Sample records for binary 4u 1705-44

  1. Low Mass X-ray Binary 4U1705-44 Exiting an Extended High X-ray State (United States)

    Phillipson, Rebecca; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.


    The neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U1705-44, which exhibited high amplitude long-term X-ray variability on the order of hundreds of days during the 16-year continuous monitoring by the RXTE ASM (1995-2012), entered an anomalously long high state in July 2012 as observed by MAXI (2009-present).

  2. A Broad Iron Line in the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrum of 4U 1705-44

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Salvo, T.; Iaria, R.; Méndez, R.M.; Burderi, L.; Lavagetto, G.; Robba, N.R.; Stella, L.; van der Klis, M.


    We present the results of a Chandra 30 ks observation of the low-mass X-ray binary and atoll source 4U 1705-44. Here we concentrate on the study of discrete features in the energy spectrum at energies below ~3 keV, as well as on the iron Kalpha line, using the High Energy Transmission Grating

  3. A Broad Iron Line in the Chandra/HETG Spectrum of 4U 1705-44

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Salvo, T.; Iaria, R.; Méndez, R.M.; Burderi, L.; Robba, N.R.; Stella, L.; van der Klis, M.; Tovmassian, G.; Sion, E.


    We present preliminary results from a Chandra 30 ks observation of the atoll source 4U 1705-44. In particular we concentrate on the study of the iron K alpha line, using the HEG spectrometer. The iron K alpha line at ~ 6.6 keV is found to be intrinsically broad ( FWHM ~ 1.7 keV); its width can be

  4. Time lags of the kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations in the low-mass X-ray binaries 4U 1608-52 and 4U 1636-53

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Avellar, M. G. B.; Méndez, M.; Sanna, A.; Horvath, J. E.


    We studied the time lags and the coherence of the X-ray light curves of the neutron star low mass X-ray binaries 4U 1608-52 and 4U 1636-53. These quantities are frequency-dependent measures of the time or phase delay and of the degree of linear correlation between two X-ray light curves in two

  5. A Comparison of the Variability of the Symbiotic X-ray Binaries GX 1+4, 4U 1954+31, and 4U 1700+24 from Swift/BAT and RXTE/ASM Observations (United States)

    Corbet, R. H. D.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Markwardt, C. B.; Tueller, J.


    We present an analysis of the X-ray variability of three symbiotic X-ray binaries, GX 1+4, 4U 1700+24, and 4U 1954+31, using observations made with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) All-Sky Monitor (ASM). Observations of 4U 1954+31 with the Swift BAT show modulation at a period near 5 hours. Models to explain this modulation are discussed including the presence of an exceptionally slow X-ray pulsar in the system and accretion instabilities. We conclude that the most likely interpretation is that 4U 1954+31 contains one of the slowest known X-ray pulsars. Unlike 4U 1954+31, neither GX 1+4 nor 4U 1700+24 show any evidence for modulation on a timescale of hours. An analysis of the RXTE ASM light curves of GX l+4, 4U 1700+24, and 4U 1954+31 does not show the presence of periodic modulation in any source, although there is considerable variability on long timescales for all three sources. There is no modulation in GX 1+4 on either the optical 1161 day orbital period or a previously reported 304 day X-ray period. For 4U 1700+24 we do not confirm the 404 day period previously proposed for this source from a shorter duration ASM light curve.

  6. Measurements of Cyclotron Features and Pulse Periods in the High-Mass X-Ray Binaries 4U 1538-522 and 4U 1907+09 with the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (United States)

    Hemphill, Paul B.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Caballero, Isabel; Pottschmidt, Katja; Kuhnel, Matthias; Furst, Felix; Wilms, Jorn


    We present a spectral and timing analysis of International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of two high-mass X-ray binaries, 4U 1538-522 and 4U 1907+09. Our timing measurements for 4U 1538-522 find the pulse period to have exhibited a spin-up trend until approximately 2009, after which there is evidence for a torque reversal, with the source beginning to spin down to the most recently measured period of 525.407 plus or minus 0.001 seconds. The most recent INTEGRAL observations of 4U 1907+09 are not found to yield statistically significant pulse periods due to the significantly lower flux from the source compared with 4U 1538-522. A spectral model consisting of a power-law continuum with an exponential cutoff and modified by two cyclotron resonance scattering features is found to fit both sources well, with the cyclotron scattering features detected at approximately 22 and approximately 49 kiloelectronvolts for 4U 1538-522 and at approximately 18 and approximately 36 kiloelectronvolts for 4U 1907+09. The spectral parameters of 4U 1538-522 are generally not found to vary significantly with flux and there is little to no variation across the torque reversal. Examining our results in conjunction with previous work, we find no evidence for a correlation between cyclotron line energy and luminosity for 4U 1538-522. 4U 1907+09 shows evidence for a positive correlation between cyclotron line energy and luminosity, which would make it the fourth, and lowest luminosity, cyclotron line source to exhibit this relationship.

  7. Spectral and Timing Nature of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 4U 1954+319: The Slowest Rotating Neutron Star in AN X-Ray Binary System (United States)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'Ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jorn


    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its approx. 5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (is approx. 7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-K alpha line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (approx. 60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (approx. greater than 10(exp12) G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (10(exp33)-10(exp35) erg s(exp-1)), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a approx. 10(exp13) G NS, this scheme can explain the approx. 5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (approx. 10(exp16) G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (approx. 50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfv´en shell for a approx. 10(exp13) G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  8. Results of the swift monitoring campaign of the X-ray binary 4U 1957+11: constraints on binary parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitra, Dipankar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wheaton College, Norton, MA 02766 (United States); Miller, Jon M.; Reynolds, Mark T.; Reis, Rubens [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Nowak, Mike, E-mail: [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    We present new results of uniform spectral analysis of Swift/XRT observations of the X-ray binary system 4U 1957+11. This includes 26 observations of the source made between MJD 54282-55890 (2007 July 01-2011 November 25). All 26 spectra are predominantly thermal and can be modeled well with emission from an accretion disk around a black hole. We analyze all 26 spectra jointly using traditional χ{sup 2} fitting as well as Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations. The results from both methods agree, and constrain model parameters like inclination, column density, and black hole spin. These results indicate that the X-ray emitting inner accretion disk is inclined to our line of sight by 77.6{sub −2.2}{sup +1.5} deg. Additionally, the other constraints we obtain on parameters such as the column density and black hole spin are consistent with previous X-ray observations. Distances less than 5 kpc are unlikely and not only ruled out based on our analysis but also from other independent observations. Based on model-derived bolometric luminosities, we require the source distance to be >10 kpc if the black hole's mass is >10 M {sub ☉}. If the hole's mass is <10 M {sub ☉}, then the distance could be in the range of 5-10 kpc.

  9. A NuSTAR observation of the reflection spectrum of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1728-34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleator, Clio C.; Tomsick, John A.; King, Ashley L.


    We report on a simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift observation of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1728-34. We identified and removed four Type I X-ray bursts during the observation in order to study the persistent emission. The continuum spectrum is hard and described well by a blackbody with k......T = 1.5 keV and a cutoff power law with Γ = 1.5, and a cutoff temperature of 25 keV. Residuals between 6 and 8 keV provide strong evidence of a broad Fe Kα line. By modeling the spectrum with a relativistically blurred reflection model, we find an upper limit for the inner disk radius of Rin≤2RISCO...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayless, Amanda J.; Robinson, Edward L.; Cornell, Mark E.; Hynes, Robert I.; Ashcraft, Teresa A.


    The eclipsing low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1822-371 is the prototypical accretion disk corona (ADC) system. We have obtained new time-resolved UV spectroscopy of 4U 1822-371 with the Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel on the Hubble Space Telescope and new V- and J-band photometry with the 1.3 m SMARTS telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. We use the new data to construct its UV/optical spectral energy distribution and its orbital light curve in the UV, V, and J bands. We derive an improved ephemeris for the optical eclipses and confirm that the orbital period is changing rapidly, indicating extremely high rates of mass flow in the system, and we show that the accretion disk in the system has a strong wind with projected velocities up to 4000 km s -1 . We show that the disk has a vertically extended, optically thick component at optical wavelengths. This component extends almost to the edge of the disk and has a height equal to ∼0.5 of the disk radius. As it has a low brightness temperature, we identify it as the optically thick base of a disk wind, not as the optical counterpart of the ADC. Like previous models of 4U 1822-371, ours needs a tall obscuring wall near the edge of the accretion disk, but we interpret the wall as a layer of cooler material at the base of the disk wind, not as a tall, luminous disk rim.

  11. Phase-resolved spectroscopy of the low-mass X-ray binary system 4U 1636-536/V801 Ara (United States)

    Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Brauer, Kaley; Peris, Charith; Boroson, Bram; McCollough, Michael


    4U1636-543/V801 Ara observations covering the full binary orbit of 3.8 days were obtained with the IMACS instrument on the 6.5m Walter Baade Telescope at Las Campanas. Our tomograms of the system in H-alpha and H-beta clearly detect the accretion disk but the disk is not centered on the center-of-mass of the neutron star. This offset has been seen also in the persistent NS LMXB, X1822-371 and implies disk precession. Instead of a hot spot as is expected at the point where the accretion stream hits the disk these tomograms show enhanced emission below this region. Lack of a hot spot and emission at a further point on the disk implies a gas stream interaction downstream of the hot spot as also seen in X1822-371 and other similar systems (eg EXO0748-676). The radial velocity curve of H-alpha does not show strong orbital modulation which is consistent with emission dominated by the disk. The radial velocity curves of the Bowen blend show strong modulation at the orbital period as expected for emission originating on the secondary and the tomogram suggests emission from the heated side of the secondary.

  12. Swift/BAT Detects Increase in Hard X-ray Emission from the Ultra-compact X-ray Binary 4U 1543-624 (United States)

    Ludlam, Renee; Miller, Jon M.; Miller-Jones, James; Reynolds, Mark


    The Swift/BAT detected an increase in hard X-ray emission (15-50 keV) coming from the ultra-compact X-ray binary 4U 1543-624 around 2017 August 9. The MAXI daily monitoring also shows a gradual increase in 2.0-20.0 keV X-ray intensity as of 2017 August 19. Swift/XRT ToO monitoring of the source was triggered and shows an increase in unabsorbed flux to 1.06E-9 ergs/cm2/s in the 0.3-10.0 keV energy band as of 2017 August 26. ATCA performed ToO observations for approximately 4 hours in the 5.5 GHz and 9.0 GHz bands while the antennas were in the 1.5A array configuration from 11:25-16:09 UTC on 2017 August 23. The source was not detected in either band.

  13. Discovery of a correlation between the frequency of the mHz quasi-periodic oscillations and the neutron-star temperature in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyu, Ming; Méndez, Mariano; Altamirano, Diego


    We detected millihertz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in an XMM-Newton observation of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53. These QPOs have been interpreted as marginally stable burning on the neutron-star surface. At the beginning of the observation the QPO was at around 8 mHz,

  14. Black Hole Mass Determination In the X-Ray Binary 4U 1630-47: Scaling of Spectral and Variability Characteristics (United States)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai


    We present the results of a comprehensive investigation on the evolution of spectral and timing properties of the Galactic black hole candidate 4U 1630-47 during its spectral transitions. In particular, we show how a scaling of the correlation of the photon index of the Comptonized spectral component gamma with low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), ?(sub L), and mass accretion rate, M, can be applied to the black hole mass and the inclination angle estimates.We analyze the transition episodes observed with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and BeppoSAX satellites.We find that the broadband X-ray energy spectra of 4U 1630-47 during all spectral states can be modeled by a combination of a thermal component, a Comptonized component, and a red-skewed iron-line component. We also establish that gamma monotonically increases during transition from the low-hard state to the high-soft state and then saturates for high mass accretion rates. The index saturation levels vary for different transition episodes. Correlations of gamma versus ?(sub L) also show saturation at gamma (is) approximately 3. Gamma -M and gamma -?(sub L) correlations with their index saturation revealed in 4U 1630-47 are similar to those established in a number of other black hole candidates and can be considered as an observational evidence for the presence of a black hole in these sources. The scaling technique, which relies on XTE J1550-564, GRO 1655-40, and H1743-322 as reference sources, allows us to evaluate a black hole mass in 4U 1630-47 yielding M(sub BH) (is) approximately 10 +/- 0.1 solar masses and to constrain the inclination angle of i (is) approximately less than 70 deg.

  15. The properties of cross-correlation and spectra of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1608-52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Ya-Juan; Yuan, Hai-Long; Dong, Yi-Qiao; Zhang, Hao-Tong; Zhang, Cheng-Min; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Zhang, Shu; Qu, Jin-Lu; Wang, Ya-Nan; Li, Zhi-Bing


    With RXTE data, we analyzed the cross-correlation function between the soft and hard X-rays of the transient atoll source 4U 1608-52. We found anti-correlations in three outbursts occurred in 1998, 2002, and 2010, and we found significant time lags of several hundreds of seconds in the latter two outbursts. Our results show no correlation between the soft and hard X-rays in the extreme island state and a dominated positive correlation in the lower banana state. Anti-correlations are presented at the upper banana state for the outburst of 2010 and at the island and the lower left banana states for the other two outbursts. So far for atoll sources, the cross-correlation has been studied statistically only for 4U 1735-44, where anti-correlations showed up in the upper banana state. Here our investigation on 4U 1608-52 provides a similar result in its 2010 outburst. In addition, we notice that the luminosities in the upper banana of the 1998 and 2002 outbursts are about 1.5 times that of the 2010 outburst whose luminosity in the upper banana is close to that of 4U 1735-44. The results suggest that the states in the color-color diagram of a source could be correlated with the luminosity of the source. A further spectral analysis during the 2010 outburst is also shown, which suggests that the disk can be a little truncated in the upper banana. The feature on the upper banana is similar to the previous results of the flaring branch in Z sources.

  16. A clumpy stellar wind and luminosity-dependent cyclotron line revealed by the first Suzaku observation of the high-mass X-ray binary 4U 1538–522

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemphill, Paul B.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Markowitz, Alex [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 920093-0424 (United States); Fürst, Felix [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 290-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pottschmidt, Katja [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Wilms, Jörn, E-mail: [Dr. Karl Remeis-Sternwarte and Erlangen Center for Astroparticle Physics, Sternwartstr. 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany)


    We present results from the first Suzaku observation of the high-mass X-ray binary 4U 1538–522. The broadband spectral coverage of Suzaku allows for a detailed spectral analysis, characterizing the cyclotron resonance scattering feature at 23.0 ± 0.4 keV and the iron Kα line at 6.426 ± 0.008 keV, as well as placing limits on the strengths of the iron Kβ line and the iron K edge. We track the evolution of the spectral parameters both in time and in luminosity, notably finding a significant positive correlation between cyclotron line energy and luminosity. A dip and spike in the light curve is shown to be associated with an order-of-magnitude increase in column density along the line of sight, as well as significant variation in the underlying continuum, implying the accretion of a overdense region of a clumpy stellar wind. We also present a phase-resolved analysis, with most spectral parameters of interest showing significant variation with phase. Notably, both the cyclotron line energy and the iron Kα line intensity vary significantly with phase, with the iron line intensity significantly out of phase with the pulse profile. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of recent work in the areas of accretion column physics and cyclotron resonance scattering feature formation.

  17. ROSAT Energy Spectra of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries (United States)

    Schulz, N. S.


    The 0.1-2.4 keV bandpass of the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) offers an opportunity to study the very soft X-ray continuum of bright low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). In 46 pointed observations, 23 LMXBs were observed with count rates between 0.4 and 165.4 counts s-1. The survey identified a total of 29 different luminosity levels, which are compared with observations and identified spectral states from other missions. The atoll source 4U 1705-44 was observed near Eddington luminosities in an unusually high intensity state. Spectral analysis provided a measure of the interstellar column density for all 49 observations. The sensitivity of spectral fits depends strongly on column density. Fits to highly absorbed spectra are merely insensitive toward any particular spectral model. Sources with column densities well below 1022 cm-2 are best fitted by power laws, while the blackbody model gives clearly worse fits to the data. Most single-component fits from sources with low column densities, however, are not acceptable at all. The inclusion of a blackbody component in eight sources can improve the fits significantly. The obtained emission radii of less than 5 km suggest emission from the neutron star surface. In 10 sources acceptable fits can only be achieved by including soft-line components. With a spectral resolution of the PSPC of 320-450 eV, between 0.6 and 1.2 keV unresolved broad-line features were detected around 0.65, 0.85, and 1.0 keV. The line fluxes range within 10-11 and 10-12 ergs cm-2 s-1, with equivalent widths between 24 and 210 eV. In LMC X-2, 2S 0918-549, and 4U 1254-690, line emission is indicated for the first time. The soft emission observed in 4U 0614+091 compares with recent ASCA results, with a new feature indicated at 1.31 keV. The deduced line fluxes in 4U 1820-30 and Cyg X-2 showed variability of a factor of 2 within timescales of 1-2 days. Average fluxes of line components in 4U 1820-30 varied by the same factor over a

  18. A long-term optical-X-ray correlation in 4U 1957+11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, D.M.; Lewis, F.; Roche, P.; Clark, J.S.; Breedt, E.; Fender, R.P.


    Three years of optical monitoring of the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) 4U 1957+11 is presented. The source was observed in V, R and i bands using the Faulkes Telescopes North and South. The light curve is dominated by long-term variations which are correlated (at the >3σ level) with the soft X-ray

  19. 4U 1820-30 as a potential test of the nonsymmetric gravitational theory of Moffat (United States)

    Krisher, Timothy P.


    Recent observations of the X-ray burst source 4U 1820-30 have revealed a 685 s modulation of the luminosity. How this system could provide a stringent test of the nonsymmetric gravitational theory (NGT) of Moffat (1979), provided the observed periodicity is due to orbital motion of a binary system, is discussed. The possible orbital period change predicted by general relativity may be detectable in this system.

  20. INTEGRAL/JEM-X reports enhanced activity from the HMXB 4U 1036-56

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.


    During the Galactic Plane Scanning performed by INTEGRAL on December 11th, 2015, the X-ray monitor JEM-X has detected enhanced activity from the high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) 4U 1036-56, aka RX J1037.5-5647. The position of the source was covered by the JEM-X field of view two times between UTC 6...

  1. Spectral states evolution of 4U 1728-34 observed by INTEGRAL and RXTE: non-thermal component detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarana, A.; Belloni, T.; Bazzano, A.; Mendez, M.; Ubertini, P.

    We report results of a one-year monitoring of the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) source (atoll type) 4U 1728-34 with INTEGRAL and RXTE. Three time intervals were covered by INTEGRAL, during which the source showed strong spectral evolution. We studied the broad-band X-ray spectra in detail by fitting

  2. A Remarkable Three Hour Thermonuclear Burst From 4U 1820-30


    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Brown, Edward F.


    We present a detailed observational and theoretical study of a ~3 hr long X-ray burst (the ``super burst'') observed by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) from the low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) 4U 1820-30. This is the longest X-ray burst ever observed from this source, and perhaps one of the longest ever observed in great detail from any source. We show that the super burst is thermonuclear in origin. The level of the accretion driven flux as well as the total energy release of ~1.5 x 10^{...

  3. Equilibrium electrode U(4)-U and redox U(4)-U(3) potentials in molten alkali metal chlorides medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, M.V.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.; Komarov, V.E.; Salyulev, A.B.


    Conditional standard electrode potentials of uranium are determined for diluted solutions of its tetrachloride in alkali metal chloride melts (LiCl, NaCl, NaCl-KCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl) when using U(4) ion activity coefficient values experimentally found by the tensimetric method. These potentials shift to the electronegative side at the temperature decrease and alkali cation radius increase rsub(Msup(+)) according to the empiric ratio E*U(4)-U= -3.06+6.87x10 -4 T-(1.67-10 -4 T-0.44) 1/rsub(Msup(+)) +-0.01. The temperature dependences of formal conditional redox potentials of the U(4)-U(3) system for above melted chlorides are estimated. The E*U(4)-U(3) value also becomes more electronegative in the series LiCl, NaCl, NaCl-KCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl. This alternation is satisfactorily described by the empiric expression E*U(4)-U(3)= -1.74+1.74x10 -4 T-(0.71x10 -4 T-0.20) 1rsub(Msup(+)) +-0.05. The calculated values Eu*(4)-U(3) are compared with those directly measured for the NaCl-KCl equimolar mixture and 3LiCl-2KCl eutectic mixture. A satisfactory confirmity has been observed

  4. The cooling phase of Type I X-ray bursts observed with RXTE in 4U 1820–30 does not follow the canonical F / T4 relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garc´ıa, Federico; Zhan, Guobao; M´endez, Mariano


    We analysed the complete set of bursts from the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1820–30 detected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We found that all are photospheric radius expansion bursts, and have similar duration, peak flux and fluence. From the analysis of time-resolved spectra

  5. A reprocessing model for the ultraviolet and optical light from 4U 1820-30 (United States)

    Arons, Jonathan; King, Ivan R.


    We show that the recently discovered optical and ultraviolet light from the X-ray burst source 4U 1820-30 in the globular cluster NGC 6624 is due to reprocessing of the X-rays in the outer regions of an optically thick, geometrically thin accretion disk. We suggest that observation of orbital modulation of the reprocessed light, due to the variable contribution made as the heated face of the companion turns toward and away from the observer, would provide constraints on the inclination of the binary orbit, and we suggest that detection in the reprocessed flux of the 'red noise' already observed in the X-rays would provide useful constraints on the geometry and physics of the accretion disk.

  6. Timing Studies and QPO Detection for Transient Xray Pulsar 4u 0115+634 by RXTE. (United States)

    Ram Dugair, Moti; Jaaffrey, S. N. A.

    We present results of timing analysis of data of the transient X-ray pulsar 4U 0115+634 (Neu-tron star with fast spin entry) taken by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) space satellite. We first time observed the occurrence of 3 QPOs of 3 m Hz, 8 m Hz and 60 m Hz of the X-ray outburst of 2008. In particular the frequencies of the QPO's may be attributed to those of oscillations of disturbance occuring in the inner region of the accreted disk of the neutron star during the truncation of viscous circum stellar disc around the Be-star. The role of the interaction between the neutron star and the circumstellar is very important. Appearance of three QPOs in X-ray Binary system is a new phenomenon and difficult to understand.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jinrong; Nowak, Michael A.; Chakrabarty, Deepto


    The low-mass X-ray binary 4U 2129+47 was discovered during a previous X-ray outburst phase and was classified as an accretion disk corona source. A 1% delay between two mid-eclipse epochs measured ∼22 days apart was reported from two XMM-Newton observations taken in 2005, providing support to the previous suggestion that 4U 2129+47 might be in a hierarchical triple system. In this work, we present timing and spectral analysis of three recent XMM-Newton observations of 4U 2129+47, carried out between 2007 November and 2008 January. We found that except for the two 2005 XMM-Newton observations, all other observations are consistent with a linear ephemeris with a constant period of 18 857.63 s; however, we confirm the time delay reported for the two 2005 XMM-Newton observations. Compared to a Chandra observation taken in 2000, these new observations also confirm the disappearance of the sinusoidal modulation of the light curve as reported from two 2005 XMM-Newton observations. We further show that, compared to the Chandra observation, all of the XMM-Newton observations have 40% lower 0.5-2 keV absorbed fluxes, and the most recent XMM-Newton observations have a combined 2-6 keV flux that is nearly 80% lower. Taken as a whole, the timing results support the hypothesis that the system is in a hierarchical triple system (with a third body period of at least 175 days). The spectral results raise the question of whether the drop in soft X-ray flux is solely attributable to the loss of the hard X-ray tail (which might be related to the loss of sinusoidal orbital modulation), or is indicative of further cooling of the quiescent neutron star after cessation of residual, low-level accretion.

  8. X-ray burst-induced spectral variability in 4U 1728-34 (United States)

    Kajava, J. J. E.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Poutanen, J.


    Aims: INTEGRAL has been monitoring the Galactic center region for more than a decade. Over this time it has detected hundreds of type-I X-ray bursts from the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1728-34, also known as the slow burster. Our aim is to study the connection between the persistent X-ray spectra and the X-ray burst spectra in a broad spectral range. Methods: We performed spectral modeling of the persistent emission and the X-ray burst emission of 4U 1728-34 using data from the INTEGRAL JEM-X and IBIS/ISGRI instruments. Results: We constructed a hardness intensity diagram to track spectral state variations. In the soft state, the energy spectra are characterized by two thermal components likely coming from the accretion disc and the boundary/spreading layer, together with a weak hard X-ray tail that we detect in 4U 1728-34 for the first time in the 40 to 80 keV range. In the hard state, the source is detected up to 200 keV and the spectrum can be described by a thermal Comptonization model plus an additional component: either a powerlaw tail or reflection. By stacking 123 X-ray bursts in the hard state, we detect emission up to 80 keV during the X-ray bursts. We find that during the bursts the emission above 40 keV decreases by a factor of approximately three with respect to the persistent emission level. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the enhanced X-ray burst emission changes the spectral properties of the accretion disc in the hard state. The likely cause is an X-ray burst induced cooling of the electrons in the inner hot flow near the neutron star.

  9. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ


    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  10. Evolution of Spin, Orbital, and Superorbital Modulations of 4U 0114+650 (United States)

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Chou, Yi; Ng, C.-Y.; Lin, Lupin Chun-Che; Yen, David Chien-Chang


    We report a systematic analysis of the spin, orbital, and superorbital modulations of 4U 0114+650, a high-mass X-ray binary that consists of one of the slowest spinning neutron stars. Using the dynamic power spectrum, we found that the spin period varied dramatically and is anticorrelated with the long-term X-ray flux variation that can be observed using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer ASM, Swift BAT, and the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image. The spin-up rate over the entire data set is consistent with previously reported values; however, the local spin-up rate is considerably higher. The corresponding local spin-up timescale is comparable to the local spin-up rate of OAO 1657-415, indicating that 4U 0114+650 could also have a transient disk. Moreover, the spin period evolution shows two ˜1000-day spin-down/random-walk epochs that appeared together with depressions of the superorbital modulation amplitude. This implies that the superorbital modulation was closely related to the presence of the accretion disk, which is not favored in the spin-down/random-walk epochs because the accretion is dominated by the direct wind accretion. The orbital period is stable during the entire time span; however, the orbital profile significantly changes with time. We found that the depth of the dip near the inferior conjunction of the companion is highly variable, which disfavors the eclipsing scenario. Moreover, the dip was less obvious during the spin-down/random-walk epochs, indicating its correlation with the accretion disk. Further monitoring in both X-ray and optical bands could reveal the establishment of the accretion disk in this system.

  11. Evolution of Spin, Orbital, and Superorbital Modulations of 4U 0114+650

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Ng, C.-Y. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Chou, Yi [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Lin, Lupin Chun-Che [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Yen, David Chien-Chang, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China)


    We report a systematic analysis of the spin, orbital, and superorbital modulations of 4U 0114+650, a high-mass X-ray binary that consists of one of the slowest spinning neutron stars. Using the dynamic power spectrum, we found that the spin period varied dramatically and is anticorrelated with the long-term X-ray flux variation that can be observed using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer ASM, Swift BAT, and the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image. The spin-up rate over the entire data set is consistent with previously reported values; however, the local spin-up rate is considerably higher. The corresponding local spin-up timescale is comparable to the local spin-up rate of OAO 1657−415, indicating that 4U 0114+650 could also have a transient disk. Moreover, the spin period evolution shows two ∼1000-day spin-down/random-walk epochs that appeared together with depressions of the superorbital modulation amplitude. This implies that the superorbital modulation was closely related to the presence of the accretion disk, which is not favored in the spin-down/random-walk epochs because the accretion is dominated by the direct wind accretion. The orbital period is stable during the entire time span; however, the orbital profile significantly changes with time. We found that the depth of the dip near the inferior conjunction of the companion is highly variable, which disfavors the eclipsing scenario. Moreover, the dip was less obvious during the spin-down/random-walk epochs, indicating its correlation with the accretion disk. Further monitoring in both X-ray and optical bands could reveal the establishment of the accretion disk in this system.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda, J. A.; Boshkayev, K.; Izzo, L.; Ruffini, R.; Lorén-Aguilar, P.; Külebi, B.; Aznar-Siguán, G.; García-Berro, E.


    It has been recently proposed that massive, fast-rotating, highly magnetized white dwarfs could describe the observational properties of some of soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs). Moreover, it has also been shown that high-field magnetic white dwarfs can be the outcome of white dwarf binary mergers. The products of these mergers consist of a hot central white dwarf surrounded by a rapidly rotating disk. Here we show that the merger of a double degenerate system can explain the characteristics of the peculiar AXP 4U 0142+61. This scenario accounts for the observed infrared excess. We also show that the observed properties of 4U 0142+6 are consistent with an approximately 1.2 M ☉ white dwarf, remnant of the coalescence of an original system made of two white dwarfs of masses 0.6 M ☉ and 1.0 M ☉ . Finally, we infer a post-merging age τ WD ≈ 64 kyr and a magnetic field B ≈ 2 × 10 8 G. Evidence for such a magnetic field may come from the possible detection of the electron cyclotron absorption feature observed between the B and V bands at ≈10 15 Hz in the spectrum of 4U 0142+61

  13. Black hole and neutron star soft X-ray transients: a hard X-ray view of their outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.


    The RXTE public observations of the outbursts of black hole soft X-ray transients XTE J1550-564, XTE J1859+226, 4U 1630-47, XTE J1118+480, XTE J1650-500, and the neutron star soft X-ray transients 4U 1608-52, Aquila X-1, including a variable 'persistent' neutron star low mass X-ray binary 4U 1705-44, are summarized in this paper. The hard X-ray view of those outbursts, which is quite different from that of the soft X-ray band, suggests that there are several types of outbursts which result in different hard X-ray outburst profile - the outburst profiles are energy dependent. One type is the low/hard state outbursts, the other type is the outburst showing transitions from the low/hard state to the high/soft state, or to the intermediate or to the very high state. The later has an initial low/hard state, introducing the phenomena that the hard X-ray precedes the soft X-ray in the outburst rise. Such outbursts in XTE J1550-564, Aql X-1 and 4U 1705-44 support a two-accretion-flow model which involves one Keplerian disk flow and one sub-Keplerian flow for the initial outburst rise

  14. Spectral State Evolution of 4U 1820-30: the Stability of the Spectral Index of Comptonization Tail (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev G.; Seifina, Elena; Frontera, Filippo


    We analyze the X-ray spectra and their timing properties of the compact Xray binary 4U 1820-30. We establish spectral transitions in this source seen with BeppoSAX and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). During the RXTE observations (1996 - 2009), the source were approximately approximately 75% of its time in the soft state making the lower banana and upper banana transitions combined with long-term low-high state transitions. We reveal that all of the X-ray spectra of 4U 1820-30 are fit by a composition of a thermal (blackbody) component, a Comptonization component (COMPTB) and a Gaussian-line component. Thus using this spectral analysis we find that the photon power-law index Gamma of the Comptonization component is almost unchangeable (Gamma approximately 2) while the electron temperature kTe changes from 2.9 to 21 keV during these spectral events. We also establish that for these spectral events the normalization of COMPTB component (which is proportional to mass accretion rate ?M) increases by factor 8 when kTe decreases from 21 keV to 2.9 keV. Before this index stability effect was also found analyzing X-ray data for Z-source GX 340+0 and for atolls, 4U 1728-34, GX 3+1. Thus, we can suggest that this spectral stability property is a spectral signature of an accreting neutron star source. On the other hand in a black hole binary G monotonically increases with ?Mand ultimately its value saturates at large ?M.

  15. Preliminary results in double cusp tandem mirror MM-4U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Linzhou; Tian Zhongyu; Feng Xiaozhen


    MM-4U device and preliminary experimental results are presented. Main results are as follows: The plasma has been produced by means of the injection of strong electron current; the axial profile of the plasma potential and the plasma electron density have been obtained respectively, they had a simular form; the plasma potential in the centre of the east cusp, the west cusp and the simple mirror; V e = -180V, V w = -164V, V m -1.8V; the electron density: n e = 1.7 x 10 11 cm -3 , n w = 4.7 x 10 10 cm -3 , n m = 7.5 x 10 7 cm -3 ; the electron temperature: T e = (19.9 ± 1.6) eV, T w = (20.7 ± 1.7) eV; the plasma pressure at 8 cm on the right of the west cusp centre is about 6.76 Pa, β ≅ 1.7 x 10 -3 . The plasma instability has been observed in the simple mirror, its vibration frequency was 7∼9.2 kHz. The results are discussed. The next new task of the physical experiment are proposed

  16. The cooling phase of Type I X-ray bursts observed with RXTE in 4U 1820-30 does not follow the canonical F proportional to T-4 relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, Federico; Zhang, Guobao; Mendez, Mariano

    We analysed the complete set of bursts from the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1820-30 detected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We found that all are photospheric radius expansion bursts, and have similar duration, peak flux and fluence. From the analysis of time-resolved spectra

  17. XMM-Newton Survey of Globular Cluster Ultracompact Binaries (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto


    Our program consisted of an observation of a single source, 4U 0513-40, which we had previously identified as a candidate ultracompact binary (a system with an orbital period below 1 hour). Several other known or suspected ultracompact binaries have shown unusual elemental abundance ratios in their X-ray spectra. In this program, however, our observation found no unusual abundance ratios in the spectrum of 4U 0513-40. This result was included, along with results from a separate Chandra program, in a paper submitted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal.

  18. AstroSat /LAXPC Detection of Millisecond Phenomena in 4U 1728-34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Jai Verdhan; Yadav, J S; Antia, H M; Dedhia, Dhiraj; Katoch, Tilak; Madhwani, P.; Shah, Parag [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai (India); Misra, Ranjeev; Pahari, Mayukh [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007 (India); Agrawal, P C [UM-DAE Center of Excellence for Basic Sciences, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Mumbai-400098 (India); Sridhar, Navin [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhauri, Bhopal 462066 (India); Manchanda, R K [University of Mumbai, Kalina, Mumbai-400098 (India); Paul, B, E-mail: [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Raman Research Institute, Bengaluru-560080 (India)


    The low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1728-24 was observed with AstroSat /LAXPC on 2016 March 8th. Data from a randomly chosen orbit of over 3 ks was analyzed for detection of rapid intensity variations. We found that the source intensity was nearly steady but, toward the end of the observation, a typical Type-1 burst was detected. Dynamical power spectrum of the data in the 3–20 keV band, reveals the presence of a kHz Quasi-Periodic Oscillation (QPO) for which the frequency drifted from ∼815 Hz at the beginning of the observation to about 850 Hz just before the burst. The QPO is also detected in the 10–20 keV band, which was not obtainable by earlier RXTE observations of this source. Even for such a short observation with a drifting QPO frequency, the time lag between the 5–10 and 10–20 keV bands can be constrained to be less than 100 microseconds. The Type-1 burst that lasted for about 20 s had a typical profile. During the first four seconds, dynamic power spectra reveal a burst oscillation for which the frequency increased from ∼361.5 to ∼363.5 Hz. This is consistent with the earlier results obtained with RXTE /PCA, showing the same spin frequency of the neutron star. The present results demonstrate the capability of the LAXPC instrument for detecting millisecond variability even from short observations. After RXTE ceased operation, LAXPC on AstroSat is the only instrument at present with the capability of detecting kHz QPOs and other kinds of rapid variations from 3 keV to 20 keV and possibly at higher energies as well.

  19. The disk wind in the rapidly spinning stellar-mass black hole 4U 1630-472 observed with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Ashley L.; Walton, Dominic J.; Miller, Jon M.


    We present an analysis of a short NuSTAR observation of the stellar-mass black hole and low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1630-472. Reflection from the inner accretion disk is clearly detected for the first time in this source, owing to the sensitivity of NuSTAR. With fits to the reflection spectrum, we...... find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, (1σ statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also...

  20. An XMM-Newton Observation of 4U1755-33 in Quiescence: Evidence for a Fossil X-Ray Jet (United States)

    Angelini, Lorella; White, Nicholas E.


    We report an XMM-Newton observation of the Low mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) and black hole candidate 4U1755-33. This source had been a bright persistent source for at least 25 yrs, but in 1995 entered an extended quiescent phase. 4U1755-33 was not detected with an upper limit to the 2-10 keV luminosity of 5 x 10(exp 31) d(sup 2) (sub 4kpc) ergs per second (where d(sub 4kpc) is the distance in units of 4 kpc) - consistent with the luminosity of other black hole candidates in a quiescent state. An unexpected result is the discovery of a narrow 7 arc min long X-ray jet centered on the position of 4Ul755-33. The spectrum of the jet is similar to that of jets observed from other galactic and extragalactic sources, and may have been ejected from 4Ul755-33 when it was bright. Jets are a feature of accreting black holes, and the detection of a fossil jet provides additional evidence supporting the black hole candidacy of 4U1755-33. The spectral properties of three bright serendipitous sources in the field are reported and it is suggested these are background active galactic nuclei sources.

  1. INTEGRAL observation of renewed activity from 4U 1608-522

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishibashi, W.; Ferrigno, C.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.


    On 3 March 2010 SuperAGILE detected an X-ray burst from the LMXB 4U 1608-522 (Atel #2461). Confirmation of the renewed activity of this transient source was reported by MAXI/GSC (Atel #2462). 4U1608-522 was in the IBIS/ISGRI and JEMX field of view during several observations between 2010-Feb-23 06......, the source was not detected by IBIS/ISGRI. We derive an upper limit (5-sigma) on the X-ray flux of 5-10 mCrab in the 20-40 keV band. INTEGRAL is currently observing the field of GX 339-4 (March 4th-6th) and will continue monitoring of the inner Galactic Disk until the end of March. 4U 1608...

  2. Search for Orbital Motion of the Pulsar 4U 1626-67: Candidate for a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    band light curve and these were used for all subsequent timing analysis. In the first technique, the orbital phase dependent .... term solution of pulse period evolution of 4U 1626-67. The pulse profiles in different ... This source has a very hard spectrum, therefore, although the quantum efficiency of the PCA detectors drops ...

  3. 22 CFR 203.4 - U.S. PVO initial documentation requirements. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false U.S. PVO initial documentation requirements... VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS (PVOs) § 203.4 U.S. PVO initial documentation requirements. (a) So that USAID can... year prepared on an accrual basis in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) by...

  4. Solving a binary puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H. Utomo (Putranto); R.H. Makarim (Rusydi)


    textabstractA Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set (Formula presented.). Let (Formula presented.) be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an (Formula presented.) binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and

  5. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.


    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakiri, W. B.; Terada, Y.; Tashiro, M. S. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Mihara, T. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Angelini, L.; Yamada, S. [Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 660, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Enoto, T. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Makishima, K. [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakajima, M. [School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Nihon University, 2-870-1 Sakaecho-Nishi, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8587 (Japan); Yoshida, A. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara 229-8558 (Japan)


    We present analysis of 4U 1626-67, a 7.7 s pulsar in a low-mass X-ray binary system, observed with the hard X-ray detector of the Japanese X-ray satellite Suzaku in 2006 March for a net exposure of {approx}88 ks. The source was detected at an average 10-60 keV flux of {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The phase-averaged spectrum is reproduced well by combining a negative and positive power-law times exponential cutoff (NPEX) model modified at {approx}37 keV by a cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF). The phase-resolved analysis shows that the spectra at the bright phases are well fit by the NPEX with CRSF model. On the other hand, the spectrum in the dim phase lacks the NPEX high-energy cutoff component, and the CRSF can be reproduced by either an emission or an absorption profile. When fitting the dim phase spectrum with the NPEX plus Gaussian model, we find that the feature is better described in terms of an emission rather than an absorption profile. The statistical significance of this result, evaluated by means of an F test, is between 2.91 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} and 1.53 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}, taking into account the systematic errors in the background evaluation of HXD-PIN. We find that the emission profile is more feasible than the absorption one for comparing the physical parameters in other phases. Therefore, we have possibly detected an emission line at the cyclotron resonance energy in the dim phase.

  7. Optical pulsations from 4U 0900--40: Do they exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.; Middleditch, J.; Cordova, F.


    A search for optical pulsations from 4U 0900--40 (HD 77581) was made in 1977--1978 using Hβ interference filters. No pulsations were detected above 10 -3 of the observed flux. This contrasts with Steiner's detection of pulsatons at the 2% level. Ariel 5 data covering both our observations and Steiner's show that X-ray variability does not support this decrepancy

  8. LONG-TERM OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS OF TWO LMXBs: UW CrB (=MS 1603+260) AND V1408 Aql (=4U 1957+115)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Paul A.; Robinson, Edward L.; Bayless, Amanda J.; Hakala, Pasi J.


    We present new optical photometry of two low-mass X-ray binary stars, UW CrB (MS 1603+260) and V1408 Aql (4U 1957+115). UW CrB is an eclipsing binary and we refine its eclipse ephemeris and measure an upper limit to the rate of change of its orbital period, | P-dot | -11 (unitless). The light curve of UW CrB shows optical counterparts of type I X-ray bursts. We tabulate the times, orbital phases, and fluences of 33 bursts and show that the optical flux in the bursts comes primarily from the accretion disk, not from the secondary star. The new observations are consistent with a model in which the accretion disk in UW CrB is asymmetric and precesses in the prograde direction with a period of ∼5.5 days. The light curve of V1408 Aql has a low-amplitude modulation at its 9.33 hr orbital period. The modulation remained a nearly pure sine curve in the new data as it was in 1984 and 2008, but its mean amplitude was lower, 18% against 23% in the earlier data. A model in which the orbital modulation is caused by the varying aspect of the heated face of the secondary star continues to give an excellent fit to the light curve. We derive a much improved orbital ephemeris for the system.

  9. Effect of non-stationary accretion on spectral state transitions: An example of a persistent neutron star LMXB 4U1636–536 (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yu, Wen-Fei


    Observations of black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries show that the luminosity of the hard-to-soft state transition is usually higher than that of the soft-to-hard state transition, indicating additional parameters other than mass accretion rate are required to interpret spectral state transitions. It has been found in some individual black hole or neutron star soft X-ray transients that the luminosity corresponding to the hard-to-soft state transition is positively correlated with the peak luminosity of the following soft state. In this work, we report the discovery of the same correlation in the single persistent neutron star low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) 4U 1636–536 based on data from the All Sky Monitor (ASM) on board RXTE, the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) on board MAXI and the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift. We also found such a positive correlation holds in this persistent neutron star LMXB in a luminosity range spanning about a factor of four. Our results indicate that non-stationary accretion also plays an important role in driving X-ray spectral state transitions in persistent accreting systems with small accretion flares, which is much less dramatic compared with the bright outbursts seen in many Galactic LMXB transients.

  10. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D


    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  11. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...

  12. Long-term activity of the soft X-ray transient 4U 1608-52

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch


    Roč. 132, - (2004), s. 652-655 ISSN 0920-5632. [BeppoSAX Conference /2./. Amsterdam, 05.05.2003-08.05.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : neutron stars * X-rays * close binaries Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.944, year: 2004

  13. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel


    effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  14. Binary colloidal crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christova-Zdravkova, C.G.


    Binary crystals are crystals composed of two types of particles having different properties like size, mass density, charge etc. In this thesis several new approaches to make binary crystals of colloidal particles that differ in size, material and charge are reported We found a variety of crystal

  15. Spectral variability of 4U1145-619 during X-ray outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, M.C.; Warwick, R.S.


    A series of observations of the X-ray pulsar 4U1145-619 were performed by EXOSAT during successive X-ray outbursts on this source in 1984 July and 1985 January. On all occasions the source exhibited a very hard power-law X-ray spectrum (photon spectral index approx. 1.0) with a high-energy cut-off above approx. 6 keV. The low-energy cut-off in the X-ray spectrum, in contrast to the other spectral parameters, exhibited significant variations over the observations. Optical spectroscopy of the Be star Hen 715, identified as the optical counterpart of 4U1145-619, was performed during the 1985 January X-ray outburst. The resulting spectra revealed a marked decrease in the strength of the broad blue component of the dominant Hα emission line as the X-ray outburst progressed. There was, however, no evidence for any pulse phase dependency or short-term variability in either the Hα or Hβ emission lines. (author)

  16. A multi-step model for facilitated unwinding of the yeast U4/U6 RNA duplex (United States)

    Rodgers, Margaret L.; Didychuk, Allison L.; Butcher, Samuel E.; Brow, David A.; Hoskins, Aaron A.


    The small nuclear RNA (snRNA) components of the spliceosome undergo many conformational rearrangements during its assembly, catalytic activation and disassembly. The U4 and U6 snRNAs are incorporated into the spliceosome as a base-paired complex within the U4/U6.U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (tri-snRNP). U4 and U6 are then unwound in order for U6 to pair with U2 to form the spliceosome's active site. After splicing, U2/U6 is unwound and U6 annealed to U4 to reassemble the tri-snRNP. U6 rearrangements are crucial for spliceosome formation but are poorly understood. We have used single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer and unwinding assays to identify interactions that promote U4/U6 unwinding and have studied their impact in yeast. We find that U4/U6 is efficiently unwound using DNA oligonucleotides by coupling unwinding of U4/U6 stem II with strand invasion of stem I. Unwinding is stimulated by the U6 telestem, which transiently forms in the intact U4/U6 RNA complex. Stabilization of the telestem in vivo results in accumulation of U4/U6 di-snRNP and impairs yeast growth. Our data reveal conserved mechanisms for U4/U6 unwinding and indicate telestem dynamics are critical for tri-snRNP assembly and stability. PMID:27484481

  17. Neutron data evaluation of sup 2 sup 3 sup 4 U

    CERN Document Server

    Maslov, V M; Hasegawa, A; Kagalenko, A B; Kornilov, N V; Porodzinskij, Y V; Tetereva, N A


    Consistent evaluation of sup 2 sup 3 sup 4 U measured data base is performed. Hauser-Feshbach-Moldauer theory, coupled channel model and double-humped fission barrier model are employed. Total, differential scattering, fission and (n,xn) data are calculated, using fission cross section data description as a major constraint. The direct excitation of ground state and higher band levels is calculated within rigid rotator and soft (deformable) rotator model, respectively. Average resonance parameters are provided, which reproduce evaluated cross sections in the range of 1.5 - 140 keV. This work is performed under the Project Agreement B-404 with the International Science and Technology Center (Moscow). The Financing Party for the Project is Japan.

