster binary data and to estimate ICC and it's CI for binary response using different methods. The package ICCbin is freely available for use with R from the CRAN repository (https://cran.r-project.org/package=ICCbin). We believe that this package can be a very useful tool for researchers to design cluster randomized trials with binary outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ottink, Marco; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2016-01-01
for the finiteness of the absorber. A sound field model, which accounts for scattering from the finite absorber edges, assuming plane wave incidence is derived. A significant influence of the finiteness on the radiation impedance and the corresponding absorption coefficient is found. A finite surface method, which......Absorption coefficients are mostly measured in reverberation rooms or with impedance tubes. Since these methods are only suitable for measuring the random incidence and the normal incidence absorption coefficient, there exists an increasing need for absorption coefficient measurement of finite...... absorbers at oblique incidence in situ. Due to the edge diffraction effect, oblique incidence methods considering an infinite sample fail to measure the absorption coefficient at large incidence angles of finite samples. This paper aims for the development of a measurement method that accounts...
Measurement of the absorption coefficient of acoustical materials using the sound intensity method
Atwal, Mahabir S.; Crocker, Malcolm J.
1987-01-01
In this study the possibility of using the two-microphone sound intensity technique to measure the normal incidence and the random incidence sound absorption coefficient was investigated. The normal incidence absorption coefficient was determined by measuring the intensity incidence on the sample and the intensity reflected by the sample placed in an anechoic chamber. The random incidence absorption coefficient was determined by measuring the intensity incident on the sample and the intensity reflected by the sample placed in a reverberation chamber. Absorption coefficient results obtained by the sound intensity technique were compared with standard techniques, namely the reverberation chamber and the standing wave tube. The major advantages of using the sound intensity technique are that it permits 'in situ' measurements and the absorption coefficient for a large range of frequencies can be obtained from a single measurement.
Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for midinfrared laser radiation
Jansen, E. D.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Motamedi, M.; Borst, C.; Welch, A. J.
1994-01-01
The dynamics of the water absorption peak around 1.94 microns was examined. This peak is important for the absorption of holmium and thulium laser radiation. To examine the effect of temperature on the absorption coefficient, the transmission of pulsed Ho:YAG, Ho:YAG, Ho:YSGG, and Tm:YAG laser
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donne, M.D.; Piazza, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Goraieb, A.; Sordon, G.
1998-01-01
The four ITER partners propose to use binary beryllium pebble bed as neutron multiplier. Recently this solution has been adopted for the ITER blanket as well. In order to study the heat transfer in the blanket the effective thermal conductivity and the wall heat transfer coefficient of the bed have to be known. Therefore at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe heat transfer experiments have been performed with a binary bed of beryllium pebbles and the results have been correlated expressing thermal conductivity and wall heat transfer coefficients as a function of temperature in the bed and of the difference between the thermal expansion of the bed and of that of the confinement walls. The comparison of the obtained correlations with the data available from the literature show a quite good agreement. (author)
Hanyu, Toshiki
2010-09-01
This paper describes the development of a theoretical framework for quantitatively characterizing sound field diffusion based on scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient of walls. The concepts of equivalent scattering area, equivalent scatter reflection area, average scattering coefficient and average scatter reflection coefficient are introduced in order to express all walls' capability of scatter in a room. Using these concepts and the mean free path, scatter-to-absorption ratio, mean scatter time and diffusion time are defined in order to evaluate degree of diffusion of a space. Furthermore the effect of spatial scattering objects to sound field diffusion is formulated. In addition the time variation of specular and scattered components in a room impulse response is formulated. The verification of these characterization methods was performed with computer simulations based on the sound ray tracing method. The results supported that the ideas presented are basically valid.
Measurement of the absorption coefficient using the sound-intensity technique
Atwal, M.; Bernhard, R.
1984-01-01
The possibility of using the sound intensity technique to measure the absorption coefficient of a material is investigated. This technique measures the absorption coefficient by measuring the intensity incident on the sample and the net intensity reflected by the sample. Results obtained by this technique are compared with the standard techniques of measuring the change in the reverberation time and the standing wave ratio in a tube, thereby, calculating the random incident and the normal incident adsorption coefficient.
Mass-dependence of self-diffusion coefficients in disparate-mass binary fluid mixtures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Binas
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Self-diffusion coefficients of a binary fluid mixture with components differing only in their particle masses are studied, in particular the case when mass ratio μ of light and heavy particles tends to zero. These coefficients were calculated within the memory function formalism, using the systematic subsequence of approximations for the relaxation times of velocity autocorrelation function. We obtained a general relation for the self-diffusion coefficients which show polynomial dependence on the mass ratio μ. The obtained expression has a correct Brownian limit. We developed the hierarchy of approximations for the self-diffusion coefficients that tends to an exact result from above and below when the order of approximations increases.
Predicted sound absorption coefficients of absorber materials lined in a chamber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farhad Forouharmajd
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Aims: The present study was aimed to measurement of sound absorption coefficient of mineral wool and determination of their absorption ability. Materials and Methods: Mineral wool was used to find noise absorption coefficient. Random and normal sound absorption coefficient values were predicted. Then, the measures of transmission loss calculated as an overall value, for applied absorbent material and bare sheet metal. Results: The measured values of noise with one octave band frequency demonstrated an attenuation of 5.5-7 dB for these frequencies. The absorption coefficients of materials showed that mineral wool had more normal sound coefficients than its random sound absorption coefficient values. Conclusion: It can be concluded that predicted normal sound absorption coefficients of used mineral wool materials were near to the areas of standard line. It seems that the amount or thickness of absorbent lining was a main reason of noise reduction in low band frequencies. Mineral wool has a higher density and can provide better acoustical and insulating results than fiberglass. Besides, mineral wool doesn′t lose its insulating value when wet and has an outstanding resistance to fire.
Zhang, J.; Xia, T.; Chen, Q.; Sun, Q.; Deng, Y.; Wang, C.
2018-03-01
The characteristic absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde in the terahertz frequency region are obtained by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). In order to reduce the absorption of terahertz (THz) wave by water vapor in the air and the background noise, the measurement system was filled with dry air and the measurements were conducted at the temperature of 24°C. Meanwhile, the humidity was controlled within 10% RH. The THz frequency domain spectra of samples and their references from 0 to 2.5 THz were analyzed via Fourier transform. The refractive index and absorption coefficients of the two aldehydes were calculated by the model formulas. From 0.1 to 2.5 THz, there appear two weak absorption peaks at 1.20 and 1.66 THz in the absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde. Only one distinct absorption peak emerges at 1.83 THz for metaldehyde. There are significant differences between the terahertz absorption coefficients of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, which can be used as "fingerprints" to identify these substances. Furthermore, the relationship between the average absorption coefficients and mass concentrations was investigated and the average absorption coefficient-mass concentration diagrams of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde were shown. For paraformaldehyde, there is a linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the natural logarithm of mass concentration. For metaldehyde, there exists a simpler linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the mass concentration. Because of the characteristics of THz absorption of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, the THz-TDS can be applied to the qualitative and quantitative detection of the two aldehydes to reduce the unpredictable hazards due to these substances.
Deaconu, Marius; Toma, Adina Cristina; Dragasanu, Luminita Ioana; Mihai, Dragos
2017-06-01
Sound absorption coefficient is a commonly used parameter to characterize the acoustic properties of sound absorbing materials that plays an important role in noise attenuation. For this study a specific material has been chosen in order to be evaluated experimentally and compared with the simulated results. Both simulation and experimental assessments used to estimate the sound absorption coefficient are based on transfer function method in accordance with standard SR EN JSO 10354-2. Results are obtained for 15, 30, 45 mm material sample thickness in order to assess the relationship between absorption coefficient, thickness and frequency response. Comparative analysis is performed to determine differences given by the two approaches.
Absorption coefficients for water vapor at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K
Kessler, W. J.; Carleton, K. L.; Marinelli, W. J.
1993-01-01
Measurements of the water absorption coefficient at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K are reported. The measurements were made using broadband VUV radiation and a monochromator-based detection system. The water vapor was generated by a saturator and metered into a flowing, 99 cm absorption cell via a water vapor mass flow meter. The 193 nm absorption coefficient measurements are compared to room temperature and high temperature shock tube measurements with good agreement. The absorption can be parameterized by a nu3 vibrational mode reaction coordinate and the thermal population of the nu3 mode.
Generalized Einstein relation for the mutual diffusion coefficient of a binary fluid mixture.
Felderhof, B U
2017-08-21
The method employed by Einstein to derive his famous relation between the diffusion coefficient and the friction coefficient of a Brownian particle is used to derive a generalized Einstein relation for the mutual diffusion coefficient of a binary fluid mixture. The expression is compared with the one derived by de Groot and Mazur from irreversible thermodynamics and later by Batchelor for a Brownian suspension. A different result was derived by several other workers in irreversible thermodynamics. For a nearly incompressible solution, the generalized Einstein relation agrees with the expression derived by de Groot and Mazur. The two expressions also agree to first order in solute density. For a Brownian suspension, the result derived from the generalized Smoluchowski equation agrees with both expressions.
NON-EQUILIBRIUM MOLECULAR DYNAMICS USED TO OBTAIN SORET COEFFICIENTS OF BINARY HYDROCARBON MIXTURES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. A. Furtado
2015-09-01
Full Text Available AbstractThe Boundary Driven Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (BD-NEMD method is employed to evaluate Soret coefficients of binary mixtures. Using a n-decane/n-pentane mixture at 298 K, we study several parameters and conditions of the simulation procedure such as system size, time step size, frequency of perturbation, and the undesired warming up of the system during the simulation. The Soret coefficients obtained here deviated around 20% when comparing with experimental data and with simulated results from the literature. We showed that fluctuations in composition gradients and the consequent deviations of the Soret coefficient may be due to characteristic fluctuations of the composition gradient. Best results were obtained with the smallest time steps and without using a thermostat, which shows that there is room for improvement and/or development of new BD-NEMD algorithms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Golmohammadi
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Noise is one of the most important harmful agents in work environment. In spit of industrial improvements, exposure with over permissible limit of noise is counted as one of the health complication of workers. In Iran, do not exact information of the absorption coefficient of acoustic materials. Iranian manufacturer have not laboratory for measured of sound absorbance of their products, therefore using of sound absorber is limited for noise control in industrial and non industrial constructions. The goal of this study was to design an impedance tube based on pressure method for measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of acoustic materials.Materials & Methods: In this study designing of measuring system and method of calculation of sound absorption based on a available equipment and relatively easy for measurement of the sound absorption coefficient related to ISO10534-1 was performed. Measuring system consist of heavy asbestos tube, a pure tone sound generator, calibrated sound level meter for measuring of some commonly of sound absorber materials was used. Results: In this study sound absorption coefficient of 23 types of available acoustic material in Iran was tested. Reliability of results by three repeat of measurement was tested. Results showed that the standard deviation of sound absorption coefficient of study materials was smaller than .Conclusion: The present study performed a necessary technology of designing and producing of impedance tube for determining of acoustical materials absorption coefficient in Iran.
On the Pressure and Temperature Dependence of the Absorption Coefficient of NH3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Aousgi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The effects of pressure and temperature on the absorption coefficient of ammonia (NH3 gas self-perturbed and perturbed by nitrogen (N2 gas have been measured. We varied the gas pressure from 10 to 160 Torr and the temperature from 235 to 296 K in order to study the absorption coefficient at the center and the wings of lines in the ν4 band of NH3. These measurements were made using a high resolution (0.0038 cm-1 Bruker Fourier-transform spectrometer. These spectra have been analyzed using the method of multipressure technique permitting to succeed to an evolution of the absorption coefficient with the pressure and the quantum numbers J and K of the NH3 molecule. The results show that the absorption coefficient varies as a quadratic function of the pressure at the center of a given line. However, it has a linear evolution in the wings of the line. Moreover, the absorption coefficients are inversely proportional to temperature in the wings when NH3 lines are broadened by N2. The retrieved values of these coefficients were used to derive the temperature dependence of N2 broadening NH3 lines. The absorption coefficients were shown to fit closely the well-known exponential law.
The Effect of New Collision-Induced Absorption Coefficients on the Early Mars Limit Cycle Hypothesis
Hayworth, B. P.; Payne, R. C.; Kasting, J. F.
2017-11-01
Updating the Limit Cycling (LC) Model for early Mars with new absorption coefficients to test for changes to LC behavior and to potentially lower needed concentrations of greenhouse gases. Thought will be given to the effect of LC on habitability.
Preliminary results of an algorithm to determine the total absorption coefficient of water
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.J.; Lotlikar, A.
An algorithm to determine the spectral total absorption coefficient of water is presented. The algorithm is based on the Gershun’s equation of alfa = micro K_{E}. The spectral underwater average cosine, micro and vertical attenuation...
Theory and Experiment of Binary Diffusion Coefficient of n-Alkanes in Dilute Gases.
Liu, Changran; McGivern, W Sean; Manion, Jeffrey A; Wang, Hai
2016-10-10
Binary diffusion coefficients were measured for n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-octane in helium and of n-pentane in nitrogen over the temperature range of 300 to 600 K, using reversed-flow gas chromatography. A generalized, analytical theory is proposed for the binary diffusion coefficients of long-chain molecules in simple diluent gases, taking advantage of a recently developed gas-kinetic theory of the transport properties of nanoslender bodies in dilute free-molecular flows. The theory addresses the long-standing question about the applicability of the Chapman-Enskog theory in describing the transport properties of nonspherical molecular structures, or equivalently, the use of isotropic potentials of interaction for a roughly cylindrical molecular structure such as large normal alkanes. An approximate potential energy function is proposed for the intermolecular interaction of long-chain n-alkane with typical bath gases. Using this potential and the analytical theory for nanoslender bodies, we show that the diffusion coefficients of n-alkanes in typical bath gases can be treated by the resulting analytical model accurately, especially for compounds larger than n-butane.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaltout, A.
2003-06-01
of edge positions, description of M4 and M5-ranges of elements from Z=61 upwards by sawtooth responses and reduction of data by introduction of least squares fits of fifth order. In order to calculate the mass absorption coefficients from Scofield's data base, coherent and incoherent scattering cross sections have to be taken from Elam's numerical data. This revised version of Scofield's data base is recommended for quantitative x-ray analysis programs. The detector efficiency of both EPMA and EDXRFA was calculated theoretically. Consequently, a comparison between experimental and theoretical x-ray tube spectra at 30 keV indicated the validity of the computed detector efficiencies. A precise calculation of correction factor and solid angle is performed in order to decrease the systematic errors in the fundamental parameter programs. By using the mentioned new set of fundamental parameters, a quantitative analysis of binary and ternary alloys was performed. The comparison between computed and expected compositions confirms the quality of the modified fundamental parameters. (author)
On the sound absorption coefficient of porous asphalt pavements for oblique incident sound waves
Bezemer-Krijnen, Marieke; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Bekke, Dirk; Davy, J.; Don, Ch.; McMinn, T.; Dowsett, L.; Broner, N.; Burgess, M.
2014-01-01
A rolling tyre will radiate noise in all directions. However, conventional measurement techniques for the sound absorption of surfaces only give the absorption coefficient for normal incidence. In this paper, a measurement technique is described with which it is possible to perform in situ sound
Ottink, Marco; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Fernandez-Grande, Efren; Trojgaard, Per; Tiana-Roig, Elisabet
2016-01-01
Absorption coefficients are mostly measured in reverberation rooms or with impedance tubes. Since these methods are only suitable for measuring the random incidence and the normal incidence absorption coefficient, there exists an increasing need for absorption coefficient measurement of finite absorbers at oblique incidence in situ. Due to the edge diffraction effect, oblique incidence methods considering an infinite sample fail to measure the absorption coefficient at large incidence angles of finite samples. This paper aims for the development of a measurement method that accounts for the finiteness of the absorber. A sound field model, which accounts for scattering from the finite absorber edges, assuming plane wave incidence is derived. A significant influence of the finiteness on the radiation impedance and the corresponding absorption coefficient is found. A finite surface method, which combines microphone array measurements over a finite sample with the sound field model in an inverse manner, is proposed. Besides, a temporal subtraction method, a microphone array method, impedance tube measurements, and an equivalent fluid model are used for validation. The finite surface method gives promising agreement with theory, especially at near grazing incidence. Thus, the finite surface method is proposed for further measurements at large incidence angles.
Measurement of the sound absorption coefficient for an advanced undergraduate physics laboratory
Macho-Stadler, E.; Elejalde-García, M. J.
2017-09-01
We present a simple experiment that allows advanced undergraduates to learn the basics of the acoustic properties of materials. The impedance tube-standing wave method is applied to study the normal absorption coefficient of acoustics insulators. The setup includes a tube, a speaker, a microphone, a digital function generator and an oscilloscope, material available in an undergraduate laboratory. Results of the change of the absorption coefficient with the frequency, the sample thickness and the sample density are analysed and compared with those obtained with a commercial system.
Sound absorption coefficient of coal bottom ash concrete for railway application
Ramzi Hannan, N. I. R.; Shahidan, S.; Maarof, Z.; Ali, N.; Abdullah, S. R.; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan
2017-11-01
A porous concrete able to reduce the sound wave that pass through it. When a sound waves strike a material, a portion of the sound energy was reflected back and another portion of the sound energy was absorbed by the material while the rest was transmitted. The larger portion of the sound wave being absorbed, the lower the noise level able to be lowered. This study is to investigate the sound absorption coefficient of coal bottom ash (CBA) concrete compared to the sound absorption coefficient of normal concrete by carried out the impedance tube test. Hence, this paper presents the result of the impedance tube test of the CBA concrete and normal concrete.
Robin, Olivier; Berry, Alain; Doutres, Olivier; Atalla, Noureddine
2014-07-01
This letter proposes an experimental method to estimate the absorption coefficient of sound absorbing materials under a synthesized diffuse acoustic field in free-field conditions. Comparisons are made between experiments conducted with this approach, the standard reverberant room method, and numerical simulations using the transfer matrix method. With a simple experimental setup and smaller samples than those required by standards, the results obtained with the proposed approach do not exhibit non-physical trends of the reverberant room method and provide absorption coefficients in good agreement with those obtained by simulations for a laterally infinite material.
A numerical study of a method for measuring the effective in situ sound absorption coefficient.
Kuipers, Erwin R; Wijnant, Ysbrand H; de Boer, André
2012-09-01
The accuracy of a method [Wijnant et al., Proc. of ISMA 31, Leuven, Belgium (2010), Vol. 31] for measurement of the effective area-averaged in situ sound absorption coefficient is investigated. Based on a local plane wave assumption, this method can be applied to sound fields for which a model is not available. Investigations were carried out by means of finite element simulations for a typical case. The results show that the method is a promising method for determining the effective area-averaged in situ sound absorption coefficient in complex sound fields.
Dohnal, Petr; Hejduk, Michal; Rubovič, Peter; Varju, Jozef; Roučka, Štěpán; Plašil, Radek; Glosík, Juraj
2012-11-01
Recombination of D_3^+ ions with electrons at low temperatures (80-130 K) was studied using spectroscopic determination of D_3^+ ions density in afterglow plasmas. The use of cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy enabled an in situ determination of the abundances of the ions in plasma and the translational and the rotational temperatures of the recombining ions. Two near infrared transitions at (5792.70 ± 0.01) cm-1 and at (5793.90 ± 0.01) cm-1 were used to probe the number densities of the lowest ortho state and of one higher lying rotational state of the vibrational ground state of D_3^+ ion. The results show that D_3^+ recombination with electrons consists of the binary and the third-body (helium) assisted process. The obtained binary recombination rate coefficients are in agreement with a recent theoretical prediction for electron-ion plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium with αbin(80 K) = (9.2 ± 2.0) × 10-8 cm3 s-1. The measured helium assisted ternary rate coefficients KHe are in agreement with our previously measured flowing afterglow data giving a value of KHe(80 K) = (1.2 ± 0.3) × 10-25 cm6 s-1.
Dohnal, Petr; Hejduk, Michal; Rubovič, Peter; Varju, Jozef; Roučka, Štěpán; Plašil, Radek; Glosík, Juraj
2012-11-21
Recombination of D(3)(+) ions with electrons at low temperatures (80-130 K) was studied using spectroscopic determination of D(3)(+) ions density in afterglow plasmas. The use of cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy enabled an in situ determination of the abundances of the ions in plasma and the translational and the rotational temperatures of the recombining ions. Two near infrared transitions at (5792.70 ± 0.01) cm(-1) and at (5793.90 ± 0.01) cm(-1) were used to probe the number densities of the lowest ortho state and of one higher lying rotational state of the vibrational ground state of D(3)(+) ion. The results show that D(3)(+) recombination with electrons consists of the binary and the third-body (helium) assisted process. The obtained binary recombination rate coefficients are in agreement with a recent theoretical prediction for electron-ion plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium with α(bin)(80 K) = (9.2 ± 2.0) × 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1). The measured helium assisted ternary rate coefficients K(He) are in agreement with our previously measured flowing afterglow data giving a value of K(He)(80 K) = (1.2 ± 0.3) × 10(-25) cm(6) s(-1).
Absorption coefficient of nearly transparent liquids measured using thermal lens spectrometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.Cabrera
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We use an optimized pump-probe mode-mismatched thermal lens scheme to determine the optical absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity of ethanol, benzene, acetone, methanol, toluene and chloroform. In this scheme the excitation beam is focused in the presence of a collimated probe beam. The agreement between experimentally obtained results and values reported in the literature is good.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Odinaev, S.; Dodarbekov, A.
2001-01-01
Present article is devoted to frequency dispersion of velocity and sound waves absorption coefficient in the electrolyte solutions. The analytical expressions for acoustic parameters in a wide range of thermodynamic parameters and frequencies change were obtained. The system of equations of generalized hydrodynamics for electrolyte solutions was constructed.
A numerical study of a method for measuring the effective in situ sound absorption coefficient
Kuipers, E.R.; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, A
2012-01-01
The accuracy of a method [Wijnant et al., “Development and applica- tion of a new method for the in-situ measurement of sound absorption”, ISMA 31, Leuven, Belgium (2010).], for measurement of the effective area-averaged in situ sound absorption coefficient is investigated. Based on a local plane
Cordón, Gabriela B; Lagorio, María G
2007-08-01
Emission fluorescence spectra were obtained for the adaxial and abaxial faces of dicotyledonous (Ficus benjamina L., Ficus elastica, Gardenia jasminoides and Hedera helix) and monocotyledonous leaves (Gladiolus spp. and Dracaena cincta bicolor). After correction by light-re-absorption processes, using a previously published physical model, the adaxial faces of dicotyledons showed a fluorescence ratio Fred/Ffar-red rather lower than the respective values for the abaxial faces. Monocotyledons and shade-adapted-plants showed similar values for the corrected fluorescence ratio for both faces. Even when differences in experimental fluorescence emission from adaxial and abaxial leaves in dicotyledons are mostly due to light re-absorption processes, the residual dissimilarity found after application of the correction model would point to the fact that fluorescence re-absorption is not the only responsible for the observed disparity. It was concluded that light re-absorption processes does not account entirely for the differences in the experimental emission spectra between adaxial and abaxial leaves. Differences that remains still present after correction might be interpreted in terms of a different photosystem ratio (PSII/PSI). Experiments at low temperature sustained this hypothesis. In dicotyledons, light reflectance for adaxial leaves was found to be lower than for the abaxial ones. It was mainly due to an increase in the scattering coefficient for the lower leaf-side. The absorption coefficient values were slightly higher for the upper leaf-side. During senescence of Ficus benjamina leaves, the scattering coefficient increased for both the upper and lower leaf-sides. With senescence time the absorption coefficient spectra broadened while the corrected fluorescence ratio (Fred/Ffar-red) decreased for both faces. The results pointed to a preferential destruction of photosystem II relative to photosystem I during senescence.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Green, Rebecca E; Gould, Jr., Richard W; Ko, Dong S
2008-01-01
... (CDOM) absorption coefficients from physical hydrographic and atmospheric properties. The models were developed for northern Gulf of Mexico shelf waters using multi-year satellite and physical data...
Chlorophyll specific absorption coefficient and phytoplankton biomass in the Red Sea
Tiwari, Surya Prakash
2015-01-01
The role of total particulate matter, the sum of phytoplankton and nonalgal particles, is essential to understanding the distribution and pathways of particulate carbon in the ocean. Their relative contributions to light absorption and scattering are fundamental to understanding remotely sensed ocean color. Until recently, data regarding the contribution of phytoplankton and algal particles to the inherent optical properties of the Red Sea was nonexistent. Some of the first measurements of these inherent optical properties in the Red Sea including phytoplankton specific absorption coefficients (aph*(λ)) were obtained by the TARA Oceans expedition in January 2010. From these observations, chlorophyll a was calculated using the Line Height Method (LHM) that minimizes the contribution to total and particulate absorption by non-algal particles (NAP) and CDOM. Bricaud and Stramski’s (1990) a method was then used to decompose hyperspectral total particulate absorption into the contributions by phytoplankton and nonalgal particles.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernanda Sayuri Yoshino Watanabe
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Aim: In this research, we investigated the spectral variability of the specific phytoplankton absorption coefficient, a*φ, measured in a tropical meso-to-hypertrophic reservoir, aiming to find spectral features associated with the chlorophyll-a (chla and other accessory pigments present in different phytoplankton species. Methods To accomplish this research, two fieldworks were carried out in different seasons in order to report a high bio-optical variation. Phytoplankton absorption coefficient, aφ, and chla concentration were measured in laboratory to estimate a*φ. Results The outcomes have indicated that there is a remarkable phytoplankton community dynamic as spatially as seasonally. Chla absorption features were well-defined at 440 nm and 675 nm. Conclusions All the a*φ spectra exhibited the absorption peak around 630 nm associated with phycocyanin pigment present in cyanobacteria. Some spectra have shown a peak at about 460 nm, which is related to chlorophyll b and chlorophyll c (chlb and chlc, respectively found in different phytoplankton species. In turn, absorption features of carotenoids around 490 nm also were identified, however, well defined just in curves measured in austral autumn. Such spectral features are found in phytoplankton groups already identified in the study area such as Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Conjugatophyceae, Chrysophyceae, among others. We expect that the results are useful in researches about remote sensing of phytoplankton and eutrophication in reservoirs.
Bonella, Sara; Ferrario, Mauro; Ciccotti, Giovanni
2017-10-24
Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are combined to compute the full set of coefficients that appear in the phenomenological equations describing thermal transport in a binary mixture subject to a constant thermal gradient. The Dynamical Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics approach (D-NEMD) is employed to obtain the microscopic time evolution of the density and temperature fields, together with that of the mass and energy fluxes. D-NEMD enables one to study not only the steady state, but also the evolution of the fields during the transient that follows the onset of the thermal gradient, up to the establishment of the steady state. This makes it possible to ensure that the system has indeed reached a stationary condition, and to analyze the transient mechanisms and time scales of the mass and energy transport. A local time averaging procedure is applied to each trajectory contributing to the calculation to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the estimation of the fluxes and to obtain a clear signal with the, relatively limited, statistics available.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeRose, Paul C.; Kramer, Gary W.
2005-01-01
The absorption coefficient of standard reference material[registered] (SRM[registered]) 1932, fluorescein in a borate buffer solution (pH=9.5) has been determined at λ=488.0, 490.0, 490.5 and 491.0 nm using the US national reference UV/visible spectrophotometer. The purity of the fluorescein was determined to be 97.6% as part of the certification of SRM 1932. The solution measured was prepared gravimetrically by diluting SRM 1932 with additional borate buffer. The value of the absorption coefficient was corrected for bias due to fluorescence that reaches the detector and for dye purity. Bias due to fluorescence was found to be on the order of -1% for both monochromatic and polychromatic (e.g., diode-array based) spectrophotometers
Modeling of the Interminiband Absorption Coefficient in InGaN Quantum Dot Superlattices
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Giovanni Giannoccaro
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a model to estimate minibands and theinterminiband absorption coefficient for a wurtzite (WZ indium gallium nitride (InGaN self-assembled quantum dot superlattice (QDSL is developed. It considers a simplified cuboid shape for quantum dots (QDs. The semi-analytical investigation starts from evaluation through the three-dimensional (3D finite element method (FEM simulations of crystal mechanical deformation derived from heterostructure lattice mismatch under spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects. From these results, mean values in QDs and barrier regions of charge carriers’ electric potentials and effective masses for the conduction band (CB and three valence sub-bands for each direction are evaluated. For the minibands’ investigation, the single-particle time-independent Schrödinger equation in effective mass approximation is decoupled in three directions and resolved using the one-dimensional (1D Kronig–Penney model. The built-in electric field is also considered along the polar axis direction, obtaining Wannier–Stark ladders. Then, theinterminiband absorption coefficient in thermal equilibrium for transverse electric (TE and magnetic (TM incident light polarization is calculated using Fermi’s golden rule implementation based on a numerical integration into the first Brillouin zone. For more detailed results, an absorption coefficient component related to superlattice free excitons is also introduced. Finally, some simulation results, observations and comments are given.
Uncertainty analysis for the coefficient of band-to-band absorption of crystalline silicon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carsten Schinke
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We analyze the uncertainty of the coefficient of band-to-band absorption of crystalline silicon. For this purpose, we determine the absorption coefficient at room temperature (295 K in the wavelength range from 250 to 1450 nm using four different measurement methods. The data presented in this work derive from spectroscopic ellipsometry, measurements of reflectance and transmittance, spectrally resolved luminescence measurements and spectral responsivity measurements. A systematic measurement uncertainty analysis based on the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM as well as an extensive characterization of the measurement setups are carried out for all methods. We determine relative uncertainties of the absorption coefficient of 0.4% at 250 nm, 11% at 600 nm, 1.4% at 1000 nm, 12% at 1200 nm and 180% at 1450 nm. The data are consolidated by intercomparison of results obtained at different institutions and using different measurement approaches.
Water vapor absorption coefficients in the 8-13-micron spectral region - A critical review
Grant, William B.
1990-01-01
Measurements of water vapor absorption coefficients in the thermal IR atmospheric window (8-13 microns) during the past 20 years obtained by a variety of techniques are reviewed for consistency and compared with computed values based on the AFGL spectral data tapes. The methods of data collection considered were atmospheric long path absorption with a CO2 laser or a broadband source and filters, a White cell and a CO2 laser or a broadband source and a spectrometer, and a spectrophone with a CO2 laser. Advantages and disadvantages of each measurement approach are given as a guide to further research. Continuum absorption has apparently been measured accurately to about the 5-10 percent level in five of the measurements reported.
Wu, Tzi-Yi; Su, Shyh-Gang; Chiu, Chuen-Lin; Kuo, Chung-Wen; Tung, Yi-Hsuan
2018-02-01
We conduct a comparative study of conductivity and diffusion coefficient of two dicationic ionic liquids (3,3'-(octane-1,8-diyl)bis(1-ethyl-3-imidazolium) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([IMCI][TFSI], S1) and 3,3'-(2,2'-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(oxy))bis(ethane-2,1-diyl))bis(1-ethyl-3-imidazolium) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([IMOI][TFSI], S2)) at various temperatures. The diffusion coefficients of cation and anion in ionic liquids are determined by using pulse gradient spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance method. S2 shows lower viscosity, higher conductivity, and higher diffusion coefficient than those of S1. Moreover, the influence of polyethyleneglycol (PEG200, M w = 200) addition in PEG200/IL binary solutions is investigated. PEG200/S1 binary solutions show lower viscosity, higher conductivity, and higher diffusion coefficient than those of neat S1. The experimental molar conductivity (Λ) of neat IL and PEG200/IL binary solutions is lower than that of the calculated molar conductivity (Λ NMR ) from pulse gradient spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance method at various temperatures, indicating that not all the diffusion species belong to the ionic conduction. In other words, NMR diffusion measurements comprise charged and paired (without charge) ions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kang, Chunwon; Matsumura, Junji; Oda, Kazuyuki
2006-01-01
To compare the standing wave method with two microphone transfer function method in the measuring the sound absorption properties of wood, we measured the sound absorption coefficients of beech wood experimentally in the frequency range of 50 to 1600 Hz by the standing wave method and two-microphone method. The sound absorption coefficient under a continuous frequency range can be estimated in a shorter time by the two microphone transfer function method than the standing wave method. There...
Lakhani, Gopal
2013-04-01
This article presents four modifications to the JPEG arithmetic coding (JAC) algorithm, a topic not studied well before. It then compares the compression performance of the modified JPEG with JPEG XR, the latest block-based image coding standard. We first show that the bulk of inter/intra-block redundancy, caused due to the use of the block-based approach by JPEG, can be captured by applying efficient prediction coding. We propose the following modifications to JAC to take advantages of our prediction approach. 1) We code a totally different DC difference. 2) JAC tests a DCT coefficient by considering its bits in the increasing order of significance for coding the most significant bit position. It causes plenty of redundancy because JAC always begins with the zeroth bit. We modify this coding order and propose alternations to the JPEG coding procedures. 3) We predict the sign of significant DCT coefficients, a problem is not addressed from the perspective of the JPEG decoder before. 4) We reduce the number of binary tests that JAC codes to mark end-of-block. We provide experimental results for two sets of eight-bit gray images. The first set consists of nine classical test images mostly of size 512 × 512 pixels. The second set consists of 13 images of size 2000 × 3000 pixels or more. Our modifications to JAC obtain extra-ordinary amount of code reduction without adding any kind of losses. More specifically, when we quantize the images using the default quantizers, our modifications reduce the total JAC code size of the images of these two sets by about 8.9 and 10.6%, and the JPEG Huffman code size by about 16.3 and 23.4%, respectively, on the average. Gains are even higher for coarsely quantized images. Finally, we compare the modified JAC with two settings of JPEG XR, one with no block overlapping and the other with the default transform (we denote them by JXR0 and JXR1, respectively). Our results show that for the finest quality rate image coding, the modified
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rios Perez, Carlos A.; Biegalski, Steve R.; Deinert, Mark R.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Prompt gamma activation analysis is used to study gas diffusion in a porous system. ► Diffusion coefficients are determined using prompt gamma activation analysis. ► Predictions concentrations fit experimental measurements with an R 2 of 0.98. - Abstract: Diffusion plays a critical role in determining the rate at which gases migrate through porous systems. Accurate estimates of diffusion coefficients are essential if gas transport is to be accurately modeled and better techniques are needed that can be used to measure these coefficients non-invasively. Here we present a novel method for using prompt gamma activation analysis to determine the binary diffusion coefficients of a gas in a porous system. Argon diffusion experiments were conducted in a 1 m long, 10 cm diameter, horizontal column packed with a SiO 2 sand. The temporal variation of argon concentration within the system was measured using prompt gamma activation analysis. The binary diffusion coefficient was obtained by comparing the experimental data with the predictions from a numerical model in which the diffusion coefficient was varied until the sum of square errors between experiment and model data was minimized. Predictions of argon concentration using the optimal diffusivity fit experimental measurements with an R 2 of 0.983.
Ultrasonic absorption and velocity dispersion of binary mixture liquid crystal MBBA/EBBA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, K.
1979-01-01
The effect of phase transitions and the partial magnetic alignment for liquid crystal molecules on the ultrasonic absorption and velocity dispersion has been investigated. The binary mixture of Shiff base liquid crystals MBBA/EBBA (55:45 mole %) showed anomalous ultrasonic absorption and velocity dispersion at eutectic (Tsub(m) = -20 0 C) and clearing point (Tsub(c) = 50 0 C) at the frequency range of 5 MHz, 10MHz, 15MHz and 30 MHz. The experimental data were analyzed in terms of relaxation time and Fixman theory. The anisotropy of the propagation velocity due to the magnetic alignment was about 0.9% (the deviation between velocities propagating parallel and perpendicular to the applied field). (author)
Rafiee, Hamid Reza; Rastgar, Mina; Heidari, Neda
2011-08-01
The accurate reduced potential energies for two binary gas mixtures including benzene-methanol and methane-tetrafluoromethane at low density have been obtained by direct inversion of the viscosity collision integral equations. The kinetic theory along with the extended principle of corresponding-states has been used to calculate the viscosity and diffusion coefficients over a wide range of temperature and composition. Good agreements between calculated and experimental data are obtained.
Calvo-Lerma, Joaquim; Martínez-Barona, Sandra; Masip, Etna; Fornés, Victoria; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen
2017-10-01
Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) remains a backbone in the nutritional treatment of cystic fibrosis. Currently, there is a lack of an evidence-based tool that allows dose adjustment. To date, no studies have found an association between PERT dose and fat absorption. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the influence of both the PERT dose and the variability in this dose on the coefficient of fat absorption (CFA). This is a retrospective longitudinal study of 16 pediatric patients (192 food records) with three consecutive visits to the hospital over a twelve-month period. Dietary fat intake and PERT were assessed via a four-day food record and fat content in stools was determined by means of a three-day stool sample collection. A beta regression model was built to explain the association between the CFA and the interaction between the PERT dose (lipase units [LU]/g dietary fat) and the variability in the PERT dose (standard deviation [SD]). The coefficient of fat absorption increased with the PERT dose when the variability in the dose was low. In contrast, even at the highest PERT dose values, the CFA decreased when the variability was high. The confidence interval suggested an association, although the analysis was not statistically significant. The variability in the PERT dose adjustment should be taken into consideration when performing studies on PERT efficiency. A clinical goal should be the maintenance of a constant PERT dose rather than trying to obtain an optimal value.
Bandwidth enhancement in microwave absorption of binary nanocomposite ferrites hollow microfibers.
Song, Fuzhan; Shen, Xiangqian; Yang, Xinchun; Meng, Xianfeng; Xiang, Jun; Liu, Ruijiang; Dong, Mingdong
2013-04-01
The binary Ba0.5Sr0.5Fe12O19 (BSFO)/Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 (NZFO) nanocomposite ferrites hollow microfibers with high aspect ratios have been prepared by the gel precursor transformation process. These microfibers possess a high specific surface area about 45.2 m2 g(-1), and a ratio of the hollow diameter to the fiber diameter estimated about 5/7. The binary nanocomposite ferrites are formed after the precursor calcined at 750 degrees C for 3 h. Their minimum reflection loss (RL) is -38.1 dB at 10.4 GHz. The microwave absorption bandwidth with RL value exceeding -20 dB covers the whole X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) and Ku-band (12.4-18 GHz). This enhancement in microwave absorption can be attributed to the exchange-coupling interaction, interfacial polarization and small size effect in nanocomposite hollow microfibers.
Determination of absorption coefficient of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira maxima in water
Tekiner, Murat; Kurt, Mustafa; Ak, Ilknur; Kurt, Arzu
2018-02-01
Safe drinking water is crucial for human healthy, nowadays all drinking and irrigation water in developed country commonly come from dams. The water is transported to our usage area by several type of pipe or water-trench. The water can be infected some bacteria such as Chlorella vulgaris, Arthrospira maxima, during this transportation. In this study, we determine which wavelength effect to these green algae and cyanobacteria. For different concentration of these microorganisms in water, we determined uv-vis spectrum. By analyzing these spectrums, we determined absorption coefficient of these microorganisms for selected wavelength. The results show which wavelength can be used for destroy these microorganisms in affected water.
Müller-Trapet, Markus; Vorländer, Michael
2015-01-01
This work presents an analysis of the effect of some uncertainties encountered when measuring absorption or scattering coefficients in the reverberation chamber according to International Organization for Standardization/American Society for Testing and Materials standards. This especially relates to the uncertainty due to spatial fluctuations of the sound field. By analyzing the mathematical definition of the respective coefficient, a relationship between the properties of the chamber and the test specimen and the uncertainty in the measured quantity is determined and analyzed. The validation of the established equations is presented through comparisons with measurement data. This study analytically explains the main sources of error and provides a method to obtain the product of the necessary minimum number of measurement positions and the band center frequency to achieve a given maximum uncertainty in the desired quantity. It is shown that this number depends on the ratio of room volume to sample surface area and the reverberation time of the empty chamber.
