WorldWideScience

Sample records for bimodal probability-density functions

  1. Modulation Based on Probability Density Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    2009-01-01

    A proposed method of modulating a sinusoidal carrier signal to convey digital information involves the use of histograms representing probability density functions (PDFs) that characterize samples of the signal waveform. The method is based partly on the observation that when a waveform is sampled (whether by analog or digital means) over a time interval at least as long as one half cycle of the waveform, the samples can be sorted by frequency of occurrence, thereby constructing a histogram representing a PDF of the waveform during that time interval.

  2. On the discretization of probability density functions and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    function f (x) with respect to a probability density function (PDF) ρ(x) := |ψ (x) |2, where ψ(x) is the wave function in ... fields of science, the calculation of Rényi and Tsallis entropies [1–3] for probability density function ρ(x) ... on the second mean-value theorem (SMVT) for integrals by postulating that: (i) The PDF ρ(x) can be ...

  3. Best Probability Density Function for Random Sampled Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Donald J

    2009-12-04

    The maximum entropy method is a theoretically sound approach to construct an analytical form for the probability density function (pdf) given a sample of random events. In practice, numerical methods employed to determine the appropriate Lagrange multipliers associated with a set of moments are generally unstable in the presence of noise due to limited sampling. A robust method is presented that always returns the best pdf, where tradeoff in smoothing a highly varying function due to noise can be controlled. An unconventional adaptive simulated annealing technique, called funnel diffusion, determines expansion coefficients for Chebyshev polynomials in the exponential function.

  4. Best Probability Density Function for Random Sampled Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Jacobs

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The maximum entropy method is a theoretically sound approach to construct an analytical form for the probability density function (pdf given a sample of random events. In practice, numerical methods employed to determine the appropriate Lagrange multipliers associated with a set of moments are generally unstable in the presence of noise due to limited sampling. A robust method is presented that always returns the best pdf, where tradeoff in smoothing a highly varying function due to noise can be controlled. An unconventional adaptive simulated annealing technique, called funnel diffusion, determines expansion coefficients for Chebyshev polynomials in the exponential function.

  5. On Farmer's line, probability density functions, and overall risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munera, H.A.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1986-01-01

    Limit lines used to define quantitative probabilistic safety goals can be categorized according to whether they are based on discrete pairs of event sequences and associated probabilities, on probability density functions (pdf's), or on complementary cumulative density functions (CCDFs). In particular, the concept of the well-known Farmer's line and its subsequent reinterpretations is clarified. It is shown that Farmer's lines are pdf's and, therefore, the overall risk (defined as the expected value of the pdf) that they represent can be easily calculated. It is also shown that the area under Farmer's line is proportional to probability, while the areas under CCDFs are generally proportional to expected value

  6. Visualization techniques for spatial probability density function data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeepta D Bordoloi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel visualization methods are presented for spatial probability density function data. These are spatial datasets, where each pixel is a random variable, and has multiple samples which are the results of experiments on that random variable. We use clustering as a means to reduce the information contained in these datasets; and present two different ways of interpreting and clustering the data. The clustering methods are used on two datasets, and the results are discussed with the help of visualization techniques designed for the spatial probability data.

  7. Continuation of probability density functions using a generalized Lyapunov approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baars, S., E-mail: s.baars@rug.nl [Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 407, 9700 AK Groningen (Netherlands); Viebahn, J.P., E-mail: viebahn@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI), P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mulder, T.E., E-mail: t.e.mulder@uu.nl [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); Kuehn, C., E-mail: ckuehn@ma.tum.de [Technical University of Munich, Faculty of Mathematics, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Wubs, F.W., E-mail: f.w.wubs@rug.nl [Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 407, 9700 AK Groningen (Netherlands); Dijkstra, H.A., E-mail: h.a.dijkstra@uu.nl [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Techniques from numerical bifurcation theory are very useful to study transitions between steady fluid flow patterns and the instabilities involved. Here, we provide computational methodology to use parameter continuation in determining probability density functions of systems of stochastic partial differential equations near fixed points, under a small noise approximation. Key innovation is the efficient solution of a generalized Lyapunov equation using an iterative method involving low-rank approximations. We apply and illustrate the capabilities of the method using a problem in physical oceanography, i.e. the occurrence of multiple steady states of the Atlantic Ocean circulation.

  8. Probability density functions for CP-violating rephasing invariants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jean-François; Giasson, Nicolas; Marleau, Luc

    2018-05-01

    The implications of the anarchy principle on CP violation in the lepton sector are investigated. A systematic method is introduced to compute the probability density functions for the CP-violating rephasing invariants of the PMNS matrix from the Haar measure relevant to the anarchy principle. Contrary to the CKM matrix which is hierarchical, it is shown that the Haar measure, and hence the anarchy principle, are very likely to lead to the observed PMNS matrix. Predictions on the CP-violating Dirac rephasing invariant |jD | and Majorana rephasing invariant |j1 | are also obtained. They correspond to 〈 |jD | 〉 Haar = π / 105 ≈ 0.030 and 〈 |j1 | 〉 Haar = 1 / (6 π) ≈ 0.053 respectively, in agreement with the experimental hint from T2K of |jDexp | ≈ 0.032 ± 0.005 (or ≈ 0.033 ± 0.003) for the normal (or inverted) hierarchy.

  9. Interactive design of probability density functions for shape grammars

    KAUST Repository

    Dang, Minh

    2015-11-02

    A shape grammar defines a procedural shape space containing a variety of models of the same class, e.g. buildings, trees, furniture, airplanes, bikes, etc. We present a framework that enables a user to interactively design a probability density function (pdf) over such a shape space and to sample models according to the designed pdf. First, we propose a user interface that enables a user to quickly provide preference scores for selected shapes and suggest sampling strategies to decide which models to present to the user to evaluate. Second, we propose a novel kernel function to encode the similarity between two procedural models. Third, we propose a framework to interpolate user preference scores by combining multiple techniques: function factorization, Gaussian process regression, autorelevance detection, and l1 regularization. Fourth, we modify the original grammars to generate models with a pdf proportional to the user preference scores. Finally, we provide evaluations of our user interface and framework parameters and a comparison to other exploratory modeling techniques using modeling tasks in five example shape spaces: furniture, low-rise buildings, skyscrapers, airplanes, and vegetation.

  10. The probability density function (PDF) of Lagrangian Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnir, B.

    2012-12-01

    The statistical theory of Lagrangian turbulence is derived from the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation. Assuming that the noise in fully-developed turbulence is a generic noise determined by the general theorems in probability, the central limit theorem and the large deviation principle, we are able to formulate and solve the Kolmogorov-Hopf equation for the invariant measure of the stochastic Navier-Stokes equations. The intermittency corrections to the scaling exponents of the structure functions require a multiplicative (multipling the fluid velocity) noise in the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation. We let this multiplicative noise, in the equation, consists of a simple (Poisson) jump process and then show how the Feynmann-Kac formula produces the log-Poissonian processes, found by She and Leveque, Waymire and Dubrulle. These log-Poissonian processes give the intermittency corrections that agree with modern direct Navier-Stokes simulations (DNS) and experiments. The probability density function (PDF) plays a key role when direct Navier-Stokes simulations or experimental results are compared to theory. The statistical theory of turbulence is determined, including the scaling of the structure functions of turbulence, by the invariant measure of the Navier-Stokes equation and the PDFs for the various statistics (one-point, two-point, N-point) can be obtained by taking the trace of the corresponding invariant measures. Hopf derived in 1952 a functional equation for the characteristic function (Fourier transform) of the invariant measure. In distinction to the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equation, this is a linear functional differential equation. The PDFs obtained from the invariant measures for the velocity differences (two-point statistics) are shown to be the four parameter generalized hyperbolic distributions, found by Barndorff-Nilsen. These PDF have heavy tails and a convex peak at the origin. A suitable projection of the Kolmogorov-Hopf equations is the

  11. Efficiency issues related to probability density function comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, P.M.; Cannon, M.; Barros, J.E.

    1996-03-01

    The CANDID project (Comparison Algorithm for Navigating Digital Image Databases) employs probability density functions (PDFs) of localized feature information to represent the content of an image for search and retrieval purposes. A similarity measure between PDFs is used to identify database images that are similar to a user-provided query image. Unfortunately, signature comparison involving PDFs is a very time-consuming operation. In this paper, we look into some efficiency considerations when working with PDFS. Since PDFs can take on many forms, we look into tradeoffs between accurate representation and efficiency of manipulation for several data sets. In particular, we typically represent each PDF as a Gaussian mixture (e.g. as a weighted sum of Gaussian kernels) in the feature space. We find that by constraining all Gaussian kernels to have principal axes that are aligned to the natural axes of the feature space, computations involving these PDFs are simplified. We can also constrain the Gaussian kernels to be hyperspherical rather than hyperellipsoidal, simplifying computations even further, and yielding an order of magnitude speedup in signature comparison. This paper illustrates the tradeoffs encountered when using these constraints.

  12. Probability density functions for use when calculating standardised drought indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Cecilia; Prosdocimi, Ilaria; Hannaford, Jamie

    2015-04-01

    Time series of drought indices like the standardised precipitation index (SPI) and standardised flow index (SFI) require a statistical probability density function to be fitted to the observed (generally monthly) precipitation and river flow data. Once fitted, the quantiles are transformed to a Normal distribution with mean = 0 and standard deviation = 1. These transformed data are the SPI/SFI, which are widely used in drought studies, including for drought monitoring and early warning applications. Different distributions were fitted to rainfall and river flow data accumulated over 1, 3, 6 and 12 months for 121 catchments in the United Kingdom. These catchments represent a range of catchment characteristics in a mid-latitude climate. Both rainfall and river flow data have a lower bound at 0, as rains and flows cannot be negative. Their empirical distributions also tend to have positive skewness, and therefore the Gamma distribution has often been a natural and suitable choice for describing the data statistically. However, after transformation of the data to Normal distributions to obtain the SPIs and SFIs for the 121 catchments, the distributions are rejected in 11% and 19% of cases, respectively, by the Shapiro-Wilk test. Three-parameter distributions traditionally used in hydrological applications, such as the Pearson type 3 for rainfall and the Generalised Logistic and Generalised Extreme Value distributions for river flow, tend to make the transformed data fit better, with rejection rates of 5% or less. However, none of these three-parameter distributions have a lower bound at zero. This means that the lower tail of the fitted distribution may potentially go below zero, which would result in a lower limit to the calculated SPI and SFI values (as observations can never reach into this lower tail of the theoretical distribution). The Tweedie distribution can overcome the problems found when using either the Gamma or the above three-parameter distributions. The

  13. The probability density function of completed length of service (CLS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... functions this paper estimates the functions for some secondary schools in Enugu State. Wastage probabilities are calculated, survivor functions estimated. The accompanying standard errors are also obtained. Key words: Manpower Planning, Length of Service, Modelling, Survivor Functions. [Global Jnl Mathematical Sci ...

  14. Particle number and probability density functional theory and A-representability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht

    2010-04-28

    In Hohenberg-Kohn density functional theory, the energy E is expressed as a unique functional of the ground state density rho(r): E = E[rho] with the internal energy component F(HK)[rho] being universal. Knowledge of the functional F(HK)[rho] by itself, however, is insufficient to obtain the energy: the particle number N is primary. By emphasizing this primacy, the energy E is written as a nonuniversal functional of N and probability density p(r): E = E[N,p]. The set of functions p(r) satisfies the constraints of normalization to unity and non-negativity, exists for each N; N = 1, ..., infinity, and defines the probability density or p-space. A particle number N and probability density p(r) functional theory is constructed. Two examples for which the exact energy functionals E[N,p] are known are provided. The concept of A-representability is introduced, by which it is meant the set of functions Psi(p) that leads to probability densities p(r) obtained as the quantum-mechanical expectation of the probability density operator, and which satisfies the above constraints. We show that the set of functions p(r) of p-space is equivalent to the A-representable probability density set. We also show via the Harriman and Gilbert constructions that the A-representable and N-representable probability density p(r) sets are equivalent.

  15. A joint probability density function of wind speed and direction for wind energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta, Jose A.; Ramirez, Penelope; Bueno, Celia

    2008-01-01

    A very flexible joint probability density function of wind speed and direction is presented in this paper for use in wind energy analysis. A method that enables angular-linear distributions to be obtained with specified marginal distributions has been used for this purpose. For the marginal distribution of wind speed we use a singly truncated from below Normal-Weibull mixture distribution. The marginal distribution of wind direction comprises a finite mixture of von Mises distributions. The proposed model is applied in this paper to wind direction and wind speed hourly data recorded at several weather stations located in the Canary Islands (Spain). The suitability of the distributions is judged from the coefficient of determination R 2 . The conclusions reached are that the joint distribution proposed in this paper: (a) can represent unimodal, bimodal and bitangential wind speed frequency distributions, (b) takes into account the frequency of null winds, (c) represents the wind direction regimes in zones with several modes or prevailing wind directions, (d) takes into account the correlation between wind speeds and its directions. It can therefore be used in several tasks involved in the evaluation process of the wind resources available at a potential site. We also conclude that, in the case of the Canary Islands, the proposed model provides better fits in all the cases analysed than those obtained with the models used in the specialised literature on wind energy

  16. Time-dependent probability density functions and information geometry in stochastic logistic and Gompertz models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkès, Lucille-Marie; Hollerbach, Rainer; Kim, Eun-jin

    2017-12-01

    A probabilistic description is essential for understanding growth processes in non-stationary states. In this paper, we compute time-dependent probability density functions (PDFs) in order to investigate stochastic logistic and Gompertz models, which are two of the most popular growth models. We consider different types of short-correlated multiplicative and additive noise sources and compare the time-dependent PDFs in the two models, elucidating the effects of the additive and multiplicative noises on the form of PDFs. We demonstrate an interesting transition from a unimodal to a bimodal PDF as the multiplicative noise increases for a fixed value of the additive noise. A much weaker (leaky) attractor in the Gompertz model leads to a significant (singular) growth of the population of a very small size. We point out the limitation of using stationary PDFs, mean value and variance in understanding statistical properties of the growth in non-stationary states, highlighting the importance of time-dependent PDFs. We further compare these two models from the perspective of information change that occurs during the growth process. Specifically, we define an infinitesimal distance at any time by comparing two PDFs at times infinitesimally apart and sum these distances in time. The total distance along the trajectory quantifies the total number of different states that the system undergoes in time, and is called the information length. We show that the time-evolution of the two models become more similar when measured in units of the information length and point out the merit of using the information length in unifying and understanding the dynamic evolution of different growth processes.