  18. Suzaku View of the Neutron Star in the Dipping Source 4U 1822-37 (United States)

    Sasano, Makoto; Makishima, Kazuo; Sakurai, Soki; Zhang, Zhongli; Enoto, Teruaki


    The dipping X-ray source 4U 1822-37 was observed by Suzaku on 2006 Octrober 20 for a net exposure of 37 ks. The source was detected with the XIS at a 1-10 keV flux of 5.5 ×10(exp -10) erg per square centimeter per second, and with the HXD (HXD-PIN) at a 10-50 keV flux of 8.9 ×10(exp -10) erg per square centimeter per second. With HXD-PIN, the pulsation was detected at a barycentric period of 0.592437 seconds, and its change rate was reconfirmed as -2.43 × 10(exp -12) seconds per second. The 1-50 keV spectra of 4U 1822-37 were found to be very similar to those of Her X- 1 in the slopes, cutoff and iron lines. Three iron lines (Fe Kalpha, Fe XXV, and Fe XXVI) were detected, on top of a 1-50 keV continuum that is described by an NPEX model plus a soft blackbody. In addition, a cyclotron resonance scattering feature was detected significantly ( greater than 99% confidence), at an energy of 33+/-2 keV with a depth of 0.4(sup +0.6)/(sub -0.3). Therefore, the neutron star in this source is concluded to have a strong magnetic field of 2.8 × 10(exp 12) G. Further assuming that the source has a relatively high intrinsic luminosity of several times 10(exp 37) erg per second, its spectral and timing properties are consistently explained.

  19. BINARY MINOR PLANETS (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  20. Close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson-Leander, G.


    Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)

  1. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.


    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  2. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars


    Lorimer, D. R.


    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic b...

  3. Astrophysics of white dwarf binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, G.A.


    White dwarf binaries are the most common compact binaries in the Universe and are especially important for low-frequency gravitational wave detectors such as LISA. There are a number of open questions about binary evolution and the Galactic population of white dwarf binaries that can be solved using

  4. Evolution of cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paczynski, B.


    Cataclysmic binaries with short orbital periods have low mass secondary components. Their nuclear time scale is too long to be of evolutionary significance. Angular momentum loss from the binary drives the mass transfer between the two components. As long as the characteristic time scale is compared with the Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale of the mass losing secondary the star remains close to the main sequence, and the binary period decreases with time. If angular momentum loss is due to gravitational radiation then the mass transfer time scale becomes comparable to the Kelvin-Helmoltz time scale when the secondary's mass decreases to 0.12 Msub(sun), and the binary period is reduced to 80 minutes. Later, the mass losing secondary departs from the main sequence and gradually becomes degenerate. Now the orbital period increases with time. The observed lower limit to the orbital periods of hydrogen rich cataclysmic binaries implies that gravitational radiation is the main driving force for the evolution of those systems. It is shown that binaries emerging from a common envelope phase of evolution are well detached. They have to lose additional angular momentum to become semidetached cataclysmic variables. (author)

  5. Relativistic iron emission lines in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries as probes of neutron star radii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cackett, E.M.; Miller, J.M.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Grindlay, J.E.; Homan, J.; van der Klis, M.; Miller, M.C.; Strohmayer, T.E.; Wijnands, R.


    Using Suzaku observations of three neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries ( Ser X-1, 4U 1820-30, and GX 349+2) we have found broad, asymmetric, relativistic Fe K emission lines in all three objects. These Fe K lines can be well fit by a model for lines from a relativistic accretion disk ("diskline''),

  6. RXTE Observation of 4U 1630-47 During its 1998 Outburst (United States)

    Dieters, Stefan W.


    During the 1998 outburst of 4U 1630-47 it was extensively observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). In order to cover the outburst more thoroughly our data (Obs. ID: 30178-0[1-2]- ) were combined with those of Cui et al. (Obs. ID: 30188-02-). These observations were later compared with the complementary observations. Power density and energy spectra have been made for each observation. The data was used to place radio and hard X-ray observations within context. Analysis of SAX (Satellite per Astronomia a raggi X) and BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) data was also included within the study. The count rate and position in hardness-intensity, color-color diagrams and simple spectral fits are used to track the concurrent spectral changes. The source showed seven distinct types of timing behavior, most of which show differences with the canonical black hole spectral/timing states. In marked contrast to previous outbursts, we find quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) signals during nearly all stages of the outburst with frequencies between 0.06 Hz and 14 Hz and a remarkable variety of other characteristics. In particular we find large (up to 23% rms) amplitude QPO on the early rise. Later, slow 0.1 Hz semi- regular short (- 5 sec), 9 to 16% deep dips dominate the light curve. At this time there are two QPOS, one stable near 13.5 Hz and the other whose frequency drops from 6-8 Hz to - 4.5 Hz during the dips. BeppoSAX observations during the very late declining phase show 4U 1630-47 in a low state. These results will shortly be published. We are completing a detailed analysis of the energy spectra (in preparation). The QPO/noise properties are being correlated with the concurrent spectral changes. Detailed studies of the QPO are being undertaken using sophisticated timing analysis methods. Finally a comparison with the other outbursts of 1630-47 is being made.

  7. Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Faber


    Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.

  8. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel


    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, C.


    The X-ray nova 4U 1543–47 was in a different physical state (low/hard, high/soft, and very high) during the acquisition of each of the three time series analyzed in this paper. Standard time series models of the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) family are fitted to these series. The low/hard data can be adequately modeled by a simple low-order model with fixed coefficients, once the slowly varying mean count rate has been accounted for. The high/soft series requires a higher order model, or an ARMA model with variable coefficients. The very high state is characterized by a succession of 'dips', with roughly equal depths. These seem to appear independently of one another. The underlying stochastic series can again be modeled by an ARMA form, or roughly as the sum of an ARMA series and white noise. The structuring of each model in terms of short-lived aperiodic and 'quasi-periodic' components is discussed.

  10. e-Support4U: An evaluation of academic writing skills support in practice. (United States)

    Griffiths, Lauren; Nicolls, Barbara


    The Faculty of Society and Health at Buckinghamshire New University is committed to the widening participation agenda and to providing support that enables our students to achieve the requirements of the programme and registration. Literacy and numeracy skill development is an integral part of the academic modules of our current pre-registration curriculum. E-Support4U was launched in semester two of 2008 with the aim of extending academic writing support beyond the confines of the University and into the practice arena. Evaluation of the project tentatively suggests that the scaffold approach to academic writing, based on Salmon's 5-stage framework, may have contributed to a 100% pass rate for the reflective practice-based assignment for this cohort of students. However, participants experienced issues around access; differing levels of IT skills, dispersed placements that contributed to a lack of active collaboration within the group. Recommendations include early introduction of blended learning and incorporation of web 2.0 technology into the curriculum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Π4U: A high performance computing framework for Bayesian uncertainty quantification of complex models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjidoukas, P.E.; Angelikopoulos, P. [Computational Science and Engineering Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8092 (Switzerland); Papadimitriou, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, GR-38334 Volos (Greece); Koumoutsakos, P., E-mail: [Computational Science and Engineering Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8092 (Switzerland)


    We present Π4U,{sup 1} an extensible framework, for non-intrusive Bayesian Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation (UQ+P) of complex and computationally demanding physical models, that can exploit massively parallel computer architectures. The framework incorporates Laplace asymptotic approximations as well as stochastic algorithms, along with distributed numerical differentiation and task-based parallelism for heterogeneous clusters. Sampling is based on the Transitional Markov Chain Monte Carlo (TMCMC) algorithm and its variants. The optimization tasks associated with the asymptotic approximations are treated via the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). A modified subset simulation method is used for posterior reliability measurements of rare events. The framework accommodates scheduling of multiple physical model evaluations based on an adaptive load balancing library and shows excellent scalability. In addition to the software framework, we also provide guidelines as to the applicability and efficiency of Bayesian tools when applied to computationally demanding physical models. Theoretical and computational developments are demonstrated with applications drawn from molecular dynamics, structural dynamics and granular flow.

  12. The Disk Wind in the Rapidly Spinning Stellar-mass Black Hole 4U 1630-472 Observed with NuSTAR (United States)

    King, Ashley L.; Walton, Dominic J.; Miller, Jon M.; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fabian, Andy C.; Furst, Felix; Hailey, Charles J.; hide


    We present an analysis of a short NuSTAR observation of the stellar-mass black hole and low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1630-472. Reflection from the inner accretion disk is clearly detected for the first time in this source, owing to the sensitivity of NuSTAR. With fits to the reflection spectrum, we find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, a* = 0.985(+0.005/-0.014) (1 sigma statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also report the clear detection of an absorption feature at 7.03 +/- 0.03 keV, likely signaling a disk wind. If this line arises in dense, moderately ionized gas (log xi = 3.6(+0.2/-0.3) and is dominated by He-like Fe xxv, the wind has a velocity of v/c = 0.043(+0.002/-0.007) (12900(+600/-2100) km s(exp -1)). If the line is instead associated with a more highly ionized gas (log xi = 6.1(+0.7/-0.6)), and is dominated by Fe xxvi, evidence of a blueshift is only marginal, after taking systematic errors into account. Our analysis suggests the ionized wind may be launched within 200-1100 Rg, and may be magnetically driven.

  13. INTEGRAL Galactic Plane Scans detect enhanced activity from the HMXBs IGR J19294+1816 and 4U 1909+07

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drave, S. P.; Sguera, V.; Fiocchi, M.


    Enhanced hard X-ray emission has been detected from the high mass X-ray binary systems IGR J19294+1816 and 4U 1909+07 during recent INTEGRAL observations of the Cygnus region of the Galactic Plane performed in revolution 1294 between 2013-05-19 UTC 01:32:52 and 10:55:38. Neither source was detected...... flare. We encourage multi-wavelength observations of IGR J19294+1816 to follow the evolution of the outburst from this early stage. INTEGRAL will be performing regular hard X-ray monitoring of the Galactic Plane over the coming months with the next observation of this region scheduled to begin on 2013......-05-26. A full description of the INTEGRAL Galactic Plane Scanning programme, along with links to light curves and sky maps can be found in ATel #3361. Please note, for consistency with the GPS archive the IBIS/ISGRI analysis presented here was performed with version 9 of the INTEGRAL Offline Science Analysis...

  14. Optical Photometry of LMXBs: UW CrB (=MS 1603+260 and V1408 Aql (=4U 1957+115

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Mason


    Full Text Available We present new optical observations of V1408 Aql (= 4U 1957+115, the only low mass X-ray binary, black hole candidate known to be in a persistently soft state. We combine new broadband optical photometry with previously published data and derive a precise orbital ephemeris. The optical light curves display sinusoidal variations modulated on the orbital period as well as large night to night changes in mean intensity. The amplitude of the variations increases with mean intensity while maintaining sinusoidal shape. Considering the set of constraints placed by the X-ray and optical data we argue that V1408 Aql may harbor a very low mass black hole. Optical light curves of UW CrB display partial eclipses of the accretion disk by the donor star that vary both in depth and orbital phase. The new eclipses of UW CrB in conjunction with published eclipse timings are well fitted with a linear ephemeris. We derive an upper limit to the rate of change of the orbital period. By including the newly observed type I bursts with published bursts in our analysis, we find that optical bursts are not observed between orbital phases 0.93 and 0.07, i.e. they are not observable during partial eclipses of the disk.

  15. Determination of the turbulent parameter in accretion discs: effects of self-irradiation in 4U 1543-47 during the 2002 outburst (United States)

    Lipunova, G. V.; Malanchev, K. L.


    We investigate the viscous evolution of the accretion disc in 4U 1543-47, a black hole binary system, during the first 30 d after the peak of the 2002 burst by comparing the observed and theoretical accretion rate evolution \\dot{M}(t). The observed \\dot{M}(t) is obtained from spectral modelling of the archival Proportional Counter Array aboard the RXTE observatory (RXTE/PCA) data. Different scenarios of disc decay evolution are possible depending on a degree of self-irradiation of the disc by the emission from its centre. If the self-irradiation, which is parametrized by factor Cirr, had been as high as ˜5 × 10-3, then the disc would have been completely ionized up to the tidal radius and the short time of the decay would have required the turbulent parameter α ˜ 3. We find that the shape of the \\dot{M}(t) curve is much better explained in a model with a shrinking high-viscosity zone. If Cirr ≈ (2-3) × 10-4, the resulting α lie in the interval 0.5-1.5 for the black hole masses in the range 6-10 M⊙, while the radius of the ionized disc is variable and controlled by irradiation. For very weak irradiation, Cirr public 1D code freddi to model the viscous evolution of an accretion disc. Analytic approximations are derived to estimate α in X-ray novae using \\dot{M}(t).

  16. Modelling binary data

    CERN Document Server

    Collett, David


    INTRODUCTION Some Examples The Scope of this Book Use of Statistical Software STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR BINARY DATA The Binomial Distribution Inference about the Success Probability Comparison of Two Proportions Comparison of Two or More Proportions MODELS FOR BINARY AND BINOMIAL DATA Statistical Modelling Linear Models Methods of Estimation Fitting Linear Models to Binomial Data Models for Binomial Response Data The Linear Logistic Model Fitting the Linear Logistic Model to Binomial Data Goodness of Fit of a Linear Logistic Model Comparing Linear Logistic Models Linear Trend in Proportions Comparing Stimulus-Response Relationships Non-Convergence and Overfitting Some other Goodness of Fit Statistics Strategy for Model Selection Predicting a Binary Response Probability BIOASSAY AND SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS The Tolerance Distribution Estimating an Effective Dose Relative Potency Natural Response Non-Linear Logistic Regression Models Applications of the Complementary Log-Log Model MODEL CHECKING Definition of Re...

  17. Evolution of dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.


    The conditions of mass exchange in close binary systems with masses of components less or equal to one solar mass have been analysed for the case, when the system radiates gravitational waves. It has been shown that the mass exchange rate depends in a certain way on the mass ratio of components and on the mass of component that fills its inner critical lobe. The comparison of observed periods, masses of contact components, and mass exchange rates of observed cataclysmic binaries have led to the conclusion that the evolution of close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G 61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves [ru

  18. Evolution of dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.


    The circumstances of mass exchange in close binary systems whose components have a mass < or approx. =1 M/sub sun/ are analyzed for the case where the system is losing orbital angular momentum by radiation of gravitational waves. The mass exchange rate will depend on the mass ratio of the components and on the mass of the component that is overfilling its critical Roche lobe. A comparison of the observed orbital periods, masses of the components losing material, and mass exchange rates against the theoretical values for cataclysmic binaries indicates that the evolution of the close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves

  19. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.


    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  20. The Brightest Binaries (United States)

    Vanbeveren, D., Van Rensbergen, W., De Loore, C.

    Massive stars are distributed all over the upper part of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram according to their subsequent phases of stellar evolution from main sequence to supernova. Massive stars may either be single or they may be a component of a close binary. The observed single star/binary frequency is known only in a small part of the Galaxy. Whether this holds for the whole galaxy or for the whole cosmos is questionable and needs many more high quality observations. Massive star evolution depends critically on mass loss by stellar wind and this stellar wind mass loss may change dramatically when stars evolve from one phase to another. We start the book with a critical discussion of observations of the different types of massive stars, observations that are of fundamental importance in relation to stellar evolution, with special emphasis on mass loss by stellar wind. We update our knowledge of the physics that models the structure and evolution of massive single stars and we present new calculations. The conclusions resulting from a comparison between these calculations and observations are then used to study the evolution of massive binaries. This book provides our current knowledge of a great variety of massive binaries, and hence of a great variety of evolutionary phases. A large number of case studies illustrates the existence of these phases. Finally, we present the results of massive star population number synthesis, including the effect of binaries. The results indicate that neglecting them leads to a conclusion which may be far from reality. This book is written for researchers in massive star evolution. We hope that, after reading this book, university-level astrophysics students will become fascinated by the exciting world of the `Brightest Binaries'.

  1. Encounters of binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkola, S.


    Gravitational encounters of pairs of binaries have been studied numerically. Various cross-sections have been calculated for qualitative final results of the interaction and for energy transfer between the binding energy and the centre of mass kinetic energy. The distribution of the kinetic energies, resulting from the gravitational collision, were found to be virtually independent of the impact velocity in the case of collision of hard binaries. It was found that one out of five collisions, which are not simple fly-by's, leads to the formation of a stable three-body system. (author)

  2. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan R. Lorimer


    Full Text Available Our knowledge of binary and millisecond pulsars has greatly increased in recent years. This is largely due to the success of large-area surveys which have brought the known population of such systems in the Galactic disk to around 50. As well as being interesting as a population of astronomical sources, many pulsars turn out to be superb celestial clocks. In this review we summarise the main properties of binary and millisecond pulsars and highlight some of their applications to relativistic astrophysics.

  3. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.


    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.

  4. Implementation of an Online Chemistry Model to a Large Eddy Simulation Model (PALM-4U0 (United States)

    Mauder, M.; Khan, B.; Forkel, R.; Banzhaf, S.; Russo, E. E.; Sühring, M.; Kanani-Sühring, F.; Raasch, S.; Ketelsen, K.


    Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models permit to resolve relevant scales of turbulent motion, so that these models can capture the inherent unsteadiness of atmospheric turbulence. However, LES models are so far hardly applied for urban air quality studies, in particular chemical transformation of pollutants. In this context, BMBF (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung) funded a joint project, MOSAIK (Modellbasierte Stadtplanung und Anwendung im Klimawandel / Model-based city planning and application in climate change) with the main goal to develop a new highly efficient urban climate model (UCM) that also includes atmospheric chemical processes. The state-of-the-art LES model PALM; Maronga et al, 2015, Geosci. Model Dev., 8, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-2515-2015), has been used as a core model for the new UCM named as PALM-4U. For the gas phase chemistry, a fully coupled 'online' chemistry model has been implemented into PALM. The latest version of the Kinetic PreProcessor (KPP) Version 2.3, has been utilized for the numerical integration of chemical species. Due to the high computational demands of the LES model, compromises in the description of chemical processes are required. Therefore, a reduced chemistry mechanism, which includes only major pollutants namely O3, NO, NO2, CO, a highly simplified VOC chemistry and a small number of products have been implemented. This work shows preliminary results of the advection, and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants. Non-cyclic boundaries have been used for inflow and outflow in east-west directions while periodic boundary conditions have been implemented to the south-north lateral boundaries. For practical applications, our approach is to go beyond the simulation of single street canyons to chemical transformation, advection and deposition of air pollutants in the larger urban canopy. Tests of chemistry schemes and initial studies of chemistry-turbulence, transport and transformations are presented.

  5. Interacting binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pringle, J.E.; Wade, R.A.


    This book reviews the theoretical and observational knowledge of interacting binary stars. The topics discussed embrace the following features of these objects: their orbits, evolution, mass transfer, angular momentum losses, X-ray emission, eclipses, variability, and other related phenomena. (U.K.)

  6. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)


    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  7. N-Bit Binary Resistor (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping


    Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.

  8. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.


    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  9. A long-term observation of 4U 1700-37 by the granat/watch all-sky monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sazonov, S.; Lapshov, I.; Sunyaev, R.


    with the help of Monte-Carlo simulations and derive the basic parameters of the stellar wind. We show that the wind in 4U 1700-37 well fits in the radiatively driven stellar wind theory. Our measurement of the mid-eclipse time together with the measurements of other experiments imply a decrease in the period...

  10. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter


    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to ......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances......The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  11. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to ......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances.......The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  12. Parametric binary dissection (United States)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.; Crockett, Thomas W.; Nicol, David M.


    Binary dissection is widely used to partition non-uniform domains over parallel computers. This algorithm does not consider the perimeter, surface area, or aspect ratio of the regions being generated and can yield decompositions that have poor communication to computation ratio. Parametric Binary Dissection (PBD) is a new algorithm in which each cut is chosen to minimize load + lambda x(shape). In a 2 (or 3) dimensional problem, load is the amount of computation to be performed in a subregion and shape could refer to the perimeter (respectively surface) of that subregion. Shape is a measure of communication overhead and the parameter permits us to trade off load imbalance against communication overhead. When A is zero, the algorithm reduces to plain binary dissection. This algorithm can be used to partition graphs embedded in 2 or 3-d. Load is the number of nodes in a subregion, shape the number of edges that leave that subregion, and lambda the ratio of time to communicate over an edge to the time to compute at a node. An algorithm is presented that finds the depth d parametric dissection of an embedded graph with n vertices and e edges in O(max(n log n, de)) time, which is an improvement over the O(dn log n) time of plain binary dissection. Parallel versions of this algorithm are also presented; the best of these requires O((n/p) log(sup 3)p) time on a p processor hypercube, assuming graphs of bounded degree. How PBD is applied to 3-d unstructured meshes and yields partitions that are better than those obtained by plain dissection is described. Its application to the color image quantization problem is also discussed, in which samples in a high-resolution color space are mapped onto a lower resolution space in a way that minimizes the color error.

  13. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility


    Boldt, Jesper


    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined i...

  14. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David


    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  15. Phase-resolved NuSTAR and SWIFT-XRT observations of magnetar 4U 0142+61

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Hascöet, Romain; Yang, Chengwei


    a value of ≈20%, similar to that observed in 1E 1841-045 and much lower than the ≈80% pulse fraction observed in 1E 2259+586. We do not detect the 55 ks phase modulation reported in previous Suzaku-HXD observations. The phase-averaged spectrum of 4U 0142+61 above 20 keV is dominated by a hard power law...

  16. The first multi-wavelength campaign of AXP 4U 0142+61 from radio to hard X-rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, P.R.; Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.; Rea, N.; Durant, M.; Stappers, B.; Kaspi, V.M.; Dib, R.


    For the first time a quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign has been performed on an Anomalous X-ray Pulsar from the radio to the hard X-ray band. 4U 0142+61 was an INTEGRAL target for 1 Ms in July 2005. During these observations it was also observed in the X-ray band with Swift and RXTE, in

  17. A delayed transition to the hard state for 4U 1630-47 at the end of its 2010 outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsick, John A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Yamaoka, Kazutaka [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Department of Particles and Astronomy, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Corbel, Stephane [AIM - Unité Mixte de Recherche CEA - CNRS - Université Paris VII - UMR 7158, CEA-Saclay, Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Kalemci, Emrah [Sabanci University, Orhanli-Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Migliari, Simone [Department d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti I Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kaaret, Philip, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)


    Here we report on Swift and Suzaku observations near the end of an outburst from the black hole transient 4U 1630-47 and Chandra observations when the source was in quiescence. 4U 1630-47 made a transition from a soft state to the hard state ∼50 days after the main outburst ended. During this unusual delay, the flux continued to drop, and one Swift measurement found the source with a soft spectrum at a 2-10 keV luminosity of L = 1.07 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup –1} for an estimated distance of 10 kpc. While such transients usually make a transition to the hard state at L/L{sub Edd} = 0.3%-3%, where L{sub Edd} is the Eddington luminosity, the 4U 1630-47 spectrum remained soft at L/L{sub Edd} = 0.008 M{sub 10}{sup −1}% (as measured in the 2-10 keV band), where M{sub 10} is the mass of the black hole in units of 10 M{sub ☉}. An estimate of the luminosity in the broader 0.5-200 keV bandpass gives L/L{sub Edd} = 0.03 M{sub 10}{sup −1}%, which is still an order of magnitude lower than typical. We also measured an exponential decay of the X-ray flux in the hard state with an e-folding time of 3.39 ± 0.06 days, which is much less than previous measurements of 12-15 days during decays by 4U 1630-47 in the soft state. With the ∼100 ks Suzaku observation, we do not see evidence for a reflection component, and the 90% confidence limits on the equivalent width of a narrow iron Kα emission line are <40 eV for a narrow line and <100 eV for a line of any width, which is consistent with a change of geometry (either a truncated accretion disk or a change in the location of the hard X-ray source) in the hard state. Finally, we report a 0.5-8 keV luminosity upper limit of <2 × 10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1} in quiescence, which is the lowest value measured for 4U 1630-47 to date.

  18. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Mendoza, N. [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V. [LBT, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA. Ciudad Universitaria, Pab1, C1428EGA CABA (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Prov. de Bs As (Argentina); Candal, R., E-mail: [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 3iA, Universidad de Gral. San Martin, San Martin, Prov. Bs As (Argentina)


    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 Degree-Sign C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 {mu}m) and sample B (smaller than 50 {mu}m). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 {mu}m showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 {mu}m. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  19. Contact Binary Asteroids (United States)

    Rieger, Samantha


    Recent observations have found that some contact binaries are oriented such that the secondary impacts with the primary at a high inclination. This research investigates the evolution of how such contact binaries came to exist. This process begins with an asteroid pair, where the secondary lies on the Laplace plane. The Laplace plane is a plane normal to the axis about which the pole of a satellites orbit precesses, causing a near constant inclination for such an orbit. For the study of the classical Laplace plane, the secondary asteroid is in circular orbit around an oblate primary with axial tilt. This system is also orbiting the Sun. Thus, there are two perturbations on the secondarys orbit: J2 and third body Sun perturbations. The Laplace surface is defined as the group of orbits that lie on the Laplace plane at varying distances from the primary. If the secondary is very close to the primary, the inclination of the Laplace plane will be near the equator of the asteroid, while further from the primary the inclination will be similar to the asteroid-Sun plane. The secondary will lie on the Laplace plane because near the asteroid the Laplace plane is stable to large deviations in motion, causing the asteroid to come to rest in this orbit. Assuming the secondary is asymmetrical in shape and the bodys rotation is synchronous with its orbit, the secondary will experience the BYORP effect. BYORP can cause secular motion such as the semi-major axis of the secondary expanding or contracting. Assuming the secondary expands due to BYORP, the secondary will eventually reach the unstable region of the Laplace plane. The unstable region exists if the primary has an obliquity of 68.875 degrees or greater. The unstable region exists at 0.9 Laplace radius to 1.25 Laplace radius, where the Laplace radius is defined as the distance from the central body where the inclination of the Laplace plane orbit is half the obliquity. In the unstable region, the eccentricity of the orbit

  20. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista


    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  1. Spectral properties of binary asteroids (United States)

    Pajuelo, Myriam; Birlan, Mirel; Carry, Benoît; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Berthier, Jérôme


    We present the first attempt to characterize the distribution of taxonomic class among the population of binary asteroids (15% of all small asteroids). For that, an analysis of 0.8-2.5{μ m} near-infrared spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument on the NASA/IRTF is presented. Taxonomic class and meteorite analog is determined for each target, increasing the sample of binary asteroids with known taxonomy by 21%. Most binary systems are bound in the S-, X-, and C- classes, followed by Q and V-types. The rate of binary systems in each taxonomic class agrees within uncertainty with the background population of small near-Earth objects and inner main belt asteroids, but for the C-types which are under-represented among binaries.

  2. Planets in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader


    The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...

  3. On the Origin of Clustering of Frequency Ratios in the Atoll Source 4U 1636-53

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Török, G.; Abramowicz, M. A.; Bakala, P.; Bursa, Michal; Horák, Jiří; Rebusco, P.; Stuchlík, Z.


    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2008), s. 113-119 ISSN 0001-5237 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X-rays * binaries stars * accretion disks Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2008

  4. Distribution of Kilohertz QPO Frequencies and Their Ratios in the Atoll Source 4U 1636-53

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Török, G.; Abramowicz, M. A.; Bakala, P.; Bursa, Michal; Horák, Jiří; Kluzniak, W.; Rebusco, P.; Stuchlík, Z.


    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2008), s. 15-21 ISSN 0001-5237 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X-rays * binaries stars * accretion disks Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2008


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajadian, Sedighe, E-mail: [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    We investigate whether or not Gaia can specify the binary fractions of massive stellar populations in the Galactic disk through astrometric microlensing. Furthermore, we study whether or not some information about their mass distributions can be inferred via this method. In this regard, we simulate the binary astrometric microlensing events due to massive stellar populations according to the Gaia observing strategy by considering (i) stellar-mass black holes, (ii) neutron stars, (iii) white dwarfs, and (iv) main-sequence stars as microlenses. The Gaia efficiency for detecting the binary signatures in binary astrometric microlensing events is ∼10%–20%. By calculating the optical depth due to the mentioned stellar populations, the numbers of the binary astrometric microlensing events being observed with Gaia with detectable binary signatures, for the binary fraction of about 0.1, are estimated to be 6, 11, 77, and 1316, respectively. Consequently, Gaia can potentially specify the binary fractions of these massive stellar populations. However, the binary fraction of black holes measured with this method has a large uncertainty owing to a low number of the estimated events. Knowing the binary fractions in massive stellar populations helps with studying the gravitational waves. Moreover, we investigate the number of massive microlenses for which Gaia specifies masses through astrometric microlensing of single lenses toward the Galactic bulge. The resulting efficiencies of measuring the mass of mentioned populations are 9.8%, 2.9%, 1.2%, and 0.8%, respectively. The numbers of their astrometric microlensing events being observed in the Gaia era in which the lens mass can be inferred with the relative error less than 0.5 toward the Galactic bulge are estimated as 45, 34, 76, and 786, respectively. Hence, Gaia potentially gives us some information about the mass distribution of these massive stellar populations.

  6. Short-term X-ray variability of the globular cluster source 4U 1820 - 30 (NGC 6624) (United States)

    Stella, L.; Kahn, S. M.; Grindlay, J. E.


    Analytical techniques for improved identification of the temporal and spectral variability properties of globular cluster and galactic bulge X-ray sources are described in terms of their application to a large set of observations of the source 4U 1820 - 30 in the globular cluster NGC 6624. The autocorrelation function, cross-correlations, time skewness function, erratic periodicities, and pulse trains are examined. The results are discussed in terms of current models with particular emphasis on recent accretion disk models. It is concluded that the analyzed observations provide the first evidence for shot-noise variability in a globular cluster X-ray source.

  7. Electron-hole recombination luminescence in LiYF4:U4+; Eu3+;Tb3+; Gd3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, A.G.; Godbole, S.V.; Sastry, M.D.; Sabharwal, S.C.


    Photoluminescence, photostimulated luminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance studies were carried out on LiYF 4 and LiYF 4 :U 4+ doped crystals. These investigations have identified presence of Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ and Gd 3+ ions being present in both the crystals arising due to their presence in starting material. On gamma irradiation, U 4+ ions were acting as electron trapping centre, and are responsible in introducing shallow traps in the material. In electron-hole recombination process, Tb 3+ ions were observed to be acting as luminescent centres. (author)

  8. Accreting Neutron Star and Black Hole Binaries with NICER (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto


    The NICER mission on the International Space Station has significant new capabilities for the study of accreting neutron stars and blackholes, including large effective area, low background, and excellent low-energy X-ray response. Both the NICER Burst and Accretion Working Group and the Observatory Science Working Group have designed observing programs that probe various aspects of accretion physics. I will present some early results from the first six months of the NICER mission, including observations of the black hole transients MAXI J1535-571 and GX 339-4, the high-mass X-ray binary pulsars GRO J1008-57 and Swift J02436+6124, and the X-ray burster 4U 1820-30.

  9. Assembly and dynamics of the U4/U6 di-snRNP by single-molecule FRET (United States)

    Hardin, John W.; Warnasooriya, Chandani; Kondo, Yasushi; Nagai, Kiyoshi; Rueda, David


    In large ribonucleoprotein machines, such as ribosomes and spliceosomes, RNA functions as an assembly scaffold as well as a critical catalytic component. Protein binding to the RNA scaffold can induce structural changes, which in turn modulate subsequent binding of other components. The spliceosomal U4/U6 di-snRNP contains extensively base paired U4 and U6 snRNAs, Snu13, Prp31, Prp3 and Prp4, seven Sm and seven LSm proteins. We have studied successive binding of all protein components to the snRNA duplex during di-snRNP assembly by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and accompanying conformational changes in the U4/U6 RNA 3-way junction by single-molecule FRET. Stems I and II of the duplex were found to co-axially stack in free RNA and function as a rigid scaffold during the entire assembly, but the U4 snRNA 5′ stem-loop adopts alternative orientations each stabilized by Prp31 and Prp3/4 binding accounting for altered Prp3/4 binding affinities in presence of Prp31. PMID:26503251

  10. Content identification: binary content fingerprinting versus binary content encoding (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Sohrab; Voloshynovskiy, Svyatoslav; Kostadinov, Dimche


    In this work, we address the problem of content identification. We consider content identification as a special case of multiclass classification. The conventional approach towards identification is based on content fingerprinting where a short binary content description known as a fingerprint is extracted from the content. We propose an alternative solution based on elements of machine learning theory and digital communications. Similar to binary content fingerprinting, binary content representation is generated based on a set of trained binary classifiers. We consider several training/encoding strategies and demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve the upper theoretical performance limits of content identification. The experimental results were carried out both on a synthetic dataset with different parameters and the FAMOS dataset of microstructures from consumer packages.

  11. Optimally cloned binary coherent states (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.


    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  12. Binary typing of staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem)


    textabstractThis thesis describes the development. application and validation of straindifferentiating DNA probes for the characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains in a system. that yields a binary output. By comparing the differential hybridization of these DNA probes to staphylococcal

  13. Mesoscopic model for binary fluids (United States)

    Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.


    We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  14. Respect4U

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, M. van; Djafari, S.; Vermeulen, P.


    Privacy is becoming a business asset. A number of developments contribute to this repositioning of privacy. In the first place, the extreme growth in the creation of data in the past few years makes the protection of persons in relation to the processing of their data more relevant. Secondly, the

  15. TCGA4U: A Web-Based Genomic Analysis Platform To Explore And Mine TCGA Genomic Data For Translational Research. (United States)

    Huang, Zhenzhen; Duan, Huilong; Li, Haomin


    Large-scale human cancer genomics projects, such as TCGA, generated large genomics data for further study. Exploring and mining these data to obtain meaningful analysis results can help researchers find potential genomics alterations that intervene the development and metastasis of tumors. We developed a web-based gene analysis platform, named TCGA4U, which used statistics methods and models to help translational investigators explore, mine and visualize human cancer genomic characteristic information from the TCGA datasets. Furthermore, through Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and clinical data integration, the genomic data were transformed into biological process, molecular function, cellular component and survival curves to help researchers identify potential driver genes. Clinical researchers without expertise in data analysis will benefit from such a user-friendly genomic analysis platform.

  16. Testing theory of binary evolution with interacting binary stars (United States)

    Ergma, E.; Sarna, M. J.


    Of particular interest to us is the study of mass loss and its influence on the evolution of a binary systems. For this we use theoretical evolutionary models, which include: mass accretion, mass loss, novae explosion, super--efficient wind, and mixing processes. To test our theoretical prediction we proposed to determine the 12C / 13C ratio via measurements of the 12CO and 13CO bands around 2.3 micron. The available observations (Exter at al. 2001, in preparation) show good agreement with the theoretical predictions (Sarna 1992), for Algol-type binaries. Our preliminary estimates of the isotopic ratios for pre-CV's and CV's (Catalan et al. 2000, Dhillon et al. 2001) agree with the theoretical predictions from the common--envelope binary evolution models by Sarna et al. (1995). For the SXT we proposed (Ergma & Sarna 2001) similar observational test, which has not been done yet.

  17. Biclustering sparse binary genomic data. (United States)

    van Uitert, Miranda; Meuleman, Wouter; Wessels, Lodewyk


    Genomic datasets often consist of large, binary, sparse data matrices. In such a dataset, one is often interested in finding contiguous blocks that (mostly) contain ones. This is a biclustering problem, and while many algorithms have been proposed to deal with gene expression data, only two algorithms have been proposed that specifically deal with binary matrices. None of the gene expression biclustering algorithms can handle the large number of zeros in sparse binary matrices. The two proposed binary algorithms failed to produce meaningful results. In this article, we present a new algorithm that is able to extract biclusters from sparse, binary datasets. A powerful feature is that biclusters with different numbers of rows and columns can be detected, varying from many rows to few columns and few rows to many columns. It allows the user to guide the search towards biclusters of specific dimensions. When applying our algorithm to an input matrix derived from TRANSFAC, we find transcription factors with distinctly dissimilar binding motifs, but a clear set of common targets that are significantly enriched for GO categories.

  18. The Young Visual Binary Survey (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian; Lindstrom, Kyle; Graham, Sean; Sullivan, Kendall; Biddle, Lauren; Skiff, Brian; Nofi, Larissa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal


    Differences in the stellar and circumstellar properties of the components of young binaries provide key information about star and disk formation and evolution processes. Because objects with separations of a few to a few hundred astronomical units share a common environment and composition, multiple systems allow us to control for some of the factors which play into star formation. We are completing analysis of a rich sample of about 100 pre-main sequence binaries and higher order multiples, primarily located in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions. This poster will highlight some of out recent, exciting results. All reduced spectra and the results of our analysis will be publicly available to the community at Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  19. Protocols for quantum binary voting (United States)

    Thapliyal, Kishore; Sharma, Rishi Dutt; Pathak, Anirban

    Two new protocols for quantum binary voting are proposed. One of the proposed protocols is designed using a standard scheme for controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC), and the other one is designed using the idea of quantum cryptographic switch, which uses a technique known as permutation of particles. A few possible alternative approaches to accomplish the same task (quantum binary voting) have also been discussed. Security of the proposed protocols is analyzed. Further, the efficiencies of the proposed protocols are computed, and are compared with that of the existing protocols. The comparison has established that the proposed protocols are more efficient than the existing protocols.

  20. Matter in compact binary mergers (United States)

    Read, Jocelyn; LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Scientific Collaboration


    Mergers of binary neutron stars or neutron-star/black-hole systems are promising targets for gravitational-wave detection. The dynamics of merging compact objects, and thus their gravitational-wave signatures, are primarily determined by the mass and spin of the components. However, the presence of matter can make an imprint on the final orbits and merger of a binary system. I will outline efforts to understand the impact of neutron-star matter on gravitational waves, using both theoretical and computational input, so that gravitational-wave observations can be used to measure the properties of source systems with neutron-star components.

  1. Mental Effort in Binary Categorization Aided by Binary Cues (United States)

    Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael


    Binary cueing systems assist in many tasks, often alerting people about potential hazards (such as alarms and alerts). We investigate whether cues, besides possibly improving decision accuracy, also affect the effort users invest in tasks and whether the required effort in tasks affects the responses to cues. We developed a novel experimental tool…

  2. Suzaku Observations of 4U 1957+11: Potentially the Most Rapidly Spinning Black Hole in (the Halo of) the Galaxy (United States)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wilms, Joern; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schulz, Norbert; Maitra, Dipankar; Miller, Jon


    We present three Suzaku observations of the black hole candidate 4U 1957+11 (V 1408 Aql) - a source that exhibits some of. the simplest and cleanest examples of soft, disk-dominated spectra. 4U 1957+ II also presents among the. highest peak temperatures found from disk-dominated spectra. Such temperatures may be associated with rapid black hole spin. The 4U 1957+11 spectra also require a very low normalization, which can be explained by a combination of small inner disk radius and a large distance (> 10 kpc) which places 4U 1957+ 11 well into the Galactic halo. We perform Joint fits to the Suzaku spectra with both relativistic and Comptonized disk models. Assuming a low mass black hole and the nearest distance (3 Stellar Mass, 10 kpc), the dimensionless spin parameter a* = Jc/GM(sup 2)> or approx. 0.9. Higher masses and farther distances yield a* approx. = 1. Similar conclusions are reached with Comptonization models; they imply a combination of small inner disk radii (or, equivalently, rapid spin) and large distance. Low spin cannot be recovered unless 4U 1957+11 is a low mass black hole that is at the unusually large distance of > or approx.40 kpc. We speculate whether the suggested maximal spin is related to how the system came to reside in the halo.

  3. The Uses of Binary Thinking. (United States)

    Elbow, Peter


    Argues that oppositional thinking, if handled in the right way, will serve as a way to avoid the very problems that Jonathan Culler and Paul de Mann are troubled by: "purity, order, and hierarchy." Asserts that binary thinking can serve to encourage difference--indeed, encourage nondominance, nontranscendence, instability, and disorder.…

  4. Biclustering Sparse Binary Genomic Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Uitert, M.; Meuleman, W.; Wessels, L.F.A.


    Genomic datasets often consist of large, binary, sparse data matrices. In such a dataset, one is often interested in finding contiguous blocks that (mostly) contain ones. This is a biclustering problem, and while many algorithms have been proposed to deal with gene expression data, only two

  5. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas


    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-07603Y Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  6. Misclassification in binary choice models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer, B. D.; Mittag, Nikolas


    Roč. 200, č. 2 (2017), s. 295-311 ISSN 0304-4076 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : measurement error * binary choice models * program take-up Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2016

  7. Generating Constant Weight Binary Codes (United States)

    Knight, D.G.


    The determination of bounds for A(n, d, w), the maximum possible number of binary vectors of length n, weight w, and pairwise Hamming distance no less than d, is a classic problem in coding theory. Such sets of vectors have many applications. A description is given of how the problem can be used in a first-year undergraduate computational…

  8. BHMcalc: Binary Habitability Mechanism Calculator (United States)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Mason, Paul; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.; Clark, Joni


    BHMcalc provides renditions of the instantaneous circumbinary habital zone (CHZ) and also calculates BHM properties of the system including those related to the rotational evolution of the stellar components and the combined XUV and SW fluxes as measured at different distances from the binary. Moreover, it provides numerical results that can be further manipulated and used to calculate other properties.

  9. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.


    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  10. The Meritfactor of Binary Seqences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom


    Binary sequences with small aperiodic correlations play an important role in many applications ranging from radar to modulation and testing of systems. Golay(1977) introduced the merit factor as a measure of the goodness of the sequence and conjectured an upper bound for this. His conjecture...

  11. Interactions in Massive Colliding Wind Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Corcoran


    Full Text Available There are observational difficulties determining dynamical masses of binary star components in the upper HR diagram both due to the scarcity of massive binary systems and spectral and photometric contamination produced by the strong wind outflows in these systems. We discuss how variable X-ray emission in these systems produced by wind-wind collisions in massive binaries can be used to constrain the system parameters, with application to two important massive binaries, Eta Carinae and WR 140.

  12. Division Unit for Binary Integer Decimals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto


    In this work, we present a radix-10 division unit that is based on the digit-recurrence algorithm and implements binary encodings (binary integer decimal or BID) for significands. Recent decimal division designs are all based on the binary coded decimal (BCD) encoding. We adapt the radix-10 digit...

  13. Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu


    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.

  14. Spectral evolution of the Atoll source 4U 1728-34 with RXTE and INTEGRAL: evidence for hard X-ray tail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarana, A.; Belloni, T.; Bazzano, A.; Homan, J.; Méndez, M.; Ubertini, P.; Comastri, A.; Angelini, L.; Cappi, M.

    We report the temporal and spectral results on the INTEGRAL and RXTE 2006-2007 observation campaign of the Atoll source 4U 1728-34 (GX 354-0). The source shows, more than once, spectral evolution as revealed by the hardness intensity diagram. The soft state is well described by a Comptonization with

  15. Gravity waves from relativistic binaries


    Levin, Janna; O'Reilly, Rachel; Copeland, E. J.


    The stability of binary orbits can significantly shape the gravity wave signal which future Earth-based interferometers hope to detect. The inner most stable circular orbit has been of interest as it marks the transition from the late inspiral to final plunge. We consider purely relativistic orbits beyond the circular assumption. Homoclinic orbits are of particular importance to the question of stability as they lie on the boundary between dynamical stability and instability. We identify thes...

  16. Binary evolution and observational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de


    The evolution of close binaries is discussed in connection with problems concerning mass and angular momentum losses. Theoretical and observational evidence for outflow of matter, leaving the system during evolution is given: statistics on total masses and mass ratios, effects of the accretion of the mass gaining component, the presence of streams, disks, rings, circumstellar envelopes, period changes, abundance changes in the atmosphere. The effects of outflowing matter on the evolution is outlined, and estimates of the fraction of matter expelled by the loser, and leaving the system, are given. The various time scales involved with evolution and observation are compared. Examples of non conservative evolution are discussed. Problems related to contact phases, on mass and energy losses, in connection with entropy changes are briefly analysed. For advanced stages the disruption probabilities for supernova explosions are examined. A global picture is given for the evolution of massive close binaries, from ZAMS, through WR phases, X-ray phases, leading to runaway pulsars or to a binary pulsar and later to a millisecond pulsar. (Auth.)

  17. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR


    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  18. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars (United States)


    ADONIS Observes Low-mass Eclipsing System in Orion Summary A series of very detailed images of a binary system of two young stars have been combined into a movie . In merely 3 days, the stars swing around each other. As seen from the earth, they pass in front of each other twice during a full revolution, producing eclipses during which their combined brightness diminishes . A careful analysis of the orbital motions has now made it possible to deduce the masses of the two dancing stars . Both turn out to be about as heavy as our Sun. But while the Sun is about 4500 million years old, these two stars are still in their infancy. They are located some 1500 light-years away in the Orion star-forming region and they probably formed just 10 million years ago . This is the first time such an accurate determination of the stellar masses could be achieved for a young binary system of low-mass stars . The new result provides an important piece of information for our current understanding of how young stars evolve. The observations were obtained by a team of astronomers from Italy and ESO [1] using the ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS) on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. PR Photo 29a/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before primary eclipse PR Photo 29b/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-primary eclipse PR Photo 29c/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after primary eclipse PR Photo 29d/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before secondary eclipse PR Photo 29e/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-secondary eclipse PR Photo 29f/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after secondary eclipse PR Video Clip 06/01 : Video of the RXJ 0529.4+0041 system Binary stars and stellar masses Since some time, astronomers have noted that most stars seem to form in binary or multiple systems. This is quite fortunate, as the study of binary stars is the only way in which it is possible to measure directly one of the most fundamental quantities of a star, its mass. The mass of a

  19. Pulsar magnetospheres in binary systems (United States)

    Ershkovich, A. I.; Dolan, J. F.


    The criterion for stability of a tangential discontinuity interface in a magnetized, perfectly conducting inviscid plasma is investigated by deriving the dispersion equation including the effects of both gravitational and centrifugal acceleration. The results are applied to neutron star magnetospheres in X-ray binaries. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability appears to be important in determining whether MHD waves of large amplitude generated by instability may intermix the plasma effectively, resulting in accretion onto the whole star as suggested by Arons and Lea and leading to no X-ray pulsar behavior.