Hibi, Yoshihiko; Kashihara, Ayumi
2018-03-01
A previous study has reported that Knudsen diffusion coefficients obtained by tracer experiments conducted with a binary gas system and a porous medium are consistently smaller than those obtained by permeability experiments conducted with a single-gas system and a porous medium. To date, however, that study is the only one in which tracer experiments have been conducted with a binary gas system. Therefore, to confirm this difference in Knudsen diffusion coefficients, we used a method we had developed previously to conduct tracer experiments with a binary carbon dioxide-nitrogen gas system and five porous media with permeability coefficients ranging from 10 -13 to 10 -11 m 2 . The results showed that the Knudsen diffusion coefficient of N 2 (D N2 ) (cm 2 /s) was related to the effective permeability coefficient k e (m 2 ) as D N2 = 7.39 × 10 7 k e 0.767 . Thus, the Knudsen diffusion coefficients of N 2 obtained by our tracer experiments were consistently 1/27 of those obtained by permeability experiments conducted with many porous media and air by other researchers. By using an inversion simulation to fit the advection-diffusion equation to the distribution of concentrations at observation points calculated by mathematically solving the equation, we confirmed that the method used to obtain the Knudsen diffusion coefficient in this study yielded accurate values. Moreover, because the Knudsen diffusion coefficient did not differ when columns with two different lengths, 900 and 1500 mm, were used, this column property did not influence the flow of gas in the column. The equation of the dusty gas model already includes obstruction factors for Knudsen diffusion and molecular diffusion, which relate to medium heterogeneity and tortuosity and depend only on the structure of the porous medium. Furthermore, there is no need to take account of any additional correction factor for molecular diffusion except the obstruction factor because molecular diffusion is
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2010-06-01
Measured absorption coefficients in reverberation chambers often differ from theoretical random incidence absorption coefficients, because ideal assumptions for the theoretical random incidence absorption coefficient are not fulfilled during measurements in actual reverberation chambers. Therefore sound intensity distributions on absorber under measurement conditions have been simulated using a phased beam tracing, and used as correction functions for reducing discrepancies between the measured and theoretical absorption coefficients. Two reverberation rooms were investigated by assuming that a test specimen was attached to a vertical surface and the floor. The frequency-dependent sound intensity distributions on absorbers were found to be affected by the reverberation chamber geometry and dimensions, the absorption capability of the specimen, and the placement of the specimen. High frequency intensity distributions above 1 kHz were similar for all studied cases, but some variations in low frequency intensity distributions were observed. If the non-uniform intensity distribution and a finite size effect are taken into account for correcting the theoretical absorption coefficients, a good agreement is found between corrected and measured statistical absorption coefficients. The non-uniform sound intensity can account for the discrepancy at high frequencies.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Choi, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Ikjin
2017-01-01
chamber significantly, whereas the flow resistivity is a rather reproducible material property, from which the absorptive characteristics can be calculated through reliable models. Using Sabine absorption coefficients measured in 13 European reverberation chambers, the maximum a posteriori......A Bayesian analysis is applied to determine the flow resistivity of a porous sample and the influence of the test chamber based on measured Sabine absorption coefficient data. The Sabine absorption coefficient measured in a reverberation chamber according to ISO 354 is influenced by the test...... and the uncertainty of the flow resistivity and the test chamber’s influence are estimated. Inclusion of more than one chamber’s absorption data helps the flow resistivity converge towards a reliable value with a standard deviation below 17%...
Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Choi, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Ikjin
2017-03-01
A Bayesian analysis is applied to determine the flow resistivity of a porous sample and the influence of the test chamber based on measured Sabine absorption coefficient data. The Sabine absorption coefficient measured in a reverberation chamber according to ISO 354 is influenced by the test chamber significantly, whereas the flow resistivity is a rather reproducible material property, from which the absorptive characteristics can be calculated through reliable models. Using Sabine absorption coefficients measured in 13 European reverberation chambers, the maximum a posteriori and the uncertainty of the flow resistivity and the test chamber's influence are estimated. Inclusion of more than one chamber's absorption data helps the flow resistivity converge towards a reliable value with a standard deviation below 17%.
Carbonation Coefficients from Concrete Made with High-Absorption Limestone Aggregate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric I. Moreno
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Normal aggregates employed in concrete have absorption levels in the range of 0.2% to 4% for coarse aggregate and 0.2 to 2% for fine aggregate. However, some aggregates have absorption levels above these values. As the porosity of concrete is related to the porosity of both the cement paste and the aggregate and the carbonation rate is a function, among other things, of the porosity of the material, there is concern about the effect of this high porosity material in achieving good quality concrete from the durability point of view. Thus, the objective of this investigation was to study the carbonation rates of concrete specimens made with high-absorption limestone aggregate. Four different water/cement ratios were used, and cylindrical concrete specimens were exposed to accelerated carbonation. High porosity values were obtained for concrete specimens beyond the expected limits for durable concrete. However, carbonation coefficients related to normal quality concrete were obtained for the lowest water/cement ratio employed suggesting that durable concrete may be obtained with this material despite the high porosity.
Determination of absorption coefficient based on laser beam thermal blooming in gas-filled tube.
Hafizi, B; Peñano, J; Fischer, R; DiComo, G; Ting, A
2014-08-01
Thermal blooming of a laser beam propagating in a gas-filled tube is investigated both analytically and experimentally. A self-consistent formulation taking into account heating of the gas and the resultant laser beam spreading (including diffraction) is presented. The heat equation is used to determine the temperature variation while the paraxial wave equation is solved in the eikonal approximation to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the Gaussian laser spot radius, Gouy phase (longitudinal phase delay), and wavefront curvature. The analysis is benchmarked against a thermal blooming experiment in the literature using a CO₂ laser beam propagating in a tube filled with air and propane. New experimental results are presented in which a CW fiber laser (1 μm) propagates in a tube filled with nitrogen and water vapor. By matching laboratory and theoretical results, the absorption coefficient of water vapor is found to agree with calculations using MODTRAN (the MODerate-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database) and HITRAN (the HIgh-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database).
Hoche, S; Hussein, M A; Becker, T
2015-03-01
The accuracy of density, reflection coefficient, and acoustic impedance determination via multiple reflection method was validated experimentally. The ternary system water-maltose-ethanol was used to execute a systematic, temperature dependent study over a wide range of densities and viscosities aiming an application as inline sensor in beverage industries. The validation results of the presented method and setup show root mean square errors of: 1.201E-3 g cm(-3) (±0.12%) density, 0.515E-3 (0.15%) reflection coefficient and 1.851E+3 kg s(-1) m(-2) (0.12%) specific acoustic impedance. The results of the diffraction corrected absorption showed an average standard deviation of only 0.12%. It was found that the absorption change shows a good correlation to concentration variations and may be useful for laboratory analysis of sufficiently pure liquids. The main part of the observed errors can be explained by the observed noise, temperature variation and the low signal resolution of 50 MHz. In particular, the poor signal-to-noise ratio of the second reflector echo was found to be a main accuracy limitation. Concerning the investigation of liquids the unstable properties of the reference material PMMA, due to hygroscopicity, were identified to be an additional, unpredictable source of uncertainty. While dimensional changes can be considered by adequate methodology, the impact of the time and temperature dependent water absorption on relevant reference properties like the buffer's sound velocity and density could not be considered and may explain part of the observed deviations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joaquim Calvo-Lerma
Full Text Available Objectives: Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT remains a backbone in the nutritional treatment of cystic fibrosis. Currently, there is a lack of an evidence-based tool that allows dose adjustment. To date, no studies have found an association between PERT dose and fat absorption. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the influence of both the PERT dose and the variability in this dose on the coefficient of fat absorption (CFA. Methods: This is a retrospective longitudinal study of 16 pediatric patients (192 food records with three consecutive visits to the hospital over a twelve-month period. Dietary fat intake and PERT were assessed via a four-day food record and fat content in stools was determined by means of a three-day stool sample collection. A beta regression model was built to explain the association between the CFA and the interaction between the PERT dose (lipase units [LU]/g dietary fat and the variability in the PERT dose (standard deviation [SD]. Results: The coefficient of fat absorption increased with the PERT dose when the variability in the dose was low. In contrast, even at the highest PERT dose values, the CFA decreased when the variability was high. The confidence interval suggested an association, although the analysis was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The variability in the PERT dose adjustment should be taken into consideration when performing studies on PERT efficiency. A clinical goal should be the maintenance of a constant PERT dose rather than trying to obtain an optimal value.
Sound absorption coefficient in situ: an alternative for estimating soil loss factors.
Freire, Rosane; Meletti de Abreu, Marco Henrique; Okada, Rafael Yuri; Soares, Paulo Fernando; GranhenTavares, Célia Regina
2015-01-01
The relationship between the sound absorption coefficient and factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was determined in a section of the Maringá Stream basin, Paraná State, by using erosion plots. In the field, four erosion plots were built on a reduced scale, with dimensions of 2.0×12.5m. With respect to plot coverage, one was kept with bare soil and the others contained forage grass (Brachiaria), corn and wheat crops, respectively. Planting was performed without any type of conservation practice in an area with a 9% slope. A sedimentation tank was placed at the end of each plot to collect the material transported. For the acoustic system, pink noise was used in the measurement of the proposed monitoring, for collecting information on incident and reflected sound pressure levels. In general, obtained values of soil loss confirmed that 94.3% of material exported to the basin water came from the bare soil plot, 2.8% from the corn plot, 1.8% from the wheat plot, and 1.1% from the forage grass plot. With respect to the acoustic monitoring, results indicated that at 16kHz erosion plot coverage type had a significant influence on the sound absorption coefficient. High correlation coefficients were found in estimations of the A and C factors of the USLE, confirming that the acoustic technique is feasible for the determination of soil loss directly in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyyedeh Maliheh Mirhashemi
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Leaf area index, light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency are important eco-physiological characteristics for realization of crops growth, development and radiation absorption. In order to determine the leaf area index (LAI, light extinction coefficient (K and radiation use efficiency (RUE of saffron during the first and second growing seasons, four experiments were started in 2011 and ended in 2014, at the Research Farm of the Agriculture Faculty, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Saffron corms with weights between 13 to15 g and density of 50 plant.m2 were cultivated in 2011 and 2012. In all experimental years during the growing season, crop sampling was taken for required measurements including the leaf area index and shoot dry weight of saffron once every 14 days. The results showed that by increasing the age of saffron from 1 year to two years, the maximum LAI of saffron increased from 0.33 to 1.81, and light extinction coefficient decreased from 1.20 to 0.54. The increasing trend of LAI was coincident with fraction of absorbed radiation for all four years of the experiment. In the first and the second growing seasons, the amount of fraction of absorbed radiation gradually increased with increasing LAI and at 1083 and 1034 GDD reached its maximum value, respectively. In saffron farms when the plant was one year old and two years old, the mean value of RUE was 0.68 and 1.73 g.MJ-1 PAR, respectively. These results indicate that by increasing the saffron age and LAI, the value of K decreases and consequently radiation absorption and use efficiency will increase.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binzoni, T; Leung, T S; Ruefenacht, D; Delpy, D T
2006-01-01
Based on quasi-elastic scattering theory (and random walk on a lattice approach), a model of laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been derived which can be applied to measurements in large tissue volumes (e.g. when the interoptode distance is >30 mm). The model holds for a semi-infinite medium and takes into account the transport-corrected scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of the tissue, and the scattering coefficient of the red blood cells. The model holds for anisotropic scattering and for multiple scattering of the photons by the moving scatterers of finite size. In particular, it has also been possible to take into account the simultaneous presence of both Brownian and pure translational movements. An analytical and simplified version of the model has also been derived and its validity investigated, for the case of measurements in human skeletal muscle tissue. It is shown that at large optode spacing it is possible to use the simplified model, taking into account only a 'mean' light pathlength, to predict the blood flow related parameters. It is also demonstrated that the 'classical' blood volume parameter, derived from LDF instruments, may not represent the actual blood volume variations when the investigated tissue volume is large. The simplified model does not need knowledge of the tissue optical parameters and thus should allow the development of very simple and cost-effective LDF hardware
Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Spuckler, Charles M.; Markham, James R.
2009-01-01
The temperature dependence of the scattering and absorption coefficients for a set of freestanding plasma-sprayed 8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined at temperatures up to 1360 C in a wavelength range from 1.2 micrometers up to the 8YSZ absorption edge. The scattering and absorption coefficients were determined by fitting the directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance values calculated by a four-flux Kubelka Munk method to the experimentally measured hemispherical-directional reflectance and transmittance values obtained for five 8YSZ thicknesses. The scattering coefficient exhibited a continuous decrease with increasing wavelength and showed no significant temperature dependence. The scattering is primarily attributed to the relatively temperature-insensitive refractive index mismatch between the 8YSZ and its internal voids. The absorption coefficient was very low (less than 1 per centimeter) at wavelengths between 2 micrometers and the absorption edge and showed a definite temperature dependence that consisted of a shift of the absorption edge to shorter wavelengths and an increase in the weak absorption below the absorption edge with increasing temperature. The shift in the absorption edge with temperature is attributed to strongly temperature-dependent multiphonon absorption. While TBC hemispherical transmittance beyond the absorption edge can be predicted by a simple exponential decrease with thickness, below the absorption edge, typical TBC thicknesses are well below the thickness range where a simple exponential decrease in hemispherical transmittance with TBC thickness is expected. [Correction added after online publication August 11, 2009: "edge to a shorter wavelengths" has been updated as edge to shorter wavelengths."
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jun, Chul Won; Um, C. I.
2000-01-01
The temperature-dependent absorption coefficient of the fourth sound is evaluated explicitly near absolute zero temperature via the temperature-dependent anomalous excitation spectrum in bulk liquid helium. The coefficient increases with decreasing temperature, and the main contribution is due to the thermal conductivity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2010-01-01
sound intensity distributions on absorber under measurement conditions have been simulated using a phased beam tracing, and used as correction functions for reducing discrepancies between the measured and theoretical absorption coefficients. Two reverberation rooms were investigated by assuming...... that a test specimen was attached to a vertical surface and the floor. The frequency-dependent sound intensity distributions on absorbers were found to be affected by the reverberation chamber geometry and dimensions, the absorption capability of the specimen, and the placement of the specimen. High frequency...... agreement is found between corrected and measured statistical absorption coefficients. The non-uniform sound intensity can account for the discrepancy at high frequencies....
Coefficient of Performance Optimization of Single-Effect Lithium-Bromide Absorption Cycle Heat Pumps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the coefficient of performance (COP) of a LiBr absorption cycle heat pump under different operating conditions. The investigation is carried out using a dynamical model fitted against data recorded from an actual heat pump used for district heating in S......⊘nderborg, Denmark. Since the model is too complex to study analytically, we vary different input variables within the permissible operating range of the heat pump and evaluate COP at the resulting steady-state operating points. It is found that the best set-point for each individual input is located at an extreme...... value of the investigated permissible range, and that the COP optimization is likely to be a convex problem. Further, we exploit this observation to propose a simple offline set-point optimization algorithm, which can be used as an automated assistance for the plant operator to optimize steady...
The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Maize Grains Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy
Rodríguez-Páez, C. L.; Carballo-Carballo, A.; Rico-Molina, R.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Moreno-Martínez, E.
2017-01-01
In the maize and tortilla industry, it is important to characterize the color of maize ( Zea mays L.) grain, as it is one of the attributes that directly affect the quality of the tortillas consumed by the population. For this reason, the availability of alternative techniques for assessing and improving the quality of grain is valued. Photoacoustic spectroscopy has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing maize grain. So, the objective of the present study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient β of the maize grain used to make tortillas from two regions of Mexico: (a) Valles Altos, 2012-2013 production cycle and (b) Guasave, Sinaloa, 2013-2014 production cycle. Traditional reflectance measurements, physical characteristics of the grain and nutrient content were also calculated. The experimental results show different characteristics for maize grains.
Free-free absorption coefficients and Gaunt factors for dense hydrogen-like stellar plasma
Srećković, V. A.; Sakan, N.; Šulić, D.; Jevremović, D.; Ignjatović, Lj M.; Dimitrijević, M. S.
2018-03-01
In this work, we present a study dedicated to determination of the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption coefficients and the corresponding Gaunt factor of dense hydrogen-like stellar-atmosphere plasmas where electron density and temperature change in a wide range. A method suitable for this wide range is suggested and applied to the inner layers of the solar atmosphere, as well as the plasmas of partially ionized layers of some other stellar atmospheres (for example, some DA and DB white dwarfs) where the electron densities vary from 1014 cm-3 to 1020 cm-3 and temperatures from 6000 K to 300 000 K in the wavelength region of 10 nm ≤ λ ≤ 3000 nm. The results of the calculations are illustrated by the corresponding figures and tables.
Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Brewin, Robert J W; Nencioli, Francesco; Organelli, Emanuele; Lefering, Ina; McKee, David; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Mitchell, Catherine; Boss, Emmanuel; Bricaud, Annick; Tilstone, Gavin
2017-11-27
Measurements of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (ay) are needed to validate existing ocean-color algorithms. In the surface open ocean, these measurements are challenging because of low ay values. Yet, existing global datasets demonstrate that ay could contribute between 30% to 50% of the total absorption budget in the 400-450 nm spectral range, thus making accurate measurement of ay essential to constrain these uncertainties. In this study, we present a simple way of determining ay using a commercially-available in-situ spectrophotometer operated in underway mode. The obtained ay values were validated using independent collocated measurements. The method is simple to implement, can provide measurements with very high spatio-temporal resolution, and has an accuracy of about 0.0004 m -1 and a precision of about 0.0025 m -1 when compared to independent data (at 440 nm). The only limitation for using this method at sea is that it relies on the availability of relatively large volumes of ultrapure water. Despite this limitation, the method can deliver the ay data needed for validating and assessing uncertainties in ocean-colour algorithms.
[Estimation of DOC concentrations using CDOM absorption coefficients: a case study in Taihu Lake].
Jiang, Guang-Jia; Ma, Rong-Hua; Duan, Hong-Tao
2012-07-01
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the largest organic carbon stock in water ecosystems, which plays an important role in the carbon cycle in water. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), an important water color variation, is the colored fraction of DOC and its absorption controls the instruction of light under water. The available linkage between DOC concentration and CDOM absorptions enables the determination of DOC accumulations using remote sensing reflectance or radiance in lake waters. The present study explored the multi-liner relationship between CDOM absorptions [a(g) (250) and a(g) (365)] and DOC concentrations in Taihu Lake, based on the available data in 4 cruises (201005, 201101, 201103, 201105) (totally 183 sampling sites). Meanwhile, the results were validated with the data of the experiment carried out from August 29 to September 2, 2011 in Taihu Lake (n = 27). Furthermore, a universal pattern of modeling from remote sensing was built for lake waters. The results demonstrated that this method provided more satisfying estimation of DOC concentrations in Taihu Lake. Except the data obtained in January 2011, the fitted results of which were not conductive to the winter dataset (201101) in Taihu Lake, due to the diverse sources and sinks of DOC and CDOM, the multi-liner relationship was robust for the data collected in the other three cruises (R2 = 0.64, RMSE = 14.31%, n = 164), which was validated using the 201108 sampling dataset (R2 = 0.67, RMSE = 10.58%, n = 27). In addition, the form of the statistic model is universal, to some extent, for other water areas, however, there is difference in the modeling coefficients. Further research should be focused on the parameterization using local data from different lakes, which provides effective methodology for the estimation of DOC concentrations in lakes and other water regions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calvar, N.; Domínguez, Á.; Macedo, E.A.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Osmotic coefficients of alcohols with pyrrolidinium ILs are determined. • Experimental data were correlated with extended Pitzer model of Archer and MNRTL. • Mean molal activity coefficients and excess Gibbs free energies were calculated. • The results have been interpreted in terms of interactions. -- Abstract: The osmotic and activity coefficients and vapour pressures of mixtures containing primary (1-propanol, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol) and secondary (2-propanol and 2-butanol) alcohols with pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids (1-butyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, C 4 MpyrNTf 2 , and 1-butyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, C 4 MpyrTFO) have been experimentally determined at T = 323.15 K. For the experimental measurements, the vapour pressure osmometry technique has been used. The results on the influence of the structure of the alcohol and of the anion of the ionic liquid on the determined properties have been discussed and compared with literature data. For the correlation of the osmotic coefficients obtained, the Extended Pitzer model of Archer and the Modified Non-Random Two Liquids model were applied. The mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs energy for the studied mixtures were calculated from the parameters obtained in the correlation
Mass attenuation and mass energy absorption coefficients for 10 keV to 10 MeV photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joffre, H.; Pages, L.
1968-01-01
In this report are given the elements allowing the definition of the values of mass attenuation coefficients and mass energy absorption coefficients for some elements and mixtures, necessary for the study of tissue equivalent materials, for photons in the energy range 10 keV to 10 MeV. After a short reminding of the definitions of the two coefficients, follows, in table form, a compilation of these coefficients, as a function of energy, for simple elements, for certain mineral compounds, organic compounds, gases and particularly of soft tissues. (author) [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Artursson, P.; Karlsson, J. (Uppsala Univ., (Sweden))
1991-03-29
Monolayers of a well differentiated human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2, were used as a model to study passive drug absorption across the intestinal epithelium. Absorption rate constants (expressed as apparent permeability coefficients) were determined for 20 drugs and peptides with different structural properties. The permeability coefficients ranged from approximately 5 x 10{sup {minus} 8} to 5 x 10{sup {minus} 5} cm/s. A good correlation was obtained between data on oral absorption in humans and the results in the Caco-2 model. Drugs that are completely absorbed in humans had permeability coefficients greater than 1 x 10{sup {minus} 6} cm/s. Drugs that are absorbed to greater than 1% but less than 100% had permeability coefficients of 0.1-1.0 x 10{sup {minus} 6} cm/s while drugs and peptides that are absorbed to less than 1% had permeability coefficients of less than or equal to 1 x 10{sup {minus} 7} cm/s. The results indicate that Caco-2 monolayers can be used as a model for studies on intestinal drug absorption.
Esmailpour, Ayoub; Taghiyari, Hamid Reza; Zolfaghari, Habib
2017-06-01
Effects of impregnation with silver nano-suspension as well as heat-treatment on sound absorption coefficients (AC) were studied in tangential direction of five different solid woods based on their importance. AC was measured at two frequencies of 250 and 500 Hz. A 400 ppm nanosuspension was used for the impregnation; silver nanoparticles had a size range of 30-80 nm. Based on the obtained results, the species reacted significantly different in absorbing sound at the two frequencies. Impregnation with nano-suspension substantially decreased AC at the lower frequency of 250 Hz; it did not show any particular trend when AC was measured at the frequency of 500 Hz. Heat treatment significantly increased AC at the frequency of 250 Hz. ACs of mulberry tended to be similar at the two frequencies; in the other four species though, ACs were significantly different. High significant correlations were found in the hardwoods between the ACs measured at the two frequencies.
Effects of nanosilver on sound absorption coefficients in solid wood species.
Taghiyari, Hamid Reza; Esmailpour, Ayoub; Zolfaghari, Habib
2016-06-01
Sound absorption coefficients (ACs) were determined in five solid woods (poplar, beech, walnut, mulberry, and fir) in the longitudinal and tangential directions at four different frequencies of 800, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The length of the longitudinal and tangential specimens was 50-mm and 10-mm, respectively. Separate sets of specimens were impregnated with either nanosilver suspension or water. The size range of nanoparticles was 30-80 nm. Results showed that sound ACs were lower in longitudinal specimens because sound waves could penetrate the open ends of vessels more easily, being trapped and damped there. Impregnation with both nanosilver suspension and water resulted in a significant decrease in the sound ACs. The decrease in the ACs was due to the collapsing and accumulation of perforation plates and cell parts, blocking the way through which waves could pass through the vessels. This caused higher damping due to a phenomenon called vibration decay. Correlation between gas permeability versus sound AC is significantly dependant on the porous structure of individual specimens.
Almandoz, M C; Sancho, M I; Blanco, S E
2014-01-24
The solvatochromic behavior of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy and DFT methods in neat and binary solvent mixtures. The spectral shifts of this solute were correlated with the Kamlet and Taft parameters (α, β and π(*)). Multiple lineal regression analysis indicates that both specific hydrogen-bond interaction and non specific dipolar interaction play an important role in the position of the absorption maxima in neat solvents. The simulated absorption spectra using TD-DFT methods were in good agreement with the experimental ones. Binary mixtures consist of cyclohexane (Cy)-ethanol (EtOH), acetonitrile (ACN)-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ACN-dimethylformamide (DMF), and aqueous mixtures containing as co-solvents DMSO, ACN, EtOH and MeOH. Index of preferential solvation was calculated as a function of solvent composition and non-ideal characteristics are observed in all binary mixtures. In ACN-DMSO and ACN-DMF mixtures, the results show that the solvents with higher polarity and hydrogen bond donor ability interact preferentially with the solute. In binary mixtures containing water, the SMX molecules are solvated by the organic co-solvent (DMSO or EtOH) over the whole composition range. Synergistic effect is observed in the case of ACN-H2O and MeOH-H2O, indicating that at certain concentrations solvents interact to form association complexes, which should be more polar than the individual solvents of the mixture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Woestenenk, Janna W; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Houwen, Roderick H J; van der Ent, CK
Objectives: Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) is the proven therapy to substantially reduce fat malabsorption in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Few details of the daily practice regarding PERT and the resulting coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) are known. We therefore recorded the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Swimm, R.T.; Dumas, K.A.
1982-11-01
The optical absorption coefficient of silicon solar cell material grown by three low-cost growth methods was measured in the wavelength interval 0.8< or =lambda< or =1.0 ..mu..m, the wavelength region of interest in surface photovoltage measurements of the minority carrier diffusion length. The square root of the absorption coefficient was found to vary linearly with photon energy over the wavelengths studied, and the measured data agree with a linear empirical fit to within 0.5% RMS. The absorption coefficients obtained are slightly lower than those reported by Runyan, with the greatest disagreement at long wavelengths. Minority carrier diffusion lengths computed using the present absorption coefficients are approximately 16% greater than those calculated using Runyan's data. Excellent sample-to-sample agreement within and between lots indicates that for two of the growth methods studied, material quality as judged by optical properties has not been sacrificed by the use of low-cost growth methods. Samples grown by the third growth method studied showed measurably poorer optical quality.
Kelly, B.; Chelsky, A.; Bulygina, E.; Roberts, B. J.
2017-12-01
Remote sensing techniques have become valuable tools to researchers, providing the capability to measure and visualize important parameters without the need for time or resource intensive sampling trips. Relationships between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and spectral data have been used to remotely sense DOC concentrations in riverine systems, however, this approach has not been applied to the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and needs to be tested to determine how accurate these relationships are in riverine-dominated shelf systems. In April, July, and October 2017 we sampled surface water from 80+ sites over an area of 100,000 km2 along the Louisiana-Texas shelf in the northern GoM. DOC concentrations were measured on filtered water samples using a Shimadzu TOC-VCSH analyzer using standard techniques. Additionally, DOC concentrations were estimated from CDOM absorption coefficients of filtered water samples on a UV-Vis spectrophotometer using a modification of the methods of Fichot and Benner (2011). These values were regressed against Landsat visible band spectral data for those same locations to establish a relationship between the spectral data, CDOM absorption coefficients. This allowed us to spatially map CDOM absorption coefficients in the Gulf of Mexico using the Landsat spectral data in GIS. We then used a multiple linear regressions model to derive DOC concentrations from the CDOM absorption coefficients and applied those to our map. This study provides an evaluation of the viability of scaling up CDOM absorption coefficient and remote-sensing derived estimates of DOC concentrations to the scale of the LA-TX shelf ecosystem.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stæhr, P. A.; Markager, S. S.
2004-01-01
We evaluated models predicting the spectral chlorophyll-a (Chl a)-specific absorption coefficient (a*ph (¿)) from Chl a concentration [Chl a] on the basis of 465 phytoplankton absorption spectra collected in estuarine, coastal and oceanic waters. A power model on ln-transformed data provided.......015 m2 mg-1 Chl a) at 440 nm, the peak absorption of Chl a in the blue part of the spectrum. The variations in the modelled a*ph spectra were within realistic predictions of a*ph (¿) and the model satisfactorily reproduced the spectral flattening with increasing [Chl a]. The parameterization of a......*ph (¿) confirmed the indirect dependency of a*ph (¿) on [Chl a] through co-variations between [Chl a] with pigment packaging and pigment composition. Although pigment packaging determined the spectral flattening, analysis of absorption ratios revealed a systematic change in pigment composition with profound...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calvar, Noelia; Gomez, Elena; Dominguez, Angeles; Macedo, Eugenia A.
2010-01-01
Osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures containing several primary and secondary alcohols (1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and 1-pentanol) and the pyridinium-based ionic liquid 1-ethylpyridinium ethylsulfate were determined at T = 323.15 K using the vapour pressure osmometry technique. From the experimental results, vapour pressure and activity coefficients can be determined. For the correlation of osmotic coefficients, the extended Pitzer model modified by Archer, and the modified NRTL (MNRTL) model were used, obtaining deviations lower than 0.017 and 0.047, respectively. The mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the binary mixtures studied were determined from the parameters obtained with the extended Pitzer model modified by Archer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez, Elena; Calvar, Noelia; Dominguez, Angeles; Macedo, Eugenia A.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → The osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures (alcohol + ionic liquid) were determined. → The measurements were carried out with a vapor pressure osmometer at 323.15 K. → The Pitzer-Archer, and the MNRTL models were used to correlate the experimental data. → Mean molal activity coefficients and excess Gibbs free energies were calculated. - Abstract: Measurement of osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures containing several primary and secondary alcohols (1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and 1-pentanol) and the pyridinium-based ionic liquid 1,3-dimethylpyridinium methylsulfate were performed at T = 323.15 K using the vapor pressure osmometry technique, and from experimental data, vapor pressure, and activity coefficients were determined. The extended Pitzer model modified by Archer, and the NRTL model modified by Jaretun and Aly (MNRTL) were used to correlate the experimental osmotic coefficients, obtaining standard deviations lower than 0.017 and 0.054, respectively. From the parameters obtained with the extended Pitzer model modified by Archer, the mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the studied binary mixtures were calculated. The effect of the cation is studied comparing the experimental results with those obtained for the ionic liquid 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulfate.
Absorption lines from magnetically driven winds in X-ray binaries
Chakravorty, S.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Ferreira, J.; Henri, G.; Belmont, R.; Clavel, M.; Corbel, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Coriat, M.; Drappeau, S.; Malzac, J.
2016-05-01
Context. High resolution X-ray spectra of black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) show blueshifted absorption lines suggesting the presence of outflowing winds. Furthermore, observations show that the disk winds are equatorial and they occur in the Softer (disk dominated) states of the outburst and are less prominent or absent in the Harder (power-law dominated) states. Aims: We want to test whether the self-similar magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) accretion-ejection models can explain the observational results for accretion disk winds in BHBs. In our models, the density at the base of the outflow from the accretion disk is not a free parameter. This mass loading is determined by solving the full set of dynamical MHD equations without neglecting any physical term. Thus, the physical properties of the outflow depend on and are controlled by the global structure of the disk. Methods: We studied different MHD solutions characterized by different values of the disk aspect ratio (ɛ) and the ejection efficiency (p). We also generate two kinds of MHD solutions depending on the absence (cold solution) or presence (warm solution) of heating at the disk surface. Such heating could be either from dissipation of energy due to MHD turbulence in the disk or from illumination of the disk surface. Warm solutions can have large (>0.1) values of p, which would imply larger wind mass loading at the base of the outflow. We use each of these MHD solutions to predict the physical parameters (distance, density, velocity, magnetic field, etc.) of an outflow. Motivated by observational results, we have put limits on the ionization parameter (ξ), column density, and timescales. Further constraints were derived for the allowed values of ξ from thermodynamic instability considerations, particularly for the Hard SED. These physical constraints were imposed on each of these outflows to select regions within it, which are consistent with the observed winds. Results: The cold MHD solutions are found to be
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arzate P, N.
1994-01-01
Based on the fundamental theory of cylindrical waveguides and resonant cavities, the main characteristic parameters of the microwave plasma source reported in [1] are calculated. The absorption coefficient of an electromagnetic wave which is excited in H 11 mode in a cylindrical waveguide that contains a cold, inhomogeneous and magnetized plasma column is determined by using the perturbative method describe in [2]. In similar way, due to the presence of the plasma column, the shifts of the resonant frequency and of the inverse of the quality of a cylindrical resonant cavity where a TE 111 mode is oscilating are obtained. Finally, based on the linear theory, an analysis of the penetration of electromagnetic fields in a semi-bounded plasma and a plasma layer is done. The reflexion, transmission and absorption coefficients of H waves for the cases of an isotropic homogeneous and weak inhomogeneous plasma are calculated. (Author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2009-01-01
Most acoustic measurements are based on an assumption of ideal conditions. One such ideal condition is a diffuse and reverberant field. In practice, a perfectly diffuse sound field cannot be achieved in a reverberation chamber. Uneven incident energy density under measurement conditions can cause...... discrepancies between the measured value and the theoretical random incidence absorption coefficient. Therefore the angular distribution of the incident acoustic energy onto an absorber sample should be taken into account. The angular distribution of the incident energy density was simulated using the beam...... tracing method for various room shapes and source positions. The averaged angular distribution is found to be similar to a Gaussian distribution. As a result, an angle-weighted absorption coefficient was proposed by considering the angular energy distribution to improve the agreement between...
Wu, Sheng; Crespi, Catherine M; Wong, Weng Kee
2012-09-01
The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is a fundamental parameter of interest in cluster randomized trials as it can greatly affect statistical power. We compare common methods of estimating the ICC in cluster randomized trials with binary outcomes, with a specific focus on their application to community-based cancer prevention trials with primary outcome of self-reported cancer screening. Using three real data sets from cancer screening intervention trials with different numbers and types of clusters and cluster sizes, we obtained point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the ICC using five methods: the analysis of variance estimator, the Fleiss-Cuzick estimator, the Pearson estimator, an estimator based on generalized estimating equations and an estimator from a random intercept logistic regression model. We compared estimates of the ICC for the overall sample and by study condition. Our results show that ICC estimates from different methods can be quite different, although confidence intervals generally overlap. The ICC varied substantially by study condition in two studies, suggesting that the common practice of assuming a common ICC across all clusters in the trial is questionable. A simulation study confirmed pitfalls of erroneously assuming a common ICC. Investigators should consider using sample size and analysis methods that allow the ICC to vary by study condition. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
BALTA, H.
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the influence of the extrinsic information scaling coefficient value (eic on the bit and frame error rate (BER/FER, for single and double binary turbo codes (S/DBTC decoded with maximum a posteriori (MAP and maximum logarithmic MAP (MaxLogMAP component algorithms. Firstly, we estimate the distance spectrum of the code with the so-called error impulse method (EIM, and we analyze its dependence as well as the dependence of the asymptotic FER on eic. Secondly, we estimate the actual FER using Monte Carlo simulations with eic as a parameter. The comparison of the FER(eic curves obtained by the two methods allows us, on the one hand, to assess the quality of the decoding algorithms, and on the other hand, to estimate the very low BER/FER performance of TCs, where the Monte Carlo method is practically unusable. The results presented also provide a practical guide for the appreciation of the optimal value of the scaling factor, eic. We may notice that also the MAP algorithm performance could be improved using eic<1.
Wu, Chuandong; Liu, Jiemin; Yan, Luchun; Chen, Haiying; Shao, Huiqi; Meng, Tian
2015-02-01
Odor activity value (OAV) has been widely used for the assessment of odor pollution from various sources. However, little attention has been paid to the extreme OAV variation and potential inaccuracies of odor contribution assessment caused by odor interaction effects. The objective of this study is to assess the odor interaction effect for precise assessment of odor contribution. In this paper, samples were collected from a food waste disposal plant, and analyzed by instrumental and olfactory method to conclude odorants' occurrence and OAV. Then odor activity value coefficient (γ) was first proposed to evaluate the type and the level of binary interaction effects based on determination of OAV variation. By multiplying OAV and γ, odor activity factor (OAF) was used to reflect the real OAV. Correlation between the sum of OAF and odor concentration reached 80.0 ± 5.7%, which was 10 times higher than the sum of OAV used before. Results showed that hydrogen sulfide contributed most (annual average 66.4 ± 15.8%) to odor pollution in the waste disposal plant. However, as odor intensity of samples in summer rising, odor contribution of trimethylamine increased to 48.3 ± 3.7% by the strong synergistic interaction effect, while odor contribution of phenol decreased to 0.1 ± 0.02% for the increasing antagonistic interaction effect.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avakian, Ts.M.; Karabekov, I.P.; Martirossian, M.A.
1977-01-01
The results of the measurement of absorption coefficients for some biological objects such as pea (Pissum sativum), wheat (Triticum aestivum), tobacco (Nicotiana-tabacum-α) seeds, as well as the distilled water are presented. The measurement has been carried out on the Erevan Physical Institute Electron Accelerator synchrotron radiation beam. The good agreement of experimental and calculated data for water confirms the accuracy of the results related to other objects
Mondal, Rajib
2009-01-01
Removing the adjacent thiophene groups around the acceptor core in low band gap polymers significantly enhances solar cell efficiency through increasing the optical absorption and raising the ionization potential of the polymer. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Lavrik, N. L.; Mulloev, N. U.
2017-12-01
Additional absorption was detected in absorption spectra within the range 300-350 nm after addition of copper sulfate CuSO4(aq) to a solution of sodium salicylate NaНSal (рН = 7.8). The additional maximum absorption was observed at 320 nm. Assuming that the additional absorption depends on the formation of copper salicylate CuSal, the molar absorption coefficient εCuSal of this complex was determined to be (3.8 ± 0.02) · 103 М- 1 сm- 1. This value is almost equal to that of monoanion HSal-, εHSal - = (3.6 ± 0.04) · 103 М- 1 сm- 1, and is 2.5 times as much as εFe3 + HSal - = (1.55 ± 0.05) · 103 М- 1 сm- 1 for iron salicylate. The difference in εCuSal and εFe3 + HSal - is due to the difference in the initial electron states of Cu2 + and Fe3 + ions that have the d9 and d5 configurations, respectively.
Verification of the semiempirical formulae for γ-ray absorption coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chikkur, G.C.; Hanagodimath, S.M.
1989-01-01
The total absorption cross-section have been calculated for power energy γ-rays using the semiempirical formulae put forth by Massaro et al (1982) at three different energies, and the values are compared with the experimental values of Smiles et al (1982). There is a good agreement between experimental and calculated values. (author). 7 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Figueroa, C.; Brizuela, H.; Heluani, S. P.
2014-01-01
The backscattering coefficient is a magnitude whose measurement is fundamental for the characterization of materials with techniques that make use of particle beams and particularly when performing microanalysis. In this work, we report the results of an analytic method to calculate the backscattering and absorption coefficients of electrons in similar conditions to those of electron probe microanalysis. Starting on a five level states ladder model in 3D, we deduced a set of integro-differential coupled equations of the coefficients with a method know as invariant embedding. By means of a procedure proposed by authors, called method of convergence, two types of approximate solutions for the set of equations, namely complete and simple solutions, can be obtained. Although the simple solutions were initially proposed as auxiliary forms to solve higher rank equations, they turned out to be also useful for the estimation of the aforementioned coefficients. In previous reports, we have presented results obtained with the complete solutions. In this paper, we present results obtained with the simple solutions of the coefficients, which exhibit a good degree of fit with the experimental data. Both the model and the calculation method presented here can be generalized to other techniques that make use of different sorts of particle beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yolanda Villanueva-Palero
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Quantitative photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine relies on accurate measurements of relevant material properties of target absorbers. Here, we present a method for simultaneous measurements of the absorption coefficient and Grüneisen parameter of small volume of liquid scattering and absorbing media using a coupled-integrating sphere system which we refer to as quantitative photoacoustic integrating sphere (QPAIS platform. The derived equations do not require absolute magnitudes of optical energy and pressure values, only calibration of the setup using aqueous ink dilutions is necessary. As a demonstration, measurements with blood samples from various human donors are done at room and body temperatures using an incubator. Measured absorption coefficient values are consistent with known oxygen saturation dependence of blood absorption at 750 nm, whereas measured Grüneisen parameter values indicate variability among five different donors. An increasing Grüneisen parameter value with both hematocrit and temperature is observed. These observations are consistent with those reported in literature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohd Zamri Jusoh
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The Direct Piercing Carved Wood Panel (DPCWP installed in Masjid Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, is one example that carries much aesthetic and artistic value. The use of DPCWP in earlier mosques was envisaged to improve the intelligibility of indoor speech because the perforated panels allow some of the sound energy to pass through. In this paper, the normal incidence sound absorption coefficient of DPCWP with Daun Sireh motif, which is a form of floral pattern, is discussed. The Daun Sireh motif was chosen and investigated for 30%, 35%, 40%, and 45% perforation ratios. The simulations were conducted using BEASY Acoustic Software based on the boundary element method. The simulation results were compared with measurements obtained by using the sound intensity technique. An accompanying discussion on both the numerical and the measurement tendencies of the sound absorption characteristics of the DPCWP is provided. The results show that the DPCWP with Daun Sireh motif can act as a good sound absorber.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dryak, P.
1982-01-01
Computation based on the Monte Carlo method was tested for a 4π cylindrical ionization chamber with a detection volume of 7 litres, filled with argon. The sources are placed in the geometrical centre. The correction coefficient for self-absorption was determined as being the ratio of ionization currents induced by a source of finite size and by a massless point source. A flowchart of the program is given. The computations were experimentally tested for cylindrical sources of aqueous 137 Cs and 57 Co solutions. (M.D.)