  17. Stationary and Nontationary Response Probability Density Function of a Beam under Poisson White Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, M.; Di Paola, M.

    In this paper an approximate explicit probability density function for the analysis of external oscillations of a linear and geometric nonlinear simply supported beam driven by random pulses is proposed. The adopted impulsive loading model is the Poisson White Noise , that is a process having Dirac's delta occurrences with random intensity distributed in time according to Poisson's law. The response probability density function can be obtained solving the related Kolmogorov-Feller (KF) integro-differential equation. An approximated solution, using path integral method, is derived transforming the KF equation to a first order partial differential equation. The method of characteristic is then applied to obtain an explicit solution. Different levels of approximation, depending on the physical assumption on the transition probability density function, are found and the solution for the response density is obtained as series expansion using convolution integrals.

  18. Modelling the Probability Density Function of IPTV Traffic Packet Delay Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Halas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with modelling the Probability density function of IPTV traffic packet delay variation. The use of this modelling is in an efficient de-jitter buffer estimation. When an IP packet travels across a network, it experiences delay and its variation. This variation is caused by routing, queueing systems and other influences like the processing delay of the network nodes. When we try to separate these at least three types of delay variation, we need a way to measure these types separately. This work is aimed to the delay variation caused by queueing systems which has the main implications to the form of the Probability density function.

  19. A new formulation of the probability density function in random walk models for atmospheric dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Anne Katrine Vinther; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    1997-01-01

    In this model for atmospheric dispersion particles are simulated by the Langevin Equation, which is a stochastic differential equation. It uses the probability density function (PDF) of the vertical velocity fluctuations as input. The PDF is constructed as an expansion after Hermite polynomials. ...

  20. Dynamic Graphics in Excel for Teaching Statistics: Understanding the Probability Density Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll-Serrano, Vicente; Blasco-Blasco, Olga; Alvarez-Jareno, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we show a dynamic graphic in Excel that is used to introduce an important concept in our subject, Statistics I: the probability density function. This interactive graphic seeks to facilitate conceptual understanding of the main aspects analysed by the learners.

  1. Probability density of wave function of excited photoelectron: understanding XANES features

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šipr, Ondřej

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2001), s. 232-234 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/99/0404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A02/98:Z1-010-914 Keywords : XANES * PED - probability density of wave function Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2001

  2. Robust functional statistics applied to Probability Density Function shape screening of sEMG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaoud, S; Rix, H; Al Harrach, M; Marin, F

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies pointed out possible shape modifications of the Probability Density Function (PDF) of surface electromyographical (sEMG) data according to several contexts like fatigue and muscle force increase. Following this idea, criteria have been proposed to monitor these shape modifications mainly using High Order Statistics (HOS) parameters like skewness and kurtosis. In experimental conditions, these parameters are confronted with small sample size in the estimation process. This small sample size induces errors in the estimated HOS parameters restraining real-time and precise sEMG PDF shape monitoring. Recently, a functional formalism, the Core Shape Model (CSM), has been used to analyse shape modifications of PDF curves. In this work, taking inspiration from CSM method, robust functional statistics are proposed to emulate both skewness and kurtosis behaviors. These functional statistics combine both kernel density estimation and PDF shape distances to evaluate shape modifications even in presence of small sample size. Then, the proposed statistics are tested, using Monte Carlo simulations, on both normal and Log-normal PDFs that mimic observed sEMG PDF shape behavior during muscle contraction. According to the obtained results, the functional statistics seem to be more robust than HOS parameters to small sample size effect and more accurate in sEMG PDF shape screening applications.

  3. The Havriliak–Negami relaxation and its relatives: the response, relaxation and probability density functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, K.; Horzela, A.; Bratek, Ł.; Dattoli, G.; Penson, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    We study functions related to the experimentally observed Havriliak–Negami dielectric relaxation pattern proportional in the frequency domain to [1+(iωτ0){\\hspace{0pt}}α]-β with τ0 > 0 being some characteristic time. For α = l/k 0 we furnish exact and explicit expressions for response and relaxation functions in the time domain and suitable probability densities in their domain dual in the sense of the inverse Laplace transform. All these functions are expressed as finite sums of generalized hypergeometric functions, convenient to handle analytically and numerically. Introducing a reparameterization β = (2-q)/(q-1) and τ0 = (q-1){\\hspace{0pt}}1/α (1 < q < 2) we show that for 0 < α < 1 the response functions fα, β(t/τ0) go to the one-sided Lévy stable distributions when q tends to one. Moreover, applying the self-similarity property of the probability densities gα, β(u) , we introduce two-variable densities and show that they satisfy the integral form of the evolution equation.

  4. Spectral Discrete Probability Density Function of Measured Wind Turbine Noise in the Far Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Payam; Denison, Adelaide

    2015-01-01

    Of interest is the spectral character of wind turbine noise at typical residential set-back distances. In this paper, a spectral statistical analysis has been applied to immission measurements conducted at three locations. This method provides discrete probability density functions for the Turbine ONLY component of the measured noise. This analysis is completed for one-third octave sound levels, at integer wind speeds, and is compared to existing metrics for measuring acoustic comfort as well as previous discussions on low-frequency noise sources. PMID:25905097

  5. Audio Query by Example Using Similarity Measures between Probability Density Functions of Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Helén

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a query by example system for generic audio. We estimate the similarity of the example signal and the samples in the queried database by calculating the distance between the probability density functions (pdfs of their frame-wise acoustic features. Since the features are continuous valued, we propose to model them using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs or hidden Markov models (HMMs. The models parametrize each sample efficiently and retain sufficient information for similarity measurement. To measure the distance between the models, we apply a novel Euclidean distance, approximations of Kullback-Leibler divergence, and a cross-likelihood ratio test. The performance of the measures was tested in simulations where audio samples are automatically retrieved from a general audio database, based on the estimated similarity to a user-provided example. The simulations show that the distance between probability density functions is an accurate measure for similarity. Measures based on GMMs or HMMs are shown to produce better results than that of the existing methods based on simpler statistics or histograms of the features. A good performance with low computational cost is obtained with the proposed Euclidean distance.

  6. Noise-level determination for discrete spectra with Gaussian or Lorentzian probability density functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Netzer

    2010-01-01

    A method, based on binomial filtering, to estimate the noise level of an arbitrary, smoothed pure signal, contaminated with an additive, uncorrelated noise component is presented. If the noise characteristics of the experimental spectrum are known, as for instance the type of the corresponding probability density function (e.g., Gaussian), the noise properties can be extracted. In such cases, both the noise level, as may arbitrarily be defined, and a simulated white noise component can be generated, such that the simulated noise component is statistically indistinguishable from the true noise component present in the original signal. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the noise level extraction when the additive noise is Gaussian or Lorentzian. We show that the statistical parameters in these cases (mainly the variance and the half width at half maximum, respectively) can directly be obtained from the experimental spectrum even when the pure signal is erratic. Further discussion is given for cases where the noise probability density function is initially unknown.

  7. Probability density function formalism for optical coherence tomography signal analysis: a controlled phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherbee, Andrew; Sugita, Mitsuro; Bizheva, Kostadinka; Popov, Ivan; Vitkin, Alex

    2016-06-15

    The distribution of backscattered intensities as described by the probability density function (PDF) of tissue-scattered light contains information that may be useful for tissue assessment and diagnosis, including characterization of its pathology. In this Letter, we examine the PDF description of the light scattering statistics in a well characterized tissue-like particulate medium using optical coherence tomography (OCT). It is shown that for low scatterer density, the governing statistics depart considerably from a Gaussian description and follow the K distribution for both OCT amplitude and intensity. The PDF formalism is shown to be independent of the scatterer flow conditions; this is expected from theory, and suggests robustness and motion independence of the OCT amplitude (and OCT intensity) PDF metrics in the context of potential biomedical applications.

  8. A study of shear sprays using probability density function techniques and laser-based diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitahi, A.; Kioni, P.N. [Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (Kenya). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Presented in this paper are preliminary experimental results from investigations carried out on a two-dimensional shear spray. These results are part of ongoing research of combustion in shear flows. Among the objectives is to include the effects of droplet-droplet interactions and turbulent dispersion. In the numerical work, use is made of Probability Density Function (pdf) techniques owing to the large dimensionality of the spray problem. For the experimental work, a burner has been developed and laser-based experiments carried out on it to characterize the spray. The results capture velocity evolution and droplet size distributions. At this stage a water spray is used, to bring out the quality of the burner as a precursor to spray combustion investigations in the ongoing research. (orig.)

  9. Empirical and quadrature approximation of acoustic field and array response probability density functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Thomas J; Oba, Roger M

    2013-07-01

    Numerical methods are presented for approximating the probability density functions (pdf's) of acoustic fields and receiver-array responses induced by a given joint pdf of a set of acoustic environmental parameters. An approximation to the characteristic function of the random acoustic field (the inverse Fourier transform of the field pdf) is first obtained either by construction of the empirical characteristic function (ECF) from a random sample of the acoustic parameters, or by application of generalized Gaussian quadrature to approximate the integral defining the characteristic function. The Fourier transform is then applied to obtain an approximation of the pdf by a continuous function of the field variables. Application of both the ECF and generalized Gaussian quadrature is demonstrated in an example of a shallow-water ocean waveguide with two-dimensional uncertainty of sound speed and attenuation coefficient in the ocean bottom. Both approximations lead to a smoother estimate of the field pdf than that provided by a histogram, with generalized Gaussian quadrature providing a smoother estimate at the tails of the pdf. Potential applications to acoustic system performance quantification and to nonparametric acoustic signal processing are discussed.

  10. Power probability density function control and performance assessment of a nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abharian, Amir Esmaeili; Fadaei, Amir Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In this paper, the performance assessment of static PDF control system is discussed. • The reactor PDF model is set up based on the B-spline functions. • Acquaints of Nu, and Th-h. equations solve concurrently by reformed Hansen’s method. • A principle of performance assessment is put forward for the PDF of the NR control. - Abstract: One of the main issues in controlling a system is to keep track of the conditions of the system function. The performance condition of the system should be inspected continuously, to keep the system in reliable working condition. In this study, the nuclear reactor is considered as a complicated system and a principle of performance assessment is used for analyzing the performance of the power probability density function (PDF) of the nuclear research reactor control. First, the model of the power PDF is set up, then the controller is designed to make the power PDF for tracing the given shape, that make the reactor to be a closed-loop system. The operating data of the closed-loop reactor are used to assess the control performance with the performance assessment criteria. The modeling, controller design and the performance assessment of the power PDF are all applied to the control of Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) power in a nuclear process. In this paper, the performance assessment of the static PDF control system is discussed, the efficacy and efficiency of the proposed method are investigated, and finally its reliability is proven

  11. On the evolution of the density probability density function in strongly self-gravitating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girichidis, Philipp; Konstandin, Lukas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Whitworth, Anthony P.

    2014-01-01

    The time evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of the mass density is formulated and solved for systems in free-fall using a simple approximate function for the collapse of a sphere. We demonstrate that a pressure-free collapse results in a power-law tail on the high-density side of the PDF. The slope quickly asymptotes to the functional form P V (ρ)∝ρ –1.54 for the (volume-weighted) PDF and P M (ρ)∝ρ –0.54 for the corresponding mass-weighted distribution. From the simple approximation of the PDF we derive analytic descriptions for mass accretion, finding that dynamically quiet systems with narrow density PDFs lead to retarded star formation and low star formation rates (SFRs). Conversely, strong turbulent motions that broaden the PDF accelerate the collapse causing a bursting mode of star formation. Finally, we compare our theoretical work with observations. The measured SFRs are consistent with our model during the early phases of the collapse. Comparison of observed column density PDFs with those derived from our model suggests that observed star-forming cores are roughly in free-fall.

  12. The probability density function of the multiplication factor due to small, random displacements of fissile spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    An analytical expression is obtained for the probability density function of the multiplication factor of an array of spheres when each sphere is displaced in a random fashion from its initial position. Two cases are considered: (1) spheres in an infinite background medium in which the total cross section in spheres and medium is the same, and (2) spheres in a void. In all cases we use integral transport theory and cast the problem into one involving average fluxes in the spheres which interact via collision probabilities. The statistical aspects of the problem are treated by first order perturbation theory and the general conclusion is that, when the number of spheres exceeds about 5, the reduced multiplication factor ((ξ (k-k 0 ))/(k 0 )), where k 0 is the unperturbed value, is given accurately by the Gaussian distribution P (ξ)= (1)/(SQRT(2 π) σ D T ) exp-((ξ 2 )/(2 σ 2 D T 2 )).)) The partial standard deviation σ - 2 δ / SQRT (3), δ being the maximum movement of the sphere from its equilibrium position. D T is a function of the system properties and geometry. Some numerical results are given to illustrate the magnitude of the effects and also the accuracy of diffusion theory for this type of problem is assessed. The overall accuracy of the perturbation method is assessed by an essentially exact result obtained using simulation, thereby enabling the range of perturbation theory to be investigated

  13. Dictionary-based probability density function estimation for high-resolution SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Vladimir; Moser, Gabriele; Serpico, Sebastiano B.; Zerubia, Josiane

    2009-02-01

    In the context of remotely sensed data analysis, a crucial problem is represented by the need to develop accurate models for the statistics of pixel intensities. In this work, we develop a parametric finite mixture model for the statistics of pixel intensities in high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. This method is an extension of previously existing method for lower resolution images. The method integrates the stochastic expectation maximization (SEM) scheme and the method of log-cumulants (MoLC) with an automatic technique to select, for each mixture component, an optimal parametric model taken from a predefined dictionary of parametric probability density functions (pdf). The proposed dictionary consists of eight state-of-the-art SAR-specific pdfs: Nakagami, log-normal, generalized Gaussian Rayleigh, Heavy-tailed Rayleigh, Weibull, K-root, Fisher and generalized Gamma. The designed scheme is endowed with the novel initialization procedure and the algorithm to automatically estimate the optimal number of mixture components. The experimental results with a set of several high resolution COSMO-SkyMed images demonstrate the high accuracy of the designed algorithm, both from the viewpoint of a visual comparison of the histograms, and from the viewpoint of quantitive accuracy measures such as correlation coefficient (above 99,5%). The method proves to be effective on all the considered images, remaining accurate for multimodal and highly heterogeneous scenes.