  20. Tomographic reconstruction of binary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Stéphane; Leclerc, Hugo; Hild, François


    A novel algorithm is proposed for reconstructing binary images from their projection along a set of different orientations. Based on a nonlinear transformation of the projection data, classical back-projection procedures can be used iteratively to converge to the sought image. A multiscale implementation allows for a faster convergence. The algorithm is tested on images up to 1 Mb definition, and an error free reconstruction is achieved with a very limited number of projection data, saving a factor of about 100 on the number of projections required for classical reconstruction algorithms.

  1. Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson


    We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.

  2. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries (United States)

    Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong


    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov–Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like. PMID:26159412

  3. Speech perception of noise with binary gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, DeLiang; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind


    For a given mixture of speech and noise, an ideal binary time-frequency mask is constructed by comparing speech energy and noise energy within local time-frequency units. It is observed that listeners achieve nearly perfect speech recognition from gated noise with binary gains prescribed...... by the ideal binary mask. Only 16 filter channels and a frame rate of 100 Hz are sufficient for high intelligibility. The results show that, despite a dramatic reduction of speech information, a pattern of binary gains provides an adequate basis for speech perception....

  4. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries. (United States)

    Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong


    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.

  5. Automated cell tracking and analysis in phase-contrast videos (iTrack4U: development of Java software based on combined mean-shift processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice P Cordelières

    Full Text Available Cell migration is a key biological process with a role in both physiological and pathological conditions. Locomotion of cells during embryonic development is essential for their correct positioning in the organism; immune cells have to migrate and circulate in response to injury. Failure of cells to migrate or an inappropriate acquisition of migratory capacities can result in severe defects such as altered pigmentation, skull and limb abnormalities during development, and defective wound repair, immunosuppression or tumor dissemination. The ability to accurately analyze and quantify cell migration is important for our understanding of development, homeostasis and disease. In vitro cell tracking experiments, using primary or established cell cultures, are often used to study migration as cells can quickly and easily be genetically or chemically manipulated. Images of the cells are acquired at regular time intervals over several hours using microscopes equipped with CCD camera. The locations (x,y,t of each cell on the recorded sequence of frames then need to be tracked. Manual computer-assisted tracking is the traditional method for analyzing the migratory behavior of cells. However, this processing is extremely tedious and time-consuming. Most existing tracking algorithms require experience in programming languages that are unfamiliar to most biologists. We therefore developed an automated cell tracking program, written in Java, which uses a mean-shift algorithm and ImageJ as a library. iTrack4U is a user-friendly software. Compared to manual tracking, it saves considerable amount of time to generate and analyze the variables characterizing cell migration, since they are automatically computed with iTrack4U. Another major interest of iTrack4U is the standardization and the lack of inter-experimenter differences. Finally, iTrack4U is adapted for phase contrast and fluorescent cells.

  6. Changes in the pulse phase dependence of X-ray emission lines in 4U 1626-67 with a torque reversal (United States)

    Beri, Aru; Paul, Biswajit; Dewangan, Gulab C.


    We report results from an observation with the XMM-Newton observatory of a unique X-ray pulsar 4U 1626-67. European Photon Imaging Camera-pn data during the current spin-up phase of 4U 1626-67 have been used to study pulse phase dependence of low-energy emission lines. We found strong variability of low-energy emission line at 0.915 keV with the pulse phase, varying by a factor of 2, much stronger than the continuum variability. Another interesting observation is that behaviour of one of the low-energy emission lines across the pulse phase is quite different from that observed during the spin-down phase. This indicates that the structures in the accretion disc that produce pulse phase dependence of emission features have changed from spin-down to spin-up phase. This is well supported by the differences in the timing characteristics (like pulse profiles, quasi periodic oscillations, etc.) between spin-down and spin-up phases. We have also found that during the current spin-up phase of 4U 1626-67, the X-ray pulse profile below 2 keV is different compared to the spin-down phase. The X-ray light curve also shows flares which produce a feature around 3 mHz in power density spectrum of 4U 1626-67. Since flares are dominant at lower energies, the feature around 3 mHz is prominent at low energies.

  7. Automated cell tracking and analysis in phase-contrast videos (iTrack4U): development of Java software based on combined mean-shift processes. (United States)

    Cordelières, Fabrice P; Petit, Valérie; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Debeir, Olivier; Letort, Véronique; Gallagher, Stuart J; Larue, Lionel


    Cell migration is a key biological process with a role in both physiological and pathological conditions. Locomotion of cells during embryonic development is essential for their correct positioning in the organism; immune cells have to migrate and circulate in response to injury. Failure of cells to migrate or an inappropriate acquisition of migratory capacities can result in severe defects such as altered pigmentation, skull and limb abnormalities during development, and defective wound repair, immunosuppression or tumor dissemination. The ability to accurately analyze and quantify cell migration is important for our understanding of development, homeostasis and disease. In vitro cell tracking experiments, using primary or established cell cultures, are often used to study migration as cells can quickly and easily be genetically or chemically manipulated. Images of the cells are acquired at regular time intervals over several hours using microscopes equipped with CCD camera. The locations (x,y,t) of each cell on the recorded sequence of frames then need to be tracked. Manual computer-assisted tracking is the traditional method for analyzing the migratory behavior of cells. However, this processing is extremely tedious and time-consuming. Most existing tracking algorithms require experience in programming languages that are unfamiliar to most biologists. We therefore developed an automated cell tracking program, written in Java, which uses a mean-shift algorithm and ImageJ as a library. iTrack4U is a user-friendly software. Compared to manual tracking, it saves considerable amount of time to generate and analyze the variables characterizing cell migration, since they are automatically computed with iTrack4U. Another major interest of iTrack4U is the standardization and the lack of inter-experimenter differences. Finally, iTrack4U is adapted for phase contrast and fluorescent cells.

  8. Method of all-optical frequency encoded decimal to binary and binary coded decimal, binary to gray, and gray to binary data conversion using semiconductor optical amplifiers. (United States)

    Garai, Sisir Kumar


    Conversion of optical data from decimal to binary format is very important in optical computing and optical signal processing. There are many binary code systems to represent decimal numbers, the most common being the binary coded decimal (BCD) and gray code system. There are a wide choice of BCD codes, one of which is a natural BCD having a weighted code of 8421, by means of which it is possible to represent a decimal number from 0 to 9 with a combination of 4 bit binary digits. The reflected binary code, also known as the Gray code, is a binary numeral system where two successive values differ in only 1 bit. The Gray code is very important in digital optical communication as it is used to prevent spurious output from optical switches as well as to facilitate error correction in digital communications in an optical domain. Here in this communication, the author proposes an all-optical frequency encoded method of ":decimal to binary, BCD," "binary to gray," and "gray to binary" data conversion using the high-speed switching actions of semiconductor optical amplifiers. To convert decimal numbers to a binary form, a frequency encoding technique is adopted to represent two binary bits, 0 and 1. The frequency encoding technique offers advantages over conventional encoding techniques in terms of less probability of bit errors and greater reliability. Here the author has exploited the polarization switch made of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a property of nonlinear rotation of the state of polarization of the probe beam in SOA for frequency conversion to develop the method of frequency encoded data conversion. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Binary Relations as a Foundation of Mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Jan; Barendsen, E.; Capretta, V.; Geuvers, H.; Niqui, M.


    We describe a theory for binary relations in the Zermelo-Fraenkel style. We choose for ZFCU, a variant of ZFC Set theory in which the Axiom of Foundation is replaced by an axiom allowing for non-wellfounded sets. The theory of binary relations is shown to be equi-consistent ZFCU by constructing a

  10. Novel quantum inspired binary neural network algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a quantum based binary neural network algorithm is proposed, named as novel quantum binary neural network algorithm (NQ-BNN). It forms a neural network structure by deciding weights and separability parameter in quantum based manner. Quantum computing concept represents solution probabilistically ...

  11. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems. (United States)

    Postnov, Konstantin A; Yungelson, Lev R


    We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  12. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungelson, Lev R.


    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA. Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars -- compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.

  13. Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion onto Binaries (United States)

    Antoni, Andrea; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramírez-Ruiz, Enrico


    Binary stars are not rare. While only close binary stars will eventually interact with one another, even the widest binary systems interact with their gaseous surroundings. The rates of accretion and the gaseous drag forces arising in these interactions are the key to understanding how these systems evolve. This poster examines accretion flows around a binary system moving supersonically through a background gas. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion using the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH. We simulate a range of values of semi-major axis of the orbit relative to the gravitational focusing impact parameter of the pair. On large scales, gas is gravitationally focused by the center-of-mass of the binary, leading to dynamical friction drag and to the accretion of mass and momentum. On smaller scales, the orbital motion imprints itself on the gas. Notably, the magnitude and direction of the forces acting on the binary inherit this orbital dependence. The long-term evolution of the binary is determined by the timescales for accretion, slow down of the center-of-mass, and decay of the orbit. We use our simulations to measure these timescales and to establish a hierarchy between them. In general, our simulations indicate that binaries moving through gaseous media will slow down before the orbit decays.

  14. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Postnov


    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  15. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.


    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... with well-covered light curves increases with new-generation searches....

  16. Statistical properties of spectroscopic binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, S.J.


    As part of a study of the mass-ratio distribution of spectroscopic binary stars, the statistical properties of the systems in the Eighth Catalogue of the Orbital Elements of Spectroscopic Binary Stars, compiled by Batten et al. (1989), are investigated. Histograms are presented of the

  17. An Acidity Scale for Binary Oxides. (United States)

    Smith, Derek W.


    Discusses the classification of binary oxides as acidic, basic, or amphoteric. Demonstrates how a numerical scale for acidity/basicity of binary oxides can be constructed using thermochemical data for oxoacid salts. Presents the calculations derived from the data that provide the numeric scale values. (TW)

  18. Binary trees equipped with semivaluations | Pajoohesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our interest in this lattice stems from its application to binary decision trees. Binary decision trees form a crucial tool for algorithmic time analysis. The lattice properties of Tn are studied and we show that every Tn has a sublattice isomorphic to Tn-1 and prove that Tn is generated by Tn-1. Also we show that the distance from ...

  19. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  20. Logistic chaotic maps for binary numbers generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanso, Ali; Smaoui, Nejib


    Two pseudorandom binary sequence generators, based on logistic chaotic maps intended for stream cipher applications, are proposed. The first is based on a single one-dimensional logistic map which exhibits random, noise-like properties at given certain parameter values, and the second is based on a combination of two logistic maps. The encryption step proposed in both algorithms consists of a simple bitwise XOR operation of the plaintext binary sequence with the keystream binary sequence to produce the ciphertext binary sequence. A threshold function is applied to convert the floating-point iterates into binary form. Experimental results show that the produced sequences possess high linear complexity and very good statistical properties. The systems are put forward for security evaluation by the cryptographic committees.

  1. Mass Transfer in Mira-Type Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S.


    Full Text Available Detached, symbiotic binaries are generally assumed to interact via Bondi-Hoyle-Littleton (BHL wind accretion. However, the accretion rates and outflow geometries that result from this mass-transfer mechanism cannot adequately explain the observations of the nearest and best studied symbiotic binary, Mira, or the formation of some post-AGB binaries, e.g. barium stars. We propose a new mass-transfer mode for Mira-type binaries, which we call ‘wind Roche-lobe overflow’ (WRLOF, and which we demonstrate with 3D hydrodynamic simulations. Importantly, we show that the circumstellar outflows which result from WRLOF tend to be highly aspherical and strongly focused towards the binary orbital plane. Furthermore, the subsequent mass-transfer rates are at least an order of magnitude greater than the analogous BHL values. We discuss the implications of these results for the shaping of bipolar (proto-planetary nebulae and other related systems.

  2. Detection Rates for Close Binaries via Microlensing (United States)

    Gaudi, B. Scott; Gould, Andrew


    Microlensing is one of the most promising methods of reconstructing the stellar mass function down to masses even below the hydrogen-burning limit. The fundamental limit to this technique is the presence of unresolved binaries, which can, in principle, significantly alter the inferred mass function. Here we quantify the fraction of binaries that can be detected using microlensing, considering specifically the mass ratio and separation of the binary. We find that almost all binary systems with separations greater than b ~ 0.4 of their combined Einstein ring radius are detectable assuming a detection threshold of 3%. For two M dwarfs, this corresponds to a limiting separation of >~1 AU. Since very few observed M dwarfs have companions at separations corrupt the measurements of the mass function. We find that the detectability depends only weakly on the mass ratio. For those events for which individual masses can be determined, we find that binaries can be detected down to b ~ 0.2.

  3. Evolution of Supermassive Black-Hole Binaries (United States)

    Milosavljevic, M.; Merritt, D.


    Binary supermassive black holes are expected to form in galactic nuclei following galaxy mergers. We report large-scale N-body simulations using the Aarseth/Spurzem parallel code NBODY6++ of the formation and evolution of such binaries. Initial conditions are drawn from a tree-code simulation of the merger of two spherical galaxies with ρ ~ r-2 density cusps (Cruz & Merritt, AAS Poster). Once the two black holes form a bound pair at the center of the merged galaxies, the evolution is continued using NBODY6++ at much higher resolution. Its exact force calculations generate faithful binary dynamics until the onset of gravity wave-dominated dissipation. We discuss the binary hardening rate, the amplitude of the binary's wandering, and the evolution of the structure of the galactic stellar nucleus.

  4. Phonons in fcc binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Amita; Rathore, R.P.S.


    Born-Mayer potential has been modified to account for the unpaired (three body) forces among the common nearest neighbours of the ordered binary fcc alloys i.e. Ni 3 Fe 7 , Ni 5 Fe 5 and Ni 75 Fe 25 . The three body potential is added to the two body form of Morse to formalize the total interaction potential. Measured inverse ionic compressibility, cohesive energy, lattice constant and one measured phonon frequency are used to evaluate the defining parameters of the potential. The potential seeks to bring about the binding among 140 and 132 atoms though pair wise (two body) and non-pair wise (three body) forces respectively. The phonon-dispersion relations obtained by solving the secular equation are compared with the experimental findings on the aforesaid alloys. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs

  5. Kilohertz QPOs in low-mass X-ray binaries as oscillation modes of tori around neutron stars - I (United States)

    de Avellar, Marcio G. B.; Porth, Oliver; Younsi, Ziri; Rezzolla, Luciano


    There have been many efforts to explain the dynamical mechanisms behind the phenomenology of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) seen in the X-ray light curves of low-mass X-ray binaries. Up to now, none of the models can successfully explain all the frequencies observed in the power spectral density of the light curves. After performing several general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of non-self-gravitating axisymmetric thick tori with constant specific angular momentum oscillating around a neutron star such as the one associated with the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636 - 53, we find that the oscillation modes give rise to QPOs similar to those seen in the observational data. In particular, when matching pairs of kilohertz QPOs from the numerical simulations with those observed, certain combinations reproduce well the observations, provided we take a mass for the neutron star that is smaller than what is generally assumed. At the same time, we find that tori with constant specific angular momentum cannot match the entire range of frequencies observed for 4U 1636-53 due to physical constraints set on their size. Finally, we show that our results are consistent with the observed shifts in QPO frequency that could accompany state transitions of the accretion disc.

  6. The properties of outbursts and long-term activity of the soft X-ray transient 4U 1608-52 (Qx Nor)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch


    Roč. 418, č. 2 (2004), s. 617-624 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : neutron stars * X-rays * close binaries Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.694, year: 2004

  7. BPASS predictions for binary black hole mergers (United States)

    Eldridge, J. J.; Stanway, E. R.


    Using the Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis code, BPASS, we have calculated the rates, time-scales and mass distributions for binary black hole (BH) mergers as a function of metallicity. We consider these in the context of the recently reported first Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) event detection. We find that the event has a very low probability of arising from a stellar population with initial metallicity mass fraction above Z = 0.010 (Z ≳ 0.5 Z⊙). Binary BH merger events with the reported masses are most likely in populations below 0.008 (Z ≲ 0.4 Z⊙). Events of this kind can occur at all stellar population ages from 3 Myr up to the age of the Universe, but constitute only 0.1-0.4 per cent of binary BH mergers between metallicities of Z = 0.001 and 0.008. However at metallicity Z = 10-4, 26 per cent of binary BH mergers would be expected to have the reported masses. At this metallicity, the progenitor merger times can be close to ≈10 Gyr and rotationally mixed stars evolving through quasi-homogeneous evolution, due to mass transfer in a binary, dominate the rate. The masses inferred for the BHs in the binary progenitor of GW 150914 are amongst the most massive expected at anything but the lowest metallicities in our models. We discuss the implications of our analysis for the electromagnetic follow-up of future LIGO event detections.

  8. Topological and categorical properties of binary trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pajoohesh


    Full Text Available Binary trees are very useful tools in computer science for estimating the running time of so-called comparison based algorithms, algorithms in which every action is ultimately based on a prior comparison between two elements. For two given algorithms A and B where the decision tree of A is more balanced than that of B, it is known that the average and worst case times of A will be better than those of B, i.e., ₸A(n ≤₸B(n and TWA (n≤TWB (n. Thus the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees play a main role. Here we consider them as semilattices and characterize the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees by topological and categorical properties. Also we define the composition of binary trees as a commutative binary operation, *, such that for binary trees A and B, A * B is the binary tree obtained by attaching a copy of B to any leaf of A. We show that (T,* is a commutative po-monoid and investigate its properties.

  9. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars (United States)

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.


    The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other

  10. Binary neutron star merger simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruegmann, Bernd [Jena Univ. (Germany)


    Our research focuses on the numerical tools necessary to solve Einstein's equations. In recent years we have been particularly interested in spacetimes consisting of two neutron stars in the final stages of their evolution. Because of the emission of gravitational radiation, the objects are driven together to merge; the emitted gravitational wave signal is visualized. This emitted gravitational radiation carries energy and momentum away from the system and contains information about the system. Late last year the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) began searches for these gravitational wave signals at a sensitivity at which detections are expected. Although such systems can radiate a significant amount of their total mass-energy in gravitational waves, the gravitational wave signals one expects to receive on Earth are not strong, since sources of gravitational waves are often many millions of light years away. Therefore one needs accurate templates for the radiation one expects from such systems in order to be able to extract them out of the detector's noise. Although analytical models exist for compact binary systems when the constituents are well separated, we need numerical simulation to investigate the last orbits before merger to obtain accurate templates and validate analytical approximations. Due to the strong nonlinearity of the equations and the large separation of length scales, these simulations are computationally demanding and need to be run on large supercomputers. When matter is present the computational cost as compared to pure black hole (vacuum) simulations increases even more due to the additional matter fields. But also more interesting astrophysical phenomena can happen. In fact, there is the possibility for a strong electromagnetic signal from the merger (e.g., a short gamma-ray burst or lower-energy electromagnetic signatures from the ejecta) and significant neutrino emission. Additionally, we can expect that

  11. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd


    We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from...... the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects...

  12. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)


    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  13. Enhanced parametric processes in binary metamaterials


    Gorkunov, Maxim V.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Kivshar, Yuri S.


    We suggest double-resonant (binary) metamaterials composed of two types of magnetic resonant elements, and demonstrate that in the nonlinear regime such metamaterials provide unique possibilities for phase-matched parametric interaction and enhanced second-harmonic generation.

  14. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V1.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a data table giving basic physical and orbital parameters for known binary minor planets in the Solar System (and Pluto/Charon) based on published...

  15. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V6.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson...

  16. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V4.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson...

  17. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V5.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson...

  18. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V8.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  19. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V9.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  20. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V7.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, compiled from the...

  1. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V2.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present data tables giving basic orbital and physical parameters for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets and the Pluto system, based on a...

  2. BINARY MINOR PLANETS V3.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present data tables giving basic orbital and physical parameters for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets and the Pluto system, based on a...

  3. A Type System for Certified Binaries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shao, Zhong; Trifonov, Valery; Saha, Bratin; Papaspyrou, Nikolaos


    ... (CPS and closure conversion) while preserving proofs represented in the type system. Our work provides a foundation for the process of automatically generating certified binaries in a type-theoretic framework.





    Borel conjectured that all algebraic irrational numbers are normal in base 2. However, very little is known about this problem. We improve the lower bounds for the number of digit changes in the binary expansions of algebraic irrational numbers.

  5. General simulation algorithm for autocorrelated binary processes (United States)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Lombardo, Federico


    The apparent ubiquity of binary random processes in physics and many other fields has attracted considerable attention from the modeling community. However, generation of binary sequences with prescribed autocorrelation is a challenging task owing to the discrete nature of the marginal distributions, which makes the application of classical spectral techniques problematic. We show that such methods can effectively be used if we focus on the parent continuous process of beta distributed transition probabilities rather than on the target binary process. This change of paradigm results in a simulation procedure effectively embedding a spectrum-based iterative amplitude-adjusted Fourier transform method devised for continuous processes. The proposed algorithm is fully general, requires minimal assumptions, and can easily simulate binary signals with power-law and exponentially decaying autocorrelation functions corresponding, for instance, to Hurst-Kolmogorov and Markov processes. An application to rainfall intermittency shows that the proposed algorithm can also simulate surrogate data preserving the empirical autocorrelation.

  6. Computer controlled evaluation of binary images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Th.E.; van den Broek, Egon


    The present invention relates to computer controlled image processing and, in particular, to computer controlled evaluation of two dimensional, 2D, and three dimensional, 3D, binary images including sequences of images using a distance map.

  7. On the Maximum Separation of Visual Binaries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    minimum) angular separation ρmax(ρmin), the corresponding apparent position angles (|ρmax , |ρmin) and the individual masses of visual binary systems. The algorithm uses Reed's formulae (1984) for the masses, and a ...

  8. Red-giant stars in eccentric binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck P. G.


    Full Text Available The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has led to improved understanding of red-giant stars and binary stars. We discuss the characterization of known eccentric system, containing a solar-like oscillating red-giant primary component. We also report several new binary systems that are candidates for hosting an oscillating companion. A powerful approach to study binary stars is to combine asteroseimic techniques with light curve fitting. Seismology allows us to deduce the properties of red giants. In addition, by modeling the ellipsoidal modulations we can constrain the parameters of the binary system. An valuable independent source are ground-bases, high-resolution spectrographs.

  9. Observations of new Wolf-Rayet binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemela, V.S.


    The author reports here preliminary results of spectrographic observations for three southern WR stars, whose binary nature had not been previously verified: HDE 320102, CD -45 0 4482, HD 62910. The observations were carried out at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile, mostly with the Cassegrain spectrograph with IT attached to the 1-m reflector. These spectrograms were secured on Kodak IIIaJ emulsion, and have a dispersion of 45 A/mm. The results suggest that HDE 320102 must be a double-lined 05-7 + WN3 spectroscopic binary, that CD -45 0 4482 appears to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary and that HD 62910 may be a binary. (Auth.)

  10. Diffusion in ordered binary solid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolwijk, N.A.


    This thesis contains contributions to the field of diffusion in ordered binary solid systems. An extensive experimental investigation of the self diffusion in CoGa is presented. The results of these diffusion measurements strongly suggest that a substantial part of the atomic migration is caused by a new type of defect. A quantitative description of the atomic displacements via this defect is given. Finally computer simulations are presented of diffusion and ordering in binary solid systems. (Auth.)

  11. Reflection effect in close binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanlandingham, F.G.


    The investigation studies the effects of the irradiation of the hotter component in a close binary system on the atmosphere of the secondary and on the observed flux distribution of the binary system. An existing model atmospheres computer program is modified to include the effects of non-zero incident radiation. Computations reveal that the irradiation can significantly raise the temperature in the upper layers of the atmosphere. (U.S.)

  12. Detecting Black Hole Binaries by Gaia


    Yamaguchi, Masaki S.; Kawanaka, Norita; Bulik, Tomasz; Piran, Tsvi


    We study the prospect of the Gaia satellite to identify black hole binary systems by detecting the orbital motion of the companion stars. Taking into account the initial mass function, mass transfer, common envelope phase, interstellar absorption and identifiability of black holes, we estimate the number of black hole binaries detected by Gaia and their distributions with respect to the black hole mass for several models with different parameters. We find that $\\sim 300-6000$ black hole binar...

  13. Search for binary nuclei in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasniewicz, G.


    Two planetary nebulae with central stars of late spectral type were observed: LT 5 and Abell 35. The variation of the systemic velocity of the G-binary in HD 112313 gives strong support to the idea of a third body in the nucleus of LT 5. In addition, it is concluded that observed photometric variations of BD -22 deg 3467 (the central star of Abell 35) can best be explained by the binary nature of the star. 9 references

  14. Search for binary nuclei in planetary nebulae (United States)

    Jasniewicz, G.

    Two planetary nebulae with central stars of late spectral type were observed: LT 5 and Abell 35. The variation of the systemic velocity of the G-binary in HD 112313 gives strong support to the idea of a third body in the nucleus of LT 5. In addition, it is concluded that observed photometric variations of BD -22 deg 3467 (the central star of Abell 35) can best be explained by the binary nature of the star.

  15. New algorithms for binary wavefront optimization (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Kner, Peter


    Binary amplitude modulation promises to allow rapid focusing through strongly scattering media with a large number of segments due to the faster update rates of digital micromirror devices (DMDs) compared to spatial light modulators (SLMs). While binary amplitude modulation has a lower theoretical enhancement than phase modulation, the faster update rate should more than compensate for the difference - a factor of π2 /2. Here we present two new algorithms, a genetic algorithm and a transmission matrix algorithm, for optimizing the focus with binary amplitude modulation that achieve enhancements close to the theoretical maximum. Genetic algorithms have been shown to work well in noisy environments and we show that the genetic algorithm performs better than a stepwise algorithm. Transmission matrix algorithms allow complete characterization and control of the medium but require phase control either at the input or output. Here we introduce a transmission matrix algorithm that works with only binary amplitude control and intensity measurements. We apply these algorithms to binary amplitude modulation using a Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device. Here we report an enhancement of 152 with 1536 segments (9.90%×N) using a genetic algorithm with binary amplitude modulation and an enhancement of 136 with 1536 segments (8.9%×N) using an intensity-only transmission matrix algorithm.

  16. Eclipsing Binary B-Star Mass Determinations (United States)

    Townsend, Amanda; Eikenberry, Stephen S.


    B-stars in binary pairs provide a laboratory for key astrophysical measurements of massive stars, including key insights for the formation of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes). In their paper, Martayan et al (2004) find 23 Be binary star pairs in NGC2004 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, five of which are both eclipsing and spectroscopic binaries with archival data from VLT-Giraffe and photometric data from MACHO. By using the Wilson eclipsing binary code (e.g., Wilson, 1971), we can determine preliminary stellar masses of the binary components. We present the first results from this analysis. This study also serves as proof-of-concept for future observations with the Photonic Synthesis Telescope Array (Eikenberry et al., in prep) that we are currently building for low-cost, precision spectroscopic observations. With higher resolution and dedicated time for observations, we can follow-up observations of these Be stars as well as Be/X-ray binaries, for improved mass measurements of neutron stars and black holes and better constraints on their origin/formation.

  17. Texture classification by texton: statistical versus binary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Guo

    Full Text Available Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8, image patch (Statistical_Joint and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor.

  18. Exploring the Birth of Binary Stars (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    More than half of all stars are thought to be in binary or multiple star systems. But how do these systems form? The misaligned spins of some binary protostars might provide a clue.Two Formation ModelsIts hard to tell how multiple-star systems form, since these systems are difficult to observe in their early stages. But based on numerical simulations, there are two proposed models for the formation of stellar binaries:Turbulent fragmentationTurbulence within a single core leads to multiple dense clumps. These clumps independently collapse to form stars that orbit each other.Disk fragmentationGravitational instabilities in a massive accretion disk cause the formation of a smaller, secondary disk within the first, resulting in two stars that orbit each other.Log column density for one of the authors simulated binary systems, just after the formation of two protostars. Diamonds indicate the protostar positions. [Adapted from Offner et al. 2016]Outflows as CluesHow can we differentiate between these formation mechanisms? Led by Stella Offner (University of Massachusetts), a team of scientists has suggested that the key isto examine the alignment of the stars protostellar outflows jets that are often emitted from the poles of young, newly forming stars.Naively, wed expect that disk fragmentation would produce binary stars with common angular momentum. As the stars spins would be aligned, they would therefore also launch protostellar jets that were aligned with each other. Turbulent fragmentation, on the other hand, would cause the stars to have independent angular momentum. This would lead to randomly oriented spins, so the protostellar jets would be misaligned.Snapshots from the authors simulations. Left panel of each pair: column density; green arrows giveprotostellar spin directions. Right panel: synthetic observations produced from the simulations; cyan arrows giveprotostellar outflow directions. [Offner et al. 2016]Simulations of FragmentationIn order to better

  19. Uhuru observations of 4U 1608-52 - The 'steady' X-ray source associated with the X-ray burst source in Norma (United States)

    Tananbaum, H.; Chaisson, L. J.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Matilsky, T. A.


    Data are presented for the X-ray source 4U 1608-52, summarizing its light curve, location, and spectral parameters. Evidence is presented showing that this source is the 'steady' X-ray counterpart of the X-ray burst source in Norma. The spectrum of the 'steady' source is compared with the spectrum observed during two bursts, and it is noted that there is substantially more low-energy absorption during the bursts. The 'steady' source spectral data are used to examine the optical data, and it is concluded that if the X-ray spectrum is thermal, then a globular-cluster counterpart probably would have been detected (whereas none has been). Further X-ray and optical observations are suggested for this source, since an optical identification may be central in determining whether all X-ray bursts have a common origin and if this origin requires a globular-cluster environment.

  20. A 4 U laser heterodyne radiometer for methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements from an occultation-viewing CubeSat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Emily L; Oman, Luke D; DiGregorio, A J; Garner, Richard M; Riot, Vincent J; Ammons, Mark S; Bruner, William W; Carter, Darrell; Mao, Jianping; Ramanathan, Anand; Strahan, Susan E; Hoffman, Christine


    We present a design for a 4 U (20 cm  ×  20 cm  ×  10 cm) occultation-viewing laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) that measures methane (CH 4 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water vapor (H 2 O) in the limb that is designed for deployment on a 6 U CubeSat. The LHR design collects sunlight that has undergone absorption by the trace gas and mixes it with a distributive feedback (DFB) laser centered at 1640 nm that scans across CO 2 , CH 4 , and H 2 O absorption features. Upper troposphere/lower stratosphere measurements of these gases provide key inputs to stratospheric circulation models: measuring stratospheric circulation and its variability is essential for projecting how climate change will affect stratospheric ozone. (paper)

  1. Do stellar clusters form fewer binaries? Using moderate separation binaries to distinguish between nature and nurture (United States)

    Reiter, Megan


    Fewer wide-separation binaries are found in dense stellar clusters than in looser stellar associations. It is therefore unclear whether feedback in clusters prevents the formation of multiple systems or dynamical interactions destroy them. Measuring the prevalence of close, bound binary systems provide a key test to distinguish between these possibilities. Systems with separations of 10-50 AU will survive interactions in the cluster environment, and therefore are more representative of the natal population of multiple systems. By fitting a double-star PSF, we will identify visual binaries in the Orion Nebula with separations as small as 0.03. At the distance of Orion, this corresponds to a physical separation of 12 AU, effectively closing the observational gap in the binary separation distribution left between known visual and spectroscopic binaries (>65 AU or PhD thesis.

  2. Satisfiability modulo theory and binary puzzle (United States)

    Utomo, Putranto


    The binary puzzle is a sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0, 1}. We look at the mathematical theory behind it. A solved binary puzzle is an n × n binary array where n is even that satisfies the following conditions: (1) No three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each column, (2) Every row and column is balanced, that is the number of ones and zeros must be equal in each row and in each column, (3) Every two rows and every two columns must be distinct. The binary puzzle had been proven to be an NP-complete problem [5]. Research concerning the satisfiability of formulas with respect to some background theory is called satisfiability modulo theory (SMT). An SMT solver is an extension of a satisfiability (SAT) solver. The notion of SMT can be used for solving various problem in mathematics and industries such as formula verification and operation research [1, 7]. In this paper we apply SMT to solve binary puzzles. In addition, we do an experiment in solving different sizes and different number of blanks. We also made comparison with two other approaches, namely by a SAT solver and exhaustive search.

  3. Star formation history: Modeling of visual binaries (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Y. M.; Tessema, S. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sytov, A. Yu.; Tutukov, A. V.


    Most stars form in binary or multiple systems. Their evolution is defined by masses of components, orbital separation and eccentricity. In order to understand star formation and evolutionary processes, it is vital to find distributions of physical parameters of binaries. We have carried out Monte Carlo simulations in which we simulate different pairing scenarios: random pairing, primary-constrained pairing, split-core pairing, and total and primary pairing in order to get distributions of binaries over physical parameters at birth. Next, for comparison with observations, we account for stellar evolution and selection effects. Brightness, radius, temperature, and other parameters of components are assigned or calculated according to approximate relations for stars in different evolutionary stages (main-sequence stars, red giants, white dwarfs, relativistic objects). Evolutionary stage is defined as a function of system age and component masses. We compare our results with the observed IMF, binarity rate, and binary mass-ratio distributions for field visual binaries to find initial distributions and pairing scenarios that produce observed distributions.

  4. Stacking Analysis of Binary Systems with HAWC (United States)

    Brisbois, Chad; HAWC Collaboration


    Detecting binary systems at TeV energies is an important problem because only a handful of such systems are currently known. The nature of such systems is typically thought to be composed of a compact object and a massive star. The TeV emission from these systems does not obviously correspond to emission in GeV or X-ray, where many binary systems have previously been found. This study focuses on a stacking method to detect TeV emission from LS 5039, a known TeV binary, to test its efficacy in HAWC data. Stacking is a widely employed method for increasing signal to noise ratio in optical astronomy, but has never been attempted previously with HAWC. HAWC is an ideal instrument to search for TeV binaries, because of its wide field of view and high uptime. Applying this method to the entire sky may allow HAWC to detect binary sources of very short or very long periods not sensitive to current analyses. NSF, DOE, Los Alamos, Michigan Tech, CONACyt, UNAM, BUAP.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fregeau, John M.; Ivanova, Natalia; Rasio, Frederic A.


    Using our recently improved Monte Carlo evolution code, we study the evolution of the binary fraction in globular clusters. In agreement with previous N-body simulations, we find generally that the hard binary fraction in the core tends to increase with time over a range of initial cluster central densities for initial binary fractions ∼<90%. The dominant processes driving the evolution of the core binary fraction are mass segregation of binaries into the cluster core and preferential destruction of binaries there. On a global scale, these effects and the preferential tidal stripping of single stars tend to roughly balance, leading to overall cluster binary fractions that are roughly constant with time. Our findings suggest that the current hard binary fraction near the half-mass radius is a good indicator of the hard primordial binary fraction. However, the relationship between the true binary fraction and the fraction of main-sequence stars in binaries (which is typically what observers measure) is nonlinear and rather complicated. We also consider the importance of soft binaries, which not only modify the evolution of the binary fraction, but can also drastically change the evolution of the cluster as a whole. Finally, we briefly describe the recent addition of single and binary stellar evolution to our cluster evolution code.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Jim; Lai Dong


    Compact binary white dwarfs (WDs) undergoing orbital decay due to gravitational radiation can experience significant tidal heating prior to merger. In these WDs, the dominant tidal effect involves the excitation of outgoing gravity waves in the inner stellar envelope and the dissipation of these waves in the outer envelope. As the binary orbit decays, the WDs are synchronized from outside in (with the envelope synchronized first, followed by the core). We examine the deposition of tidal heat in the envelope of a carbon-oxygen WD and study how such tidal heating affects the structure and evolution of the WD. We show that significant tidal heating can occur in the star's degenerate hydrogen layer. This layer heats up faster than it cools, triggering runaway nuclear fusion. Such 'tidal novae' may occur in all WD binaries containing a CO WD, at orbital periods between 5 minutes and 20 minutes, and precede the final merger by 10 5 -10 6 years.

  7. Compact binary hashing for music retrieval (United States)

    Seo, Jin S.


    With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.

  8. Hybrid Black-Hole Binary Initial Data (United States)

    Mundim, Bruno C.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela


    "Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class. Quantum Grav. 27:114005 (2010)], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculations was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features."

  9. The dynamical evolution of binaries in clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heggie, D.C.


    Using information on the rates at which binaries suffer encounters in a stellar system (Heggie, 1974), the effects of such processes on the evolution of the system itself are studied. First considering systems with no binaries initially, it is shown that low-energy pairs attain a quasi-equilibrium distribution comparatively quickly. Their effect on the evolution of the cluster is negligible compared with that of two-body relaxation. In small systems energetic pairs may form sufficiently quickly to exercise a substantial effect on its development and on the escape rate, but in large systems their appearance is delayed until the evolution of the core is well advanced. In that case they appear to be responsible for arresting the collapse of the core at some stage. Binaries of low energy, even if present initially in large numbers, are likely to have at most only a temporary effect on the evolution of the system. High-energy pairs are not so easily destroyed, and so, if present initially, their effect is persistent. It competes with two-body relaxation especially when the fraction of such pairs and the total number-density are high, as in the core, where, in addition, binaries tend to congregate by mass segregation. When encounters with binaries become important, being mostly 'super-elastic' they enhance escape and lead to ejection of mass from the core into the halo, thus accelerating the rate at which mass is lost by tidal forces. It is difficult to decide observationally whether globular clusters possess sufficiently large numbers of binaries for these effects to be important. (Auth.)

  10. Sputtering yield calculation for binary target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Rodriguez-Vidal, M.; Valles-Abarca, J.A.


    The generalization for binary targets, of the ideas proposed by Sigmund for monoatomic targets, leads to a set of coupled intergrodifferential equations for the sputtering functions. After moment decomposition, the final formulae are obtained by the standard method based on the Laplace Transform, where the inverse transform is made with the aid of asymptotic expansions in the limit of very high projectile energy as compared to the surface binding energy. The possible loss of stoichiometry for binary targets is analyzed. Comparison of computed values of sputtering yield for normal incidence, with experimental results shows good agreement. (author)

  11. Binary Sparse Phase Retrieval via Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng


    Full Text Available This paper presents the Simulated Annealing Sparse PhAse Recovery (SASPAR algorithm for reconstructing sparse binary signals from their phaseless magnitudes of the Fourier transform. The greedy strategy version is also proposed for a comparison, which is a parameter-free algorithm. Sufficient numeric simulations indicate that our method is quite effective and suggest the binary model is robust. The SASPAR algorithm seems competitive to the existing methods for its efficiency and high recovery rate even with fewer Fourier measurements.

  12. A simple model for binary star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, C.A.; Eggleton, P.P.


    A simple model for calculating the evolution of binary stars is presented. Detailed stellar evolution calculations of stars undergoing mass and energy transfer at various rates are reported and used to identify the dominant physical processes which determine the type of evolution. These detailed calculations are used to calibrate the simple model and a comparison of calculations using the detailed stellar evolution equations and the simple model is made. Results of the evolution of a few binary systems are reported and compared with previously published calculations using normal stellar evolution programs. (author)

  13. Testing the Binary Black Hole Nature of a Compact Binary Coalescence. (United States)

    Krishnendu, N V; Arun, K G; Mishra, Chandra Kant


    We propose a novel method to test the binary black hole nature of compact binaries detectable by gravitational wave (GW) interferometers and, hence, constrain the parameter space of other exotic compact objects. The spirit of the test lies in the "no-hair" conjecture for black holes where all properties of a Kerr black hole are characterized by its mass and spin. The method relies on observationally measuring the quadrupole moments of the compact binary constituents induced due to their spins. If the compact object is a Kerr black hole (BH), its quadrupole moment is expressible solely in terms of its mass and spin. Otherwise, the quadrupole moment can depend on additional parameters (such as the equation of state of the object). The higher order spin effects in phase and amplitude of a gravitational waveform, which explicitly contains the spin-induced quadrupole moments of compact objects, hence, uniquely encode the nature of the compact binary. Thus, we argue that an independent measurement of the spin-induced quadrupole moment of the compact binaries from GW observations can provide a unique way to distinguish binary BH systems from binaries consisting of exotic compact objects.

  14. The fate of close encounters between binary stars and binary supermassive black holes (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Han; Leigh, Nathan; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Perna, Rosalba


    The evolution of main-sequence binaries that reside in the Galactic Centre can be heavily influenced by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Due to these perturbative effects, the stellar binaries in dense environments are likely to experience mergers, collisions, or ejections through secular and/or non-secular interactions. More direct interactions with the central SMBH are thought to produce hypervelocity stars (HVSs) and tidal disruption events (TDEs). In this paper, we use N-body simulations to study the dynamics of stellar binaries orbiting a central SMBH primary with an outer SMBH secondary orbiting this inner triple. The effects of the secondary SMBH on the event rates of HVSs, TDEs, and stellar mergers are investigated, as a function of the SMBH-SMBH binary mass ratio. Our numerical experiments reveal that, relative to the isolated SMBH case, the TDE and HVS rates are enhanced for, respectively, the smallest and largest mass ratio SMBH-SMBH binaries. This suggests that the observed event rates of TDEs and HVSs have the potential to serve as a diagnostic of the mass ratio of a central SMBH-SMBH binary. The presence of a secondary SMBH also allows for the creation of hypervelocity binaries. Observations of these systems could thus constrain the presence of a secondary SMBH in the Galactic Centre.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruteau, C.; Lin, D. N. C.; Cuadra, J.


    The massive stars in the Galactic center inner arcsecond share analogous properties with the so-called Hot Jupiters. Most of these young stars have highly eccentric orbits and were probably not formed in situ. It has been proposed that these stars acquired their current orbits from the tidal disruption of compact massive binaries scattered toward the proximity of the central supermassive black hole. Assuming a binary star formed in a thin gaseous disk beyond 0.1 pc from the central object, we investigate the relevance of disk-satellite interactions to harden the binding energy of the binary, and to drive its inward migration. A massive, equal-mass binary star is found to become more tightly wound as it migrates inward toward the central black hole. The migration timescale is very similar to that of a single-star satellite of the same mass. The binary's hardening is caused by the formation of spiral tails lagging the stars inside the binary's Hill radius. We show that the hardening timescale is mostly determined by the mass of gas inside the binary's Hill radius and that it is much shorter than the migration timescale. We discuss some implications of the binary's hardening process. When the more massive (primary) components of close binaries eject most their mass through supernova explosion, their secondary stars may attain a range of eccentricities and inclinations. Such processes may provide an alternative unified scenario for the origin of the kinematic properties of the central cluster and S-stars in the Galactic center as well as the high-velocity stars in the Galactic halo.

  16. Neutron-Star-Black-Hole Binaries Produced by Binary-Driven Hypernovae. (United States)

    Fryer, Chris L; Oliveira, F G; Rueda, J A; Ruffini, R


    Binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) within the induced gravitational collapse paradigm have been introduced to explain energetic (E_{iso}≳10^{52}  erg), long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with type Ic supernovae (SNe). The progenitor is a tight binary composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron-star (NS) companion, a subclass of the newly proposed "ultrastripped" binaries. The CO-NS short-period orbit causes the NS to accrete appreciable matter from the SN ejecta when the CO core collapses, ultimately causing it to collapse to a black hole (BH) and producing a GRB. These tight binaries evolve through the SN explosion very differently than compact binaries studied in population synthesis calculations. First, the hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion alters both the mass and the momentum of the binary. Second, because the explosion time scale is on par with the orbital period, the mass ejection cannot be assumed to be instantaneous. This dramatically affects the post-SN fate of the binary. Finally, the bow shock created as the accreting NS plows through the SN ejecta transfers angular momentum, braking the orbit. These systems remain bound even if a large fraction of the binary mass is lost in the explosion (well above the canonical 50% limit), and even large kicks are unlikely to unbind the system. Indeed, BdHNe produce a new family of NS-BH binaries unaccounted for in current population synthesis analyses and, although they may be rare, the fact that nearly 100% remain bound implies that they may play an important role in the compact merger rate, important for gravitational waves that, in turn, can produce a new class of ultrashort GRBs.

  17. The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring. I. Observational campaign and OB-type spectroscopic binaries (United States)

    Almeida, L. A.; Sana, H.; Taylor, W.; Barbá, R.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Crowther, P.; Damineli, A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gieles, M.; Grin, N. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.; Lockwood, S.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Neijssel, C.; Norman, C.; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Richardson, N. D.; Schootemeijer, A.; Shenar, T.; Soszyński, I.; Tramper, F.; Vink, J. S.


    Context. Massive binaries play a crucial role in the Universe. Knowing the distributions of their orbital parameters is important for a wide range of topics from stellar feedback to binary evolution channels and from the distribution of supernova types to gravitational wave progenitors, yet no direct measurements exist outside the Milky Way. Aims: The Tarantula Massive Binary Monitoring project was designed to help fill this gap by obtaining multi-epoch radial velocity (RV) monitoring of 102 massive binaries in the 30 Doradus region. Methods: In this paper we analyze 32 FLAMES/GIRAFFE observations of 93 O- and 7 B-type binaries. We performed a Fourier analysis and obtained orbital solutions for 82 systems: 51 single-lined (SB1) and 31 double-lined (SB2) spectroscopic binaries. Results: Overall, the binary fraction and orbital properties across the 30 Doradus region are found to be similar to existing Galactic samples. This indicates that within these domains environmental effects are of second order in shaping the properties of massive binary systems. A small difference is found in the distribution of orbital periods, which is slightly flatter (in log space) in 30 Doradus than in the Galaxy, although this may be compatible within error estimates and differences in the fitting methodology. Also, orbital periods in 30 Doradus can be as short as 1.1 d, somewhat shorter than seen in Galactic samples. Equal mass binaries (q> 0.95) in 30 Doradus are all found outside NGC 2070, the central association that surrounds R136a, the very young and massive cluster at 30 Doradus's core. Most of the differences, albeit small, are compatible with expectations from binary evolution. One outstanding exception, however, is the fact that earlier spectral types (O2-O7) tend to have shorter orbital periods than later spectral types (O9.2-O9.7). Conclusions: Our results point to a relative universality of the incidence rate of massive binaries and their orbital properties in the

  18. A coinductive calculus of binary trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Silva (Alexandra); J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)


    htmlabstractWe study the set T_A of infinite binary trees with nodes labelled in a semiring A from a coalgebraic perspective. We present coinductive definition and proof principles based on the fact that T_A carries a final coalgebra structure. By viewing trees as formal power series, we develop a


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In order to investigate the relative orientations of spiral galaxies in pairs, the distribution of the angle between the spin-vectors for a new sample of 40 binary spiral galaxies is determined. From this distribution it is found, contrary to an earlier result obtained by Helou (1984), that there is

  20. Short-timescale variability in cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, F.A.; Mason, K.O.


    Rapid variability, including flickering and pulsations, has been detected in cataclysmic binaries at optical and x-ray frequencies. In the case of the novalike variable TT Arietis, simultaneous observations reveal that the x-ray and optical flickering activity is strongly correlated, while short period pulsations are observed that occur at the same frequencies in both wavelength bands

  1. Binary palmprint representation for feature template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Meiru; Ruan, Qiuqi; Shao, X.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.