Müller, Pavel; Brettel, Klaus
2012-04-01
Transient absorption spectroscopy and other time-resolved methods are commonly used to study chemical reactions and biological processes induced by absorption of light. In order to scale the signal amplitude or to compare results obtained under different conditions, it is advisable to use a reference system, a standard of convenient and well-defined properties. Finding Tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(ii), [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+), a suitable candidate for a transient-absorption spectroscopy reference due to its favourable photochemical properties, we have determined accurate relative values of differential molar absorption coefficients (Δε) for light-induced formation of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited triplet state at several relevant wavelengths (wavelengths of commercially available lasers) in the UV and visible regions. We have also attempted to determine the absolute value of Δε close to the wavelength of maximum bleaching (∼450 nm) and we propose to narrow down the interval of conceivable values for Δε(450) from the broad range of published values (-0.88 × 10(4) M(-1)cm(-1) to -1.36 × 10(4) M(-1)cm(-1)) to -1.1 × 10(4) M(-1)cm(-1)± 15%. Having ourselves successfully applied [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) as a standard in a recent time-resolved study of enzymatic DNA repair, we would like to encourage other scientists to use this convenient tool as a reference in their future spectroscopic studies on time scales from picoseconds to hundreds of nanoseconds.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jovalekić Čedomir
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The interest in finding new methods for preparation of nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4 and nickel-zinc ferrite (NixZn1-xFe2O4 powders has recently increased, due to the fact that physical and chemical properties of these soft magnetic materials depend strongly on the preparation conditions. In this paper, powder samples of ferrites were obtained by: 1 classic sintering procedure (NixZn1-xFe2O4, x = 0.9 and 2 planetary mill synthesis (both NiFe2O4 and NixZn1-xFe2O4. Mechanochemical reaction leading to the formation of NixZn1-xFe2O4 (x = 1 and 0.9 spinel phase was monitored by SEM, TEM, and XRD. Values of the real and imaginary parts of permittivity and permeability were measured for the obtained nickel and nickel-zinc ferrite samples in the 7-12 GHz frequency range. Based on the obtained results, the EMR absorption coefficients were calculated for all three sample types. It has been concluded that the method of preparation and the final particle size influence the EMR absorption coefficient of nickel and nickel-zinc ferrites.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Drabek Pavel
2017-01-01
Full Text Available With today’s growing focus on noise control issues and the emergence of sound quality as an important aspect of product design, acoustic material testing is becoming increasingly relevant to engineers, designers and manufacturers from a broad range of industries. Acoustic material testing is the process by which acoustic characteristics of materials are determined in terms of absorption, reflection, impedance, admittance and transmission loss. Many different methods can be used to determine the acoustic properties of materials. There are standing wave method, two-microphone free field and multimicrophone techniques, reverberation chamber method, in-situ methods and many other alternative methods based on measurement of internal properties of porous materials. The point is that some methods are preferred over others because the environment in which they are measured is closer to real practice. The article deals with the comparison of the results of the measurement in the reverberation chamber and in the interferometer.
Fukutomi, D.; Ishii, K.; Awazu, K.
2015-12-01
Anisotropy factor g, one of the optical properties of biological tissues, is the most important parameter to accurately determine scattering coefficient μs in the inverse Monte Carlo (iMC) simulation. It has been reported that g has wavelength and absorption dependence, however, there are few attempts in order to calculate μs of biological tissue considering the wavelength and absorption dependence of g. In this study, the scattering angular distributions of biological tissue phantoms were measured in order to determine g by using goniometric measurements with three polarization conditions at strongly and weakly absorbing wavelengths of hemoglobin. Then, optical properties, especially, μs were measured by integrating sphere measurements and iMC simulation in order to confirm the influence of measured g on optical properties in comparison of with general value of g (0.9) for soft biological tissue. Consequently, it was found that μs was overestimated at strongly absorbing wavelength, however, μs was underestimated at weakly absorbing wavelength if the g was not considered its wavelength and absorption dependence.
Hamel, A.
2017-05-01
This paper presents a study on spectral response, absorption coefficient and external quantum efficiency of solar cell in the form of pyramid [1, 2]. We investigate to what extent and under what conditions we want to take advantage of ray incidence Seven times [3, 4]. It is found that these analyses can be used to determine the optimal surface texture which provides the best light trapping for solar cells in terms of the total internal reflection occurring in the high-index medium at incidence angles larger than the nominal critical angle [3-9]. One of the main contributions of this paper is the analysis and quantification of the influence of the opening between the heads of the two closest pyramids in textured surface for solar cells and its application on the photovoltaic parameters. In this model we show that the material can have seven successive incident ray absorptions instead of five currently, where we changed the direction of the reflected ray, by identifying and install the angle between the two neighbouring pyramids, the incidence angle, the opening between the heads of the two closest pyramids and their height. Thus, with an angle between the two neighbouring pyramid fixed at 12° and for angle of incidence fixed at 84°. For these values of the angle between the two neighbouring pyramids and incidence angle, the opening between the heads of the two closest pyramids fixed at 2.10 μm for a pyramid height of 10 μm. This leads to the largest possible increase in optical efficiency, such as spectral response, Absorption Coefficient and External Quantum Efficiency. The results are in good agreement with the available literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ng, C.S.; Swanson, D.G.
1994-01-01
An analytic series expression of the nonzero fast wave reflection coefficient has been found from the tunneling equation which models the wave propagation in weakly inhomogeneous media near a back-to-back resonance-cutoff pair. Explicit calculations are done for both second ion cyclotron and second electron cyclotron harmonic cases. Numerical values of this expression are compared to those calculated by solving an integral equation iteratively. They agree well with each other whenever both the series and the iteration converge. This result is based on a new method of evaluating integrals derived from the integral equation without having to solve the equation itself. This new method may have more applications and deserves further research and development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Safarov, Javid; Geppert-Rybczyńska, Monika; Hassel, Egon; Heintz, Andreas
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A new apparatus for the determination of VLE is presented. ► The first vapor pressures for binary mixtures containing aprotic solvents in IL are reported. ► Calculated activity coefficients and osmotic coefficients reveal a strong non-ideal behavior. ► A more detailed study of the highly diluted IL concentration range is necessary to test the Debye–Hückel law. - Abstract: A new apparatus for the determination of VLE has been constructed which works for absolute pressure measurements as well as for measuring differential pressures. The first results obtained are (vapor + liquid) equilibria (VLE) of binary mixtures containing acetonitrile or tetrahydrofuran and the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [EMIm][NTf2] by using the absolute pressures method. VLE measurements were carried out over the whole concentration range at four different temperatures between 293.15 K and 313.15 K. Activity coefficients (γ 1 ) of the solvents in [EMIm][NTf2] and their osmotic coefficients (φ 1 ) have been determined from the VLE data.
Distortion of absorption-line velocity curves due to x-ray heating in x-ray binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milgrom, M.
1976-01-01
The effects of X-ray heating on the measured absorption line velocities, in X-ray binaries with low X-rays to optical luminosities ratio are considered. These effects may be appreciable even for such binaries where the effect of X-ray heating on the light-curve is negligible. The effects are studied qualitatively and suggest possible ways to partially eliminate the systematic errors introduced by them. The individual systems Cyg x-1 and SMC x-1 are treated and the results of numerical calculations are presented for them. For Cyg x-1 it is found that the effect is detectable during the X-ray 'high' state in all regions of the spectrum. During the 'low' state it may be important in the red region of the spectrum. The results for the case in which soft X-ray fluxes (E < or approximately .4 keV, suggested by theoretical models) are present are also given. For SMC x-1 a strong effect for Hα, Hβ, Hγ had been found. This effect may be responsible for the observed variable velocity curve. We also find for SMC x-1 that the average X-ray intensity falling on the primary must be considerably smaller than what is derived from the detected flux, or else the effect is too large. (author)
Tomaru, Ryota; Done, Chris; Odaka, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki
2018-05-01
Blueshifted absorption lines from highly ionized iron are seen in some high inclination X-ray binary systems, indicating the presence of an equatorial disc wind. This launch mechanism is under debate, but thermal driving should be ubiquitous. X-ray irradiation from the central source heats disc surface, forming a wind from the outer disc where the local escape velocity is lower than the sound speed. The mass-loss rate from each part of the disc is determined by the luminosity and spectral shape of the central source. We use these together with an assumed density and velocity structure of the wind to predict the column density and ionization state, then combine this with a Monte Carlo radiation transfer to predict the detailed shape of the absorption (and emission) line profiles. We test this on the persistent wind seen in the bright neutron star binary GX 13+1, with luminosity L/LEdd ˜ 0.5. We approximately include the effect of radiation pressure because of high luminosity, and compute line features. We compare these to the highest resolution data, the Chandra third-order grating spectra, which we show here for the first time. This is the first physical model for the wind in this system, and it succeeds in reproducing many of the features seen in the data, showing that the wind in GX13+1 is most likely a thermal-radiation driven wind. This approach, combined with better streamline structures derived from full radiation hydrodynamic simulations, will allow future calorimeter data to explore the detail wind structure.
Tomaru, Ryota; Done, Chris; Odaka, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki
2018-02-01
Blue-shifted absorption lines from highly ionised iron are seen in some high inclination X-ray binary systems, indicating the presence of an equatorial disc wind. This launch mechanism is under debate, but thermal driving should be ubiquitous. X-ray irradiation from the central source heats disc surface, forming a wind from the outer disc where the local escape velocity is lower than the sound speed. The mass loss rate from each part of the disc is determined by the luminosity and spectral shape of the central source. We use these together with an assumed density and velocity structure of the wind to predict the column density and ionisation state, then combine this with a Monte-Carlo radiation transfer to predict the detailed shape of the absorption (and emission) line profiles. We test this on the persistent wind seen in the bright neutron star binary GX 13+1, with luminosity L/LEdd ˜ 0.5. We approximately include the effect of radiation pressure because of high luminosity, and compute line features. We compare these to the highest resolution data, the Chandra third order grating spectra, which we show here for the first time. This is the first physical model for the wind in this system, and it succeeds in reproducing many of the features seen in the data, showing that the wind in GX13+1 is most likely a thermal-radiation driven wind. This approach, combined with better streamline structures derived from full radiation hydrodynamic simulations, will allow future calorimeter data to explore the detail wind structure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calvar, Noelia; Gonzalez, Begona; Dominguez, Angeles; Macedo, Eugenia A.
2009-01-01
Measurements of osmotic coefficients of BmimCl (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) and HmimCl (1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) with ethanol and EmimEtSO 4 (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate) and EmpyEtSO 4 (1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate) with water at T = (313.15 and 333.15) K are reported in this work. Vapour pressure and activity results of the studied binary systems are obtained from experimental measurements. The results for the osmotic coefficients are correlated using the extended Pitzer model modified by Archer and the modified NRTL (MNRTL) model. The standard deviations obtained with both models are also given. The parameters obtained with the extended Pitzer model of Archer are used to calculate the mean molal activity coefficients
Measurement of X-ray attenuation coefficients around K-absorption edges using Fe Kα X-rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerur, B.R.; Thontadarya, S.R.; Hanumaiah, B.
1993-01-01
The x-ray mass attenuation coefficients were measured around the K-absorption edges of elements in the range 16 ≤ Z ≤ 30 using Fe Kα x-rays of energy 6.400 keV, which is the weighted average energy of Kα 1 and Kα 2 x-ray components from the 57 Co radioactive source. Kβ x-rays were almost eliminated by the differential absorption technique. The small difference in energy between Kα 1 and Kα 2 , 13 eV, was shown to be inconsequential by comparing the measured and theoretical values of μ/ρ for standard materials such as Al, Cu, Mo and Ta. The effect of fine structure of the K-absorption edge on μ/ρ was elucidated by using the compounds of elements in the range 16 ≤ X ≤ 30, containing one element with its K-absorption edge energy (E k ) close to the incident photon energy (E x ). The results clearly indicate the validity of the theoretical mixture rule for all those compounds whose K edge is far away from the incident energy but show deviations of as much as 10% for the manganese compound whose K edge is 140 eV above E x and about 12% for the chromium compound whose K edge is 410 eV below E x . These deviations are attributed to the possible influence of resonance Raman scattering when the incident photon energy E x is less than the edge and to the influence of EXAFS when E x is more than the edge energy. (Author)
Kocyła, Anna; Pomorski, Adam; Krężel, Artur
2017-11-01
Zincon (ZI) is one of the most common chromophoric chelating probes for the determination of Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ ions. It is also known to bind other metal ions. However, literature data on its binding properties and molar absorption coefficients are rather poor, varying among publications or determined only in certain conditions. There are no systematic studies on Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ affinities towards ZI performed under various conditions. However, this widely commercially available and inexpensive agent is frequently the first choice probe for the measurement of metal binding and release as well as determination of affinity constants of other ligands/macromolecules of interest. Here, we establish the spectral properties and the stability of ZI and its complexes with Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ and Pb 2+ at multiple pH values from 6 to 9.9. The obtained results show that in water solution the MZI complex is predominant, but in the case of Co 2+ and Ni 2+ , M(ZI) 2 complexes are also formed. The molar absorption coefficient at 618 nm for ZnZI and 599nm for CuZI complexes at pH7.4 in buffered (I=0.1M) water solutions are 24,200 and 26,100M -1 cm -1 , respectively. Dissociation constants of those complexes are 2.09×10 -6 and 4.68×10 -17 M. We also characterized the metal-assisted Zincon decomposition. Our results provide new and reassessed optical and stability data that are applicable to a wide range of chemical and bioinorganic applications including metal ion detection, and quantification and affinity studies of ligands of interest. Accurate values of molar absorption coefficients of Zincon complex with Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Pb 2+ for rapid metal ion quantification are provided. Zincon stability constants with Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ in a wide pH range were determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pawar, N. R.; Chimankar, O. P.; Bhandakkar, V. D.; Padole, N. N.
2012-12-01
The ultrasonic velocity (u), absorption (α), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) has been measured at different frequencies (1MHz to 10MHz) in the binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitriile over the entire range of composition at temperature 303K. Vander Waal's constant (b), adiabatic compressibility (βa), acoustic impedance (Z), molar volume (V), free length (Lf), free volume, internal pressure, intermolecular radius and relative association have been also calculated. A special application for acrylonitrile is in the manufacture of carbon fibers. These are produced by paralysis of oriented poly acrylonitrile fibers and are used to reinforce composites for high-performance applications in the aircraft, defense and aerospace industries. Other applications of acrylonitrile are in the production of fatty amines, ion exchange resins and fatty amine amides used in cosmetics, adhesives, corrosion inhibitors and water-treatment resins. Cyclohexane derivatives can be used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, herbicides, plant growth regulator, plasticizers, rubber chemicals, nylon, cyclamens and other organic compounds. In the view of these extensive applications of acrylonitrile and cyclohexane in the engineering process, textile and pharmaceutical industries present study provides qualitative information regarding the nature and strength of interaction in the liquid mixtures through derive parameters from ultrasonic velocity and absorption measurement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Umiastowski, K.; Buniak, M.; Gyurcsak, J.; Maloszewski, P.
1976-01-01
Monte-Carlo calculations and experiments performed in order to verify the analytical formulae developed in the first part of the present paper are discussed. The grain size effect parameter R is determined from the measurements and Monte-Carlo calculations of the absorption coefficient of the granular samples. The dependence of parameter R on the dimensionless grain size Y, obtained in this way is compared with the one calculated from the formulae of Part 1. Good agreement is obtained for all results in a broad range of radiation energies (from 17 keV to 1.33 MeV) and grain sizes (from 40 μm to 4.0 cm). (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2011-01-01
resistivity and the absorber thickness on the difference between the two surface reaction models are examined and discussed. For a porous absorber backed by a rigid surface, the assumption of local reaction always underestimates the random incidence absorption coefficient and the local reaction models give......Room surfaces have been extensively modeled as locally reacting in room acoustic predictions although such modeling could yield significant errors under certain conditions. Therefore, this study aims to propose a guideline for adopting the local reaction assumption by comparing predicted random...... incidence acoustical characteristics of typical building elements made of porous materials assuming extended and local reaction. For each surface reaction, five well-established wave propagation models, the Delany-Bazley, Miki, Beranek, Allard-Champoux, and Biot model, are employed. Effects of the flow...
Fukutomi, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio
2016-04-01
The anisotropy factor g, one of the optical properties of biological tissues, has a strong influence on the calculation of the scattering coefficient μ s in inverse Monte Carlo (iMC) simulations. It has been reported that g has the wavelength and absorption dependence; however, few attempts have been made to calculate μ s using g values by taking the wavelength and absorption dependence into account. In this study, the angular distributions of scattered light for biological tissue phantoms containing hemoglobin as a light absorber were measured by a goniometric optical setup at strongly (405 nm) and weakly (664 nm) absorbing wavelengths to obtain g. Subsequently, the optical properties were calculated with the measured values of g by integrating sphere measurements and an iMC simulation, and compared with the results obtained with a conventional g value of 0.9. The μ s values with measured g were overestimated at the strongly absorbing wavelength, but underestimated at the weakly absorbing wavelength if 0.9 was used in the iMC simulation.
Gatti, Giorgio; Olivas Olivera, Diana F; Sacchetto, Vittoria; Cossi, Maurizio; Braschi, Ilaria; Marchese, Leonardo; Bisio, Chiara
2017-09-06
Determination of the molar absorption coefficients of the CH 3 bending mode at ν˜ =1380 cm -1 (ϵ 1380 ) of n-hexane adsorbed from the gas phase on two different dealuminated zeolites is derived by a combination of IR spectroscopy and microgravimetric analysis. High-silica zeolite Y (HSZ-Y) and zeolite ZSM-5 (with SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 ratios of 200 and 280, respectively) with different textural and surface features are selected to evaluate the effect of the pore structure and architecture on the value of ϵ 1380 of the adsorbed n-hexane. Experimental data indicate that the molecule experiences a different adsorption environment inside zeolites; thus resulting in a significant change of the dipole moment and very different ϵ 1380 values: (0.278±0.018) cm μmol -1 for HSZ-Y and (0.491±0.032) cm μmol -1 for ZSM-5. Experimental data are also supported by computational modeling, which confirms the effect of different matrices on the IR absorption intensity. This study reveals that the use of probe molecules for quantitative measurements of surface sites has to be judiciously adopted, especially if adsorption occurs in the restricted spaces of microporous materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Moiseeva, N.; Churilova, T.; Efimova, T.; Krivenko, O.; Latushkin, A.
2017-11-01
Variability of the bio-optical properties of the Crimean coastal waters in June 2016 has been analyzed. The type of vertical distribution chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton light absorption coefficients and spectra shape differed between shallow and deeper water. In the deeper water seasonal stratification divided euphotic zone into layers with different environmental conditions. In the deeper part of the euphotic zone (below the thermocline) phytoplankton absorption spectra had local maximum at 550 nm, which was likely to be associated with high abundance of cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sps.) in the phytoplankton community. The concentration of chlorophyll a specific light absorption coefficient of phytoplankton decreased with depth (especially pronounced in the blue domain of the spectrum). In the shallow water the vertical distributions of all absorption properties were relatively homogeneous due to vertical water mixing. In the shallow water non-algal particles light absorption coefficient and its contribution to total particulate absorption were higher than those in the deeper water. The non-algal particles (NAP) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) light absorption spectra were well described by an exponential function with a slope averaging 0.010 nm-1 (SD = 0.001 nm-1) and 0.022 nm-1 (SD = 0.0060 nm-1), correspondingly. The CDOM absorption at 440 nm and slope coefficient varied significantly across the investigated area, which was possibly associated with the terrestrial influences. The assessment of the contribution of phytoplankton, NAP and CDOM to total light absorption showed that CDOM dominated in the absorption at 440 nm.
Zhang, Xi; Zheng, Shaodi; Zheng, Xiaofang; Liu, Zhengying; Yang, Wei; Yang, Mingbo
2016-03-21
In this article, the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect was studied for high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/carbon fiber (CF) composites. All of the samples showed a significant PTC effect during the heating processes without a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) effect, even at a temperature much higher than the melting point of the polymer matrix. An ever-increasing PTC intensity with increasing thermal cycles was observed in our study that had never been reported in previous research. The absence of a NTC effect resulted from the increased binding force between the matrix and fillers that contributed to the very special structure of CF surface. We incorporated thermal expansion theory and quantum tunneling effects to explain PTC effect. From the SEM micrographs for the HDPE/CF composites before and after the different thermal cycles, we found that the surface of CF was covered with a layer of polymer which resulted in a change in the gap length between CF and HDPE and its distribution. We believed that the gap change induced by polymer absorption on the fiber surface had a great effect on the PTC effect.
Chen, Jian-Xin; Hu, Peng; Chen, Ze-Shao
2008-12-01
The Peng-Robinson equation of state with the van der Waals mixing rules was used to correlate vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for HFC/HC, HFC/HFC, and HC/HC binary mixtures. The interaction parameter k ij was obtained for every binary mixture. It was assumed that k ij has contributions from the two components, and each component has its own constant contribution factor k i for the mixture, and the values of k ij indicate the degree in difference of properties between the two components. Therefore, the interaction parameters k ij is proposed as: k ij = k i - k j . The values of the mixing factor k i for Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Hydrocarbons (HCs), including propane, isobutane, n-butane, R23, R32, R125, R143a, R134a, R152a, R227ea R236fa, R236ea, and R245fa, were obtained by least-square fitting. In total, 39 refrigerant binary mixtures were analyzed on the basis of this method, and the results showed good agreement with experimental data. The overall average absolute deviations of pressure and vapor mole fraction are 1.3 % and 0.0089, respectively.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pawlak, M., E-mail: mpawlak@fizyka.umk.pl [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziądzka 5/7, Toruń (Poland); Maliński, M. [Department of Electronics and Computer Science, Koszalin University of Technology, 2 Śniadeckich St., Koszalin 75-453 (Poland)
2015-01-10
Highlights: • The new method of determination of the effective infrared absorption coefficient is presented. • The method can be used for transparent samples for the excitation radiation. • The effect of aluminum foil on the PTR signal in a transmission configuration is discussed. - Abstract: In this paper we propose a new procedure of simultaneous estimation of the effective infrared optical absorption coefficient and the thermal diffusivity of solid state samples using the photothermal infrared radiometry method in the transmission configuration. The proposed procedure relies on the analysis of the frequency dependent signal obtained from the samples covered with thin aluminum foil. This method can be applied for both optically opaque and transparent samples. The proposed method is illustrated with the results of the thermal diffusivity and the effective IR absorption coefficient obtained for several Cd{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}Se crystals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fookes, R.A.; Gravitis, V.L.; Watt, J.S.
1977-01-01
A method for determining the ash content of coal is proposed. It involves measurements proportional to mass absorption coefficients of coal at two X-ray energies. These measurements can be made using X-ray transmission or scatter techniques. Calculations based on transmission of narrow beams of X-rays have shown that ash can be determined to about 1wt%(1 sigma) in coal of widely varying ash content and composition. Experimentally, ash content was determined to 0.67wt% by transmission techniques and 1.0wt% by backscatter techniques in coal samples from the Bulli seam, NSW, Australia, having ash in the range 11-34wt%. For samples with a much wider range of coal composition (7-53wt% ash and 0-25wt% iron in the ash), ash content was determined by backscatter measurements to 1.62wt%. The method produced ash determinations at least as accurate as those produced by the established technique which compensates for variation in iron content of the ash by X-ray fluorescence analysis for iron. Compared with the established technique, it has the advantage of averaging analysis over much larger volumes of coal, but the disadvantage that much more precise measurements of X-ray intensities are required. (author)
Prisutova, Jevgenija; Horoshenkov, Kirill; Groby, Jean-Philippe; Brouard, Bruno
2014-12-01
The measurement of acoustic material characteristics using a standard impedance tube method is generally limited to the plane wave regime below the tube cut-on frequency. This implies that the size of the tube and, consequently, the size of the material specimen must remain smaller than a half of the wavelength. This paper presents a method that enables the extension of the frequency range beyond the plane wave regime by at least a factor of 3, so that the size of the material specimen can be much larger than the wavelength. The proposed method is based on measuring of the sound pressure at different axial locations and applying the spatial Fourier transform. A normal mode decomposition approach is used together with an optimization algorithm to minimize the discrepancy between the measured and predicted sound pressure spectra. This allows the frequency and angle dependent reflection and absorption coefficients of the material specimen to be calculated in an extended frequency range. The method has been tested successfully on samples of melamine foam and wood fiber. The measured data are in close agreement with the predictions by the equivalent fluid model for the acoustical properties of porous media.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains binary raster images from landsat thematic mapper collected in Gulf of Maine between 1982 to 1985. A suite of Regional Satellite Products from...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
More, Chaitali V., E-mail: chaitalimore89@gmail.com; Lokhande, Rajkumar M.; Pawar, Pravina P., E-mail: pravinapawar4@gmail.com [Department of physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004 (India)
2016-05-06
Mass attenuation coefficients of amino acids such as n-acetyl-l-tryptophan, n-acetyl-l-tyrosine and d-tryptophan were measured in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV. NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system was used to detect gamma rays with a resolution of 8.2% at 0.662 MeV. The measured attenuation coefficient values were then used to determine the mass energy-absorption coefficients (σ{sub a,en}) and average atomic energy-absorption cross sections (μ{sub en}/ρ) of the amino acids. Theoretical values were calculated based on XCOM data. Theoretical and experimental values are found to be in good agreement.
Giver, L. P.; Gentry, B.; Schwemmer, G.; Wilkerson, T. D.
1982-01-01
Intensities were measured for 97 lines of H2O vapor between 932 and 961 nm. The lines were selected for their potential usefulness for remote laser measurements of H2O vapor in the earth's atmosphere. The spectra were obtained with several different H2O vapor abundances and N2 broadening gas pressures; the spectral resolution was 0.046/cm FWHM. Measured H2O line intensities range from 7 x 10 to the -25th to 7 x 10 to the -22nd/cm per (molecules/sq cm). H2O self-broadening coefficients were measured for 13 of these strongest lines; the mean value was 0.5/cm per atm. N2-collision-broadening coefficients were measured for 73 lines, and the average was 0.11 cm per atm HWHM. Pressure shifts in air were determined for a sample of six lines between 948 and 950 nm; these lines shift to lower frequency by an amount comparable to 0.1 of the collision-broadened widths measured in air or N2. The measured intensities of many lines of 300-000 band are much larger than expected from prior computations, in some cases by over an order of magnitude. Coriolis interactions with the stronger 201-000 band appear to be the primary cause of the enhancement of these line intensities.
Zamani, A.; Azargoshasb, T.; Niknam, E.
2017-10-01
Effects of applied magnetic field, temperature and dimensions on the optical absorption coefficients (AC) and refractive index (RI) changes of a GaAs quantum ring are investigated in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (SOI). To this end, the finite difference method (FDM) is used in order to numerically calculate the energy eigenvalues and eigenstates of the system while the compact density matrix approach is hired to calculate the optical properties. It is shown that application of magnetic field, temperature as well as the geometrical size in the presence of spin-orbit interactions, alter the electronic structure and consequently influence the linear and third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients as well as the refractive index changes of the system. Results show an obvious blue shift in optical curves with enhancing external magnetic field and temperature while the increment of dimensions result in red shift.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pawlak, M. [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Institute of Physics, Torun (Poland)
2014-11-11
In this paper, a non-contact method that allows to determine the carrier concentration in CdSe crystals is presented. The method relies on the measurement of the effective infrared absorption coefficient by means of the photothermal infrared radiometry (PTR). In order to obtain the effective infrared absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity, the frequency characteristics of the PTR signal were analyzed in the frame of a one-dimensional heat transport model for infrared semitransparent crystals. The carrier concentrations were estimated using a theory introduced by Ruda and a recently proposed normalization procedure for the PTR signal. The deduced carrier concentrations of the investigated CdSe crystals are in reasonable agreement with those obtained using Hall measurements and infrared spectroscopy. The method presented in this paper can also be applied to other semiconductors with the carrier concentration in the range of 10{sup 14}-10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Sherbini, A.M.; El Sherbini, Th.M.; Hegazy, H.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Pardini, L.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.
2005-01-01
In quantitative Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements it is essential to account for the effect of self-absorption on the emission lines intensity. In order to quantify this effect, in this paper we propose a simple method for evaluating the ratio between the actual measured line intensity and the intensity expected in absence of self-absorption and, if necessary, correcting the effect of self-absorption on line intensity. The method, based on a homogeneous plasma model, is applicable when the plasma electron density is known and in particular to lines whose Stark broadening parameter is available
Pan, Xiaoju; Mannino, Antonio; Russ, Mary E.; Hooker, Stanford B.
2008-01-01
At present, satellite remote sensing of coastal water quality and constituent concentration is subject to large errors as compared to the capability of satellite sensors in oceanic waters. In this study, field measurements collected on a series of cruises within U.S. southern Middle Atlantic Bight (SMAB) were applied to improve retrievals of satellite ocean color products in order to examine the factors that regulate the bio-optical properties within the continental shelf waters of the SMAB. The first objective was to develop improvements in satellite retrievals of absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (a(sub ph)), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) (a(sub g)), non-pigmented particles (a(sub d)), and non-pigmented particles plus CDOM (a(sub dg)), and chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl_a]). Several algorithms were compared to derive constituent absorption coefficients from remote sensing reflectance (R(sub rs)) ratios. The validation match-ups showed that the mean absolute percent differences (MAPD) were typically less than 35%, although higher errors were found for a(sub d) retrievals. Seasonal and spatial variability of satellite-derived absorption coefficients and [Chl_a] was apparent and consistent with field data. CDOM is a major contributor to the bio-optical properties of the SMAB, accounting for 35-70% of total light absorption by particles plus CDOM at 443 nm, as compared to 30-45% for phytoplankton and 0-20% for non-pigmented particles. The overestimation of [Chl_a] from the operational satellite algorithms may be attributed to the strong CDOM absorption in this region. River discharge is important in controlling the bio-optical environment, but cannot explain all of the regional and seasonal variability of biogeochemical constituents in the SMAB.
Ershov, Boris G.; Panich, Nadezhda M.
2018-01-01
The chemical species formed from nitric acid in aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid (up to 18.0 mol L- 1) were studied by optical spectroscopy method. The concentration region of nitronium ion formation was identified and NO2+ ion absorption spectrum was measured (λmax ≤ 190 nm and ε190 = 1040 ± 50 mol- 1 L cm- 1).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tatiana Dumitra PANAITE
2017-05-01
Full Text Available A 42-day feeding trial was conducted on 120, day-old ROSS 308 chicks assigned to 4 (C; E1; E2; E3 groups. The broilers were housed in three-tier digestibility cages (5 broilers/cage which allowed the daily recording of the feed intake and excreta located in an experimental hall with controlled environmental conditions (27.07±2.750 C; humidity 64,80±9,57%; light regimen 23h. During the starter stage (1-10 days all chicks received a conventional compound feed (C. During the grower and finisher stages, compared to C formulation, the experimental diets different proportions, varying with the stage of development, of rapeseeds and grape meals (E1, buckthorn and flax meals (E2, pumpkin meal (lot E3. The balance study was conducted for 5 days, during weeks 4 and 6. During this period, average weights from each two cages (6 samples/group of feed consumed and excreta voided (dry matter basis were recorded and sampled for: dry matter, nitrogen, fat, fibre, ash and gross energy analysis. The chicks from E1 group had a lower (P≤0.05 coefficient of dietary nitrogen absorption than E2 chicks. The coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary fat varied with the period of development. During the finishing stage, E3 chicks had a higher (P≤0.05 coefficient of fibre absorption than groups C, E1 and E2.
Khoa, Doan Quoc; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Hoi, Bui Dinh
2017-03-01
A quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with confined phonons is used to investigate the nonlinear absorption of an intense electromagnetic wave by electrons in cylindrical GaAs/AlAs quantum wires. The analytic expression for absorption coefficient is calculated for three models of confined optical phonons: the dielectric continuum (DC), hydrodynamic continuum (HC), and Huang-Zhu (HZ) models. The absorption coefficient depends on the square of the electromagnetic wave amplitude. The electrophonon resonance and optically detected electrophonon resonance (ODEPR) are observed through the absorption spectrum. The full width at half maximum (the line-width) of the ODEPR peaks is obtained by a computational method. The line-width is found to increase with increasing temperature and decrease with increasing the quantum wire radius. In particular, numerical results show that the DC and HZ models lead to a similar behaviour of electron - confined phonon interaction whereas the HC model results in a quite different one, especially at small quantum wire radius. For large quantum wire radii, above mentioned phonon models have equivalent contributions to the ODEPR line-width.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joffre, H.; Pages, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1968-07-01
In this report are given the elements allowing the definition of the values of mass attenuation coefficients and mass energy absorption coefficients for some elements and mixtures, necessary for the study of tissue equivalent materials, for photons in the energy range 10 keV to 10 MeV. After a short reminding of the definitions of the two coefficients, follows, in table form, a compilation of these coefficients, as a function of energy, for simple elements, for certain mineral compounds, organic compounds, gases and particularly of soft tissues. (author) [French] Dans ce rapport, sont donnes les elements permettant de determiner les valeurs des coefficients d'attenuation massique et d'absorption massique en energie pour certains elements et melanges necessaires a l'etude des materiaux equivalents aux tissus pour les photons dans le domaine d'energie allant de 10 keV a 10 MeV. Apres un bref rappel des definitions des deux coefficients, suit, sous forme de tableaux, un recueil de ces coefficients, en fonction de l'energie, pour les elements simples, certains composes mineraux, composes organiques, gaz, et, particulierement, pour les tissus mous. (auteur)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Safarov, Javid T.
2005-01-01
Vapor pressure p of LiNO 3 + CH 3 OH solutions at T = (298.15 to 323.15) K was reported, osmotic φ and activity coefficients γ; and activity of solvent a s have been evaluated. The experiments were carried out in molality range m = (0.18032 to 5.2369) mol . kg -1 . The Antoine equation was used for the empiric description of experimental vapor pressure results. The Pitzer-Mayorga model with inclusion of Archer's ionic strength dependence of the third virial coefficient was used for the description of calculated osmotic coefficients. The parameters of Archer extended Pitzer model were used for evaluation of activity coefficients
Almoayed, Nawaf N.; Piyade, Baris C.; Afsar, Mohammed N.
2007-09-01
Dispersive Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DFTS) provides us with a very precise method of measuring the absorption and refractive index spectra of common pollutant gases. This paper presents the rotational transition lines of Sulfur Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide gas as a function of varying pressure using DFTS for the very first time as a combined study. The relationship between the variation of the pressure and the change in the absorption spectrum is examined and discussed in detail. Sulfur Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide gases are highly toxic, pollutant gases that are major contributors to global pollution and can potentially be used as a chemical threat. The relationship between pressure and rotational transmission lines is discussed in detail in the frequency range of 0.3 THz - 0.9 THz. These findings are crucial in characterizing these gases as well as identifying them in a blind test.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohtori, Norikazu; Ishii, Yoshiki
2015-01-01
Explicit expressions of the self-diffusion coefficient, D i , and shear viscosity, η sv , are presented for Lennard-Jones (LJ) binary mixtures in the liquid states along the saturated vapor line. The variables necessary for the expressions were derived from dimensional analysis of the properties: atomic mass, number density, packing fraction, temperature, and the size and energy parameters used in the LJ potential. The unknown dependence of the properties on each variable was determined by molecular dynamics (MD) calculations for an equimolar mixture of Ar and Kr at the temperature of 140 K and density of 1676 kg m −3 . The scaling equations obtained by multiplying all the single-variable dependences can well express D i and η sv evaluated by the MD simulation for a whole range of compositions and temperatures without any significant coupling between the variables. The equation for D i can also explain the dual atomic-mass dependence, i.e., the average-mass and the individual-mass dependence; the latter accounts for the “isotope effect” on D i . The Stokes-Einstein (SE) relation obtained from these equations is fully consistent with the SE relation for pure LJ liquids and that for infinitely dilute solutions. The main differences from the original SE relation are the presence of dependence on the individual mass and on the individual energy parameter. In addition, the packing-fraction dependence turned out to bridge another gap between the present and original SE relations as well as unifying the SE relation between pure liquids and infinitely dilute solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohtori, Norikazu, E-mail: ohtori@chem.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-no-cho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Ishii, Yoshiki [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-no-cho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)
2015-10-28
Explicit expressions of the self-diffusion coefficient, D{sub i}, and shear viscosity, η{sub sv}, are presented for Lennard-Jones (LJ) binary mixtures in the liquid states along the saturated vapor line. The variables necessary for the expressions were derived from dimensional analysis of the properties: atomic mass, number density, packing fraction, temperature, and the size and energy parameters used in the LJ potential. The unknown dependence of the properties on each variable was determined by molecular dynamics (MD) calculations for an equimolar mixture of Ar and Kr at the temperature of 140 K and density of 1676 kg m{sup −3}. The scaling equations obtained by multiplying all the single-variable dependences can well express D{sub i} and η{sub sv} evaluated by the MD simulation for a whole range of compositions and temperatures without any significant coupling between the variables. The equation for D{sub i} can also explain the dual atomic-mass dependence, i.e., the average-mass and the individual-mass dependence; the latter accounts for the “isotope effect” on D{sub i}. The Stokes-Einstein (SE) relation obtained from these equations is fully consistent with the SE relation for pure LJ liquids and that for infinitely dilute solutions. The main differences from the original SE relation are the presence of dependence on the individual mass and on the individual energy parameter. In addition, the packing-fraction dependence turned out to bridge another gap between the present and original SE relations as well as unifying the SE relation between pure liquids and infinitely dilute solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franzini, M.; Leoni, L.; Saitta, M.
1976-01-01
By utilizing a reflection geometry, an accurate mass absorption coefficient of a sample can be determined by measuring the Ag Kα Compton intensity. Intensities of Ag Kα Compton scattered radiation have been collected by using either the usual reflection geometry of a Philips PW 1450 automatic x-ray spectrometer or a more refined reflection geometry, achieved on a Philips PW 1540/10A manual x-ray spectrometer. The experimental results have shown that the relationship between the Ag Kα Compton intensity and the mass absorption is a logarithmic function. The experimental results are not in agreement with those reported in literature, but a theoretical explanation to account for this fact has not been achieved as yet. (author)
Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.
2001-01-01
A multi-band analytical (MBA) algorithm is developed to retrieve absorption and backscattering coefficients for optically deep waters, which can be applied to data from past and current satellite sensors, as well as data from hyperspectral sensors. This MBA algorithm applies a remote-sensing reflectance model derived from the Radiative Transfer Equation, and values of absorption and backscattering coefficients are analytically calculated from values of remote-sensing reflectance. There are only limited empirical relationships involved in the algorithm, which implies that this MBA algorithm could be applied to a wide dynamic range of waters. Applying the algorithm to a simulated non-"Case 1" data set, which has no relation to the development of the algorithm, the percentage error for the total absorption coefficient at 440 nm a (sub 440) is approximately 12% for a range of 0.012 - 2.1 per meter (approximately 6% for a (sub 440) less than approximately 0.3 per meter), while a traditional band-ratio approach returns a percentage error of approximately 30%. Applying it to a field data set ranging from 0.025 to 2.0 per meter, the result for a (sub 440) is very close to that using a full spectrum optimization technique (9.6% difference). Compared to the optimization approach, the MBA algorithm cuts the computation time dramatically with only a small sacrifice in accuracy, making it suitable for processing large data sets such as satellite images. Significant improvements over empirical algorithms have also been achieved in retrieving the optical properties of optically deep waters.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
LASSEN, C.; JØRGENSEN, BB
1994-01-01
microsensor was used concurrently with fiber-optic microsensors for radiance and scalar irradiance in two cyanobacterial mats: a gelatinous laminated mat of Aphanothece sp. and Phormidium sp. and a compact marine intertidal mat of Microcoleus chthonoplastes. At the surface, the ratio of scalar irradiance...... at all wavelenghts and a maximum of 3.9 was reached in the gelatinous mat at both 675 and 760 nm. The results stress the importance of measuring the right light parameter when photobiological processes in sediments are investigated and the application of scalar irradiance and irradiance as quantitative...... measures of available light for photosynthesis parameter is discussed. From the distribution of scalar irradiance and irradiance, in situ absorption coefficients were calculated. Within the upper 3 mm of the gelatinous mat, the vertical attenuation coefficients of scalar irradiance, upward radiance...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kondo, S; Amaya, K; Saito, T [Research Centre for Development of the Far-Infrared Region, Fukui University, Bunkyo, Fukui (Japan)
2003-02-19
We have investigated annealing behaviours of quench-deposited films of the binary CsI-PbI{sub 2} system by in situ optical absorption spectroscopy. Various films composed of multiple crystalline phases of CsPbI{sub 3} and/or Cs{sub 4}PbI{sub 6} as well as of CsI and/or PbI{sub 2} are obtained, depending on the mixing ratio of the CsI and PbI{sub 2}. It is difficult to prepare films purely composed of a single CsPbI{sub 3} or Cs{sub 4}PbI{sub 6} phase alone. However, it is possible to obtain films where crystallites of either CsPbI{sub 3} or Cs{sub 4}PbI{sub 6} coexist with the CsI phase. Using such films, we measure the fundamental optical absorption spectrum of CsPbI{sub 3} and Cs{sub 4}PbI{sub 6} for the first time. Cs{sub 4}PbI{sub 6} exhibits stronger oscillator-like absorption compared to CsPbI{sub 3}, due to the localized nature of both the Pb 6s and 6p states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sardroodi, Jaber Jahanbin; Azamat, Jafar; Atabay, Maryam
2011-01-01
Highlights: → The osmotic coefficients of the solutions of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and bromide in ethanol and methanol have been measured. → Measured osmotic coefficients were correlated using NRTL and Pitzer models. → Vapor pressures were evaluated from the correlated osmotic coefficients. → Model parameters have been interpreted in terms of ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions. - Abstract: Osmotic coefficients of the binary solutions of two room-temperature ionic liquids (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and bromide) in methanol and ethanol have been measured at T = 298.15 K by the isopiestic method. The experimental osmotic coefficient data have been correlated using a forth-order polynomial in terms of (molality) 0.5 , with both, ion interaction model of Pitzer and electrolyte non-random two liquid (e-NRTL) model of Chen. The values of vapor pressures of above-mentioned solutions have been calculated from the osmotic coefficients. The model parameters fitted to the experimental osmotic coefficients have been used for prediction of the mean ionic activity coefficients of those ionic liquids in methanol and ethanol.