  14. Development and evaluation of probability density functions for a set of human exposure factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalena, R.L.; McKone, T.E.; Bodnar, A.; Jacobson, J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe efforts carried out during 1998 and 1999 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to assist the U.S. EPA in developing and ranking the robustness of a set of default probability distributions for exposure assessment factors. Among the current needs of the exposure-assessment community is the need to provide data for linking exposure, dose, and health information in ways that improve environmental surveillance, improve predictive models, and enhance risk assessment and risk management (NAS, 1994). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) plays a lead role in developing national guidance and planning future activities that support the EPA Superfund Program. OERR is in the process of updating its 1989 Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) as part of the EPA Superfund reform activities. Volume III of RAGS, when completed in 1999 will provide guidance for conducting probabilistic risk assessments. This revised document will contain technical information including probability density functions (PDFs) and methods used to develop and evaluate these PDFs. The PDFs provided in this EPA document are limited to those relating to exposure factors

  15. Vertical overlap of probability density functions of cloud and precipitation hydrometeors: CLOUD AND PRECIPITATION PDF OVERLAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Lim, Kyo-Sun Sunny [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon Republic of Korea; Larson, Vincent E. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee Wisconsin USA; Wong, May [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Thayer-Calder, Katherine [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Ghan, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-11-05

    Coarse-resolution climate models increasingly rely on probability density functions (PDFs) to represent subgrid-scale variability of prognostic variables. While PDFs characterize the horizontal variability, a separate treatment is needed to account for the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. When sub-columns are drawn from these PDFs for microphysics or radiation parameterizations, appropriate vertical correlations must be enforced via PDF overlap specifications. This study evaluates the representation of PDF overlap in the Subgrid Importance Latin Hypercube Sampler (SILHS) employed in the assumed PDF turbulence and cloud scheme called the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB). PDF overlap in CLUBB-SILHS simulations of continental and tropical oceanic deep convection is compared with overlap of PDF of various microphysics variables in cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of the same cases that explicitly predict the 3D structure of cloud and precipitation fields. CRM results show that PDF overlap varies significantly between different hydrometeor types, as well as between PDFs of mass and number mixing ratios for each species, - a distinction that the current SILHS implementation does not make. In CRM simulations that explicitly resolve cloud and precipitation structures, faster falling species, such as rain and graupel, exhibit significantly higher coherence in their vertical distributions than slow falling cloud liquid and ice. These results suggest that to improve the overlap treatment in the sub-column generator, the PDF correlations need to depend on hydrometeor properties, such as fall speeds, in addition to the currently implemented dependency on the turbulent convective length scale.

  16. Development and evaluation of probability density functions for a set of human exposure factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, R.L.; McKone, T.E.; Bodnar, A.; Jacobson, J.

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe efforts carried out during 1998 and 1999 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to assist the U.S. EPA in developing and ranking the robustness of a set of default probability distributions for exposure assessment factors. Among the current needs of the exposure-assessment community is the need to provide data for linking exposure, dose, and health information in ways that improve environmental surveillance, improve predictive models, and enhance risk assessment and risk management (NAS, 1994). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR) plays a lead role in developing national guidance and planning future activities that support the EPA Superfund Program. OERR is in the process of updating its 1989 Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) as part of the EPA Superfund reform activities. Volume III of RAGS, when completed in 1999 will provide guidance for conducting probabilistic risk assessments. This revised document will contain technical information including probability density functions (PDFs) and methods used to develop and evaluate these PDFs. The PDFs provided in this EPA document are limited to those relating to exposure factors.

  17. Representation of Probability Density Functions from Orbit Determination using the Particle Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiku, Alinda K.; Garrison, James; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2012-01-01

    Statistical orbit determination enables us to obtain estimates of the state and the statistical information of its region of uncertainty. In order to obtain an accurate representation of the probability density function (PDF) that incorporates higher order statistical information, we propose the use of nonlinear estimation methods such as the Particle Filter. The Particle Filter (PF) is capable of providing a PDF representation of the state estimates whose accuracy is dependent on the number of particles or samples used. For this method to be applicable to real case scenarios, we need a way of accurately representing the PDF in a compressed manner with little information loss. Hence we propose using the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) as a non-Gaussian dimensional reduction method that is capable of maintaining higher order statistical information obtained using the PF. Methods such as the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) are based on utilizing up to second order statistics, hence will not suffice in maintaining maximum information content. Both the PCA and the ICA are applied to two scenarios that involve a highly eccentric orbit with a lower apriori uncertainty covariance and a less eccentric orbit with a higher a priori uncertainty covariance, to illustrate the capability of the ICA in relation to the PCA.

  18. Diverging probability-density functions for flat-top solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Avner; Chung, Yeojin; Dohnal, Tomáš; Nguyen, Quan M.

    2009-08-01

    We investigate the statistics of flat-top solitary wave parameters in the presence of weak multiplicative dissipative disorder. We consider first propagation of solitary waves of the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (CQNLSE) in the presence of disorder in the cubic nonlinear gain. We show by a perturbative analytic calculation and by Monte Carlo simulations that the probability-density function (PDF) of the amplitude η exhibits loglognormal divergence near the maximum possible amplitude ηm , a behavior that is similar to the one observed earlier for disorder in the linear gain [A. Peleg , Phys. Rev. E 72, 027203 (2005)]. We relate the loglognormal divergence of the amplitude PDF to the superexponential approach of η to ηm in the corresponding deterministic model with linear/nonlinear gain. Furthermore, for solitary waves of the derivative CQNLSE with weak disorder in the linear gain both the amplitude and the group velocity β become random. We therefore study analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations the PDF of the parameter p , where p=η/(1-ɛsβ/2) and ɛs is the self-steepening coefficient. Our analytic calculations and numerical simulations show that the PDF of p is loglognormally divergent near the maximum p value.

  19. Calculation of probability density functions for temperature and precipitation change under global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watterson, Ian G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: he IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (Meehl ef al. 2007) presents multi-model means of the CMIP3 simulations as projections of the global climate change over the 21st century under several SRES emission scenarios. To assess the possible range of change for Australia based on the CMIP3 ensemble, we can follow Whetton etal. (2005) and use the 'pattern scaling' approach, which separates the uncertainty in the global mean warming from that in the local change per degree of warming. This study presents several ways of representing these two factors as probability density functions (PDFs). The beta distribution, a smooth, bounded, function allowing skewness, is found to provide a useful representation of the range of CMIP3 results. A weighting of models based on their skill in simulating seasonal means in the present climate over Australia is included. Dessai ef al. (2005) and others have used Monte-Carlo sampling to recombine such global warming and scaled change factors into values of net change. Here, we use a direct integration of the product across the joint probability space defined by the two PDFs. The result is a cumulative distribution function (CDF) for change, for each variable, location, and season. The median of this distribution provides a best estimate of change, while the 10th and 90th percentiles represent a likely range. The probability of exceeding a specified threshold can also be extracted from the CDF. The presentation focuses on changes in Australian temperature and precipitation at 2070 under the A1B scenario. However, the assumption of linearity behind pattern scaling allows results for different scenarios and times to be simply obtained. In the case of precipitation, which must remain non-negative, a simple modification of the calculations (based on decreases being exponential with warming) is used to avoid unrealistic results. These approaches are currently being used for the new CSIRO/ Bureau of Meteorology climate projections

  20. Using Prediction Markets to Generate Probability Density Functions for Climate Change Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate-related uncertainty is traditionally presented as an error bar, but it is becoming increasingly common to express it in terms of a probability density function (PDF). PDFs are a necessary component of probabilistic risk assessments, for which simple "best estimate" values are insufficient. Many groups have generated PDFs for climate sensitivity using a variety of methods. These PDFs are broadly consistent, but vary significantly in their details. One axiom of the verification and validation community is, "codes don't make predictions, people make predictions." This is a statement of the fact that subject domain experts generate results using assumptions within a range of epistemic uncertainty and interpret them according to their expert opinion. Different experts with different methods will arrive at different PDFs. For effective decision support, a single consensus PDF would be useful. We suggest that market methods can be used to aggregate an ensemble of opinions into a single distribution that expresses the consensus. Prediction markets have been shown to be highly successful at forecasting the outcome of events ranging from elections to box office returns. In prediction markets, traders can take a position on whether some future event will or will not occur. These positions are expressed as contracts that are traded in a double-action market that aggregates price, which can be interpreted as a consensus probability that the event will take place. Since climate sensitivity cannot directly be measured, it cannot be predicted. However, the changes in global mean surface temperature are a direct consequence of climate sensitivity, changes in forcing, and internal variability. Viable prediction markets require an undisputed event outcome on a specific date. Climate-related markets exist on Intrade.com, an online trading exchange. One such contract is titled "Global Temperature Anomaly for Dec 2011 to be greater than 0.65 Degrees C." Settlement is based

  1. Calculation of probability density functions for temperature and precipitation change under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, I. G.

    2008-06-01

    There remains uncertainty in the projected climate change over the 21st century, in part because of the range of responses to rising greenhouse gas concentrations in current global climate models (GCMs). The representation of potential changes in the form of a probability density function (PDF) is increasingly sought for applications. This article presents a method of estimating PDFs for projections based on the "pattern scaling" technique, which separates the uncertainty in the global mean warming from that in the standardized regional change. A mathematical framework for the problem is developed, which includes a joint probability distribution for the product of these two factors. Several simple approaches are considered for representing the factors by PDFs using GCM results, allowing model weighting. The four-parameter beta distribution is found to provide a smooth PDF that can match the mean and range of GCM results, allowing skewness when appropriate. A beta representation of the range in global warming consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report is presented. The method is applied to changes in Australian temperature and precipitation, under the A1B scenario of concentrations, using results from 23 GCMs in the CMIP3 database. Statistical results, including percentiles and threshold exceedences, are compared for the case of southern Australian temperature change in summer. For the precipitation example, central Australian winter rainfall, the usual linear scaling assumption produces a net change PDF that extends to unphysically large decreases. This is avoided by assuming an exponential relationship between percentage decreases in rainfall and warming.

  2. Probability density functions for radial anisotropy: implications for the upper 1200 km of the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghein, Caroline; Trampert, Jeannot

    2004-01-01

    The presence of radial anisotropy in the upper mantle, transition zone and top of the lower mantle is investigated by applying a model space search technique to Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocity models. Probability density functions are obtained independently for S-wave anisotropy, P-wave anisotropy, intermediate parameter η, Vp, Vs and density anomalies. The likelihoods for P-wave and S-wave anisotropy beneath continents cannot be explained by a dry olivine-rich upper mantle at depths larger than 220 km. Indeed, while shear-wave anisotropy tends to disappear below 220 km depth in continental areas, P-wave anisotropy is still present but its sign changes compared to the uppermost mantle. This could be due to an increase with depth of the amount of pyroxene relative to olivine in these regions, although the presence of water, partial melt or a change in the deformation mechanism cannot be ruled out as yet. A similar observation is made for old oceans, but not for young ones where VSH> VSV appears likely down to 670 km depth and VPH> VPV down to 400 km depth. The change of sign in P-wave anisotropy seems to be qualitatively correlated with the presence of the Lehmann discontinuity, generally observed beneath continents and some oceans but not beneath ridges. Parameter η shows a similar age-related depth pattern as shear-wave anisotropy in the uppermost mantle and it undergoes the same change of sign as P-wave anisotropy at 220 km depth. The ratio between dln Vs and dln Vp suggests that a chemical component is needed to explain the anomalies in most places at depths greater than 220 km. More tests are needed to infer the robustness of the results for density, but they do not affect the results for anisotropy.

  3. USing the probability density function of radar reflectivity to identify precipitation in thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, C. A.

    2009-09-01

    In many studies discussing the statistical characterization of the rain rate, most of the authors have found that the probability density function (PDF) of the rain rate follows a lognormal law. However, a more careful analysis of the PDF of the radar reflectivity Z suggests that it is a question of a mixture of distributions. The purpose of this work is to identify precipitation types that can coexist in a continental thunderstorm from the PDF of the radar reflectivity. The data used come from the NEXRAD S-band radar network, notably the level II database. From reflectivity ranging from -10 dBZ to 70 dBZ, we compute the PDF. We find that the total distribution is a mixture of several populations adjusted by several gaussian distributions with known parameters : mean, standard deviation and proportion of each one in the mixture. Since it is known that the rainfall is a sum of its parts and is composed of hydrometeors of various sizes, these statistical findings are in accordance with the physical properties of the precipitation. Then each component of the mixed distribution is tentatively attributed to a physical character of the precipitation. The first distribution with low reflectivities is assumed to represent the background of the small sized particles. The second component centred around medium Z corresponds to stratiform rain, the third population located at larger Z is due to heavy rain. Eventually a fourth population is present for hail. *Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Laboratoire d'Aérologie, CNRS/Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse , France **Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, UFR de Physique Fondamentale, Laboratoire d'Optique Atmosphérique, Lille, France

  4. Probability Density Functions for the CALIPSO Lidar Version 4 Cloud-Aerosol Discrimination (CAD) Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Kar, J.; Zeng, S.; Tackett, J. L.; Vaughan, M.; Trepte, C. R.; Omar, A. H.; Hu, Y.; Winker, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the CALIPSO retrieval algorithm, detection layers in the lidar measurements is followed by their classification as a "cloud" or "aerosol" using 5-dimensional probability density functions (PDFs). The five dimensions are the mean attenuated backscatter at 532 nm, the layer integrated total attenuated color ratio, the mid-layer altitude, integrated volume depolarization ratio and latitude. The new version 4 (V4) level 2 (L2) data products, released in November 2016, are the first major revision to the L2 product suite since May 2010. Significant calibration changes in the V4 level 1 data necessitated substantial revisions to the V4 L2 CAD algorithm. Accordingly, a new set of PDFs was generated to derive the V4 L2 data products. The V4 CAD algorithm is now applied to layers detected in the stratosphere, where volcanic layers and occasional cloud and smoke layers are observed. Previously, these layers were designated as `stratospheric', and not further classified. The V4 CAD algorithm is also applied to all layers detected at single shot (333 m) resolution. In prior data releases, single shot detections were uniformly classified as clouds. The CAD PDFs used in the earlier releases were generated using a full year (2008) of CALIPSO measurements. Because the CAD algorithm was not applied to stratospheric features, the properties of these layers were not incorporated into the PDFs. When building the V4 PDFs, the 2008 data were augmented with additional data from June 2011, and all stratospheric features were included. The Nabro and Puyehue-Cordon volcanos erupted in June 2011, and volcanic aerosol layers were observed in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The June 2011 data thus provides the stratospheric aerosol properties needed for comprehensive PDF generation. In contrast to earlier versions of the PDFs, which were generated based solely on observed distributions, construction of the V4 PDFs considered the

  5. Charged-particle thermonuclear reaction rates: II. Tables and graphs of reaction rates and probability density functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadis, C.; Longland, R.; Champagne, A.E.; Coc, A.; Fitzgerald, R.