    The major challenge of biometric template protection comes from the intraclass variations of biometric data. The helper data scheme aims to solve this problem by employing the Error Correction Codes (ECC). However, many reported biometric binary features from the same user reach bit error rate (BER)

  2. Binary translation using peephole translation rules (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex


    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  3. Receptive fields selection for binary feature description. (United States)

    Fan, Bin; Kong, Qingqun; Trzcinski, Tomasz; Wang, Zhiheng; Pan, Chunhong; Fua, Pascal


    Feature description for local image patch is widely used in computer vision. While the conventional way to design local descriptor is based on expert experience and knowledge, learning-based methods for designing local descriptor become more and more popular because of their good performance and data-driven property. This paper proposes a novel data-driven method for designing binary feature descriptor, which we call receptive fields descriptor (RFD). Technically, RFD is constructed by thresholding responses of a set of receptive fields, which are selected from a large number of candidates according to their distinctiveness and correlations in a greedy way. Using two different kinds of receptive fields (namely rectangular pooling area and Gaussian pooling area) for selection, we obtain two binary descriptors RFDR and RFDG .accordingly. Image matching experiments on the well-known patch data set and Oxford data set demonstrate that RFD significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art binary descriptors, and is comparable with the best float-valued descriptors at a fraction of processing time. Finally, experiments on object recognition tasks confirm that both RFDR and RFDG successfully bridge the performance gap between binary descriptors and their floating-point competitors.

  4. Flip-flopping binary black holes. (United States)

    Lousto, Carlos O; Healy, James


    We study binary spinning black holes to display the long term individual spin dynamics. We perform a full numerical simulation starting at an initial proper separation of d≈25M between equal mass holes and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles, and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t=20 000M and displays a total change in the orientation of the spin of one of the black holes from an initial alignment with the orbital angular momentum to a complete antialignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects this dynamics may have on spin growth in accreting binaries and on the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes.

  5. Predicting Social Trust with Binary Logistic Regression (United States)

    Adwere-Boamah, Joseph; Hufstedler, Shirley


    This study used binary logistic regression to predict social trust with five demographic variables from a national sample of adult individuals who participated in The General Social Survey (GSS) in 2012. The five predictor variables were respondents' highest degree earned, race, sex, general happiness and the importance of personally assisting…

  6. Compiler-Agnostic Function Detection in Binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, D.A.; Slowinska, J.M.; Bos, H.J.


    We propose Nucleus, a novel function detection algorithm for binaries. In contrast to prior work, Nucleus is compiler-agnostic, and does not require any learning phase or signature information. Instead of scanning for signatures, Nucleus detects functions at the Control Flow Graph-level, making it

  7. Non-binary or genderqueer genders. (United States)

    Richards, Christina; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Seal, Leighton; Barker, Meg John; Nieder, Timo O; T'Sjoen, Guy


    Some people have a gender which is neither male nor female and may identify as both male and female at one time, as different genders at different times, as no gender at all, or dispute the very idea of only two genders. The umbrella terms for such genders are 'genderqueer' or 'non-binary' genders. Such gender identities outside of the binary of female and male are increasingly being recognized in legal, medical and psychological systems and diagnostic classifications in line with the emerging presence and advocacy of these groups of people. Population-based studies show a small percentage--but a sizable proportion in terms of raw numbers--of people who identify as non-binary. While such genders have been extant historically and globally, they remain marginalized, and as such--while not being disorders or pathological in themselves--people with such genders remain at risk of victimization and of minority or marginalization stress as a result of discrimination. This paper therefore reviews the limited literature on this field and considers ways in which (mental) health professionals may assist the people with genderqueer and non-binary gender identities and/or expressions they may see in their practice. Treatment options and associated risks are discussed.

  8. Statistics of clusters in binary linear lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felderhof, B.U.

    The statistics of clusters in binary linear lattices is studied on the assumption that the relative weight of an Al or Bm cluster is determined only by its size l or m, and is independent of the location of the cluster on the chain. The average cluster numbers and the variance of their fluctuations

  9. Planar quark diagrams and binary spin processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, A.A.; Ivanov, N.Ya.


    Contributions of planar diagrams to the binary scattering processes are analyzed. The analysis is based on the predictions of quark-gluon picture of strong interactions for the coupling of reggeons with quarks as well as on the SU(6)-classification of hadrons. The dependence of contributions of nonplanar corrections on spins and quark composition of interacting particles is discussed

  10. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.


    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  11. The average size of ordered binary subgraphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, J.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    To analyse the demands made on the garbage collector in a graph reduction system, the change in size of an average graph is studied when an arbitrary edge is removed. In ordered binary trees the average number of deleted nodes as a result of cutting a single edge is equal to the average size of a

  12. Void formation in irradiated binary nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.A.; Ahmed, M.; Akhter, J.I.


    In this work a computer program has been used to compute void radius, void density and swelling parameter for nickel and binary nickel-carbon alloys irradiated with nickel ions of 100 keV. The aim is to compare the computed results with experimental results already reported

  13. The Benchmark Eclipsing Binary V530 Ori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Pavlovski, Kresimir


    We report accurate measurements of the physical properties (mass, radius, temperature) of components of the G+M eclipsing binary V530 On. The M-type secondary shows a larger radius and a cooler temperature than predicted by standard stellar evolution models, as has been found for many other low...

  14. A Comprehensive Spectral Analysis of the X-Ray Pulsar 4U 1907+09 from Two Observations with the Suzaku X-Ray Observatory (United States)

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Pottschmidt, Katja; Roth, Stefanie; Barragan, Laura; Furst, Felix; Suchy, Slawomir; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Wilms, Jorn; Rothschild, Richard


    We present results from two observations of the wind-accreting X-ray pulsar 4U 1907+09 using the Suzaku observatory, The broadband time-averaged spectrum allows us to examine the continuum emission of the source and the cyclotron resonance scattering feature at approx. 19 keV. Additionally, using the narrow CCD response of Suzaku near 6 ke V allows us to study in detail the Fe K bandpass and to quantify the Fe Kp line for this source for the first time. The source is absorbed by fully-covering material along the line of sight with a column density of N(sub H) approx. 2 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm, consistent with a wind accreting geometry, and a high Fe abundance (approx. 3 - 4 x solar). Time and phase-resolved analyses allow us to study variations in the source spectrum. In particular, dips found in the 2006 observation which are consistent with earlier observations occur in the hard X-ray bandpass, implying a variation of the whole continuum rather than occultation by intervening material, while a dip near the end of the 2007 observation occurs mainly in the lower energies implying an increase in NH along the line of sight, perhaps indicating clumpiness in the stellar wind

  15. Terrestrial Planet Formation Around Individual Stars Within Binary Star Systems


    Quintana, Elisa V.; Adams, Fred C.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Chambers, John E.


    We calculate herein the late stages of terrestrial planet accumulation around a solar type star that has a binary companion with semimajor axis larger than the terrestrial planet region. We perform more than one hundred simulations to survey binary parameter space and to account for sensitive dependence on initial conditions in these dynamical systems. As expected, sufficiently wide binaries leave the planet formation process largely unaffected. As a rough approximation, binary stars with per...

  16. Orbital synchronization capture of two binaries emitting gravitational waves (United States)

    Seto, Naoki


    We study the possibility of orbital synchronization capture for a hierarchical quadrupole stellar system composed by two binaries emitting gravitational waves. Based on a simple model including the mass transfer for white dwarf binaries, we find that the capture might be realized for inter-binary distances less than their gravitational wavelength. We also discuss related intriguing phenomena such as a parasitic relation between the coupled white dwarf binaries and significant reductions of gravitational and electromagnetic radiations.

  17. Influence of non-binary effects on intranuclear cascade method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, E.H.C.


    The importance of non binary process effects in the intranuclear cascade method is analysed. It is shown that, in the higher density steps, the non binary collisions lead to baryon density distribution and rapidity differents from the one obtained using the usual intranuclear cascade method (limited to purely binary collisions). The validity of the applications of binary intranuclear cascade method to the simulation of the thermal equilibrium, nuclear transparency and particle production, is discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Gravitational waves from spinning eccentric binaries (United States)

    Csizmadia, Péter; Debreczeni, Gergely; Rácz, István; Vasúth, Mátyás


    This paper is to introduce a new software called CBwaves which provides a fast and accurate computational tool to determine the gravitational waveforms yielded by generic spinning binaries of neutron stars and/or black holes on eccentric orbits. This is done within the post-Newtonian (PN) framework by integrating the equations of motion and the spin precession equations, while the radiation field is determined by a simultaneous evaluation of the analytic waveforms. In applying CBwaves various physically interesting scenarios have been investigated. In particular, we have studied the appropriateness of the adiabatic approximation, and justified that the energy balance relation is indeed insensitive to the specific form of the applied radiation reaction term. By studying eccentric binary systems, it is demonstrated that circular template banks are very ineffective in identifying binaries even if they possess tiny residual orbital eccentricity, thus confirming a similar result obtained by Brown and Zimmerman (2010 Phys. Rev. D 81 024007). In addition, by investigating the validity of the energy balance relation we show that, contrary to the general expectations, the PN approximation should not be applied once the PN parameter gets beyond the critical value ˜0.08 - 0.1. Finally, by studying the early phase of the gravitational waves emitted by strongly eccentric binary systems—which could be formed e.g. in various many-body interactions in the galactic halo—we have found that they possess very specific characteristics which may be used to identify these type of binary systems. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our colleague and friend Péter Csizmadia a young physicist, computer expert and one of the best Hungarian mountaineers who disappeared in China’s Sichuan near the Ren Zhong Feng peak of the Himalayas on 23 Oct. 2009. We started to develop CBwaves jointly with Péter a couple of months before he left for China.

  19. Probabilistic seismic history matching using binary images (United States)

    Davolio, Alessandra; Schiozer, Denis Jose


    Currently, the goal of history-matching procedures is not only to provide a model matching any observed data but also to generate multiple matched models to properly handle uncertainties. One such approach is a probabilistic history-matching methodology based on the discrete Latin Hypercube sampling algorithm, proposed in previous works, which was particularly efficient for matching well data (production rates and pressure). 4D seismic (4DS) data have been increasingly included into history-matching procedures. A key issue in seismic history matching (SHM) is to transfer data into a common domain: impedance, amplitude or pressure, and saturation. In any case, seismic inversions and/or modeling are required, which can be time consuming. An alternative to avoid these procedures is using binary images in SHM as they allow the shape, rather than the physical values, of observed anomalies to be matched. This work presents the incorporation of binary images in SHM within the aforementioned probabilistic history matching. The application was performed with real data from a segment of the Norne benchmark case that presents strong 4D anomalies, including softening signals due to pressure build up. The binary images are used to match the pressurized zones observed in time-lapse data. Three history matchings were conducted using: only well data, well and 4DS data, and only 4DS. The methodology is very flexible and successfully utilized the addition of binary images for seismic objective functions. Results proved the good convergence of the method in few iterations for all three cases. The matched models of the first two cases provided the best results, with similar well matching quality. The second case provided models presenting pore pressure changes according to the expected dynamic behavior (pressurized zones) observed on 4DS data. The use of binary images in SHM is relatively new with few examples in the literature. This work enriches this discussion by presenting a new

  20. Rapid method for interconversion of binary and decimal numbers (United States)

    Lim, R. S.


    Decoding tree consisting of 40-bit semiconductor read-only memories interconverts binary and decimal numbers 50 to 100 times faster than current methods. Decimal-to-binary conversion algorithm is based on a divided-by-2 iterative equation, binary-to-decimal conversion algorithm utilizes multiplied-by-2 iterative equation.

  1. Binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sana, H.; de Mink, S.E.; de Koter, A.; Langer, N.; Evans, C.J.; Gieles, M.; Gosset, E.; Izzard, R.G.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Schneider, F.R.N.


    The presence of a nearby companion alters the evolution of massive stars in binary systems, leading to phenomena such as stellar mergers, x-ray binaries, and gamma-ray bursts. Unambiguous constraints on the fraction of massive stars affected by binary interaction were lacking. We simultaneously

  2. Microlensing Binaries Discovered through High-magnification Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G.; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, S.-Y.


    Microlensing can provide a useful tool to probe binary distributions down to low-mass limits of binary companions. In this paper, we analyze the light curves of eight binary-lensing events detected through the channel of high-magnification events during the seasons from 2007 to 2010. The perturba...

  3. Compact stars and the evolution of binary systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, E.P.J.


    The Chandrasekhar limit is of key importance for the evolution of white dwarfs in binary systems and for the formation of neutron stars and black holes in binaries. Mass transfer can drive a white dwarf in a binary over the Chandrasekhar limit, which may lead to a Type Ia supernova (in case of a CO

  4. A decoding method of an n length binary BCH code through (n + 1n length binary cyclic code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available For a given binary BCH code Cn of length n = 2 s - 1 generated by a polynomial of degree r there is no binary BCH code of length (n + 1n generated by a generalized polynomial of degree 2r. However, it does exist a binary cyclic code C (n+1n of length (n + 1n such that the binary BCH code Cn is embedded in C (n+1n . Accordingly a high code rate is attained through a binary cyclic code C (n+1n for a binary BCH code Cn . Furthermore, an algorithm proposed facilitates in a decoding of a binary BCH code Cn through the decoding of a binary cyclic code C (n+1n , while the codes Cn and C (n+1n have the same minimum hamming distance.

  5. Suzaku observation of the symbiotic X-ray binary IGR J16194-2810 (United States)

    Kitamura, Yuiko; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Fukazawa, Yasushi


    We observed IGR J16194-2810 in the low/hard state with the Suzaku X-ray satellite in 2009. The source is a Symbiotic X-ray Binary (SyXB) classified as a category of a Low-Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB), since the system is composed of an M-type giant and probably a neutron star (NS). We detected the 0.8-50 keV signal with the XIS and HXD-PIN. The 2-10 keV luminosity was L ˜ 7 × 1034 erg s-1 corresponding to ˜ 10-3LEdd, where LEdd is the Eddington luminosity of a 1.4 M⊙ NS and a source distance of 3.7 kpc is assumed. The luminosity is similar to those of past observations. The spectral analysis showed that there are two emission components below and above ˜ 2 keV. The hard emission component is represented by a Comptonized blackbody emission model with seed-photon temperature ˜ 1.0 keV and emission radius ˜ 700 m. The seed photon is considered to come from a small fraction of the NS surface. The soft component is reproduced by either a raw blackbody (˜ 0.4 keV, ˜ 1.7 km) or a Comptonized emission (˜ 0.1 keV, ˜ 75 km). We think that the origin is the emission from another part of the NS surface or the accreting stream. The physical parameters of the hard emission component of IGR J16194-2810 are compared with those of an SyXB (4U 1700+24) and two LMXBs (Aql X-1 and 4U 0614+091). This comparison reveals that these SyXBs in the low/hard state have a smaller radiation region (< 1 km) on the NS surface with a higher seed-photon temperature (˜ 1 keV) than the comparison LMXBs.

  6. Confusing Binaries: The Role of Stellar Binaries in Biasing Disk Properties in the Galactic Center (United States)

    Naoz, Smadar; Ghez, Andrea M.; Hees, Aurelien; Do, Tuan; Witzel, Gunther; Lu, Jessica R.


    The population of young stars near the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the Galactic Center (GC) has presented an unexpected challenge to theories of star formation. Kinematic measurements of these stars have revealed a stellar disk structure (with an apparent 20% disk membership) that has provided important clues regarding the origin of these mysterious young stars. However, many of the apparent disk properties are difficult to explain, including the low disk membership fraction and the high eccentricities given the youth of this population. Thus far, all efforts to derive the properties of this disk have made the simplifying assumption that stars at the GC are single stars. Nevertheless, stellar binaries are prevalent in our Galaxy, and recent investigations suggested that they may also be abundant in the Galactic Center. Here, we show that binaries in the disk can largely alter the apparent orbital properties of the disk. The motion of binary members around each other adds a velocity component, which can be comparable to the magnitude of the velocity around the SMBH in the GC. Thus, neglecting the contribution of binaries can significantly vary the inferred stars’ orbital properties. While the disk orientation is unaffected, the apparent disk’s 2D width will be increased to about 11.°2, similar to the observed width. For a population of stars orbiting the SMBH with zero eccentricity, unaccounted for binaries will create a wide apparent eccentricity distribution with an average of 0.23. This is consistent with the observed average eccentricity of the stars’ in the disk. We suggest that this high eccentricity value, which poses a theoretical challenge, may be an artifact of binary stars. Finally, our results suggest that the actual disk membership might be significantly higher than the one inferred by observations that ignore the contribution of binaries, alleviating another theoretical challenge.

  7. Performance analysis and binary working fluid selection of combined flash-binary geothermal cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeyghami, Mehdi


    Performance of the combined flash-binary geothermal power cycle for geofluid temperatures between 150 and 250 °C is studied. A thermodynamic model is developed, and the suitable binary working fluids for different geofluid temperatures are identified from a list of thirty working fluid candidates, consisting environmental friendly refrigerants and hydrocarbons. The overall system exergy destruction and Vapor Expansion Ratio across the binary cycle turbine are selected as key performance indicators. The results show that for low-temperature heat sources using refrigerants as binary working fluids result in higher overall cycle efficiency and for medium and high-temperature resources, hydrocarbons are more suitable. For combined flash-binary cycle, secondary working fluids; R-152a, Butane and Cis-butane show the best performances at geofluid temperatures 150, 200 and 250 °C respectively. The overall second law efficiency is calculated as high as 0.48, 0.55 and 0.58 for geofluid temperatures equal 150, 200 and 250 °C respectively. The flash separator pressure found to has important effects on cycle operation and performance. Separator pressure dictates the work production share of steam and binary parts of the system. And there is an optimal separator pressure at which overall exergy destruction of the cycle achieves its minimum value. - Highlights: • Performance of the combined flash-binary geothermal cycle is investigated. • Thirty different fluids are screened to find the most suitable ORC working fluid. • Optimum cycle operation conditions presented for geofluids between 150 °C and 250 °C. • Refrigerants are more suitable for the ORC at geothermal sources temperature ≤200 °C. • Hydrocarbons are more suitable for the ORC at geothermal sources temperature >200 °C

  8. Complex Binary Number System Algorithms and Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Jamil, Tariq


    This book is a compilation of the entire research work on the topic of Complex Binary Number System (CBNS) carried out by the author as the principal investigator and members of his research groups at various universities during the years 1992-2012. Pursuant to these efforts spanning several years, the realization of CBNS as a viable alternative to represent complex numbers in an 'all-in-one' binary number format has become possible and efforts are underway to build computer hardware based on this unique number system. It is hoped that this work will be of interest to anyone involved in computer arithmetic and digital logic design and kindle renewed enthusiasm among the engineers working in the areas of digital signal and image processing for developing newer and efficient algorithms and techniques incorporating CBNS.

  9. Studies of Long Period Eclipsing Binaries (United States)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.


    The survey of long period eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalog aims at searching for and characterizing subgiants and red giants in double-lined detached binary systems. Absolute physical and orbital parameters are presented based on radial velocities from high-quality optical spectra obtained with the following telescope/instrument combinations: 8.2 m Subaru/HDS, ESO 3.6 m/HARPS, 1.9 m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, CTIO 1.5 m/CHIRON, and 1.2 m Euler/CORALIE. Photometric data from ASAS, SuperWASP, and the Solaris Project were also used. We discuss the derived uncertainties for the individual masses and radii of the components (better than 3% for several systems), as well as results from the spectral analysis performed for components of systems whose spectra we disentangled.

  10. Kilonova Counterparts of Binary Neutron Star Mergers (United States)

    Metzger, Brian


    The merger of a binary neutron star is accompanied by the ejection of neutron-rich matter into space at velocities up to several tenths that of light, which synthesizes rare heavy isotopes through the rapid neutron capture process (r-process). The radioactive decay of these nuclei was predicted by Metzger et al. (2010) to power an optical transient roughly 1000 times more luminous than a classical nova (a "kilonova"), which is among the most promising electromagnetic counterparts to accompany gravitational wave signal from the merger. I will describe how the luminosities, color, and spectra of the kilonova emission inform the properties of the merging binary (neutron star masses/radii and inclination angle) and the long sought origin of the heaviest elements in the Universe. Results will be discussed in the context of recent discoveries by Advanced LIGO/Virgo.

  11. On the dynamics of binary galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verner, D.A.; Chernin, A.D.


    The dynamics of close noncontact binary galaxies is investigated. It is demonsrated that the tidal interaction is ineffective for circularization of galaxy orbits. Nonsphericity of galaxies develops a torque in a binary system. For a pair of elliptical galaxies this torque leads to swinging of the galaxies with respect to the orbital plane (which can be observed as a rotation about the minor axis) and to the excitation of internal degrees of freedom. Besides, this pendulum effect may be effective for elliptical galaxies in clusters due to the presence of the torque produced by a cluster as a whole. In the case of spiral galaxies the torque leads to the precession of their rotational axes. However this effect seems to be too weak to be observable

  12. Induced Ellipticity for Inspiraling Binary Systems (United States)

    Randall, Lisa; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi


    Although gravitational waves tend to erase eccentricity of an inspiraling binary system, ellipticity can be generated in the presence of surrounding matter. We present a semianalytical method for understanding the eccentricity distribution of binary black holes (BHs) in the presence of a supermassive BH in a galactic center. Given a matter distribution, we show how to determine the resultant eccentricity analytically in the presence of both tidal forces and evaporation up to one cutoff and one matter-distribution-independent function, paving the way for understanding the environment of detected inspiraling BHs. We furthermore generalize Kozai–Lidov dynamics to situations where perturbation theory breaks down for short time intervals, allowing more general angular momentum exchange, such that eccentricity is generated even when all bodies orbit in the same plane.

  13. Binary fingerprints at fluctuation-enhanced sensing. (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Chih; Kish, Laszlo B; King, Maria D; Kwan, Chiman


    We have developed a simple way to generate binary patterns based on spectral slopes in different frequency ranges at fluctuation-enhanced sensing. Such patterns can be considered as binary "fingerprints" of odors. The method has experimentally been demonstrated with a commercial semiconducting metal oxide (Taguchi) sensor exposed to bacterial odors (Escherichia coli and Anthrax-surrogate Bacillus subtilis) and processing their stochastic signals. With a single Taguchi sensor, the situations of empty chamber, tryptic soy agar (TSA) medium, or TSA with bacteria could be distinguished with 100% reproducibility. The bacterium numbers were in the range of 2.5 × 10(4)-10(6). To illustrate the relevance for ultra-low power consumption, we show that this new type of signal processing and pattern recognition task can be implemented by a simple analog circuitry and a few logic gates with total power consumption in the microWatts range.

  14. X-Ray Background from Early Binaries (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    What impact did X-rays from the first binary star systems have on the universe around them? A new study suggests this radiation may have played an important role during the reionization of our universe.Ionizing the UniverseDuring the period of reionization, the universe reverted from being neutral (as it was during recombination, the previous period)to once again being ionized plasma a state it has remained in since then. This transition, which occurred between 150 million and one billion years after the Big Bang (redshift of 6 z 20), was caused by the formation of the first objects energetic enough to reionize the universes neutral hydrogen.ROSAT image of the soft X-ray background throughout the universe. The different colors represent different energy bands: 0.25 keV (red), 0.75 keV (green), 1.5 keV (blue). [NASA/ROSAT Project]Understanding this time period in particular, determining what sources caused the reionization, and what the properties were of the gas strewn throughout the universe during this time is necessary for us to be able to correctly interpret cosmological observations.Conveniently, the universe has provided us with an interesting clue: the large-scale, diffuse X-ray background we observe all around us. What produced these X-rays, and what impact did this radiation have on the intergalactic medium long ago?The First BinariesA team of scientists led by Hao Xu (UC San Diego) has suggested that the very first generation of stars might be an important contributor to these X-rays.This hypothetical first generation, Population III stars, are thought to have formed before and during reionization from large clouds of gas containing virtually no metals. Studies suggest that a large fraction of Pop III stars formed in binaries and when those stars ended their lives as black holes, ensuing accretion from their companions could produceX-ray radiation.The evolution with redshift of the mean X-ray background intensities. Each curve represents a different

  15. Eclipsing binary stars modeling and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kallrath, Josef


    This book focuses on the formulation of mathematical models for the light curves of eclipsing binary stars, and on the algorithms for generating such models Since information gained from binary systems provides much of what we know of the masses, luminosities, and radii of stars, such models are acquiring increasing importance in studies of stellar structure and evolution As in other areas of science, the computer revolution has given many astronomers tools that previously only specialists could use; anyone with access to a set of data can now expect to be able to model it This book will provide astronomers, both amateur and professional, with a guide for - specifying an astrophysical model for a set of observations - selecting an algorithm to determine the parameters of the model - estimating the errors of the parameters It is written for readers with knowledge of basic calculus and linear algebra; appendices cover mathematical details on such matters as optimization, coordinate systems, and specific models ...

  16. Binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars. (United States)

    Sana, H; de Mink, S E; de Koter, A; Langer, N; Evans, C J; Gieles, M; Gosset, E; Izzard, R G; Le Bouquin, J-B; Schneider, F R N


    The presence of a nearby companion alters the evolution of massive stars in binary systems, leading to phenomena such as stellar mergers, x-ray binaries, and gamma-ray bursts. Unambiguous constraints on the fraction of massive stars affected by binary interaction were lacking. We simultaneously measured all relevant binary characteristics in a sample of Galactic massive O stars and quantified the frequency and nature of binary interactions. More than 70% of all massive stars will exchange mass with a companion, leading to a binary merger in one-third of the cases. These numbers greatly exceed previous estimates and imply that binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars, with implications for populations of massive stars and their supernovae.

  17. Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries. (United States)

    Rosado, Pablo A; Lasky, Paul D; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto


    Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳10^{10}M_{⊙} can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK, 73019 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)


    We present the discovery of 17 low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) in short-period (P {<=} 1 day) binaries. Our sample includes four objects with remarkable log g {approx_equal} 5 surface gravities and orbital solutions that require them to be double degenerate binaries. All of the lowest surface gravity WDs have metal lines in their spectra implying long gravitational settling times or ongoing accretion. Notably, six of the WDs in our sample have binary merger times <10 Gyr. Four have {approx}>0.9 M{sub Sun} companions. If the companions are massive WDs, these four binaries will evolve into stable mass transfer AM CVn systems and possibly explode as underluminous supernovae. If the companions are neutron stars, then these may be millisecond pulsar binaries. These discoveries increase the number of detached, double degenerate binaries in the ELM Survey to 54; 31 of these binaries will merge within a Hubble time.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A.; Allende Prieto, Carlos


    We present the discovery of 17 low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) in short-period (P ≤ 1 day) binaries. Our sample includes four objects with remarkable log g ≅ 5 surface gravities and orbital solutions that require them to be double degenerate binaries. All of the lowest surface gravity WDs have metal lines in their spectra implying long gravitational settling times or ongoing accretion. Notably, six of the WDs in our sample have binary merger times 0.9 M ☉ companions. If the companions are massive WDs, these four binaries will evolve into stable mass transfer AM CVn systems and possibly explode as underluminous supernovae. If the companions are neutron stars, then these may be millisecond pulsar binaries. These discoveries increase the number of detached, double degenerate binaries in the ELM Survey to 54; 31 of these binaries will merge within a Hubble time.

  20. White dwarfs in Be star binary systems (United States)

    Apparao, K. M. V.


    An evaluation is made of possible reasons for the persistent inability to identify white dwarf stars in the Be binary systems. It is noted that many Be stars exhibiting large optical enhancements may be Be + WD and Be + He systems, and that observations of pulsations in the H-alpha emission, as well as observation of time delays between enhancements of optical line and continuum, can identify such systems.

  1. Search for forced oscillations in binaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janík, J.; Harmanec, Petr; Lehmann, H.; Yang, S.; Božić, H.; Ak, H.; Hadrava, Petr; Eenens, P.; Ruždjak, D.; Sudar, D.; Hubený, I.; Linnell, A. P.


    Roč. 408, č. 2 (2003), s. 611-619 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/96/0162; GA ČR GA205/02/0445; GA AV ČR IAA3003805; GA AV ČR KSK2043105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : binaries stars * close stars * spectroscopis Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.843, year: 2003

  2. Binary choice models with endogenous regressors


    Christopher Baum; Yingying Dong; Arthur Lewbel; Tao Yang


    Dong and Lewbel have developed the theory of simple estimators for binary choice models with endogenous or mismeasured regressors, depending on a `special regressor' as defined by Lewbel (J. Econometrics, 2000). `Control function' methods such as Stata's ivprobit are generally only valid when endogenous regressors are consistent. The estimators proposed here can be used with limited, censored, continuous or discrete endogenous regressors, and have significant advantages over alternatives such...

  3. Digitizing Villanova University's Eclipsing Binary Card Catalogue (United States)

    Guzman, Giannina; Dalton, Briana; Conroy, Kyle; Prsa, Andrej


    Villanova University’s Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science has years of hand-written archival data on Eclipsing Binaries at its disposal. This card catalog began at Princeton in the 1930’s with notable contributions from scientists such as Henry Norris Russel. During World War II, the archive was moved to the University of Pennsylvania, which was one of the world centers for Eclipsing Binary research, consequently, the contributions to the catalog during this time were immense. It was then moved to University of Florida at Gainesville before being accepted by Villanova in the 1990’s. The catalog has been kept in storage since then. The objective of this project is to digitize this archive and create a fully functional online catalog that contains the information available on the cards, along with the scan of the actual cards. Our group has built a database using a python-powered infrastructure to contain the collected data. The team also built a prototype web-based searchable interface as a front-end to the catalog. Following the data-entry process, information like the Right Ascension and Declination will be run against SIMBAD and any differences between values will be noted as part of the catalog. Information published online from the card catalog and even discrepancies in information for a star, could be a catalyst for new studies on these Eclipsing Binaries. Once completed, the database-driven interface will be made available to astronomers worldwide. The group will also acquire, from the database, a list of referenced articles that have yet to be found online in order to further pursue their digitization. This list will be comprised of references in the cards that were neither found on ADS nor online during the data-entry process. Pursuing the integration of these references to online queries such as ADS will be an ongoing process that will contribute and further facilitate studies on Eclipsing Binaries.

  4. Phase analysis of amplitude binary mask structures (United States)

    Puthankovilakam, Krishnaparvathy; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Vogler, Uwe; Bramati, Arianna; Voelkel, Reinhard


    Shaping of light behind masks using different techniques is the milestone of the printing industry. The aerial image distribution or the intensity distribution at the printing distances defines the resolution of the structure after printing. Contrast and phase are the two parameters that play a major role in shaping of light to get the desired intensity pattern. Here, in contrast to many other contributions that focus on intensity, we discuss the phase evolution for different structures. The amplitude or intensity characteristics of the structures in a binary mask at different proximity gaps have been analyzed extensively for many industrial applications. But the phase evolution from the binary mask having OPC structures is not considered so far. The mask we consider here is the normal amplitude binary mask but having high resolution Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) structures for corners. The corner structures represent a two dimensional problem which is difficult to handle with simple rules of phase masks design and therefore of particular interest. The evolution of light from small amplitude structures might lead to high contrast by creating sharp phase changes or phase singularities which are points of zero intensity. We show the phase modulation at different proximity gaps and can visualize the shaping of light according to the phase changes. The analysis is done with an instrument called High Resolution Interference Microscopy (HRIM), a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that gives access to three-dimensional phase and amplitude images. The current paper emphasizes on the phase measurement of different optical proximity correction structures, and especially on corners of a binary mask.

  5. Composition profile determination in isomorphous binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.Y.; Bandeira, I.N.


    The inhomogeneity along the growth axis of the pseudo-binary alloys is due to the segregation of the solute which will be mixed in the melt due to convective and diffusive flows. A process for determination of the exact composition profile by measurements of the crystal density, for alloys of the type A sub(1-x) B sub(x), is shown. (Author) [pt

  6. Robust Speech Recognition from Binary Masks (United States)


    invariance to translation and size of the input pattern. Since the binary patterns of IBM are, in a way, similar to handwritten digits, we used a CNN...classification for each pattern. This also adds to the translational invariance of the CNN. To be consistent, we use the same strategy while testing IBMs...the cases, the noisy speech was enhanced using the MMSE algorithm, which is a widely used speech enhancement algorithm (Ephraim and Malah, 1985), as

  7. Inducing Risk Neutral Preferences with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd


    We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior. We strip the experimental implementation down to bare bones, taking care to avoid any potentially confounding assumptions about behavior having to be made. In particular, our evaluation does not rely on the assumed valid...... toward risk neutrality. This striking result generalizes to the case in which subjects make several lottery choices and one is selected for payment....

  8. Binary DNA Nanostructures for Data Encryption


    Halvorsen, Ken; Wong, Wesley P.


    We present a simple and secure system for encrypting and decrypting information using DNA self-assembly. Binary data is encoded in the geometry of DNA nanostructures with two distinct conformations. Removing or leaving out a single component reduces these structures to an encrypted solution of ssDNA, whereas adding back this missing "decryption key" causes the spontaneous formation of the message through self-assembly, enabling rapid read out via gel electrophoresis. Applications include auth...

  9. Binary DNA nanostructures for data encryption. (United States)

    Halvorsen, Ken; Wong, Wesley P


    We present a simple and secure system for encrypting and decrypting information using DNA self-assembly. Binary data is encoded in the geometry of DNA nanostructures with two distinct conformations. Removing or leaving out a single component reduces these structures to an encrypted solution of ssDNA, whereas adding back this missing "decryption key" causes the spontaneous formation of the message through self-assembly, enabling rapid read out via gel electrophoresis. Applications include authentication, secure messaging, and barcoding.





    The use of logistic models for independent binary data has relied first on asymptotic theory and later on exact distributions for small samples. However, the use of logistic models for dependent analysis based on exact analysis is not as common. Moreover attention is usually given to one-stage clustering. In this paper we extend the exact techniques to address hypothesis testing (estimation is not addressed) for data with second-stage and probably higher levels of clustering. The methods are ...

  11. Relativistic apsidal motion in eccentric eclipsing binaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolf, M.; Claret, L.; Kotková, Lenka; Kučáková, Hana; Kocián, R.; Brát, L.; Svoboda, P.; Šmelcer, L.


    Roč. 509, January (2010), A18/1-A18/14 ISSN 0004-6361 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/04/2063; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/0217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : binaries eclipsing Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.410, year: 2010

  12. Orbital Decay in Binaries with Evolved Stars (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Arras, Phil; Weinberg, Nevin N.; Troup, Nicholas; Majewski, Steven R.


    Two mechanisms are often invoked to explain tidal friction in binary systems. The ``dynamical tide” is the resonant excitation of internal gravity waves by the tide, and their subsequent damping by nonlinear fluid processes or thermal diffusion. The ``equilibrium tide” refers to non-resonant excitation of fluid motion in the star’s convection zone, with damping by interaction with the turbulent eddies. There have been numerous studies of these processes in main sequence stars, but less so on the subgiant and red giant branches. Motivated by the newly discovered close binary systems in the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-1), we have performed calculations of both the dynamical and equilibrium tide processes for stars over a range of mass as the star’s cease core hydrogen burning and evolve to shell burning. Even for stars which had a radiative core on the main sequence, the dynamical tide may have very large amplitude in the newly radiative core in post-main sequence, giving rise to wave breaking. The resulting large dynamical tide dissipation rate is compared to the equilibrium tide, and the range of secondary masses and orbital periods over which rapid orbital decay may occur will be discussed, as well as applications to close APOGEE binaries.

  13. Spinodal decomposition of chemically reactive binary mixtures (United States)

    Lamorgese, A.; Mauri, R.


    We simulate the influence of a reversible isomerization reaction on the phase segregation process occurring after spinodal decomposition of a deeply quenched regular binary mixture, restricting attention to systems wherein material transport occurs solely by diffusion. Our theoretical approach follows a diffuse-interface model of partially miscible binary mixtures wherein the coupling between reaction and diffusion is addressed within the frame of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, leading to a linear dependence of the reaction rate on the chemical affinity. Ultimately, the rate for an elementary reaction depends on the local part of the chemical potential difference since reaction is an inherently local phenomenon. Based on two-dimensional simulation results, we express the competition between segregation and reaction as a function of the Damköhler number. For a phase-separating mixture with components having different physical properties, a skewed phase diagram leads, at large times, to a system converging to a single-phase equilibrium state, corresponding to the absolute minimum of the Gibbs free energy. This conclusion continues to hold for the critical phase separation of an ideally perfectly symmetric binary mixture, where the choice of final equilibrium state at large times depends on the initial mean concentration being slightly larger or less than the critical concentration.

  14. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeson, R. L.; Jensen, E. L. N.


    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10 –4 M ☉ . We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F mm ∝M ∗ 1.5--2.0 to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  15. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akeson, R. L. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jensen, E. L. N. [Swarthmore College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States)


    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉}. We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F{sub mm}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 1.5--2.0} to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, David L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Steinfadt, Justin D. R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)


    The newfound prevalence of extremely low mass (ELM, M{sub He} < 0.2 M{sub Sun }) helium white dwarfs (WDs) in tight binaries with more massive WDs has raised our interest in understanding the nature of their mass transfer. Possessing small (M{sub env} {approx} 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun }) but thick hydrogen envelopes, these objects have larger radii than cold WDs and so initiate mass transfer of H-rich material at orbital periods of 6-10 minutes. Building on the original work of D'Antona et al., we confirm the 10{sup 6} yr period of continued inspiral with mass transfer of H-rich matter and highlight the fact that the inspiraling direct-impact double WD binary HM Cancri likely has an ELM WD donor. The ELM WDs have less of a radius expansion under mass loss, thus enabling a larger range of donor masses that can stably transfer matter and become a He mass transferring AM CVn binary. Even once in the long-lived AM CVn mass transferring stage, these He WDs have larger radii due to their higher entropy from the prolonged H-burning stage.

  17. Constraining the Statistics of Population III Binaries (United States)

    Stacy, Athena; Bromm, Volker


    We perform a cosmological simulation in order to model the growth and evolution of Population III (Pop III) stellar systems in a range of host minihalo environments. A Pop III multiple system forms in each of the ten minihaloes, and the overall mass function is top-heavy compared to the currently observed initial mass function in the Milky Way. Using a sink particle to represent each growing protostar, we examine the binary characteristics of the multiple systems, resolving orbits on scales as small as 20 AU. We find a binary fraction of approx. 36, with semi-major axes as large as 3000 AU. The distribution of orbital periods is slightly peaked at approx. < 900 yr, while the distribution of mass ratios is relatively flat. Of all sink particles formed within the ten minihaloes, approx. 50 are lost to mergers with larger sinks, and 50 of the remaining sinks are ejected from their star-forming disks. The large binary fraction may have important implications for Pop III evolution and nucleosynthesis, as well as the final fate of the first stars.

  18. Observations of binary stars by speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, B.L.; Beckmann, G.K.; Scaddan, R.J.


    This is the second paper in a series describing observations of binary stars using the technique of speckle interferometry. Observations were made using the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and the 1-m telescope of the Royal Greenwich Observatory and the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory. The classical Rayleigh diffraction limits are 0.050 arcsec for the 2.5-m telescope, 0.065 arcsec for the 1.9-m telescope and 0.125 arcsec for the 1-m telescope, at a wavelength of 500 nm. The results of 29 measurements of 26 objects are presented. The objects include long period spectroscopic binaries from the 6th Catalogue of Batten, close visual binary systems from the 3rd Catalogue of Finsen and Worley and variable stars. Nine of the objects have not been previously resolved by speckle interferometry. New members are detected in the systems β Cep, p Vel and iota UMa. (author)

  19. On the binary expansions of algebraic numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.; Pomerance, Carl


    Employing concepts from additive number theory, together with results on binary evaluations and partial series, we establish bounds on the density of 1's in the binary expansions of real algebraic numbers. A central result is that if a real y has algebraic degree D > 1, then the number {number_sign}(|y|, N) of 1-bits in the expansion of |y| through bit position N satisfies {number_sign}(|y|, N) > CN{sup 1/D} for a positive number C (depending on y) and sufficiently large N. This in itself establishes the transcendency of a class of reals {summation}{sub n{ge}0} 1/2{sup f(n)} where the integer-valued function f grows sufficiently fast; say, faster than any fixed power of n. By these methods we re-establish the transcendency of the Kempner--Mahler number {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup 2{sup n}}, yet we can also handle numbers with a substantially denser occurrence of 1's. Though the number z = {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup n{sup 2}} has too high a 1's density for application of our central result, we are able to invoke some rather intricate number-theoretical analysis and extended computations to reveal aspects of the binary structure of z{sup 2}.

  20. Accreting Binary Populations in the Earlier Universe (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann


    It is now understood that X-ray binaries dominate the hard X-ray emission from normal star-forming galaxies. Thanks to the deepest (2-4 Ms) Chandra surveys, such galaxies are now being studied in X-rays out to z approximates 4. Interesting X-ray stacking results (based on 30+ galaxies per redshift bin) suggest that the mean rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity from z=3-4 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), is comparable to the most powerful starburst galaxies in the local Universe. This result possibly indicates a similar production mechanism for accreting binaries over large cosmological timescales. To understand and constrain better the production of X-ray binaries in high-redshift LBGs, we have utilized XMM-Newton observations of a small sample of z approximates 0.1 GALEX-selected Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs); local analogs to high-redshift LBGs. Our observations enable us to study the X-ray emission from LBG-like galaxies on an individual basis, thus allowing us to constrain object-to-object variances in this population. We supplement these results with X-ray stacking constraints using the new 3.2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (completed spring 2010) and LBG candidates selected from HST, Swift UVOT, and ground-based data. These measurements provide new X-ray constraints that sample well the entire z=0-4 baseline

  1. Asteroseismic modelling of the Binary HD 176465

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsamba B.


    Full Text Available The detection and analysis of oscillations in binary star systems is critical in understanding stellar structure and evolution. This is partly because such systems have the same initial chemical composition and age. Solar-like oscillations have been detected by Kepler in both components of the asteroseismic binary HD 176465. We present an independent modelling of each star in this binary system. Stellar models generated using MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics were fitted to both the observed individual frequencies and complementary spectroscopic parameters. The individual theoretical oscillation frequencies for the corresponding stellar models were obtained using GYRE as the pulsation code. A Bayesian approach was applied to find the probability distribution functions of the stellar parameters using AIMS (Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale as the optimisation code. The ages of HD 176465 A and HD 176465 B were found to be 2.81 ± 0.48 Gyr and 2.52 ± 0.80 Gyr, respectively. These results are in agreement when compared to previous studies carried out using other asteroseismic modelling techniques and gyrochronology.

  2. Infalling clouds on to supermassive black hole binaries - II. Binary evolution and the final parsec problem (United States)

    Goicovic, Felipe G.; Sesana, Alberto; Cuadra, Jorge; Stasyszyn, Federico


    The formation of massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) is an unavoidable outcome of galaxy evolution via successive mergers. However, the mechanism that drives their orbital evolution from parsec separations down to the gravitational wave dominated regime is poorly understood, and their final fate is still unclear. If such binaries are embedded in gas-rich and turbulent environments, as observed in remnants of galaxy mergers, the interaction with gas clumps (such as molecular clouds) may efficiently drive their orbital evolution. Using numerical simulations, we test this hypothesis by studying the dynamical evolution of an equal mass, circular MBHB accreting infalling molecular clouds. We investigate different orbital configurations, modelling a total of 13 systems to explore different possible impact parameters and relative inclinations of the cloud-binary encounter. We focus our study on the prompt, transient phase during the first few orbits when the dynamical evolution of the binary is fastest, finding that this evolution is dominated by the exchange of angular momentum through gas capture by the individual black holes and accretion. Building on these results, we construct a simple model for evolving an MBHB interacting with a sequence of clouds, which are randomly drawn from reasonable populations with different levels of anisotropy in their angular momenta distributions. We show that the binary efficiently evolves down to the gravitational wave emission regime within a few hundred million years, overcoming the 'final parsec' problem regardless of the stellar distribution.

  3. X-Ray Observations of the Black Hole Transient 4U 1630-47 during 2 Years of X-Ray Activity (United States)

    Tomsick, John A.; Corbel, Stéphane; Goldwurm, Andrea; Kaaret, Philip


    The black hole candidate (BHC) X-ray transient 4U 1630-47 continuously produced strong X-ray emission for more than 2 years during its 2002-2004 outburst, which is one of the brightest and longest outbursts ever seen from this source. We use more than 300 observations made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to study the source throughout the outburst, along with hard X-ray images from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), which are critical for interpreting the RXTE data in this crowded field. The source exhibits extreme behaviors, which can be interpreted as an indication that the system luminosity approaches the Eddington limit. For 15 observations, fitting the spectral continuum with a disk-blackbody plus power-law model results in measured inner disk temperatures between 2.7 and 3.8 keV, and such temperatures are only rivaled by the brightest BHC systems, such as GRS 1915+105 and XTE J1550-564. If the high temperatures are caused by the dominance of electron scattering opacity in the inner regions of the accretion disk, it is theoretically required that the source luminosity be considerably higher than 20% of the Eddington limit. We detect a variety of high-amplitude variability, including hard 10-100 s flares, which peak at levels as much as 2-3 times higher than nonflare levels. This flaring occurs at the highest disk luminosities in a regime in which the source deviates from the Ldisk~T4in relationship that is seen at lower luminosities, possibly suggesting that we are seeing transitions between a Shakura & Sunyaev disk and a ``slim'' disk, which is predicted to occur at very high mass accretion rates. The X-ray properties in 2002-2004 are significantly different from those seen during the 1998 outburst, which is the only outburst with detected radio jet emission. Our results support the ``jet line'' concept recently advanced by Fender and coworkers. Our study allows for a test of the quantitative McClintock & Remillard

  4. The formation of eccentric compact binary inspirals and the role of gravitational wave emission in binary-single stellar encounters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsing, Johan; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico


    The inspiral and merger of eccentric binaries leads to gravitational waveforms distinct from those generated by circularly merging binaries. Dynamical environments can assemble binaries with high eccentricity and peak frequencies within the LIGO band. In this paper, we study binary-single stellar scatterings occurring in dense stellar systems as a source of eccentrically inspiraling binaries. Many interactions between compact binaries and single objects are characterized by chaotic resonances in which the binary-single system undergoes many exchanges before reaching a final state. During these chaotic resonances, a pair of objects has a non-negligible probability of experiencing a very close passage. Significant orbital energy and angular momentum are carried away from the system by gravitational wave (GW) radiation in these close passages, and in some cases this implies an inspiral time shorter than the orbital period of the bound third body. We derive the cross section for such dynamical inspiral outcomes through analytical arguments and through numerical scattering experiments including GW losses. We show that the cross section for dynamical inspirals grows with increasing target binary semi-major axis a and that for equal-mass binaries it scales as a 2/7 . Thus, we expect wide target binaries to predominantly contribute to the production of these relativistic outcomes. We estimate that eccentric inspirals account for approximately 1% of dynamically assembled non-eccentric merging binaries. While these events are rare, we show that binary-single scatterings are a more effective formation channel than single-single captures for the production of eccentrically inspiraling binaries, even given modest binary fractions.