Greening, Gage J; Istfan, Raeef; Higgins, Laura M; Balachandran, Kartik; Roblyer, Darren; Pierce, Mark C; Muldoon, Timothy J
2014-01-01
Optical phantoms are used in the development of various imaging systems. For certain applications, the development of thin phantoms that simulate the physical size and optical properties of tissue is important. Here, we demonstrate a method for producing thin phantom layers with tunable optical properties using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as a substrate material. The thickness of each layer (between 115 and 880 μm) was controlled using a spin coater. The reduced scattering and absorption coefficients were controlled using titanium dioxide and alcohol-soluble nigrosin, respectively. These optical coefficients were quantified at six discrete wavelengths (591, 631, 659, 691, 731, and 851 nm) at varying concentrations of titanium dioxide and nigrosin using spatial frequency domain imaging. From the presented data, we provide lookup tables to determine the appropriate concentrations of scattering and absorbing agents to be used in the design of PDMS-based phantoms with specific optical coefficients. In addition, heterogeneous phantoms mimicking the layered features of certain tissue types may be fabricated from multiple stacked layers, each with custom optical properties. These thin, tunable PDMS optical phantoms can simulate many tissue types and have broad imaging calibration applications in endoscopy, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging, and optical coherence tomography, etc.
Deckers, Elke; Jonckheere, Stijn; Van Belle, Lucas; Claeys, Claus; Desmet, Wim
2018-03-01
This paper presents a hybrid Wave Based Method - Finite Element unit cell method to predict the absorption, reflection and transmission properties of arbitrary, two-dimensional periodic structures. The planar periodic structure, represented by its unit cell combined with Bloch-Floquet periodicity boundary conditions, is modelled within the Finite Element Method, allowing to represent complex geometries and to include any type of physics. The planar periodic structure is coupled to semi-infinite acoustic domains above and/or below, in which the dynamic pressure field is modelled with the Wave Based Method, applying a wave function set that fulfills the Helmholtz equation and satisfies the Sommerfeld radiation condition and the Bloch-Floquet periodicity conditions inherently. The dynamic fields described within both frameworks are coupled using a direct coupling strategy, accounting for the mutual dynamic interactions via a weighted residual formulation. The method explicitly accounts for the interaction between the unit cell and the surrounding acoustic domain, also accounting for higher order periodic waves. The convergence of the method is analysed and its applicability is shown for a variety of problems, proving it to be a useful tool combining the strengths of two methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKim, J.; Schmieder, P.; Veith, G.
1985-01-01
An in vivo fish preparation was used that allowed a direct measure of the transport rates of 14 different organic chemicals across the gills of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). The chemicals, all C14 labeled, were selected from five classes, encompassing a range of octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) values, from 0.23 (ethyl formate) to 7.5 (mirex). The uptake efficiency (extraction efficiency) of each chemical was determined by monitoring the inspired and expired water of trout exposed to each chemical over an exposure period of 1 to 6 hr. The mean gill extraction efficiency for all chemicals tested varied from a low of 7% to a high of 60%, extracted in a single pall of the chemical across the gills. The extraction efficiency of chemicals with log P or 1 or less were low and showed no relationship to log P. These low extraction efficiencies seen at log P of 1 and below with molecular weights below 100 were indicative of aqueous pore transport. The mean extraction efficiency for chemicals with log P values of 1 to 3 seemed to vary directly with log P, to a maximum of slightly greater than 60%, suggesting that uptake was controlled by the lipid membrane. The mean extraction efficiency for chemicals with log P of 3 to 6 was independent of log P and remained at 60%, which suggested that gill uptake was controlled by aqueous diffusion rates rather than gill membrane permeability. The mean extraction efficiency with mirex (log P . 7.5) decreased to 20%
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rojas-Briseño, J.G.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia)
2013-09-01
In this work we are reporting the energy level spectrum for a quantum system consisting of an n-type double δ-doped quantum well with a Schottky barrier potential in a Gallium Arsenide matrix. The calculated states are taken as the basis for the evaluation of the linear and third-order nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient and to the relative refractive index change, making particular use of the asymmetry of the potential profile. These optical properties are then reported as a function of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the separation distance between the δ-doped quantum wells. Also, the effects of the application of hydrostatic pressure are studied. The results show that the amplitudes of the resonant peaks are of the same order of magnitude of those obtained in the case of single δ-doped field effect transistors; but tailoring the asymmetry of the confining potential profile allows the control the resonant peak positions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sieres, Jaime; Fernandez-Seara, Jose [University of Vigo, Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Vigo (Spain)
2008-08-15
The ammonia purification process is critical in ammonia-water absorption refrigeration systems. In this paper, a detailed and a simplified analytical model are presented to characterize the performance of the ammonia rectification process in packed columns. The detailed model is based on mass and energy balances and simultaneous heat and mass transfer equations. The simplified model is derived and compared with the detailed model. The range of applicability of the simplified model is determined. A calculation procedure based on the simplified model is developed to determine the volumetric mass transfer coefficients in the vapour phase from experimental data. Finally, the proposed model and other simple calculation methods found in the general literature are compared. (orig.)
Kocyła, Anna; Pomorski, Adam; Krężel, Artur
2015-11-01
4-(2-Pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) is one of the most popular chromogenic chelator used in the determination of the concentrations of various metal ions from the d, p and f blocks and their affinities for metal ion-binding biomolecules. The most important characteristics of such a sensor are the molar absorption coefficient and the metal-ligand complex dissociation constant. However, it must be remembered that these values are dependent on the specific experimental conditions (e.g. pH, solvent components, and reactant ratios). If one uses these values to process data obtained in different conditions, the final result can be under- or overestimated. We aimed to establish the spectral properties and the stability of PAR and its complexes accurately with Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+) and Pb(2+) at a multiple pH values. The obtained results account for the presence of different species of metal-PAR complexes in the physiological pH range of 5 to 8 and have been frequently neglected in previous studies. The effective molar absorption coefficient at 492 nm for the ZnHx(PAR)2 complex at pH7.4 in buffered water solution is 71,500 M(-1) cm(-1), and the dissociation constant of the complex in these conditions is 7.08×10(-13) M(2). To confirm these values and estimate the range of the dissociation constants of zinc-binding biomolecules that can be measured using PAR, we performed several titrations of zinc finger peptides and zinc chelators. Taken together, our results provide the updated parameters that are applicable to any experiment conducted using inexpensive and commercially available PAR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
EPHREM G. DEMISSIE
2016-07-01
Full Text Available A total of fifteen samples of green coffee (Coffea arabica L. beans from the major producing region of Hararghe Ethiopia were studied using UV-Vis spectrometer measurement caffeine quantitative analysis from coffee beans. The number density of caffeine in green coffee beans has been reported using Beer-Lambert’s law and integrating absorption coefficient technique. Our results obtained using integrated absorption and Beer-Lambert’s law has a good agreement and we observed a maximum difference of 10.4 %. Based on their low caffeine concentrations among the samples collected were found in Jarso coffee. Coffee beans from the Harar Aboker were characterized by higher concentrations of caffeine. The determined concentration for caffeine in coffee beans (% w/w ranged 0.601 % to 0.903 %. The concentrations of the caffeine varied significantly, depending on the geographical origin of the beans. The concentrations of caffeine in coffee collected from in Hararghe region were noticeably lower than their counterpart (1.0 - 1.2 % grows in the other parts of Ethiopia.
Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2013-01-01
are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface...... impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calvar, Noelia; Gomez, Elena; Dominguez, Angeles; Macedo, Eugenia A.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Osmotic coefficients of 1- and 2-propanol with C n MimNTf 2 (n = 2, 3, and 4) are determined. → Experimental data were correlated with extended Pitzer model of Archer and MNRTL. → Mean molal activity coefficients and excess Gibbs free energies were calculated. → Effect of the anion is studied comparing these results with literature. - Abstract: The osmotic and activity coefficients and vapour pressures of binary mixtures containing 1-propanol, or 2-propanol and imidazolium-based ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide as anion (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, C 2 MimNTf 2 , 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, C 3 MimNTf 2 , and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, C 4 MimNTf 2 ) were determined at T = 323.15 K using the vapour pressure osmometry technique. The experimental osmotic coefficients were correlated using the extended Pitzer model modified by Archer and the MNRTL model, obtaining standard deviations lower than 0.033 and 0.064, respectively. The mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the mixtures studied were calculated from the parameters of the extended Pitzer model modified by Archer. Besides the effect of the alkyl-chain of the cation, the effect of the anion can be assessed comparing the experimental results with those previously obtained for imidazolium ionic liquids with sulphate anions.
Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Vratolis, Sterios; Fiebig, Markus
2016-04-01
Light absorbing carbon in atmospheric aerosol plays a critical role in radiative forcing and climate change. Despite the long term measurements across the Arctic, comparing data obtained by a variety of methods across stations requires caution. A method for extracting the aerosol absorption coefficient from data obtained over the decades by filter based instrument is still under development. An IASOA Aerosol working group has been initiated to address this and other cross-site aerosol comparison opportunities. Continuous ambient measurements of EBC/light attenuation by means of a Magee Sci. AE-31 aethalometer operating at the Zeppelinfjellet station (474 m asl; 78°54'N, 11°53'E), Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, have been available since 2001 (Eleftheriadis et al, 2009), while a new aethalometer model (AE33, Drinovec et al, 2014) has been installed to operate in parallel from the same inlet since June 2015. Measurements are recorded by a Labview routine collecting all available parameters reported by the two instrument via RS232 protocol. Data are reported at 1 and 10 minute intervals as averages for EBC (μg m-3) and aerosol absorption coefficients (Mm-1) by means of routine designed to report Near Real Time NRT data at the EBAS WDCA database (ebas.nilu.no) Results for the first 6 month period are reported here in an attempt to evaluate comparative performance of the two instruments in terms of their response with respect to the variable aerosol load of light absorbing carbon during the warm and cold seasons found in the high arctic. The application of available conversion schemes for obtaining the absorption coefficient by the two instruments is found to demonstrate a marked difference in their output. During clean periods of low aerosol load (EBC < 30 ng m-3), the two instruments display a better agreement with regression slope for the 880 nm signal between the two at ~ 0.9 compared to a slope at ~ 0.6 during the period of higher absorbing carbon loads (400< EBC<30 ng m
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam Bald
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this work the viscosities of KCl, NaCl, NaI, KNO3, LiNO3, NaBPh4 and Bu4NI solutions (from ~0.01 mol dm–3 to ~0.05 mol dm–3 in water (1 + dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO (2 binary mixtures with mole fractions of DMSO, x2 = 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.075, 0.10 and 0.15, were determined at 298. 15 K. The viscosities measured were used to evaluate the viscosity B-coefficients by means of Jones-Dole's equation. The results obtained allowed us to determine the values of B± coefficients for individual ions using the assumption about the equality B(Bu4N+ = B(BPh4–. All the results have been discussed in terms of ion-solvent interactions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cornescu Gabriela Maria
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of organic sources of manganese (Mn and iron (Fe and inulin in diets for laying hens on absorption of these minerals and their deposition in egg and tissue. The study was conducted on 90 Lohmann Brown laying hens in the period from 46-52 weeks of age, assigned to 3 groups with 30 hens/group and 3 hens/cage. The hens from the control group (C received a diet based on corn, rice bran and soybean meal with 16% of crude protein, as well as 60 mg Fe/kg and 71.9 mg Mn/kg of diet in form of inorganic salts. The formulation of the experimental diets (E1 and E2 differed from C group diet by the replacement of inorganic Fe and Mn salts by organometallic chelates of these elements, at a level of 25% lower than in the premix for group C. As source of inulin, group E1 diet also included 0.5% of dry Jerusalem artichoke, while group E2 diet included 0.5% of a product based on chicory root extract. At the end of the experiment, 6 hens from each group were slaughtered and blood serum and liver samples were collected and assayed for concentration of Fe and Mn. In the final week of the experiment, 18 eggs/group were collected for determination of Fe and Mn concentration in egg yolk. Concentration of measured blood serum parameters (haemoglobin, haematocrit, Fe and Mn in experimental (E groups were lower than in group C, but no significant differences (P>0.05 were registered. Absorption coefficients of Mn had higher values in E groups than in group C, with significant increase (P0.05 between groups were observed for Mn and Fe concentration in egg yolk.
Quirama, M.; Morales, R.
2016-12-01
Light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol is recognized as a significant short lived climate pollutant that can contribute to direct and indirect radiative forcing. In urban environments, black carbon is an important contributor to the deterioration of local air quality. In this study, we report measurements of equivalent Black Carbon performed during the months of January, February, and March 2016 in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. During this period, a persistent condition of atmospheric stability lead to high concentrations of particulate matter throughout the city. During the month of February, the city was further impacted by a series of small-scale forest fires that took place on hills neighboring the city center. Equivalent Black Carbon (eBC) concentrations were monitored before, during, and after a mayor forest fire episode with a 7-wavelength Aethalometer. The monitoring instruments were located at a traffic impacted site, 18.3 km from the forest fire. To evaluate the contribution of biomass burning to the light-absorbing aerosol particle concentration, spectral analysis of the absorption coefficient of the sampled aerosol particles was performed. When the biomass burning plume directly impacted the monitoring station during the night of February 4, eBC concentrations of up to 40 µg/m3 were observed at nighttime. This concentration was significantly higher than average nighttime concentrations of eBC, observed to be 4 µg/m3 at the site. However, during the period most intensely affected by the biomass burning plume, the angstrom exponent computed between the 450nm and the 970 nm channel, was found to be close to 1. Angstrom exponent close to 1 is an indication that the contribution from traffic generated black carbon is dominant compared to the contribution of biomass burning. The data set collected during this period suggests that despite the significant contribution of the fresh biomass burning plume to the particulate matter concentration in the city, the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beyer, R.T.
1985-01-01
The paper reviews studies of ultrasonic absorption in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to measure the absorption coefficients are briefly described. Experimental results reported for the liquid metals: sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium, at medium temperatures, are presented, as well as data for liquid alloys. Absorption losses due to the presence of an external magnetic field, and the effects of viscosity on the absorption in metals, are both discussed. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ungan, F.; Restrepo, R.L.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Morales, A.L.; Duque, C.A.
2014-01-01
The effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and electric field on the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes associated with intersubband transition in a typical GaAs/Ga 0.7 Al 0.3 As graded quantum well under intense laser field have been investigated theoretically. The electron energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions of the graded quantum well are calculated within the effective mass approximation and envelope wave function approach. The analytical expressions of the optical properties are obtained using the compact density-matrix approach and the iterative method. The numerical results show that the linear and nonlinear optical properties depend strongly on the intense laser field and electric field but weakly on the hydrostatic pressure and temperature. Additionally, it has been found that the electronic and optical properties in a GaAs/Ga 0.7 Al 0.3 As graded quantum well under the intense laser field can be tuned by changing these external inputs. Thus, these results give a new degree of freedom in the devices applications
Nelson, David D., Jr.; Schiffman, Aram; Nesbitt, David J.; Orlando, John J.; Burkholder, James B.
1990-01-01
FTIR emission/absorption spectroscopy is used to measure the relative intensities of 88 pairs of rovibrational transitions of OH(X2Pi) distributed over 16 vibrational bands. The experimental technique used to obtain the Einstein A ratios is discussed. The dipole moment function which follows from the intensity ratios along with Einstein A coefficients calculated from mu(r) is presented.
Omoto, Akira
2013-01-01
The relationship between the acoustic scattering characteristics of materials and the degree of diffusion in enclosed acoustic spaces has recently attracted considerable research attention. Hanyu [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128(3), 1140-1148 (2010)] introduced a theoretical framework, in which the diffusion time in an enclosure is expressed as a function of a material's average scattering coefficient. In this letter, a modification of this theory is proposed. The decay process of the sound energy through scattering is divided into discrete sub-processes, specifically, a purely scattering process, and alternating scattering and specular reflections. The behavior of each process is examined for different scattering coefficients.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Matsuoka
2013-02-01
Full Text Available A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM, has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM was developed for southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows the separation of colored detrital matter (CDM into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP through the determination of NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, which were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and coastal waters, respectively. A previous paper (Matsuoka et al., 2012 showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption in our study area (r^{2} = 0.97. By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sjoeblom, R.
1981-01-01
Ultrasonic measurements have been carried out on concrete and bitumen containing ion exchange resin. The speed and absorption of sound was determined for different amounts of resin, different times after preparation of the samples, and for different temperatures. The absorption data indicate that it should be possible to use the technique on full-scale waste products. The data also indicate that the velocity of sound is sensitive to several parameters of interest in radioactive waste treatment and storage. The technique may also be used to gain information on the internal disposition of a waste package. (Auth.)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Paseka, Ivo
1999-01-01
Roč. 44, č. 25 (1999), s. 4551-4558 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/96/1320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : hydrogen absorption * hydrogen evolution * Amorphous alloys * Nickel phosphorus electrodes Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.325, year: 1999
van Veen, R. L. P.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Pifferi, A.; Torricelli, A.; Chikoidze, E.; Cubeddu, R.
2005-01-01
In-vivo optical spectroscopy and the determination of tissue absorption and scattering properties have a central role in the development of novel optical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in medicine. A number of techniques are available for the optical characterization of tissue in the visible
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A.; Restrepo, R.L.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.
2014-01-01
The linear and nonlinear optical absorption associated with the transition between 1s and 2s states corresponding to the electron-donor-impurity complex in GaAs/Ga 1−x Al x As three-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and the variation of the aluminum concentration, the energies of the ground and first excited s-like states of a donor impurity in such a system have been calculated using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the optical transitions are examined as functions of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, radial impurity position, as well as the geometrical dimensions of the structure. The dependencies of the linear, nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy are investigated for different values of those mentioned parameters. It is found that the influences mentioned above lead to either redshifts or blueshifts of the resonant peaks of the optical absorption spectrum. It is particularly discussed the unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear of becoming positive for photon energies below the resonant transition one. It is shown that this phenomenon is associated with the particular features of the system under study, which determine the values of the electric dipole moment matrix elements. -- Highlights: • Intra-band optical absorption associated to impurity states in double quantum rings. • Combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration are studied. • The influences mentioned above lead to shifts of resonant peaks. • It is discussed an unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear absorption
Binary recombination of para- and ortho-H3+ with electrons at low temperatures.
Dohnal, P; Hejduk, M; Varju, J; Rubovic, P; Roucka, S; Kotrík, T; Plasil, R; Johnsen, R; Glosík, J
2012-11-13
Results of an experimental study of binary recombination of para- and ortho-H(3)(+) ions with electrons are presented. Near-infrared cavity-ring-down absorption spectroscopy was used to probe the lowest rotational states of H(3)(+) ions in the temperature range of 77-200 K in an H(3)(+)-dominated afterglow plasma. By changing the para/ortho abundance ratio, we were able to obtain the binary recombination rate coefficients for pure and para-H(3)(+) and ortho-H(3)(+). The results are in good agreement with previous theoretical predictions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bogdan Woźniak
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Data on organic substances in the sea are applied to distinguish hypothetical chemical classes and physical types of suspended particulate organic matter (POM in seawater. Spectra of the light absorption coefficients of particulate matter apm(λ and the imaginary refractive index n'p(λ, are assessed for some of these classes and types of POM in seawater, that is, for live phytoplankton cells and phytoplankton-like particles. The spectral characteristics of these coefficients are established and the probable ranges of variability of their absolute magnitudes defined on the basis of the mass-specific coefficients of light absorption by the various organic substances forming the particles. Also presented are mathematical relationships linking the coefficients apm(λ and n'p(λ for the various chemical classes of POM with their physical parameters, such as the relative contents of organic matter, water, air or some other gas. This article is part of a bio-optical study undertaken by the authors, the objective of which is to implement remote sensing techniques in the investigation of Baltic ecosystems (Woźniak et al. 2004.
Gauvin, Serge
2002-08-01
An exact formalism devoted to the determination of dispersion coefficients is described. The method takes into account two frequent experimental configurations: a solid thin layer on a substrate and a fluid, or solid, layer between a substrate and a superstrate. Introducing the concepts of reduction and reduced finesse, this method is based entirely on the fringes' spectral position of the maxima in the transmittance spectrum. It is found that the chromatic dispersion does not affect the spectral position of the minima in the same way as it does for the maxima. There is no need to get the refractive-index curve, n(lambda), to determine the dispersion coefficients nor to work at multiple incidence angles. Bringing together the possible nonrestrictive approximations, the method becomes easy and simple to implement from a spectrophotometer in tandem with a computer. In addition, the spectrometer does not require ordinate-axis calibration, and knowledge of the substrate's and superstrate's refractive index is not required. Alternatively, the method can be easily used to accurately determine the thickness of thin layers. A numerical example using a thin layer of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) is given.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andre, Frederic [Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL, CNRS-INSA Lyon-UCBL), Bat. Sadi Carnot, INSA-Lyon, Lyon F-69621 (France)], E-mail: frederic.andre@insa-lyon.fr; Vaillon, Rodolphe [Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL, CNRS-INSA Lyon-UCBL), Bat. Sadi Carnot, INSA-Lyon, Lyon F-69621 (France)
2008-09-15
The spectral-line moment-based (SLMB) modeling is proposed for the calculation of radiative properties of gases on any spectral width. The associated mathematical formulation is obtained by applying several concepts of the k-distribution methods such as the reordering of the wavenumber scale by monotonic variations of the absorption coefficient, together with the application of the k-moment method's principles. This approach gives both a general formula for the BTF and a simple and readily applicable approximation for the blackbody-weighted cumulated k-distribution function of the absorption coefficient. The model is applied for the computation of wide band BTFs and cumulative k-distributions for uniform columns of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O in the temperature range (300-2400 K) at atmospheric pressure. Model parameters are deduced from line-by-line (LBL) spectra calculated using the HITEMP database. Comparisons with LBL reference data as well as with contemporary modeling approaches (SLW, FSK, SNB) are performed and discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allegood, M.S.; Baba, J.S.
2008-01-01
Light interaction with biological tissue can be described using three parameters: the scattering and absorption coeffi cients (μs and μa), as well as the anisotropy (g) which describes the directional dependence of the scattered photons. Accurately determining these optical properties for different tissue types at specifi c wavelengths simultaneously would be benefi cial for a variety of different biomedical applications. The goal of this project was to take a user defi ned g-value and determine the remaining two parameters for a specifi ed wavelength range. A fully automated computer program and process was developed to collect data for all wavelengths in a timely and accurate manner. LabVIEW® was used to write programs to automate raw intensity data collection from a spectrometer equipped integrating sphere, conversion of the data into a format for analysis via Scott Prahl’s Inverse Adding-Doubling (IAD) C code execution, and fi nally computation of the optical properties based on the output from the IAD code. To allow data to be passed effi ciently between LabVIEW® and C code program modules, the two were combined into a single program (OPT 3.1). OPT 3.1 was tested using tissue mimicking phantoms. Determination of the absorption and scattering coeffi cients showed excellent agreement with theory for wavelengths where the user inputted single g-value was suffi ciently precise. Future improvements entail providing for multi-wavelength g-value entry to extend the accuracy of results to encompass the complete multispectral range. Ultimately, the data collection process and algorithms developed through this effort will be used to examine actual biological tissues for the purpose of building and refi ning models for light-tissue interactions.
Zhu, Wen-Zhuo; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Gui-Peng
2018-04-01
The absorption coefficient and fluorescent components of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea (YS), and East China Sea (ECS) in spring and autumn were analyzed in this study. Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) identified three components, namely, humic-like C1, tyrosine-like C2 and tryptophan-like C3. The seasonal variations in the vertical patterns of the CDOM absorption coefficient (aCDOM(355)) and fluorescent components were influenced by the seasonal water mass except for the terrestrial input. The relationship between aCDOM(355) and dissolved organic matter (DOC) was attributed to their own mixing behavior. The correlation of the fluorescent components with DOC was disturbed by other non-conservative processes during the export of CDOM to the open ocean. The different chemical compositions and origins of DOC and CDOM led to variability in carbon-specific CDOM absorption (a*CDOM(355)) and fluorescent component ratios (ICn/IC1). The relationship between a*CDOM(355) and aCDOM(355) demonstrated that dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the BS, but not in the ECS, highly contributed non-absorbing DOC to the total DOC concentration. The photodegradation of dominant terrestrially derived CDOM in the ECS contributed to the positive relationship between a*CDOM(355) and ICn/IC1. By contrast, the abundant autochthonous CDOM in the YS was negatively correlated with ICn/IC1 in autumn. Our established box models showed that water exchange is a potentially important source of the aromatic components in the BS, YS, and ECS. Hence, the seasonal variations in water exchange might contribute to the variability of CDOM chemical composition in the BS, YS, and ECS, and significantly influence the structure and function of their ecosystems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
NU Rahman
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Partition coefficients (log D and log P and molecular surface area (PSA are potential predictors of the intestinal permeability of drugs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate and compare these intestinal permeability indicators. Methods: Aqueous solubility data were obtained from literature or calculated using ACD/Labs and ALOGPS. Permeability data were predicted based on log P, log D at pH 6.0 (log D6.0, and PSA. Results: Metoprolol's log P, log D6.0 and a PSA of <65 Å correctly predicted 55.9%, 50.8% and 54.2% of permeability classes, respectively. Labetalol's log P, log D6.0, and PSA correctly predicted 54.2%, 64.4% and 61% of permeability classes, respectively. Log D6.0 correlated well (81% with Caco-2 permeability (Papp. Of the list of national essential medicines, 135 orally administered drugs were classified into biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS. Of these, 57 (42.2%, 28 (20.7%, 44 (32.6%, and 6 (4.4% were class I, II, III and IV respectively. Conclusion: Log D6.0 showed better prediction capability than log P. Metoprolol as permeability internal standard was more conservative than labetalol.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
YIWEN SUN
2013-10-01
Full Text Available T-rays is sensitive to covalently cross-linked proteins and can be used to probe unique dynamic properties of water surrounding a protein. In this paper, we demonstrate the unique absorption properties of the dynamic hydration shells determined by hemagglutinin (HA protein in terahertz frequency. We study the changes arising from different concentrations in detail and show that nonlinear absorption coefficient is induced by the dynamic hydration water. The binary and ternary component model were used to interpret the nonlinearity absorption behaviors and predict the thickness of the hydration shells around the HA protein in aqueous phase.
Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ
1994-01-01
This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.
Kadota, Kazunori; Okamoto, Daiki; Sato, Hideyuki; Onoue, Satomi; Otsu, Shigeyuki; Tozuka, Yuichi
2016-12-15
The tri-component system curcumin/α-glucosyl stevia (Stevia-G)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was developed to improve the oral bioavailability and physicochemical properties of curcumin (CUR). The tri-component CUR formulation with Stevia-G and PVP was prepared with freeze-drying. The tri-component CUR system exhibited 13,000-fold higher solubility of CUR than the equilibrium solubility of CUR for 24h, indicating a stable tri-composite structure involving CUR. CUR could be converted into an amorphous form in the presence of Stevia-G and PVP by freeze-drying. The photo-degradation of CUR in the tri-component system was negligible even under an amorphous state of CUR. After oral administration in rats, the oral absorption of the tri-component CUR formulation (20mgCUR/kg) was 6.7-fold higher than that of crystalline CUR. The tri-component CUR formulation would therefore be a promising option to improve physicochemical properties and oral absorption of CUR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Regularity of the interband light absorption coefficient
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
that the symmetrized version of ILAC is either continuous or has a component which has the same modulus of continuity as the .... and Rω = −ω and P = ×μ with a probability measure μ on R. If μ is continuous, then the density of states is ..... Proof. We note that as in eq. (1.3.4) [9], we have by integration by parts,. 1 h(a).
Absorption Coefficient of Alkali Halides. Part I.
1979-03-01
transparent region by Hohls [29], Harting [30], Kublitzky [72], and Spangenberg [73], and the infrared region by Randall [74]. Zarzyski and Naudin [75...Index of NaF at Low Temperature," Aspen International Conference on Fourier Spectroscopy (1970), 371-6 (1971). 75. Zarzyski, J. and Naudin , F., "Index
Sound absorption property of openpore aluminum foams
WANG Fang; WANG Lu-cai; WU Jian-guo
2007-01-01
This paper presents a study on sound absorption property of aluminum foam by evaluating its sound absorption coefficients using standing wave tube method. Experimental results showed that the average values of sound absorption coefficients (over the test frequency range) are all above 0.4, which indicate very good sound absorption property of the aluminum foams. The sound absorption coefficient is affected by frequency and pore structure, and reaches its maximum value at around 1 000 Hz. With...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudete Regina Alcalde
1999-01-01
(AN and Saanen (SN goat breeds. Twelve kids, six of each breed, with average 19.8 kg LW, were used. Semipurified diets (low Mg content based on cracked rice, corn gluten meal and cellulose were supplemented with MgO to obtain the levels of .05 (without supplementation, .20 and .35% of Mg (% DM. The levels of Mg affected the coefficient of apparent absorption of Mg and Ca, with average values of 57.8, 73.9, and 73.2% for Mg and 55.7, 39.6 and 49.5% for Ca for diets with .05, .20, and .35% Mg, respectively. However, there was no effect of the dietary Mg level on the coefficient of apparent absorption of P, Na and K. An interaction between Mg level and breeds was observed for the real absorption of Mg. The mean for AN breed, on the level .05% Mg was 61.0% and for the levels 0.20 and 0.35% Mg, 77.2 and 73.2%, respectively. However, for SN breed the means were 73.3, 75.5 and 76.0%, for the same levels, without differences. The digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and nitrogen free extract decreased with the crescent dietary Mg level. The fecal (7.0, 20.8 and 34.4 mg/kg LW0.75.d and urinary (3.9, 30.8 and 44.6 mg/kg LW0.75.d Mg excretion increased with the crescent dietary Mg level. There was also influence of the dietary Mg level on the blood serum Mg concentration (1.74, 2.23 and 2.80 mg/dL for .05, .20, and .35% Mg, respectively.
Sound absorption property of openpore aluminum foams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WANG Fang
2007-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a study on sound absorption property of aluminum foam by evaluating its sound absorption coefficients using standing wave tube method. Experimental results showed that the average values of sound absorption coefficients (over the test frequency range are all above 0.4, which indicate very good sound absorption property of the aluminum foams. The sound absorption coefficient is affected by frequency and pore structure, and reaches its maximum value at around 1 000 Hz. With the increase of porosity and decrease of cell diameter, the sound absorption coefficient values increase.
Detecting Black Hole Binaries by Gaia
Yamaguchi, Masaki S.; Kawanaka, Norita; Bulik, Tomasz; Piran, Tsvi
2017-01-01
We study the prospect of the Gaia satellite to identify black hole binary systems by detecting the orbital motion of the companion stars. Taking into account the initial mass function, mass transfer, common envelope phase, interstellar absorption and identifiability of black holes, we estimate the number of black hole binaries detected by Gaia and their distributions with respect to the black hole mass for several models with different parameters. We find that $\\sim 300-6000$ black hole binar...
Kaul, Neerej; Agrawal, Himani; Paradkar, A R; Mahadik, K R
2005-08-31
A multifactor optimization technique is successfully applied to study the effect of simultaneously varying the system variables on feasibility of nevirapine analysis by packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (PC-SFC). The optimal conditions were determined with the aid of the response surface methodology using 3(3) factorial designs. The method is based on methanol-modified carbon dioxide as the mobile phase at flow rate of 3.0 ml/min with elution through a JASCO Finepak SIL-5, [C18 (5-micron, 25 cm x 4.6 mm, i.d.)] column using photodiode array detection. The method has been successfully used to analyze commercial solid dosage form to assess the chromatographic performance of SFC system. The present work briefs the thermodynamic applications of PC-SFC with an emphasis on the results of nevirapine. The foremost of such applications is the determination of solute diffusion coefficient in supercritical mobile phase by Taylor-Aris peak broadening technique.
Hayamizu, Kikuko; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Seki, Shiro; Ohno, Yasutaka; Miyashiro, Hajime; Kobayashi, Yo
2008-01-31
A room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) of a quaternary ammonium cation having an ether chain, N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (DEME-TFSA), is a candidate for use as an electrolyte of lithium secondary batteries. In this study, the electrochemical ionic conductivity, sigma, of the neat DEME-TFSA and DEME-TFSA-Li doped with five different concentrations of lithium salt (LiTFSA) was measured and correlated with NMR measurements of the diffusion coefficients D and the spin-lattice relaxation times T1 of the individual components DEME (1H), TFSA (19F), and lithium ion (7Li). The ion conduction of charged ions can be activated with less thermal energy than ion diffusion which contains a contribution from paired ions in DEME-TFSA. In the doped DEME-TFSA-Li samples, the sigma and D values decreased with increasing salt concentration, and within the same sample generally DLisalt concentration at low temperatures. Since plots of the temperature dependence of T1 of the 1H and 7Li resonances showed T1 minima, the correlation times tauc(H) and tauc(Li) were calculated for reorientational motions of DEME and the lithium jump, respectively. At the same temperature, tauc(Li) is longer than tauc(H), suggesting that the molecular motion of DEME occurs more rapidly than the lithium jump. Combining the DLi and tauc(Li), averaged distances for the lithium jump were estimated.
Samoska, L. A.; Brar, Berinder; Kroemer, H.
1993-01-01
We report on long-wavelength intersubband absorption under normal incidence in heavily doped binary-binary GaSb-AlSb superlattices. Due to a small energy difference between the ellipsoidal L valleys in GaSb and the low-density-of-states Gamma minimum, electrons spill over from the first Gamma subband into the higher-energy L subband in GaSb wells, where they are allowed to make an intersubband transition under normally incident radiation. A peak fractional absorption per quantum well of 6.8 x 10 exp 3 (absorption coefficient alpha of about 8500/cm) is observed at about 15 microns wavelength for a sheet concentration of 1.6 x 10 exp 12 sq cm/well.
Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions
Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin
2013-01-01
The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasad, R.D.G.; Reddy, S.P.
1976-01-01
The collision-induced infrared absorption spectra of the fundamental band of HD in binary mixtures of HD with Ne and Ar at room temperature have been studied with an absorption path length of 105.2 cm for different base densities of HD in the range 8--20 amagat and a number of total gas densities up to 175 amagat. The observed features of the profiles of the enhancement of absorption in these mixtures resemble closely those of the corresponding profiles of the fundamental band of H 2 in binary mixtures with Ne and Ar. The binary absorption coefficients of the band obtained from the measured integrated intensities are (1.84 +- 0.06) x 10 -35 and (4.41 +- 0.06) x 10 -35 cm 6 s -1 for HD--Ne and HD--Ar, respectively. The characteristic half-width parameters, delta/subd/ and delta/subc/ of the overlap transitions and delta/subq/ (and delta/subq//sub prime/) of the quadrupolar transitions, are obtained from an analysis of the profiles of the enhancement of absorption in both these mixtures. The quantity delta/subc/ which is the half-width of the intercollisional interference dip of the Q branch increases with the density of the perturbing gas Ne or Ar, and for HD--Ne it varies in a manner similar to that for HD--He as described in Paper I of this series
Matsuura, H.; Nagasaka, Y.
2018-02-01
We describe an instrument for the measurement of the Soret and thermodiffusion coefficients in ternary systems based on the transient holographic grating technique, which is called Soret forced Rayleigh scattering (SFRS) or thermal diffusion forced Rayleigh scattering (TDFRS). We integrated the SFRS technique and the two-wavelength detection technique, which enabled us to obtain two different signals to determine the two independent Soret coefficients and thermodiffusion coefficients in ternary systems. The instrument has been designed to read the mass transport simultaneously by two-wavelength lasers with wavelengths of λ = 403 nm and λ = 639 nm. The irradiation time of the probing lasers is controlled to reduce the effect of laser absorption to the sample with dye (quinizarin), which is added to convert the interference pattern of the heating laser of λ = 532 nm to the temperature grating. The result of the measurement of binary benchmark mixtures composed of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (THN), isobutylbenzene (IBB), and n-dodecane (nC12) shows that the simultaneous two-wavelength observation of the Soret effect and the mass diffusion are adequately performed. To evaluate performance in the measurement of ternary systems, we carried out experiments on the ternary benchmark mixtures of THN/IBB/nC12 with the mass fractions of 0.800/0.100/0.100 at a temperature of 298.2 K. The Soret coefficient and thermodiffusion coefficient agreed with the ternary benchmark values within the range of the standard uncertainties (23% for the Soret coefficient of THN and 30% for the thermodiffusion coefficient of THN).
P.H. Utomo (Putranto); R.H. Makarim (Rusydi)
2017-01-01
textabstractA Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set (Formula presented.). Let (Formula presented.) be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an (Formula presented.) binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and
Eclipsing binaries in open clusters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.
2006-01-01
Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...
A Note on the Correlated Random Coefficient Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kolodziejczyk, Christophe
In this note we derive the bias of the OLS estimator for a correlated random coefficient model with one random coefficient, but which is correlated with a binary variable. We provide set-identification to the parameters of interest of the model. We also show how to reduce the bias of the estimator...
Quenching of Einstein-coefficients by photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aumayr, F.; Lee, W.; Skinner, C.H.; Suckewer, S.
1991-03-01
Experimental evidence is presented for the change of Einstein's A- coefficients for spontaneous transitions from the upper laser level of argon ion laser discharge due to the presence of the high- intensity laser flux. To demonstrate that this quenching effect cannot be attributed to a reduction in self-absorption of the strong spontaneous emission line, absorption and line profile measurements have been performed. Computer modelling of the reduction of self absorption due to Rabi splitting also indicated that this effect is too small to explain the observed quenching of spontaneous line emissions. 13 refs., 11 figs
Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D
1978-01-01
Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied
Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boldt, Jesper
The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganatra, R.D.
1992-01-01
Absorption studies were once quite popular but hardly anyone does them these days. It is easier to estimate the blood level of the nutrient directly by radioimmunoassay (RIA). However, the information obtained by estimating the blood levels of the nutrients is not the same that can be obtained from the absorption studies. Absorption studies are primarily done to find out whether some of the essential nutrients are absorbed from the gut or not and if they are absorbed, to determine how much is being absorbed. In the advanced countries, these tests were mostly done to detect pernicious anaemia where vitamin B 12 is not absorbed because of the lack of the intrinsic factor in the stomach. In the tropical countries, ''malabsorption syndrome'' is quire common. In this condition, several nutrients like fat, folic acid and vitamin B 12 are not absorbed. It is possible to study absorption of these nutrients by radioisotopic absorption studies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel
2006-01-01
effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...
Christova-Zdravkova, C.G.
2005-01-01
Binary crystals are crystals composed of two types of particles having different properties like size, mass density, charge etc. In this thesis several new approaches to make binary crystals of colloidal particles that differ in size, material and charge are reported We found a variety of crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, S.J.
1976-01-01
Folate is the generic term given to numerous compounds of pteroic acid with glutamic acid. Knowledge of absorption is limited because of the complexities introduced by the variety of compounds and because of the inadequacy of investigational methods. Two assay methods are in use, namely microbiological and radioactive. Techniques used to study absorption include measurement of urinary excretion, serum concentration, faecal excretion, intestinal perfusion, and haematological response. It is probably necessary to test absorption of both pteroylmonoglutamic acid and one or more polyglutamates, and such tests would be facilitated by availability of synthesized compounds labelled with radioactive tracers at specifically selected sites. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Narrative Absorption brings together research from the social sciences and Humanities to solve a number of mysteries: Most of us will have had those moments, of being totally absorbed in a book, a movie, or computer game. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. Nor...... do we fully realize how we might have changed as we return for the fictional worlds we have visited. The feeling of being absorbed is one of the most illusive and transient feelings, but also one that motivates audiences to spend considerable amounts of time in narrative worlds, and one...... that is central to our understanding of the effects of narratives on beliefs and behavior. Key specialists inform the reader of this book about the nature of the peculiar state of consciousness during episodes of absorption, the perception of absorption in history, the role of absorption in meaningful experiences...
Empirical relation between interstellar x-ray absorption and optical extinction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorenstein, P.
1975-01-01
An empirical relation between interstellar X-ray absorption and optical extinction is derived from the correlation of measurements made on objects of large intrinsic diameter. The result is A/subv/=4.5times10 -22 N/subH/ mag, with the principal error being largely systematic in origin, where N/subH/ represents the column density of interstellar matter in the Brown and Gould model for the X-ray absorption coefficient. Applying this ratio to optically identified compact sources, it is concluded that sources in binary systems showing pronounced X-ray occultations have an intrinsic absorption equivalent to approx.10 22 atoms cm -2 of interstellar matter and that there are a few compact sources where the absorption seems to be primarily interstellar in origin. The interstellar absorption expected in Cyg X-1 from the extinction of its optical counterpart is much greater than that suggested by X-ray spectra, which may be due to a soft X-ray component greater than that predicted by the power law fitted to higher energy data. A reinterpretation of published spectral parameters of Cyg X-1 in its posttransition phase suggests that the soft component shifted downward in energy during the transition. The value of A/sub v//N/sub H/ determined from the X-ray measurements is compatible with the Lα results for 0A0 2. It is in accord with an interstellar dust-to-mass ratio of approximately 10 -2 . (U.S.)
The contribution of molecular relaxation in nitrogen to the absorption of sound in the atmosphere
Zuckerwar, A. J.; Meredith, R. W.
1980-01-01
Results and statistical analysis are presented for sound absorption in N2-H2O binary mixtures at room temperature. Experimental procedure, temperature effects, and preliminary results are presented for sound absorption in N2-H2O binary mixtures at elevated temperatures.