    2010-01-01

    Numerical values of charged-particle thermonuclear reaction rates for nuclei in the A=14 to 40 region are tabulated. The results are obtained using a method, based on Monte Carlo techniques, that has been described in the preceding paper of this issue (Paper I). We present a low rate, median rate and high rate which correspond to the 0.16, 0.50 and 0.84 quantiles, respectively, of the cumulative reaction rate distribution. The meaning of these quantities is in general different from the commonly reported, but statistically meaningless expressions, 'lower limit', 'nominal value' and 'upper limit' of the total reaction rate. In addition, we approximate the Monte Carlo probability density function of the total reaction rate by a lognormal distribution and tabulate the lognormal parameters μ and σ at each temperature. We also provide a quantitative measure (Anderson-Darling test statistic) for the reliability of the lognormal approximation. The user can implement the approximate lognormal reaction rate probability density functions directly in a stellar model code for studies of stellar energy generation and nucleosynthesis. For each reaction, the Monte Carlo reaction rate probability density functions, together with their lognormal approximations, are displayed graphically for selected temperatures in order to provide a visual impression. Our new reaction rates are appropriate for bare nuclei in the laboratory. The nuclear physics input used to derive our reaction rates is presented in the subsequent paper of this issue (Paper III). In the fourth paper of this issue (Paper IV) we compare our new reaction rates to previous results.

  6. Nonparametric Bayes Estimation of Distribution Functions and the Study of Probability Density Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-30

    AO AObS 250 SOUTH CARO.INA UNIV COLUNSIA DEPT OF MATHENATICS CON--ETC V/6 12/I1 NONPARANETRIC BAYES ESTIMATION OF DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS AND TH-rTCM...WeiF4964 79-C -4YF 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 0NT. SK ~ University of South Carolina, Department of IL . - Mathematics, Computer ...powerful than the sign test. The power of the test was compared with that of the sign test by computer simulations using the Marshall-Olkin bivariate

  7. Probability density functions for the variable solar wind near the solar cycle minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Z.; Leitner, M.; Narita, Y.; Consolini, G.; Kovács, P.; Tóth, A.; Lichtenberger, J.

    2015-08-01

    Unconditional and conditional statistics are used for studying the histograms of magnetic field multiscale fluctuations in the solar wind near the solar cycle minimum in 2008. The unconditional statistics involves the magnetic data during the whole year in 2008. The conditional statistics involves the magnetic field time series split into concatenated subsets of data according to a threshold in dynamic pressure. The threshold separates fast-stream leading edge compressional and trailing edge uncompressional fluctuations. The histograms obtained from these data sets are associated with both multiscale (B) and small-scale (δB) magnetic fluctuations, the latter corresponding to time-delayed differences. It is shown here that, by keeping flexibility but avoiding the unnecessary redundancy in modeling, the histograms can be effectively described by a limited set of theoretical probability distribution functions (PDFs), such as the normal, lognormal, kappa, and log-kappa functions. In a statistical sense the model PDFs correspond to additive and multiplicative processes exhibiting correlations. It is demonstrated here that the skewed small-scale histograms inherent in turbulent cascades are better described by the skewed log-kappa than by the symmetric kappa model. Nevertheless, the observed skewness is rather small, resulting in potential difficulties of estimation of the third-order moments. This paper also investigates the dependence of the statistical convergence of PDF model parameters, goodness of fit, and skewness on the data sample size. It is shown that the minimum lengths of data intervals required for the robust estimation of parameters is scale, process, and model dependent.

  8. Assessment of probability density function based on POD reduced-order model for ensemble-based data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Ryota; Misaka, Takashi; Obayashi, Shigeru, E-mail: rkikuchi@edge.ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    An integrated method of a proper orthogonal decomposition based reduced-order model (ROM) and data assimilation is proposed for the real-time prediction of an unsteady flow field. In this paper, a particle filter (PF) and an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) are compared for data assimilation and the difference in the predicted flow fields is evaluated focusing on the probability density function (PDF) of the model variables. The proposed method is demonstrated using identical twin experiments of an unsteady flow field around a circular cylinder at the Reynolds number of 1000. The PF and EnKF are employed to estimate temporal coefficients of the ROM based on the observed velocity components in the wake of the circular cylinder. The prediction accuracy of ROM-PF is significantly better than that of ROM-EnKF due to the flexibility of PF for representing a PDF compared to EnKF. Furthermore, the proposed method reproduces the unsteady flow field several orders faster than the reference numerical simulation based on the Navier–Stokes equations. (paper)

  9. CREST (Climate REconstruction SofTware): a probability density function (PDF)-based quantitative climate reconstruction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, M.; Cheddadi, R.; Chase, B. M.

    2014-11-01

    Several methods currently exist to quantitatively reconstruct palaeoclimatic variables from fossil botanical data. Of these, probability density function (PDF)-based methods have proven valuable as they can be applied to a wide range of plant assemblages. Most commonly applied to fossil pollen data, their performance, however, can be limited by the taxonomic resolution of the pollen data, as many species may belong to a given pollen type. Consequently, the climate information associated with different species cannot always be precisely identified, resulting in less-accurate reconstructions. This can become particularly problematic in regions of high biodiversity. In this paper, we propose a novel PDF-based method that takes into account the different climatic requirements of each species constituting the broader pollen type. PDFs are fitted in two successive steps, with parametric PDFs fitted first for each species and then a combination of those individual species PDFs into a broader single PDF to represent the pollen type as a unit. A climate value for the pollen assemblage is estimated from the likelihood function obtained after the multiplication of the pollen-type PDFs, with each being weighted according to its pollen percentage. To test its performance, we have applied the method to southern Africa as a regional case study and reconstructed a suite of climatic variables (e.g. winter and summer temperature and precipitation, mean annual aridity, rainfall seasonality). The reconstructions are shown to be accurate for both temperature and precipitation. Predictable exceptions were areas that experience conditions at the extremes of the regional climatic spectra. Importantly, the accuracy of the reconstructed values is independent of the vegetation type where the method is applied or the number of species used. The method used in this study is publicly available in a software package entitled CREST (Climate REconstruction SofTware) and will provide the

  10. Multivariate quantile mapping bias correction: an N-dimensional probability density function transform for climate model simulations of multiple variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Alex J.

    2018-01-01

    Most bias correction algorithms used in climatology, for example quantile mapping, are applied to univariate time series. They neglect the dependence between different variables. Those that are multivariate often correct only limited measures of joint dependence, such as Pearson or Spearman rank correlation. Here, an image processing technique designed to transfer colour information from one image to another—the N-dimensional probability density function transform—is adapted for use as a multivariate bias correction algorithm (MBCn) for climate model projections/predictions of multiple climate variables. MBCn is a multivariate generalization of quantile mapping that transfers all aspects of an observed continuous multivariate distribution to the corresponding multivariate distribution of variables from a climate model. When applied to climate model projections, changes in quantiles of each variable between the historical and projection period are also preserved. The MBCn algorithm is demonstrated on three case studies. First, the method is applied to an image processing example with characteristics that mimic a climate projection problem. Second, MBCn is used to correct a suite of 3-hourly surface meteorological variables from the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4) across a North American domain. Components of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System, a complicated set of multivariate indices that characterizes the risk of wildfire, are then calculated and verified against observed values. Third, MBCn is used to correct biases in the spatial dependence structure of CanRCM4 precipitation fields. Results are compared against a univariate quantile mapping algorithm, which neglects the dependence between variables, and two multivariate bias correction algorithms, each of which corrects a different form of inter-variable correlation structure. MBCn outperforms these alternatives, often by a large margin

  11. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  12. Continuous time random walk model with asymptotical probability density of waiting times via inverse Mittag-Leffler function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yingjie; Chen, Wen

    2018-04-01

    The mean squared displacement (MSD) of the traditional ultraslow diffusion is a logarithmic function of time. Recently, the continuous time random walk model is employed to characterize this ultraslow diffusion dynamics by connecting the heavy-tailed logarithmic function and its variation as the asymptotical waiting time density. In this study we investigate the limiting waiting time density of a general ultraslow diffusion model via the inverse Mittag-Leffler function, whose special case includes the traditional logarithmic ultraslow diffusion model. The MSD of the general ultraslow diffusion model is analytically derived as an inverse Mittag-Leffler function, and is observed to increase even more slowly than that of the logarithmic function model. The occurrence of very long waiting time in the case of the inverse Mittag-Leffler function has the largest probability compared with the power law model and the logarithmic function model. The Monte Carlo simulations of one dimensional sample path of a single particle are also performed. The results show that the inverse Mittag-Leffler waiting time density is effective in depicting the general ultraslow random motion.

  13. Determination of probability density functions for parameters in the Munson-Dawson model for creep behavior of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Mellegard, K.D.; Munson, D.E.

    1992-10-01

    The modified Munson-Dawson (M-D) constitutive model that describes the creep behavior of salt will be used in performance assessment calculations to assess compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility with requirements governing the disposal of nuclear waste. One of these standards requires that the uncertainty of future states of the system, material model parameters, and data be addressed in the performance assessment models. This paper presents a method in which measurement uncertainty and the inherent variability of the material are characterized by treating the M-D model parameters as random variables. The random variables can be described by appropriate probability distribution functions which then can be used in Monte Carlo or structural reliability analyses. Estimates of three random variables in the M-D model were obtained by fitting a scalar form of the model to triaxial compression creep data generated from tests of WIPP salt. Candidate probability distribution functions for each of the variables were then fitted to the estimates and their relative goodness-of-fit tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic. A sophisticated statistical software package obtained from BMDP Statistical Software, Inc. was used in the M-D model fitting. A separate software package, STATGRAPHICS, was used in fitting the candidate probability distribution functions to estimates of the variables. Skewed distributions, i.e., lognormal and Weibull, were found to be appropriate for the random variables analyzed

  14. A very efficient approach to compute the first-passage probability density function in a time-changed Brownian model: Applications in finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestra, Luca Vincenzo; Pacelli, Graziella; Radi, Davide

    2016-12-01

    We propose a numerical method to compute the first-passage probability density function in a time-changed Brownian model. In particular, we derive an integral representation of such a density function in which the integrand functions must be obtained solving a system of Volterra equations of the first kind. In addition, we develop an ad-hoc numerical procedure to regularize and solve this system of integral equations. The proposed method is tested on three application problems of interest in mathematical finance, namely the calculation of the survival probability of an indebted firm, the pricing of a single-knock-out put option and the pricing of a double-knock-out put option. The results obtained reveal that the novel approach is extremely accurate and fast, and performs significantly better than the finite difference method.

  15. Probability densities and Lévy densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler

    For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated.......For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated....

  16. New evolution equations for the joint response-excitation probability density function of stochastic solutions to first-order nonlinear PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, D.; Karniadakis, G. E.

    2012-08-01

    By using functional integral methods we determine new evolution equations satisfied by the joint response-excitation probability density function (PDF) associated with the stochastic solution to first-order nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). The theory is presented for both fully nonlinear and for quasilinear scalar PDEs subject to random boundary conditions, random initial conditions or random forcing terms. Particular applications are discussed for the classical linear and nonlinear advection equations and for the advection-reaction equation. By using a Fourier-Galerkin spectral method we obtain numerical solutions of the proposed response-excitation PDF equations. These numerical solutions are compared against those obtained by using more conventional statistical approaches such as probabilistic collocation and multi-element probabilistic collocation methods. It is found that the response-excitation approach yields accurate predictions of the statistical properties of the system. In addition, it allows to directly ascertain the tails of probabilistic distributions, thus facilitating the assessment of rare events and associated risks. The computational cost of the response-excitation method is order magnitudes smaller than the one of more conventional statistical approaches if the PDE is subject to high-dimensional random boundary or initial conditions. The question of high-dimensionality for evolution equations involving multidimensional joint response-excitation PDFs is also addressed.

  17. A weighted bootstrap method for the determination of probability density functions of freshwater distribution coefficients (Kds) of Co, Cs, Sr and I radioisotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrieu, G; Ciffroy, P; Garnier, J-M

    2006-11-01

    The objective of the study was to provide global probability density functions (PDFs) representing the uncertainty of distribution coefficients (Kds) in freshwater for radioisotopes of Co, Cs, Sr and I. A comprehensive database containing Kd values referenced in 61 articles was first built and quality scores were affected to each data point according to various criteria (e.g. presentation of data, contact times, pH, solid-to-liquid ratio, expert judgement). A weighted bootstrapping procedure was then set up in order to build PDFs, in such a way that more importance is given to the most relevant data points (i.e. those corresponding to typical natural environments). However, it was also assessed that the relevance and the robustness of the PDFs determined by our procedure depended on the number of Kd values in the database. Owing to the large database, conditional PDFs were also proposed, for site studies where some parametric information is known (e.g. pH, contact time between radionuclides and particles, solid-to-liquid ratio). Such conditional PDFs reduce the uncertainty on the Kd values. These global and conditional PDFs are useful for end-users of dose models because the uncertainty and sensitivity of Kd values are taking into account.