  5. Nitric acid titration in the presence of UO2(NO3)2, Th(NO3)4, U(NO3)4 or Zr(NO3)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, T.; Lieser, K.H.


    Procedures are described for titration of HNO 3 in presence of UO 2 2+ , Th 4+ , U 4+ and Zr 4+ without formation of interfering precipitates. In the first step the hydrolysable ions are masked by addition of complexing agents and in the second step the acid is titrated by NaOH as usual. (orig.)

  6. All-optical conversion scheme: Binary to quaternary and quaternary to binary number (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay; Roy, Jitendra Nath


    To achieve the inherent parallelism in optics a suitable number system and efficient encoding/decoding scheme for handling the data are very much essential. Binary number is accepted as the best representing number system in almost all types of existing electronic computers. But, binary number (0 and 1) is insufficient in respect to the demand of the coming generation. Multi-valued logic (with radix >2) can be viewed as an alternative approach to solve many problems in transmission, storage and processing of large amount of information in digital signal processing. Here, in this paper all-optical scheme for the conversion of binary to quaternary number and vice versa have been proposed and described. Simulation has also been done. In this all-optical scheme the numbers are represented by different discrete polarized state of light.

  7. Searching Ultra-compact Pulsar Binaries with Abnormal Timing Behavior (United States)

    Gong, B. P.; Li, Y. P.; Yuan, J. P.; Tian, J.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Li, D.; Jiang, B.; Li, X. D.; Wang, H. G.; Zou, Y. C.; Shao, L. J.


    Ultra-compact pulsar binaries are both ideal sources of gravitational radiation for gravitational wave detectors and laboratories for fundamental physics. However, the shortest orbital period of all radio pulsar binaries is currently 1.6 hr. The absence of pulsar binaries with a shorter orbital period is most likely due to technique limit. This paper points out that a tidal effect occurring on pulsar binaries with a short orbital period can perturb the orbital elements and result in a significant change in orbital modulation, which dramatically reduces the sensitivity of the acceleration searching that is widely used. Here a new search is proposed. The abnormal timing residual exhibited in a single pulse observation is simulated by a tidal effect occurring on an ultra-compact binary. The reproduction of the main features represented by the sharp peaks displayed in the abnormal timing behavior suggests that pulsars like PSR B0919+06 could be a candidate for an ultra-compact binary of an orbital period of ∼10 minutes and a companion star of a white dwarf star. The binary nature of such a candidate is further tested by (1) comparing the predicted long-term binary effect with decades of timing noise observed and (2) observing the optical counterpart of the expected companion star. Test (1) likely supports our model, while more observations are needed in test (2). Some interesting ultra-compact binaries could be found in the near future by applying such a new approach to other binary candidates.

  8. Inclination evolution of protoplanetary discs around eccentric binaries (United States)

    Zanazzi, J. J.; Lai, Dong


    It is usually thought that viscous torque works to align a circumbinary disc with the binary's orbital plane. However, recent numerical simulations suggest that the disc may evolve to a configuration perpendicular to the binary orbit ('polar alignment) if the binary is eccentric and the initial disc-binary inclination is sufficiently large. We carry out a theoretical study on the long-term evolution of inclined discs around eccentric binaries, calculating the disc warp profile and dissipative torque acting on the disc. For discs with aspect ratio H/r larger than the viscosity parameter α, bending wave propagation effectively makes the disc precess as a quasi-rigid body, while viscosity acts on the disc warp and twist to drive secular evolution of the disc-binary inclination. We derive a simple analytic criterion (in terms of the binary eccentricity and initial disc orientation) for the disc to evolve towards polar alignment with the eccentric binary. When the disc has a non-negligible angular momentum compared to the binary, the final 'polar alignment' inclination angle is reduced from 90°. For typical protoplanetary disc parameters, the time-scale of the inclination evolution is shorter than the disc lifetime, suggesting that highly inclined discs and planets may exist orbiting eccentric binaries.

  9. Eclipsing binaries observed with the WIRE satellite I. Discovery and photometric analysis of the new bright A0 IV eclipsing binary psi centauri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruntt, Hans; Southworth, J.; Penny, A. J.


    Stars: fundamental parameters, binaries: close, eclipsing, techniques: photometric Udgivelsesdato: Sep.......Stars: fundamental parameters, binaries: close, eclipsing, techniques: photometric Udgivelsesdato: Sep....

  10. The Fate of Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piro, Anthony L. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Giacomazzo, Bruno [Physics Department, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Perna, Rosalba, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)


    Following merger, a neutron star (NS) binary can produce roughly one of three different outcomes: (1) a stable NS, (2) a black hole (BH), or (3) a supramassive, rotationally supported NS, which then collapses to a BH following angular momentum losses. Which of these fates occur and in what proportion has important implications for the electromagnetic transient associated with the mergers and the expected gravitational wave (GW) signatures, which in turn depend on the high density equation of state (EOS). Here we combine relativistic calculations of NS masses using realistic EOSs with Monte Carlo population synthesis based on the mass distribution of NS binaries in our Galaxy to predict the distribution of fates expected. For many EOSs, a significant fraction of the remnants are NSs or supramassive NSs. This lends support to scenarios in which a quickly spinning, highly magnetized NS may be powering an electromagnetic transient. This also indicates that it will be important for future GW observatories to focus on high frequencies to study the post-merger GW emission. Even in cases where individual GW events are too low in signal to noise to study the post merger signature in detail, the statistics of how many mergers produce NSs versus BHs can be compared with our work to constrain the EOS. To match short gamma-ray-burst (SGRB) X-ray afterglow statistics, we find that the stiffest EOSs are ruled out. Furthermore, many popular EOSs require a significant fraction of ∼60%–70% of SGRBs to be from NS–BH mergers rather than just binary NSs.

  11. Binary Classification Method of Social Network Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Poryadin


    Full Text Available The subject of research is a binary classification method of social network users based on the data analysis they have placed. Relevance of the task to gain information about a person by examining the content of his/her pages in social networks is exemplified. The most common approach to its solution is a visual browsing. The order of the regional authority in our country illustrates that its using in school education is needed. The article shows restrictions on the visual browsing of pupil’s pages in social networks as a tool for the teacher and the school psychologist and justifies that a process of social network users’ data analysis should be automated. Explores publications, which describe such data acquisition, processing, and analysis methods and considers their advantages and disadvantages. The article also gives arguments to support a proposal to study the classification method of social network users. One such method is credit scoring, which is used in banks and credit institutions to assess the solvency of clients. Based on the high efficiency of the method there is a proposal for significant expansion of its using in other areas of society. The possibility to use logistic regression as the mathematical apparatus of the proposed method of binary classification has been justified. Such an approach enables taking into account the different types of data extracted from social networks. Among them: the personal user data, information about hobbies, friends, graphic and text information, behaviour characteristics. The article describes a number of existing methods of data transformation that can be applied to solve the problem. An experiment of binary gender-based classification of social network users is described. A logistic model obtained for this example includes multiple logical variables obtained by transforming the user surnames. This experiment confirms the feasibility of the proposed method. Further work is to define a system

  12. Studies of Gas Disks in Binary Systems (United States)

    de Val-Borro, Miguel

    There are over 300 exoplanets detected through radial velocity surveys and photometric studies showing a tremendous variety of masses, compositions and orbital parameters. Understanding the way these planets formed and evolved within the circumstellar disks they were initially embedded in is a crucial issue. In the first part of this thesis we study the physical interaction between a gaseous protoplanetary disk and an embedded planet using numerical simulations. In order to trust the results from simulations it is important to compare different methods. However, the standard test problems for hydrodynamic codes differ considerably from the case of a protoplanetary disk interacting with an embedded planet. We have carried out a code comparison in which the problem of a massive planet in a protoplanetary disk was studied with various numerical schemes. We compare the surface density, potential vorticity and azimuthally averaged density profiles at several times. There is overall good agreement between our codes for Neptune and Jupiter-sized planets. We performed simulations for each planet in an inviscid disk and including physical viscosity. The surface density profiles agree within about 5% for the grid-based schemes while the particle codes have less resolution in the low density regions and weaker spiral wakes. In Paper II, we study hydrodynamical instabilities in disks with planets. Vortices are generated close to the gap in our numerical models in agreement with the linear modal analysis. The vortices exert strong perturbations on the planet as they move along the gap and can change its migration rate. In addition, disk viscosity can be modified by the presence of vortices. The last part of this thesis studies the mass transfer in symbiotic binaries and close T Tauri binary systems. Our simulations of gravitationally focused wind accretion in binary systems show the formation of stream flows and enhanced accretion rates onto the compact component.

  13. Formation and Evolution of Binary Asteroids (United States)

    Walsh, K. J.; Jacobson, S. A.

    Satellites of asteroids have been discovered in nearly every known small-body population, and a remarkable aspect of the known satellites is the diversity of their properties. They tell a story of vast differences in formation and evolution mechanisms that act as a function of size, distance from the Sun, and the properties of their nebular environment at the beginning of solar system history and their dynamical environment over the next 4.5 G.y. The mere existence of these systems provides a laboratory to study numerous types of physical processes acting on asteroids, and their dynamics provide a valuable probe of their physical properties otherwise possible only with spacecraft. Advances in understanding the formation and evolution of binary systems have been assisted by (1) the growing catalog of known systems, increasing from 33 to ~250 between the Merline et al. (2002) chapter in Asteroids III and now; (2) the detailed study and long-term monitoring of individual systems such as 1999 KW4 and 1996 FG3, (3) the discovery of new binary system morphologies and triple systems, (4) and the discovery of unbound systems that appear to be end-states of binary dynamical evolutionary paths. Specifically for small bodies (diameter smaller than 10 km), these observations and discoveries have motivated theoretical work finding that thermal forces can efficiently drive the rotational disruption of small asteroids. Long-term monitoring has allowed studies to constrain the system's dynamical evolution by the combination of tides, thermal forces, and rigid-body physics. The outliers and split pairs have pushed the theoretical work to explore a wide range of evolutionary end-states.

  14. Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Banaras [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye [Department of Physics, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saifullah [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Jalali-Asadabadi, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan (UI), 81744 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, Imad [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Ahmad, Iftikhar, E-mail: [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan)


    The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX{sub 3} (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures.

  15. Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Banaras; Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye; Saifullah; Jalali-Asadabadi, S.; Khan, Imad; Ahmad, Iftikhar


    The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX 3 (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures

  16. Magic structures of binary metallic clusters (United States)

    Ferrando, Riccardo


    The structure of binary metallic clusters is investigated by a variety of computational tools, ranging from genetic and basin-hopping global optimization algorithms, to molecular dynamics, and to density-functional calculations. Three different binary systems are investigated: Ag-Cu, Ag-Ni, and Ag-Pd. A new family of magic cluster structures is found. These clusters have the common feature of presenting a perfect core-shell chemical arrangement (with an outer Ag shell of monoatomic thickness) and of being polyicosahedra, that is being made of interpenetrating icosahedra of 13 atoms. Core-shell polyicosahedra are of special stability, which originates from the interplay of different factors. First of all, polyicosahedra are very compact structures, so that they maximize the number of nearest-neighbor bonds for a given size. However, in single-element clusters, these bonds are not optimal, since inner bonds are strongly compressed and surface bonds are expanded. This is the contrary of what is required from the bond order -bond length correlation in metals, which favors contracted surface bonds. In binary clusters, the situation is different. Substituting the inner atoms of a single-element polyicosahedron with different atoms of smaller size, the bonds can relax close to their optimal distance. This leads naturally to the appearance of core-shell polyicosahedra. In Ag-Cu, Ag-Ni and Ag-Pd the formation of these structures is reinforced by the tendency of Ag atoms to surface segregation. A similar mechanism of structural relaxation, originating from the interplay of cluster geometry and bond order - bond length correlation, is also the cause of the destabilization of icosahedral structures in pure Pt and Au clusters . In these clusters, the compressed inner atoms of the icosahedra can relax because of the formation of rosette structures at vertices in the outer layer.

  17. Evaporation of binary mixtures in microgravity (United States)

    Girgis, Morris; Matta, Nabil; Kolli, Kiran; Brown, Leon; Chubb, Kevin


    The motivation of this research is to obtain a better understanding of phase-change heat transfer within single and binary liquid meniscii, both in 1-g and 0-g environments. During phase 1 and part of phase 2, in a glass test cell with an inclined heated plate, 1-6 experiments on pentane with additions of decane up to 3% were conducted to determine the optimum concentration that will exhibit the maximum heat transfer and stability. During phase 2 emphasis was given to explore fundamental research issues and to ultimately develop a reliable capillary pumped loop (CPL) device for low gravity. In related experimental work, it was found that thermocapillary stresses near the contract line could result in a degraded wettability which ultimately could explain the observed failure of CPL devices in zero-gravity environment. Therefore, the current experimental effort investigates the effect of adding binary constituents in improving the thermocapillary characteristics near the contact line within the loop configuration. Achievements during second phase include: (1) Further enhancement of Central State University's Microgravity Laboratory by adding or improving upon capabilities of photography, video imaging, fluid visualization, and general experimental testing capabilities; (2) Experimental results for the inclined plate cell; (3) Modeling effort with a detailed scaling analysis; (4) Additional testing with a tube loop configuration to extend experimental work by Dickens, et al.; (5) Fabrication of a capillary loop to be tested using binary fluid (pentane/decane). The device that has been recently completed will be set up horizontally so that the effect of gravity on the performance is negligible. Testing will cover a wide range of parameters such as decane/pentane concentration, heat input value, heat input location (below or above meniscus), and loop temperature.

  18. Disordered multihyperuniformity derived from binary plasmas (United States)

    Lomba, Enrique; Weis, Jean-Jacques; Torquato, Salvatore


    Disordered multihyperuniform many-particle systems are exotic amorphous states that allow exquisite color sensing capabilities due to their anomalous suppression of density fluctuations for distinct subsets of particles, as recently evidenced in photoreceptor mosaics in avian retina. Motivated by this biological finding, we present a statistical-mechanical model that rigorously achieves disordered multihyperuniform many-body systems by tuning interactions in binary mixtures of nonadditive hard-disk plasmas. We demonstrate that multihyperuniformity competes with phase separation and stabilizes a clustered phase. Our work provides a systematic means to generate disordered multihyperuniform solids, and hence lays the groundwork to explore their potentially unique photonic, phononic, electronic, and transport properties.

  19. Diffusive flux of energy in binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, R.S.


    The diffusive flux of energy j tilde is studied through the reduced diffusive flux of energy K tilde, which obeys equations of the form: sim(delta K tilde/delta grad rho sub(α))= sim(delta K tilde/delta grad theta)=0. By a representation theorem, herein proved, is obtained a general representation for K tilde which is simplified, for the case of binary mixtures, using the principle of objectivity. Some consequences of this representation are discussed such as the symmetry of the partial stresses T 1 tilde and T 2 tilde and the difference between the normal stresses [pt

  20. Dynamic Binary Modification Tools, Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hazelwood, Kim


    Dynamic binary modification tools form a software layer between a running application and the underlying operating system, providing the powerful opportunity to inspect and potentially modify every user-level guest application instruction that executes. Toolkits built upon this technology have enabled computer architects to build powerful simulators and emulators for design-space exploration, compiler writers to analyze and debug the code generated by their compilers, software developers to fully explore the features, bottlenecks, and performance of their software, and even end-users to extend

  1. in Binary Liquid Mixtures of Ethyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Babu


    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity is measured at 2MHz frequency in the binary mixtures of Ethyl Benzoate with 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol, 1-Pentanol and theoretical values of ultrasonic velocity have been evaluated at 303K using Nomoto's relation, Impedance relation, Ideal mixture relation, Junjie's method and free length theory. Theoretical values are compared with the experimental values and the validity of the theories is checked by applying the chi-square test for goodness of fit and by calculating the average percentage error (APE. A good agreement has been found between experimental and Nomoto’s ultrasonic velocity.

  2. A unified kinetic approach to binary nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Physics, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road]|[E.O.H.S.I., Rutgers University]|[UMDNJ, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States); Lazaridis, M. [Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Instittutvein 18, P. O. Box 100, N-2007 Kjeller (Norway); Drossinos, Y. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Georgopoulos, P.G. [E.O.H.S.I., Rutgers University]|[UMDNJ, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)


    Two different methods to calculate the steady-state nucleation rate in heteromolecular systems proposed by Stauffer (1976) and Langer (1969) are analyzed. Their mathematical equivalence is explicitly demonstrated, thereby obtaining a generic expression for the rate of binary nucleation. Its numerical evaluation does not entail rotation of the coordinate system at the saddle point, but it only requires data in the natural coordinate system of number fluctuations, namely molecular impingement rates, the droplet free energy and its second order derivatives at the saddle point, and the total density of condensible vapors. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Binary breeder reactor with annular core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, J.A. do; Ishiguro, Y.


    Characteristics of a 1200 MWe binary breeder reactor with annular core fueled with metallic 233 U- 238 U-Zr, Pu- 238 U-Zr and Th in the blankets have been analyzed. The Doppler effect is small as expected in a metal fueled fast reactor. The sodium void reactivity is, in general, smaller than in homogeneous fast reactors fueled with metallic fuel and with 1 m core height. The worths of available control is high and there is a large shutdown margin throughout the operational cycle. There are flexibility in blankets fueling in the two cycles, uranium and thorium, with doubling times of about 20 years. (author) [pt

  4. Burnup characteristics of binary breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A.F.; Nascimento, J.A. do; Ishiguro, Y.


    Burnup calculations of a binary breeder reactor have been done for two cases of fueling. In one case the U 233 /TH fueled inner core and the Pu/U-fueled outer core have the same number of fuel assemblies. In the other case two outermost rings in the inner core are Pu/U-fueled. The second case is considered for an initial phase of thorim cycle introduction when the supply of U 233 could be limited. Results show an efficient breeding on the thorium cycle in both cases. (Author) [pt

  5. Pycnonuclear reaction rates for binary ionic mixtures (United States)

    Ichimaru, S.; Ogata, S.; Van Horn, H. M.


    Through a combination of compositional scaling arguments and examinations of Monte Carlo simulation results for the interparticle separations in binary-ionic mixture (BIM) solids, we have derived parameterized expressions for the BIM pycnonuclear rates as generalizations of those in one-component solids obtained previously by Salpeter and Van Horn and by Ogata et al. We have thereby discovered a catalyzing effect of the heavier elements, which enhances the rates of reactions among the lighter elements when the charge ratio exceeds a critical value of approximately 2.3.

  6. HD 161306: a radiatively interacting Be binary?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubský, Pavel; Kotková, Lenka; Kraus, Michaela; Yang, S.; Šlechta, Miroslav; Harmanec, P.; Wolf, M.; Votruba, Viktor; Kubát, Jiří; Kubátová, Brankica; Niemczura, E.; Škoda, Petr


    Roč. 567, July (2014), A57/1-A57/4 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-21373S; GA MŠk LG14026 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project no. 98058; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/10/0715 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : binaries: spectroscopic * stars: emission -line * Be: stars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  7. The Boundary Layer in compact binaries


    Hertfelder, Marius; Kley, Wilhelm; Suleimanov, Valery; Werner, Klaus


    Disk accretion onto stars leads to the formation of a Boundary Layer (BL) near the stellar surface where the disk makes contact with the star. Albeit a large fraction of the total luminosity of the system originates from this tiny layer connecting the accretion disk and the accreting object, its structure has not been fully understood yet. It is the aim of this work, to obtain more insight into the Boundary Layer around the white dwarf in compact binary systems. There are still many uncertain...

  8. Binary DNA nanostructures for data encryption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Halvorsen

    Full Text Available We present a simple and secure system for encrypting and decrypting information using DNA self-assembly. Binary data is encoded in the geometry of DNA nanostructures with two distinct conformations. Removing or leaving out a single component reduces these structures to an encrypted solution of ssDNA, whereas adding back this missing "decryption key" causes the spontaneous formation of the message through self-assembly, enabling rapid read out via gel electrophoresis. Applications include authentication, secure messaging, and barcoding.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, Nevin N.; Arras, Phil; Quataert, Eliot; Burkart, Josh


    We study the excitation and damping of tides in close binary systems, accounting for the leading-order nonlinear corrections to linear tidal theory. These nonlinear corrections include two distinct physical effects: three-mode nonlinear interactions, i.e., the redistribution of energy among stellar modes of oscillation, and nonlinear excitation of stellar normal modes by the time-varying gravitational potential of the companion. This paper, the first in a series, presents the formalism for studying nonlinear tides and studies the nonlinear stability of the linear tidal flow. Although the formalism we present is applicable to binaries containing stars, planets, and/or compact objects, we focus on non-rotating solar-type stars with stellar or planetary companions. Our primary results include the following: (1) The linear tidal solution almost universally used in studies of binary evolution is unstable over much of the parameter space in which it is employed. More specifically, resonantly excited internal gravity waves in solar-type stars are nonlinearly unstable to parametric resonance for companion masses M' ∼> 10-100 M ⊕ at orbital periods P ≈ 1-10 days. The nearly static 'equilibrium' tidal distortion is, however, stable to parametric resonance except for solar binaries with P ∼ 3 [P/10 days] for a solar-type star) and drives them as a single coherent unit with growth rates that are a factor of ≈N faster than the standard three-wave parametric instability. These are local instabilities viewed through the lens of global analysis; the coherent global growth rate follows local rates in the regions where the shear is strongest. In solar-type stars, the dynamical tide is unstable to this collective version of the parametric instability for even sub-Jupiter companion masses with P ∼< a month. (4) Independent of the parametric instability, the dynamical and equilibrium tides excite a wide range of stellar p-modes and g-modes by nonlinear inhomogeneous forcing

  10. X-ray binaries, part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerschlag-Hensberge, G.C.M.J.


    Optical observations of X-ray binaries and their interpretation are described. A number of early-type stars which are identified as companions of X-ray sources are photometrically and spectroscopically observed. The spectra were obtained with the coude spectrograph attached to the 1.5 m telescope of the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Registrations of the spectra were made with the Faul-Coradi microphotometer of the Observatory at Utrecht. To study radial velocity variations, the positions of the spectral lines were measured with the Grant comparator of the University of Groningen

  11. Electrostatic collection efficiency in binary fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, A.; Guardiola, J.; Rincon, J. (Univ. of Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain))


    Fluidized beds of binary mixtures have been used to clean air streams containing dust particles in the size range 4.4 to 14 {mu}m. All beds were composed of glass beads and plastic granules mixed at different proportions. The effect on the electrostatic collection efficiency of a number of variables, including type of collecting mixture, bed height, and gas velocity, was examined. To calculate the single collection efficiency from experimental results, an early model proposed by Clift et al. was used. The electrostatic collection efficiency was determined by subtracting the other individual mechanism efficiencies from the single particle collection efficiency.

  12. Gas filtration in binary fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, J. (Univ. de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)); Guardiola, J.; Romero, A. (Univ. de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain))


    A systematic experimental study of aerosol filtration in a binary fluidized bed of dielectric material is carried out. Measurements of the collection efficiency when such parameters as gas velocity, bed height, collecting mixture, and column diameter are varied over a wide range have been made. Experimental evidence is given to show that charges generated naturally by triboelectrification of the bed dielectric particles can considerably increase the efficiency of such beds. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a proper choice of the fluidized mixture can significantly improve the performance of such filters.

  13. On Binary-State Phyllosilicate Automata (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    Phyllosilicate is a sheet of silicate tetrahedra bound by basal oxygens. A phyllosilicate automaton is a regular network of finite state machines, which mimics the structure of phyllosilicate. A node of a binary state phyllosilicate automaton takes states 0 and 1. A node updates its state in discrete time depending on a sum of states of its three (silicon nodes) or six (oxygen nodes) closest neighbors. We phenomenologically select the main types of patterns generated by phyllosilicate automata based on their shape: convex and concave hulls, almost circularly growing patterns, octagonal patterns, and those with dendritic growth; and, the patterns' interior: disordered, solid, labyrinthine. We also present the rules exhibiting traveling localizations.

  14. Binary Stars and Globular Cluster Dynamics (United States)

    Fregeau, John M.


    In this brief proceedings article I summarize the review talk I gave at the IAU 246 meeting in Capri, Italy, glossing over the well-known results from the literature, but paying particular attention to new, previously unpublished material. This new material includes a careful comparison of the apparently contradictory results of two independent methods used to simulate the evolution of binary populations in dense stellar systems (the direct N-body method of Hurley, Aarseth, & Shara (2007) and the approximate Monte Carlo method of Ivanova et al. (2005)), that shows that the two methods may not actually yield contradictory results, and suggests future work to more directly compare the two methods.

  15. Physical Structure of Four Symbiotic Binaries (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J. (Principal Investigator)


    Disk accretion powers many astronomical objects, including pre-main sequence stars, interacting binary systems, and active galactic nuclei. Unfortunately, models developed to explain the behavior of disks and their surroundings - boundary layers, jets, and winds - lack much predictive power, because the physical mechanism driving disk evolution - the viscosity - is not understood. Observations of many types of accreting systems are needed to constrain the basic physics of disks and provide input for improved models. Symbiotic stars are an attractive laboratory for studying physical phenomena associated with disk accretion. These long period binaries (P(sub orb) approx. 2-3 yr) contain an evolved red giant star, a hot companion, and an ionized nebula. The secondary star usually is a white dwarf accreting material from the wind of its red giant companion. A good example of this type of symbiotic is BF Cygni: our analysis shows that disk accretion powers the nuclear burning shell of the hot white dwarf and also manages to eject material perpendicular to the orbital plane (Mikolajewska, Kenyon, and Mikolajewski 1989). The hot components in other symbiotic binaries appear powered by tidal overflow from a very evolved red giant companion. We recently completed a study of CI Cygni and demonstrated that the accreting secondary is a solar-type main sequence star, rather than a white dwarf (Kenyon et aL 1991). This project continued our study of symbiotic binary systems. Our general plan was to combine archival ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry with high quality optical radial velocity observations to determine the variation of line and continuum sources as functions of orbital phase. We were very successful in generating orbital solutions and phasing UV+optical spectra for five systems: AG Dra, V443 Her, RW Hya, AG Peg, and AX Per. Summaries of our main results for these systems appear below. A second goal of our project was to consider general models for the

  16. Binary Modulation Formats in Optical Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Tejkal


    Full Text Available In this paper the binary modulation formats and their application in passive optical networks have been discussed. Passive optical networks are characterized by dividing the optical signal between several end users by using passive splitters, which added a significant attenuation to the network. The performance of the selected modulation formats, depending on the transmitter power in order to verify that there is no signal distortion, has been examined in our simulations. A minimal error rate of the system for each modulation format has been also examined. Finding a suitable modulation, which would allow extension of the distance and splitting ration in current passive optical networks, has been the main aim.

  17. Astronomical Plate Archives and Binary Blazars Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René


    Roč. 32, 1-2 (2011), s. 91-95 ISSN 0250-6335. [Conference on Multiwavelength Variability of Blazars. Guangzhou, 22,09,2010-24,09,2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; MŠMT(CZ) ME09027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomical plates * plate archives archives * binary blazars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2011

  18. Generating quality tetrahedral meshes from binary volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Larsen, Rasmus


    use these measures to generate high quality meshes from signed distance maps. This paper also describes an approach for computing (smooth) signed distance maps from binary volumes as volumetric data in many cases originate from segmentation of objects from imaging techniques such as CT, MRI, etc...... generation algorithm on four examples (torus, Stanford dragon, brain mask, and pig back) and report the dihedral angle, aspect ratio and radius-edge ratio. Even though, the algorithm incorporates none of the mentioned quality measures in the compression stage it receives a good score for all these measures...

  19. Binary magnetic structures in HoEr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, B.K.; Bohr, J.


    The magnetic structure of a single crystal of the rare earth random alloy Ho50% Er50% has been investigated by elastic neutron diffraction measurements in the temperature range 120-10 K. Three distinct magnetic phases are identified below the Neel temperature of 104 K. The high-temperature phase...... observed between 104 K and 47.5 K is a binary magnetic structure where the holmium and erbium moments belong to different modulated c-axis spirals. The intermediate-temperature phase between 47.5 K and 35 K is a simple basal plane spiral. Below 35 K, the measurements suggest a ferrimagnetic structure...

  20. WIYN Open Cluster Study: Tidal Interactions in Solar type Binaries


    Meibom, S.; Mathieu, R. D.


    We present an ongoing study on tidal interactions in late-type close binary stars. New results on tidal circularization are combined with existing data to test and constrain theoretical predictions of tidal circularization in the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase and throughout the main-sequence phase of stellar evolution. Current data suggest that tidal circularization during the PMS phase sets the tidal cutoff period for binary populations younger than ~1 Gyr. Binary populations older than ~1 G...

  1. Optimal static and dynamic recycling of defective binary devices (United States)

    Challet, Damien; Pérez Castillo, Isaac


    The binary defect combination problem consists in finding a fully working subset from a given ensemble of imperfect binary components. We determine the typical properties of the model using methods of statistical mechanics, in particular the region in the parameter space where there is almost surely at least one fully working subset. Dynamic recycling of a flux of imperfect binary components leads to zero wastage.

  2. CNN-aware Binary Map for General Semantic Segmentation


    Ravanbakhsh, Mahdyar; Mousavi, Hossein; Nabi, Moin; Rastegari, Mohammad; Regazzoni, Carlo


    In this paper we introduce a novel method for general semantic segmentation that can benefit from general semantics of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Our segmentation proposes visually and semantically coherent image segments. We use binary encoding of CNN features to overcome the difficulty of the clustering on the high-dimensional CNN feature space. These binary codes are very robust against noise and non-semantic changes in the image. These binary encoding can be embedded into the CNN...

  3. Detection of Contact Binaries Using Sparse High Phase Angle Lightcurves


    Lacerda, Pedro


    We show that candidate contact binary asteroids can be efficiently identified from sparsely sampled photometry taken at phase angles >60deg. At high phase angle, close/contact binary systems produce distinctive lightcurves that spend most of the time at maximum or minimum (typically >1mag apart) brightness with relatively fast transitions between the two. This means that a few (~5) sparse observations will suffice to measure the large range of variation and identify candidate contact binary s...

  4. Search for forced oscillations in binaries. 4. The eclipsing binary V436 Per revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janík, J.; Harmanec, Petr; Lehmann, H.; Yang, S.; Božić, H.; Ak, H.; Hadrava, Petr; Eenens, P.; Ruždjak, D.; Sudar, D.; Hubený, I.; Linnell, A. P.


    Roč. 408, č. 2 (2003), s. 611-619 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/96/0162; GA AV ČR KSK2043105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : binaries stars * eclipsing * spectroscopic Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.843, year: 2003

  5. Absolute Dimensions of Contact Binary Stars in Baade Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Woon Kang


    Full Text Available The light curves of the representative 6 contact binary stars observed by OGLE Project of searching for dark matter in our Galaxy have been analyzed by the method of the Wilson and Devinney Differential Correction to find photometric solutions. The orbital inclinations of these binaries are in the range of 52 deg - 69 deg which is lower than that of the solar neighborhood binaries. The Roche lobe filling factor of these binaries are distributed in large range of 0.12 - 0.90. Since absence of spectroscopic observations for these binaries we have found masses of the 6 binary systems based on the intersection between Kepler locus and locus derived from Vandenberg isochrones in the mass - luminosity plane. Then absolute dimensions and distances have been found by combining the masses and the photometric solutions. The distances of the 6 binary systems are distributed in the range of 1 kpc - 6 kpc. This distance range is the limiting range where the contact binaries which have period shorter than a day are visible. Most contact binaries discovered in the Baade window do not belong to the Galactic bulge.

  6. Inferences about binary stellar populations using gravitational wave observations (United States)

    Wysocki, Daniel; Gerosa, Davide; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Gladysz, Wojciech; Berti, Emanuele; Kesden, Michael; Holz, Daniel


    With the dawn of gravitational wave astronomy, enabled by the LIGO and Virgo interferometers, we now have a new window into the Universe. In the short time these detectors have been in use, multiple confirmed detections of gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences have been made. Stellar binary systems are one of the likely progenitors of the observed compact binary sources. If this is indeed the case, then we can use measured properties of these binary systems to learn about their progenitors. We will discuss the Bayesian framework in which we make these inferences, and results which include mass and spin distributions.

  7. Modern geothermal power: Binary cycle geothermal power plants (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.


    In the second part of the review of modern geothermal power plant technologies and equipment, a role, a usage scale, and features of application of binary cycle plants in the geothermal economy are considered. Data on the use of low-boiling fluids, their impact on thermal parameters and performance of geothermal binary power units are presented. A retrospective of the use of various low-boiling fluids in industrial binary power units in the world since 1965 is shown. It is noted that the current generating capacity of binary power units running on hydrocarbons is equal to approximately 82.7% of the total installed capacity of all the binary power units in the world. At the same time over the past 5 years, the total installed capacity of geothermal binary power units in 25 countries increased by more than 50%, reaching nearly 1800 MW (hereinafter electric power is indicated), by 2015. A vast majority of the existing binary power plants recovers heat of geothermal fluid in the range of 100-200°C. Binary cycle power plants have an average unit capacity of 6.3 MW, 30.4 MW at single-flash power plants, 37.4 MW at double-flash plants, and 45.4 MW at power plants working on superheated steam. The largest binary cycle geothermal power plants (GeoPP) with an installed capacity of over 60 MW are in operation in the United States and the Philippines. In most cases, binary plants are involved in the production process together with a steam cycle. Requirements to the fluid ensuring safety, reliability, and efficiency of binary power plants using heat of geothermal fluid are determined, and differences and features of their technological processes are shown. Application of binary cycle plants in the technological process of combined GeoPPs makes it possible to recover geothermal fluid more efficiently. Features and advantages of binary cycle plants using multiple fluids, including a Kalina Cycle, are analyzed. Technical characteristics of binary cycle plants produced by various

  8. An Economic Evaluation of Binary Cycle Geothermal Electricity Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzgerald, Crissie


    .... Variables such as well flow rate, geothermal gradient and electricity prices were varied to study their influence on the economic payback period for binary cycle geothermal electricity production...

  9. Improving geothermal power plants with a binary cycle (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.


    The recent development of binary geothermal technology is analyzed. General trends in the introduction of low-temperature geothermal sources are summarized. The use of single-phase low-temperature geothermal fluids in binary power plants proves possible and expedient. The benefits of power plants with a binary cycle in comparison with traditional systems are shown. The selection of the working fluid is considered, and the influence of the fluid's physicochemical properties on the design of the binary power plant is discussed. The design of binary power plants is based on the chemical composition and energy potential of the geothermal fluids and on the landscape and climatic conditions at the intended location. Experience in developing a prototype 2.5 MW Russian binary power unit at Pauzhetka geothermal power plant (Kamchatka) is outlined. Most binary systems are designed individually for a specific location. Means of improving the technology and equipment at binary geothermal power plants are identified. One option is the development of modular systems based on several binary systems that employ the heat from the working fluid at different temperatures.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, Anthony L.


    The recently discovered system J0651 is the tightest known detached white dwarf (WD) binary. Since it has not yet initiated Roche-lobe overflow, it provides a relatively clean environment for testing our understanding of tidal interactions. I investigate the tidal heating of each WD, parameterized in terms of its tidal Q parameter. Assuming that the heating can be radiated efficiently, the current luminosities are consistent with Q 1 ∼ 7 x 10 10 and Q 2 ∼ 2 x 10 7 , for the He and C/O WDs, respectively. Conversely, if the observed luminosities are merely from the cooling of the WDs, these estimated values of Q represent the upper limits. A large Q 1 for the He WD means its spin velocity will be slower than that expected if it was tidally locked, which, since the binary is eclipsing, may be measurable via the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. After one year, gravitational wave emission shifts the time of eclipses by 5.5 s, but tidal interactions cause the orbit to shrink more rapidly, changing the time by up to an additional 0.3 s after a year. Future eclipse timing measurements may therefore infer the degree of tidal locking.

  11. Structure Defect Property Relationships in Binary Intermetallics (United States)

    Medasani, Bharat; Ding, Hong; Chen, Wei; Persson, Kristin; Canning, Andrew; Haranczyk, Maciej; Asta, Mark


    Ordered intermetallics are light weight materials with technologically useful high temperature properties such as creep resistance. Knowledge of constitutional and thermal defects is required to understand these properties. Vacancies and antisites are the dominant defects in the intermetallics and their concentrations and formation enthalpies could be computed by using first principles density functional theory and thermodynamic formalisms such as dilute solution method. Previously many properties of the intermetallics such as melting temperatures and formation enthalpies were statistically analyzed for large number of intermetallics using structure maps and data mining approaches. We undertook a similar exercise to establish the dependence of the defect properties in binary intermetallics on the underlying structural and chemical composition. For more than 200 binary intermetallics comprising of AB, AB2 and AB3 structures, we computed the concentrations and formation enthalpies of vacancies and antisites in a small range of stoichiometries deviating from ideal stoichiometry. The calculated defect properties were datamined to gain predictive capabilities of defect properties as well as to classify the intermetallics for their suitability in high-T applications. Supported by the US DOE under Contract No. DEAC02-05CH11231 under the Materials Project Center grant (Award No. EDCBEE).


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollney, Denis; Reisswig, Christian


    In addition to the dominant oscillatory gravitational wave signals produced during binary inspirals, a non-oscillatory component arises from the nonlinear 'memory' effect, sourced by the emitted gravitational radiation. The memory grows significantly during the late-inspiral and merger, modifying the signal by an almost step-function profile, and making it difficult to model by approximate methods. We use numerical evolutions of binary black holes (BHs) to evaluate the nonlinear memory during late-inspiral, merger, and ringdown. We identify two main components of the signal: the monotonically growing portion corresponding to the memory, and an oscillatory part which sets in roughly at the time of merger and is due to the BH ringdown. Counterintuitively, the ringdown is most prominent for models with the lowest total spin. Thus, the case of maximally spinning BHs anti-aligned to the orbital angular momentum exhibits the highest signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for interferometric detectors. The largest memory offset, however, occurs for highly spinning BHs, with an estimated value of h tot 20 ≅ 0.24 in the maximally spinning case. These results are central to determining the detectability of nonlinear memory through pulsar timing array measurements.

  13. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers. (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander


    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  14. Multilevel Cross-Dependent Binary Longitudinal Data

    KAUST Repository

    Serban, Nicoleta


    We provide insights into new methodology for the analysis of multilevel binary data observed longitudinally, when the repeated longitudinal measurements are correlated. The proposed model is logistic functional regression conditioned on three latent processes describing the within- and between-variability, and describing the cross-dependence of the repeated longitudinal measurements. We estimate the model components without employing mixed-effects modeling but assuming an approximation to the logistic link function. The primary objectives of this article are to highlight the challenges in the estimation of the model components, to compare two approximations to the logistic regression function, linear and exponential, and to discuss their advantages and limitations. The linear approximation is computationally efficient whereas the exponential approximation applies for rare events functional data. Our methods are inspired by and applied to a scientific experiment on spectral backscatter from long range infrared light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The models are general and relevant to many new binary functional data sets, with or without dependence between repeated functional measurements.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Hwa Yu


    Full Text Available Acoustics is the science concerned with the study of sound. The effects of sound on structures attract overwhelm interests and numerous studies were carried out in this particular area. Many of the preliminary investigations show that acoustic pressure produces significant influences on structures such as thin plate, membrane and also high-impedance medium like water (and other similar fluids. Thus, it is useful to investigate the structure response with the presence of acoustics on aircraft, especially on aircraft wings, tails and control surfaces which are vulnerable to flutter phenomena. The present paper describes the modeling of structural-acoustic interactions to simulate the external acoustic effect on binary flutter model. Here, the binary flutter model which illustrated as a rectangular wing is constructed using strip theory with simplified unsteady aerodynamics involving flap and pitch degree of freedom terms. The external acoustic excitation, on the other hand, is modeled using four-node quadrilateral isoparametric element via finite element approach. Both equations then carefully coupled and solved using eigenvalue solution. The mentioned approach is implemented in MATLAB and the outcome of the simulated result are later described, analyzed and illustrated in this paper.

  16. Binary rf pulse compression experiment at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.; Spalek, G.; Farkas, Z.D.; Menegat, A.; Miller, R.H.; Nantista, C.; Wilson, P.B.


    Using rf pulse compression it will be possible to boost the 50- to 100-MW output expected from high-power microwave tubes operating in the 10- to 20-GHz frequency range, to the 300- to 1000-MW level required by the next generation of high-gradient linacs for linear for linear colliders. A high-power X-band three-stage binary rf pulse compressor has been implemented and operated at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). In each of three successive stages, the rf pulse-length is compressed by half, and the peak power is approximately doubled. The experimental results presented here have been obtained at low-power (1-kW) and high-power (15-MW) input levels in initial testing with a TWT and a klystron. Rf pulses initially 770 nsec long have been compressed to 60 nsec. Peak power gains of 1.8 per stage, and 5.5 for three stages, have been measured. This corresponds to a peak power compression efficiency of about 90% per stage, or about 70% for three stages, consistent with the individual component losses. The principle of operation of a binary pulse compressor (BPC) is described in detail elsewhere. We recently have implemented and operated at SLAC a high-power (high-vacuum) three-stage X-band BPC. First results from the high-power three-stage BPC experiment are reported here

  17. High-quality binary interactome mapping. (United States)

    Dreze, Matija; Monachello, Dario; Lurin, Claire; Cusick, Michael E; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc; Braun, Pascal


    Physical interactions mediated by proteins are critical for most cellular functions and altogether form a complex macromolecular "interactome" network. Systematic mapping of protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-RNA, and protein-metabolite interactions at the scale of the whole proteome can advance understanding of interactome networks with applications ranging from single protein functional characterization to discoveries on local and global systems properties. Since the early efforts at mapping protein-protein interactome networks a decade ago, the field has progressed rapidly giving rise to a growing number of interactome maps produced using high-throughput implementations of either binary protein-protein interaction assays or co-complex protein association methods. Although high-throughput methods are often thought to necessarily produce lower quality information than low-throughput experiments, we have recently demonstrated that proteome-scale interactome datasets can be produced with equal or superior quality than that observed in literature-curated datasets derived from large numbers of small-scale experiments. In addition to performing all experimental steps thoroughly and including all necessary controls and quality standards, careful verification of all interacting pairs and validation tests using independent, orthogonal assays are crucial to ensure the release of interactome maps of the highest possible quality. This chapter describes a high-quality, high-throughput binary protein-protein interactome mapping pipeline that includes these features. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Binary droplet collision at high Weber number. (United States)

    Pan, Kuo-Long; Chou, Ping-Chung; Tseng, Yu-Jen


    By using the techniques developed for generating high-speed droplets, we have systematically investigated binary droplet collision when the Weber number (We) was increased from the range usually tested in previous studies on the order of 10 to a much larger value of about 5100 for water (a droplet at 23 m/s with a diameter of 0.7 mm). Various liquids were also used to explore the effects of viscosity and surface tension. Specifically, beyond the well-known regimes at moderate We's, which exhibited coalescence, separation, and separation followed by satellite droplets, we found different behaviors showing a fingering lamella, separation after fingering, breakup of outer fingers, and prompt splattering into multiple secondary droplets as We was increased. The critical Weber numbers that mark the boundaries between these impact regimes are identified. The specific impact behaviors, such as fingering and prompt splattering or splashing, share essential similarity with those also observed in droplet-surface impacts, whereas substantial variations in the transition boundaries may result from the disparity of the boundary conditions at impacts. To compare the outcomes of both types of collisions, a simple model based on energy conservation was carried out to predict the maximum diameter of an expanding liquid disk for a binary droplet collision. The results oppose the dominance of viscous drag, as proposed by previous studies, as the main deceleration force to effect a Rayleigh-Taylor instability and ensuing periphery fingers, which may further lead to the formations of satellite droplets.

  19. Pattern formation in phase separating binary mixtures. (United States)

    Sam, Ebie M; Hayase, Yumino; Auernhammer, Günter K; Vollmer, Doris


    We experimentally investigate the interplay of thermodynamics with hydrodynamics during phase separation of (quasi-) binary mixtures. Well defined patterns emerge while slowly crossing the cloud point curve. Depending on the material parameters of the experimental system, two distinct scenarios are observed. In quasi-binary mixtures of methanol-hexane patterns appear before macroscopic phase separation sets in. In course of time the patterns turn faint while the overall turbidity of the sample increases until the mixtures become completely turbid. We attribute this pattern formation to a latent heat induced instability resembling a Rayleigh-Bénard instability. This is confirmed by calorimetric data and an estimate of its Rayleigh number. Mixtures of C(4)E(1)-water doped with decane phase separate under heating. After passing the cloud point curve these mixtures first become homogenously turbid. While clearing up, pattern formation is observed. We attribute this type of pattern formation to an interfacial tension induced Bénard-Marangoni instability. The occurrence of the two scenarios is supported by the relevant dimensionless numbers. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  20. Theoretical Bounds of Direct Binary Search Halftoning. (United States)

    Liao, Jan-Ray


    Direct binary search (DBS) produces the images of the best quality among half-toning algorithms. The reason is that it minimizes the total squared perceived error instead of using heuristic approaches. The search for the optimal solution involves two operations: (1) toggle and (2) swap. Both operations try to find the binary states for each pixel to minimize the total squared perceived error. This error energy minimization leads to a conjecture that the absolute value of the filtered error after DBS converges is bounded by half of the peak value of the autocorrelation filter. However, a proof of the bound's existence has not yet been found. In this paper, we present a proof that shows the bound existed as conjectured under the condition that at least one swap occurs after toggle converges. The theoretical analysis also indicates that a swap with a pixel further away from the center of the autocorrelation filter results in a tighter bound. Therefore, we propose a new DBS algorithm which considers toggle and swap separately, and the swap operations are considered in the order from the edge to the center of the filter. Experimental results show that the new algorithm is more efficient than the previous algorithm and can produce half-toned images of the same quality as the previous algorithm.