Spectrophotometric determination of volautile inorganic hydrides in binary gaseous mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezchikov, V.G.; Skachkova, I.N.; Kuznetsova, T.S.; Khrushcheva, V.V.
1985-01-01
A study was made on possibility of single and continuons analysis of binary mixtures (hydride-gas) for the content of volatile inorganic hydrides (VIH) from absorption spectra in the 185-280 nm band. Dependences of the percentage of VIH transmission on the wavelength are presented. It is shown that the maximum of their absorption depends on the element-hydrogen the bond length and binding energy. Detection limit for boron hydride was established to be n x 10 -3 % vol at 185-190 nm wavelength. Technique for spectrophotometric hydride determination in binary mixtures with hydrogen, argon, helium was developed. The technique provides the continuous control of gaseous mixture composition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartono, Ardi; Saleem, Fahad; Waseem Arshad, Muhammad
2013-01-01
-T-x-y, activity coefficient, excess enthalpy and freezing point depression for both the binary and ternary systems. However, a small inconsistency was observed between water activity coefficients determined from ebulliometer and freezing point depression measurements....
Absorption factor for cylindrical samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sears, V.F.
1984-01-01
The absorption factor for the scattering of X-rays or neutrons in cylindrical samples is calculated by numerical integration for the case in which the absorption coefficients of the incident and scattered beams are not equal. An extensive table of values having an absolute accuracy of 10 -4 is given in a companion report [Sears (1983). Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Report No. AECL-8176]. In the present paper an asymptotic expression is derived for the absorption factor which can be used with an error of less than 10 -3 for most cases of interest in both neutron inelastic scattering and neutron diffraction in crystals. (Auth.)
Hirano, Yoshiaki; Yamazaki, Asuka; Maio, Ari; Kitahama, Yasutaka; Ozaki, Yukihiro
2010-08-26
We have investigated the structure of the mixed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of a merocyanine dye derivative (MO(18))-deuterated arachidic acid (C(20)-d) binary system and the influence of successive hydrothermal treatment in the liquid phase (HTTL) on the mixed LB film by means of polarized UV-visible and IR absorption spectroscopy. The visible absorption band with in-plane anisotropy at 503 nm before HTTL transforms into an absorption band with in-plane isotropy at 557 nm after HTTL for 16-18 min through a peak maximum near 520 nm after HTTL for 2-12 min. The degree of total MO(18) intramolecular charge transfer for the 503 nm band is the largest among those for all of the bands. Therefore, the 503 nm band is ascribed to the MO(18) H-like aggregation, based on its shape, peak height, and in-plane anisotropy, the subsequent change to two kinds of visible peaks by successive HTTL, and the most degree of MO(18) intramolecular charge transfer among all of the aggregation states. While the MO(18) hydrocarbon chain takes the all-trans conformation before HTTL, its conformation and orientation are most disarranged after HTTL for 2 min. Subsequently, the original conformation and orientation are recovered by degrees with successive HTTL, except after final HTTL for 18 min, when the orientation is again changed. On the other hand, the C(20)-d hydrocarbon chain maintains the all-trans conformation before and after HTTL. The orientation of the C(20)-d hydrocarbon chain after HTTL for 2 min is more ordered than that before HTTL, with the nature of the C(20)-d subcell packing changing from hexagonal to orthorhombic. During successive HTTL from 2 to 18 min, the C(20)-d orientation is gradually disorganized but with the orthorhombic nature remaining constant. Thus, the variations in the conformation and orientation of the MS(18) hydrocarbon chain and in the orientation of the C(20)-d hydrocarbon chain tend to change from ordered and disordered structures and turn to more
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larsson-Leander, G.
1979-01-01
Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrov, D.A.
1986-01-01
Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
Lorimer, D. R.
2005-01-01
We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic b...
Astrophysics of white dwarf binaries
Nelemans, G.A.
2006-01-01
White dwarf binaries are the most common compact binaries in the Universe and are especially important for low-frequency gravitational wave detectors such as LISA. There are a number of open questions about binary evolution and the Galactic population of white dwarf binaries that can be solved using
Commentary on “thermodynamic equilibrium of hydroxyacetic acid in pure and binary solvent systems”
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acree, William E.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Errors found in published equation coefficients. • Published solubility data reanalyzed. • New coefficients determined for simplified form of CNIBS/R-K model. - Abstract: Problems are discussed regarding published mathematical representations by Huang et al. (2017) for describing how the measured mole fraction solubility varies with solvent composition in the binary (ethanol + ethyl acetate) and binary (acetone + ethanol) solvent systems. Several sets of published equation coefficients were found to give back-calculated mole fraction solubilities that exceeded unity. The published solubility data for hydroxyacetic acid dissolved in binary (ethanol + ethyl acetate) was reanalyzed and new curve-fitted equation coefficients were calculated for the simplified form of the Combined Nearly Ideal Binary Solvent (NIBS)/Redlich-Kister Model. Two simple methods for identifying possible errors in curve-fitted equation coefficients were also presented.
Evolution of cataclysmic binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paczynski, B.
1981-01-01
Cataclysmic binaries with short orbital periods have low mass secondary components. Their nuclear time scale is too long to be of evolutionary significance. Angular momentum loss from the binary drives the mass transfer between the two components. As long as the characteristic time scale is compared with the Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale of the mass losing secondary the star remains close to the main sequence, and the binary period decreases with time. If angular momentum loss is due to gravitational radiation then the mass transfer time scale becomes comparable to the Kelvin-Helmoltz time scale when the secondary's mass decreases to 0.12 Msub(sun), and the binary period is reduced to 80 minutes. Later, the mass losing secondary departs from the main sequence and gradually becomes degenerate. Now the orbital period increases with time. The observed lower limit to the orbital periods of hydrogen rich cataclysmic binaries implies that gravitational radiation is the main driving force for the evolution of those systems. It is shown that binaries emerging from a common envelope phase of evolution are well detached. They have to lose additional angular momentum to become semidetached cataclysmic variables. (author)
Bent Electro-Absorption Modulator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2002-01-01
components and the applied electric field in relation to the frequency of the modulated radiation, the bending losses (and possibly coupling losses) will provide extinction of light guided by the bent waveguide section. The refractive index contract may be modulated while keeping the absorption coefficient...... by bendng losses co-operates to provide more compact modulators with improved performance (extinction) and speed....
Determination of sedimentation rates and absorption coefficient of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2+ has a higher sedimentation rate of 5.10x10-2 s-1 while Ni2+ has the lowest sedimentation rates of 1.10 x10-3. The rate of sedimentation of the metal carbonates decreased in the order: Zn2+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Co2+ > Ni2+. The order ...
Optical absorption coefficient of different tortillas by photoacoustic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The color of the tortilla is one of the properties that determine the purchasing decision and acceptance for the consumer. This sensory attribute is altered, when making tortillas with elements to improve digestion and nutrition. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to determine some information about the color in ...
Optical absorption coefficient of different tortillas by photoacoustic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
李兴林
balances Ohaus were used for determining the thickness and weight of the tortilla's samples, respectively. Optical characterization of the “tortilla”. The photoacoustic instrumentation consisted of a Xenon lamp. (Oriel), a monochromator (Oriel), a chopper adjusted at a frequency of 17 Hz, and a fiber optic cable was connected ...
Vapor-Phase Infrared Absorptivity Coefficient of Cyclohexyl Isothiocyanate
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Samuels, Alan C; Miles, Jr., Ronald W; Williams, Barry R; Hulet, Melissa S
2008-01-01
...)) at a spectral resolution of 0.125 cm(-1). The chemical used in the feedstock was subjected to a rigorous analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and Karl-Fischer titration to verify its purity...
Lifshitz tails for the interband light absorption coefficient
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
discrete case or on L2(Rd) in the continuous case, and taking a random potential V ω. Restricting these operators H .... where ρ is set to be ∞ if either A or B is an unbounded element of I. Using Hypothesis 2 and .... which this feature is valid and the dashed lines are those for which this is not true. In the definition below the ...
CH3D ICE ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS V1.0
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is the result of laboratory transmission spectroscopy experiments performed within a sealed cell in the ice laboratory at Northern Arizona University....
Determination of optical constants and nonlinear optical coefficients ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
−7 cm2/W and nonlinear absorption coefficient, β = 6.31×10. −3 cm/W. Optical limiting characteris- tics of the dye-doped polymer film was studied. The result reveals that Violet 1 can be a promising material for optical limiting applications. Keywords. Absorption spectra; nonlinear optics; optical constants; optical limiting.
Segregation of granular binary mixtures by a ratchet mechanism.
Farkas, Zénó; Szalai, Ferenc; Wolf, Dietrich E; Vicsek, Tamás
2002-02-01
We report on a segregation scheme for granular binary mixtures, where the segregation is performed by a ratchet mechanism realized by a vertically shaken asymmetric sawtooth-shaped base in a quasi-two-dimensional box. We have studied this system by computer simulations and found that most binary mixtures can be segregated using an appropriately chosen ratchet, even when the particles in the two components have the same size and differ only in their normal restitution coefficient or friction coefficient. These results suggest that the components of otherwise nonsegregating granular mixtures may be separated using our method.
Transport Coefficients of Fluids
Eu, Byung Chan
2006-01-01
Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.
Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP)
Wilkinson, John; Konek, Christopher T.; Moran, Jesse S.; Witko, Ewelina M.; Korter, Timothy M.
2009-08-01
We report here, for the first time, the terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The experimental spectra are coupled with solid-state density functional theory, and preliminary assignments are provided to gain physical insight into the experimental spectrum. The calculated absorption coefficients are in excellent agreement with experiment.
Sagis, L.M.C.
2001-01-01
In this paper we developed an expression for the coefficient for plane-parallel diffusion for an arbitrarily curved fluid–fluid interface. The expression is valid for ordinary diffusion in binary mixtures, with isotropic bulk phases and an interfacial region that is isotropic in the plane parallel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joshua A. Faber
2012-07-01
Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel
2006-01-01
It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...
Adsorption of hexavalent chromium by graphite–chitosan binary ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Graphite chitosan binary (GCB) composite was prepared for hexavalent chromium adsorption from studied water. GCB was characterized by TGA, FTIR, SEM and X-ray diffraction techniques.Wide porous sorptive surface of 3.89 m 2 g − 1 and absorptive functionalities of GCB was due to 20% (w/w) graphite support on ...
Adsorption of hexavalent chromium by graphite–chitosan binary
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Graphite chitosan binary (GCB) composite was prepared for hexavalent chromium adsorption from studied water. GCB was characterized by TGA, FTIR, SEM and X-ray diffraction techniques.Wide porous sorptive surface of 3.89 m 2 g − 1 and absorptive functionalities of GCB was due to 20% (w/w) graphite support on ...
Ultraviolet light absorption of an ophthalmic formulation with Aloe extracts.
Ji, Yimei; Jia, Jicheng
2009-09-01
Aloin and polysaccharide present in extracts of Aloe arborescens Miller were formulated into a binary solution to protect eyes from bacterial infection and ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The UVR absorption spectrum was recorded from 190 to 440 nm using a UV spectrometer. The physical properties of the product were examined in terms of its appearance, odor, pH, viscosity, density, refractive index, and stability. The binary solution exhibited three absorption peaks in the UVA, B and C regions, respectively. Such UV absorption capability was attributed to the phenolic chromophores pertaining to aloin. The present study suggested that the formulated binary solution has potential application as an UV absorption agent with built-in antimicrobial activity.
Coefficient of restitution of model repaired car body parts
D. Hadryś; M. Miros
2008-01-01
Purpose: The qualification of influence of model repaired car body parts on the value of coefficient of restitution and evaluation of impact energy absorption of model repaired car body parts.Design/methodology/approach: Investigation of plastic strain and coefficient of restitution of new and repaired model car body parts with using impact test machine for different impact energy.Findings: The results of investigations show that the value of coefficient of restitution changes with speed (ene...
Collett, David
2002-01-01
INTRODUCTION Some Examples The Scope of this Book Use of Statistical Software STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR BINARY DATA The Binomial Distribution Inference about the Success Probability Comparison of Two Proportions Comparison of Two or More Proportions MODELS FOR BINARY AND BINOMIAL DATA Statistical Modelling Linear Models Methods of Estimation Fitting Linear Models to Binomial Data Models for Binomial Response Data The Linear Logistic Model Fitting the Linear Logistic Model to Binomial Data Goodness of Fit of a Linear Logistic Model Comparing Linear Logistic Models Linear Trend in Proportions Comparing Stimulus-Response Relationships Non-Convergence and Overfitting Some other Goodness of Fit Statistics Strategy for Model Selection Predicting a Binary Response Probability BIOASSAY AND SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS The Tolerance Distribution Estimating an Effective Dose Relative Potency Natural Response Non-Linear Logistic Regression Models Applications of the Complementary Log-Log Model MODEL CHECKING Definition of Re...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.
1982-01-01
The conditions of mass exchange in close binary systems with masses of components less or equal to one solar mass have been analysed for the case, when the system radiates gravitational waves. It has been shown that the mass exchange rate depends in a certain way on the mass ratio of components and on the mass of component that fills its inner critical lobe. The comparison of observed periods, masses of contact components, and mass exchange rates of observed cataclysmic binaries have led to the conclusion that the evolution of close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G 61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.
1982-01-01
The circumstances of mass exchange in close binary systems whose components have a mass < or approx. =1 M/sub sun/ are analyzed for the case where the system is losing orbital angular momentum by radiation of gravitational waves. The mass exchange rate will depend on the mass ratio of the components and on the mass of the component that is overfilling its critical Roche lobe. A comparison of the observed orbital periods, masses of the components losing material, and mass exchange rates against the theoretical values for cataclysmic binaries indicates that the evolution of the close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorimer Duncan R.
2008-11-01
Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.
Simple parametrization of photon mass energy absorption ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper, we provide polynomial coefficients and a semi-empirical relation using which one can derive photon mass energy absorption coefficient of any H-, C-, N-,. O-based sample of biological interest containing any other elements in the atomic number range 2–40 and energy range 200–1500 keV.
Simple parametrization of photon mass energy absorption ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
More interestingly, it has been observed in the present work that in this energy range, both the mass attenuation coefficients and the mass energy absorption coefficients for such samples vary only with respect to energy. Hence it was possible to represent the photon interaction properties of such samples by a mean value of ...
Vanbeveren, D., Van Rensbergen, W., De Loore, C.
Massive stars are distributed all over the upper part of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram according to their subsequent phases of stellar evolution from main sequence to supernova. Massive stars may either be single or they may be a component of a close binary. The observed single star/binary frequency is known only in a small part of the Galaxy. Whether this holds for the whole galaxy or for the whole cosmos is questionable and needs many more high quality observations. Massive star evolution depends critically on mass loss by stellar wind and this stellar wind mass loss may change dramatically when stars evolve from one phase to another. We start the book with a critical discussion of observations of the different types of massive stars, observations that are of fundamental importance in relation to stellar evolution, with special emphasis on mass loss by stellar wind. We update our knowledge of the physics that models the structure and evolution of massive single stars and we present new calculations. The conclusions resulting from a comparison between these calculations and observations are then used to study the evolution of massive binaries. This book provides our current knowledge of a great variety of massive binaries, and hence of a great variety of evolutionary phases. A large number of case studies illustrates the existence of these phases. Finally, we present the results of massive star population number synthesis, including the effect of binaries. The results indicate that neglecting them leads to a conclusion which may be far from reality. This book is written for researchers in massive star evolution. We hope that, after reading this book, university-level astrophysics students will become fascinated by the exciting world of the `Brightest Binaries'.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikkola, S.
1983-01-01
Gravitational encounters of pairs of binaries have been studied numerically. Various cross-sections have been calculated for qualitative final results of the interaction and for energy transfer between the binding energy and the centre of mass kinetic energy. The distribution of the kinetic energies, resulting from the gravitational collision, were found to be virtually independent of the impact velocity in the case of collision of hard binaries. It was found that one out of five collisions, which are not simple fly-by's, leads to the formation of a stable three-body system. (author)
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Duncan R. Lorimer
1998-09-01
Full Text Available Our knowledge of binary and millisecond pulsars has greatly increased in recent years. This is largely due to the success of large-area surveys which have brought the known population of such systems in the Galactic disk to around 50. As well as being interesting as a population of astronomical sources, many pulsars turn out to be superb celestial clocks. In this review we summarise the main properties of binary and millisecond pulsars and highlight some of their applications to relativistic astrophysics.
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorimer Duncan R.
2005-11-01
Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dardour H.
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the analysis and the simulation of a heat-driven absorption-diffusion cooling machine which can operate with low-grade heat sources. The simplified configuration of the heat-powered absorption-diffusion refrigerating machine considered in this study is based on the Platen-Munters single pressure refrigerators principle [Platen B.C.V. and Munters C.G. (1928 Refrigerator, US Patent 1, 685-764J. Three working fluids are used, nonane as an absorbent, propane as a refrigerant and hydrogen as the inert auxiliary gas. The designed cooling capacity of the machine is 1 kW which is suitable for a domestic use for refrigeration purposes. We restricted the maximum temperature of the driving heat supplied to the generator to 130 °C, a temperature achievable with evacuated-tube solar collectors. The simulations are carried out using a commercially available flow sheeting software with the PengRobinson equation of state as property prediction method. In this paper, we analyze the heat and mass transfer characteristics in all relevant machine components (absorber, condenser, generator and solution heat exchangers. The simulations results allow determining the values of different parameters of the systems such as the refrigerant and the solvent temperatures in various points of the machine, the liquid and the vapor flow rates and compositions. The system performances were parametrically analyzed using the flow sheeting software. Performance characteristics were determined for a wide range of operating conditions allowing investigating and evaluating the effect of various design parameters. Ce papier est consacré à l’étude et l’analyse d’une machine frigorifique à absorption-diffusion. La machine est actionnée grâce à une source de chaleur de température modérée. La configuration et le principe de fonctionnement de l’appareil obéissent au modèle de Platen Munters [Platen B.C.V. and Munters C.G. (1928 Refrigerator
Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers
Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.
1991-01-01
Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pringle, J.E.; Wade, R.A.
1985-01-01
This book reviews the theoretical and observational knowledge of interacting binary stars. The topics discussed embrace the following features of these objects: their orbits, evolution, mass transfer, angular momentum losses, X-ray emission, eclipses, variability, and other related phenomena. (U.K.)
Equational binary decision diagrams
J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)
2000-01-01
textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and
Tcheng, Ping
1989-01-01
Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.
Optical distortion coefficients of laser windows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, C.A.
1989-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of describing and evaluating thermal lensing phenomena that occur as a result of the absorption of laser light in solid windows. The aberration-function expansion method is applied for deriving the two optical distortion coefficients χ + and χ - that characterize the degradation in light intensity at the Gaussian focus of an initially diffraction-limited laser beam passing through a weakly absorbing stress-birefringent window. In a pulsed mode of operation, the concept of an effective optical distortion coefficient. χ eff, which properly combines the coefficients χ + and χ - in terms of potential impact on focal irradiances, then leads to the definition of a figure of merit for distortion. The theory and the calculations presented in this papers provide simple analytical tools for predicting the optical performance of a window-material candidate in a specific system's environment
On binary quadratic forms and the Hecke groups
Culp-Ressler, Wendell
1999-01-01
We present a theory of reduction of binary quadratic forms with coefficients in Z[lambda], where lambda is the minimal translation in a Hecke group. We generalize from the modular group Gamma(1) = SL(2,Z) to the Hecke groups and make extensive use of modified negative continued fractions.
Young and Waltzing Binary Stars
2001-10-01
star determines its fate . Massive stars (with masses more than 50 times that of the Sun) lead a glorious, but short life. They are hot and very luminous and exhaust their energy supply in just a few million years. At the other end of the scale, low-mass stars like the Sun are more economical with their resources. Being cooler and dimmer, they are able to shine for billions of years [2]. But although the mass determines the fate of a star, it is not a trivial matter to measure this crucial parameter. In fact, it can only be determined directly if the star happens to be gravitationally bound to another star in a binary stellar system. Observations of the orbital motions of the two stars as they circle each other allows to "weigh" them, and also provide other important information, e.g. about their sizes and temperatures. Orbital motions The understanding of orbital motions has a long history in astronomy. The basic laws of Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) are still used to calculate the masses of orbiting objects, in the solar system as well as in binary stellar systems. However, while the observations of the motion of the nine planets and moons have allowed us to measure quite accurately the masses of objects in our vicinity, the information needed to "weigh" the binary stellar systems is not that easy to obtain. As a result, the mass estimates of the stars in binary systems are often rather uncertain. A main problem is that the individual stars in many binary systems can not be visually separated, even in the best telescopes. The information about the orbit may then come from the motions of the stars, if these are revealed by spectroscopic observations of the combined light (such systems are referred to as "spectroscopic binaries"). If absorption lines from both components are present in the spectrum, the measured wavelength of these double lines will shift periodically back and forth. This is the well-known Doppler effect and it directly reflects the changing velocities
Wijers, R.A.M.J.
1996-01-01
Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes
X-ray absorption in atomic potassium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomilsek, Jana Padeznik; Kodre, Alojz; Arcon, Iztok; Nemanic, Vincenc
2008-01-01
A new high-temperature absorption cell for potassium vapor is described. X-ray absorption coefficient of atomic potassium is determined in the energy interval of 600 eV above the K edge where thresholds for simultaneous excitations of 1s and outer electrons, down to [1s2p] excitation, appear. The result represents also the atomic absorption background for XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) structure analysis. The K ionization energy in the potassium vapor is determined and compared with theoretical data and with the value for the metal
Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter
2008-01-01
The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to ......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances......The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...
Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter
The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to ......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances.......The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...
Bokhari, Shahid H.; Crockett, Thomas W.; Nicol, David M.
1993-01-01
Binary dissection is widely used to partition non-uniform domains over parallel computers. This algorithm does not consider the perimeter, surface area, or aspect ratio of the regions being generated and can yield decompositions that have poor communication to computation ratio. Parametric Binary Dissection (PBD) is a new algorithm in which each cut is chosen to minimize load + lambda x(shape). In a 2 (or 3) dimensional problem, load is the amount of computation to be performed in a subregion and shape could refer to the perimeter (respectively surface) of that subregion. Shape is a measure of communication overhead and the parameter permits us to trade off load imbalance against communication overhead. When A is zero, the algorithm reduces to plain binary dissection. This algorithm can be used to partition graphs embedded in 2 or 3-d. Load is the number of nodes in a subregion, shape the number of edges that leave that subregion, and lambda the ratio of time to communicate over an edge to the time to compute at a node. An algorithm is presented that finds the depth d parametric dissection of an embedded graph with n vertices and e edges in O(max(n log n, de)) time, which is an improvement over the O(dn log n) time of plain binary dissection. Parallel versions of this algorithm are also presented; the best of these requires O((n/p) log(sup 3)p) time on a p processor hypercube, assuming graphs of bounded degree. How PBD is applied to 3-d unstructured meshes and yields partitions that are better than those obtained by plain dissection is described. Its application to the color image quantization problem is also discussed, in which samples in a high-resolution color space are mapped onto a lower resolution space in a way that minimizes the color error.
Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility
Boldt, Jesper
2010-01-01
The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined i...
Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Silverman
1979-01-01
Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.
Renormalization of QED with planar binary trees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brouder, C.
2001-01-01
The Dyson relations between renormalized and bare photon and electron propagators Z 3 anti D(q)=D(q) and Z 2 anti S(q)=S(q) are expanded over planar binary trees. This yields explicit recursive relations for the terms of the expansions. When all the trees corresponding to a given power of the electron charge are summed, recursive relations are obtained for the finite coefficients of the renormalized photon and electron propagators. These relations significantly decrease the number of integrals to carry out, as compared to the standard Feynman diagram technique. In the case of massless quantum electrodynamics (QED), the relation between renormalized and bare coefficients of the perturbative expansion is given in terms of a Hopf algebra structure. (orig.)
Wollschläger, J.; Röttgers, R.; Petersen, W.; Zielinski, O.
2016-12-01
A free-water mass balance-based study was conducted to address the rate of metabolism and net carbon exchange for the tidal wetland and estuarine portion of the coastal ocean and the uncertainties associated with this approach were assessed. Open water diurnal O2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were measured seasonally in a salt marsh-estuary in Georgia, U.S.A. with a focus on the marsh-estuary linkage associated with tidal flooding. We observed that the overall estuarine system was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere and coastal ocean and a net sink for oceanic and atmospheric O2. Rates of metabolism were extremely high, with respiration (43 mol m-2 yr-1) greatly exceeding gross primary production (28 mol m-2 yr-1), such that the overall system was net heterotrophic. Metabolism measured with DIC were higher than with O2, which we attribute to high rates of anaerobic respiration and reduced sulfur storage in salt marsh sediments, and we assume substantial levels of anoxygenic photosynthesis. We found gas exchange from a flooded marsh is substantial, accounting for about 28% of total O2 and CO2 air-water exchange. A significant percentage of the overall estuarine aquatic metabolism is attributable to metabolism of marsh organisms during inundation. Our study suggests not rely on oceanographic stoichiometry to convert from O2to C based measurements when constructing C balances for the coastal ocean. We also suggest eddy covariance measurements of salt marsh net ecosystem exchange underestimate net ecosystem production as they do not account for lateral DIC exchange associated with marsh tidal inundation. With the increase of global temperature and sea level rise, salt marshes are likely to export more inorganic carbon to the atmosphere and the coastal ocean due to the decrease of solubility, the increase of aquatic and benthic metabolic activities and the longer marsh inundation.
Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Merritt David
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egorov, Gennadiy I.; Makarov, Dmitriy M.; Kolker, Arkadiy M.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Molar isothermal compressions and molar isobaric expansions were evaluated. ► Coefficients of thermal pressure and internal pressure were obtained. ► Concentration dependences of coefficients under study display extremes. ► Temperature and pressure dependences of internal pressure of the mixture were linear. -- Abstract: Molar isothermal compressions, molar isobaric expansions, molar coefficients of thermal pressure, and internal pressure were calculated over the whole concentration range of {water (1) + tert-butanol (2)} mixture at pressures from 0.1 to 100 MPa and temperatures from 278.15 to 323.15 K. It was revealed that the extremes, observed on concentration dependences of molar isothermal compression K T,m and molar isobaric expansion E P,m of the mixture, became more pronounced with pressure growth and temperature lowering. Values of molar thermal pressure coefficients of the mixture sharply rose at compositions with small TBA mole fraction and then decreased practically linearly with the alcohol content increasing. Temperature and pressure dependences of the mixture internal pressure were almost linear, and at low TBA concentrations changed significantly from the dependences of water, tert-butanol and their mixtures at large alcohol content
Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.; Chris Nottoli; Eric Wolfram
2015-01-01
The absorption coefficient for material specimens are needed to quantify the expected acoustic performance of that material in its actual usage and environment. The ASTM C423-09a standard, "Standard Test Method for Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption Coefficients by the Reverberant Room Method" is often used to measure the absorption coefficient of material test specimens. This method has its basics in the Sabine formula. Although widely used, the interpretation of these measurements are a topic of interest. For example, in certain cases the measured Sabine absorption coefficients are greater than 1.0 for highly absorptive materials. This is often attributed to the diffraction edge effect phenomenon. An investigative test program to measure the absorption properties of highly absorbent melamine foam has been performed at the Riverbank Acoustical Laboratories. This paper will present and discuss the test results relating to the effect of the test materials' surface area, thickness and edge sealing conditions. A follow-on paper is envisioned that will present and discuss the results relating to the spacing between multiple piece specimens, and the mounting condition of the test specimen.
Absorption boundary conditions for geomertical acoustics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2012-01-01
Defining accurate acoustical boundary conditions is of crucial importance for room acoustic simulations. In predicting sound fields using phased geometrical acoustics methods, the absorption coefficients or surface impedances of the boundary surfaces can be used, but no guideline has been developed...... on which boundary condition produces the best results. In this study, various boundary conditions in terms of normal and random incidence absorption coefficients, and normal incidence surface impedances are used in a phased beam tracing model, and simulated results are validated with boundary element...... solutions. Two rectangular rooms with uniform and non-uniform absorption distributions are tested. It is concluded that the impedance and random incidence absorption boundary conditions produce reasonable results with some exceptions at low frequencies for acoustically soft materials....
Clustering coefficient and community structure of bipartite networks
Zhang, Peng; Wang, Jinliang; Li, Xiaojia; Li, Menghui; Di, Zengru; Fan, Ying
2008-12-01
Many real-world networks display natural bipartite structure, where the basic cycle is a square. In this paper, with the similar consideration of standard clustering coefficient in binary networks, a definition of the clustering coefficient for bipartite networks based on the fraction of squares is proposed. In order to detect community structures in bipartite networks, two different edge clustering coefficients LC4 and LC3 of bipartite networks are defined, which are based on squares and triples respectively. With the algorithm of cutting the edge with the least clustering coefficient, communities in artificial and real world networks are identified. The results reveal that investigating bipartite networks based on the original structure can show the detailed properties that is helpful to get deep understanding about the networks.
Higashi, Hidenori; Oda, Tsuyoshi; Iwai, Yoshio; Arai, Yasuhiko
2004-01-01
A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation was adopted to calculate the diffusion coefficients for a pseudo-binary system of carbon dioxide and for a carbon dioxide + solute system at 308.2 and 318.2K. The calculated results were compared with the self- and tracer diffusion coefficients calculated by an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The simulated results for the pseudo-binary system of carbon dioxide by the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation are in good agreement ...
Assessment of normal incidence absorption performance of sound absorbing materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farhad Forouharmajd
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of the present work was to consider the effect of different samples thicknesses on the acoustic absorption coefficient. Materials and Methods: An impedance tube was built with two microphones accordance to ISO-10534 and the American Society for Testing Materials-E1050 standards. For the measurement of absorption, the study was carried for 25 and 30 mm thicknesses of closed cell polyurethane foam, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC, rubber, mineral wool, carpet, and glass samples. Measurements were performed by impedance tube and VA-lab4 software. Results: In carpet and mineral wool with more thickness, the absorption was increased but, the carpet with less thickness showed more sound absorption in the frequency range of 1500-3600 Hz. The peak of the absorption coefficient of 25 mm glass was 0.36 that the amount was reduced to 0.2 in the 30 mm thickness. Furthermore, the difference between the peak absorption of two thicknesses in polystyrene sample was equal to 0.29. In fact, polystyrene with less thickness had better sound absorption. The same situation was happened for glass in frequencies of below 4500 Hz with less thickness. Conclusion: Incident sound energy, which is not absorbed, must be reflected, transmitted, or dissipated. The porous materials had a higher absorption coefficient. Carpet and mineral wool samples had the highest absorption coefficient, but the materials such as polyurethane foam, PVC, and rubber had lower sound absorption.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morales Mendoza, N. [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V. [LBT, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA. Ciudad Universitaria, Pab1, C1428EGA CABA (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Prov. de Bs As (Argentina); Candal, R., E-mail: candal@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 3iA, Universidad de Gral. San Martin, San Martin, Prov. Bs As (Argentina)
2012-08-15
Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 Degree-Sign C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 {mu}m) and sample B (smaller than 50 {mu}m). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 {mu}m showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 {mu}m. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.
Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
λ. Using this we shall determine the ... Univalent; starlike; meromorphic functions; subordination; coefficient bounds; inverse ...... [6] FitzGerald C H, Quadratic inequalities and coefficient estimates for Schlicht functions, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal.
Particulate absorption properties in the Red Sea from hyperspectral particulate absorption spectra
Tiwari, Surya Prakash
2018-03-16
This paper aims to describe the variability of particulate absorption properties using a unique hyperspectral dataset collected in the Red Sea as part of the TARA Oceans expedition. The absorption contributions by phytoplankton (aph) and non-algal particles (aNAP) to the total particulate absorption coefficients are determined using a numerical decomposition method (NDM). The NDM is validated by comparing the NDM derived values of aph and aNAP with simulated values of aph and aNAP are found to be in excellent agreement for the selected wavelengths (i.e., 443, 490, 555, and 676nm) with high correlation coefficient (R2), low root mean square error (RMSE), mean relative error (MRE), and with a slope close to unity. Further analyses showed that the total particulate absorption coefficients (i.e., ap(443)average = 0.01995m−1) were dominated by phytoplankton absorption (i.e., aph(443)average = 0.01743m−1) with a smaller contribution by non-algal particles absorption (i.e., aNAP(443)average = 0.002524m−1). The chlorophyll a is computed using the absorption based Line Height Method (LHM). The derived chlorophyll-specific absorption ((a⁎ph = aph(λ)/ChlLH)) showed more variability in the blue part of spectrum as compared to the red part of spectrum representative of the package effect and changes in pigment composition. A new parametrization proposed also enabled the reconstruction of a⁎ph(λ) for the Red Sea. Comparison of derived spectral constants with the spectral constants of existing models showed that our study A(λ) values are consistent with the existing values, despite there is a divergence with the B(λ) values. This study provides valuable information derived from the particulate absorption properties and its spectral variability and this would help us to determine the relationship between the phytoplankton absorption coefficients and chlorophyll a and its host of variables for the Red Sea.
Performance of diffusion absorption refrigeration cycle with organic working fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zohar, A.; Jelinek, M.; Levy, A.; Borde, I. [Pearlstone Center for Aeronautical Engineering Studies, Mechanical Engineering Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)
2009-09-15
A diffusion absorption refrigeration (DAR) cycle is driven by heat and utilizes a binary solution of refrigerant and absorbent as working fluid, together with an auxiliary inert gas. Commercial DAR systems operate with ammonia-water solution and hydrogen or helium as the inert gas. In this work, the performance of a simplified DAR system working with an organic absorbent (DMAC - dimethylacetamide) and five different refrigerants and helium as inert gas was examined numerically, with the aim of lowering the generator temperature and system pressure along with a non-toxic refrigerant The refrigerants were: chlorodifluoromethane (R22), difluoromethane (R32), 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R124), pentafluoroethane (R125) and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a). The results were compared with the performance of the same system working with ammonia-water and helium. Similar behavior was found for all systems, regarding the coefficient of performance (COP) and rich and poor solution concentrations as functions of generator temperature. It was found that typical generator temperature with the new substances was 150 C, yet lower COPs, higher evaporator temperatures and lower condensation temperature of about 40 C governed these systems. (author)
Evidence of a stable binary CdCa quasicrystalline phase
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jiang, Jianzhong; Jensen, C.H.; Rasmussen, A.R.
2001-01-01
Quasicrystals with a primitive icosahedral structure and a quasilattice constant of 5.1215 Angstrom have been synthesized in a binary Cd-Ca system. The thermal stability of the quasicrystal has been investigated by in situ high-temperature x-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation. It ....... It is demonstrated that the binary CdCa quasicrystal is thermodynamic stable up to its melting temperature. The linear thermal expansion coefficient of the quasicrystal is 2.765x10(-5) K-1. (C) 2001 American Institute of Physics.......Quasicrystals with a primitive icosahedral structure and a quasilattice constant of 5.1215 Angstrom have been synthesized in a binary Cd-Ca system. The thermal stability of the quasicrystal has been investigated by in situ high-temperature x-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation...
Binary interactions on the calibrations of star formation rate
Zhang, Fenghui; Li, Lifang; Zhang, Yu; Kang, Xiaoyu; Han, Zhanwen
2012-03-01
Using the Yunnan evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) models with and without binary interactions, we present the luminosity of Hα recombination line (LHα), the luminosity of [O II] λ3727 forbidden line doublet (?), the ultraviolet (UV) fluxes at 1500 and 2800 Å (Li, UV) and far-infrared flux (LFIR) for burst, S0, Sa-Sd and Irr galaxies, and present the calibrations of star formation rate (SFR) in terms of these diagnostics. By comparison, we find that binary interactions lower the SFR versus LHα and SFR versus ? conversion factors by ˜0.2 dex. The main reason is that binary interactions raise the UV flux (shortwards of the Lyman limit) of the stellar population (SP) in the age range 6.7 Aarseth-Hurley, Kroupa-Tout-Gilmore and Miller-Scalo IMFs, partly caused by the difference in the IMF), respectively. At last, we give the conversion coefficients between SFR and these diagnostics for all models.
Rieger, Samantha
2015-05-01
Recent observations have found that some contact binaries are oriented such that the secondary impacts with the primary at a high inclination. This research investigates the evolution of how such contact binaries came to exist. This process begins with an asteroid pair, where the secondary lies on the Laplace plane. The Laplace plane is a plane normal to the axis about which the pole of a satellites orbit precesses, causing a near constant inclination for such an orbit. For the study of the classical Laplace plane, the secondary asteroid is in circular orbit around an oblate primary with axial tilt. This system is also orbiting the Sun. Thus, there are two perturbations on the secondarys orbit: J2 and third body Sun perturbations. The Laplace surface is defined as the group of orbits that lie on the Laplace plane at varying distances from the primary. If the secondary is very close to the primary, the inclination of the Laplace plane will be near the equator of the asteroid, while further from the primary the inclination will be similar to the asteroid-Sun plane. The secondary will lie on the Laplace plane because near the asteroid the Laplace plane is stable to large deviations in motion, causing the asteroid to come to rest in this orbit. Assuming the secondary is asymmetrical in shape and the bodys rotation is synchronous with its orbit, the secondary will experience the BYORP effect. BYORP can cause secular motion such as the semi-major axis of the secondary expanding or contracting. Assuming the secondary expands due to BYORP, the secondary will eventually reach the unstable region of the Laplace plane. The unstable region exists if the primary has an obliquity of 68.875 degrees or greater. The unstable region exists at 0.9 Laplace radius to 1.25 Laplace radius, where the Laplace radius is defined as the distance from the central body where the inclination of the Laplace plane orbit is half the obliquity. In the unstable region, the eccentricity of the orbit
Sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator
Komkin, A. I.; Mironov, M. A.; Bykov, A. I.
2017-07-01
Absorption characteristics of a Helmholtz resonator positioned at the end wall of a circular duct are considered. The absorption coefficient of the resonator is experimentally investigated as a function of the diameter and length of the resonator neck and the depth of the resonator cavity. Based on experimental data, the linear analytic model of a Helmholtz resonator is verified, and the results of verification are used to determine the dissipative attached length of the resonator neck so as to provide the agreement between experimental and calculated data. Dependences of sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator on its geometric parameters are obtained.
Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew J. Benacquista
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.
A DEEPLY ECLIPSING DETACHED DOUBLE HELIUM WHITE DWARF BINARY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Koester, D.
2011-01-01
Using Liverpool Telescope+RISE photometry we identify the 2.78 hr period binary star CSS 41177 as a detached eclipsing double white dwarf binary with a 21,100 K primary star and a 10,500 K secondary star. This makes CSS 41177 only the second known eclipsing double white dwarf binary after NLTT 11748. The 2 minute long primary eclipse is 40% deep and the secondary eclipse 10% deep. From Gemini+GMOS spectroscopy, we measure the radial velocities of both components of the binary from the Hα absorption line cores. These measurements, combined with the light curve information, yield white dwarf masses of M 1 = 0.283 ± 0.064 M sun and M 2 = 0.274 ± 0.034 M sun , making them both helium core white dwarfs. As an eclipsing, double-lined spectroscopic binary, CSS 41177 is ideally suited to measuring precise, model-independent masses and radii. The two white dwarfs will merge in roughly 1.1 Gyr to form a single sdB star.
Spectral properties of binary asteroids
Pajuelo, Myriam; Birlan, Mirel; Carry, Benoît; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Berthier, Jérôme
2018-04-01
We present the first attempt to characterize the distribution of taxonomic class among the population of binary asteroids (15% of all small asteroids). For that, an analysis of 0.8-2.5{μ m} near-infrared spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument on the NASA/IRTF is presented. Taxonomic class and meteorite analog is determined for each target, increasing the sample of binary asteroids with known taxonomy by 21%. Most binary systems are bound in the S-, X-, and C- classes, followed by Q and V-types. The rate of binary systems in each taxonomic class agrees within uncertainty with the background population of small near-Earth objects and inner main belt asteroids, but for the C-types which are under-represented among binaries.
Planets in Binary Star Systems
Haghighipour, Nader
2010-01-01
The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...