  18. Sensor Fusion Based on an Integrated Neural Network and Probability Density Function (PDF) Dual Kalman Filter for On-Line Estimation of Vehicle Parameters and States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Melendez, Leandro; Boada, Beatriz L; Boada, Maria Jesus L; Gauchia, Antonio; Diaz, Vicente

    2017-04-29

    Vehicles with a high center of gravity (COG), such as light trucks and heavy vehicles, are prone to rollover. This kind of accident causes nearly 33 % of all deaths from passenger vehicle crashes. Nowadays, these vehicles are incorporating roll stability control (RSC) systems to improve their safety. Most of the RSC systems require the vehicle roll angle as a known input variable to predict the lateral load transfer. The vehicle roll angle can be directly measured by a dual antenna global positioning system (GPS), but it is expensive. For this reason, it is important to estimate the vehicle roll angle from sensors installed onboard in current vehicles. On the other hand, the knowledge of the vehicle's parameters values is essential to obtain an accurate vehicle response. Some of vehicle parameters cannot be easily obtained and they can vary over time. In this paper, an algorithm for the simultaneous on-line estimation of vehicle's roll angle and parameters is proposed. This algorithm uses a probability density function (PDF)-based truncation method in combination with a dual Kalman filter (DKF), to guarantee that both vehicle's states and parameters are within bounds that have a physical meaning, using the information obtained from sensors mounted on vehicles. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Time-averaged probability density functions of soot nanoparticles along the centerline of a piloted turbulent diffusion flame using a scanning mobility particle sizer

    KAUST Repository

    Chowdhury, Snehaunshu

    2017-01-23

    In this study, we demonstrate the use of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) as an effective tool to measure the probability density functions (PDFs) of soot nanoparticles in turbulent flames. Time-averaged soot PDFs necessary for validating existing soot models are reported at intervals of ∆x/D∆x/D = 5 along the centerline of turbulent, non-premixed, C2H4/N2 flames. The jet exit Reynolds numbers of the flames investigated were 10,000 and 20,000. A simplified burner geometry based on a published design was chosen to aid modelers. Soot was sampled directly from the flame using a sampling probe with a 0.5-mm diameter orifice and diluted with N2 by a two-stage dilution process. The overall dilution ratio was not evaluated. An SMPS system was used to analyze soot particle concentrations in the diluted samples. Sampling conditions were optimized over a wide range of dilution ratios to eliminate the effect of agglomeration in the sampling probe. Two differential mobility analyzers (DMAs) with different size ranges were used separately in the SMPS measurements to characterize the entire size range of particles. In both flames, the PDFs were found to be mono-modal in nature near the jet exit. Further downstream, the profiles were flatter with a fall-off at larger particle diameters. The geometric mean of the soot size distributions was less than 10 nm for all cases and increased monotonically with axial distance in both flames.

  20. Significance of higher moments for complete characterization of the travel time probability density function in heterogeneous porous media using the maximum entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotovac, Hrvoje; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Andricevic, Roko

    2010-05-01

    The travel time formulation of advective transport in heterogeneous porous media is of interest both conceptually, e.g., for incorporating retention processes, and in applications where typically the travel time peak, early, and late arrivals of contaminants are of major concern in a regulatory or remediation context. Furthermore, the travel time moments are of interest for quantifying uncertainty in advective transport of tracers released from point sources in heterogeneous aquifers. In view of this interest, the travel time distribution has been studied in the literature; however, the link to the hydraulic conductivity statistics has been typically restricted to the first two moments. Here we investigate the influence of higher travel time moments on the travel time probability density function (pdf) in heterogeneous porous media combining Monte Carlo simulations with the maximum entropy principle. The Monte Carlo experimental pdf is obtained by the adaptive Fup Monte Carlo method (AFMCM) for advective transport characterized by a multi-Gaussian structure with exponential covariance considering two injection modes (in-flux and resident) and lnK variance up to 8. A maximum entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm based on Fup basis functions is used for the complete characterization of the travel time pdf. All travel time moments become linear with distance. Initial nonlinearity is found mainly for the resident injection mode, which exhibits a strong nonlinearity within first 5IY for high heterogeneity. For the resident injection mode, the form of variance and all higher moments changes from the familiar concave form predicted by the first-order theory to a convex form; for the in-flux mode, linearity is preserved even for high heterogeneity. The number of moments sufficient for a complete characterization of the travel time pdf mainly depends on the heterogeneity level. Mean and variance completely describe travel time pdf for low and mild heterogeneity, skewness is dominant

  1. The H-Function and Probability Density Functions of Certain Algebraic Combinations of Independent Random Variables with H-Function Probability Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    functions and the H- function," Boletin do la Academia de Ciencias Fisicas Matematicas v Naturales (Caracas), 31, 95- 102 (1971). 120. Jain, U. C...Society, 37, 329- 334 (1973). 32. Oliver, M. L., and S. L. Kalla, "On the derivative of Fox’s H- function," (Spanish) Acta 14,dlcana de Ciencia -v...34 Universidade de Lisboa Revista de Faculdade de Ciencias FMatematicas, II, Series A, 13, 109-114 (1969-70). 92. Bajpai, S. D., "On some results involving Fox’s H

  2. Functionalized bimodal mesoporous silicas as carriers for controlled aspirin delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Sun, Jihong; Li, Yuzhen

    2011-08-01

    The bimodal mesoporous silica modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was performed as the aspirin carrier. The samples' structure, drug loading and release profiles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption and desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TG analysis, elemental analysis and UV-spectrophotometer. For further exploring the effects of the bimodal mesopores on the drug delivery behavior, the unimodal mesoporous material MCM-41 was also modified as the aspirin carrier. Meantime, Korsmeyer-Peppas equation ft= ktn was employed to analyze the dissolution data in details. It is indicated that the bimodal mesopores are beneficial for unrestricted drug molecules diffusing and therefore lead to a higher loading and faster releasing than that of MCM-41. The results show that the aspirin delivery properties are influenced considerably by the mesoporous matrix, whereas the large pore of bimodal mesoporous silica is the key point for the improved controlled-release properties.

  3. Application of tests of goodness of fit in determining the probability density function for spacing of steel sets in tunnel support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoosh Basaligheh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the conventional methods for temporary support of tunnels is to use steel sets with shotcrete. The nature of a temporary support system demands a quick installation of its structures. As a result, the spacing between steel sets is not a fixed amount and it can be considered as a random variable. Hence, in the reliability analysis of these types of structures, the selection of an appropriate probability distribution function of spacing of steel sets is essential. In the present paper, the distances between steel sets are collected from an under-construction tunnel and the collected data is used to suggest a proper Probability Distribution Function (PDF for the spacing of steel sets. The tunnel has two different excavation sections. In this regard, different distribution functions were investigated and three common tests of goodness of fit were used for evaluation of each function for each excavation section. Results from all three methods indicate that the Wakeby distribution function can be suggested as the proper PDF for spacing between the steel sets. It is also noted that, although the probability distribution function for two different tunnel sections is the same, the parameters of PDF for the individual sections are different from each other.

  4. Functionalized bimodal mesoporous silicas as carriers for controlled aspirin delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Lin; Sun Jihong; Li Yuzhen

    2011-01-01

    The bimodal mesoporous silica modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was performed as the aspirin carrier. The samples' structure, drug loading and release profiles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption and desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TG analysis, elemental analysis and UV-spectrophotometer. For further exploring the effects of the bimodal mesopores on the drug delivery behavior, the unimodal mesoporous material MCM-41 was also modified as the aspirin carrier. Meantime, Korsmeyer-Peppas equation f t =kt n was employed to analyze the dissolution data in details. It is indicated that the bimodal mesopores are beneficial for unrestricted drug molecules diffusing and therefore lead to a higher loading and faster releasing than that of MCM-41. The results show that the aspirin delivery properties are influenced considerably by the mesoporous matrix, whereas the large pore of bimodal mesoporous silica is the key point for the improved controlled-release properties. - Graphical abstract: Loading (A) and release profiles (B) of aspirin in N-BMMs and N-MCM-41 indicated that BMMs have more drug loading capacity and faster release rate than that MCM-41. Highlights: → Bimodal mesoporous silicas (BMMs) and MCM-41 modified with amino group via post-treatment procedure. → Loading and release profiles of aspirin in modified BMMs and MCM-41. → Modified BMMs have more drug loading capacity and faster release rate than that modified MCM-41.

  5. Second language experience modulates functional brain network for the native language production in bimodal bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lijuan; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zinszer, Benjamin; Yan, Xin; Shu, Hua; Peng, Danling; Ding, Guosheng

    2012-09-01

    The functional brain network of a bilingual's first language (L1) plays a crucial role in shaping that of his or her second language (L2). However, it is less clear how L2 acquisition changes the functional network of L1 processing in bilinguals. In this study, we demonstrate that in bimodal (Chinese spoken-sign) bilinguals, the functional network supporting L1 production (spoken language) has been reorganized to accommodate the network underlying L2 production (sign language). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a picture naming task, we find greater recruitment of the right supramarginal gyrus (RSMG), the right temporal gyrus (RSTG), and the right superior occipital gyrus (RSOG) for bilingual speakers versus monolingual speakers during L1 production. In addition, our second experiment reveals that these regions reflect either automatic activation of L2 (RSOG) or extra cognitive coordination (RSMG and RSTG) between both languages during L1 production. The functional connectivity between these regions, as well as between other regions that are L1- or L2-specific, is enhanced during L1 production in bimodal bilinguals as compared to their monolingual peers. These findings suggest that L1 production in bimodal bilinguals involves an interaction between L1 and L2, supporting the claim that learning a second language does, in fact, change the functional brain network of the first language. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantum probability measures and tomographic probability densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amosov, GG; Man'ko, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    Using a simple relation of the Dirac delta-function to generalized the theta-function, the relationship between the tomographic probability approach and the quantum probability measure approach with the description of quantum states is discussed. The quantum state tomogram expressed in terms of the

  7. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Accurate photometric redshift probability density estimation - method comparison and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Markus Michael; Seitz, Stella; Brimioulle, Fabrice; Frank, Eibe; Friedrich, Oliver; Gruen, Daniel; Hoyle, Ben

    2015-10-01

    We introduce an ordinal classification algorithm for photometric redshift estimation, which significantly improves the reconstruction of photometric redshift probability density functions (PDFs) for individual galaxies and galaxy samples. As a use case we apply our method to CFHTLS galaxies. The ordinal classification algorithm treats distinct redshift bins as ordered values, which improves the quality of photometric redshift PDFs, compared with non-ordinal classification architectures. We also propose a new single value point estimate of the galaxy redshift, which can be used to estimate the full redshift PDF of a galaxy sample. This method is competitive in terms of accuracy with contemporary algorithms, which stack the full redshift PDFs of all galaxies in the sample, but requires orders of magnitude less storage space. The methods described in this paper greatly improve the log-likelihood of individual object redshift PDFs, when compared with a popular neural network code (ANNZ). In our use case, this improvement reaches 50 per cent for high-redshift objects (z ≥ 0.75). We show that using these more accurate photometric redshift PDFs will lead to a reduction in the systematic biases by up to a factor of 4, when compared with less accurate PDFs obtained from commonly used methods. The cosmological analyses we examine and find improvement upon are the following: gravitational lensing cluster mass estimates, modelling of angular correlation functions and modelling of cosmic shear correlation functions.

  9. A Balanced Approach to Adaptive Probability Density Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Kovacs

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Our development of a Fast (Mutual Information Matching (FIM of molecular dynamics time series data led us to the general problem of how to accurately estimate the probability density function of a random variable, especially in cases of very uneven samples. Here, we propose a novel Balanced Adaptive Density Estimation (BADE method that effectively optimizes the amount of smoothing at each point. To do this, BADE relies on an efficient nearest-neighbor search which results in good scaling for large data sizes. Our tests on simulated data show that BADE exhibits equal or better accuracy than existing methods, and visual tests on univariate and bivariate experimental data show that the results are also aesthetically pleasing. This is due in part to the use of a visual criterion for setting the smoothing level of the density estimate. Our results suggest that BADE offers an attractive new take on the fundamental density estimation problem in statistics. We have applied it on molecular dynamics simulations of membrane pore formation. We also expect BADE to be generally useful for low-dimensional applications in other statistical application domains such as bioinformatics, signal processing and econometrics.

  10. A Balanced Approach to Adaptive Probability Density Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Julio A; Helmick, Cailee; Wriggers, Willy

    2017-01-01

    Our development of a Fast (Mutual) Information Matching (FIM) of molecular dynamics time series data led us to the general problem of how to accurately estimate the probability density function of a random variable, especially in cases of very uneven samples. Here, we propose a novel Balanced Adaptive Density Estimation (BADE) method that effectively optimizes the amount of smoothing at each point. To do this, BADE relies on an efficient nearest-neighbor search which results in good scaling for large data sizes. Our tests on simulated data show that BADE exhibits equal or better accuracy than existing methods, and visual tests on univariate and bivariate experimental data show that the results are also aesthetically pleasing. This is due in part to the use of a visual criterion for setting the smoothing level of the density estimate. Our results suggest that BADE offers an attractive new take on the fundamental density estimation problem in statistics. We have applied it on molecular dynamics simulations of membrane pore formation. We also expect BADE to be generally useful for low-dimensional applications in other statistical application domains such as bioinformatics, signal processing and econometrics.