  1. Inverse halftoning using binary permutation filters. (United States)

    Kim, Y T; Arce, G R; Grabowski, N


    The problem of reconstructing a continuous-tone image given its ordered dithered halftone or its error-diffused halftone image is considered. We develop a modular class of nonlinear filters that can reconstruct the continuous-tone information preserving image details and edges that provide important visual cues. The proposed nonlinear reconstruction algorithms, denoted as binary permutation filters, are based on the space and rank orderings of the halftone samples provided by the multiset permutation of the "on" pixels in a halftone observation window. For a given window size, we obtain a wide range of filters by varying the amount of space-rank ordering information utilized in the estimate. For image reconstructions from ordered dithered halftones, we develop periodically space-varying filters that can account for the periodical nature of the underlying screening process. A class of suboptimal but simpler space-invariant reconstruction filters are also proposed and tested. Constrained LMS type algorithms are employed for the design of reconstruction filters that minimize the reconstruction mean squared error. We present simulations showing that binary permutation filters are modular, robust to image source characteristics, and that they produce high visual quality image reconstruction.

  2. Modeling and analysis of advanced binary cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, K.


    A computer model (Cycle Analysis Simulation Tool, CAST) and a methodology have been developed to perform value analysis for small, low- to moderate-temperature binary geothermal power plants. The value analysis method allows for incremental changes in the levelized electricity cost (LEC) to be determined between a baseline plant and a modified plant. Thermodynamic cycle analyses and component sizing are carried out in the model followed by economic analysis which provides LEC results. The emphasis of the present work is on evaluating the effect of mixed working fluids instead of pure fluids on the LEC of a geothermal binary plant that uses a simple Organic Rankine Cycle. Four resources were studied spanning the range of 265{degrees}F to 375{degrees}F. A variety of isobutane and propane based mixtures, in addition to pure fluids, were used as working fluids. This study shows that the use of propane mixtures at a 265{degrees}F resource can reduce the LEC by 24% when compared to a base case value that utilizes commercial isobutane as its working fluid. The cost savings drop to 6% for a 375{degrees}F resource, where an isobutane mixture is favored. Supercritical cycles were found to have the lowest cost at all resources.

  3. FG-MOS neuron for binary CNN (United States)

    Flak, Jacek; Laiho, Mika; Halonen, Kari


    This paper presents a neuron implementation based on floating-gate MOSFET (FG-MOS) structure. The computation is performed by charge distribution at the input of FG-MOS inverter determining the cell state. There is no current-flow through the interconnections after processing is completed, thus a significant reduction in DC power consumption can be achieved. Such neuron can be used to build a capacitively coupled cellular neural/nonlinear network (CNN) for processing black and white (B/W) images. Although the coupling coefficients are basically implemented with capacitances, this approach provides them with 1-bit programmability. Also the neuron's threshold level can be digitally programmed to four different values. The templates operating on the B/W images can be modified to have only binary-valued {0,1} terms or can be split into such (sequentially run) simple subtasks. Therefore, the presented neuron structure is able to perform the evaluation of almost all B/W templates proposed so far. Exploration of FG-MOS structures can help to understand the implementation problems of capacitively coupled CNNs. Such a situation appears, e.g., in nanoelectronic CNNs composed of single-electron tunneling (SET) transistors, which also deal with B/W images only. Moreover, the binary programmability approach utilized here should help to develop an effective programming scheme for future SET or CMOS-SET hybrid CNN implementations. Along with the neuron structure, its operation description and simulation results of the 8 x 8 network are presented.

  4. Backyard Telescopes Watch an Expanding Binary (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    What can you do with a team of people armed with backyard telescopes and a decade of patience? Test how binary star systems evolve under Einsteins general theory of relativity!Unusual VariablesCataclysmic variables irregularly brightening binary stars consisting of an accreting white dwarf and a donor star are a favorite target among amateur astronomers: theyre detectable even with small telescopes, and theres a lot we can learn about stellar astrophysics by observing them, if were patient.Diagram of a cataclysmic variable. In an AM CVn, the donor is most likely a white dwarf as well, or a low-mass helium star. [Philip D. Hall]Among the large family of cataclysmic variables is one unusual type: the extremely short-period AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) stars. These rare variables (only 40 are known) are unique in having spectra dominated by helium, suggesting that they contain little or no hydrogen. Because of this, scientists have speculated that the donor stars in these systems are either white dwarfs themselves or very low-mass helium stars.Why study AM CVn stars? Because their unusual configuration allows us to predict the behavior of their orbital evolution. According to the general theory of relativity, the two components of an AM CVn will spiral closer and closer as the system loses angular momentum to gravitational-wave emission. Eventually they will get so close that the low-mass companion star overflows its Roche lobe, beginning mass transfer to the white dwarf. At this point, the orbital evolution will reverse and the binary orbit will expand, increasing its period.CBA member Enrique de Miguel, lead author on the study, with his backyard telescope in Huelva, Spain. [Enrique de Miguel]Backyard Astronomy Hard at WorkMeasuring the evolution of an AM CVns orbital period is the best way to confirm this model, but this is no simple task! To observe this evolution, we first need a system with a period that can be very precisely measured best achieved with an

  5. LIGO Finds Lightest Black-Hole Binary (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Wednesdayevening the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) collaboration quietly mentioned that theyd found gravitational waves from yet another black-hole binary back in June. This casual announcement reveals what is so far the lightest pair of black holes weve watched merge opening the door for comparisons to the black holes weve detected by electromagnetic means.A Routine DetectionThe chirp signal of GW170608 detected by LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston. [LIGO collaboration 2017]After the fanfare of the previous four black-hole-binary merger announcements over the past year and a half as well as the announcement of the one neutron-star binary merger in August GW170608 marks our entry into the era in which gravitational-wave detections are officially routine.GW170608, a gravitational-wave signal from the merger of two black holes roughly a billion light-years away, was detected in June of this year. This detection occurred after wed already found gravitational waves from several black-hole binaries with the two LIGO detectors in the U.S., but before the Virgo interferometer came online in Europe and increased the joint ability of the detectors to localize sources.Mass estimates for the two components of GW170608 using different models. [LIGO collaboration 2017]Overall, GW170608 is fairly unremarkable: it was detected by both LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston some 7 ms apart, and the signal looks not unlike those of the previous LIGO detections. But because were still in the early days of gravitational-wave astronomy, every discovery is still remarkable in some way! GW170608 stands out as being the lightest pair of black holes weve yet to see merge, with component masses before the merger estimated at 12 and 7 times the mass of the Sun.Why Size MattersWith the exception of GW151226, the gravitational-wave signal discovered on Boxing Day last year, all of the black holes that have been discovered by LIGO/Virgo have been quite large: the masses

  6. Binary to Octal and Octal to Binary Code Converter Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for High Speed Communication (United States)

    Pal, Amrindra; Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Sandeep


    Binary to octal and octal to binary code converter is a device that allows placing digital information from many inputs to many outputs. Any application of combinational logic circuit can be implemented by using external gates. In this paper, binary to octal and octal to binary code converter is proposed using electro-optic effect inside lithium-niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The MZI structures have powerful capability to switching an optical input signal to a desired output port. The paper constitutes a mathematical description of the proposed device and thereafter simulation using MATLAB. The study is verified using beam propagation method (BPM).

  7. Perceptual biases for rhythm: The Mismatch Negativity latency indexes the privileged status of binary vs non-binary interval ratios. (United States)

    Pablos Martin, X; Deltenre, P; Hoonhorst, I; Markessis, E; Rossion, B; Colin, C


    Rhythm perception appears to be non-linear as human subjects are better at discriminating, categorizing and reproducing rhythms containing binary vs non-binary (e.a. 1:2 vs 1:3) as well as metrical vs non-metrical (e.a. 1:2 vs 1:2.5) interval ratios. This study examined the representation of binary and non-binary interval ratios within the sensory memory, thus yielding a truly sensory, pre-motor, attention-independent neural representation of rhythmical intervals. Five interval ratios, one binary, flanked by four non-binary ones, were compared on the basis of the MMN they evoked when contrasted against a common standard interval. For all five intervals, the larger the contrast was, the larger the MMN amplitude was. The binary interval evoked a significantly much shorter (by at least 23 ms) MMN latency than the other intervals, whereas no latency difference was observed between the four non-binary intervals. These results show that the privileged perceptual status of binary rhythmical intervals is already present in the sensory representations found in echoic memory at an early, automatic, pre-perceptual and pre-motor level. MMN latency can be used to study rhythm perception at a truly sensory level, without any contribution from the motor system.

  8. MARVELS Radial Velocity Solutions to Seven Kepler Eclipsing Binaries (United States)

    Heslar, Michael Francis; Thomas, Neil B.; Ge, Jian; Ma, Bo; Herczeg, Alec; Reyes, Alan; SDSS-III MARVELS Team


    Eclipsing binaries serve momentous purposes to improve the basis of understanding aspects of stellar astrophysics, such as the accurate calculation of the physical parameters of stars and the enigmatic mass-radius relationship of M and K dwarfs. We report the investigation results of 7 eclipsing binary candidates, initially identified by the Kepler mission, overlapped with the radial velocity observations from the SDSS-III Multi-Object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS). The RV extractions and spectroscopic solutions of these eclipsing binaries were generated by the University of Florida's 1D data pipeline with a median RV precision of ~60-100 m/s, which was utilized for the DR12 data release. We performed the cross-reference fitting of the MARVELS RV data and the Kepler photometric fluxes obtained from the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (V2) and modelled the 7 eclipsing binaries in the BinaryMaker3 and PHOEBE programs. This analysis accurately determined the absolute physical and orbital parameters of each binary. Most of the companion stars were determined to have masses of K and M dwarf stars (0.3-0.8 M⊙), and allowed for an investigation into the mass-radius relationship of M and K dwarfs. Among the cases are KIC 9163796, a 122.2 day period "heartbeat star", a recently-discovered class of eccentric binaries known for tidal distortions and pulsations, with a high eccentricity (e~0.75) and KIC 11244501, a 0.29 day period, contact binary with a double-lined spectrum and mass ratio (q~0.45). We also report on the possible reclassification of 2 Kepler eclipsing binary candidates as background eclipsing binaries based on the analysis of the flux measurements, flux ratios of the spectroscopic and photometric solutions, the differences in the FOVs, the image processing of Kepler, and RV and spectral analysis of MARVELS.

  9. Programmable spectral design and the binary supergrating (United States)

    Levner, Daniel

    Spectral operations such as wavelength selection, power level manipulation, and chromatic dispersion control are key to many processes in optical telecommunication, spectroscopy, and sensing. In their simplest forms, these functions can be performed using a number of successful devices such as the Fraunhofer ("diffraction") grating, Bragg grating, thin-film filter (TFF), and dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF). More complicated manipulations, however, often require either problematic cascades of many simple elements, the use of custom technologies that offer little adjustment, or the implementation of fully programmable devices, which allow for the desired spectral function to be synthesized ab initio. Here, I present the Binary Supergrating (BSG), a novel technology that permits the programmable and near-arbitrary control of optical amplitude and phase using a simple, robust and practical form. This guided-wave form consists of an aperiodic sequence of binary elements; the sequence, determined through the process of BSG synthesis, encodes an optical program that defines device functionality. The ability to derive optical programs that address broad spectral demands is central to the BSG's extensive capabilities. In consequence, I present a powerful approach to synthesis that exploits existing knowledge in the design of "analog" gratings. This approach is based on a two-step process, which first derives an analog diffractive structure using the best available methods and then transforms it into binary form. Accordingly, I discuss the notion of diffractive structure transformation and introduce the principle of key information. I identify such key information and illustrate its application in grating quantizers based on an atypical form of Delta-Sigma modulation. As a digital approach to spectral engineering, the BSG presents many of the same advantages offered by the digital approach to electronic signal processing (DSP) over its analog predecessors. As such, it

  10. Binary classification posed as a quadratically constrained quadratic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Binary classification is one of the active research areas in machine learning [4, 5]. There are several ways to train a binary classifier. The features and the class labels of the training data set can be stored and retrieved during classifica- tion using the nearest neighbor approach [6]. A hyperplane is learnt for classification by ...

  11. A Comparative Study of the Compaction Properties of Binary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To comparatively evaluate the tableting properties of binary mixtures and bilayer tablets containing plastic deformation and brittle fracture excipients. Methods: Binary mixture and bilayer tablets of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), ethyl cellulose, anhydrous lactose and dextrate were prepared by direct compression ...

  12. Neutron Stars in X-ray Binaries and their Environments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The X-ray pulsars among the binary neutron stars provide excellent handle to make accurate measurement of the orbital parameters and thus also evolution of the binray orbits that take place over time scale of a fraction of a million years to tens of millions of years. The orbital period evolution of X-ray binaries have shown ...

  13. Phase separation in binary hard-core mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Marjolein; Frenkel, D.; Hansen, J.-P.


    We report the observation of a purely entropic demixing transition in a three-dimensional binary hard-core mixture by computer simulations. This transition is observed in a lattice model of a binary hard-core mixture of parallel cubes provided that the size asymmetry of the large and small particles

  14. Research note : Miscibility behaviour of binary mixtures of benzyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miscibility of binary mixtures of benzyl benzoate and liquid paraffin as functions of temperature and composition has been determined using phase separation method. The binary mixtures demonstrated a critical (upper) solution temperature of 35 °C at 101325 Nm-2 with a mixing gap. A tie-line drawn at 28 °C across the ...

  15. Progenitor models of Wolf-Rayet+O binary systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrovic, J.; Langer, N.


    Since close WR+O binaries are the result of a strong interaction of both stars in massive close binary systems, they can be used to constrain the highly uncertain mass and angular momentum budget during the major mass- transfer phase. We explore the progenitor evolution of the three best suited WR+O

  16. Grammar-Based Specification and Parsing of Binary File Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Underwood


    Full Text Available The capability to validate and view or play binary file formats, as well as to convert binary file formats to standard or current file formats, is critically important to the preservation of digital data and records. This paper describes the extension of context-free grammars from strings to binary files. Binary files are arrays of data types, such as long and short integers, floating-point numbers and pointers, as well as characters. The concept of an attribute grammar is extended to these context-free array grammars. This attribute grammar has been used to define a number of chunk-based and directory-based binary file formats. A parser generator has been used with some of these grammars to generate syntax checkers (recognizers for validating binary file formats. Among the potential benefits of an attribute grammar-based approach to specification and parsing of binary file formats is that attribute grammars not only support format validation, but support generation of error messages during validation of format, validation of semantic constraints, attribute value extraction (characterization, generation of viewers or players for file formats, and conversion to current or standard file formats. The significance of these results is that with these extensions to core computer science concepts, traditional parser/compiler technologies can potentially be used as a part of a general, cost effective curation strategy for binary file formats.

  17. Formation of Thorne–Żytkow objects in close binaries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bumareyamu Hutilukejiang


    Zytkow, may form as a result of unstable mass transfer in a massive X-ray binary after a neutron star (NS) is engulfed in the envelope of its companion star. Using a rapid binary evolution program and the Monte Carlo method, ...

  18. Resonant Tidal Forcing in Close Binaries: Implications for CVs (United States)

    Ford, K. E. Saavik; McKernan, Barry; Schwab, Elliana


    Resonant tidal forcing occurs when the tidal forcing frequency of a binary matches a quadrupolar oscillation mode of one of the binary members and energy is transferred from the orbit of the binary to the mode. Tidal locking permits ongoing resonant driving of modes even as binary orbital parameters change. At small binary separations during tidal lock, a significant fraction of binary orbital energy can be deposited quickly into a resonant mode and the binary decays faster than via the emission of gravitational radiation alone. Here we discuss some of the implications of resonant tidal forcing for the class of binaries known as Cataclysmic Variable (CV) stars. We show that resonant tidal forcing of the donor’s Roche lobe could explain the observed 2‑3hr period gap in CVs, assuming modest orbital eccentricities are allowed (eb ∼ 0.03), and can be complementary or an alternative to, existing models. Sudden collapse of the companion orbit, yielding a Type Ia supernova is disfavoured, since Hydrogen is not observed in Type Ia supernova spectra. Therefore, resonance must generally be truncated, probably via mass loss from the Roche lobe or orbital perturbation, ultimately producing a short period CV containing an ’overheated’ white dwarf.

  19. Lamellar-in-lamellar structure of binary linear multiblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klymko, T.; Subbotin, A.; ten Brinke, G.


    A theoretical description of the lamellar-in-lamellar self-assembly of binary A-b-(B-b-A)(m)-b-B-b-A multiblock copolymers in the strong segregation limit is presented. The essential difference between this binary multiblock system and the previously considered C-b-(B-b-A)(m)-b-B-b-C ternary

  20. Binary sequence detector uses minimum number of decision elements (United States)

    Perlman, M.


    Detector of an n bit binary sequence code within a serial binary data system assigns states to memory elements of a code sequence detector by employing the same order of states for the sequence detector as that of the sequence generator when the linear recursion relationship employed by the sequence generator is given.

  1. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den


    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  2. Binary GCD like Algorithms for Some Complex Quadratic Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Saurabh; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg


    binary gcd like algorithms for the ring of integers in and , one now has binary gcd like algorithms for all complex quadratic Euclidean domains. The running time of our algorithms is O(n 2) in each ring. While there exists an O(n 2) algorithm for computing the gcd in quadratic number rings by Erich...

  3. Observer bias in randomised clinical trials with binary outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Emanuelsson, Frida


    To evaluate the impact of non-blinded outcome assessment on estimated treatment effects in randomised clinical trials with binary outcomes.......To evaluate the impact of non-blinded outcome assessment on estimated treatment effects in randomised clinical trials with binary outcomes....

  4. The Cool Surfaces of Binaries Near-Earth Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delbo, Marco; Walsh, K.; Mueller, M.


    We present results from thermal-infrared observations of binary near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). These objects, in general, have surface temperatures cooler than the average values for non-binary NEAs. We discuss how this may be evidence of higher-than-average surface thermal inertia. The comparison of

  5. Dielectric studies of binary mixtures of -propyl alcohol and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dielectric constant (') and dielectric loss (") of -propyl alcohol (PA), ethylenediamine (EDA) and their binary mixtures, for different mole fractions of ethylenediamine have been experimentally measured at 11.15 GHz microwave frequency. Values of density (), viscosity () and square refractive index ( n D 2 ) of binary ...

  6. Thin shell morphology in the circumstellar medium of massive binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marle, A. J.; Keppens, R.; Meliani, Z.


    Context. In massive binaries, the powerful stellar winds of the two stars collide, leading to the formation of shock-dominated environments that can be modeled only in 3D. Aims. We investigate the morphology of the collision-front shell between the stellar winds of binary components in two

  7. Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of binary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Excess molar volumes (E) and deviation in isentropic compressibilities (s) have been investigated from the density and speed of sound measurements of six binary liquid mixtures containing -alkanes over the entire range of composition at 298.15 K. Excess molar volume exhibits inversion in sign in one binary ...

  8. Putting Continuous Metaheuristics to Work in Binary Search Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broderick Crawford


    Full Text Available In the real world, there are a number of optimization problems whose search space is restricted to take binary values; however, there are many continuous metaheuristics with good results in continuous search spaces. These algorithms must be adapted to solve binary problems. This paper surveys articles focused on the binarization of metaheuristics designed for continuous optimization.

  9. Binary pattern analysis for 3D facial action unit detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandbach, Georgia; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja


    In this paper we propose new binary pattern features for use in the problem of 3D facial action unit (AU) detection. Two representations of 3D facial geometries are employed, the depth map and the Azimuthal Projection Distance Image (APDI). To these the traditional Local Binary Pattern is applied,

  10. Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of binary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and transport properties of n-alkanes and their mixtures. Several workers [1–4] have pre- viously studied excess properties of binary liquid mixtures containing chloroalkanes. In our [5–8] systematic investigation of the thermodynamic, acoustic and transport prop- erties of binary liquid mixtures, we have reported viscosities, ...

  11. IUE observations of the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aurigae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, M.; Selvelli, P.L.


    It is stated that the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aur is a most peculiar binary system and it has not been explained satisfactorily. Observations of this system using the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) collected at the Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station of the European Space Agency are here reported. (author)

  12. Binary Biometric Representation through Pairwise Adaptive Phase Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in template compression and protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Quantization and coding is the straightforward way to extract binary representations

  13. First Hα and Revised Photometric Studies of Contact Binary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Common among the variable stars are the contact binaries which form an excellent source in determining the stellar parameters with high degree of accuracy (Southworth. 2012). These binaries which are also referred to as W Ursae Majoris (W UMa) stars occur when both components of the system fill their Roche lobes ...

  14. Absolute dimensions of eclipsing binaries XXVII. V1130 tauri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens Viggo; Olsen, E, H.; Helt, B. E.


    stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: individual: V1130¿Tau / binaries: eclipsing / techniques: photometric / techniques: radial velocities Udgivelsesdato: 17 Feb.......stars: evolution / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: individual: V1130¿Tau / binaries: eclipsing / techniques: photometric / techniques: radial velocities Udgivelsesdato: 17 Feb....

  15. Formation and Evolution of Binary Systems Containing Collapsed Stars (United States)

    Rappaport, Saul; West, Donald (Technical Monitor)


    This research includes theoretical studies of the formation and evolution of five types of interacting binary systems. Our main focus has been on developing a number of comprehensive population synthesis codes to study the following types of binary systems: (i) cataclysmic variables (#3, #8, #12, #15), (ii) low- and intermediate-mass X-ray binaries (#13, #20, #21), (iii) high-mass X-ray binaries (#14, #17, #22), (iv) recycled binary millisecond pulsars in globular clusters (#5, #10, #ll), and (v) planetary nebulae which form in interacting binaries (#6, #9). The numbers in parentheses refer to papers published or in preparation that are listed in this paper. These codes take a new unified approach to population synthesis studies. The first step involves a Monte Carlo selection of the primordial binaries, including the constituent masses, and orbital separations and eccentricities. Next, a variety of analytic methods are used to evolve the primary star to the point where either a dynamical episode of mass transfer to the secondary occurs (the common envelope phase), or the system evolves down an alternate path. If the residual core of the primary is greater than 2.5 solar mass, it will evolve to Fe core collapse and the production of a neutron star and a supernova explosion. In the case of systems involving neutron stars, a kick velocity is chosen randomly from an appropriate distribution and added to the orbital dynamics which determine the state of the binary system after the supernova explosion. In the third step, all binaries which commence stable mass transfer from the donor star (the original secondary in the binary system) to the compact object, are followed with a detailed binary evolution code. Finally, we include all the relevant dynamics of the binary system. For example, in the case of LMXBs, the binary system, with its recoil velocity from the supernova explosion, is followed in time through its path in the Galactic potential. For our globular cluster

  16. Black Hole/Pulsar Binaries in the Galaxy (United States)

    Shao, Yong; Li, Xiang-Dong


    We have performed population synthesis calculation on the formation of binaries containing a black hole (BH) and a neutron star (NS) in the Galactic disk. Some of important input parameters, especially for the treatment of common envelope evolution, are updated in the calculation. We have discussed the uncertainties from the star formation rate of the Galaxy and the velocity distribution of NS kicks on the birthrate (˜ 0.6-13 Myr^{-1}) of BH/NS binaries. From incident BH/NS binaries, by modelling the orbital evolution duo to gravitational wave radiation and the NS evolution as radio pulsars, we obtain the distributions of the observable parameters such as the orbital period, eccentricity and pulse period of the BH/pulsar binaries. We estimate that there may be ˜3 - 80 BH/pulsar binaries in the Galactic disk and around 10% of them could be detected by the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope.

  17. Orbital motion in pre-main sequence binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, G. H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Prato, L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Simon, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Patience, J., E-mail: [Astrophysics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)


    We present results from our ongoing program to map the visual orbits of pre-main sequence (PMS) binaries in the Taurus star forming region using adaptive optics imaging at the Keck Observatory. We combine our results with measurements reported in the literature to analyze the orbital motion for each binary. We present preliminary orbits for DF Tau, T Tau S, ZZ Tau, and the Pleiades binary HBC 351. Seven additional binaries show curvature in their relative motion. Currently, we can place lower limits on the orbital periods for these systems; full solutions will be possible with more orbital coverage. Five other binaries show motion that is indistinguishable from linear motion. We suspect that these systems are bound and might show curvature with additional measurements in the future. The observations reported herein lay critical groundwork toward the goal of measuring precise masses for low-mass PMS stars.

  18. Dynamic Inertia Weight Binary Bat Algorithm with Neighborhood Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwang Huang


    Full Text Available Binary bat algorithm (BBA is a binary version of the bat algorithm (BA. It has been proven that BBA is competitive compared to other binary heuristic algorithms. Since the update processes of velocity in the algorithm are consistent with BA, in some cases, this algorithm also faces the premature convergence problem. This paper proposes an improved binary bat algorithm (IBBA to solve this problem. To evaluate the performance of IBBA, standard benchmark functions and zero-one knapsack problems have been employed. The numeric results obtained by benchmark functions experiment prove that the proposed approach greatly outperforms the original BBA and binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO. Compared with several other heuristic algorithms on zero-one knapsack problems, it also verifies that the proposed algorithm is more able to avoid local minima.

  19. What fraction of white dwarfs are members of binary systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holberg, J B


    White dwarfs were originally discovered as the subordinate faint companions of bright nearby stars (i.e. Sirius B and 40 Eri B). Several general categories of binary systems involving white dwarfs are recognized: Sirius-like systems, where the white dwarf may be difficult to detect, binary systems containing white dwarfs and low mass stars, where the white dwarf is often readily discerned; and double degenerate systems. Different modes of white dwarf discovery influence our perception of both the overall binary fraction and the nature of these systems; proper motion surveys emphasize resolved systems, while photometric surveys emphasize unresolved systems containing relatively hot white dwarfs. Recent studies of the local white dwarf population offer some hope of achieving realistic estimates of the relative number of binary systems containing white dwarfs. A sample of 132 white dwarfs within 20 pc indicates that an individual white dwarf has a probability of 32 ± 8% of occurring within a binary or multiple star system.

  20. A binary electrolyte model of a cylindrical alkaline cell (United States)

    Kriegsmann, J. J.; Cheh, H. Y.

    A cylindrical alkaline cell is modeled as a binary electrolyte system by assuming the direct electrochemical formation of ZnO in the anode. Justifications for replacing the dissolution-precipitation mechanism are provided. Compared to the original model, the binary electrolyte model has a more understandable model formulation, more consistent physical property data, and greater flexibility in certain instances. The binary electrolyte model predicts a longer cell life and higher operating voltage than the ternary electrolyte model for the test case discharge rate. There are no numerical difficulties associated with the zincate ion in the binary electrolyte model, because this species is not considered. The characteristics and advantages of the simplified anode behavior are discussed. An application of the binary electrolyte model is included.

  1. Binary classification of items of interest in a repeatable process (United States)

    Abell, Jeffrey A.; Spicer, John Patrick; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Chakraborty, Debejyo


    A system includes host and learning machines in electrical communication with sensors positioned with respect to an item of interest, e.g., a weld, and memory. The host executes instructions from memory to predict a binary quality status of the item. The learning machine receives signals from the sensor(s), identifies candidate features, and extracts features from the candidates that are more predictive of the binary quality status relative to other candidate features. The learning machine maps the extracted features to a dimensional space that includes most of the items from a passing binary class and excludes all or most of the items from a failing binary class. The host also compares the received signals for a subsequent item of interest to the dimensional space to thereby predict, in real time, the binary quality status of the subsequent item of interest.

  2. Non-negative Matrix Factorization for Binary Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Søgaard; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    We propose the Logistic Non-negative Matrix Factorization for decomposition of binary data. Binary data are frequently generated in e.g. text analysis, sensory data, market basket data etc. A common method for analysing non-negative data is the Non-negative Matrix Factorization, though...... this is in theory not appropriate for binary data, and thus we propose a novel Non-negative Matrix Factorization based on the logistic link function. Furthermore we generalize the method to handle missing data. The formulation of the method is compared to a previously proposed method (Tome et al., 2015). We compare...... the performance of the Logistic Non-negative Matrix Factorization to Least Squares Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Kullback-Leibler (KL) Non-negative Matrix Factorization on sets of binary data: a synthetic dataset, a set of student comments on their professors collected in a binary term-document matrix...

  3. Local binary patterns new variants and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Nanni, Loris; Lumini, Alessandra


    This book introduces Local Binary Patterns (LBP), arguably one of the most powerful texture descriptors, and LBP variants. This volume provides the latest reviews of the literature and a presentation of some of the best LBP variants by researchers at the forefront of textual analysis research and research on LBP descriptors and variants. The value of LBP variants is illustrated with reported experiments using many databases representing a diversity of computer vision applications in medicine, biometrics, and other areas. There is also a chapter that provides an excellent theoretical foundation for texture analysis and LBP in particular. A special section focuses on LBP and LBP variants in the area of face recognition, including thermal face recognition. This book will be of value to anyone already in the field as well as to those interested in learning more about this powerful family of texture descriptors.

  4. Some Bounds on Binary LCD Codes


    Galvez, Lucky; Kim, Jon-Lark; Lee, Nari; Roe, Young Gun; Won, Byung-Sun


    A linear code with a complementary dual (or LCD code) is defined to be a linear code $C$ whose dual code $C^{\\perp}$ satisfies $C \\cap C^{\\perp}$= $\\left\\{ \\mathbf{0}\\right\\} $. Let $LCD{[}n,k{]}$ denote the maximum of possible values of $d$ among $[n,k,d]$ binary LCD codes. We give exact values of $LCD{[}n,k{]}$ for $1 \\le k \\le n \\le 12$. We also show that $LCD[n,n-i]=2$ for any $i\\geq2$ and $n\\geq2^{i}$. Furthermore, we show that $LCD[n,k]\\leq LCD[n,k-1]$ for $k$ odd and $LCD[n,k]\\leq LCD[...

  5. Dual jets from binary black holes. (United States)

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L


    The coalescence of supermassive black holes--a natural outcome when galaxies merge--should produce gravitational waves and would likely be associated with energetic electromagnetic events. We have studied the coalescence of such binary black holes within an external magnetic field produced by the expected circumbinary disk surrounding them. Solving the Einstein equations to describe black holes interacting with surrounding plasma, we present numerical evidence for possible jets driven by these systems. Extending the process described by Blandford and Znajek for a single, spinning black hole, the picture that emerges suggests that the electromagnetic field extracts energy from the orbiting black holes, which ultimately merge and settle into the standard Blandford-Znajek scenario. Emissions along these jets could potentially be observable at large distances.

  6. Predicting binary choices from probability phrase meanings. (United States)

    Wallsten, Thomas S; Jang, Yoonhee


    The issues of how individuals decide which of two events is more likely and of how they understand probability phrases both involve judging relative likelihoods. In this study, we investigated whether derived scales representing probability phrase meanings could be used within a choice model to predict independently observed binary choices. If they can, this simultaneously provides support for our model and suggests that the phrase meanings are measured meaningfully. The model assumes that, when deciding which of two events is more likely, judges take a single sample from memory regarding each event and respond accordingly. The model predicts choice probabilities by using the scaled meanings of individually selected probability phrases as proxies for confidence distributions associated with sampling from memory. Predictions are sustained for 34 of 41 participants but, nevertheless, are biased slightly low. Sequential sampling models improve the fit. The results have both theoretical and applied implications.

  7. Learning from nature: binary cooperative complementary nanomaterials. (United States)

    Su, Bin; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Lei


    In this Review, nature-inspired binary cooperative complementary nanomaterials (BCCNMs), consisting of two components with entirely opposite physiochemical properties at the nanoscale, are presented as a novel concept for the building of promising materials. Once the distance between the two nanoscopic components is comparable to the characteristic length of some physical interactions, the cooperation between these complementary building blocks becomes dominant and endows the macroscopic materials with novel and superior properties. The first implementation of the BCCNMs is the design of bio-inspired smart materials with superwettability and their reversible switching between different wetting states in response to various kinds of external stimuli. Coincidentally, recent studies on other types of functional nanomaterials contribute more examples to support the idea of BCCNMs, which suggests a potential yet comprehensive range of future applications in both materials science and engineering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Energetic binary collisions in rare gas plasmas (United States)

    Robinson, R. S.


    Calculations have been made of cross sections for energy and momentum transfer in binary collisions between like pairs of Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms in the energy range from about 1 to 1000 eV. These calculations were made using a classical model with pair interaction potentials for the rare gases developed from experimental sources, e.g., investigations of specific heats, viscosities, solid-state parameters, and scattering data. Cross sections in this energy range have not been available. The cross sections exhibit a rapid decrease from accepted values at thermal energies as the interaction energy increases. This behavior can be used to understand directed beam propagation limits as well as particle propagation within a plasma. Experimental data have also been fit to a theoretical expression for the Ar resonance charge exchange cross section over the same energy range.

  9. Renormalization of QED with planar binary trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouder, C.


    The Dyson relations between renormalized and bare photon and electron propagators Z 3 anti D(q)=D(q) and Z 2 anti S(q)=S(q) are expanded over planar binary trees. This yields explicit recursive relations for the terms of the expansions. When all the trees corresponding to a given power of the electron charge are summed, recursive relations are obtained for the finite coefficients of the renormalized photon and electron propagators. These relations significantly decrease the number of integrals to carry out, as compared to the standard Feynman diagram technique. In the case of massless quantum electrodynamics (QED), the relation between renormalized and bare coefficients of the perturbative expansion is given in terms of a Hopf algebra structure. (orig.)

  10. The binary collision approximation: Background and introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.T.


    The binary collision approximation (BCA) has long been used in computer simulations of the interactions of energetic atoms with solid targets, as well as being the basis of most analytical theory in this area. While mainly a high-energy approximation, the BCA retains qualitative significance at low energies and, with proper formulation, gives useful quantitative information as well. Moreover, computer simulations based on the BCA can achieve good statistics in many situations where those based on full classical dynamical models require the most advanced computer hardware or are even impracticable. The foundations of the BCA in classical scattering are reviewed, including methods of evaluating the scattering integrals, interaction potentials, and electron excitation effects. The explicit evaluation of time at significant points on particle trajectories is discussed, as are scheduling algorithms for ordering the collisions in a developing cascade. An approximate treatment of nearly simultaneous collisions is outlined and the searching algorithms used in MARLOWE are presented

  11. Periastron advance in black-hole binaries. (United States)

    Le Tiec, Alexandre; Mroué, Abdul H; Barack, Leor; Buonanno, Alessandra; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Sago, Norichika; Taracchini, Andrea


    The general relativistic (Mercury-type) periastron advance is calculated here for the first time with exquisite precision in full general relativity. We use accurate numerical relativity simulations of spinless black-hole binaries with mass ratios 1/8≤m(1)/m(2)≤1 and compare with the predictions of several analytic approximation schemes. We find the effective-one-body model to be remarkably accurate and, surprisingly, so also the predictions of self-force theory [replacing m(1)/m(2)→m(1)m(2)/(m(1)+m(2))(2)]. Our results can inform a universal analytic model of the two-body dynamics, crucial for ongoing and future gravitational-wave searches.

  12. Shock waves in binary oxides memristors (United States)

    Tesler, Federico; Tang, Shao; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir; Rozenberg, Marcelo


    Progress of silicon based technology is nearing its physical limit, as minimum feature size of components is reaching a mere 5 nm. The resistive switching behavior of transition metal oxides and the associated memristor device is emerging as a competitive technology for next generation electronics. Significant progress has already been made in the past decade and devices are beginning to hit the market; however, it has been mainly the result of empirical trial and error. Hence, gaining theoretical insight is of essence. In the present work we report a new connection between the resistive switching and shock wave formation, a classic topic of non-linear dynamics. We argue that the profile of oxygen ions that migrate during the commutation in insulating binary oxides may form a shock wave, which propagates through a poorly conductive region of the device. We validate the scenario by means of model simulations.

  13. Solitary waves in dimer binary collision model (United States)

    Ahsan, Zaid; Jayaprakash, K. R.


    Solitary wave propagation in nonlinear diatomic (dimer) chains is a very interesting topic of research in the study of nonlinear lattices. Such waves were recently found to be supported by the essentially nonlinear granular lattice and Toda lattice. An interesting aspect of this discovery is attributed to the realization of a spectrum of the mass ratio (the only system parameter governing the dynamics) that supports the propagation of such waves corresponding to the considered interaction potential. The objective of this exposition is to explore solitary wave propagation in the dimer binary collision (BC) model. Interestingly, the dimer BC model supports solitary wave propagation at a discrete spectrum of mass ratios similar to those observed in granular and Toda dimers. Further, we report a qualitative and one-to-one correspondence between the spectrum of the mass ratio corresponding to the dimer BC model and those corresponding to granular and Toda dimer chains.

  14. Wetting and evaporation of binary mixture drops. (United States)

    Sefiane, Khellil; David, Samuel; Shanahan, Martin E R


    Experimental results on the wetting behavior of water, methanol, and binary mixture sessile drops on a smooth, polymer-coated substrate are reported. The wetting behavior of evaporating water/methanol drops was also studied in a water-saturated environment. Drop parameters (contact angle, shape, and volume) were monitored in time. The effects of the initial relative concentrations on subsequent evaporation and wetting dynamics were investigated. Physical mechanisms responsible for the various types of wetting behavior during different stages are proposed and discussed. Competition between evaporation and hydrodynamic flow are evoked. Using an environment saturated with water vapor allowed further exploration of the controlling mechanisms and underlying processes. Wetting stages attributed to differential evaporation of methanol were identified. Methanol, the more volatile component, evaporates predominantly in the initial stage. The data, however, suggest that a small proportion of methanol remained in the drop after the first stage of evaporation. This residual methanol within the drop seems to influence subsequent wetting behavior strongly.

  15. Using High-Mass X-ray Binaries to Probe Massive Binary Evolution (United States)

    Garofali, Kristen; Williams, Ben


    High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) provide an exciting window into the underlying processes of both binary as well as massive star evolution. Because HMXBs are systems containing a compact object accreting from a high-mass star at close orbital separations they are also likely progenitors of gamma-ray bursts and gravitational wave sources. I will present work on the classification and age measurements of HMXBs in M33 using a combination of deep Chandra X-ray imaging, and archival Hubble Space Telescope data. I am able to constrain the ages of the HMXB candidates by fitting the color-magnitude diagrams of the surrounding stars, which yield the star formation histories of the surrounding region. Unlike the age distributions measured for HMXB populations in the Magellenic Clouds, the age distribution for the HMXB population in M33 contains a number of extremely young (population.

  16. Formation of a contact binary star system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, E.F.F.


    The process of forming a contact binary star system is investigated in the light of current knowledge of the W Ursae Majoris type eclipsing binaries and the current rotational braking theories for contracting stars. A preliminary stage of mass transfer is proposed and studied through the use of a computer program which calculates evolutionary model sequences. The detailed development of both stars is followed in these calculations, and findings regarding the internal structure of the star which is receiving the mass are presented. Relaxation of the mass-gaining star is also studied; for these stars of low mass and essentially zero age, the star eventually settles to a state very similar to a zero-age main sequence star of the new mass. A contact system was formed through these calculations; it exhibits the general properties of a W Ursae Majoris system. The initial masses selected for the calculation were 1.29 M/sub solar mass/ and 0.56 M/sub solar mass/. An initial mass transfer rate of about 10 -10 solar masses per year gradually increased to about 10 -8 solar masses per year. After about 2.5 x 10 7 years, the less massive star filled its Roche lobe and an initial contact system was obtained. The final masses were 1.01359 M/sub solar mass/ and 0.83641 M/sub solar mass/. The internal structure of the secondary component is considerably different from that of a main sequence star of the same mass

  17. Unification of binary star ephemeris solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Van Hamme, W.


    Time-related binary system characteristics such as orbital period, its rate of change, apsidal motion, and variable light-time delay due to a third body, are measured in two ways that can be mutually complementary. The older way is via eclipse timings, while ephemerides by simultaneous whole light and velocity curve analysis have appeared recently. Each has its advantages, for example, eclipse timings typically cover relatively long time spans while whole curves often have densely packed data within specific intervals and allow access to systemic properties that carry additional timing information. Synthesis of the two information sources can be realized in a one step process that combines several data types, with automated weighting based on their standard deviations. Simultaneous light-velocity-timing solutions treat parameters of apsidal motion and the light-time effect coherently with those of period and period change, allow the phenomena to interact iteratively, and produce parameter standard errors based on the quantity and precision of the curves and timings. The logic and mathematics of the unification algorithm are given, including computation of theoretical conjunction times as needed for generation of eclipse timing residuals. Automated determination of eclipse type, recovery from inaccurate starting ephemerides, and automated data weighting are also covered. Computational examples are given for three timing-related cases—steady period change (XY Bootis), apsidal motion (V526 Sagittarii), and the light-time effect due to a binary's reflex motion in a triple system (AR Aurigae). Solutions for all combinations of radial velocity, light curve, and eclipse timing input show consistent results, with a few minor exceptions.

  18. New Light Curve Analysis for Large Numbers of Eclipsing Binaries I. Detached and Semi-Detached Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Woon Kang


    Full Text Available Several survey observations have produced light curves of more than five thousand eclipsing binaries for last 15 years. Future missions such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST, the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS and Gaia are expected to yield hundreds thousands of new variable stars and eclipsing binaries. Current methods require a week to analyze the light curves of an eclipsing binary for its physical and orbital parameters. The current methods of analyzing the light curves will be inadequate to treat the overwhelming influx of new data. Therefore we developed a new method to treat large numbers of light curves of eclipsing binaries. We tested the new method by analyzing more than one hundred light curves of the detached and semi-detached eclipsing binaries discovered in the Small Magellan Cloud and present their fitted light curves with observations.

  19. Runaway stars from young star clusters containing initial binaries. I. Equal-mass, equal-energy binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, P.J.T.; Duncan, M.J.


    The production of runaway stars by the dynamical-ejection mechanism in an open star cluster containing 50 percent binaries of equal mass and energy is investigated theoretically by means of numerical simulations using the NBODY5 code of Aarseth (1985). The construction of the models is outlined, and the results are presented graphically and characterized in detail. It is shown that binary-binary collisions capable of producing runaways can occur (via formation and disruption, with some stellar collisions, of hierarchical double binaries) in clusters of relatively low density (e.g., pc-sized clusters of O or B stars). The frequency of binaries in the runaway population is found to vary between 0 and 50 percent, with the majority of runaways being unevolved early-type stars. 38 references.

  20. Formation and Evolution of X-ray Binaries (United States)

    Shao, Y.


    X-ray binaries are a class of binary systems, in which the accretor is a compact star (i.e., black hole, neutron star, or white dwarf). They are one of the most important objects in the universe, which can be used to study not only binary evolution but also accretion disks and compact stars. Statistical investigations of these binaries help to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies, and sometimes provide useful constraints on the cosmological models. The goal of this thesis is to investigate the formation and evolution processes of X-ray binaries including Be/X-ray binaries, low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), and cataclysmic variables. In Chapter 1 we give a brief review on the basic knowledge of the binary evolution. In Chapter 2 we discuss the formation of Be stars through binary interaction. In this chapter we investigate the formation of Be stars resulting from mass transfer in binaries in the Galaxy. Using binary evolution and population synthesis calculations, we find that in Be/neutron star binaries the Be stars have a lower limit of mass ˜ 8 M⊙ if they are formed by a stable (i.e., without the occurrence of common envelope evolution) and nonconservative mass transfer. We demonstrate that the isolated Be stars may originate from both mergers of two main-sequence stars and disrupted Be binaries during the supernova explosions of the primary stars, but mergers seem to play a much more important role. Finally the fraction of Be stars produced by binary interactions in all B type stars can be as high as ˜ 13%-30% , implying that most of Be stars may result from binary interaction. In Chapter 3 we show the evolution of intermediate- and low-mass X-ray binaries (I/LMXBs) and the formation of millisecond pulsars. Comparing the calculated results with the observations of binary radio pulsars, we report the following results: (1) The allowed parameter space for forming binary pulsars in the initial orbital period

  1. Eclipsing binary stars with a δ Scuti component (United States)

    Kahraman Aliçavuş, F.; Soydugan, E.; Smalley, B.; Kubát, J.


    Eclipsing binaries with a δ Sct component are powerful tools to derive the fundamental parameters and probe the internal structure of stars. In this study, spectral analysis of six primary δ Sct components in eclipsing binaries has been performed. Values of Teff, v sin I, and metallicity for the stars have been derived from medium-resolution spectroscopy. Additionally, a revised list of δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries is presented. In this list, we have only given the δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries to show the effects of the secondary components and tidal-locking on the pulsations of primary δ Sct components. The stellar pulsation, atmospheric and fundamental parameters (e.g. mass, radius) of 92 δ Sct stars in eclipsing binaries have been gathered. Comparison of the properties of single and eclipsing binary member δ Sct stars has been made. We find that single δ Sct stars pulsate in longer periods and with higher amplitudes than the primary δ Sct components in eclipsing binaries. The v sin I of δ Sct components is found to be significantly lower than that of single δ Sct stars. Relationships between the pulsation periods, amplitudes and stellar parameters in our list have been examined. Significant correlations between the pulsation periods and the orbital periods, Teff, log g, radius, mass ratio, v sin I and the filling factor have been found.

  2. Minimum period and the gap in periods of Cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paczynski, B.; Sienkiewicz, R.