BINARY ASTROMETRIC MICROLENSING WITH GAIA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sajadian, Sedighe, E-mail: sajadian@ipm.ir [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-04-15
We investigate whether or not Gaia can specify the binary fractions of massive stellar populations in the Galactic disk through astrometric microlensing. Furthermore, we study whether or not some information about their mass distributions can be inferred via this method. In this regard, we simulate the binary astrometric microlensing events due to massive stellar populations according to the Gaia observing strategy by considering (i) stellar-mass black holes, (ii) neutron stars, (iii) white dwarfs, and (iv) main-sequence stars as microlenses. The Gaia efficiency for detecting the binary signatures in binary astrometric microlensing events is ∼10%–20%. By calculating the optical depth due to the mentioned stellar populations, the numbers of the binary astrometric microlensing events being observed with Gaia with detectable binary signatures, for the binary fraction of about 0.1, are estimated to be 6, 11, 77, and 1316, respectively. Consequently, Gaia can potentially specify the binary fractions of these massive stellar populations. However, the binary fraction of black holes measured with this method has a large uncertainty owing to a low number of the estimated events. Knowing the binary fractions in massive stellar populations helps with studying the gravitational waves. Moreover, we investigate the number of massive microlenses for which Gaia specifies masses through astrometric microlensing of single lenses toward the Galactic bulge. The resulting efficiencies of measuring the mass of mentioned populations are 9.8%, 2.9%, 1.2%, and 0.8%, respectively. The numbers of their astrometric microlensing events being observed in the Gaia era in which the lens mass can be inferred with the relative error less than 0.5 toward the Galactic bulge are estimated as 45, 34, 76, and 786, respectively. Hence, Gaia potentially gives us some information about the mass distribution of these massive stellar populations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moosavi, Mehrdad; Motahari, Ahmad; Omrani, Abdollah; Rostami, Abbas Ali
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Measuring densities and viscosities for binary mixtures of PEG + water or alcohols. ► Finding excess molar volume, refractive index and coefficient of thermal expansion. ► Estimating binary coefficients using Redlich–Kister polynomial equation. ► Deducing excess Gibbs free energy of activation and other activation parameters. ► Correlation of viscosity data with Grunberg–Nissan and Tamura–Kurata equations. -- Abstract: Densities ρ and viscosities η for the binary mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) + water, + 1,2-ethanediol, + 1,3-propanediol, + 1,4-butanediol over the entire concentration range were determined at temperatures (298.15 to 308.15) K with 5 K interval. The experimental data were used to calculate the excess molar volume V m E , coefficient of thermal expansion α, excess coefficient of thermal expansion α E , excess Gibbs free energy of activation ΔG ∗E , and other activation parameters (i.e., ΔG ∗ ,ΔH ∗ ,ΔS ∗ ). The values of excess properties were fitted to Redlich–Kister polynomial equation to estimate the binary coefficients. The excess refractive index n E and electronic polarizability α e of PEG + water binary mixtures were also determined from the experimental values of refractive indices. The viscosity data were correlated with Grunberg–Nissan and Tamura–Kurata equations. Moreover, the Prigogine–Flory–Patterson theory has been used to correlate the excess molar volumes of the studied mixtures
Dohnal, Petr; Hejduk, Michal; Varju, Jozef; Rubovič, Peter; Roučka, Štěpán; Kotrík, Tomáš; Plašil, Radek; Glosík, Juraj; Johnsen, Rainer
2012-06-28
Measurements in H(3)(+) afterglow plasmas with spectroscopically determined relative abundances of H(3)(+) ions in the para-nuclear and ortho-nuclear spin states provide clear evidence that at low temperatures (77-200 K) para-H(3)(+) ions recombine significantly faster with electrons than ions in the ortho state, in agreement with a recent theoretical prediction. The cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy used here provides an in situ determination of the para/ortho abundance ratio and yields additional information on the translational and rotational temperatures of the recombining ions. The results show that H(3)(+) recombination with electrons occurs by both binary recombination and third-body (helium) assisted recombination, and that both the two-body and three-body rate coefficients depend on the nuclear spin states. Electron-stabilized (collisional-radiative) recombination appears to make only a small contribution.
Dohnal, Petr; Hejduk, Michal; Varju, Jozef; Rubovič, Peter; Roučka, Štěpán; Kotrík, Tomáš; Plašil, Radek; Glosík, Juraj; Johnsen, Rainer
2012-06-01
Measurements in H_3^+ afterglow plasmas with spectroscopically determined relative abundances of H_3^+ ions in the para-nuclear and ortho-nuclear spin states provide clear evidence that at low temperatures (77-200 K) para-H_3^+ ions recombine significantly faster with electrons than ions in the ortho state, in agreement with a recent theoretical prediction. The cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy used here provides an in situ determination of the para/ortho abundance ratio and yields additional information on the translational and rotational temperatures of the recombining ions. The results show that H_3^+ recombination with electrons occurs by both binary recombination and third-body (helium) assisted recombination, and that both the two-body and three-body rate coefficients depend on the nuclear spin states. Electron-stabilized (collisional-radiative) recombination appears to make only a small contribution.
Evolution of absorption machines; Evolution des machines a absorption
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soide, I.; Klemsdal, E. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Le Goff, P.; Hornut, J.M. [LSGC-ENSIC, 54 - Nancy (France)
1997-12-31
Most of todays absorption air-conditioning machineries use the lithium bromide-water pair. The most performing can operate at a 150-160 deg. C, the temperature being limited by the corrosion resistance of metals with respect to LiBr solutions. Also, there is a revival of interest for water-ammonia systems. These systems require the use of a rectification column which reduces the coefficient of performance. Higher thermal performances are reached with hydrocarbon pairs and ternary mixtures (water-methanol-LiBr etc..). This paper presents different schemes of refrigerating heat pumps based on these different systems. (J.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Tiehui; Wu Yuyuan; Yu Zhiqiang; Zhao Haichen; Wu Honglin
2011-01-01
Highlights: → An absorption refrigeration system with ternary solution of NH 3 -H 2 O-LiBr was set up. → Performance of the NH 3 -H 2 O-LiBr system without solution pump was firstly tested. → Generator pressure in NH 3 -H 2 O-LiBr system was lower than the one in NH 3 -H 2 O system. → The COP of the NH 3 -H 2 O-LiBr system was 51.89% larger than the NH 3 -H 2 O binary system. → The optimum mass fraction of LiBr of about 23% led to the largest COP of 0.401. -- Abstract: Experimental researches were carried out on a novel ammonia-water-lithium bromide ternary solution absorption refrigeration and air-conditioning system without solution pump and distillation equipments. The experiments were conducted by using three kinds of NH 3 -H 2 O binary solution and 17 kinds of ternary solution with difference in mass fraction of NH 3 and LiBr. The experimental results showed that the vapor pressure of the generator in the system would be lower than that of the generator in an ammonia-water absorption system. In above two situations the same ammonia mass fraction and the same solution temperature were kept. The amplitude of vapor pressure decrease of the system generator would be larger with the increase of the mass fraction of LiBr. The maximum amplitude of decrease would be of 50%. With the increase of the mass fraction of LiBr, the coefficient of performance (COP) of the system would be increased initially, and then decreased later when the mass fraction of LiBr exceeded a certain value. This value was about 23% for the solution with ammonia mass fraction of 50% and 55%, and about 30% for the solution with ammonia mass fraction of 60%. Compared with the ammonia-water system, the COP of the ternary solution system with the same mass fraction of ammonia would increase up to 30%. With the ammonia mass fraction of 60% and LiBr mass fraction of 30% applied, the COP of the ternary solution system was increased up to 0.401. It was 51.89% higher than that when binary
Absorption/desorption in sprays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naimpally, A.
1987-01-01
This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented
Acoustic absorption of geopolymer/sand mixture
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Perná, Ivana; Hanzlíček, Tomáš; Straka, Pavel; Steinerová, Michaela
2009-01-01
Roč. 53, č. 1 (2009), s. 48-51 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : acoustic absorption coefficient * geopolymer Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2009 www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2009/pdf/2009_01_48.pdf
Simple parametrization of photon mass energy absorption ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
E-mail: tku@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in; umeshtk@gmail.com. MS received 21 May 2008; ... Complex molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, enzymes, vitamins and hormones perform a variety of ... where φ is the fluence of photon flux of energy E and µen/ρ is the mass energy absorption coefficient. Thus, in ...
Measuring sound absorption using local field assumptions
Kuipers, E.R.
2013-01-01
To more effectively apply acoustically absorbing materials, it is desirable to measure angle-dependent sound absorption coefficients, preferably in situ. Existing measurement methods are based on an overall model of the acoustic field in front of the absorber, and are therefore sensitive to
Content identification: binary content fingerprinting versus binary content encoding
Ferdowsi, Sohrab; Voloshynovskiy, Svyatoslav; Kostadinov, Dimche
2014-02-01
In this work, we address the problem of content identification. We consider content identification as a special case of multiclass classification. The conventional approach towards identification is based on content fingerprinting where a short binary content description known as a fingerprint is extracted from the content. We propose an alternative solution based on elements of machine learning theory and digital communications. Similar to binary content fingerprinting, binary content representation is generated based on a set of trained binary classifiers. We consider several training/encoding strategies and demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve the upper theoretical performance limits of content identification. The experimental results were carried out both on a synthetic dataset with different parameters and the FAMOS dataset of microstructures from consumer packages.
Estimation of tracer diffusion coefficients of ions in aqueous solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, D.G.
1982-01-01
Equations are given for estimating tracer diffusion coefficients D/sub i/ 0 of ions at infinite dilution in terms of limiting ionic conductances Λ/sub i/ 0 . Also given are generalized Nernst-Hartley equations for binary and multicomponent diffusion coefficients D 0 and D/sub ij/ 0 , respectively, at infinite dilution. Data, estimates, and correlations for Λ/sub i/ 0 at 25 0 C and other temperatures are discussed. Estimated values of Λ/sub i/ 0 are tabulated from 0-300 0 C for ions of waste isolation interest and for ions of economic interest in geothermal brines. Estimates of their tracer diffusion coefficients at infinite dilution are tabulated. A rule of thumb, good to a factor of 2, is presented. Very limited data (available only at 25 0 C) indicate that D/sub i//D/sub i/ 0 generally declines as the concentration of salt or supporting electrolyte increases. 6 figures, 2 tables
Optimally cloned binary coherent states
Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.
2017-10-01
Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, D.-Y.; Yang, M.-H.; Zhao Hui; Liang Zhichao; Sun, M.-T.
2009-01-01
Observed acoustic power in magnetic regions is lower than the quiet Sun because of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of solar acoustic waves in magnetic regions. In the previous studies, we have developed a method to measure the coefficients of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of sunspots. In this study, we go one step further to measure the spatial distributions of three coefficients in two active regions, NOAA 9055 and 9057. The maps of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression coefficients correlate with the magnetic map, including plage regions, except the emissivity reduction coefficient of NOAA 9055 where the emissivity reduction coefficient is too weak and lost among the noise.
Flak, Jacek; Laiho, Mika; Halonen, Kari
2005-06-01
This paper presents a neuron implementation based on floating-gate MOSFET (FG-MOS) structure. The computation is performed by charge distribution at the input of FG-MOS inverter determining the cell state. There is no current-flow through the interconnections after processing is completed, thus a significant reduction in DC power consumption can be achieved. Such neuron can be used to build a capacitively coupled cellular neural/nonlinear network (CNN) for processing black and white (B/W) images. Although the coupling coefficients are basically implemented with capacitances, this approach provides them with 1-bit programmability. Also the neuron's threshold level can be digitally programmed to four different values. The templates operating on the B/W images can be modified to have only binary-valued {0,1} terms or can be split into such (sequentially run) simple subtasks. Therefore, the presented neuron structure is able to perform the evaluation of almost all B/W templates proposed so far. Exploration of FG-MOS structures can help to understand the implementation problems of capacitively coupled CNNs. Such a situation appears, e.g., in nanoelectronic CNNs composed of single-electron tunneling (SET) transistors, which also deal with B/W images only. Moreover, the binary programmability approach utilized here should help to develop an effective programming scheme for future SET or CMOS-SET hybrid CNN implementations. Along with the neuron structure, its operation description and simulation results of the 8 x 8 network are presented.
A Review: Characteristics of Noise Absorption Material
Amares, S.; Sujatmika, E.; Hong, T. W.; Durairaj, R.; Hamid, H. S. H. B.
2017-10-01
Noise is always treated as a nuisance to human and even noise pollution appears in the environmental causing discomfort. This also concerns the engineering design that tends to cultivate this noise propagation. Solution such as using material to absorb the sound have been widely used. The fundamental of the sound absorbing propagation, sound absorbing characteristics and its factors are minimally debated. Furthermore, the method in order to pertain sound absorbing related to the sound absorption coefficient is also limited, as many studies only contributes in result basis and very little in literature aspect. This paper revolves in providing better insight on the importance of sound absorption and the materials factors in obtaining the sound absorption coefficient.
Gold analysis by the gamma absorption technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurtoglu, Arzu; Tugrul, A.B.
2003-01-01
Gold (Au) analyses are generally performed using destructive techniques. In this study, the Gamma Absorption Technique has been employed for gold analysis. A series of different gold alloys of known gold content were analysed and a calibration curve was obtained. This curve was then used for the analysis of unknown samples. Gold analyses can be made non-destructively, easily and quickly by the gamma absorption technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of the alloys were measured around the K-shell absorption edge of Au. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the WinXCom program and comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values showed generally good and acceptable agreement
Enhancement in BC absorption under varying hygroscopic conditions
Shamjad, P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Aggarwal, S.; Mishra, S. K.; Joshi, M.; Khan, A.; Sapra, B. K.; Ram, K.
2012-12-01
The estimation of radiative impact of BC strongly depends on the accurate measurement of its absorption coefficient, mass concentration and its mixing state. Mixing of BC with other inorganic species induce changes in optical properties. Models that consider Internal mixing of BC provide more realistic absorption estimates as compared to external mixing models. Absorption by BC increases when BC particles are mixed and/or coated with other less absorbing materials, which are hygroscopic in nature. We quantified the hygroscopic growth of aerosols during winter season over an urban site (Kanpur) in the Indo-Gangetic Plane (IGP) and thereby explain the enhancement in BC absorption coefficient observed for the same period. From the calculated hygroscopic growth factor we derived a model to predict the chemical composition of particles during the experimental period. Absorption and scattering coefficients are calculated using a core-shell assumption based on Mie theory. These derived optical parameters are compared with experimental values and the closure is found to be very good. The estimated optical properties agree within 7% for absorption coefficient and 30% for scattering coefficient with that of measured values. The enhancement of absorption is found to vary according to the thickness of the shell and BC mass, with a maximum of 2.3 for a shell thickness of 18 nm for the particles.
A Application of WD Model to EB Type Contact Binary System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Su-Yeon Oh
2000-12-01
Full Text Available The EB type contact binaries show large temperature difference ( T 1,000K between two components. Thus we have modified the mode 3 of the WD program to adjust albedos, limb darkening coefficients and gravity darkening exponents for both components of such binaries, while the values for those parameters should be same for both components in the original WD program. Both of the modified and the original versions have been applied to the EB type contact binaries such as DO Cas, GO Cyg, and FS Lup. The computed light curves with modified version fit better to the observations.
Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients
Bojanov, Borislav
2009-09-01
We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Binary typing of staphylococcus aureus
W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem)
2002-01-01
textabstractThis thesis describes the development. application and validation of straindifferentiating DNA probes for the characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains in a system. that yields a binary output. By comparing the differential hybridization of these DNA probes to staphylococcal
Mesoscopic model for binary fluids
Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.
2017-10-01
We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faramarzi, Leila; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Thomsen, Kaj
2009-01-01
The extended UNIQUAC model [K. Thomsen, R Rasmussen, Chem. Eng. Sci. 54 (1999) 1787-1802] was applied to the thermodynamic representation of carbon dioxide absorption in aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and varied strength mixtures of the two alkanolamines (MEA-MDEA). F......The extended UNIQUAC model [K. Thomsen, R Rasmussen, Chem. Eng. Sci. 54 (1999) 1787-1802] was applied to the thermodynamic representation of carbon dioxide absorption in aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and varied strength mixtures of the two alkanolamines (MEA...... alkanolamine systems (MEA-water and MDEA-water). The two just mentioned types of data cover the full concentration range of alkanolamines from extremely dilute to almost pure. The experimental freezing point depression data down to the temperature of -20 degrees C are used. Experimental excess enthalpy (H......-E) data of the binary MEA-water and MDEA-water systems at 25, 40, 65 and 69 degrees C are used as well. In order to enhance the calculation of the infinite dilution activity coefficients of MEA and MDEA, the pure alkanolamines vapor pressure data in a relevant temperature range (up to almost 230 degrees C...
Optical absorption of charged excitons in semiconducting carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rønnow, Troels Frimodt; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Cornean, Horia
2012-01-01
In this article we examine the absorption coefficient of charged excitons in carbon nanotubes. We investigate the temperature and damping dependence of the absorption spectra. We show that the trion peak in the spectrum is asymmetric for temperatures greater than approximately 1 K whereas...
Measuring of heat transfer coefficient
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria
Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...
EXPERIMENTALl ANALYSIS OF PARTITION COEFFICIENT IN Al-Mg ALLOYS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.H. Avazkonandeh-Gharavo
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Because the partition coefficient is one of the most important parameters affecting microsegregation, the aim of this research is to experimentally analyse the partition coefficient in Al-Mg alloys. In order to experimentally measure the partition coefficient, a series of quenching experiments during solidification were carried out. For this purpose binary Al-Mg alloys containing 6.7 and 10.2 wt-% Mg were melted and solidified in a DTA furnace capable of quenching samples during solidification. Cooling rates of 0.5 and 5 K/min were used and samples were quenched from predetermined temperatures during solidification. The fractions and compositions of the phases were measured by quantitative metallography and SEM/EDX analyses, respectively. These results were used to measure the experimental partition coefficients. The resultant partition coefficients were used to model the concentration profile in the primary phase and the results were compared with equilibrium calculations and experimental profiles. The results of calculations based on the experimental partition coefficients show better consistency with experimental concentration profiles than the equilibrium calculations.
Ternary blend of conjugated polymers for broadening the absorption bandwidth of polymer solar cells
Benten, Hiroaki; Nishida, Takaya; Mori, Daisuke; Ohkita, Hideo; Ito, Shinzaburo
2016-01-01
Ternary blend all-polymer solar cells are developed to broaden the absorption bandwidth of the photoactive layer. A wide-bandgap polymer with absorption in the visible region is introduced as a third polymer into a low-bandgap donor/acceptor binary polymer blend showing absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region. In the ternary blend solar cell, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) is improved in the visible wavelength region, while retaining the excellent EQE of the host binary blend in t...
Buist, H.E.; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Freidig, A.P.; Maas, W.J.M.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de
2010-01-01
Most QSARs for dermal absorption predict the permeability coefficient, K_{p}, of a molecule, which is valid for infinite dose conditions. In practice, dermal exposure mostly occurs under finite dose conditions. Therefore, a simple model to predict finite dose dermal absorption from infinite
Buist, H.E.; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Freidig, A.P.; Maas, W.J.; Sandt, J.J. van de
2010-01-01
Most QSARs for dermal absorption predict the permeability coefficient, K(p), of a molecule, which is valid for infinite dose conditions. In practice, dermal exposure mostly occurs under finite dose conditions. Therefore, a simple model to predict finite dose dermal absorption from infinite dose data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Treiner, C. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)); Nortz, M.; Vaution, C. (Faculte de Pharmacie de Paris-sud, Chatenay-Malabry (France))
1990-07-01
The apparent partition coefficient P of barbituric acids between micelles and water has been determined in mixed binary surfactant solutions from solubility measurements in the whole micellar composition range. The binary systems chosen ranged from the strongly interacting system dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate to weakly interacting systems such as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethyammonium chloride. In all cases studied, mixed micelle formation is unfavorable to micellar solubilization. A correlation is found between the unlike surfactants interaction energy, as measured by the regular solution parameter {beta} and the solute partition coefficient change upon surfactant mixing. By use of literature data on micellar solubilization in binary surfactant solutions, it is shown that the change of P for solutes which are solubilized by surface adsorption is generally governed by the sign and amplitude of the interaction parameter {beta}.
Nutrition and magnesium absorption
Brink, E.J.
1992-01-01
The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true magnesium absorption was neither affected by soybean protein in the diet nor by supplemental phytate. The inhibitory influence of soybean protein and phytate on apparent magnesium absorption was found ...
McGivern, W Sean; Manion, Jeffrey A
2011-11-18
A reversed-flow gas-chromatography (RF-GC) apparatus for the measurement of binary diffusion coefficients is described and utilized to measure the binary diffusion coefficients for several systems at temperatures from (300 to 723)K. Hydrocarbons are detected using flame ionization detection, and inert species can be detected by thermal conductivity. The present apparatus has been utilized to measure diffusion coefficients at substantially higher temperatures than previous RF-GC work. Characterization of the new apparatus was accomplished by comparing measured binary diffusion coefficients of dilute argon in helium to established reference values. Further diffusion coefficient measurements for dilute helium in argon and dilute nitrogen in helium (using thermal conductivity detection) and dilute methane in helium (using flame ionization detection) were performed and found to be in excellent agreement with literature values. The measurement of these well-established diffusion coefficients has shown that specific experimental conditions are required for accurate diffusion measurements using this technique, particularly at higher temperatures. Numerical simulations of the diffusion experiments are presented to demonstrate that artifacts of the analysis procedure must be specifically identified to ensure accuracy, particularly at higher temperatures. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Absorption and excretion tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berberich, R.
1988-01-01
The absorption and excretion of radiopharmaceuticals is still of interest in diagnostic investigations of nuclear medicine. In this paper the most common methods of measuring absorption and excretion are described. The performance of the different tests and their standard values are discussed. More over the basic possibilities of measuring absorption and excretion including the needed measurement equipments are presented. (orig.) [de
Sound absorption by clamped poroelastic plates.
Aygun, H; Attenborough, K
2008-09-01
Measurements and predictions have been made of the absorption coefficient and the surface acoustic impedance of poroelastic plates clamped in a large impedance tube and separated from the rigid termination by an air gap. The measured and predicted absorption coefficient and surface impedance spectra exhibit low frequency peaks. The peak frequencies observed in the absorption coefficient are close to those predicted and measured in the deflection spectra of the clamped poroelastic plates. The influences of the rigidity of the clamping conditions and the width of the air gap have been investigated. Both influences are found to be important. Increasing the rigidity of clamping reduces the low frequency absorption peaks compared with those measured for simply supported plates or plates in an intermediate clamping condition. Results for a closed cell foam plate and for two open cell foam plates made from recycled materials are presented. For identical clamping conditions and width of air gap, the results for the different materials differ as a consequence mainly of their different elasticity, thickness, and cell structure.
Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.
Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.
2007-12-01
to carbonyl- and nitro- functional groups on conjugated and aromatic organic structures (e.g. PAH, and terpene derived products). Using 12-hour fine (0.1-1.0 micron) aerosol samples collected in the field on quartz filters, uv/vis and infrared spectra were obtained in the laboratory using integrating spheres and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. An inter-comparison of the "real-time" measurements made by the photo-acoustic, aethalometer and MAAP techniques have been described. In addition, the in situ aethalometer (seven-channel) results are compared with continuous integrating sphere uv-visible spectra to examine the angstrom absorption coefficient variance. These results will be briefly overviewed and the specific posters detailing these results will be highlighted highlighted. This work was performed as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City under the support of the Atmospheric Science Program. "This researchwas supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329.
Testing theory of binary evolution with interacting binary stars
Ergma, E.; Sarna, M. J.
2002-01-01
Of particular interest to us is the study of mass loss and its influence on the evolution of a binary systems. For this we use theoretical evolutionary models, which include: mass accretion, mass loss, novae explosion, super--efficient wind, and mixing processes. To test our theoretical prediction we proposed to determine the 12C / 13C ratio via measurements of the 12CO and 13CO bands around 2.3 micron. The available observations (Exter at al. 2001, in preparation) show good agreement with the theoretical predictions (Sarna 1992), for Algol-type binaries. Our preliminary estimates of the isotopic ratios for pre-CV's and CV's (Catalan et al. 2000, Dhillon et al. 2001) agree with the theoretical predictions from the common--envelope binary evolution models by Sarna et al. (1995). For the SXT we proposed (Ergma & Sarna 2001) similar observational test, which has not been done yet.
Biclustering sparse binary genomic data.
van Uitert, Miranda; Meuleman, Wouter; Wessels, Lodewyk
2008-12-01
Genomic datasets often consist of large, binary, sparse data matrices. In such a dataset, one is often interested in finding contiguous blocks that (mostly) contain ones. This is a biclustering problem, and while many algorithms have been proposed to deal with gene expression data, only two algorithms have been proposed that specifically deal with binary matrices. None of the gene expression biclustering algorithms can handle the large number of zeros in sparse binary matrices. The two proposed binary algorithms failed to produce meaningful results. In this article, we present a new algorithm that is able to extract biclusters from sparse, binary datasets. A powerful feature is that biclusters with different numbers of rows and columns can be detected, varying from many rows to few columns and few rows to many columns. It allows the user to guide the search towards biclusters of specific dimensions. When applying our algorithm to an input matrix derived from TRANSFAC, we find transcription factors with distinctly dissimilar binding motifs, but a clear set of common targets that are significantly enriched for GO categories.
Suzaku observation of the eclipsing high mass X-ray binary pulsar ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Jincy Devasia
2018-02-09
Feb 9, 2018 ... The correlated variations in the spectral parameters indicate towards the presence of clumps in the stellar wind of the companion star accounting for the absorption of low energy X-rays in some time segments. Keywords. X-ray: neutron stars—X-ray binaries: individual (XTE J1855-026). 1. Introduction.
Electron cyclotron absorption in Tokamak plasmas in the presence of radial transport of particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosa, Paulo R. da S.; Ziebell, Luiz F.
1998-01-01
We use quasilinear theory to study effects of particle radial transport on the electron cyclotron absorption coefficient by a current carrying plasma, in a tokamak modelated as a plasma slab. Our numerical results indicate significant modification in the profile of the electron cyclotron absorption coefficient when transport is taken into account relative to the situation without transport. (author)
Shear viscosity of binary mixtures: The Gay–Berne potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khordad, R.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Most useful potential model to study the real systems is the Gay–Berne (GB) potential. ► We use GB model to examine thermodynamical properties of some anisotropic binary mixtures in two different phases. ► The integral equation methods are applied to solve numerically the Percus–Yevick (PY) equation. ► We obtain expansion coefficients of correlation functions needed to calculate the properties of studied mixtures. ► The results are compared with the available experimental data [e.g., HFC-125 + propane, R-125/143a, methanol + toluene, etc.] - Abstract: The Gay–Berne (GB) potential model is an interesting and useful model to study the real systems. Using the potential model, we intend to examine the thermodynamical properties of some anisotropic binary mixtures in two different phases, liquid and gas. For this purpose, we apply the integral equation method and solve numerically the Percus–Yevick (PY) integral equation. Then, we obtain the expansion coefficients of correlation functions to calculate the thermodynamical properties. Finally, we compare our results with the available experimental data [e.g., HFC-125 + propane, R-125/143a, methanol + toluene, benzene + methanol, cyclohexane + ethanol, benzene + ethanol, carbon tetrachloride + ethyl acetate, and methanol + ethanol]. The results show that the GB potential model is capable for predicting the thermodynamical properties of binary mixtures with acceptable accuracy.
Calcium absorption and achlorhydria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recker, R.R.
1985-01-01
Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement
Thermal neutron diffusion cooling coefficient for plexiglass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drozdowicz, K.
1992-08-01
The thermal neutron diffusion cooling coefficient is a macroscopic material parameter. It is needed for description of the decay of the thermal neutron pulse in a medium and gives information of the diffusion cooling of the thermal neutron spectrum in a bounded volume. Experimental results from various measurements for plexiglass are overviewed in the paper. A method for theoretical, exact calculation of the parameter is presented. The formula utilizes some other thermal neutron parameters and a cooling function, i.e. the function which describes the deviation of the neutron spectrum in a bounded system from the distribution in an infinite one. The energy dependence of the function is obtained numerically from relations which results from the eigenvalue problem of the scattering operator when both the decay constant and the spectrum of the thermal neutron flux are developed on powers of the geometrical buckling. The case of a 1/ν absorption cross section is considered. The calculation utilizes a synthetic scattering function elaborated for hydrogenous media by GRANADA (1985). The influence of some quantities used in the calculation on the final result is investigated. The obtained value of the diffusion cooling coefficient for plexiglass is C = 6514 cm 4 s -1 at the temperature of 20 degrees C. The uncertainty is estimated to be ± 100 cm 4 s -1 within the physical model of the scattering kernel used. (au)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartono, Ardi; Saleem, Fahad; Waseem Arshad, Muhammad
2013-01-01
understand this system in designing the separation unit requires substantial work on characterization of the solvent. One important aspect is to provide equilibrium data. In this work new ebulliometric VLE data for the binary DEEA/H2O and DEEA/MAPA systems and the ternary DEEA/MAPA/H2O system are reported...... coefficients for the species in the ternary aqueous system are found to be lower than the activity coefficients obtained from the corresponding binary aqueous mixtures.The UNIQUAC framework was implemented to represent the experimental data. The six UNIQUAC parameters were determined and were able to predict P......-T-x-y, activity coefficient, excess enthalpy and freezing point depression for both the binary and ternary systems. However, a small inconsistency was observed between water activity coefficients determined from ebulliometer and freezing point depression measurements....
The Young Visual Binary Survey
Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian; Lindstrom, Kyle; Graham, Sean; Sullivan, Kendall; Biddle, Lauren; Skiff, Brian; Nofi, Larissa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal
2018-01-01
Differences in the stellar and circumstellar properties of the components of young binaries provide key information about star and disk formation and evolution processes. Because objects with separations of a few to a few hundred astronomical units share a common environment and composition, multiple systems allow us to control for some of the factors which play into star formation. We are completing analysis of a rich sample of about 100 pre-main sequence binaries and higher order multiples, primarily located in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions. This poster will highlight some of out recent, exciting results. All reduced spectra and the results of our analysis will be publicly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.
Kuznetsov equation with variable coefficients
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
like solutions of the PDE in (2+1) dimension with variable coefficients. ... Shivamoggi [12] gives only four polynomial conservation laws of the ZK equation ..... [3] P J Olver, Application of Lie group to differential equation (Springer, New York,.
Monitoring of MOCVD reactants by UV absorption
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baucom, K.C.; Killeen, K.P.; Moffat, H.K.
1995-07-01
In this paper, we describe how UV absorption measurements can be used to measure the flow rates of metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactants. This method utilizes the calculation of UV extinction coefficients by measuring the total pressure and absorbance in the neat reactant system. The development of this quantitative reactant flow rate monitor allows for the direct measurement of the efficiency of a reactant bubbler. We demonstrate bubbler efficiency results for TMGa, and then explain some discrepancies found in the TMAl system due to the monomer to dimer equilibrium. Also, the UV absorption spectra of metal organic and hydride MOCVD reactants over the wavelength range 185 to 400 nm are reported.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, H.; Chang, C.; Cheng, H. H.; Sun, G.; Soref, R. A.
2016-01-01
We report an investigation on the absorption mechanism of a GeSn photodetector with 2.4% Sn composition in the active region. Responsivity is measured and absorption coefficient is calculated. Square root of absorption coefficient linearly depends on photon energy indicating an indirect transition. However, the absorption coefficient is found to be at least one order of magnitude higher than that of most other indirect materials, suggesting that the indirect optical absorption transition cannot be assisted only by phonon. Our analysis of absorption measurements by other groups on the same material system showed the values of absorption coefficient on the same order of magnitude. Our study reveals that the strong enhancement of absorption for the indirect optical transition is the result of alloy disorder from the incorporation of the much larger Sn atoms into the Ge lattice that are randomly distributed.
Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loewe, W.E.
2001-07-31
A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.
Protocols for quantum binary voting
Thapliyal, Kishore; Sharma, Rishi Dutt; Pathak, Anirban
Two new protocols for quantum binary voting are proposed. One of the proposed protocols is designed using a standard scheme for controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC), and the other one is designed using the idea of quantum cryptographic switch, which uses a technique known as permutation of particles. A few possible alternative approaches to accomplish the same task (quantum binary voting) have also been discussed. Security of the proposed protocols is analyzed. Further, the efficiencies of the proposed protocols are computed, and are compared with that of the existing protocols. The comparison has established that the proposed protocols are more efficient than the existing protocols.
Matter in compact binary mergers
Read, Jocelyn; LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Scientific Collaboration
2018-01-01
Mergers of binary neutron stars or neutron-star/black-hole systems are promising targets for gravitational-wave detection. The dynamics of merging compact objects, and thus their gravitational-wave signatures, are primarily determined by the mass and spin of the components. However, the presence of matter can make an imprint on the final orbits and merger of a binary system. I will outline efforts to understand the impact of neutron-star matter on gravitational waves, using both theoretical and computational input, so that gravitational-wave observations can be used to measure the properties of source systems with neutron-star components.
Mental Effort in Binary Categorization Aided by Binary Cues
Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael
2013-01-01
Binary cueing systems assist in many tasks, often alerting people about potential hazards (such as alarms and alerts). We investigate whether cues, besides possibly improving decision accuracy, also affect the effort users invest in tasks and whether the required effort in tasks affects the responses to cues. We developed a novel experimental tool…
[Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].
Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng
2008-07-01
A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.
Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naoki Masuda
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients
Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
energy selective scintillation counter with radioactive γ-ray sources having energy 0.36,. 0.511, 0.662, 1.17 and 1.28 MeV. The experimentally obtained values of μ/ρ and Zeff agreed fairly well with those obtained theoretically. Keywords. Absorption; attenuation coefficient; effective atomic number. PACS Nos 29.40.Mc; 29.30 ...
Influence of binary mask estimation errors on robust speaker identification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
May, Tobias
2017-01-01
Missing-data strategies have been developed to improve the noise-robustness of automatic speech recognition systems in adverse acoustic conditions. This is achieved by classifying time-frequency (T-F) units into reliable and unreliable components, as indicated by a so-called binary mask. Different...... approaches have been proposed to handle unreliable feature components, each with distinct advantages. The direct masking (DM) approach attenuates unreliable T-F units in the spectral domain, which allows the extraction of conventionally used mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs). Instead of attenuating....... Since each of these approaches utilizes the knowledge about reliable and unreliable feature components in a different way, they will respond differently to estimation errors in the binary mask. The goal of this study was to identify the most effective strategy to exploit knowledge about reliable...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Formigoni, C.
1998-01-01
A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it
Elbow, Peter
1993-01-01
Argues that oppositional thinking, if handled in the right way, will serve as a way to avoid the very problems that Jonathan Culler and Paul de Mann are troubled by: "purity, order, and hierarchy." Asserts that binary thinking can serve to encourage difference--indeed, encourage nondominance, nontranscendence, instability, and disorder.…
Biclustering Sparse Binary Genomic Data
Van Uitert, M.; Meuleman, W.; Wessels, L.F.A.
2008-01-01
Genomic datasets often consist of large, binary, sparse data matrices. In such a dataset, one is often interested in finding contiguous blocks that (mostly) contain ones. This is a biclustering problem, and while many algorithms have been proposed to deal with gene expression data, only two
Misclassification in binary choice models
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas
2017-01-01
Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-07603Y Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016
Misclassification in binary choice models
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas
2017-01-01
Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016
Generating Constant Weight Binary Codes
Knight, D.G.
2008-01-01
The determination of bounds for A(n, d, w), the maximum possible number of binary vectors of length n, weight w, and pairwise Hamming distance no less than d, is a classic problem in coding theory. Such sets of vectors have many applications. A description is given of how the problem can be used in a first-year undergraduate computational…
BHMcalc: Binary Habitability Mechanism Calculator
Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Mason, Paul; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.; Clark, Joni
2018-02-01
BHMcalc provides renditions of the instantaneous circumbinary habital zone (CHZ) and also calculates BHM properties of the system including those related to the rotational evolution of the stellar components and the combined XUV and SW fluxes as measured at different distances from the binary. Moreover, it provides numerical results that can be further manipulated and used to calculate other properties.
Armas Padilla, M.
2013-01-01
The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale
The Meritfactor of Binary Seqences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høholdt, Tom
1999-01-01
Binary sequences with small aperiodic correlations play an important role in many applications ranging from radar to modulation and testing of systems. Golay(1977) introduced the merit factor as a measure of the goodness of the sequence and conjectured an upper bound for this. His conjecture...
Amplitude holographic LPCC filters for 4-f correlator: variants of binary realization
Evtikhiev, N. N.; Zlokazov, E. Yu.; Starikov, S. N.; Starikov, R. S.; Shaulskiy, D. V.
2010-10-01
Invariant correlation filters application is the method to achieve invariance of image recognition in presence of input object distortions. Composite filter with linear phase coefficients (LPCC filter) is one of the perspective types of correlation filters. LPCCF can be realized in a scheme of optoelectronic Vander Lught's correlator as synthesized holographic filters for recognition in real time conditions. Application of binary spatial light modulators for realization of holographic LPCCF is especially interesting. Variants of "pixel to pixel" binarization methods or representation of grayscale gradation using binary "subpixel" raster can be used for binary representation of the initial hologram. The results of correlation recognition with binary amplitude holographic LPCCF application are represented in the paper.
Non-constant retardation coefficient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhiming; Gu Zhijie; Yang Yue'e; Li Shushen
2004-12-01
Retardation coefficient is one of the important parameters used in transport models describing radionuclide migration in geological media and usually regarded as a constant in the models. The objectives of the work are to understand: (1) Whether the retardation coefficient, R d , is a constant? (2) How much effect is R d on calculated consequence if R d is not constant? (3) Is the retardation coefficient derived from distribution coefficient, k d , according to conventional equation suitable for safety assessment? The objectives are achieved through test and analysis of the test results on radionuclide migration in unsaturated loess. It can be seen from the results that retardation coefficient, R d , of 85 Sr is not constant and increases with water content, θ, under unsaturated condition. R d , of 85 Sr derived from k d according to conventional equation can not be used for safety assessment. R d , used for safety assessment should be directly measured, rather than derived from k d . It is shown from calculation that the effect of R d on calculated consequence is very considerable. (authors)
High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption
Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard
1985-01-01
An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.
A Simple Educational Method for the Measurement of Liquid Binary Diffusivities
Rice, Nicholas P.; de Beer, Martin P.; Williamson, Mark E.
2014-01-01
A simple low-cost experiment has been developed for the measurement of the binary diffusion coefficients of liquid substances. The experiment is suitable for demonstrating molecular diffusion to small or large undergraduate classes in chemistry or chemical engineering. Students use a cell phone camera in conjunction with open-source image…
Interactions in Massive Colliding Wind Binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael F. Corcoran
2012-03-01
Full Text Available There are observational difficulties determining dynamical masses of binary star components in the upper HR diagram both due to the scarcity of massive binary systems and spectral and photometric contamination produced by the strong wind outflows in these systems. We discuss how variable X-ray emission in these systems produced by wind-wind collisions in massive binaries can be used to constrain the system parameters, with application to two important massive binaries, Eta Carinae and WR 140.
Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
1 an(−λ, f )zn for z ∈ D. (1.4). One of the well-known extremal problems in the theory of univalent functions is to esti- mate the modulus of the Taylor coefficients an(−λ, f ) given by (1.4). This problem has been extensively studied in the literature ...
Sound absorption by Menger sponge fractal.
Kawabe, Tetsuji; Miyazaki, Takatsuna; Oka, Daisuke; Koyanagi, Sin'ichiro; Hinokidani, Atsushi
2009-05-01
For the purpose of investigation on acoustic properties of fractals, the sound absorption coefficients are experimentally measured by using the Menger sponge which is one of typical three-dimensional fractals. From the two-microphone measurement, the frequency range of effectively absorbing sound waves is shown to broaden with degree of fractality, which comes from the fractal property of the homothetic character. It is shown that experimental features are qualitatively explained by an electrical equivalent circuit model for the Menger sponge.
Division Unit for Binary Integer Decimals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto
2009-01-01
In this work, we present a radix-10 division unit that is based on the digit-recurrence algorithm and implements binary encodings (binary integer decimal or BID) for significands. Recent decimal division designs are all based on the binary coded decimal (BCD) encoding. We adapt the radix-10 digit...
Harmonic functions with varying coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacek Dziok
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.
Sound absorption with green materials
Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria
2017-07-01
Green materials are a valid alternative to traditional materials that are by-products of processing oil. At the end of their useful life, green materials can be disposed of without polluting the environment. They are now being used in the construction and automotive industries. While, studies are currently being carried out in the aviation sector on the use of green materials for non-structural components of airplanes. Green materials can be used to improve the acoustic comfort inside buildings as well as mitigate reverberation, echoes effects and reduce the transmission of noise between rooms. In this paper, the acoustic measurements of the properties of green materials are reported. The absorption coefficient of samples of the materials were measured in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 2,000 Hz with an impedance tube, with the flow resistance being measured.
Binary similarity measures for fingerprint analysis of qualitative metabolomic profiles.
Rácz, Anita; Andrić, Filip; Bajusz, Dávid; Héberger, Károly
2018-01-01
Contemporary metabolomic fingerprinting is based on multiple spectrometric and chromatographic signals, used either alone or combined with structural and chemical information of metabolic markers at the qualitative and semiquantitative level. However, signal shifting, convolution, and matrix effects may compromise metabolomic patterns. Recent increase in the use of qualitative metabolomic data, described by the presence (1) or absence (0) of particular metabolites, demonstrates great potential in the field of metabolomic profiling and fingerprint analysis. The aim of this study is a comprehensive evaluation of binary similarity measures for the elucidation of patterns among samples of different botanical origin and various metabolomic profiles. Nine qualitative metabolomic data sets covering a wide range of natural products and metabolomic profiles were applied to assess 44 binary similarity measures for the fingerprinting of plant extracts and natural products. The measures were analyzed by the novel sum of ranking differences method (SRD), searching for the most promising candidates. Baroni-Urbani-Buser (BUB) and Hawkins-Dotson (HD) similarity coefficients were selected as the best measures by SRD and analysis of variance (ANOVA), while Dice (Di1), Yule, Russel-Rao, and Consonni-Todeschini 3 ranked the worst. ANOVA revealed that concordantly and intermediately symmetric similarity coefficients are better candidates for metabolomic fingerprinting than the asymmetric and correlation based ones. The fingerprint analysis based on the BUB and HD coefficients and qualitative metabolomic data performed equally well as the quantitative metabolomic profile analysis. Fingerprint analysis based on the qualitative metabolomic profiles and binary similarity measures proved to be a reliable way in finding the same/similar patterns in metabolomic data as that extracted from quantitative data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhmedov, S.Eh.; Podoplelova, V.L.; Roj, V.F.