  11. Probability Density and CFAR Threshold Estimation for Hyperspectral Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G A

    2004-09-21

    The work reported here shows the proof of principle (using a small data set) for a suite of algorithms designed to estimate the probability density function of hyperspectral background data and compute the appropriate Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) matched filter decision threshold for a chemical plume detector. Future work will provide a thorough demonstration of the algorithms and their performance with a large data set. The LASI (Large Aperture Search Initiative) Project involves instrumentation and image processing for hyperspectral images of chemical plumes in the atmosphere. The work reported here involves research and development on algorithms for reducing the false alarm rate in chemical plume detection and identification algorithms operating on hyperspectral image cubes. The chemical plume detection algorithms to date have used matched filters designed using generalized maximum likelihood ratio hypothesis testing algorithms [1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 12, 10, 11, 13]. One of the key challenges in hyperspectral imaging research is the high false alarm rate that often results from the plume detector [1, 2]. The overall goal of this work is to extend the classical matched filter detector to apply Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) methods to reduce the false alarm rate, or Probability of False Alarm P{sub FA} of the matched filter [4, 8, 9, 12]. A detector designer is interested in minimizing the probability of false alarm while simultaneously maximizing the probability of detection P{sub D}. This is summarized by the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC) [10, 11], which is actually a family of curves depicting P{sub D} vs. P{sub FA}parameterized by varying levels of signal to noise (or clutter) ratio (SNR or SCR). Often, it is advantageous to be able to specify a desired P{sub FA} and develop a ROC curve (P{sub D} vs. decision threshold r{sub 0}) for that case. That is the purpose of this work. Specifically, this work develops a set of algorithms and MATLAB

  12. Probability density estimation in stochastic environmental models using reverse representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, E.; Heemink, A.W.; Lin, H.X.; Schoenmakers, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    The estimation of probability densities of variables described by systems of stochastic dierential equations has long been done using forward time estimators, which rely on the generation of realizations of the model, forward in time. Recently, an estimator based on the combination of forward and

  13. On the discretization of probability density functions and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1), e.g., approximation formulae for the mean and variance or methods based on Gaussian quadrature with N points which can handle 2N moments [8]. Instead of trying to improve the existing discretization methods, the focus of this paper is ...

  14. On the Probability Density Functions of Forster-Greer-Thorbecke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distributional properties of poverty indices are generally unknown due to the fact that statistical inference for poverty measures are mostly ignored in the field of poverty analysis where attention is usually based on identification and aggregation problems. This study considers the possibility of using Pearson system of ...

  15. On the discretization of probability density functions and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pramana – Journal of Physics. Current Issue : Vol. 90, Issue 2 · Current Issue Volume 90 | Issue 2. February 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  16. Turbulent combustion modelization via a tabulation method of detailed kinetic chemistry coupled to Probability Density Function. Application to aeronautical engines; Modelisation de la combustion turbulente via une methode tabulation de la cinetique chimique detaillee couplee a des fonctions densites de probabilite. Application aux foyers aeronautiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rullaud, M.

    2004-06-01

    A new modelization of turbulent combustion is proposed with detailed chemistry and probability density functions (PDFs). The objective is to capture temperature and species concentrations, mainly the CO. The PCM-FTC model, Presumed Conditional Moment - Flame Tabulated Chemistry, is based on the tabulation of laminar premixed and diffusion flames to capture partial pre-mixing present in aeronautical engines. The presumed PDFs is introduced to predict averaged values. The tabulation method is based on the analysis of the chemical structure of laminar premixed and diffusion flames. Hypothesis are presented, tested and validated with Sandia experimental data jet flames. Then, the model is introduced in a turbulent flow simulation software. Three configurations are retained to quantify the level of prediction of this formulation: the D and F-Flames of Sandia and lifted jet flames of methane/air of Stanford. A good agreement is observed between experiments and simulations. The validity of this method is then demonstrated. (author)

  17. Isomap nonlinear dimensionality reduction and bimodality of Asian monsoon convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannachi, A.; Turner, A. G.

    2013-04-01

    It is known that the empirical orthogonal function method is unable to detect possible nonlinear structure in climate data. Here, isometric feature mapping (Isomap), as a tool for nonlinear dimensionality reduction, is applied to 1958-2001 ERA-40 sea-level pressure anomalies to study nonlinearity of the Asian summer monsoon intraseasonal variability. Using the leading two Isomap time series, the probability density function is shown to be bimodal. A two-dimensional bivariate Gaussian mixture model is then applied to identify the monsoon phases, the obtained regimes representing enhanced and suppressed phases, respectively. The relationship with the large-scale seasonal mean monsoon indicates that the frequency of monsoon regime occurrence is significantly perturbed in agreement with conceptual ideas, with preference for enhanced convection on intraseasonal time scales during large-scale strong monsoons. Trend analysis suggests a shift in concentration of monsoon convection, with less emphasis on South Asia and more on the East China Sea.

  18. Probability density based gradient projection method for inverse kinematics of a robotic human body model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lura, Derek; Wernke, Matthew; Alqasemi, Redwan; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the probability density based gradient projection (GP) of the null space of the Jacobian for a 25 degree of freedom bilateral robotic human body model (RHBM). This method was used to predict the inverse kinematics of the RHBM and maximize the similarity between predicted inverse kinematic poses and recorded data of 10 subjects performing activities of daily living. The density function was created for discrete increments of the workspace. The number of increments in each direction (x, y, and z) was varied from 1 to 20. Performance of the method was evaluated by finding the root mean squared (RMS) of the difference between the predicted joint angles relative to the joint angles recorded from motion capture. The amount of data included in the creation of the probability density function was varied from 1 to 10 subjects, creating sets of for subjects included and excluded from the density function. The performance of the GP method for subjects included and excluded from the density function was evaluated to test the robustness of the method. Accuracy of the GP method varied with amount of incremental division of the workspace, increasing the number of increments decreased the RMS error of the method, with the error of average RMS error of included subjects ranging from 7.7° to 3.7°. However increasing the number of increments also decreased the robustness of the method.

  19. A H-infinity Fault Detection and Diagnosis Scheme for Discrete Nonlinear System Using Output Probability Density Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yumin; Lum, Kai-Yew; Wang Qingguo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a H-infinity fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) scheme for a class of discrete nonlinear system fault using output probability density estimation is presented. Unlike classical FDD problems, the measured output of the system is viewed as a stochastic process and its square root probability density function (PDF) is modeled with B-spline functions, which leads to a deterministic space-time dynamic model including nonlinearities, uncertainties. A weighting mean value is given as an integral function of the square root PDF along space direction, which leads a function only about time and can be used to construct residual signal. Thus, the classical nonlinear filter approach can be used to detect and diagnose the fault in system. A feasible detection criterion is obtained at first, and a new H-infinity adaptive fault diagnosis algorithm is further investigated to estimate the fault. Simulation example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  20. Probability density fittings of corrosion test-data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, corrosion test-data of steel-rebar in concrete were subjected to the fittings of the Normal, Gumbel and the Weibull probability distribution functions. This was done to investigate the suitability of the results of the fitted test-data, by these distributions, for modelling the effectiveness of C6H15NO3, triethanolamine ...

  1. Complexity on dwarf galaxy scales : A bimodal distributionfFunction in sculptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breddels, Maarten A.; Helmi, Amina

    2014-01-01

    In our previous work, we presented Schwarzschild models of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy demonstrating that this system could be embedded in dark matter halos that are either cusped or cored. Here, we show that the non-parametric distribution function recovered through Schwarzschild's method

  2. Predicting Ligand Binding Sites on Protein Surfaces by 3-Dimensional Probability Density Distributions of Interacting Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Jhih-Wei; Elumalai, Pavadai; Pitti, Thejkiran; Wu, Chih Yuan; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Chang, Jeng-Yih; Peng, Hung-Pin; Yang, An-Suei

    2016-01-01

    Predicting ligand binding sites (LBSs) on protein structures, which are obtained either from experimental or computational methods, is a useful first step in functional annotation or structure-based drug design for the protein structures. In this work, the structure-based machine learning algorithm ISMBLab-LIG was developed to predict LBSs on protein surfaces with input attributes derived from the three-dimensional probability density maps of interacting atoms, which were reconstructed on the query protein surfaces and were relatively insensitive to local conformational variations of the tentative ligand binding sites. The prediction accuracy of the ISMBLab-LIG predictors is comparable to that of the best LBS predictors benchmarked on several well-established testing datasets. More importantly, the ISMBLab-LIG algorithm has substantial tolerance to the prediction uncertainties of computationally derived protein structure models. As such, the method is particularly useful for predicting LBSs not only on experimental protein structures without known LBS templates in the database but also on computationally predicted model protein structures with structural uncertainties in the tentative ligand binding sites. PMID:27513851

  3. Response and reliability analysis of nonlinear uncertain dynamical structures by the probability density evolution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Peng, Yongbo; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the response and reliability analysis of hysteretic or geometric nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems of arbitrary dimensionality driven by stochastic processes. The approach is based on the probability density evolution method proposed by Li and Chen (Stochastic dynamics...... of structures, 1st edn. Wiley, London, 2009; Probab Eng Mech 20(1):33–44, 2005), which circumvents the dimensional curse of traditional methods for the determination of non-stationary probability densities based on Markov process assumptions and the numerical solution of the related Fokker–Planck and Kolmogorov......–Feller equations. The main obstacle of the method is that a multi-dimensional convolution integral needs to be carried out over the sample space of a set of basic random variables, for which reason the number of these need to be relatively low. In order to handle this problem an approach is suggested, which...

  4. A new method of joint nonparametric estimation of probability density and its support

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Taku

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method of joint nonparametric estimation of probability density and its support. As is well known, nonparametric kernel density estimator has "boundary bias problem" when the support of the population density is not the whole real line. To avoid the unknown boundary effects, our estimator detects the boundary, and eliminates the boundary-bias of the estimator simultaneously. Moreover, we refer an extension to a simple multivariate case, and propose an improved e...

  5. Probability density of tunneled carrier states near heterojunctions calculated numerically by the scattering method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myers, Samuel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Modine, Normand A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The energy-dependent probability density of tunneled carrier states for arbitrarily specified longitudinal potential-energy profiles in planar bipolar devices is numerically computed using the scattering method. Results agree accurately with a previous treatment based on solution of the localized eigenvalue problem, where computation times are much greater. These developments enable quantitative treatment of tunneling-assisted recombination in irradiated heterojunction bipolar transistors, where band offsets may enhance the tunneling effect by orders of magnitude. The calculations also reveal the density of non-tunneled carrier states in spatially varying potentials, and thereby test the common approximation of uniform- bulk values for such densities.

  6. Neural Networks for Predicting Conditional Probability Densities: Improved Training Scheme Combining EM and RVFL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John G.; Husmeier, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    Predicting conditional probability densities with neural networks requires complex (at least two-hidden-layer) architectures, which normally leads to rather long training times. By adopting the RVFL concept and constraining a subset of the parameters to randomly chosen initial values (such that the EM-algorithm can be applied), the training process can be accelerated by about two orders of magnitude. This allows training of a whole ensemble of networks at the same computational costs as would be required otherwise for training a single model. The simulations performed suggest that in this way a significant improvement of the generalization performance can be achieved. Copyright 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. A Priori Knowledge and Probability Density Based Segmentation Method for Medical CT Image Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly introduces a novel segmentation strategy for CT images sequences. As first step of our strategy, we extract a priori intensity statistical information from object region which is manually segmented by radiologists. Then we define a search scope for object and calculate probability density for each pixel in the scope using a voting mechanism. Moreover, we generate an optimal initial level set contour based on a priori shape of object of previous slice. Finally the modified distance regularity level set method utilizes boundaries feature and probability density to conform final object. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: a priori knowledge is effectively used to guide the determination of objects and a modified distance regularization level set method can accurately extract actual contour of object in a short time. The proposed method is compared to other seven state-of-the-art medical image segmentation methods on abdominal CT image sequences datasets. The evaluated results demonstrate our method performs better and has the potential for segmentation in CT image sequences.

  8. Numerical study of traffic flow considering the probability density distribution of the traffic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. M.; Zhu, H. B.; Zhang, N. X.

    The probability density distribution of the traffic density is analyzed based on the empirical data. It is found that the beta distribution can fit the result obtained from the measured traffic density perfectly. Then a modified traffic model is proposed to simulate the microscopic traffic flow, in which the probability density distribution of the traffic density is taken into account. The model also contains the behavior of drivers’ speed adaptation by taking into account the driving behavior difference and the dynamic headway. Accompanied by presenting the flux-density diagrams, the velocity evolution diagrams and the spatial-temporal profiles of vehicles are also given. The synchronized flow phase and the wide moving jam phase are indicated, which is the challenge for the cellular automata traffic model. Furthermore the phenomenon of the high speed car-following is exhibited, which has been observed in the measured data previously. The results set demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model in detecting the complicated dynamic phenomena of the traffic flow.

  9. Multi-Detection Events, Probability Density Functions, and Reduced Location Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2016-03-01

    Abstract Several efforts have been made in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) community to assess the benefits of combining detections of radionuclides to improve the location estimates available from atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) backtrack calculations. We present a Bayesian estimation approach rather than a simple dilution field of regard approach to allow xenon detections and non-detections to be combined mathematically. This system represents one possible probabilistic approach to radionuclide event formation. Application of this method to a recent interesting radionuclide event shows a substantial reduction in the location uncertainty of that event.

  10. Model-based prognostics for batteries which estimates useful life and uses a probability density function

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This invention develops a mathematical model to describe battery behavior during individual discharge cycles as well as over its cycle life. The basis for the form...

  11. Evaluation of fatigue life characteristic of a real waterwork pipe using the probability density function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Hun; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung; Song, Weon Keyu

    2008-01-01

    The fatigue characteristics of a material or a structure are generally derived from fatigue tests of standard specimens. However, test results of standard specimens are different from those of real structures or components. Therefore, to calculate more accurate fatigue life, the geometrical effect and surface condition must be considered by comparing test results of standard specimens with those of real structures or components. Thus the object of this paper is to evaluate the fatigue characteristics of a real waterwork pipe. Also, to evaluate fatigue characteristic based on life distribution, the statistical fatigue characteristics were analyzed by the normal distribution and related data of P-S-N curve

  12. Evaluation of fatigue life characteristic of a real waterwork pipe using the probability density function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Hun; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Weon Keyu [Korea Infrastructure Safety and Technology Corporation, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The fatigue characteristics of a material or a structure are generally derived from fatigue tests of standard specimens. However, test results of standard specimens are different from those of real structures or components. Therefore, to calculate more accurate fatigue life, the geometrical effect and surface condition must be considered by comparing test results of standard specimens with those of real structures or components. Thus the object of this paper is to evaluate the fatigue characteristics of a real waterwork pipe. Also, to evaluate fatigue characteristic based on life distribution, the statistical fatigue characteristics were analyzed by the normal distribution and related data of P-S-N curve.

  13. Probability density function shape sensitivity in the statistical modeling of turbulent particle dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Jeng, San-Mou

    1992-01-01

    The performance of a recently introduced statistical transport model for turbulent particle dispersion is studied here for rigid particles injected into a round turbulent jet. Both uniform and isosceles triangle pdfs are used. The statistical sensitivity to parcel pdf shape is demonstrated.