    The 81 minute cutoff to the orbital periods of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic binaries is consistent with evolution of those systems being dominated by angular momentum losses due to gravitational radiation. Unfortunately, many uncertainties, mainly poorly known atmospheric opacities below 2000 K, make is physically impossible to verify the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation by using the observed cutoff at 81 minutes. The upper boundary of the gap in orbital periods observed at about 3 hours is almost certainly due to enhanced angular momentum losses from cataclysmic binaries which have longer periods. The physical mechanism of those losses is not identified, but a possible importance of stellar winds is pointed out. The lower boundary of the gap may be explained with the oldest cataclysmic binaries, whose periods evolved past the minimum at 81 minutes and reached the value of 2 hours within about 12 x 10 9 years after the binary had formed. Those binaries should have secondary components of only 0.02 solar masses, and their periods could be used to estimate ages of the oldest cataclysmic stars, and presumably the age of Galaxy. An alternative explanation for the gap requires that binaries should be detached while crossing the gap. A possible mechanism for this phenomenon is discussed. It requires the secondary components to be about 0.2 solar masses in the binaries just below the gap

  3. ``Supermassive Black-Hole Binaries in Merging Cusps'' (United States)

    Milosavljevic, M.; Merritt, D.


    We present N-body simulations of the formation and evolution of supermassive black-hole binaries in galactic nuclei. Initial conditions are drawn from a tree-code simulation of the merger of two spherical galaxies containing central point masses and ρ ~ r-2 central density cusps. Once the two black holes form a bound pair at the center of the merged galaxies, the evolution is continued using the Aarseth/Spurzem parallel tree code NBODY6++ at much higher resolution. Immediately following the formation of a hard black-hole binary, the density cusp of the merged galaxies is nearly homologous to the cusps in the initial galaxies. However the central density decreases rapidly as the binary black hole ejects stars which pass near to it, reducing the slope of the cusp from ~ r-2 to ~ r-1. When the distance between the black holes becomes comparable to the average stellar separation in the cusp, the binary begins to wander about the center while engaging in hard encounters with stars on radial orbits that are ejected at high speed. Ejection induces further shrinking of the binary at a decreasing rate. We discuss the dynamics of black hole binaries in the limit of large N, appropriate to real galactic nuclei, and discuss the possibility that supermassive black hole binaries can survive over cosmological times.

  4. Merger rate of primordial black-hole binaries (United States)

    Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Kovetz, Ely D.; Kamionkowski, Marc


    Primordial black holes (PBHs) have long been a candidate for the elusive dark matter (DM), and remain poorly constrained in the ˜20 - 100 M⊙ mass range. PBH binaries were recently suggested as the possible source of LIGO's first detections. In this paper, we thoroughly revisit existing estimates of the merger rate of PBH binaries. We compute the probability distribution of orbital parameters for PBH binaries formed in the early Universe, accounting for tidal torquing by all other PBHs, as well as standard large-scale adiabatic perturbations. We then check whether the orbital parameters of PBH binaries formed in the early Universe can be significantly affected between formation and merger. Our analytic estimates indicate that the tidal field of halos and interactions with other PBHs, as well as dynamical friction by unbound standard DM particles, do not do significant work on nor torque PBH binaries. We estimate the torque due to baryon accretion to be much weaker than previous calculations, albeit possibly large enough to significantly affect the eccentricity of typical PBH binaries. We also revisit the PBH-binary merger rate resulting from gravitational capture in present-day halos, accounting for Poisson fluctuations. If binaries formed in the early Universe survive to the present time, as suggested by our analytic estimates, they dominate the total PBH merger rate. Moreover, this merger rate would be orders of magnitude larger than LIGO's current upper limits if PBHs make a significant fraction of the dark matter. As a consequence, LIGO would constrain ˜10 - 300 M⊙ PBHs to constitute no more than ˜1 % of the dark matter. To make this conclusion fully robust, though, numerical study of several complex astrophysical processes—such as the formation of the first PBH halos and how they may affect PBH binaries, as well as the accretion of gas onto an extremely eccentric binary—is needed.

  5. Manifold corrections on spinning compact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shuangying; Wu Xin


    This paper deals mainly with a discussion of three new manifold correction methods and three existing ones, which can numerically preserve or correct all integrals in the conservative post-Newtonian Hamiltonian formulation of spinning compact binaries. Two of them are listed here. One is a new momentum-position scaling scheme for complete consistency of both the total energy and the magnitude of the total angular momentum, and the other is the Nacozy's approach with least-squares correction of the four integrals including the total energy and the total angular momentum vector. The post-Newtonian contributions, the spin effects, and the classification of orbits play an important role in the effectiveness of these six manifold corrections. They are all nearly equivalent to correct the integrals at the level of the machine epsilon for the pure Kepler problem. Once the third-order post-Newtonian contributions are added to the pure orbital part, three of these corrections have only minor effects on controlling the errors of these integrals. When the spin effects are also included, the effectiveness of the Nacozy's approach becomes further weakened, and even gets useless for the chaotic case. In all cases tested, the new momentum-position scaling scheme always shows the optimal performance. It requires a little but not much expensive additional computational cost when the spin effects exist and several time-saving techniques are used. As an interesting case, the efficiency of the correction to chaotic eccentric orbits is generally better than one to quasicircular regular orbits. Besides this, the corrected fast Lyapunov indicators and Lyapunov exponents of chaotic eccentric orbits are large as compared with the uncorrected counterparts. The amplification is a true expression of the original dynamical behavior. With the aid of both the manifold correction added to a certain low-order integration algorithm as a fast and high-precision device and the fast Lyapunov

  6. Massive Black Hole Binaries: Dynamical Evolution and Observational Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dotti


    Full Text Available The study of the dynamical evolution of massive black hole pairs in mergers is crucial in the context of a hierarchical galaxy formation scenario. The timescales for the formation and the coalescence of black hole binaries are still poorly constrained, resulting in large uncertainties in the expected rate of massive black hole binaries detectable in the electromagnetic and gravitational wave spectra. Here, we review the current theoretical understanding of the black hole pairing in galaxy mergers, with a particular attention to recent developments and open issues. We conclude with a review of the expected observational signatures of massive binaries and of the candidates discussed in literature to date.

  7. Strong binary pulsar constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity. (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Blas, Diego; Yunes, Nicolás; Barausse, Enrico


    Binary pulsars are excellent laboratories to test the building blocks of Einstein's theory of general relativity. One of these is Lorentz symmetry, which states that physical phenomena appear the same for all inertially moving observers. We study the effect of violations of Lorentz symmetry in the orbital evolution of binary pulsars and find that it induces a much more rapid decay of the binary's orbital period due to the emission of dipolar radiation. The absence of such behavior in recent observations allows us to place the most stringent constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity, thus verifying one of the cornerstones of Einstein's theory much more accurately than any previous gravitational observation.

  8. Creation of an anti-imaging system using binary optics (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Lin, Jian; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Yang; Gu, Min; Urbach, H. P.; Gan, Fuxi; Zhuang, Songlin


    We present a concealing method in which an anti-point spread function (APSF) is generated using binary optics, which produces a large-scale dark area in the focal region that can hide any object located within it. This result is achieved by generating two identical PSFs of opposite signs, one consisting of positive electromagnetic waves from the zero-phase region of the binary optical element and the other consisting of negative electromagnetic waves from the pi-phase region of the binary optical element. PMID:27620068

  9. Strong Binary Pulsar Constraints on Lorentz Violation in Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolas; Barausse, Enrico


    Binary pulsars are excellent laboratories to test the building blocks of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. One of these is Lorentz symmetry which states that physical phenomena appear the same for all inertially moving observers. We study the effect of violations of Lorentz symmetry in the orbital evolution of binary pulsars and find that it induces a much more rapid decay of the binary's orbital period due to the emission of dipolar radiation. The absence of such behavior in recent observations allows us to place the most stringent constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity, thus verifying one of the cornerstones of Einstein's theory much more accurately than any previous gravitational observation.

  10. Finding binaries from phase modulation of pulsating stars with Kepler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibahashi Hiromoto


    Full Text Available Binary orbital motion causes a periodic variation in the path length travelled by light emitted from a star towards us. Hence, if the star is pulsating, the observed phase of the pulsation varies over the orbit. Conversely, once we have observed such phase variation, we can extract information about the binary orbit from photometry alone. Continuous and precise space-based photometry has made it possible to measure these light travel time effects on the pulsating stars in binary systems. This opens up a new way of finding unseen brown dwarfs, planets, or massive compact stellar remnants: neutron stars and black holes.

  11. The BANANA Survey: Spin-Orbit Alignment in Binary Stars (United States)

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, J. N.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Torres, G.; Setiawan, J.


    Binaries are not always neatly aligned. Previous observations of the DI Herculis system showed that the spin axes of both stars are highly inclined with respect to one another and the orbital axis. Here, we report on our ongoing survey to measure relative orientations of spin-axes in a number of eclipsing binary systems. These observations will hopefully lead to new insights into star and planet formation, as different formation scenarios predict different degrees of alignment and different dependencies on the system parameters. Measurements of spin-orbit angles in close binary systems will also create a basis for comparison for similar measurements involving close-in planets.

  12. Estimation of the Ideal Binary Mask using Directional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind


    The ideal binary mask is often seen as a goal for time-frequency masking algorithms trying to increase speech intelligibility, but the required availability of the unmixed signals makes it difficult to calculate the ideal binary mask in any real-life applications. In this paper we derive the theory...... and the requirements to enable calculations of the ideal binary mask using a directional system without the availability of the unmixed signals. The proposed method has a low complexity and is verified using computer simulation in both ideal and non-ideal setups showing promising results....


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Justin M.; Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J.


    We describe spectroscopic observations of 21 low-mass (≤0.45 M sun ) white dwarfs (WDs) from the Palomar-Green survey obtained over four years. We use both radial velocities and infrared photometry to identify binary systems, and find that the fraction of single, low-mass WDs is ≤30%. We discuss the potential formation channels for these single stars including binary mergers of lower-mass objects. However, binary mergers are not likely to explain the observed number of single low-mass WDs. Thus, additional formation channels, such as enhanced mass loss due to winds or interactions with substellar companions, are likely.

  14. Interaction of Massive Black Hole Binaries with Their Stellar Environment. II. Loss Cone Depletion and Binary Orbital Decay (United States)

    Sesana, Alberto; Haardt, Francesco; Madau, Piero


    We study the long-term evolution of massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) at the centers of galaxies using detailed scattering experiments to solve the full three-body problem. Ambient stars drawn from an isotropic Maxwellian distribution unbound to the binary are ejected by the gravitational slingshot. We construct a minimal, hybrid model for the depletion of the loss cone and the orbital decay of the binary and show that secondary slingshots-stars returning on small-impact parameter orbits to have a second superelastic scattering with the MBHB-may considerably help the shrinking of the pair in the case of large binary mass ratios. In the absence of loss cone refilling by two-body relaxation or other processes, the mass ejected before the stalling of a MBHB is half the binary reduced mass. About 50% of the ejected stars are expelled in a ``burst'' lasting ~104 yr M1/46, where M6 is the binary mass in units of 106 Msolar. The loss cone is completely emptied in a few bulge crossing timescales, ~107 yr M1/46. Even in the absence of two-body relaxation or gas dynamical processes, unequal mass and/or eccentric binaries with M6>~0.1 can shrink to the gravitational wave emission regime in less than a Hubble time and are therefore ``safe'' targets for the planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna.

  15. Magneto Binary Nanofluid Convection in Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Sharma


    Full Text Available The effect of an externally impressed magnetic field on the stability of a binary nanofluid layer in porous medium is considered in this work. The conservation equations related to the system are solved using normal mode technique and Galerkin method to analyze the problem. The complex expressions are approximated to get useful results. Mode of heat transfer is stationary for top heavy distribution of nanoparticles in the fluid layer and top heavy nanofluids are very less stable than regular fluids. Oscillatory motions are possible for bottom heavy distribution of nanoparticles and they are not much influenced by properties of different nanoparticles. A comparative analysis of the instability of water based nanofluids with metallic (Cu, Ag and semiconducting (TiO2, SiO2 nanoparticles under the influence of magnetic field is examined. Semiconducting nanofluids are found to be more stable than metallic nanofluids. Porosity destabilizes the layer while solute difference (at the boundaries of the layer stabilizes it. Magnetic field stabilizes the fluid layer system significantly.

  16. A possible binary AGN in Mrk 622? (United States)

    Benítez, E.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Cruz-González, I.; González-Martín, O.; Negrete, C. A.; Ruschel-Dutra, D.; Gutiérrez, L.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.


    Mrk 622 is a Compton thick active galactic nuclei (AGN) and a double-peaked narrow emission line galaxy, thus a dual AGN candidate. In this work, new optical long-slit spectroscopic observations clearly show that this object is rather a triple peaked narrow emission line galaxy, with both blue and red shifted narrow emission lines, as well as a much narrower emission line centred at the host galaxy systemic velocity. The average velocity offset between the blue and red shifted components is ˜500 km s-1, which is producing the apparent double-peaked emission lines. These two components are in the loci of AGN in the Baldwin, Phillips & Terlevich diagrams and are found to be spatially separated by ˜76 pc. Analysis of the optical spatially resolved spectroscopic observations presented in this work favours that Mrk 622 is a system consisting of a composite AGN amidst a binary AGN candidate, likely the result of a recent merger. This notwithstanding, outflows from a starburst, or single AGN could also explain the triple nature of the emission lines.

  17. A zoo of computable binary normal sequences. (United States)

    Pincus, Steve; Singer, Burton H


    Historically there has been a virtual absence of constructive methods to produce broad classes of "certifiably random" infinite sequences, despite considerable interest in this endeavor. Previously, we proved a theorem that yielded explicit algorithms to produce diverse sets of normal numbers, reasonable candidates for random sequences, given their limiting equidistribution of subblocks of all lengths. Herein, we develop this algorithmic approach much further, systematizing the normal number generation process in several ways. We construct delineated, distinct sets of normal numbers (classified by the extent to which initial segments deviate from maximal irregularity), with virtually any allowable specified rate of convergence to 0 of this deviation, encompassing arbitrarily fast and slow rates, and accommodating asymmetric behavior above or below a centered median. As a corollary, we provide an explicit construction of a normal number that satisfies the Law of the Iterated Logarithm. We also produce distinct families of "biased" normal numbers, with virtually any specified rate of convergence of the bias (to 0). This latter theory is in part motivated by the remarkable observation that the binary version of Champernowne's number, which is also normal, is biased-any initial segment has more 1s than 0s. Finally, we construct an interesting normal sequence with arbitrarily fast convergence to equidistribution of singleton blocks, yet arbitrarily slow convergence of pairs, which has profound implications both for probability theory, and for metrics to evaluate the "near-randomness" of sequences.

  18. Neutral hydrogen observations of binary galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorsel, G.A. van.


    The present investigation concerns a detailed neutral hydrogen study of a carefully selected sample of 16 double spiral galaxies with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). The observational data provide useful material for a number of questions concerning the dynamics of double galaxies, in particular the question of the mass distribution. In Chapter 2 the criteria used to select a sample of double galaxies for observation with the WSRT are discussed. Observing techniques and the reduction of the data using the GIPSY system are described in Chapter 3. Chapters 4 through 7 contain the observational results. In Chapter 8 the method of analysis is described. Masses for the individual galaxies derived from rotation curves are compared with the ''total'' masses estimated from the orbital motion. In this fashion a direct estimate of the amount of dark matter is obtained that avoids the use of mean M/L values. In Chapter 9 a mass estimator for groups is developed in a way analogous to the binary galaxy mass estimator described in Chapter 8. The question of selection effects and the bias of the mass estimator for the point mass model are discussed extensively in Chapter 10. The final results are discussed in Chapter 11. It is shown that the orbital mass exceeds the sum of the individual masses by a large factor for several pairs, indicating either that there is a large amount of dark matter or that something is amiss with the concept of a physical pair. (Auth.)

  19. Preliminary design of a Binary Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia C, E. Y.; Francois, J. L.; Lopez S, R. C.


    A binary breeder reactor (BBR) is a reactor that by means of the transmutation and fission process can operates through the depleted uranium burning with a small quantity of fissile material. The advantages of a BBR with relation to other nuclear reactor types are numerous, taking into account their capacity to operate for a long time without requiring fuel reload or re-arrangement. In this work four different simulations are shown carried out with the MCNPX code with libraries Jeff-3.1 to 1200 K. The objective of this study is to compare two different models of BBR: a spherical reactor and a cylindrical one, using two fuel cycles for each one of them (U-Pu and Th-U) and different reflectors for the two different geometries. For all the models a super-criticality state was obtained at least 10.9 years without carrying out some fuel re-arrangement or reload. The plutonium-239 production was achieved in the models where natural uranium was used in the breeding area, while the production of uranium-233 was observed in the cases where thorium was used in the fertile area. Finally, a behavior of stationary wave reactor was observed inside the models of spherical reactor when contemplating the power uniform increment in the breeding area, while inside the cylindrical models was observed the behavior of a traveling wave reactor when registering the displacement of the burnt wave along the cylindrical model. (Author)

  20. Overloaded CDMA Systems with Displaced Binary Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhaverbeke Frederik


    Full Text Available We extend three types of overloaded CDMA systems, by displacing in time the binary signature sequences of these systems: (1 random spreading (PN, (2 multiple-OCDMA (MO, and (3 PN/OCDMA (PN/O. For each of these systems, we determine the time shifts that minimize the overall multiuser interference power. The achievable channel load with coded and uncoded data is evaluated for the conventional (without displacement and improved (with displacement systems, as well as for systems based on quasi-Welch-bound-equality (QWBE sequences, by means of several types of turbo detectors. For each system, the best performing turbo detector is selected in order to compare the performance of these systems. It is found that the improved systems substantially outperform their original counterparts. With uncoded data, (improved PN/O yields the highest acceptable channel load. For coded data, MO allows for the highest acceptable channel load over all considered systems, both for the conventional and the improved systems. In the latter case, channel loads of about 280% are achievable with a low degradation as compared to a single user system.

  1. Hydrodynamic 'memory' of binary fluid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnik, M. V.; Ingel, L. Kh.


    A theoretical analysis is presented of hydrostatic adjustment in a two-component fluid system, such as seawater stratified with respect to temperature and salinity. Both linear approximation and nonlinear problem are investigated. It is shown that scenarios of relaxation to a hydrostatically balanced state in binary fluid mixtures may substantially differ from hydrostatic adjustment in fluids that can be stratified only with respect to temperature. In particular, inviscid two-component fluids have 'memory': a horizontally nonuniform disturbance in the initial temperature or salinity distribution does not vanish even at the final stage, transforming into a persistent thermohaline 'trace.' Despite stability of density stratification and convective stability of the fluid system by all known criteria, an initial temperature disturbance may not decay and may even increase in amplitude. Moreover, its sign may change (depending on the relative contributions of temperature and salinity to stable background density stratification). Hydrostatic adjustment may involve development of discontinuous distributions from smooth initial temperature or concentration distributions. These properties of two-component fluids explain, in particular, the occurrence of persistent horizontally or vertically nonuniform temperature and salinity distributions in the ocean, including discontinuous ones

  2. Population of Nuclei Via 7Li-Induced Binary Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Rodney M.; Phair, Larry W.; Descovich, M.; Cromaz, Mario; Deleplanque, M.A.; Fall on, Paul; Lee, I-Yang; Macchiavelli, A.O.; McMahan, Margaret A.; Moretto, Luciano G.; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E.; Sinha,Shrabani; Stephens, Frank S.; Ward, David; Wiedeking, Mathis


    The authors have investigated the population of nuclei formed in binary reactions involving {sup 7}Li beams on targets of {sup 160}Gd and {sup 184}W. The {sup 7}Li + {sup 184}W data were taken in the first experiment using the LIBERACE Ge-array in combination with the STARS Si {Delta}E-E telescope system at the 88-Inch Cyclotron of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. By using the Wilczynski binary transfer model, in combination with a standard evaporation model, they are able to reproduce the experimental results. This is a useful method for predicting the population of neutron-rich heavy nuclei formed in binary reactions involving beams of weakly bound nuclei formed in binary reactions involving beams of weakly bound nuclei and will be of use in future spectroscopic studies.

  3. Analyzing Influenza Virus Sequences using Binary Encoding Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ham Ching Lam


    Full Text Available Capturing mutation patterns of each individual influenza virus sequence is often challenging; in this paper, we demonstrated that using a binary encoding scheme coupled with dimension reduction technique, we were able to capture the intrinsic mutation pattern of the virus. Our approach looks at the variance between sequences instead of the commonly used p-distance or Hamming distance. We first convert the influenza genetic sequences to a binary strings and form a binary sequence alignment matrix and then apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA to this matrix. PCA also provides identification power to identify reassortant virus by using data projection technique. Due to the sparsity of the binary string, we were able to analyze large volume of influenza sequence data in a very short time. For protein sequences, our scheme also allows the incorporation of biophysical properties of each amino acid. Here, we present various encouraging results from analyzing influenza nucleotide, protein and genome sequences using the proposed approach.

  4. Rotation invariant deep binary hashing for fast image retrieval (United States)

    Dai, Lai; Liu, Jianming; Jiang, Aiwen


    In this paper, we study how to compactly represent image's characteristics for fast image retrieval. We propose supervised rotation invariant compact discriminative binary descriptors through combining convolutional neural network with hashing. In the proposed network, binary codes are learned by employing a hidden layer for representing latent concepts that dominate on class labels. A loss function is proposed to minimize the difference between binary descriptors that describe reference image and the rotated one. Compared with some other supervised methods, the proposed network doesn't have to require pair-wised inputs for binary code learning. Experimental results show that our method is effective and achieves state-of-the-art results on the CIFAR-10 and MNIST datasets.

  5. Contamination of RR Lyrae stars from Binary Evolution Pulsators (United States)

    Karczmarek, Paulina; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Belczyński, Krzysztof; Stępień, Kazimierz; Wiktorowicz, Grzegorz; Iłkiewicz, Krystian


    Binary Evolution Pulsator (BEP) is an extremely low-mass member of a binary system, which pulsates as a result of a former mass transfer to its companion. BEP mimics RR Lyrae-type pulsations but has different internal structure and evolution history. We present possible evolution channels to produce BEPs, and evaluate the contamination value, i.e. how many objects classified as RR Lyrae stars can be undetected BEPs. In this analysis we use population synthesis code StarTrack.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, H. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Borkovits, T. [Baja Astronomical Observatory of Szeged University, H-6500 Baja, Szegedi út, Kt. 766 (Hungary); Rappaport, S. A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Ngo, H. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 E. California Boulevard, MC 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mawet, D. [California Institute of Technology, Astronomy Dept. MC 249-17, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Csizmadia, Sz. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institut für Planeten-forschung, Rutherfordstraße 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Forgács-Dajka, E., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Astronomical Department, Eötvös University, H-1118 Budapest, Pázmány Péter stny. 1/A (Hungary)


    KIC 7177553 was observed by the Kepler satellite to be an eclipsing eccentric binary star system with an 18-day orbital period. Recently, an eclipse timing study of the Kepler binaries has revealed eclipse timing variations (ETVs) in this object with an amplitude of ∼100 s and an outer period of 529 days. The implied mass of the third body is that of a super-Jupiter, but below the mass of a brown dwarf. We therefore embarked on a radial velocity (RV) study of this binary to determine its system configuration and to check the hypothesis that it hosts a giant planet. From the RV measurements, it became immediately obvious that the same Kepler target contains another eccentric binary, this one with a 16.5-day orbital period. Direct imaging using adaptive optics reveals that the two binaries are separated by 0.″4 (∼167 AU) and have nearly the same magnitude (to within 2%). The close angular proximity of the two binaries and very similar γ velocities strongly suggest that KIC 7177553 is one of the rare SB4 systems consisting of two eccentric binaries where at least one system is eclipsing. Both systems consist of slowly rotating, nonevolved, solar-like stars of comparable masses. From the orbital separation and the small difference in γ velocity, we infer that the period of the outer orbit most likely lies in the range of 1000–3000 yr. New images taken over the next few years, as well as the high-precision astrometry of the Gaia satellite mission, will allow us to set much narrower constraints on the system geometry. Finally, we note that the observed ETVs in the Kepler data cannot be produced by the second binary. Further spectroscopic observations on a longer timescale will be required to prove the existence of the massive planet.

  7. Flare Activity of Wide Binary Stars with Kepler (United States)

    Clarke, Riley W.; Davenport, James R. A.; Covey, Kevin R.; Baranec, Christoph


    We present an analysis of flare activity in wide binary stars using a combination of value-added data sets from the NASA Kepler mission. The target list contains a set of previously discovered wide binary star systems identified by proper motions in the Kepler field. We cross-matched these systems with estimates of flare activity for ∼200,000 stars in the Kepler field, allowing us to compare relative flare luminosity between stars in coeval binaries. From a sample of 184 previously known wide binaries in the Kepler field, we find 58 with detectable flare activity in at least 1 component, 33 of which are similar in mass (q > 0.8). Of these 33 equal-mass binaries, the majority display similar (±1 dex) flare luminosity between both stars, as expected for stars of equal mass and age. However, we find two equal-mass pairs where the secondary (lower mass) star is more active than its counterpart, and two equal-mass pairs where the primary star is more active. The stellar rotation periods are also anomalously fast for stars with elevated flare activity. Pairs with discrepant rotation and activity qualitatively seem to have lower mass ratios. These outliers may be due to tidal spin-up, indicating these wide binaries could be hierarchical triple systems. We additionally present high-resolution adaptive optics images for two wide binary systems to test this hypothesis. The demographics of stellar rotation and magnetic activity between stars in wide binaries may be useful indicators for discerning the formation scenarios of these systems.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of the Ga-Pb binary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasijević Dragan


    Full Text Available Thermodynamic properties of binary Ga-Pb alloys were investigated experimentally and analytically. Quantitative differential thermal analysis was used for determination of integral mixing enthalpies for the gallium-reach alloys, at the constant temperature inside the liquid two-phase region. Calculation of gallium activities in the temperature range of 800-1000 K was done using Chou’s calculation model developed for binary systems with miscibility gap existence.

  9. Recognition algorithms for binary signed-graphic matroids


    Pitsoulis, Leonidas; Papalamprou, Konstantinos


    In this paper we provide two recognition algorithms for the class of signed-graphic matroids along with necessary and sufficient conditions for a matroid to be signed-graphic. Specifically, we provide a polynomial-time algorithm which determines whether a given binary matroid is signed-graphic and an algorithm which determines whether a general matroid given by an independece oracle is binary signed-graphic.

  10. Milankovitch cycles of terrestrial planets in binary star systems (United States)

    Forgan, Duncan


    The habitability of planets in binary star systems depends not only on the radiation environment created by the two stars, but also on the perturbations to planetary orbits and rotation produced by the gravitational field of the binary and neighbouring planets. Habitable planets in binaries may therefore experience significant perturbations in orbit and spin. The direct effects of orbital resonances and secular evolution on the climate of binary planets remain largely unconsidered. We present latitudinal energy balance modelling of exoplanet climates with direct coupling to an N-Body integrator and an obliquity evolution model. This allows us to simultaneously investigate the thermal and dynamical evolution of planets orbiting binary stars, and discover gravito-climatic oscillations on dynamical and secular time-scales. We investigate the Kepler-47 and Alpha Centauri systems as archetypes of P- and S-type binary systems, respectively. In the first case, Earth-like planets would experience rapid Milankovitch cycles (of order 1000 yr) in eccentricity, obliquity and precession, inducing temperature oscillations of similar periods (modulated by other planets in the system). These secular temperature variations have amplitudes similar to those induced on the much shorter time-scale of the binary period. In the Alpha Centauri system, the influence of the secondary produces eccentricity variations on 15 000 yr time-scales. This produces climate oscillations of similar strength to the variation on the orbital time-scale of the binary. Phase drifts between eccentricity and obliquity oscillations creates further cycles that are of order 100 000 yr in duration, which are further modulated by neighbouring planets.

  11. Pattern 1^j0^i avoiding binary words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bilotta


    Full Text Available In this paper we study the enumeration and the construction, according to the number of ones, of particular binary words avoiding a fixed pattern. The growth of such words can be described by particular jumping and marked succession rules. This approach enables us to obtain an algorithm which constructs all binary words having a fixed number of ones and then kills those containing the forbidden pattern.

  12. Hyperspectral image representation and processing with binary partition trees


    Valero Valbuena, Silvia


    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2011-2012, àmbit Enginyeria de les TIC The optimal exploitation of the information provided by hyperspectral images requires the development of advanced image processing tools. Therefore, under the title Hyperspectral image representation and Processing with Binary Partition Trees, this PhD thesis proposes the construction and the processing of a new region-based hierarchical hyperspectral image representation: the Binary Partition Tree (BPT). This hierarc...

  13. Exergy Losses in the Szewalski Binary Vapor Cycle


    Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Ziółkowski, Paweł; Badur, Janusz


    In this publication, we present an energy and exergy analysis of the Szewalski binary vapor cycle based on a model of a supercritical steam power plant. We used energy analysis to conduct a preliminary optimization of the cycle. Exergy loss analysis was employed to perform a comparison of heat-transfer processes, which are essential for hierarchical cycles. The Szewalski binary vapor cycle consists of a steam cycle bottomed with an organic Rankine cycle installation. This coupling has a negat...

  14. The Impact of Gaia and LSST on Binaries and Exoplanets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eyer, L.; Dubath, P.; Mowlavi, N.


    Two upcoming large scale surveys, the ESA Gaia and LSST projects, will bring a new era in astronomy. The number of binary systems that will be observed and detected by these projects is enormous, estimations range from millions for Gaia to several tens of millions for LSST. We review some tools t...... that should be developed and also what can be gained from these missions on the subject of binaries and exoplanets from the astrometry, photometry, radial velocity and their alert systems....

  15. The Binary Customer Satisfaction Model in Inventory and Queueing Systems


    Azadivar, Justin Sepehr


    This dissertation introduces the Binary Customer Satisfaction Model for addressing logistics issues. In typical logistics problems, the arrival of customers through a demand process is considered external to the management decisions. In practice, it is typically the case that customers will respond to changes is service policy by changing their behavior. The Binary Customer Satisfaction Model provides a simple customer behavior model that directly interacts with the service policy and provide...

  16. Efficient Convolutional Neural Network with Binary Quantization Layer


    Ravanbakhsh, Mahdyar; Mousavi, Hossein; Nabi, Moin; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo


    In this paper we introduce a novel method for segmentation that can benefit from general semantics of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Our segmentation proposes visually and semantically coherent image segments. We use binary encoding of CNN features to overcome the difficulty of the clustering on the high-dimensional CNN feature space. These binary encoding can be embedded into the CNN as an extra layer at the end of the network. This results in real-time segmentation. To the best of our ...

  17. Binary black holes on a budget: simulations using workstations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marronetti, Pedro; Tichy, Wolfgang; Bruegmann, Bernd; Gonzalez, Jose; Hannam, Mark; Husa, Sascha; Sperhake, Ulrich


    Binary black hole simulations have traditionally been computationally very expensive: current simulations are performed in supercomputers involving dozens if not hundreds of processors, thus systematic studies of the parameter space of binary black hole encounters still seem prohibitive with current technology. Here we show how the multi-layered refinement level code BAM can be used on dual processor workstations to simulate certain binary black hole systems. BAM, based on the moving punctures method, provides grid structures composed of boxes of increasing resolution near the centre of the grid. In the case of binaries, the highest resolution boxes are placed around each black hole and they track them in their orbits until the final merger when a single set of levels surrounds the black hole remnant. This is particularly useful when simulating spinning black holes since the gravitational fields gradients are larger. We present simulations of binaries with equal mass black holes with spins parallel to the binary axis and intrinsic magnitude of S/m 2 = 0.75. Our results compare favourably to those of previous simulations of this particular system. We show that the moving punctures method produces stable simulations at maximum spatial resolutions up to M/160 and for durations of up to the equivalent of 20 orbital periods

  18. A New Orbit for the Eclipsing Binary V577 Oph (United States)

    Jeffery, Elizabeth J.; Barnes, Thomas G., III; Skillen, Ian; Montemayor, Thomas J.


    Pulsating stars in eclipsing binary systems are unique objects for providing constraints on stellar models. To fully leverage the information available from the binary system, full orbital radial velocity curves must be obtained. We report 23 radial velocities for components of the eclipsing binary V577 Oph, whose primary star is a δ Sct variable. The velocities cover a nearly complete orbit and a time base of 20 years. We computed orbital elements for the binary and compared them to the ephemeris computed by Creevey et al. The comparison shows marginally different results. In particular, a change in the systemic velocity by -2 km s-1 is suggested by our results. We compare this systemic velocity difference to that expected due to reflex motion of the binary in response to the third body in the system. The systemic velocity difference is consistent with reflex motion, given our mass determination for the eclipsing binary and the orbital parameters determined by Volkov & Volkova for the three-body orbit. We see no evidence for the third body in our spectra, but we do see strong interstellar Na D lines that are consistent in strength with the direction and expected distance of V577 Oph.

  19. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization for Combinatorial Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibidun Christiana Obagbuwa


    Full Text Available The Cockroach Swarm Optimization (CSO algorithm is inspired by cockroach social behavior. It is a simple and efficient meta-heuristic algorithm and has been applied to solve global optimization problems successfully. The original CSO algorithm and its variants operate mainly in continuous search space and cannot solve binary-coded optimization problems directly. Many optimization problems have their decision variables in binary. Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO is proposed in this paper to tackle such problems and was evaluated on the popular Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP, which is considered to be an NP-hard Combinatorial Optimization Problem (COP. A transfer function was employed to map a continuous search space CSO to binary search space. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested firstly on benchmark functions through simulation studies and compared with the performance of existing binary particle swarm optimization and continuous space versions of CSO. The proposed BCSO was adapted to TSP and applied to a set of benchmark instances of symmetric TSP from the TSP library. The results of the proposed Binary Cockroach Swarm Optimization (BCSO algorithm on TSP were compared to other meta-heuristic algorithms.

  20. The Detection and Parameter Estimation of Binary Black Hole Mergers (United States)

    Biwer, Christopher M.

    In this dissertation we study gravitational-wave data analysis techniques for binary neutron star and black hole mergers. During its first observing run, the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO) reported the first, direct observations of gravitational waves from two binary black hole mergers. We present the results from the search for binary black hole mergers which unambiguously detected the binary black hole mergers. We determine the effect of calibration errors on the detection statistic of the search. Since the search is not designed to precisely measure the astrophysical parameters of the binary neutron star and black hole mergers, we use Bayesian methods to develop a new parameter estimation analysis. We demonstrate the performance of the analysis on the binary black hole mergers detected during Advanced LIGO's first observing run. We use the parameter estimation analysis to assess the ability of gravitational-wave observatories to observe a gap in the black hole mass distribution between 52 M and 133 M due to pair-instability supernovae. Finally, we use simulated signals added to the Advanced LIGO detectors to validate the search and parameter estimation analyses used to publish the detection of the astrophysical events.

  1. Dynamical evolution of a fictitious population of binary Neptune Trojans (United States)

    Brunini, Adrián


    We present numerical simulations of the evolution of a synthetic population of Binary Neptune Trojans, under the influence of the solar perturbations and tidal friction (the so-called Kozai cycles and tidal friction evolution). Our model includes the dynamical influence of the four giant planets on the heliocentric orbit of the binary centre of mass. In this paper, we explore the evolution of initially tight binaries around the Neptune L4 Lagrange point. We found that the variation of the heliocentric orbital elements due to the libration around the Lagrange point introduces significant changes in the orbital evolution of the binaries. Collisional processes would not play a significant role in the dynamical evolution of Neptune Trojans. After 4.5 × 109 yr of evolution, ˜50 per cent of the synthetic systems end up separated as single objects, most of them with slow diurnal rotation rate. The final orbital distribution of the surviving binary systems is statistically similar to the one found for Kuiper Belt Binaries when collisional evolution is not included in the model. Systems composed by a primary and a small satellite are more fragile than the ones composed by components of similar sizes.

  2. Learning Short Binary Codes for Large-scale Image Retrieval. (United States)

    Liu, Li; Yu, Mengyang; Shao, Ling


    Large-scale visual information retrieval has become an active research area in this big data era. Recently, hashing/binary coding algorithms prove to be effective for scalable retrieval applications. Most existing hashing methods require relatively long binary codes (i.e., over hundreds of bits, sometimes even thousands of bits) to achieve reasonable retrieval accuracies. However, for some realistic and unique applications, such as on wearable or mobile devices, only short binary codes can be used for efficient image retrieval due to the limitation of computational resources or bandwidth on these devices. In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised hashing approach called min-cost ranking (MCR) specifically for learning powerful short binary codes (i.e., usually the code length shorter than 100 b) for scalable image retrieval tasks. By exploring the discriminative ability of each dimension of data, MCR can generate one bit binary code for each dimension and simultaneously rank the discriminative separability of each bit according to the proposed cost function. Only top-ranked bits with minimum cost-values are then selected and grouped together to compose the final salient binary codes. Extensive experimental results on large-scale retrieval demonstrate that MCR can achieve comparative performance as the state-of-the-art hashing algorithms but with significantly shorter codes, leading to much faster large-scale retrieval.

  3. A New Orbit for the Eclipsing Binary V577 Oph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, Elizabeth J. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Barnes, Thomas G. III; Montemayor, Thomas J. [The University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 1 University Station, C1402, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Skillen, Ian, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Isaac Newton Group, Apartado de Correos 321, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Canary Islands (Spain)


    Pulsating stars in eclipsing binary systems are unique objects for providing constraints on stellar models. To fully leverage the information available from the binary system, full orbital radial velocity curves must be obtained. We report 23 radial velocities for components of the eclipsing binary V577 Oph, whose primary star is a δ Sct variable. The velocities cover a nearly complete orbit and a time base of 20 years. We computed orbital elements for the binary and compared them to the ephemeris computed by Creevey et al. The comparison shows marginally different results. In particular, a change in the systemic velocity by −2 km s{sup −1} is suggested by our results. We compare this systemic velocity difference to that expected due to reflex motion of the binary in response to the third body in the system. The systemic velocity difference is consistent with reflex motion, given our mass determination for the eclipsing binary and the orbital parameters determined by Volkov and Volkova for the three-body orbit. We see no evidence for the third body in our spectra, but we do see strong interstellar Na D lines that are consistent in strength with the direction and expected distance of V577 Oph.

  4. Gene selection using hybrid binary black hole algorithm and modified binary particle swarm optimization. (United States)

    Pashaei, Elnaz; Pashaei, Elham; Aydin, Nizamettin


    In cancer classification, gene selection is an important data preprocessing technique, but it is a difficult task due to the large search space. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to develop a hybrid meta-heuristic Binary Black Hole Algorithm (BBHA) and Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) (4-2) model that emphasizes gene selection. In this model, the BBHA is embedded in the BPSO (4-2) algorithm to make the BPSO (4-2) more effective and to facilitate the exploration and exploitation of the BPSO (4-2) algorithm to further improve the performance. This model has been associated with Random Forest Recursive Feature Elimination (RF-RFE) pre-filtering technique. The classifiers which are evaluated in the proposed framework are Sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (SPLSDA); k-nearest neighbor and Naive Bayes. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated on two benchmark and three clinical microarrays. The experimental results and statistical analysis confirm the better performance of the BPSO (4-2)-BBHA compared with the BBHA, the BPSO (4-2) and several state-of-the-art methods in terms of avoiding local minima, convergence rate, accuracy and number of selected genes. The results also show that the BPSO (4-2)-BBHA model can successfully identify known biologically and statistically significant genes from the clinical datasets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Outbursts In Symbiotic Binaries (FUSE 2000) (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor)


    During the past year, we made good progress on analysis of FUSE observations of the symbiotic binary Z And. For background, Z And is a binary system composed of a red giant and a hot component of unknown status. The orbital period is roughly 750 days. The hot component undergoes large-scale eruptions every 10-20 yr. An outburst began several years ago, triggering this FUSE opportunity. First, we obtained an excellent set of ground-based optical data in support, of the FUSE observations. We used FAST, a high throughput low resolution spectrograph on the 1.5-m telescope at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. A 300 g/ mm grating blazed at 4750 A, a 3 in. slit, and a thinned Loral 512 x 2688 CCD gave us spectra covering 3800-7500 A at a resolution of 6 A. The wavelength solution for each spectrum has a probable error of +/- 0.5 A or better. Most of the resulting spectra have moderate signal-to-noise, S/.N approx. greater than 30 per pixel. The time coverage for these spectra is excellent. Typically, we acquired spectra every 1-2 nights during dark runs at Mt. Hopkins. These data cover most of the rise and all of the decline of the recent outburst. The spectra show a wealth of emission lines, including H I, He I, He II, [Fe V11], and the Raman scattering bands at 6830 A and 7088 A. The Raman bands and other high ionization features vary considerably throughout the outburst. These features will enable us to correlate variations in the FUSE spectra with variations in the optical spectra. Second, we began an analysis of FUSE spectra of Z And. We have carefully examined the spectra, identifying real features and defects. We have identified and measured fluxes for all strong emission lines, including the O VI doublet at 1032 A and 1038 A. These and several other strong emission lines display pronounced P Cygni absorption components indicative of outgrowing gas. We will attempt to correlate these velocities with similar profiles observed on optical spectra. The line velocities - together

  6. Hard X-ray detection of the black hole candidates 4U 1630-47 and IGR J17091-3624 up to 200 keV with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodaghee, A.; Kuulkers, E.; Tomsick, J. A.


    with a power law (Gamma = 1.7+/-0.4; red. Chi^2/dof = 1.5/10; observed flux = 6e-10 erg/cm2/s in 20-100 keV) up to ~200 keV with no evidence for a cutoff. It was also detected above the 6-sigma level in both ISGRI bands during the previous observation of the field (rev. 1207). A possible transition to the hard......During monitoring observations of the Norma and Inner Perseus Arms (rev. 1209: 2012 Sept. 6 from 18:18:23 to 22:00:21 UTC), INTEGRAL-ISGRI revealed that the accreting black hole candidates 4U 1630-47 and IGR J17091-3624 have brightened in the hard X-rays. Mosaic images consisting of 12.6 ks worth...... of observations of this field show that the two objects are detected in both the soft (18-40 keV) and hard (40-100 keV) ISGRI bands. For 4U 1630-47, count rates in the ISGRI soft and hard bands are 7.1+/-0.4 cts/s (34+/-2 mCrab, 20-sigmas) and 3.1+/-0.3 cts/s (30+/-3 mCrab, 12-sigmas), respectively. The former...

  7. A spectroscopic study of southern binary Cepheids (United States)

    Petterson, O. K. L.; Albrow, Michael D.; Cottrell, P. L.; Fokin, A.


    High-resolution spectroscopic observations have been made of a number of southern binary Cepheids to determine their dynamical masses. The stars are part of a long-term program to observe southern variable starsf or which a valuable long-term database has been obtained. The most recent radial velocities have a precision of ~300 ms-1, allowing the detection of velocity differences of ~1 kms-1 with confidence. Masses were determined for three systems: the 9-day Cepheid S Mus (6.0±0.4 MSolar), the double-mode Cepheid Y Car (4.5±1.8 MSolar) and the 5-day Cepheid V350 Sgr (6.0±0.9 MSolar). For five Cepheids (YZ Car, AX Cir, V636 Sco, W Sgr and T Mon) new or improved orbital solutions were found. Line level effects have been observed in several species of lines. Most Cepheids were observed to show the same progression of line level effects. Using non-linear radiative hydrodynamical models, we have compared the results of these models with our observations. These have shown that AX Cir and YZ Car have the following properties: L = 2050 LSolar, M = 4.8 MSolar, Teff = 5900 K and L = 9350 LSolar, M = 7.7 MSolar, Teff = 5590 K. Our models show no strong shockwaves being produced. Good agreement was found between the observed and modelled spectral lines Fe I 5576Å, SiII 6347Å, BaII 5853Å and CaII 8542Å.

  8. Binary analysis: 1. part: definitions and treatment of binary functions; 2. part: applications and functions of trans-coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, R.L.


    The study of binary groups under their mathematical aspects constitutes the matter of binary analysis, the purpose of which consists in developing altogether simple, rigorous and practical methods needed by the technicians, the engineers and all those who may be mainly concerned by digital processing. This subject, fast extending if not determining, however tends actually to play a main part in nuclear electronics as well as in several other research areas. (authors) [fr

  9. The Brave New World of Binary Star Studies (United States)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.


    In this paper we discuss some of the new and exciting developments in the study of binary stars. Recent technological advances (such as CCDs) now make it possible (even easy) to study faint, astrophysically important binaries that in the past could only be done with large 4 + meter class telescopes. Also, the panoramic nature of CCDs (and the use of mosaics), permit large numbers of stars to be imaged and studied. At this conference, most of the observational material discussed was secured typically with smaller aperture 0.5 - 2 m telescopes. Excellent examples are the discovery of over 104 new ˜13 - 20 mag eclipsing (and interacting) binaries now found in nearby galaxies from the EROS, OGLE, MACHO and DIRECT programs. As briefly discussed here, and in more detail in several papers in this volume, a small fraction of these extragalactic eclipsing binaries are now serving as “standard candles” to secure accurate distances to the Magellanic Clouds, as well as to M31 and M33. Moreover, the discovery of increasingly larger numbers of eclipsing binaries has stimulated the development of automatic methods for reducing and analyzing the light curves of thousands of systems. In the near future, hundreds of thousands (possibly millions) of additional systems are expected to be discovered by Pan-STARRS, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescopes (LSST), and later by GAIA. Over the last decade, new classes of binary systems have also been found which contain Jupiter-size planets and binaries containing pulsating stars. Some examples of these important binaries are discussed. Also discussed are the increasing numbers (now eight) of eclipsing binary planet-star systems that have been found from high precision photometry. These systems are very important since the radii and masses of the hosted planets can be directly measured. Moreover, from the upcoming COROT and KEPLER missions hundreds of additional transiting planet-star systems are expected to be found. All in all, we hope

  10. Pulsed Accretion in the T Tauri Binary TWA 3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Herczeg, Gregory J. [The Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Akeson, Rachel L.; Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    TWA 3A is the most recent addition to a small group of young binary systems that both actively accrete from a circumbinary disk and have spectroscopic orbital solutions. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to test binary accretion theory in a well-constrained setting. To examine TWA 3A’s time-variable accretion behavior, we have conducted a two-year, optical photometric monitoring campaign, obtaining dense orbital phase coverage (∼20 observations per orbit) for ∼15 orbital periods. From U -band measurements we derive the time-dependent binary mass accretion rate, finding bursts of accretion near each periastron passage. On average, these enhanced accretion events evolve over orbital phases 0.85 to 1.05, reaching their peak at periastron. The specific accretion rate increases above the quiescent value by a factor of ∼4 on average but the peak can be as high as an order of magnitude in a given orbit. The phase dependence and amplitude of TWA 3A accretion is in good agreement with numerical simulations of binary accretion with similar orbital parameters. In these simulations, periastron accretion bursts are fueled by periodic streams of material from the circumbinary disk that are driven by the binary orbit. We find that TWA 3A’s average accretion behavior is remarkably similar to DQ Tau, another T Tauri binary with similar orbital parameters, but with significantly less variability from orbit to orbit. This is only the second clear case of orbital-phase-dependent accretion in a T Tauri binary.