1976-01-01
The temperature dependence was studied of the electric conductivity (sigma), the acoustic electromotive force Esub(ae) and the coefficient of absorption of ultra sound (a) in a wide temperature range (1.4 to 300 deg K) of monocrystals n-InSb with a concentration of carriers n=2.3 10 14 cm -3 at the temperature of 77 K. The relationship sigma(T) is of a nature common to semiconductors throughout the temperature range. The relationship a(T) in the range from 80 to 180 K changes little with the temperature. In the range of 30 to 80 K, the absorption coefficient drops sharply. In the 4.2-30 K temperature range the value of the coefficient of absorption increases. The correlation should be noted between the relationships a(T) and sigma(T) practically throughout the whole range of the investigated temperatures. This is particularly observable at temperatures below 30 K and above 180 K. Peaks of a(T) at very low temperatures are observable only on excitation of non-equilibrium current carriers and are explainable in terms of the exciton-phonon interaction or interaction of the ultrasound with electron-hole drops
Modification of Einstein A Coefficient in Dissipative Gas Medium
Cao, Chang-Qi; Cao, Hui; Qin, Ke-Cheng
1996-01-01
Spontaneous radiation in dissipative gas medium such as plasmas is investigated by Langevin equations and the modified Weisskopf-Wigner approximation. Since the refractive index of gas medium is expected to be nearly unity, we shall first neglect the medium polarization effect. We show that absorption in plasmas may in certain case modify the Einstein A coefficient significantly and cause a pit in the A coefficient-density curves for relatively low temperature plasmas and also a pit in the A coefficient-temperature curves. In the next, the effect of medium polarization is taken into account in addition. To our surprise, its effect in certain case is quite significant. The dispersive curves show different behaviors in different region of parameters.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galliero, Guillaume; Medvedev, Oleg; Shapiro, Alexander
2005-01-01
A 322 (2004) 151). In the current study, a fast molecular dynamics scheme has been developed to determine the values of the penetration lengths in Lennard-Jones binary systems. Results deduced from computations provide a new insight into the concept of penetration lengths. It is shown for four different...... binary liquid mixtures of non-polar components that computed penetration lengths, for various temperatures and compositions, are consistent with those deduced from experiments in the framework of the formalism of the fluctuation theory. Moreover, the mutual diffusion coefficients obtained from a coupled...
Solar absorption surface panel
Santala, Teuvo J.
1978-01-01
A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.
Nutrition and magnesium absorption
Brink, E.J.
1992-01-01
The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true
Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de.
1980-01-01
A new method of background correction in atomic absorption spectroscopy has recently been introduced, based on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. A theoretical analysis of the background correction capability observed in such instruments is presented. A Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a 50 Hz sine wave modulated magnetic field is described. (Auth.)
Evidence for validity of ileal digestibility coefficients in monogastrics.
Columbus, Daniel; de Lange, Cornelis F M
2012-08-01
Measures of amino acid (AA) digestibility are used widely to estimate bioavailability of AA in feed and food ingredients for monogastric animals. In principle, the digestibility assay is simpler than in vivo assessments of AA bioavailability and allows for simultaneous estimation of the bioavailability of all AA in an experimental diet. It is generally assumed that absorption of intact AA in the hindgut of monogastrics is minimal, even though colonocytes do contain AA transporters and have been shown to absorb AA. This assumption is supported by the observation that infusion of AA into the hindgut does not improve nitrogen balance in monogastrics. In addition, growth performance of monogastrics is more highly correlated with ileal than faecal AA digestibility. Therefore, ileal digestibility coefficients provide better estimates of AA bioavailability than faecal digestibility coefficients. Measures of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA are confounded with endogenous gut AA losses (EAAL). The curvilinear increase in AID of AA with increasing dietary AA level has been attributed to the relatively large contribution of EAAL to total ileal AA flows at low dietary AA levels. Subtracting basal EAAL from total ileal AA flows yields standardized ileal digestibility (SID) coefficients that appear to be more additive than AID coefficients in mixtures of feed ingredients. An implicit assumption when using SID AA coefficients in diet formulation is that the post-absorptive utilization of AA is not influenced by the dietary protein source. This assumption appears inappropriate when using feed or food ingredients that have been over-heated, induce large amounts of EAAL, or contain substantial amounts of fermentable fibre. Improved understanding of processes that contribute to the discrepancy between bioavailability and ileal digestibility will allow a more effective use of AA digestibility coefficients in diet formulation.
Aerosol optical absorption measurements with photoacoustic spectroscopy
Liu, Kun; Wang, Lei; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Guishi; Tan, Tu; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming
2015-04-01
Many parameters related to radiative forcing in climate research are known only with large uncertainties. And one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing is the contribution from aerosols. Aerosols can scatter or absorb the electromagnetic radiation, thus may have negative or positive effects on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, respectively [1]. And the magnitude of the effect is directly related to the quantity of light absorbed by aerosols [2,3]. Thus, sensitivity and precision measurement of aerosol optical absorption is crucial for climate research. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is commonly recognized as one of the best candidates to measure the light absorption of aerosols [4]. A PAS based sensor for aerosol optical absorption measurement was developed. A 532 nm semiconductor laser with an effective power of 160 mW was used as a light source of the PAS sensor. The PAS sensor was calibrated by using known concentration NO2. The minimum detectable optical absorption coefficient (OAC) of aerosol was determined to be 1 Mm-1. 24 hours continues measurement of OAC of aerosol in the ambient air was carried out. And a novel three wavelength PAS aerosol OAC sensor is in development for analysis of aerosol wavelength-dependent absorption Angstrom coefficient. Reference [1] U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, Global indirect aerosol effects: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 715-737 (2005) [2] M. Z. Jacobson, Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols, Nature 409, 695-697 (2001) [3] V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichae, Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon, nature geoscience 1, 221-227 (2008) [4] W.P Arnott, H. Moosmuller, C. F. Rogers, T. Jin, and R. Bruch, Photoacoustic spectrometer for measuring light absorption by aerosol: instrument description. Atmos. Environ. 33, 2845-2852 (1999).
Integer Solutions of Binomial Coefficients
Gilbertson, Nicholas J.
2016-01-01
A good formula is like a good story, rich in description, powerful in communication, and eye-opening to readers. The formula presented in this article for determining the coefficients of the binomial expansion of (x + y)n is one such "good read." The beauty of this formula is in its simplicity--both describing a quantitative situation…
Effective Viscosity Coefficient of Nanosuspensions
Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.; Egorov, V. V.
2008-12-01
Systematic calculations of the effective viscosity coefficient of nanosuspensions have been performed using the molecular dynamics method. It is established that the viscosity of a nanosuspension depends not only on the volume concentration of the nanoparticles but also on their mass and diameter. Differences from Einstein's relation are found even for nanosuspensions with a low particle concentration.
Irrational "Coefficients" in Renaissance Algebra.
Oaks, Jeffrey A
2017-06-01
Argument From the time of al-Khwārizmī in the ninth century to the beginning of the sixteenth century algebraists did not allow irrational numbers to serve as coefficients. To multiply by x, for instance, the result was expressed as the rhetorical equivalent of . The reason for this practice has to do with the premodern concept of a monomial. The coefficient, or "number," of a term was thought of as how many of that term are present, and not as the scalar multiple that we work with today. Then, in sixteenth-century Europe, a few algebraists began to allow for irrational coefficients in their notation. Christoff Rudolff (1525) was the first to admit them in special cases, and subsequently they appear more liberally in Cardano (1539), Scheubel (1550), Bombelli (1572), and others, though most algebraists continued to ban them. We survey this development by examining the texts that show irrational coefficients and those that argue against them. We show that the debate took place entirely in the conceptual context of premodern, "cossic" algebra, and persisted in the sixteenth century independent of the development of the new algebra of Viète, Decartes, and Fermat. This was a formal innovation violating prevailing concepts that we propose could only be introduced because of the growing autonomy of notation from rhetorical text.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Legros, J.C.; Van Vaerenbergh, S.; Dubois, F.; Decroly, Y. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Montel, F. [ELF-Aquitaine Production, 64 - Pau (France); Goodman, S. [C-CORE, New Foundland, (Canada); Bekaert, G. [SABCA, Bruxelles (Belgium); Van Ransbeek, E. [IASB-BIRA, Bruxelles (Belgium)
1996-12-31
Measurements of diffusion coefficients of ternary systems and of thermodiffusion coefficients of multicomponent systems, including crude oils, have been undertaken by MRC and Elf-Aquitaine. The experiments DCCO and SCCO (respectively Diffusion and Soret Coefficients of Crude Oils) will be performed in 1997 and 1998 in GAS containers on the Space Shuttle. The 9 systems of DCCO are analyzed by Mach-Zehnder bicolor interferometry. The samples of the 18 systems of SCCO, among which three at 300 bars and at a mean temperature of 60 deg. C, will be analyzed after recovery on ground by a chromatographic technique. Such measurements performed in microgravity, like the measurements of Soret coefficients of binary solutions performed in the microgravity SCM experiments, are necessary reference measurements. (authors) 12 refs.
Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lingfeng Liu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.
Discovery of a nearby young brown dwarf binary candidate
Reiners, A.; Seifahrt, A.; Dreizler, S.
2010-04-01
In near-infrared NaCo observations of the young brown dwarf 2MASS J0041353-562112, we discovered a companion a little less than a magnitude fainter than the primary. The binary candidate has a separation of 143 mas, and the spectral types of the two components are M 6.5 and M 9.0. Colors and flux ratios of the components are consistent with their locations being at the same distance minimizing the probability of the secondary being a background object. The brown dwarf is known to exhibit Li absorption constraining the age to be younger than ~ 200 Myr, and has been suspected of experiencing ongoing accretion, which implies an age as young as ~ 10 Myr. We estimate distance and orbital parameters of the binary as a function of age. For an age of 10 Myr, the distance to the system is 50 pc, the orbital period is 126 yr, and the masses of the components are ~ 30 and ~ 15 MJup. The binary brown dwarf fills a so far unoccupied region in the parameters mass and age; it is a valuable new benchmark object for brown dwarf atmospheric and evolutionary models. Emmy Noether Fellow.
UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy
Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf
1994-01-01
Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive
Atmospheric Eclipsing Binaries HR6902 and 22Vul
Ake, Thomas B.
We propose to perform a comparative study of the atmospheric eclipsing binaries HR 6902 and 22 Vul. Each of these is comprised of a luminous G-type primary with a late B main sequence secondary. The eclipsing nature of these systems allows a determination of the physical conditions in the outer atmospheres of the evolved primary components. The G stars are on different sides of the cool star dividing line between coronal and non-coronal stars. HR 6902 has a thin chromosphere and a hot, low mass-loss wind, seen in C IV and Si IV absorption when the B star passes behind the primary. 22 Vul, on the other hand, shows extended absorption far from the star and a cool, high velocity wind of approx. -200 km s-1. It is more like the classical zeta Aur systems, but the Fe II wind lines have peculiar profiles, likely owning to the effects of the radiation field of the hot star. Although located close to each other on the HR diagram, there are fundamental differences in the outer layers of these stars. We propose obtaining FUSE exposures during partial and total eclipse phases to study the kinematics and structure of the transition regions and winds of the primary stars and relate them to other FUSE observations of single objects. These observations will also be of use in understanding the complex spectra of other, interacting binary systems, where the stellar components are embedded in much denser material due to mass transfer effects.
Gravity waves from relativistic binaries
Levin, Janna; O'Reilly, Rachel; Copeland, E. J.
1999-01-01
The stability of binary orbits can significantly shape the gravity wave signal which future Earth-based interferometers hope to detect. The inner most stable circular orbit has been of interest as it marks the transition from the late inspiral to final plunge. We consider purely relativistic orbits beyond the circular assumption. Homoclinic orbits are of particular importance to the question of stability as they lie on the boundary between dynamical stability and instability. We identify thes...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
González, Emilio J.; Calvar, Noelia; Domínguez, Ángeles; Macedo, Eugénia A.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Osmotic and physical properties of binary mixtures {alcohol + [BMim][TfO]} were measured. ► From experimental data, apparent molar properties and osmotic coefficients were calculated. ► The apparent properties were fitted using a Redlich–Meyer type equation. ► The osmotic coefficients were correlated using the Extended Pitzer model. -- Abstract: In this work, physical properties (densities and speeds of sound) for the binary systems {1-propanol, or 2-propanol, or 1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or 1-pentanol + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate} were experimentally measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and at atmospheric pressure. These data were used to calculate the apparent molar volume and apparent molar isentropic compression which were fitted to a Redlich–Meyer type equation. This fit was used to obtain the corresponding apparent molar properties at infinite dilution. On the other hand, the osmotic and activity coefficients and vapor pressures of these binary mixtures were also determined at T = 323.15 K using the vapor pressure osmometry technique. The Extended Pitzer model of Archer was employed to correlate the experimental osmotic coefficients. From the parameters obtained in the correlation, the mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the studied mixtures were calculated
Binary evolution and observational constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loore, C. de
1984-01-01
The evolution of close binaries is discussed in connection with problems concerning mass and angular momentum losses. Theoretical and observational evidence for outflow of matter, leaving the system during evolution is given: statistics on total masses and mass ratios, effects of the accretion of the mass gaining component, the presence of streams, disks, rings, circumstellar envelopes, period changes, abundance changes in the atmosphere. The effects of outflowing matter on the evolution is outlined, and estimates of the fraction of matter expelled by the loser, and leaving the system, are given. The various time scales involved with evolution and observation are compared. Examples of non conservative evolution are discussed. Problems related to contact phases, on mass and energy losses, in connection with entropy changes are briefly analysed. For advanced stages the disruption probabilities for supernova explosions are examined. A global picture is given for the evolution of massive close binaries, from ZAMS, through WR phases, X-ray phases, leading to runaway pulsars or to a binary pulsar and later to a millisecond pulsar. (Auth.)
An in silico skin absorption model for fragrance materials.
Shen, Jie; Kromidas, Lambros; Schultz, Terry; Bhatia, Sneha
2014-12-01
Fragrance materials are widely used in cosmetics and other consumer products. The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) evaluates the safety of these ingredients and skin absorption is an important parameter in refining systemic exposure. Currently, RIFM's safety assessment process assumes 100% skin absorption when experimental data are lacking. This 100% absorption default is not supportable and alternate default values were proposed. This study aims to develop and validate a practical skin absorption model (SAM) specific for fragrance material. It estimates skin absorption based on the methodology proposed by Kroes et al. SAM uses three default absorption values based on the maximum flux (J(max)) - namely, 10%, 40%, and 80%. J(max) may be calculated by using QSAR models that determine octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)), water solubility (S) and permeability coefficient (K(p)). Each of these QSAR models was refined and a semi-quantitative mechanistic model workflow is presented. SAM was validated with a large fragrance-focused data set containing 131 materials. All resulted in predicted values fitting the three-tiered absorption scenario based on Jmax ranges. This conservative SAM may be applied when fragrance material lack skin absorption data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Acoustic absorption behaviour of an open-celled aluminium foam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Fusheng; Seiffert, Gary; Zhao Yuyuan; Gibbs, Barry
2003-01-01
Metal foams, especially close-celled foams, are generally regarded as poor sound absorbers. This paper studies the sound absorption behaviour of the open-celled Al foams manufactured by the infiltration process, and the mechanisms involved. The foams show a significant improvement in sound absorption compared with close-celled Al foams, because of their high flow resistance. The absorption performance can be further enhanced, especially at low frequencies, if the foam panel is backed by an appropriate air gap. Increasing the air-gap depth usually increases both the height and the width of the absorption peak and shifts the peak towards lower frequencies. The foam samples with the smallest pore size exhibit the best absorption capacities when there is no air gap, whereas those with medium pore sizes have the best overall performance when there is an air gap. The typical maximum absorption coefficient, noise reduction coefficient and half-width of the absorption peak are 0.96-0.99, 0.44-0.62 and 1500-3500 Hz, respectively. The sound dissipation mechanisms in the open-celled foams are principally viscous and thermal losses when there is no air-gap backing and predominantly Helmholtz resonant absorption when there is an air-gap backing
Insight into interrelation between single-particle and collective diffusion in binary melts
Levchenko, Elena V.; Evteev, Alexander V.
2018-01-01
The interrelation between the kinetics of single-particle (tracer) and collective diffusion in a binary melt is investigated theoretically within the framework of the Mori-Zwanzig formalism of statistical mechanics. An analytical expression for the Onsager coefficient for mass transport and two self-diffusion coefficients of species in a binary melt is derived using analysis based on the generalized Langevin equation. The derived expression naturally accounts for manifestation of microscopic (dynamic) cross-correlation effects in the kinetics of collective diffusion. Hence, it presents an explicit extension of the well-known Darken equation which is currently often used for expressing collective interdiffusion in terms of the two self-diffusion coefficients. An application of our analysis for interpretation of recent experimental data on the interrelation between the kinetics of single-particle and collective diffusion in Al-rich Ni-Al melts is demonstrated.
Sustainable Absorption Panels from Agricultural Wastes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ismail F.Z.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Noise has become a serious environmental problem and there are demands for alternative sustainable materials which capable to reduce the noise level at various frequency ranges. Therefore, the aim of this research is to study the potential of turning the agricultural waste and waste paper into a sound absorption panel. For the purpose of this study, combination of two materials was under studied; coconut coir fibre from agriculture waste and shredded waste paper from the office. There were two main objective of the research; first is to develop absorption panels from coconut coir powder that available locally with a combination of shredded paper at different percentage of mixture. Second objective is to identify the absorption rate of the panels. The study encompasses the fabrication of the particle board using the coconut husk powder mix with shredded waste paper and using the gypsum powder as the binder for the two materials. Four acoustic panels of size 0.5m x 0.5m and 0.012 m thick were fabricated with different mix ratio; 25% of coconut coir powder mixed with 75% of shredded waste papers for sample 1, 50% both of the material for sample 2, 75% of coconut coir powder mixed with 25% of shredded waste paper for sample 3, and lastly 100% of coconut coir powder for sample 4. The absorption coefficient of the panels was tested in a reverberation chamber and in accordance with ISO 354:1985 standards. Based on the results, sample 1 gave the highest absorption coefficient compared to sample 2, 3 and 4. It can be concluded that the acoustic panel made from a mixture of 25% coconut coir powder with 75% shredded waste paper provided higher absorption coefficient compared to the performance of the other samples. This might be caused by the size of the coir powder which is very small, creating less void space in between the panel and thus causing it to absorb less sound. Since sound absorption is very much affected by the availability of void space of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raievski, V.; Sautiez, B.
1959-01-01
The report describes a pile designed to measure the absorption of fuel slugs. The pile is of graphite and comprises a central section composed of uranium rods in a regular lattice. RaBe sources and BF 3 counters are situated on either side of the center. A given uranium charge is compared with a specimen charge of about 560 kg, and the difference in absorption between the two noted. The sensitivity of the equipment will detect absorption variations of about a few ppm boron (10 -6 boron per gr. of uranium) or better. (author) [fr
Determination of two antibacterial binary mixtures by chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry.
Mohamed, Abd El-Maaboud I; Abdelmageed, Osama H; Refaat, Ibrahim H
2007-01-01
Simple chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometric methods are described for determination of 2 antibacterial binary mixtures. The mixtures are composed of norfloxacin in combination with tinidazole and erythromycin (as ethylsuccinate ester or stearate salt) in combination with trimethoprim. The normal UV absorption spectra of each pair of drugs in the studied mixtures, in the range of 200-400 nm, showed a considerable degree of spectral overlapping: 77.5% for the norfloxacin-tinidazole mixture and 84.3% for the erythromycin-trimethoprim mixture. Resolution of the norfloxacin-tinidazole mixture and trimethoprim in the presence of erythromycin was accomplished successfully by using zero-crossing first derivative (1D), classical least-squares (CLS) regression analysis, and principal component regression (PCR) analysis methods. In addition, an alternative simple and accurate colorimetric method was developed for the determination of erythromycin in the presence of trimethoprim using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. All variables affecting the development of the colored chromogen were studied and optimized, and the product was measured at 526-529 and 538-542 nm for erythromycin stearate and erythromycin ethylsuccinate, respectively. For zero-crossing, first derivative technique Beer's law was obeyed in the general concentration range of 2-50 microg/mL for norfloxacin, tinidazole, and trimethoprim with good correlation coefficients (0.9994-0.9996). Overall limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.59 to 2.81 and 1.96 to 9.33 microg/mL, respectively. The obtained results from CLS and PCR were compared with those obtained from a 1D spectrophotometric method. With the exception of erythromycin, overall recoveries in the average range of 97.33-103.0% were obtained with a considerable degree of accuracy when the suggested methods were applied to analysis of synthetic binary mixtures, some commercial dosage forms such as tablets and oral suspension without
Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars
de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O.; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly
2015-01-01
Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 108 to 26.8 × 108 M−1cm−1. Measured values correl...
Lizarraga, Ion; Bou-Ali, M. Mounir; Santamaría, C.
2018-03-01
In this study, the thermodiffusion coefficient of n-dodecane/n-hexane binary mixture at 25 ∘C mean temperature was determined for several pressure conditions and mass fractions. The experimental technique used to determine the thermodiffusion coefficient was the thermograviational column of cylindrical configuration. In turn, thermophysical properties, such as density, thermal expansion, mass expansion and dynamic viscosity up to 10 MPa were also determined. The results obtained in this work showed a linear relation between the thermophysical properties and the pressure. Thermodiffusion coefficient values confirm a linear effect when the pressure increases. Additionally, a new correlation based on the thermodiffusion coefficient for n C12/n C6 binary mixture at 25 ∘C temperature for any mass fraction and pressures, which reproduces the data within the experimental error, was proposed.
Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon
Bertrand, P. A.
1995-01-01
Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.
Revisiting Absorptive Capacity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher
learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning......Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...
Macriss, R. A.; Zawacki, T. S.
Development of improved data for the thermodynamic, transport and physical properties of absorption fluids were studied. A specific objective of this phase of the study is to compile, catalog and coarse screen the available US data of known absorption fluid systems and publish it as a first edition document to be distributed to manufacturers, researchers and others active in absorption heat pump activities. The methodology and findings of the compilation, cataloguing and coarse screening of the available US data on absorption fluid properties and presents current status and future work on this project are summarized. Both in house file and literature searches were undertaken to obtain available US publications with pertinent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties data for absorption fluids. Cross checks of literature searches were also made, using available published bibliographies and literature review articles, to eliminate secondary sources for the data and include only original sources and manuscripts. The properties of these fluids relate to the liquid and/or vapor state, as encountered in normal operation of absorption equipment employing such fluids, and to the crystallization boundary of the liquid phase, where applicable. The actual data were systematically classified according to the type of fluid and property, as well as temperature, pressure and concentration ranges over which data were available. Data were sought for 14 different properties: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Crystallization Temperature, Corrosion Characteristics, Heat of Mixing, Liquid-Phase-Densities, Vapor-Liquid-Phase Enthalpies, Specific Heat, Stability, Viscosity, Mass Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Rate, Thermal Conductivity, Flammability, and Toxicity.
Diffuse interface method for a compressible binary fluid.
Liu, Jiewei; Amberg, Gustav; Do-Quang, Minh
2016-01-01
Multicomponent, multiphase, compressible flows are very important in real life, as well as in scientific research, while their modeling is in an early stage. In this paper, we propose a diffuse interface model for compressible binary mixtures, based on the balance of mass, momentum, energy, and the second law of thermodynamics. We show both analytically and numerically that this model is able to describe the phase equilibrium for a real binary mixture (CO_{2} + ethanol is considered in this paper) very well by adjusting the parameter which measures the attraction force between molecules of the two components in the model. We also show that the calculated surface tension of the CO_{2} + ethanol mixture at different concentrations match measurements in the literature when the mixing capillary coefficient is taken to be the geometric mean of the capillary coefficient of each component. Three different cases of two droplets in a shear flow, with the same or different concentration, are simulated, showing that the higher concentration of CO_{2} the smaller the surface tension and the easier the drop deforms.
An accessible echelle pipeline and its application to a binary star
Carmichael, Theron; Johnson, John Asher
2018-01-01
Nearly every star observed in the Galaxy has one or more companions that play an integral role in the evolution of the star. Whether it is a planet or another star, a companion opens up opportunities for unique forms of analysis to be done on a system. Some 2400 lightyears away, there is a 3-10 Myr old binary system called KH 15D, which not only includes two T Tauri K-type stars in a close orbit of 48 days, but also a truncated, coherently precessing warped disk in a circumbinary orbit.In binary systems, a double-lined spectroscopic binary may be observable in spectra. This is a spectrum that contains a mixture of each star's properties and manifests as two sets of spectral emission and absorption lines that correspond to each star. Slightly different is a single-lined spectroscopic binary, where only one set of spectral lines from one star is visible. The data of KH 15D are studied in the form of a double single-lined spectroscopic binary. This means that at two separate observing times, a single-lined spectroscopic binary is obtained from one of the stars of KH 15D. This is possible because of the circumbinary disk that blocks one star at a time from view.Here, we study this binary system with a combination of archival echelle data from the Keck Observatory and new echelle data from Las Campanas Observatory. This optical data is reduced with a new Python-based pipeline available on GitHub. The objective is to measure the mass function of the binary star and refine the current values of each star's properties.
Binary Black Hole Mergers in the First Advanced LIGO Observing Run
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The first observational run of the Advanced LIGO detectors, from September 12, 2015 to January 19, 2016, saw the first detections of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers. In this paper, we present full results from a search for binary black hole merger signals with total masses up to 100M_{⊙} and detailed implications from our observations of these systems. Our search, based on general-relativistic models of gravitational-wave signals from binary black hole systems, unambiguously identified two signals, GW150914 and GW151226, with a significance of greater than 5σ over the observing period. It also identified a third possible signal, LVT151012, with substantially lower significance and with an 87% probability of being of astrophysical origin. We provide detailed estimates of the parameters of the observed systems. Both GW150914 and GW151226 provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the two-body motion of a compact-object binary in the large velocity, highly nonlinear regime. We do not observe any deviations from general relativity, and we place improved empirical bounds on several high-order post-Newtonian coefficients. From our observations, we infer stellar-mass binary black hole merger rates lying in the range 9–240 Gpc^{-3} yr^{-1}. These observations are beginning to inform astrophysical predictions of binary black hole formation rates and indicate that future observing runs of the Advanced detector network will yield many more gravitational-wave detections.
Binary Black Hole Mergers in the First Advanced LIGO Observing Run
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, F.; Camp, J. B.;
2016-01-01
The first observational run of the Advanced LIGO detectors, from September 12, 2015 to January 19, 2016, saw the first detections of gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers. In this paper we present full results from a search for binary black hole merger signals with total masses up to 100M solar mass and detailed implications from our observations of these systems. Our search, based on general-relativistic models of gravitational wave signals from binary black hole systems, unambiguously identified two signals, GW150914 and GW151226, with a significance of greater than 5 alpha over the observing period. It also identified a third possible signal, LVT151012, with substantially lower significance, which has a 87 probability of being of astrophysical origin. We provide detailed estimates of the parameters of the observed systems. Both GW150914 and GW151226 provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the two-body motion of a compact-object binary in the large velocity, highly nonlinear regime. We do not observe any deviations from general relativity, and place improved empirical bounds on several high-order post-Newtonian coefficients. From our observations we infer stellar-mass binary black hole merger rates lying in the range 9-240 Gpc-3 yr-1. These observations are beginning to inform astrophysical predictions of binary black hole formation rates, and indicate that future observing runs of the Advanced detector network will yield many more gravitational wave detections.
Absorption cooling device. Absorptions-Kuehlvorrichtung
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bourne, J.; Vardi, I.; Kimchi, Y.; Ben-Dror, J.
1980-03-25
The invention concerns improvements of absorption refrigerators, where a lithium chloride or lithium bromide/water cycle is used. According to the invention an inner separating or dividing structure between different functional parts of a machine of this type is provided. The structure contains two sections of wall, which are separated from one another by a suitable space, in order to achieve thermal insulation. This air space is provided with an opening in the direction towards the inside of the container and the opening is shielded to prevent the entry of liquids (in liquid or spray form).
Nonlinear refraction and multiphoton absorption in polydiacetylenes from 1200 to 2200 nm
Polyakov, Sergey; Yoshino, Fumiyo; Liu, Mingguo; Stegeman, George
2004-03-01
We report femtosecond measurements of the dispersion in the nonlinear refraction and multiphoton absorption in polydiacetylenes, specifically in PTS [polymer poly (bis para-toluene sulfonate) of 2,4-hexadiyne -1,6 diol] over the spectral range 1200 to 2200 nm. Various modifications of the Z-scan technique were used to make the measurements. The nonlinear refractive index coefficient n2 decreased monotonically with wavelength and can be reasonably extrapolated to previous measurements at 1064 nm. It was found that multiple multiphoton absorption mechanisms contributed to the nonlinear absorption at most wavelengths so that the intensity dependence at each wavelength was needed to identify the different contributions. A two-photon absorption coefficient decreasing monotonically with increasing wavelength was identified with the long wavelength tail of the massive two-photon absorption peak measured previously at 930 nm. The three-photon absorption coefficient showed a weak resonance around 1850 nm associated with the one-photon absorption into the odd symmetry peak at 620 nm, but also exhibited larger values at shorter wavelengths whose assignment is not clear. The four-photon coefficient, measurable only around 1900 nm was associated with four-photon absorption into the even symmetry 465 nm state responsible for strong two-photon absorption measured previously at 930 nm. This resonance, normally much too weak to be observed, was measurable only because of the accidental degeneracy with the three-photon absorption resonance. This degeneracy also leads to a single photon excited state absorption into the 465 nm state via an initial three-photon absorption into the odd symmetry 620 nm state. It was shown that this (3+1) process is in the saturation regime over the intensity range of the measurements and does not contribute to absorption change proportional to the cube of the input intensity, which indicates the pure four-photon absorption process. Thus the measured
Study of transport coefficients of nanodiamond nanofluids
Pryazhnikov, M. I.; Minakov, A. V.; Guzei, D. V.
2017-09-01
Experimental data on the thermal conductivity coefficient and viscosity coefficient of nanodiamond nanofluids are presented. Distilled water and ethylene glycol were used as the base fluid. Dependences of transport coefficients on concentration are obtained. It was shown that the thermal conductivity coefficient increases with increasing nanodiamonds concentration. It was shown that base fluids properties and nanodiamonds concentration affect on the rheology of nanofluids.
Self-absorption corrections for well-type germanium detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appleby, P.G.; Richardson, N.; Nolan, P.J.
1992-01-01
Corrections for self-absorption are of vital importance to accurate determination by gamma spectrometry of radionuclides such as 210 Pb, 241 Am and 234 Th which emit low energy gamma radiation. A simple theoretical model for determining the necessary corrections for well-type germanium detectors is presented. In this model, self-absorption factors are expressed in terms of the mass attenuation coefficient of the sample and a parameter characterising the well geometry. Experimental measurements of self-absorption are used to evaluate the model and to determine a semi-empirical algorithm for improved estimates of the geometrical parameter. (orig.)
Sound absorption of porous metals at high sound pressure levels.
Wang, Xiaolin; Peng, Feng; Chang, Baojun
2009-08-01
This paper is a study about sound absorption properties of porous metals at high sound pressure levels. A method of deriving the nonlinear static flow resistance for highly porous fibrous metals is proposed by solving Oseen's equation to take account of the inertia effect, validated by experiments of airflow measurement. In order to predict nonlinear sound absorbing performance of a finite thickness porous metal layer, a numerical method is employed, verified by sound absorption measurement in an impedance tube. Accordingly, the effects of the nonlinear coefficient on the porous metal sound absorption are investigated.
Quantitative photoacoustic imaging of two-photon absorption
Bardsley, Patrick; Ren, Kui; Zhang, Rongting
2018-01-01
Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a hybrid imaging modality where we intend to reconstruct optical properties of heterogeneous media from measured ultrasound signals generated by the photoacoustic effect. In recent years, there have been considerable interests in using PAT to image two-photon absorption, in addition to the usual single-photon absorption, inside diffusive media. We present a mathematical model for quantitative image reconstruction in two-photon photoacoustic tomography (TP-PAT). We propose a computational strategy for the reconstruction of the optical absorption coefficients and provide some numerical evidences based on synthetic photoacoustic acoustic data to demonstrate the feasibility of quantitative reconstructions in TP-PAT.
Estimation of the Human Absorption Cross Section Via Reverberation Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steinböck, Gerhard; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri
2018-01-01
and compare the obtained results to those of Sabine's model. We find that the absorption by persons is large enough to be measured with a wideband channel sounder and that estimates of the human absorption cross section differ for the two models. The obtained values are comparable to values reported...... in the literature. We also suggest the use of controlled environments with low average absorption coefficients to obtain more reliable estimates. The obtained values can be used to predict the change of reverberation time with persons in the propagation environment. This allows prediction of channel characteristics...... relevant in communication systems, e.g. path loss and rms delay spread, for various population densities....
The structures of binary compounds
Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR
1990-01-01
- Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders
Pulsar magnetospheres in binary systems
Ershkovich, A. I.; Dolan, J. F.
1985-01-01
The criterion for stability of a tangential discontinuity interface in a magnetized, perfectly conducting inviscid plasma is investigated by deriving the dispersion equation including the effects of both gravitational and centrifugal acceleration. The results are applied to neutron star magnetospheres in X-ray binaries. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability appears to be important in determining whether MHD waves of large amplitude generated by instability may intermix the plasma effectively, resulting in accretion onto the whole star as suggested by Arons and Lea and leading to no X-ray pulsar behavior.
Tomographic reconstruction of binary fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roux, Stéphane; Leclerc, Hugo; Hild, François
2012-01-01
A novel algorithm is proposed for reconstructing binary images from their projection along a set of different orientations. Based on a nonlinear transformation of the projection data, classical back-projection procedures can be used iteratively to converge to the sought image. A multiscale implementation allows for a faster convergence. The algorithm is tested on images up to 1 Mb definition, and an error free reconstruction is achieved with a very limited number of projection data, saving a factor of about 100 on the number of projections required for classical reconstruction algorithms.
Glosík, J.; Plašil, R.; Kotrík, T.; Dohnal, P.; Varju, J.; Hejduk, M.; Korolov, I.; Roučka, Š.; Kokoouline, V.
2010-09-01
Measurements of recombination rate coefficients of binary and ternary recombination of ? and ? ions with electrons in a low temperature plasma are described. The experiments were carried out in the afterglow plasma in helium with a small admixture of Ar and parent gas (H2 or D2). For both ions a linear increase of measured apparent binary recombination rate coefficients (αeff) with increasing helium density was observed: αeff = αBIN + K He[He]. From the measured dependencies, we have obtained for both ions the binary (αBIN) and the ternary (K He) rate coefficients and their temperature dependence. For the description of observed ternary recombination a mechanism with two subsequent rate determining steps is proposed. In the first step, in ? + e- (or ? + e-) collision, a rotationally excited long-lived Rydberg molecule ? (or ? ) is formed. In the following step ? (or ? ) collides with a He atom of the buffer gas and this collision prevents autoionization of ? (or ? ). Lifetimes of the formed ? (or ? ) and corresponding ternary recombination rate coefficients have been calculated. The theoretical and measured binary and ternary recombination rate coefficients obtained for ? and ? ions are in good agreement.
Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes
Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson
2012-01-01
We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.
Acoustic absorption behaviour of an open-celled aluminium foam
Han Fu Sheng; Zhao Yu Yuan; Gibbs, B
2003-01-01
Metal foams, especially close-celled foams, are generally regarded as poor sound absorbers. This paper studies the sound absorption behaviour of the open-celled Al foams manufactured by the infiltration process, and the mechanisms involved. The foams show a significant improvement in sound absorption compared with close-celled Al foams, because of their high flow resistance. The absorption performance can be further enhanced, especially at low frequencies, if the foam panel is backed by an appropriate air gap. Increasing the air-gap depth usually increases both the height and the width of the absorption peak and shifts the peak towards lower frequencies. The foam samples with the smallest pore size exhibit the best absorption capacities when there is no air gap, whereas those with medium pore sizes have the best overall performance when there is an air gap. The typical maximum absorption coefficient, noise reduction coefficient and half-width of the absorption peak are 0.96-0.99, 0.44-0.62 and 1500-3500 Hz, r...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Yuanrong; Chen, Weimin; Zhong, Jing
2017-01-01
The previously developed numerical inverse method was applied to determine the composition-dependent interdiffusion coefficients in single-phase finite diffusion couples. The numerical inverse method was first validated in a fictitious binary finite diffusion couple by pre-assuming four standard ...
Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries
Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong
2015-01-01
The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov–Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like. PMID:26159412
Speech perception of noise with binary gains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, DeLiang; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind
2008-01-01
For a given mixture of speech and noise, an ideal binary time-frequency mask is constructed by comparing speech energy and noise energy within local time-frequency units. It is observed that listeners achieve nearly perfect speech recognition from gated noise with binary gains prescribed...... by the ideal binary mask. Only 16 filter channels and a frame rate of 100 Hz are sufficient for high intelligibility. The results show that, despite a dramatic reduction of speech information, a pattern of binary gains provides an adequate basis for speech perception....
Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.
Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong
2015-07-28
The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.
Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle
2005-10-01
A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.
A BINARY ORBIT FOR THE MASSIVE, EVOLVED STAR HDE 326823, A WR+O SYSTEM PROGENITOR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richardson, N. D.; Gies, D. R.; Williams, S. J.
2011-01-01
The hot star HDE 326823 is a candidate transition-phase object that is evolving into a nitrogen-enriched Wolf-Rayet star. It is also a known low-amplitude, photometric variable with a 6.123 day period. We present new, high- and moderate-resolution spectroscopy of HDE 326823, and we show that the absorption lines show coherent Doppler shifts with this period while the emission lines display little or no velocity variation. We interpret the absorption line shifts as the orbital motion of the apparently brighter star in a close, interacting binary. We argue that this star is losing mass to a mass gainer star hidden in a thick accretion torus and to a circumbinary disk that is the source of the emission lines. HDE 326823 probably belongs to a class of objects that produce short-period WR+O binaries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, S.J.
1976-01-01
Investigation of the absorption of vitamin A and related substances is complicated by the multiplicity of forms in which they occur in the diet and by the possibility that they may be subject to different mechanisms of absorption. Present knowledge of these mechanisms is inadequate, especially in the case of carotenoids. Numerous tests of absorption have been developed. The most common has been the biochemical measurement of the rise in plasma vitamin A after an oral dose of retinol or retinyl ester, but standardization is inadequate. Radioisotope tests based upon assay of serum or faecal activity following oral administration of tritiated vitamin A derivaties hold considerable promise, but again standardization is inadequate. From investigations hitherto performed it is known that absorption of vitamin A is influenced by several diseases, although as yet the consistency of results and the correlation with other tests of intestinal function have often been poor. However, the test of vitamin A absorption is nevertheless of clinical importance as a specialized measure of intestinal function. (author)
Binary and ternary recombination of D3+ ions with electrons in He-D2 plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glosik, J.; Korolov, I.; Plasil, R.; Kotrik, T.; Dohnal, P.; Novotny, O.; Varju, J.; Roucka, S.; Greene, Chris H.; Kokoouline, V.
2009-01-01
An experimental study is reported about the recombination of D 3 + ions with electrons in a low-temperature plasma (200-300 K) consisting of He with a small admixture of D 2 . At several temperatures, the pressure dependence of the apparent binary recombination rate coefficient (α eff ) was measured over a broad range of helium pressures (200-2000 Pa). The binary and ternary recombination rate coefficients were obtained from measured pressure dependences of α eff . The binary recombination rate coefficient obtained α bin (300 K)=(2.7±0.9)x10 -8 cm 3 s -1 is in agreement with recent theory. The ternary recombination rate coefficient obtained is K He (300 K)=(1.8±0.6)x10 -25 cm 6 s -1 . In analogy with the recently described process of helium-assisted ternary recombination of H 3 + ions, it is suggested that the ternary helium-assisted recombination of D 3 + ions proceeds through the formation of a neutral long-lived highly excited Rydberg molecule D 3 followed by a collision with a He atom.
Temperature dependence of binary and ternary recombination of H3+ ions with electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glosik, J.; Plasil, R.; Korolov, I.; Kotrik, T.; Novotny, O.; Hlavenka, P.; Dohnal, P.; Varju, J.; Kokoouline, V.; Greene, Chris H.
2009-01-01
We study binary and the recently discovered process of ternary He-assisted recombination of H 3 + ions with electrons in a low-temperature afterglow plasma. The experiments are carried out over a broad range of pressures and temperatures of an afterglow plasma in a helium buffer gas. Binary and He-assisted ternary recombination are observed and the corresponding recombination rate coefficients are extracted for temperatures from 77 to 330 K. We describe the observed ternary recombination as a two-step mechanism: first, a rotationally excited long-lived neutral molecule H 3 * is formed in electron-H 3 + collisions. Second, the H 3 * molecule collides with a helium atom that leads to the formation of a very long-lived Rydberg state with high orbital momentum. We present calculations of the lifetimes of H 3 * and of the ternary recombination rate coefficients for para- and ortho-H 3 + . The calculations show a large difference between the ternary recombination rate coefficients of ortho- and para-H 3 + at temperatures below 300 K. The measured binary and ternary rate coefficients are in reasonable agreement with the calculated values.