  14. Analysis of Cleaning Process for Several Kinds of Soil by Probability Density Functional Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Akihiro; Tanaka, Terumasa; Oya, Masaru

    2017-10-01

    A method of analyzing the detergency of various soils by assuming normal distributions for the soil adhesion and soil removal forces was developed by considering the relationship between the soil type and the distribution profile of the soil removal force. The effect of the agitation speed on the soil removal was also analyzed by this method. Washing test samples were prepared by soiling fabrics with individual soils such as particulate soils, oily dyes, and water-soluble dyes. Washing tests were conducted using a Terg-O-Tometer and four repetitive washing cycles of 5 min each. The transition of the removal efficiencies was recorded in order to calculate the mean value (μ rl ) and the standard deviation (σ rl ) of the removal strength distribution. The level of detergency and the temporal alteration in the detergency can be represented by μ rl and σ rl , respectively. A smaller σ rl indicates a smaller increase in the detergency with time, which also indicates the existence of a certain amount of soil with a strong adhesion force. As a general trend, the values of σ rl were the greatest for the oily soils, followed by those of the water-soluble soils and particulate soils in succession. The relationship between the soil removal processes and the soil adhesion force was expressed on the basis of the transition of the distribution of residual soil. Evaluation of the effects of the agitation speed on µ rl and ơ rl showed that σ rl was not affected by the agitation speed; the value of µ rl for solid soil and oily soil increased with increasing agitation, and the µ rl of water-soluble soil was not specifically affected by the agitation speed. It can be assumed that the parameter ơ rl is related to the characteristics of the soil and the adhesion condition, and can be applied to estimating the soil removal mechanism.

  15. Probability Density Components Analysis: A New Approach to Treatment and Classification of SAR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Abílio de Carvalho Júnior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Speckle noise (salt and pepper is inherent to synthetic aperture radar (SAR, which causes a usual noise-like granular aspect and complicates the image classification. In SAR image analysis, the spatial information might be a particular benefit for denoising and mapping classes characterized by a statistical distribution of the pixel intensities from a complex and heterogeneous spectral response. This paper proposes the Probability Density Components Analysis (PDCA, a new alternative that combines filtering and frequency histogram to improve the classification procedure for the single-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR images. This method was tested on L-band SAR data from the Advanced Land Observation System (ALOS Phased-Array Synthetic-Aperture Radar (PALSAR sensor. The study area is localized in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, northern Rondônia State (municipality of Candeias do Jamari, containing forest and land use patterns. The proposed algorithm uses a moving window over the image, estimating the probability density curve in different image components. Therefore, a single input image generates an output with multi-components. Initially the multi-components should be treated by noise-reduction methods, such as maximum noise fraction (MNF or noise-adjusted principal components (NAPCs. Both methods enable reducing noise as well as the ordering of multi-component data in terms of the image quality. In this paper, the NAPC applied to multi-components provided large reductions in the noise levels, and the color composites considering the first NAPC enhance the classification of different surface features. In the spectral classification, the Spectral Correlation Mapper and Minimum Distance were used. The results obtained presented as similar to the visual interpretation of optical images from TM-Landsat and Google Maps.

  16. Unification of field theory and maximum entropy methods for learning probability densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Justin B

    2015-09-01

    The need to estimate smooth probability distributions (a.k.a. probability densities) from finite sampled data is ubiquitous in science. Many approaches to this problem have been described, but none is yet regarded as providing a definitive solution. Maximum entropy estimation and Bayesian field theory are two such approaches. Both have origins in statistical physics, but the relationship between them has remained unclear. Here I unify these two methods by showing that every maximum entropy density estimate can be recovered in the infinite smoothness limit of an appropriate Bayesian field theory. I also show that Bayesian field theory estimation can be performed without imposing any boundary conditions on candidate densities, and that the infinite smoothness limit of these theories recovers the most common types of maximum entropy estimates. Bayesian field theory thus provides a natural test of the maximum entropy null hypothesis and, furthermore, returns an alternative (lower entropy) density estimate when the maximum entropy hypothesis is falsified. The computations necessary for this approach can be performed rapidly for one-dimensional data, and software for doing this is provided.

  17. Corredor Bimodal Cafetero

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    El Corredor Bimodal Cafetero es un proyecto de infraestructura estratégica que articula la Hidrovía del Magdalena con el Corredor Férreo del río Cauca, inscrito en el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2014/2018 y financiable con la salida de 30 mil toneladas diarias de carbón andino a la cuenca del Pacífico. Incluye el Túnel Cumanday para cruzar la Cordillera Central, el Ferrocarril Cafetero de 150 km y 3% de pendiente entre La Dorada y el Km 41, y la Transversal Cafetera de 108 km para una vía de...

  18. Far-from-Equilibrium Route to Superthermal Light in Bimodal Nanolasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Mathias; Javaloyes, Julien; Hamel, Philippe; Raineri, Fabrice; Levenson, Ariel; Yacomotti, Alejandro M.

    2018-02-01

    Microscale and nanoscale lasers inherently exhibit rich photon statistics due to complex light-matter interaction in a strong spontaneous emission noise background. It is well known that they may display superthermal fluctuations—photon superbunching—in specific situations due to either gain competition, leading to mode-switching instabilities, or carrier-carrier coupling in superradiant microcavities. Here we show a generic route to superbunching in bimodal nanolasers by preparing the system far from equilibrium through a parameter quench. We demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, that transient dynamics after a short-pump-pulse-induced quench leads to heavy-tailed superthermal statistics when projected onto the weak mode. We implement a simple experimental technique to access the probability density functions that further enables quantifying the distance from thermal equilibrium via the thermodynamic entropy. The universality of this mechanism relies on the far-from-equilibrium dynamical scenario, which can be mapped to a fast cooling process of a suspension of Brownian particles in a liquid. Our results open up new avenues to mold photon statistics in multimode optical systems and may constitute a test bed to investigate out-of-equilibrium thermodynamics using micro or nanocavity arrays.

  19. A bimodal flexible distribution for lifetime data

    OpenAIRE

    Ramires, Thiago G.; Ortega, Edwin M. M.; Cordeiro, Gauss M.; Hens, Niel

    2016-01-01

    A four-parameter extended bimodal lifetime model called the exponentiated log-sinh Cauchy distribution is proposed. It extends the log-sinh Cauchy and folded Cauchy distributions. We derive some of its mathematical properties including explicit expressions for the ordinary moments and generating and quantile functions. The method of maximum likelihood is used to estimate the model parameters. We implement the fit of the model in the GAMLSS package and provide the codes. The flexibility of the...

  20. Prediction of Carbohydrate Binding Sites on Protein Surfaces with 3-Dimensional Probability Density Distributions of Interacting Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Keng-Chang; Jian, Jhih-Wei; Yang, Ei-Wen; Hsu, Po-Chiang; Peng, Hung-Pin; Chen, Ching-Tai; Chen, Jun-Bo; Chang, Jeng-Yih; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Yang, An-Suei

    2012-01-01

    Non-covalent protein-carbohydrate interactions mediate molecular targeting in many biological processes. Prediction of non-covalent carbohydrate binding sites on protein surfaces not only provides insights into the functions of the query proteins; information on key carbohydrate-binding residues could suggest site-directed mutagenesis experiments, design therapeutics targeting carbohydrate-binding proteins, and provide guidance in engineering protein-carbohydrate interactions. In this work, we show that non-covalent carbohydrate binding sites on protein surfaces can be predicted with relatively high accuracy when the query protein structures are known. The prediction capabilities were based on a novel encoding scheme of the three-dimensional probability density maps describing the distributions of 36 non-covalent interacting atom types around protein surfaces. One machine learning model was trained for each of the 30 protein atom types. The machine learning algorithms predicted tentative carbohydrate binding sites on query proteins by recognizing the characteristic interacting atom distribution patterns specific for carbohydrate binding sites from known protein structures. The prediction results for all protein atom types were integrated into surface patches as tentative carbohydrate binding sites based on normalized prediction confidence level. The prediction capabilities of the predictors were benchmarked by a 10-fold cross validation on 497 non-redundant proteins with known carbohydrate binding sites. The predictors were further tested on an independent test set with 108 proteins. The residue-based Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) for the independent test was 0.45, with prediction precision and sensitivity (or recall) of 0.45 and 0.49 respectively. In addition, 111 unbound carbohydrate-binding protein structures for which the structures were determined in the absence of the carbohydrate ligands were predicted with the trained predictors. The overall

  1. PDE-Foam - a probability-density estimation method using self-adapting phase-space binning

    CERN Document Server

    Dannheim, Dominik; Voigt, Alexander; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Speckmayer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Probability-Density Estimation (PDE) is a multivariate discrimination technique based on sampling signal and background densities defined by event samples from data or Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations in a multi-dimensional phase space. To efficiently use large event samples to estimate the probability density, a binary search tree (range searching) is used in the PDE-RS implementation. It is a generalisation of standard likelihood methods and a powerful classification tool for problems with highly non-linearly correlated observables. In this paper, we present an innovative improvement of the PDE method that uses a self-adapting binning method to divide the multi-dimensional phase space in a finite number of hyper-rectangles (cells). The binning algorithm adjusts the size and position of a predefined number of cells inside the multidimensional phase space, minimizing the variance of the signal and background densities inside the cells. The binned density information is stored in binary trees, allowing for a very ...

  2. Aggressive Bimodal Communication in Domestic Dogs, Canis familiaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déaux, Éloïse C; Clarke, Jennifer A; Charrier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of animal multimodal signalling is widespread and compelling. Dogs' aggressive vocalisations (growls and barks) have been extensively studied, but without any consideration of the simultaneously produced visual displays. In this study we aimed to categorize dogs' bimodal aggressive signals according to the redundant/non-redundant classification framework. We presented dogs with unimodal (audio or visual) or bimodal (audio-visual) stimuli and measured their gazing and motor behaviours. Responses did not qualitatively differ between the bimodal and two unimodal contexts, indicating that acoustic and visual signals provide redundant information. We could not further classify the signal as 'equivalent' or 'enhancing' as we found evidence for both subcategories. We discuss our findings in relation to the complex signal framework, and propose several hypotheses for this signal's function.

  3. Aggressive Bimodal Communication in Domestic Dogs, Canis familiaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éloïse C Déaux

    Full Text Available Evidence of animal multimodal signalling is widespread and compelling. Dogs' aggressive vocalisations (growls and barks have been extensively studied, but without any consideration of the simultaneously produced visual displays. In this study we aimed to categorize dogs' bimodal aggressive signals according to the redundant/non-redundant classification framework. We presented dogs with unimodal (audio or visual or bimodal (audio-visual stimuli and measured their gazing and motor behaviours. Responses did not qualitatively differ between the bimodal and two unimodal contexts, indicating that acoustic and visual signals provide redundant information. We could not further classify the signal as 'equivalent' or 'enhancing' as we found evidence for both subcategories. We discuss our findings in relation to the complex signal framework, and propose several hypotheses for this signal's function.

  4. Task 4.1: Development of a framework for creating a databank to generate probability density functions for process parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    PSA analysis should be based on the best available data for the types of equipment and systems in the plant. In some cases very limited data may be available for evolutionary designs or new equipments, especially in the case of passive systems. It has been recognized that difficulties arise in addressing the uncertainties related to the physical phenomena and characterizing the parameters relevant to the passive system performance evaluation, since the unavailability of a consistent operational and experimental data base. This lack of experimental evidence and validated data forces the analyst to resort to expert/engineering judgment to a large extent, thus making the results strongly dependent upon the expert elicitation process. This prompts the need for the development of a framework for constructing a database to generate probability distributions for the parameters influencing the system behaviour. The objective of the task is to develop a consistent framework aimed at creating probability distributions for the parameters relevant to the passive system performance evaluation. In order to achieve this goal considerable experience and engineering judgement are also required to determine which existing data are most applicable to the new systems or which generic data bases or models provide the best information for the system design. Eventually in case of absence of documented specific reliability data, documented expert judgement coming out from a well structured procedure could be used to envisage sound probability distributions for the parameters under interest

  5. The Concentration Probability Density Function With Implications for Probabilistic Modeling of Chemical Warfare Agent Detector Responses for Source Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    quantité d’agent émis et l’heure de l’émission détectée par un réseau de capteurs CBR. Pour être en mesure de combler cette lacune, le Programme de...tions CBR provenant de réseaux de capteurs éloignés pouvant être déployés et ayant des données de modèles de concentrations obtenues par des...Cette mise au point permet d’intégrer le paradigme de modélisation à base de capteurs dans des systèmes opérationnels de signal d’avertissement et

  6. Multicanonical evaluation of the tails of the probability density function of semiconductor optical amplifier output power fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromborg, Bjarne; Reimer, Michael; Yevick, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a multicanonical Monte Carlo method for simulating the tails of a pdf distribution of the filtered output power from a semiconductor optical amplifier down to values of the order of 10−40. The influence of memory effects on the pdf is examined in order to demonstrate the manner...... in which the calculated pdf approaches the true pdf with increasing integration time. The simulated pdf is shown to be in good agreement with a second order analytic expression for the pdf....

  7. Unified Formulation of Single- and Multimoment Normalizations of the Raindrop Size Distribution Based on the Gamma Probability Density Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, N.; Delrieu, G.; Boudevillain, Brice; Hazenberg, P.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-01-01

    This study offers a unified formulation of single- and multimoment normalizations of the raindrop size distribution (DSD), which have been proposed in the framework of scaling analyses in the literature. The key point is to consider a well-defined “general distribution” g(x) as the probability

  8. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, N.

    2016-11-07

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  9. A Case Series of the Probability Density and Cumulative Distribution of Laryngeal Disease in a Tertiary Care Voice Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Jaime; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Ossoff, Robert; Vinson, Kim; Francis, David O; Gelbard, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    To examine the distribution of clinic and operative pathology in a tertiary care laryngology practice. Probability density and cumulative distribution analyses (Pareto analysis) was used to rank order laryngeal conditions seen in an outpatient tertiary care laryngology practice and those requiring surgical intervention during a 3-year period. Among 3783 new clinic consultations and 1380 operative procedures, voice disorders were the most common primary diagnostic category seen in clinic (n = 3223), followed by airway (n = 374) and swallowing (n = 186) disorders. Within the voice strata, the most common primary ICD-9 code used was dysphonia (41%), followed by unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) (9%) and cough (7%). Among new voice patients, 45% were found to have a structural abnormality. The most common surgical indications were laryngotracheal stenosis (37%), followed by recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (18%) and UVFP (17%). Nearly 55% of patients presenting to a tertiary referral laryngology practice did not have an identifiable structural abnormality in the larynx on direct or indirect examination. The distribution of ICD-9 codes requiring surgical intervention was disparate from that seen in clinic. Application of the Pareto principle may improve resource allocation in laryngology, but these initial results require confirmation across multiple institutions.