  11. Eclipsing Binaries From the CSTAR Project at Dome A, Antarctica (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Songhu; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Lifan; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Liu, Hui-Gen; Meng, Zeyang; Ashley, M. C. B.; Storey, J. W. V.; Bayliss, D.; Tinney, Chris; Wang, Ying; Wu, Donghong; Liang, Ensi; Yu, Zhouyi; Fan, Zhou; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Lawrence, J. S.; Liu, Qiang; Luong-Van, D. M.; Ma, Jun; Wu, Zhenyu; Yan, Jun; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Yuan, Xiangyan; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhu, Zhenxi; Zou, Hu


    The Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) has observed an area around the Celestial South Pole at Dome A since 2008. About 20,000 light curves in the i band were obtained during the observation season lasting from 2008 March to July. The photometric precision achieves about 4 mmag at i = 7.5 and 20 mmag at i = 12 within a 30 s exposure time. These light curves are analyzed using Lomb-Scargle, Phase Dispersion Minimization, and Box Least Squares methods to search for periodic signals. False positives may appear as a variable signature caused by contaminating stars and the observation mode of CSTAR. Therefore, the period and position of each variable candidate are checked to eliminate false positives. Eclipsing binaries are removed by visual inspection, frequency spectrum analysis, and a locally linear embedding technique. We identify 53 eclipsing binaries in the field of view of CSTAR, containing 24 detached binaries, 8 semi-detached binaries, 18 contact binaries, and 3 ellipsoidal variables. To derive the parameters of these binaries, we use the Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence method. The primary and secondary eclipse timing variations (ETVs) for semi-detached and contact systems are analyzed. Correlated primary and secondary ETVs confirmed by false alarm tests may indicate an unseen perturbing companion. Through ETV analysis, we identify two triple systems (CSTAR J084612.64-883342.9 and CSTAR J220502.55-895206.7). The orbital parameters of the third body in CSTAR J220502.55-895206.7 are derived using a simple dynamical model.

  12. Optimization of binary breeder reactor VI - An acceptable project of binary breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Dias, A.F.


    A binary breeder reactor that achieves desired characteristics reasonably well has been developed. Its design and characteristics are reported. Previous models showed several complications that result from introduction of 233 U/Th fuel in the core of a LMFBR, compared to purely Pu/U fueled ones. In this new model, the core is made larger to achieve higher breeding ratios and longer refueling intervals, the number of fuel assemblies is increased to accomodate a larger number of control rod assemblies required to compensate for reactivity losses and to control oscillations of the power densities, and, consequently, the fuel inventories are higher. High fuel burnups are achieved without too much complications in the refueling schedule and the power densities can be maintained reasonably constant over an operational cycle. Low sodium void reactivity reduce the potential for severe accidents and a reasonably efficient utilization of thorium can be realized. (Author) [pt

  13. Testing the Binary Hypothesis: Pulsar Timing Constraints on Supermassive Black Hole Binary Candidates (United States)

    Sesana, Alberto; Haiman, Zoltán; Kocsis, Bence; Kelley, Luke Zoltan


    The advent of time domain astronomy is revolutionizing our understanding of the universe. Programs such as the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) or the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) surveyed millions of objects for several years, allowing variability studies on large statistical samples. The inspection of ≈250 k quasars in CRTS resulted in a catalog of 111 potentially periodic sources, put forward as supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) candidates. A similar investigation on PTF data yielded 33 candidates from a sample of ≈35 k quasars. Working under the SMBHB hypothesis, we compute the implied SMBHB merger rate and we use it to construct the expected gravitational wave background (GWB) at nano-Hz frequencies, probed by pulsar timing arrays (PTAs). After correcting for incompleteness and assuming virial mass estimates, we find that the GWB implied by the CRTS sample exceeds the current most stringent PTA upper limits by almost an order of magnitude. After further correcting for the implicit bias in virial mass measurements, the implied GWB drops significantly but is still in tension with the most stringent PTA upper limits. Similar results hold for the PTF sample. Bayesian model selection shows that the null hypothesis (whereby the candidates are false positives) is preferred over the binary hypothesis at about 2.3σ and 3.6σ for the CRTS and PTF samples respectively. Although not decisive, our analysis highlights the potential of PTAs as astrophysical probes of individual SMBHB candidates and indicates that the CRTS and PTF samples are likely contaminated by several false positives.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.


    We describe an astrometric and spectroscopic campaign to confirm the youth and association of a complete sample of candidate wide companions in Taurus and Upper Sco. Our survey found 15 new binary systems (three in Taurus and 12 in Upper Sco) with separations of 3''-30'' (500-5000 AU) among all of the known members with masses of 2.5-0.012 M sun . The total sample of 49 wide systems in these two regions conforms to only some expectations from field multiplicity surveys. Higher mass stars have a higher frequency of wide binary companions, and there is a marked paucity of wide binary systems near the substellar regime. However, the separation distribution appears to be log-flat, rather than declining as in the field, and the mass ratio distribution is more biased toward similar-mass companions than the initial mass function or the field G-dwarf distribution. The maximum separation also shows no evidence of a limit at ∼ sun . We attribute this result to the post-natal dynamical sculpting that occurs for most field systems; our binary systems will escape to the field intact, but most field stars are formed in denser clusters and undergo significant dynamical evolution. In summary, only wide binary systems with total masses ∼ sun appear to be 'unusually wide'.

  15. Formation of Thorne-Żytkow objects in close binaries (United States)

    Hutilukejiang, Bumareyamu; Zhu, Chunhua; Wang, Zhaojun; Lü, Guoliang


    Thorne-Żytkow objects (TŻOs), originally proposed by Thorne and Żytkow, may form as a result of unstable mass transfer in a massive X-ray binary after a neutron star (NS) is engulfed in the envelope of its companion star. Using a rapid binary evolution program and the Monte Carlo method, we simulated the formation of TŻOs in close binary stars. The Galactic birth rate of TŻOs is about 1.5× 10^{-4} yr^{-1}. Their progenitors may be composed of a NS and a main-sequence star, a star in the Hertzsprung gap or a core-helium burning, or a naked helium star. The birth rates of TŻOs via the above different progenitors are 1.7× 10^{-5}, 1.2× 10^{-4}, 0.7× 10^{-5}, 0.6× 10^{-5} yr^{-1}, respectively. These progenitors may be massive X-ray binaries. We found that the observational properties of three massive X-ray binaries (SMC X-1, Cen X-3 and LMC X-4) in which the companions of NSs may fill their Roche robes were consistent with those of their progenitors.

  16. Rotational properties of hypermassive neutron stars from binary mergers (United States)

    Hanauske, Matthias; Takami, Kentaro; Bovard, Luke; Rezzolla, Luciano; Font, José A.; Galeazzi, Filippo; Stöcker, Horst


    Determining the differential-rotation law of compact stellar objects produced in binary neutron stars mergers or core-collapse supernovae is an old problem in relativistic astrophysics. Addressing this problem is important because it impacts directly on the maximum mass these objects can attain and, hence, on the threshold to black-hole formation under realistic conditions. Using the results from a large number of numerical simulations in full general relativity of binary neutron star mergers described with various equations of state and masses, we study the rotational properties of the resulting hypermassive neutron stars. We find that the angular-velocity distribution shows only a modest dependence on the equation of state, thus exhibiting the traits of "quasiuniversality" found in other aspects of compact stars, both isolated and in binary systems. The distributions are characterized by an almost uniformly rotating core and a "disk." Such a configuration is significantly different from the j -constant differential-rotation law that is commonly adopted in equilibrium models of differentially rotating stars. Furthermore, the rest-mass contained in such a disk can be quite large, ranging from ≃0.03 M⊙ in the case of high-mass binaries with stiff equations of state, up to ≃0.2 M⊙ for low-mass binaries with soft equations of state. We comment on the astrophysical implications of our findings and on the long-term evolutionary scenarios that can be conjectured on the basis of our simulations.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Koester, D.


    Using Liverpool Telescope+RISE photometry we identify the 2.78 hr period binary star CSS 41177 as a detached eclipsing double white dwarf binary with a 21,100 K primary star and a 10,500 K secondary star. This makes CSS 41177 only the second known eclipsing double white dwarf binary after NLTT 11748. The 2 minute long primary eclipse is 40% deep and the secondary eclipse 10% deep. From Gemini+GMOS spectroscopy, we measure the radial velocities of both components of the binary from the Hα absorption line cores. These measurements, combined with the light curve information, yield white dwarf masses of M 1 = 0.283 ± 0.064 M sun and M 2 = 0.274 ± 0.034 M sun , making them both helium core white dwarfs. As an eclipsing, double-lined spectroscopic binary, CSS 41177 is ideally suited to measuring precise, model-independent masses and radii. The two white dwarfs will merge in roughly 1.1 Gyr to form a single sdB star.

  18. Busting Up Binaries: Stellar Interactions With Galactic Supermassive Black Holes (United States)

    Addison, Eric; Larson, S.; Laguna, P.


    Gravitational wave astronomy is a new observational tool that will enhance our understanding of the Cosmos. Virtually everything we know about the Cosmos has been learned through observations of light; gravitational waves are a fundamentally different spectrum that can be used to learn about distant astrophysical systems. Einstein's theory of General Relativity predicts the existence of gravitational waves, and it is well known that stellar-mass compact object (CO) binaries will be among the most abundant and easily detectable sources. Extreme mass ratio inspirals are expected to provide an interesting potential source for gravitational wave detectors, however these systems are generally studied in the context of a single star orbiting a black hole. In this work, the case of a CO binary on a parabolic trajectory around a super massive black hole (SMBH) is considered. Numerical simulations are used to explore perturbations to the orbital parameters of the binary after interaction with the SMBH, including de-circularization and possible tidal capture. Additionally, the binary will likely experience an accelerated merger time due to gravitational radiation, which could produce an increase in the predicted CO binary merger rate.

  19. LUT observations of the mass-transferring binary AI Dra (United States)

    Liao, Wenping; Qian, Shengbang; Li, Linjia; Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Ergang; Liu, Nianping


    Complete UV band light curve of the eclipsing binary AI Dra was observed with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) in October 2014. It is very useful to adopt this continuous and uninterrupted light curve to determine physical and orbital parameters of the binary system. Photometric solutions of the spot model are obtained by using the W-D (Wilson and Devinney) method. It is confirmed that AI Dra is a semi-detached binary with secondary component filling its critical Roche lobe, which indicates that a mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one should happen. Orbital period analysis based on all available eclipse times suggests a secular period increase and two cyclic variations. The secular period increase was interpreted by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 4.12 ×10^{-8}M_{⊙}/yr, which is in agreement with the photometric solutions. Two cyclic oscillations were due to light travel-time effect (LTTE) via the presence of two cool stellar companions in a near 2:1 mean-motion resonance. Both photometric solutions and orbital period analysis confirm that AI Dra is a mass-transferring binary, the massive primary is filling 69 % of its critical Roche lobe. After the primary evolves to fill the critical Roche lobe, the mass transfer will be reversed and the binary will evolve into a contact configuration.

  20. Gravitational waves from spinning compact binaries in hyperbolic orbits (United States)

    De Vittori, Lorenzo; Gopakumar, Achamveedu; Gupta, Anuradha; Jetzer, Philippe


    Compact binaries in hyperbolic orbits are plausible gravitational-wave (GW) sources for the upcoming and planned GW observatories. We develop an efficient prescription to compute post-Newtonian (PN)-accurate ready-to-use GW polarization states for spinning compact binaries, influenced by the dominant-order spin-orbit interactions, in hyperbolic orbits. This is achieved by invoking the 1.5PN-accurate quasi-Keplerian parametrization for the radial sector of the orbital dynamics. We probe the influences of spins and the gravitational radiation reaction on h+ and h× during the hyperbolic passage. It turns out that both polarization states exhibit the memory effect for GWs from spinning compact binaries in hyperbolic orbits. In contrast, only the cross-polarization state exhibits the memory effect for GWs from nonspinning compact binaries. Additionally, we compute 1PN-accurate amplitude corrected GW polarization states for hyperbolic nonspinning compact binaries in a fully parametric manner and perform initial comparisons with the existing waveforms.

  1. Presence of mixed modes in red giants in binary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themeßl Nathalie


    Full Text Available The frequencies of oscillation modes in stars contain valueable information about the stellar properties. In red giants the frequency spectrum also contains mixed modes, with both pressure (p and gravity (g as restoring force, which are key to understanding the physical conditions in the stellar core. We observe a high fraction of red giants in binary systems, for which g-dominated mixed modes are not pronounced. This trend leads us to investigate whether this is specific for binary systems or a more general feature. We do so by comparing the fraction of stars with only p-dominated mixed modes in binaries and in a larger set of stars from the APOKASC sample. We find only p-dominated mixed modes in about 50% of red giants in detached eclipsing binaries compared to about 4% in the large sample. This could indicate that this phenomenon is tightly related to binarity and that the binary fraction in the APOKASC sample is about 8%.

  2. Binary black hole coalescence in semianalytic puncture evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopakumar, Achamveedu; Schaefer, Gerhard


    Binary black hole coalescence is treated semianalytically by a novel approach. Our prescription employs the conservative Skeleton Hamiltonian that describes orbiting Brill-Lindquist wormholes (termed punctures in numerical relativity) within a waveless truncation to the Einstein field equations [G. Faye, P. Jaranowski, and G. Schaefer, Phys. Rev. D 69, 124029 (2004)]. We incorporate, in a transparent Hamiltonian way and in Burke-Thorne gauge structure, the effects of gravitational radiation reaction into the above Skeleton dynamics with the help of 3.5PN accurate angular momentum flux for compact binaries in quasicircular orbits to obtain a semianalytic puncture evolution to model merging black hole binaries. With the help of the TaylorT4 approximant at 3.5PN order, we perform a first-order comparison between gravitational-wave phase evolutions in numerical relativity and our approach for equal-mass binary black holes. This comparison reveals that a modified Skeletonian reactive dynamics that employs flexible parameters will be required to prevent the dephasing between our scheme and numerical relativity, similar to what is pursued in the effective one-body approach. A rough estimate for the gravitational waveform associated with the binary black hole coalescence in our approach is also provided


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, Benjamin C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Rm 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail:, E-mail: [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    We consider the formation of satellites around the Pluto–Charon binary. An early collision between the two partners likely produced the binary and a narrow ring of debris, out of which arose the moons Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. How the satellites emerged from the compact ring is uncertain. Here we show that a particle ring spreads from physical collisions and collective gravitational scattering, similar to migration. Around a binary, these processes take place in the reference frames of “most circular” orbits, akin to circular ones in a Keplerian potential. Ring particles damp to these orbits and avoid destructive collisions. Damping and diffusion also help particles survive dynamical instabilities driven by resonances with the binary. In some situations, particles become trapped near resonances that sweep outward with the tidal evolution of the Pluto–Charon binary. With simple models and numerical experiments, we show how the Pluto–Charon impact ring may have expanded into a broad disk, out of which grew the circumbinary moons. In some scenarios, the ring can spread well beyond the orbit of Hydra, the most distant moon, to form a handful of smaller satellites. If these small moons exist, New Horizons will find them.

  4. Binary pulsars as probes of a Galactic dark matter disk (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea; Zavala, Jesús; Blas, Diego


    As a binary pulsar moves through a wind of dark matter particles, the resulting dynamical friction modifies the binary's orbit. We study this effect for the double disk dark matter (DDDM) scenario, where a fraction of the dark matter is dissipative and settles into a thin disk. For binaries within the dark disk, this effect is enhanced due to the higher dark matter density and lower velocity dispersion of the dark disk, and due to its co-rotation with the baryonic disk. We estimate the effect and compare it with observations for two different limits in the Knudsen number (Kn). First, in the case where DDDM is effectively collisionless within the characteristic scale of the binary (Kn ≫ 1) and ignoring the possible interaction between the pair of dark matter wakes. Second, in the fully collisional case (Kn ≪ 1), where a fluid description can be adopted and the interaction of the pair of wakes is taken into account. We find that the change in the orbital period is of the same order of magnitude in both limits. A comparison with observations reveals good prospects to probe currently allowed DDDM models with timing data from binary pulsars in the near future. We finally comment on the possibility of extending the analysis to the intermediate (rarefied gas) case with Kn ∼ 1.

  5. F4U production by electrolytic reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban Duque, A.; Gispert Benach, M.; Hernandez Arroyo, F.; Montes Ponce de Leon, M.; Rojas de Diego, J. L.


    As a part of the nuclear fuel cycle program developed at the Spanish Atomic Energy Commission it has been studied the electrolytic reduction of U-VI to U-IV. The effect of the materials, electrolyte concentration, pH, current density, cell size and laboratory scale production is studied. The Pilot Plant and the production data are also described. (Author) 18 refs

  6. Spectroscopic Binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster and NGC 2264 (United States)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee; Tobin, John J.; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Spencer, Meghin


    We examine the spectroscopic binary population for two massive nearby regions of clustered star formation, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and NGC 2264, supplementing the data presented by Tobin et al. with more recent observations and more extensive analysis. The inferred multiplicity fraction up to 10 au based on these observations is 5.3 ± 1.2% for NGC 2264 and 5.8 ± 1.1% for the ONC; these values are consistent with the distribution of binaries in the field in the relevant parameter range. Eight of the multiple systems in the sample have enough epochs to perform an initial fit for the orbital parameters. Two of these sources are double-lined spectroscopic binaries; for them, we determine the mass ratio. Our reanalysis of the distribution of stellar radial velocities toward these clusters presents a significantly better agreement between stellar and gas kinematics than was previously thought.

  7. Microstructure and properties of Mg-Al binary alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Wei-chao


    Full Text Available The effects of different amounts of added Al, ranging from 1 % to 9 %, on the microstructure and properties of Mg-Al binary alloys were investigated. The results showed that when the amount of added Al is less than 5%, the grain size of the Mg-Al binary alloys decreases dramatically from 3 097 μm to 151 μm with increasing addition of Al. Further addition of Al up to 9% makes the grain size decrease slowly to 111 μm. The α-Mg dendrite arms are also refined. Increasing the amount of added Al decreases the hot cracking susceptibility of the Mg-Al binary alloys remarkably, and enhances the micro-hardness of the α-Mg matrix.

  8. An Eccentric Binary Millisecond Pulsar in the Galactic Plane (United States)

    Champion, David J.; Ransom, Scott M.; Lazarus, Patrick; Camilo, Fernando; Bassa, Cess; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Nice, David J.; Freire, Paulo C. C.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; vanLeeuwen, Joeri; hide


    Binary pulsar systems are superb probes of stellar and binary evolution and the physics of extreme environments. In a survey with the Arecibo telescope, we have found PSR J1903+0327, a radio pulsar with a rotational period of 2.15 milliseconds in a highly eccentric (e = 0.44) 95-day orbit around a solar mass (M.) companion. Infrared observations identify a possible main-sequence companion star. Conventional binary stellar evolution models predict neither large orbital eccentricities nor main-sequence companions around millisecond pulsars. Alternative formation scenarios involve recycling a neutron star in a globular cluster, then ejecting it into the Galactic disk, or membership in a hierarchical triple system. A relativistic analysis of timing observations of the pulsar finds its mass to be 1.74 +/- 0.04 Solar Mass, an unusually high value.

  9. An eccentric binary millisecond pulsar in the galactic plane. (United States)

    Champion, David J; Ransom, Scott M; Lazarus, Patrick; Camilo, Fernando; Bassa, Cees; Kaspi, Victoria M; Nice, David J; Freire, Paulo C C; Stairs, Ingrid H; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Stappers, Ben W; Cordes, James M; Hessels, Jason W T; Lorimer, Duncan R; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Backer, Don C; Bhat, N D Ramesh; Chatterjee, Shami; Cognard, Ismaël; Deneva, Julia S; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Gaensler, Bryan M; Han, Jinlin; Jenet, Fredrick A; Kasian, Laura; Kondratiev, Vlad I; Kramer, Michael; Lazio, Joseph; McLaughlin, Maura A; Venkataraman, Arun; Vlemmings, Wouter


    Binary pulsar systems are superb probes of stellar and binary evolution and the physics of extreme environments. In a survey with the Arecibo telescope, we have found PSR J1903+0327, a radio pulsar with a rotational period of 2.15 milliseconds in a highly eccentric (e = 0.44) 95-day orbit around a solar mass (M(middle dot in circle)) companion. Infrared observations identify a possible main-sequence companion star. Conventional binary stellar evolution models predict neither large orbital eccentricities nor main-sequence companions around millisecond pulsars. Alternative formation scenarios involve recycling a neutron star in a globular cluster, then ejecting it into the Galactic disk, or membership in a hierarchical triple system. A relativistic analysis of timing observations of the pulsar finds its mass to be 1.74 +/- 0.04 M solar symbol, an unusually high value.

  10. A parallel algorithm for filtering gravitational waves from coalescing binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyaprakash, B.S.; Dhurandhar, S.V.


    Coalescing binary stars are perhaps the most promising sources for the observation of gravitational waves with laser interferometric gravity wave detectors. The waveform from these sources can be predicted with sufficient accuracy for matched filtering techniques to be applied. In this paper we present a parallel algorithm for detecting signals from coalescing compact binaries by the method of matched filtering. We also report the details of its implementation on a 256-node connection machine consisting of a network of transputers. The results of our analysis indicate that parallel processing is a promising approach to on-line analysis of data from gravitational wave detectors to filter out coalescing binary signals. The algorithm described is quite general in that the kernel of the algorithm is applicable to any set of matched filters. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  11. Coalescence of Black Hole-Neutron Star Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Shibata


    Full Text Available We review the current status of general relativistic studies for the coalescence of black hole-neutron star (BH-NS binaries. First, procedures for a solution of BH-NS binaries in quasi-equilibrium circular orbits and the numerical results, such as quasi-equilibrium sequence and mass-shedding limit, of the high-precision computation, are summarized. Then, the current status of numerical-relativity simulations for the merger of BH-NS binaries is described. We summarize our understanding for the merger and/or tidal disruption processes, the criterion for tidal disruption, the properties of the remnant formed after the tidal disruption, gravitational waveform, and gravitational-wave spectrum.

  12. Nonparametric Statistical Structuring of Knowledge Systems Using Binary Feature Matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Kano Glückstad, Fumiko; Herlau, Tue


    Structuring knowledge systems with binary features is often based on imposing a similarity measure and clustering objects according to this similarity. Unfortunately, such analyses can be heavily influenced by the choice of similarity measure. Furthermore, it is unclear at which level clusters have...... statistical support and how this approach generalizes to the structuring and alignment of knowledge systems. We propose a non-parametric Bayesian generative model for structuring binary feature data that does not depend on a specific choice of similarity measure. We jointly model all combinations of binary...... matches and structure the data into groups at the level in which they have statistical support. The model naturally extends to structuring and aligning an arbitrary number of systems. We analyze three datasets on educational concepts and their features and demonstrate how the proposed model can both...

  13. Nonparametric statistical structuring of knowledge systems using binary feature matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue


    Structuring knowledge systems with binary features is often based on imposing a similarity measure and clustering objects according to this similarity. Unfortunately, such analyses can be heavily influenced by the choice of similarity measure. Furthermore, it is unclear at which level clusters have...... statistical support and how this approach generalizes to the structuring and alignment of knowledge systems. We propose a non-parametric Bayesian generative model for structuring binary feature data that does not depend on a specific choice of similarity measure. We jointly model all combinations of binary...... matches and structure the data into groups at the level in which they have statistical support. The model naturally extends to structuring and aligning an arbitrary number of systems. We analyze three datasets on educational concepts and their features and demonstrate how the proposed model can both...

  14. Bridging the Gap on Tight Separation Brown Dwarf Binaries (United States)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Melis, Carl; Blake, Cullen


    Multiplicity is a key statistic for understanding the formation of very low mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs. Currently, the separation distribution of VLM binaries remains poorly constrained at small separations (candidates from a library of 738 spectra from the SpeX Prism Spectral Libraries. We present twelve new binary candidates, confirm two previously reported candidates and rule out other two previously reported candidates. All of our candidates have primary and secondary spectral types between M7-L7 and L8-T8 respectively. We find that blue L dwarfs and subdwarfs are contaminants in our sample and propose a method for segregating these sources. If confirmed by follow-up observations, these systems may potentially add to the growing list of tight separation binaries, giving further insight into brown dwarf formation scenarios.

  15. Stochastic Learning in Oxide Binary Synaptic Device for Neuromorphic Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimeng eYu


    Full Text Available Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on transition of metal oxide resistance switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design.

  16. Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Truong X., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Le Quy Don University, 236 Hoang Quoc Viet str., 10000 Hanoi (Viet Nam); Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Longhi, Stefano [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Biancalana, Fabio [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)


    We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An optical analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.

  17. Evidence of a stable binary CdCa quasicrystalline phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Jensen, C.H.; Rasmussen, A.R.


    Quasicrystals with a primitive icosahedral structure and a quasilattice constant of 5.1215 Angstrom have been synthesized in a binary Cd-Ca system. The thermal stability of the quasicrystal has been investigated by in situ high-temperature x-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation. It ....... It is demonstrated that the binary CdCa quasicrystal is thermodynamic stable up to its melting temperature. The linear thermal expansion coefficient of the quasicrystal is 2.765x10(-5) K-1. (C) 2001 American Institute of Physics.......Quasicrystals with a primitive icosahedral structure and a quasilattice constant of 5.1215 Angstrom have been synthesized in a binary Cd-Ca system. The thermal stability of the quasicrystal has been investigated by in situ high-temperature x-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation...

  18. Planar optical correlators integrated with binary optical lens. (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Hong, Chunquan; Cheng, Guanxiao; Zhou, Liang; Sun, Zhilong


    Planar optical correlators (POCs) can achieve smaller volume of optical system and hence have important applications to identify dynamic targets in complex scenarios. POCs, however, generally have serious astigmatism and optical efficiency loss introduced by its refractive lens with a zigzag optical beam. To conquer the disadvantages of POCs, we propose a type of binary optical planar-integrated optical correlator. The correlator incorporates two pieces of reflective binary optical lens as Fourier transform lens and one spatial light modulator as a programmable filter. The off-axis aberrations commonly occurred in POCs can be corrected by using reflective binary optical lens instead of refractive lens. As a model of hybrid numerical-optical correlator using optoelectronic interface, the proposal is helpful to improve the integration and flexibility and robustness of POCs.

  19. Period variation studies of six contact binaries in M4 (United States)

    Rukmini, Jagirdar; Shanti Priya, Devarapalli


    We present the first period study of six contact binaries in the closest globular cluster M4 the data collected from June 1995‑June 2009 and Oct 2012‑Sept 2013. New times of minima are determined for all the six variables and eclipse timing (O-C) diagrams along with the quadratic fit are presented. For all the variables, the study of (O-C) variations reveals changes in the periods. In addition, the fundamental parameters for four of the contact binaries obtained using the Wilson-Devinney code (v2003) are presented. Planned observations of these binaries using the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT) and the 4-m International Liquid Mirror Telescope (ILMT) operated by the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES; Nainital) can throw light on their evolutionary status from long term period variation studies.

  20. Binary interactions on the calibrations of star formation rate (United States)

    Zhang, Fenghui; Li, Lifang; Zhang, Yu; Kang, Xiaoyu; Han, Zhanwen


    Using the Yunnan evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) models with and without binary interactions, we present the luminosity of Hα recombination line (LHα), the luminosity of [O II] λ3727 forbidden line doublet (?), the ultraviolet (UV) fluxes at 1500 and 2800 Å (Li, UV) and far-infrared flux (LFIR) for burst, S0, Sa-Sd and Irr galaxies, and present the calibrations of star formation rate (SFR) in terms of these diagnostics. By comparison, we find that binary interactions lower the SFR versus LHα and SFR versus ? conversion factors by ˜0.2 dex. The main reason is that binary interactions raise the UV flux (shortwards of the Lyman limit) of the stellar population (SP) in the age range 6.7 Aarseth-Hurley, Kroupa-Tout-Gilmore and Miller-Scalo IMFs, partly caused by the difference in the IMF), respectively. At last, we give the conversion coefficients between SFR and these diagnostics for all models.

  1. Collisional Dynamics around Binary Black Holes in Galactic Centers (United States)

    Hemsendorf, Marc; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Spurzem, Rainer


    We follow the sinking of two massive black holes in a spherical stellar system where the black holes become bound under the influence of dynamical friction. Once bound, the binary hardens by three-body encounters with surrounding stars. We find that the binary wanders inside the core, providing an enhanced supply of reaction partners for the hardening. The binary evolves into a highly eccentric orbit leading to coalescence well beyond a Hubble time. These are the first results from a hybrid ``self-consistent field'' (SCF) and direct Aarseth N-body integrator (NBODY6), which combines the advantages of the direct force calculation with the efficiency of the field method. The code is designed for use on parallel architectures and is therefore applicable to collisional N-body integrations with extraordinarily large particle numbers (>105). This creates the possibility of simulating the dynamics of both globular clusters with realistic collisional relaxation and stellar systems surrounding supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei.

  2. Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing. (United States)

    Yu, Shimeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Yu, Hongyu; Kang, Jinfeng; Wong, H-S Philip


    Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design.

  3. Evolution of a massive binary in a star field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, A.S.


    The orbital evolution of a massive binary system interacting with a background field of single stars whose phase density is homogeneous in configuration space is considered. The velocity distribution is assumed isotropic up to some limiting value, and a typical field star is regarded as having a velocity much higher than the orbital speed of the pair components. An expression is derived for the transfer of energy from the binary to the field stars. The time evolution of the orbit parameters a, e is established, and the evolution rate is estimated for Kardashev's (1983) model galactic nucleus containing a central black-hole binary. On the above assumptions the components should become twice as close together within only a few tens of millennia, although the picture may change fundamentally if the nucleus is rotating. 13 references

  4. Evolutionary model of the subdwarf binary system LB3459

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paczynski, B.; Dearborn, D.S.


    An evolutionary model is proposed for the eclipsing binary system LB 3459 (=CPD-60 0 389 = HDE 269696). The two stars are hot subdwarfs with degenerate helium cores, hydrogen burning shell sources and low mass hydrogen rich envelopes. The system probably evolved through two common envelope phases. After the first such phase it might look like the semi-detached binary AS Eri. Soon after the second common envelope phase the system might look like UU Sge, an eclipsing binary nucleus of a planetary nebula. The present mass of the optical (spectroscopic) primary is probably close to 0.24 solar mass, and the predicted radial velocity amplitude of the primary is about 150 km/s. The optical secondary should be hotter and bolometrically brighter, with a mass of 0.32 solar mass. The primary eclipse is an occultation. (author)

  5. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. I. Catalog and Principal Characterization of 1879 Eclipsing Binaries in the First Data Release (United States)

    Prša, Andrej; Batalha, Natalie; Slawson, Robert W.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Seager, Sara; Rucker, Michael; Mjaseth, Kimberly; Engle, Scott G.; Conroy, Kyle; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas; Koch, David; Borucki, William


    The Kepler space mission is devoted to finding Earth-size planets orbiting other stars in their habitable zones. Its large, 105 deg2 field of view features over 156,000 stars that are observed continuously to detect and characterize planet transits. Yet, this high-precision instrument holds great promise for other types of objects as well. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of eclipsing binary stars observed by Kepler in the first 44 days of operation, the data being publicly available through MAST as of 2010 June 15. The catalog contains 1879 unique objects. For each object, we provide its Kepler ID (KID), ephemeris (BJD0, P 0), morphology type, physical parameters (T eff, log g, E(B - V)), the estimate of third light contamination (crowding), and principal parameters (T 2/T 1, q, fillout factor, and sin i for overcontacts, and T 2/T 1, (R 1 + R 2)/a, esin ω, ecos ω, and sin i for detached binaries). We present statistics based on the determined periods and measure the average occurrence rate of eclipsing binaries to be ~1.2% across the Kepler field. We further discuss the distribution of binaries as a function of galactic latitude and thoroughly explain the application of artificial intelligence to obtain principal parameters in a matter of seconds for the whole sample. The catalog was envisioned to serve as a bridge between the now public Kepler data and the scientific community interested in eclipsing binary stars.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prsa, Andrej; Engle, Scott G.; Conroy, Kyle; Batalha, Natalie; Rucker, Michael; Mjaseth, Kimberly; Slawson, Robert W.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Seager, Sara; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas; Koch, David; Borucki, William


    The Kepler space mission is devoted to finding Earth-size planets orbiting other stars in their habitable zones. Its large, 105 deg 2 field of view features over 156,000 stars that are observed continuously to detect and characterize planet transits. Yet, this high-precision instrument holds great promise for other types of objects as well. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of eclipsing binary stars observed by Kepler in the first 44 days of operation, the data being publicly available through MAST as of 2010 June 15. The catalog contains 1879 unique objects. For each object, we provide its Kepler ID (KID), ephemeris (BJD 0 , P 0 ), morphology type, physical parameters (T eff , log g, E(B - V)), the estimate of third light contamination (crowding), and principal parameters (T 2 /T 1 , q, fillout factor, and sin i for overcontacts, and T 2 /T 1 , (R 1 + R 2 )/a, esin ω, ecos ω, and sin i for detached binaries). We present statistics based on the determined periods and measure the average occurrence rate of eclipsing binaries to be ∼1.2% across the Kepler field. We further discuss the distribution of binaries as a function of galactic latitude and thoroughly explain the application of artificial intelligence to obtain principal parameters in a matter of seconds for the whole sample. The catalog was envisioned to serve as a bridge between the now public Kepler data and the scientific community interested in eclipsing binary stars.

  7. Simulated galaxy remnants produced by binary and multiple mergers (United States)

    Novak, Gregory S.


    I compute simulated integral field kinematic data for the remnants produced in a large suite of hydrodynamic binary galaxy merger simulations in order to compare to the galaxies observed as part of the SAURON survey. I find that binary mergers are plausibly the formation mechanism for the ~80% of SAURON galaxies with fast rotation velocities, in agreement with previous studies. However, the simulations of gas-rich binary mergers produce virtually no slow rotators observed to make up ~20% of the SAURON galaxies. In order to identify the origin of these slow rotators, I perform a new set of galaxy merger simulations involving merger histories more complex than single binary mergers of disk galaxies. I set up simple, idealized simulations with four or eight progenitor galaxies in order to build intuition about how a simulated galaxy's merger history affects its kinematic structure. I find that if the merger tree consists solely of roughly equal mass binary mergers, then the remnant is a fast rotator similar to that produced by a single binary merger of disk galaxies. However, if the progenitors merge with the central galaxy one after another in a sequence of mergers with decreasing mass ratios, then the remnant does not rotate. This is a plausible formation scenario for the observed SAURON slowly-rotating galaxies. To see how frequently this happens with realistic initial conditions, I extract halos from a large-scale cosmological simulation and re-simulate the region with higher resolution. These simulations include intergalactic gas that is able to replenish the galaxies' gas supply as the simulation runs. In all cases, I get rapidly rotating remnant galaxies in spite of having several halos with diverse merger histories.

  8. The gravitational-wave memory from eccentric binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favata, Marc


    The nonlinear gravitational-wave memory causes a time-varying but nonoscillatory correction to the gravitational-wave polarizations. It arises from gravitational-waves that are sourced by gravitational-waves. Previous considerations of the nonlinear memory effect have focused on quasicircular binaries. Here I consider the nonlinear memory from Newtonian orbits with arbitrary eccentricity. Expressions for the waveform polarizations and spin-weighted spherical-harmonic modes are derived for elliptic, hyperbolic, parabolic, and radial orbits. In the hyperbolic, parabolic, and radial cases the nonlinear memory provides a 2.5 post-Newtonian (PN) correction to the leading-order waveforms. This is in contrast to the elliptical and quasicircular cases, where the nonlinear memory corrects the waveform at leading (0PN) order. This difference in PN order arises from the fact that the memory builds up over a short ''scattering'' time scale in the hyperbolic case, as opposed to a much longer radiation-reaction time scale in the elliptical case. The nonlinear memory corrections presented here complete our knowledge of the leading-order (Peters-Mathews) waveforms for elliptical orbits. These calculations are also relevant for binaries with quasicircular orbits in the present epoch which had, in the past, large eccentricities. Because the nonlinear memory depends sensitively on the past evolution of a binary, I discuss the effect of this early-time eccentricity on the value of the late-time memory in nearly circularized binaries. I also discuss the observability of large ''memory jumps'' in a binary's past that could arise from its formation in a capture process. Lastly, I provide estimates of the signal-to-noise ratio of the linear and nonlinear memories from hyperbolic and parabolic binaries.

  9. Detecting unresolved binary stars in Euclid VIS images (United States)

    Kuntzer, T.; Courbin, F.


    Measuring a weak gravitational lensing signal to the level required by the next generation of space-based surveys demands exquisite reconstruction of the point-spread function (PSF). However, unresolved binary stars can significantly distort the PSF shape. In an effort to mitigate this bias, we aim at detecting unresolved binaries in realistic Euclid stellar populations. We tested methods in numerical experiments where (I) the PSF shape is known to Euclid requirements across the field of view; and (II) the PSF shape is unknown. We drew simulated catalogues of PSF shapes for this proof-of-concept paper. Following the Euclid survey plan, the objects were observed four times. We propose three methods to detect unresolved binary stars. The detection is based on the systematic and correlated biases between exposures of the same object. One method is a simple correlation analysis, while the two others use supervised machine-learning algorithms (random forest and artificial neural network). In both experiments, we demonstrate the ability of our methods to detect unresolved binary stars in simulated catalogues. The performance depends on the level of prior knowledge of the PSF shape and the shape measurement errors. Good detection performances are observed in both experiments. Full complexity, in terms of the images and the survey design, is not included, but key aspects of a more mature pipeline are discussed. Finding unresolved binaries in objects used for PSF reconstruction increases the quality of the PSF determination at arbitrary positions. We show, using different approaches, that we are able to detect at least binary stars that are most damaging for the PSF reconstruction process. The code corresponding to the algorithms used in this work and all scripts to reproduce the results are publicly available from a GitHub repository accessible via


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacomazzo, Bruno [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Perna, Rosalba [JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rezzolla, Luciano [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Potsdam D-14476 (Germany); Troja, Eleonora [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lazzati, Davide [Department of Physics, NC State University, 2401 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)


    In recent years, detailed observations and accurate numerical simulations have provided support to the idea that mergers of compact binaries containing either two neutron stars (NSs) or an NS and a black hole (BH) may constitute the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). The merger of such compact binaries is expected to lead to the production of a spinning BH surrounded by an accreting torus. Several mechanisms can extract energy from this system and power the SGRBs. Here we connect observations and numerical simulations of compact binary mergers, and use the current sample of SGRBs with measured energies to constrain the mass of their powering tori. By comparing the masses of the tori with the results of fully general-relativistic simulations, we are able to infer the properties of the binary progenitors that yield SGRBs. By assuming a constant efficiency in converting torus mass into jet energy, {epsilon}{sub jet} = 10%, we find that most of the tori have masses smaller than 0.01 M{sub Sun }, favoring 'high-mass' binary NSs mergers, i.e., binaries with total masses {approx}> 1.5 the maximum mass of an isolated NS. This has important consequences for the gravitational wave signals that may be detected in association with SGRBs, since 'high-mass' systems do not form a long-lived hypermassive NS after the merger. While NS-BH systems cannot be excluded to be the engine of at least some of the SGRBs, the BH would need to have an initial spin of {approx}0.9 or higher.

  11. Tunable twin Airy beams induced by binary phase patterns. (United States)

    Fan, Yongtao; Wei, Jingsong; Ma, Jianyong; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yiqun


    In this work, we theoretically and experimentally study the physical process of Airy beams induced by binary phase patterns combined with a slope factor. Theoretical simulations show that the binary phase patterns generate a pair of symmetrically inverted twin Airy beams. The slope factor can regulate the spacing between the two Airy beam peaks, decrease the error induced by the binarization process, and adjust the position of the focus formed by the twin Airy beams. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical ones.

  12. Segregation of granular binary mixtures by a ratchet mechanism. (United States)

    Farkas, Zénó; Szalai, Ferenc; Wolf, Dietrich E; Vicsek, Tamás


    We report on a segregation scheme for granular binary mixtures, where the segregation is performed by a ratchet mechanism realized by a vertically shaken asymmetric sawtooth-shaped base in a quasi-two-dimensional box. We have studied this system by computer simulations and found that most binary mixtures can be segregated using an appropriately chosen ratchet, even when the particles in the two components have the same size and differ only in their normal restitution coefficient or friction coefficient. These results suggest that the components of otherwise nonsegregating granular mixtures may be separated using our method.

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of volautile inorganic hydrides in binary gaseous mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezchikov, V.G.; Skachkova, I.N.; Kuznetsova, T.S.; Khrushcheva, V.V.


    A study was made on possibility of single and continuons analysis of binary mixtures (hydride-gas) for the content of volatile inorganic hydrides (VIH) from absorption spectra in the 185-280 nm band. Dependences of the percentage of VIH transmission on the wavelength are presented. It is shown that the maximum of their absorption depends on the element-hydrogen the bond length and binding energy. Detection limit for boron hydride was established to be n x 10 -3 % vol at 185-190 nm wavelength. Technique for spectrophotometric hydride determination in binary mixtures with hydrogen, argon, helium was developed. The technique provides the continuous control of gaseous mixture composition


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Hudec


    Full Text Available The recent extensive digitisation of astronomical photographic plate archives, the development of new dedicated software and the use of powerful computers have for the first time enabled effective data mining in extensive plate databases, with wide applications in various fields of recent astrophysics. As an example, analyses of supermassive binary black holes (binary blazars require very long time intervals (50 years and more, which cannot be provided by other data sources. Examples of data obtained from data mining in plate archives are presented and briefly discussed.

  15. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H


    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  16. The Post-Newtonian Approximation for Relativistic Compact Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futamase Toshifumi


    Full Text Available We discuss various aspects of the post-Newtonian approximation in general relativity. After presenting the foundation based on the Newtonian limit, we show a method to derive post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries based on a surface integral approach and the strong field point particle limit. As an application we derive third post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries which respect the Lorentz invariance in the post-Newtonian perturbative sense, admit a conserved energy, and are free from any ambiguity.

  17. Perbandingan Kinerja Algoritma Fixed Length Binary Encoding (FLBE) Dengan Variable Length Binary Encoding (VLBE) Dalam Kompresi Text File


    Viliana, Debora


    This study aims to design a computer application that can compress text files and compare the performance of the algorithm. Compression is done with a text file using a text encoding algorithms Fixed Length Binary Encoding (FLBE) and Variable Length Binary Encoding algorithm, then do the compression process.The end result are a compression of the file extension *. flbe and *.vlbe which can be decompressed. The output of the decompression is a new file that consists of a file header and body f...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijevič, Gal; Prša, Andrej; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Bloemen, Steven; Barclay, Thomas


    We present an automated classification of 2165 Kepler eclipsing binary (EB) light curves that accompanied the second Kepler data release. The light curves are classified using locally linear embedding, a general nonlinear dimensionality reduction tool, into morphology types (detached, semi-detached, overcontact, ellipsoidal). The method, related to a more widely used principal component analysis, produces a lower-dimensional representation of the input data while preserving local geometry and, consequently, the similarity between neighboring data points. We use this property to reduce the dimensionality in a series of steps to a one-dimensional manifold and classify light curves with a single parameter that is a measure of 'detachedness' of the system. This fully automated classification correlates well with the manual determination of morphology from the data release, and also efficiently highlights any misclassified objects. Once a lower-dimensional projection space is defined, the classification of additional light curves runs in a negligible time and the method can therefore be used as a fully automated classifier in pipeline structures. The classifier forms a tier of the Kepler EB pipeline that pre-processes light curves for the artificial intelligence based parameter estimator.

  19. Astrophysical Implications of the Binary Black Hole Merger GW150914 (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; hide


    The discovery of the gravitational-wave (GW) source GW150914 with the Advanced LIGO detectors provides the first observational evidence for the existence of binary black hole (BH) systems that in spiral and merge within the age of the universe. Such BH mergers have been predicted in two main types of formation models, involving isolated binaries in galactic fields or dynamical interactions in young and old dense stellar environments. The measured masses robustly demonstrate that relatively heavy BHs (> or approx. 25 Stellar Mass) can form in nature. This discovery implies relatively weak massive-star winds and thus the formation of GW150914 in an environment with a metallicity lower than about 12 of the solar value. The rate of binary-BH (BBH) mergers inferred from the observation of GW150914 is consistent with the higher end of rate predictions (> or approx. 1/cu Gpc/yr) from both types of formation models. The low measured redshift (z approx. = 0.1) of GW150914 and the low inferred metallicity of the stellar progenitor imply either BBH formation in a low-mass galaxy in the local universe and a prompt merger, or formation at high redshift with a time delay between formation and merger of several Gyr. This discovery motivates further studies of binary-BH formation astrophysics. It also has implications for future detections and studies by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, and GW detectors in space.

  20. Device for logarithmic representation of binary numbers in analog form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, A.; Zhuravlev, N.I.; Zinov, V.G.; Salamatin, A.V.


    A logarithmic converter is described in which the mantissa of the logarithm is obtained from the values of several more-significant bits of a binary number with the aid of a table stored in read-only memory. The obtained codes are then put into analog form by a digital-analog converter. The error for 16-bit numbers is 0.17%