Temperature dependence of binary and ternary recombination of H3+ ions with electrons
Glosík, J.; Plašil, R.; Korolov, I.; Kotrík, T.; Novotný, O.; Hlavenka, P.; Dohnal, P.; Varju, J.; Kokoouline, V.; Greene, Chris H.
2009-05-01
We study binary and the recently discovered process of ternary He-assisted recombination of H3+ ions with electrons in a low-temperature afterglow plasma. The experiments are carried out over a broad range of pressures and temperatures of an afterglow plasma in a helium buffer gas. Binary and He-assisted ternary recombination are observed and the corresponding recombination rate coefficients are extracted for temperatures from 77 to 330 K. We describe the observed ternary recombination as a two-step mechanism: first, a rotationally excited long-lived neutral molecule H3∗ is formed in electron- H3+ collisions. Second, the H3∗ molecule collides with a helium atom that leads to the formation of a very long-lived Rydberg state with high orbital momentum. We present calculations of the lifetimes of H3∗ and of the ternary recombination rate coefficients for para- and ortho- H3+ . The calculations show a large difference between the ternary recombination rate coefficients of ortho- and para- H3+ at temperatures below 300 K. The measured binary and ternary rate coefficients are in reasonable agreement with the calculated values.
Binary and ternary recombination of D3+ ions with electrons in He-D2 plasma
Glosík, J.; Korolov, I.; Plašil, R.; Kotrík, T.; Dohnal, P.; Novotný, O.; Varju, J.; Roučka, Š.; Greene, Chris H.; Kokoouline, V.
2009-10-01
An experimental study is reported about the recombination of D3+ ions with electrons in a low-temperature plasma (200-300 K) consisting of He with a small admixture of D2 . At several temperatures, the pressure dependence of the apparent binary recombination rate coefficient (αeff) was measured over a broad range of helium pressures (200-2000 Pa). The binary and ternary recombination rate coefficients were obtained from measured pressure dependences of αeff . The binary recombination rate coefficient obtained αbin(300K)=(2.7±0.9)×10-8cm3s-1 is in agreement with recent theory. The ternary recombination rate coefficient obtained is KHe(300K)=(1.8±0.6)×10-25cm6s-1 . In analogy with the recently described process of helium-assisted ternary recombination of H3+ ions, it is suggested that the ternary helium-assisted recombination of D3+ ions proceeds through the formation of a neutral long-lived highly excited Rydberg molecule D3 followed by a collision with a He atom.
Transport Coefficients for the NASA Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Program
Svehla, Roger A.
1995-01-01
The new transport property data that will be used in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Chemical Equilibrium and Applications Program (CEA) is presented. It complements a previous publication that documented the thermodynamic and transport property data then in use. Sources of the data and a brief description of the method by which the data were obtained are given. Coefficients to calculate the viscosity, thermal conductivity, and binary interactions are given for either one, or usually, two temperature intervals, typically 300 to 1000 K and 1000 to 5000 K. The form of the transport equation is the same as used previously. The number of species was reduced from the previous database. Many species for which the data were estimated were eliminated from the database. Some ionneutral interactions were added.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
González, Emilio J.; Calvar, Noelia; Macedo, Eugénia A.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Physical and osmotic properties of [HMim][TfO] in alcohols are reported. • Apparent molar properties and osmotic coefficients were obtained. • Apparent molar volumes were fitted using a Redlich–Meyer type equation. • The osmotic coefficients were modeled with the Extended Pitzer and the MNRTL models. -- Abstract: In this work, density for the binary mixtures of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate in alcohols (1-propanol, or 2-propanol, or 1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or 1-pentanol) was measured at T = 323.15 K and atmospheric pressure. From this property, the corresponding apparent molar volumes were calculated and fitted to a Redlich–Meyer type equation. For these mixtures, the osmotic and activity coefficients, and vapor pressures of these binary systems were also determined at the same temperature using the vapor pressure osmometry technique. The experimental osmotic coefficients were modeled by the Extended Pitzer model of Archer. The parameters obtained in this correlation were used to calculate the mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the studied mixtures
Pinto, Diego D.D.; Emonds, Rob; Versteeg, Geert F.
2016-01-01
The absorption process is strongly influenced by the effective contact area. In absorber columns, this is related to the type of the internals used in the columns. Therefore, a good representation of the effective mass-transfer area and mass-transfer coefficients (kL or kg) is also essential for accurately represent and design a process. For CO2 capture process packed columns are usually preferred. The mass transfer area and coefficients for several packing (both structured and random) are co...
UNIQUAC activity coefficient model for the systems of 1-propanol + water and 2-propanol + water
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Numuang, C.
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Predictions of vapor liquid equilibria and azeotrope conditions of binary systems of 1-propanol+ water and 2-propanol+water at 30, 60, and 100 kPa were conducted in this work. UNIQUAC activity coefficient and ideal gas models represented behavior of the systems in liquid phase and vapor phase respectively. Experimental data collected from the literature (Gobaldon et al., 1996 and Marzal et al., 1996 were used to calculate energy interaction parameters of the UNIQUAC activity coefficient model by non-linear regression method. The obtained parameters were not dependent on temperature and mole fraction; however, those parameters were dependent on pressure of the system. The mean absolute error of vapor mole fraction of alcohol and water were in the range 3.86-4.65% and 2.33-3.28% respectively for the binary system of 1-propanol +water. The mean absolute error of vapor mole fraction of alcohol and water were in the range 1.93-2.06% and 1.47-1.94% respectively for the binary system of 2-propanol+water. The thermodynamics consistency test proved that the UNIQUAC activity coefficient model was satisfied very well with Gibbs- Duhem equation.
Water column attenuation coefficient estimations in Alqueva reservoir
Potes, Miguel; João Costa, Maria; Salgado, Rui; Rodrigues, Gonçalo; Bortoli, Daniele
2017-04-01
The vertical structure of the underwater radiative absorption plays an important role in the thermal dynamics of the water surface layer and consequently on the energy budget at the water-lake interface. Thus, a better estimation of the irradiance at different levels is relevant to understand the lake-air interactions. The main purpose of this dataset of measurements is to estimate the spectral attenuation coefficient of the water column. The apparatus exploited in this work are composed of an optical cable linked to a portable FieldSpec UV/VNIR (ASD). This version has hemispherical field-of-view (FOV) of 180° allowing for measurements under all range of solar zenith. In situ water spectral reflectances were also obtained to help in the validation of satellite water leaving reflectances obtained from satellite spectroradiometers. It is intention of the team to develop an algorithm to derive the attenuation coefficient from satellite data in this reservoir.
Garai, Sisir Kumar
2011-07-20
Conversion of optical data from decimal to binary format is very important in optical computing and optical signal processing. There are many binary code systems to represent decimal numbers, the most common being the binary coded decimal (BCD) and gray code system. There are a wide choice of BCD codes, one of which is a natural BCD having a weighted code of 8421, by means of which it is possible to represent a decimal number from 0 to 9 with a combination of 4 bit binary digits. The reflected binary code, also known as the Gray code, is a binary numeral system where two successive values differ in only 1 bit. The Gray code is very important in digital optical communication as it is used to prevent spurious output from optical switches as well as to facilitate error correction in digital communications in an optical domain. Here in this communication, the author proposes an all-optical frequency encoded method of ":decimal to binary, BCD," "binary to gray," and "gray to binary" data conversion using the high-speed switching actions of semiconductor optical amplifiers. To convert decimal numbers to a binary form, a frequency encoding technique is adopted to represent two binary bits, 0 and 1. The frequency encoding technique offers advantages over conventional encoding techniques in terms of less probability of bit errors and greater reliability. Here the author has exploited the polarization switch made of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a property of nonlinear rotation of the state of polarization of the probe beam in SOA for frequency conversion to develop the method of frequency encoded data conversion. © 2011 Optical Society of America
Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars.
de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly
2015-07-30
Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 10 8 to 26.8 × 10 8 M -1 cm -1 . Measured values correlate with those obtained from theoretical models of the NStars using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), which we use to simulate the extinction spectra of the nanostars. Finally, because NStars are typically used in biological applications, we conjugate DNA and antibodies to the NStars and calculate the footprint of the bound biomolecules.
Kerr scattering coefficients via isomonodromy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cunha, Bruno Carneiro da [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco,50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Novaes, Fábio [International Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte,Av. Odilon Gomes de Lima 1722, Capim Macio, Natal-RN 59078-400 (Brazil)
2015-11-23
We study the scattering of a massless scalar field in a generic Kerr background. Using a particular gauge choice based on the current conservation of the radial equation, we give a generic formula for the scattering coefficient in terms of the composite monodromy parameter σ between the inner and the outer horizons. Using the isomonodromy flow, we calculate σ exactly in terms of the Painlevé V τ-function. We also show that the eigenvalue problem for the angular equation (spheroidal harmonics) can be calculated using the same techniques. We use recent developments relating the Painlevé V τ-function to Liouville irregular conformal blocks to claim that this scattering problem is solved in the combinatorial sense, with known expressions for the τ-function near the critical points.
Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Moretti, E.S.; Austin, D.J.
1981-01-01
An investigation has been made of the effect of the oxidation state of plutonium on its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. For mice and rats that have been starved prior to gastrointestinal administration, there is no significant difference between the absorption factors for Pu(IV) and Pu(VI). The value obtained for Pu(VI) is an order of magnitude lower than that reported previously. The value obtained for Pu(IV) is two orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously for nitrate solutions and the same as those reported for citrate solutions
Quantum Absorption Refrigerator
Levy, Amikam; Kosloff, Ronnie
2012-02-01
A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold, and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified; the cooling power Jc vanishes as Jc∝Tcα, when Tc→0, where α=d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.
Evaluation of absorption of radionuclides via roots of plants at different growth stages
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ambe, Shizuko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)
1999-03-01
For the environmental risk assessment of radionuclides and toxic elements which were released by nuclear power plants and factories, the absorption of trace elements by plants has been studied by a multitracer technique. The selective absorption coefficient, which is a parameter of an uptake model of radionuclides by plants, was determined for various radionuclides. The selective absorption coefficients of some elements varied greatly in experimental runs. Therefore, the selective absorption coefficients of radionuclides by komatsuna at different growth stages were determined. Moreover, the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides in komatsuna at different growth stages was studied. Extraction of the radionuclides from the soil was carried out in order to study the correlation between the transfer factor and the aging effect of the radionuclides in soil. The effect of soil acidity on the absorption of radionuclides in soybean and tomato was studied using the plants at different growth stages. (author)
Sound Absorption Characteristics of Aluminum Foams Treated by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation.
Jin, Wei; Liu, Jiaan; Wang, Zhili; Wang, Yonghua; Cao, Zheng; Liu, Yaohui; Zhu, Xianyong
2015-11-09
Open-celled aluminum foams with different pore sizes were fabricated. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treatment was applied on the aluminum foams to create a layer of ceramic coating. The sound absorption coefficients of the foams were measured by an impedance tube and they were calculated by a transfer function method. The experimental results show that the sound absorption coefficient of the foam increases gradually with the decrease of pore size. Additionally, when the porosity of the foam increases, the sound absorption coefficient also increases. The PEO coating surface is rough and porous, which is beneficial for improvement in sound absorption. After PEO treatment, the maximum sound absorption of the foam is improved to some extent.
Sound Absorption Characteristics of Aluminum Foams Treated by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Jin
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Open-celled aluminum foams with different pore sizes were fabricated. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO treatment was applied on the aluminum foams to create a layer of ceramic coating. The sound absorption coefficients of the foams were measured by an impedance tube and they were calculated by a transfer function method. The experimental results show that the sound absorption coefficient of the foam increases gradually with the decrease of pore size. Additionally, when the porosity of the foam increases, the sound absorption coefficient also increases. The PEO coating surface is rough and porous, which is beneficial for improvement in sound absorption. After PEO treatment, the maximum sound absorption of the foam is improved to some extent.
Sun, Yang; Li, Zhaohui; Huang, Aigen; Li, Qihu
2015-10-01
Piezoelectric shunt damping technology has been applied in the field of underwater sound absorption in recent years. In order to achieve broadband echo reduction, semi-active control of sound absorption of multi-layered piezoelectric coating by shunt damping is significant. In this paper, a practical method is proposed to control the underwater sound absorption coefficients of piezoelectric coating layers by combining design of the shunt impedance that allows certain sound absorption coefficients at setting frequencies. A one-dimensional electro-acoustic model of the piezoelectric coating and the backing is established based on the Mason equivalent circuit theory. First, the shunt impedance of the coating is derived under the constraint of sound absorption coefficient at one frequency. Then, taking the 1-3 piezoelectric composite coating as an example, the sound absorption properties of the coating shunted to the designed shunt impedance are investigated. Next, on the basis of that, an iterative method for two constrained frequencies and an optimizing algorithm for multiple constrained frequencies are provided for combining design of the shunt impedances. At last, an experimental sample with four piezoelectric material layers is manufactured, of which the sound absorption coefficients are measured in an impedance tube. The experimental results show good agreement with the finite element simulation results. It is proved that a serial R-L circuit can control the peak frequency, maximum and bandwidth of the sound absorption coefficient and the combining R-L circuits shunted to multiple layers can control the sound absorption coefficients at multiple frequencies.
Study of coupled heat and mass transfer during absorption of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Mayer et al (1987) concluded from their numerical investigation that an excellent heat and mass transfer inside the reaction bed, good thermal contact of the bed material to the bed wall, and high external heat transfer coefficients were the important parameters to make the hydrogen absorption/desorption reaction efficient.
On the absorption of a sound in helium 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matveev, Yu.A.
1977-01-01
A theory is developed which describes the propagation of high frequency sound in helium 2 at low temperatures (T 15 atm.) pressures when the phonon energy spectrum becomes stable. The absorption and sound dispersion coefficients under these conditions are calculated. The dependence of the velocity of second sound on frequency is determined. The resonance properties of the solution obtained are discussed
Sound absorption in solutions near the consulate critical point
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
В.С. Сперкач
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The peculiarities of acoustical absorption coefficient in solutions of critical concentration near the critical consulate temperature have been investigated by the acoustic spectroscopy methods. The obtained data confirm conclusions of the dynamic theory of critical phenomena.
Tone-burst technique measures high-intensity sound absorption
Powell, J. G.; Van Houten, J. J.
1971-01-01
Tone-burst technique, in which narrow-bandwidth, short-duration sonic pulse is propagated down a standing-wave tube, measures sound absorbing capacity of materials used in jet engine noise abatement. Technique eliminates effects of tube losses and yields normal-incidence absorption coefficient of specimen.
Binary Relations as a Foundation of Mathematics
Kuper, Jan; Barendsen, E.; Capretta, V.; Geuvers, H.; Niqui, M.
2007-01-01
We describe a theory for binary relations in the Zermelo-Fraenkel style. We choose for ZFCU, a variant of ZFC Set theory in which the Axiom of Foundation is replaced by an axiom allowing for non-wellfounded sets. The theory of binary relations is shown to be equi-consistent ZFCU by constructing a
Novel quantum inspired binary neural network algorithm
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, a quantum based binary neural network algorithm is proposed, named as novel quantum binary neural network algorithm (NQ-BNN). It forms a neural network structure by deciding weights and separability parameter in quantum based manner. Quantum computing concept represents solution probabilistically ...
The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems.
Postnov, Konstantin A; Yungelson, Lev R
2014-01-01
We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.
The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yungelson, Lev R.
2006-12-01
Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA. Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars -- compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.
Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion onto Binaries
Antoni, Andrea; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramírez-Ruiz, Enrico
2018-01-01
Binary stars are not rare. While only close binary stars will eventually interact with one another, even the widest binary systems interact with their gaseous surroundings. The rates of accretion and the gaseous drag forces arising in these interactions are the key to understanding how these systems evolve. This poster examines accretion flows around a binary system moving supersonically through a background gas. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion using the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH. We simulate a range of values of semi-major axis of the orbit relative to the gravitational focusing impact parameter of the pair. On large scales, gas is gravitationally focused by the center-of-mass of the binary, leading to dynamical friction drag and to the accretion of mass and momentum. On smaller scales, the orbital motion imprints itself on the gas. Notably, the magnitude and direction of the forces acting on the binary inherit this orbital dependence. The long-term evolution of the binary is determined by the timescales for accretion, slow down of the center-of-mass, and decay of the orbit. We use our simulations to measure these timescales and to establish a hierarchy between them. In general, our simulations indicate that binaries moving through gaseous media will slow down before the orbit decays.
The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantin A. Postnov
2014-05-01
Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.
Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.
2012-01-01
Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... with well-covered light curves increases with new-generation searches....
Statistical properties of spectroscopic binary stars
Hogeveen, S.J.
1992-01-01
As part of a study of the mass-ratio distribution of spectroscopic binary stars, the statistical properties of the systems in the Eighth Catalogue of the Orbital Elements of Spectroscopic Binary Stars, compiled by Batten et al. (1989), are investigated. Histograms are presented of the
An Acidity Scale for Binary Oxides.
Smith, Derek W.
1987-01-01
Discusses the classification of binary oxides as acidic, basic, or amphoteric. Demonstrates how a numerical scale for acidity/basicity of binary oxides can be constructed using thermochemical data for oxoacid salts. Presents the calculations derived from the data that provide the numeric scale values. (TW)
Binary trees equipped with semivaluations | Pajoohesh ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Our interest in this lattice stems from its application to binary decision trees. Binary decision trees form a crucial tool for algorithmic time analysis. The lattice properties of Tn are studied and we show that every Tn has a sublattice isomorphic to Tn-1 and prove that Tn is generated by Tn-1. Also we show that the distance from ...
Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd
objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...
X-Ray Attenuation and Absorption for Materials of Dosimetric Interest
SRD 126 X-Ray Attenuation and Absorption for Materials of Dosimetric Interest (Web, free access) Tables and graphs of the photon mass attenuation coefficient and the mass energy-absorption coefficient are presented for all of the elements Z = 1 to 92, and for 48 compounds and mixtures of radiological interest. The tables cover energies of the photon (x-ray, gamma ray, bremsstrahlung) from 1 keV to 20 MeV.
Sound Absorption Characteristics of Aluminum Foams Treated by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation
Jin, Wei; Liu, Jiaan; Wang, Zhili; Wang, Yonghua; Cao, Zheng; Liu, Yaohui; Zhu, Xianyong
2015-01-01
Open-celled aluminum foams with different pore sizes were fabricated. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treatment was applied on the aluminum foams to create a layer of ceramic coating. The sound absorption coefficients of the foams were measured by an impedance tube and they were calculated by a transfer function method. The experimental results show that the sound absorption coefficient of the foam increases gradually with the decrease of pore size. Additionally, when the porosity of th...
Stevens, J. R.; Coakley, R. W.
2011-07-01
A scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer was used to measure Brillouin spectra of methanol, isopropanol and a 95% ethanol-water mixture for temperatures ranging between 285 K and 320 K. The Brillouin frequency shifts and linewidths were used to calculate the velocities and absorption coefficients of hypersonic acoustic waves in these liquids. The temperature dependence of sound speed and acoustic attenuation was determined. For all three materials, both sound velocity and absorption coefficient decreased with temperature.
Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; Čepič, Mojca
2013-01-01
A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Kaj
2011-01-01
Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...
Neutron resonance absorption theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reuss, P.
1991-11-01
After some recalls on the physics of neutron resonance absorption during their slowing down, this paper presents the main features of the theoretical developments performed by the french school of reactor physics: the effective reaction rate method so called Livolant-Jeanpierre theory, the generalizations carried out by the author, and the probability table method [fr
Ozone absorption in a mechanically stirred reactor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LJILJANA TAKIC
2007-08-01
Full Text Available Ozone absorption in water was investigated in a mechanically stirred reactor, using both the semi-batch and continuous mode of operation. A model for the precise determination of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient in open tanks without the necessity of the measurement the ozone concentration in the outlet gas was developed. It was found that slow ozone reactions in the liquid phase, including the decomposition of ozone, can be regarded as one pseudo-first order reaction. Under the examined operating conditions, the liquid phase was completely mixed, while mixing in a gas phase can be described as plug flow. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient was found to vary with the square of the impeller speed.
Logistic chaotic maps for binary numbers generations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanso, Ali; Smaoui, Nejib
2009-01-01
Two pseudorandom binary sequence generators, based on logistic chaotic maps intended for stream cipher applications, are proposed. The first is based on a single one-dimensional logistic map which exhibits random, noise-like properties at given certain parameter values, and the second is based on a combination of two logistic maps. The encryption step proposed in both algorithms consists of a simple bitwise XOR operation of the plaintext binary sequence with the keystream binary sequence to produce the ciphertext binary sequence. A threshold function is applied to convert the floating-point iterates into binary form. Experimental results show that the produced sequences possess high linear complexity and very good statistical properties. The systems are put forward for security evaluation by the cryptographic committees.
Mass Transfer in Mira-Type Binaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed S.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Detached, symbiotic binaries are generally assumed to interact via Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton (BHL wind accretion. However, the accretion rates and outflow geometries that result from this mass-transfer mechanism cannot adequately explain the observations of the nearest and best studied symbiotic binary, Mira, or the formation of some post-AGB binaries, e.g. barium stars. We propose a new mass-transfer mode for Mira-type binaries, which we call ‘wind Roche-lobe overflow’ (WRLOF, and which we demonstrate with 3D hydrodynamic simulations. Importantly, we show that the circumstellar outflows which result from WRLOF tend to be highly aspherical and strongly focused towards the binary orbital plane. Furthermore, the subsequent mass-transfer rates are at least an order of magnitude greater than the analogous BHL values. We discuss the implications of these results for the shaping of bipolar (proto-planetary nebulae and other related systems.
Detection Rates for Close Binaries via Microlensing
Gaudi, B. Scott; Gould, Andrew
1997-06-01
Microlensing is one of the most promising methods of reconstructing the stellar mass function down to masses even below the hydrogen-burning limit. The fundamental limit to this technique is the presence of unresolved binaries, which can, in principle, significantly alter the inferred mass function. Here we quantify the fraction of binaries that can be detected using microlensing, considering specifically the mass ratio and separation of the binary. We find that almost all binary systems with separations greater than b ~ 0.4 of their combined Einstein ring radius are detectable assuming a detection threshold of 3%. For two M dwarfs, this corresponds to a limiting separation of >~1 AU. Since very few observed M dwarfs have companions at separations corrupt the measurements of the mass function. We find that the detectability depends only weakly on the mass ratio. For those events for which individual masses can be determined, we find that binaries can be detected down to b ~ 0.2.
Evolution of Supermassive Black-Hole Binaries
Milosavljevic, M.; Merritt, D.
2000-10-01
Binary supermassive black holes are expected to form in galactic nuclei following galaxy mergers. We report large-scale N-body simulations using the Aarseth/Spurzem parallel code NBODY6++ of the formation and evolution of such binaries. Initial conditions are drawn from a tree-code simulation of the merger of two spherical galaxies with ρ ~ r-2 density cusps (Cruz & Merritt, AAS Poster). Once the two black holes form a bound pair at the center of the merged galaxies, the evolution is continued using NBODY6++ at much higher resolution. Its exact force calculations generate faithful binary dynamics until the onset of gravity wave-dominated dissipation. We discuss the binary hardening rate, the amplitude of the binary's wandering, and the evolution of the structure of the galactic stellar nucleus.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Amita; Rathore, R.P.S.
1992-01-01
Born-Mayer potential has been modified to account for the unpaired (three body) forces among the common nearest neighbours of the ordered binary fcc alloys i.e. Ni 3 Fe 7 , Ni 5 Fe 5 and Ni 75 Fe 25 . The three body potential is added to the two body form of Morse to formalize the total interaction potential. Measured inverse ionic compressibility, cohesive energy, lattice constant and one measured phonon frequency are used to evaluate the defining parameters of the potential. The potential seeks to bring about the binding among 140 and 132 atoms though pair wise (two body) and non-pair wise (three body) forces respectively. The phonon-dispersion relations obtained by solving the secular equation are compared with the experimental findings on the aforesaid alloys. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs
Factorization of Transport Coefficients in Macroporous Media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2000-01-01
We prove the fundamental theorem about factorization of the phenomenological coefficients for transport in macroporous media. By factorization we mean the representation of the transport coefficients as products of geometric parameters of the porous medium and the parameters characteristic...
PG 1346+082 - An interacting binary white dwarf system
Wood, M. A.; Winget, D. E.; Nather, R. E.; Liebert, James; Wesemael, F.
1987-01-01
PG 1346+082 is both a photometric and a spectroscopic variable, spanning the B-magnitude range 13.6-17.2. High-speed photometric data reveal rapid flickering in the low-state light curve. The system also shows spectroscopic variations, displaying broad shallow He I absorption lines at maximum light and a weak emission feature at He I (4471 A) at minimum light. Hydrogen lines are conspicuous by their absence. Is is concluded that PG 1346+082 is an interacting binary white dwarf system. Furthermore, because continuum fits to IUE high-state data suggest temperatures consistent with membership in the DB white dwarf instability strip, it is suggested that some of the photometric variations may arise from pulsations.
Drag of a growing bubble at rectilinear accelerated ascension in pure liquids and binary solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ašković Radomir
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of predicting the drag coefficient of a growing bubble at rectilinear accelerated ascension in uniformly superheated pure liquids and in binary solutions with a non-volatile solute at large Reynolds and Peclet numbers is discussed. In the case of pure liquids, the general solution for the drag coefficient of an accelerated growing bubble from its inception at the critical radius and through the surface-tension-, inertia-, and heat-diffusion-controlled regimes is established, as well as some necessary adaptations in the case of binary solutions with a non-volatile solute. Two particular limiting regimes in the case of pure liquids, inertia-controlled and heat-diffusion-controlled regimes, respectively, are analyzed in details, with satisfactory results. .
Characterization of the benchmark binary NLTT 33370 {sup ,}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlieder, Joshua E.; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Herbst, T. M.; Henning, Thomas; Biller, Beth; Bergfors, Carolina; Brandner, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lépine, Sébastien; Rice, Emily [Department of Astrophysics, Division of Physical Sciences, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Berger, Edo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Skemer, Andrew; Hinz, Philip; Defrère, Denis; Leisenring, Jarron [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chauvin, Gaël; Lagrange, Anne-Marie [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planètologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble F-38041 (France); Girard, Julien H. V. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Lacour, Sylvestre [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, University Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6 and University Denis Diderot Paris 7, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Skrutskie, Michael, E-mail: schlieder@mpia-hd.mpg.de [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)
2014-03-01
We confirm the binary nature of the nearby, very low mass (VLM) system NLTT 33370 with adaptive optics imaging and present resolved near-infrared photometry and integrated light optical and near-infrared spectroscopy to characterize the system. VLT-NaCo and LBTI-LMIRCam images show significant orbital motion between 2013 February and 2013 April. Optical spectra reveal weak, gravity-sensitive alkali lines and strong lithium 6708 Å absorption that indicate the system is younger than field age. VLT-SINFONI near-IR spectra also show weak, gravity-sensitive features and spectral morphology that is consistent with other young VLM dwarfs. We combine the constraints from all age diagnostics to estimate a system age of ∼30-200 Myr. The 1.2-4.7 μm spectral energy distribution of the components point toward T {sub eff} = 3200 ± 500 K and T {sub eff} = 3100 ± 500 K for NLTT 33370 A and B, respectively. The observed spectra, derived temperatures, and estimated age combine to constrain the component spectral types to the range M6-M8. Evolutionary models predict masses of 97{sub −48}{sup +41} M{sub Jup} and 91{sub −44}{sup +41} M{sub Jup} from the estimated luminosities of the components. KPNO-Phoenix spectra allow us to estimate the systemic radial velocity of the binary. The Galactic kinematics of NLTT 33370AB are broadly consistent with other young stars in the solar neighborhood. However, definitive membership in a young, kinematic group cannot be assigned at this time and further follow-up observations are necessary to fully constrain the system's kinematics. The proximity, age, and late-spectral type of this binary make it very novel and an ideal target for rapid, complete orbit determination. The system is one of only a few model calibration benchmarks at young ages and VLMs.
Effect of the refraction factor of a plastic fiber shell on the internal reflection coefficient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pkrksypkin, A.I.; Ponomarev, L.I.
1992-01-01
Results of pilot studies of the effect of refraction factor of plastic fiber shell on the coefficient of light internal reflection in the fiber are presented. It is pointed, that the shell does not absorb the light, but effects the surface layer of the fiber centre so, that dependence of the coefficient of internal reflection on refraction factor of the shell may be described using Fresnel formulae. It is shown, that coefficient of internal reflection decreases with the increase of refraction factor. Technique to determine volume length of scintillation light absorption in the fiber is suggested
Coefficient of restitution and plastic strain for impact of elements welded with micro-jet cooling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damian HADRYŚ
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of investigations is the qualification how post-accident repair of model car body parts influence on the value of coefficient of restitution. Evaluation of impact energy absorption by model car body parts repaired with MIG welding (with and without micro-jet cooling was carried out. The results of investigations present that the value of coefficient of restitution changes with speed of impact. Coefficient of restitution is bigger for elements welded with micro-jet cooling than for element welded with ordinary method. This could have influence on passive safety of vehicle.
Symmetry chains and adaptation coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fritzer, H.P.; Gruber, B.
1985-01-01
Given a symmetry chain of physical significance it becomes necessary to obtain states which transform properly with respect to the symmetries of the chain. In this article we describe a method which permits us to calculate symmetry-adapted quantum states with relative ease. The coefficients for the symmetry-adapted linear combinations are obtained, in numerical form, in terms of the original states of the system and can thus be represented in the form of numerical tables. In addition, one also obtains automatically the matrix elements for the operators of the symmetry groups which are involved, and thus for any physical operator which can be expressed either as an element of the algebra or of the enveloping algebra. The method is well suited for computers once the physically relevant symmetry chain, or chains, have been defined. While the method to be described is generally applicable to any physical system for which semisimple Lie algebras play a role we choose here a familiar example in order to illustrate the method and to illuminate its simplicity. We choose the nuclear shell model for the case of two nucleons with orbital angular momentum l = 1. While the states of the entire shell transform like the smallest spin representation of SO(25) we restrict our attention to its subgroup SU(6) x SU(2)/sub T/. We determine the symmetry chains which lead to total angular momentum SU(2)/sub J/ and obtain the symmetry-adapted states for these chains
Mechanical Parameters Effects on Acoustic Absorption at Polymer Foam
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lyes Dib
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Polymer foams have acoustic absorption properties that play an important role in reducing noise level. When the skeleton is set to motion, it is necessary to use generalized Biot-Allard model which takes into account the deformation of the skeleton and the fluid and the interactions between them. The aim of this work is to study the quality of acoustic absorption in polyurethane foam and to show the importance of the structural vibration of this foam on the absorption by varying mechanical parameters (Young’s modulus E, Poisson’s coefficient ν, structural damping factor η, and the density ρ1. We calculated the absorption coefficient analytically using classical Biot formulation (us, uf and numerically using Biot mixed formulation (us, p in 3D COMSOL Multiphysics. The obtained results are compared together and show an excellent agreement. Afterwards, we studied the effect of varying each mechanical parameter independently on the absorption in interval of ±20%. The simulations show that these parameters have an influence on the sound absorption around the resonance frequency fr.
Absorption dynamics and delay time in complex potentials
Villavicencio, Jorge; Romo, Roberto; Hernández-Maldonado, Alberto
2018-05-01
The dynamics of absorption is analyzed by using an exactly solvable model that deals with an analytical solution to Schrödinger’s equation for cutoff initial plane waves incident on a complex absorbing potential. A dynamical absorption coefficient which allows us to explore the dynamical loss of particles from the transient to the stationary regime is derived. We find that the absorption process is characterized by the emission of a series of damped periodic pulses in time domain, associated with damped Rabi-type oscillations with a characteristic frequency, ω = (E + ɛ)/ℏ, where E is the energy of the incident waves and ‑ɛ is energy of the quasidiscrete state of the system induced by the absorptive part of the Hamiltonian; the width γ of this resonance governs the amplitude of the pulses. The resemblance of the time-dependent absorption coefficient with a real decay process is discussed, in particular the transition from exponential to nonexponential regimes, a well-known feature of quantum decay. We have also analyzed the effect of the absorptive part of the potential on the dynamical delay time, which behaves differently from the one observed in attractive real delta potentials, exhibiting two regimes: time advance and time delay.
Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients
Menard, Scott
2011-01-01
Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…
Anomalous Seebeck coefficient in boron carbides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aselage, T.L.; Emin, D.; Wood, C.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Howard, I.A.
1987-01-01
Boron carbides exhibit an anomalously large Seebeck coefficient with a temperature coefficient that is characteristic of polaronic hopping between inequivalent sites. The inequivalence in the sites is associated with disorder in the solid. The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient for materials prepared by different techniques provides insight into the nature of the disorder
Coefficient rings of formal group laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchstaber, V M; Ustinov, A V
2015-01-01
We describe the coefficient rings of universal formal group laws which arise in algebraic geometry, algebraic topology and their application to mathematical physics. We also describe the homomorphisms of these coefficient rings coming from reductions of one formal group law to another. The proofs are based on the number-theoretic properties of binomial coefficients. Bibliography: 37 titles
Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis
Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.
2010-01-01
We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…
Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory
Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ
2000-01-01
The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to
Influence of solvent absorption on the migration of Irganox 1076 from LDPE
Helmroth, I.E.; Dekker, M.; Hankemeier, T.
2002-01-01
The effect of solvent absorption on additive migration was studied by relating the diffusion coefficient (D) of Irganox 1076 to the maximum solvent absorption of different solvents in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film. Solvents tested were ethanol, isopropanol, isooctane, ethylacetate,
Absorption properties of water-in-oil emulsions in the low THz frequency range
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Uffe; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Jepsen, Peter Uhd
We use transmission THz spectroscopy to investigate the absorption properties of water-in-oil emulsions with water content varying in the 0-20% range, relevant for a range of food products. We find that at low frequencies the effective absorption coefficient of the emulsion is suppressed compared...... to bulk water....
Simulating the binary variates for the components of a socio - economical system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefan V. Stefanescu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Often in practice the components Wj of a sociological or an economical system W take discrete 0-1 values. We talk about how to generate arbitrary observations from a binary 0-1 system B when is known the multidimensional distribution of the discrete random vector B. We also simulated a simplified structure of B given by the marginal distributions together with the matrix of the correlation coefficients. Different properties of the systems W are presented too.
Pinto, Diego D D; Emonds, Rob; Versteeg, Geert F.
2016-01-01
The absorption process is strongly influenced by the effective contact area. In absorber columns, this is related to the type of the internals used in the columns. Therefore, a good representation of the effective mass-transfer area and mass-transfer coefficients (kL or kg) is also essential for
Temperature dependence of the kinetic coefficients of superconductors in the intermediate state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorelik, L.Y.; Kadigrobov, A.M.
1981-01-01
It is demonstrated that in the case of a superconductor in the intermediate state at temperature T such that e0/T 0 denoting the characteristic superconductor energy gap) the sound absorption coefficient can be strongly temperature dependent and thermal conductivity along the layers of normal metal can be nonlinearly dependent on the temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clara, Rene A.; Gomez Marigliano, Ana C.; Solimo, Horacio N.
2007-01-01
Density and viscosity measurements for pure chloroform and methyl isobutyl ketone at T = (283.15, 293.15, 303.15, and 313.15) K as well as for the binary system {x 1 chloroform + (1 - x 1 ) methyl isobutyl ketone} at the same temperatures were made over the whole concentration range. The experimental results were fitted to empirical equations, which permit the calculation of these properties over the whole concentration and temperature ranges studied. Data of the binary mixture were further used to calculate the excess molar volume and viscosity deviation. The (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) at T = 303.15 K for this binary system was also measured in order to calculate the activity coefficients and the excess molar Gibbs energy. This binary system shows no azeotrope and negative deviations from ideal behaviour. The excess or deviation properties were fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial relation to obtain their coefficients and standard deviations
Outbursts In Symbiotic Binaries (FUSE 2000)
Kenyon, Scott J.; Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
During the past year, we made good progress on analysis of FUSE observations of the symbiotic binary Z And. For background, Z And is a binary system composed of a red giant and a hot component of unknown status. The orbital period is roughly 750 days. The hot component undergoes large-scale eruptions every 10-20 yr. An outburst began several years ago, triggering this FUSE opportunity. First, we obtained an excellent set of ground-based optical data in support, of the FUSE observations. We used FAST, a high throughput low resolution spectrograph on the 1.5-m telescope at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. A 300 g/ mm grating blazed at 4750 A, a 3 in. slit, and a thinned Loral 512 x 2688 CCD gave us spectra covering 3800-7500 A at a resolution of 6 A. The wavelength solution for each spectrum has a probable error of +/- 0.5 A or better. Most of the resulting spectra have moderate signal-to-noise, S/.N approx. greater than 30 per pixel. The time coverage for these spectra is excellent. Typically, we acquired spectra every 1-2 nights during dark runs at Mt. Hopkins. These data cover most of the rise and all of the decline of the recent outburst. The spectra show a wealth of emission lines, including H I, He I, He II, [Fe V11], and the Raman scattering bands at 6830 A and 7088 A. The Raman bands and other high ionization features vary considerably throughout the outburst. These features will enable us to correlate variations in the FUSE spectra with variations in the optical spectra. Second, we began an analysis of FUSE spectra of Z And. We have carefully examined the spectra, identifying real features and defects. We have identified and measured fluxes for all strong emission lines, including the O VI doublet at 1032 A and 1038 A. These and several other strong emission lines display pronounced P Cygni absorption components indicative of outgrowing gas. We will attempt to correlate these velocities with similar profiles observed on optical spectra. The line velocities - together
Mirmehrabi, Mahmoud; Rohani, Sohrab; Perry, Luisa
2006-04-01
A new activity coefficient model was developed from excess Gibbs free energy in the form G(ex) = cA(a) x(1)(b)...x(n)(b). The constants of the proposed model were considered to be function of solute and solvent dielectric constants, Hildebrand solubility parameters and specific volumes of solute and solvent molecules. The proposed model obeys the Gibbs-Duhem condition for activity coefficient models. To generalize the model and make it as a purely predictive model without any adjustable parameters, its constants were found using the experimental activity coefficient and physical properties of 20 vapor-liquid systems. The predictive capability of the proposed model was tested by calculating the activity coefficients of 41 binary vapor-liquid equilibrium systems and showed good agreement with the experimental data in comparison with two other predictive models, the UNIFAC and Hildebrand models. The only data used for the prediction of activity coefficients, were dielectric constants, Hildebrand solubility parameters, and specific volumes of the solute and solvent molecules. Furthermore, the proposed model was used to predict the activity coefficient of an organic compound, stearic acid, whose physical properties were available in methanol and 2-butanone. The predicted activity coefficient along with the thermal properties of the stearic acid were used to calculate the solubility of stearic acid in these two solvents and resulted in a better agreement with the experimental data compared to the UNIFAC and Hildebrand predictive models.
Contribution to the evaluation of diffusion coefficients in plasmas containing argon and fluorine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novakovic, N V
2006-01-01
The theoretical values of the numerical evaluation of the electron and ion diffusion coefficients in plasmas from mixtures of argon and fluorine are presented. The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficients for low-pressure (from 0.1 to 1.0 kPa) and low-temperature (from 500 to 5000 K) argon plasmas with 20% and 30% of added fluorine are investigated. These values are results of the applications of the specific numerical model to the evaluation plasma composition and transport coefficients in argon plasma with fluorine as additive. It is assumed that the system is kept under constant pressure and that a corresponding state of local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) is attained. Since the LTE can be assumed, a Maxwellian electron distribution function will be adopted. The hypothesis of LTE, which is commonly used in most of the numerical evaluations, is analysed with the modified Debye radius r D *. The binary electron and ion diffusion coefficients are calculated with the equilibrium plasma composition and with the collision frequencies. Strictly speaking, Maxwellian distribution function (in the state LTE) is not valid for low pressure, but in this case with the aid of the modified Debye radius, a Maxwellian f e M is assumed correctly. It is shown that the electron diffusion coefficients are about four orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding overall diffusion coefficients of ions. Both diffusion coefficients are lower in argon plasma with 30% than with 20% of fluorine additives, in the whole temperature range examined
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calvar, N.; Domínguez, Á.; Macedo, E.A.
2014-01-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Osmotic coefficients of alcohols with BMpyrDCA ionic liquid are determined. • Experimental data were correlated with Extended Pitzer model of Archer and MNRTL. • Mean molal activity coefficients and excess Gibbs free energies were calculated. • The results have been interpreted in terms of interactions. - Abstract: The vapour pressure osmometry technique (VPO) has been used to obtain the osmotic coefficients of the binary mixtures of the primary and secondary alcohols 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol and 1-pentanol with the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, BMpyrDCA. From these coefficients, the corresponding activity coefficients and vapour pressures of the mixtures have been also determined. The results have been discussed in terms of solute–solvent and ion–ion interactions and have been compared with those taken from literature in order to analyse the influence of the anion or cation constituting the ionic liquid. For the treatment of the experimental data, the Extended Pitzer model of Archer and the MNRTL model have been applied, obtaining standard deviations from the experimental osmotic coefficients lower than 0.015 and 0.065, respectively. From the parameters obtained with the Extended Pitzer model or Archer, the mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy for the studied mixtures have been calculated