  10. Annihilation probability density and other applications of the Schwinger multichannel method to the positron and electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varella, Marcio Teixeira do Nascimento

    2001-12-01

    We have calculated annihilation probability densities (APD) for positron collisions against He atom and H 2 molecule. It was found that direct annihilation prevails at low energies, while annihilation following virtual positronium (Ps) formation is the dominant mechanism at higher energies. In room-temperature collisions (10 -2 eV) the APD spread over a considerable extension, being quite similar to the electronic densities of the targets. The capture of the positron in an electronic Feshbach resonance strongly enhanced the annihilation rate in e + -H 2 collisions. We also discuss strategies to improve the calculation of the annihilation parameter (Z eff ), after debugging the computational codes of the Schwinger Multichannel Method (SMC). Finally, we consider the inclusion of the Ps formation channel in the SMC and show that effective configurations (pseudo eigenstates of the Hamiltonian of the collision ) are able to significantly reduce the computational effort in positron scattering calculations. Cross sections for electron scattering by polyatomic molecules were obtained in three different approximations: static-exchange (SE); tatic-exchange-plus-polarization (SEP); and multichannel coupling. The calculations for polar targets were improved through the rotational resolution of scattering amplitudes in which the SMC was combined with the first Born approximation (FBA). In general, elastic cross sections (SE and SEP approximations) showed good agreement with available experimental data for several targets. Multichannel calculations for e - -H 2 O scattering, on the other hand, presented spurious structures at the electronic excitation thresholds (author)

  11. Bimodal condensation silicone elastomers as dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    as well as high electrical and mechanical breakdown strengths. [1] Most model elastomers are prepared by an end-linking process using a crosslinker with a certain functionality ƒ and a linear polymer with functional groups in both ends, and the resulting networks are so-called unimodal networks where...... unimodal refers to that there is one polymer only in the system. As an alternative to unimodal networks there are the bimodal networks where two polymers with significantly different molecular weights are mixed with one crosslinker. [2]Silicone rubber can be divided into condensation type and addition type...... elastomers were prepared by mixing different mass ratios (9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6) between long polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chains and short PDMS chains. The resulting elastomers were investigated with respect to their rheology, dielectric properties, tensile strength, electrical breakdown, as well...

  12. Bimodal immune activation in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophers, E; Metzler, G; Röcken, M

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is an immune-regulated skin disease with various clinical subtypes and disease activities. The majority of patients present with predominantly stable plaques. At the onset of new lesions, plaque-type psoriasis frequently demonstrates pin-sized and highly inflammatory papules sometimes with an inflammatory border. The histopathology of initial psoriasis differs from stable plaque-type psoriasis. Early lesions demonstrate innate immune cells with neutrophils, degranulating mast cells and macrophages. These are followed by interleukin (IL)-1-dependent T helper (Th)17 cells, finally resulting in the Th1-dominated immunopathology of stable plaque-type psoriasis, where mononuclear cells predominate with interspersed neutrophilic (Munro) microabscesses. These features suggest a bimodal immune pathway where alternate activation of either innate (autoinflammatory) or adaptive (autoimmune) immunity predominates. Neutrophilic infiltrations appear during early psoriasis with Munro abscesses. They are time limited and occur periodically, clinically best seen in linear nail pitting. These features strongly suggest a critical role for an IL-1-Th17-dominated autoinflammation in the initiation of psoriasis, followed by a Th1-dominated late-phase reaction. The concept of bimodal immune activation helps to explain results from therapeutic interventions that are variable and previously only partly understood. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Probability densities for the sums of iterates of the sine-circle map in the vicinity of the quasiperiodic edge of chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Ozgur; Tirnakli, Ugur

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the probability density of rescaled sum of iterates of sine-circle map within quasiperiodic route to chaos. When the dynamical system is strongly mixing (i.e., ergodic), standard central limit theorem (CLT) is expected to be valid, but at the edge of chaos where iterates have strong correlations, the standard CLT is not necessarily valid anymore. We discuss here the main characteristics of the probability densities for the sums of iterates of deterministic dynamical systems which exhibit quasiperiodic route to chaos. At the golden-mean onset of chaos for the sine-circle map, we numerically verify that the probability density appears to converge to a q -Gaussian with q<1 as the golden mean value is approached.

  14. BSA adsorption on bimodal PEO brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, WTE; Iakovlev, PA; Norde, W; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen

    2005-01-01

    BSA adsorption onto bimodal PEO brushes at a solid surface was measured using optical reflectometry. Bimodal brushes consist of long (N = 770) and short (N = 48) PEO chains and were prepared on PS surfaces, applying mixtures of PS29-PEO48 and PS37-PEO770 block copolymers and using the

  15. BSA adsorption on bimodal PEO brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, W.T.E.; Iakovlev, P.A.; Norde, W.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    BSA adsorption onto bimodal PEO brushes at a solid surface was measured using optical reflectometry. Bimodal brushes consist of long (N=770) and short (N=48) PEO chains and were prepared on PS surfaces, applying mixtures of PS 29-PEO48 and PS37-PEO770 block copolymers and using the Langmuir-Blodgett

  16. Two-dimensional probability density analysis of single channel currents from reconstituted acetylcholine receptors and sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, B U; Montal, M S; Hartshorne, R P; Montal, M

    1990-01-01

    Two-dimensional probability density analysis of single channel current recordings was applied to two purified channel proteins reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers: Torpedo acetylcholine receptors and voltage-sensitive sodium channels from rat brain. The information contained in the dynamic history of the gating process, i.e., the time sequence of opening and closing events was extracted from two-dimensional distributions of transitions between identifiable states. This approach allows one to identify kinetic models consistent with the observables. Gating of acetylcholine receptors expresses "memory" of the transition history: the receptor has two channel open (O) states; the residence time in each of them strongly depends on both the preceding open time and the intervening closed interval. Correspondingly, the residence time in the closed (C) states depends on both the preceding open time and the preceding closed time. This result confirms the scheme that considers, at least, two transition pathways between the open and closed states and extends the details of the model in that it defines that the short-lived open state is primarily entered from long-lived closed states while the long-lived open state is accessed mainly through short-lived closed states. Since ligand binding to the acetylcholine-binding sites is a reaction with channel closed states, we infer that the longest closed state (approximately 19 ms) is unliganded, the intermediate closed state (approximately 2 ms) is singly liganded and makes transitions to the short open state (approximately 0.5 ms) and the shortest closed state (approximately 0.4 ms) is doubly liganded and isomerizes to long open states (approximately 5 ms). This is the simplest interpretation consistent with available data. In contrast, sodium channels modified with batrachotoxin to eliminate inactivation show no correlation in the sequence of channel opening and closing events, i.e., have no memory of the transition history. This

  17. Probability density of orbital angular momentum mode of autofocusing Airy beam carrying power-exponent-phase vortex through weak anisotropic atmosphere turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Guo, Lixin; Cheng, Mingjian; Li, Jiangting; Huang, Qingqing; Sun, Ridong

    2017-06-26

    The probability densities of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes of the autofocusing Airy beam (AAB) carrying power-exponent-phase vortex (PEPV) after passing through the weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulent atmosphere are theoretically formulated. It is found that the AAB carrying PEPV is the result of the weighted superposition of multiple OAM modes at differing positions within the beam cross-section, and the mutual crosstalk among different OAM modes will compensate the distortion of each OAM mode and be helpful for boosting the anti-jamming performance of the communication link. Based on numerical calculations, the role of the wavelength, waist width, topological charge and power order of PEPV in the probability density distribution variations of OAM modes of the AAB carrying PEPV is explored. Analysis shows that a relatively small beam waist and longer wavelength are good for separating the detection regions between signal OAM mode and crosstalk OAM modes. The probability density distribution of the signal OAM mode does not change obviously with the topological charge variation; but it will be greatly enhanced with the increase of power order. Furthermore, it is found that the detection region center position of crosstalk OAM mode is an emergent property resulting from power order and topological charge. Therefore, the power order can be introduced as an extra steering parameter to modulate the probability density distributions of OAM modes. These results provide guidelines for the design of an optimal detector, which has potential application in optical vortex communication systems.

  18. Momentum Probabilities for a Single Quantum Particle in Three-Dimensional Regular "Infinite" Wells: One Way of Promoting Understanding of Probability Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Students often wrestle unsuccessfully with the task of correctly calculating momentum probability densities and have difficulty in understanding their interpretation. In the case of a particle in an "infinite" potential well, its momentum can take values that are not just those corresponding to the particle's quantised energies but…

  19. The Default Mode Network is functionally and structurally disrupted in amnestic mild cognitive impairment — A bimodal MEG–DTI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Garcés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, several studies on Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD have reported Default Mode Network (DMN deficits. This network is attracting increasing interest in the AD community, as it seems to play an important role in cognitive functioning and in beta amyloid deposition. Attention has been particularly drawn to how different DMN regions are connected using functional or structural connectivity. To this end, most studies have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Positron Emission Tomography (PET or Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI. In this study we evaluated (1 functional connectivity from resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG and (2 structural connectivity from DTI in 26 MCI patients and 31 age-matched controls. Compared to controls, the DMN in the MCI group was functionally disrupted in the alpha band, while no differences were found for delta, theta, beta and gamma frequency bands. In addition, structural disconnection could be assessed through a decreased fractional anisotropy along tracts connecting different DMN regions. This suggests that the DMN functional and anatomical disconnection could represent a core feature of MCI.

  20. Nuclear bimodal new vision solar system missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondt, J.F.; Zubrin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential mission capability using space reactor bimodal systems for planetary missions. Missions of interest include the Main belt asteroids, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Pluto. The space reactor bimodal system, defined by an Air Force study for Earth orbital missions, provides 10 kWe power, 1000 N thrust, 850 s Isp, with a 1500 kg system mass. Trajectories to the planetary destinations were examined and optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories were selected. A conceptual design for a spacecraft using the space reactor bimodal system for propulsion and power, that is capable of performing the missions of interest, is defined. End-to-end mission conceptual designs for bimodal orbiter missions to Jupiter and Saturn are described. All missions considered use the Delta 3 class or Atlas 2AS launch vehicles. The space reactor bimodal power and propulsion system offers both; new vision open-quote open-quote constellation close-quote close-quote type missions in which the space reactor bimodal spacecraft acts as a carrier and communication spacecraft for a fleet of microspacecraft deployed at different scientific targets and; conventional missions with only a space reactor bimodal spacecraft and its science payload. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Sjannie, E-mail: sjannie.lefevre@biology.au.dk [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Jensen, Frank B. [Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Huong, Do.T.T. [College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Can Tho University, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Wang, Tobias [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Phuong, Nguyen T. [College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Can Tho University, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Bayley, Mark [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2011-07-15

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO{sub 2max}) and critical swimming speed (U{sub crit}) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC{sub 50} of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO{sub 2max} and U{sub crit}. The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO{sub 2max} and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish.

  2. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B.; Huong, Do.T.T.; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T.; Bayley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO 2 - ) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO 2max ) and critical swimming speed (U crit ) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC 50 of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO 2max and U crit . The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO 2max and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish.

  3. Irreducible complexity of iterated symmetric bimodal maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lampreia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a tree structure for the iterates of symmetric bimodal maps and identify a subset which we prove to be isomorphic to the family of unimodal maps. This subset is used as a second factor for a ∗-product that we define in the space of bimodal kneading sequences. Finally, we give some properties for this product and study the ∗-product induced on the associated Markov shifts.

  4. Beta-binomial regression and bimodal utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Fen; Burgess, James F; Manning, Willard G; Maciejewski, Matthew L

    2013-10-01

    To illustrate how the analysis of bimodal U-shaped distributed utilization can be modeled with beta-binomial regression, which is rarely used in health services research. Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative data and Medicare claims in 2001-2004 for 11,123 Medicare-eligible VA primary care users in 2000. We compared means and distributions of VA reliance (the proportion of all VA/Medicare primary care visits occurring in VA) predicted from beta-binomial, binomial, and ordinary least-squares (OLS) models. Beta-binomial model fits the bimodal distribution of VA reliance better than binomial and OLS models due to the nondependence on normality and the greater flexibility in shape parameters. Increased awareness of beta-binomial regression may help analysts apply appropriate methods to outcomes with bimodal or U-shaped distributions. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  5. Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket Analysis Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belair, Michael; Lavelle, Thomas; Saimento, Charles; Juhasz, Albert; Stewart, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars and beyond. One concept of operations for these missions utilizes the nuclear reactor to generate electrical power during coast phases, known as bimodal operation. This presentation focuses on the systems modeling and analysis efforts for a NERVA derived concept. The NERVA bimodal operation derives the thermal energy from the core tie tube elements. Recent analysis has shown potential temperature distributions in the tie tube elements that may limit the thermodynamic efficiency of the closed Brayton cycle used to generate electricity with the current design. The results of this analysis are discussed as well as the potential implications to a bimodal NERVA type reactor.

  6. Language choice in bimodal bilingual development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane eLillo-Martin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual children develop sensitivity to the language used by their interlocutors at an early age, reflected in differential use of each language by the child depending on their interlocutor. Factors such as discourse context and relative language dominance in the community may mediate the degree of language differentiation in preschool age children.Bimodal bilingual children, acquiring both a sign language and a spoken language, have an even more complex situation. Their Deaf parents vary considerably in access to the spoken language. Furthermore, in addition to code-mixing and code-switching, they use code-blending – expressions in both speech and sign simultaneously – an option uniquely available to bimodal bilinguals. Code-blending is analogous to code-switching sociolinguistically, but is also a way to communicate without suppressing one language. For adult bimodal bilinguals, complete suppression of the non-selected language is cognitively demanding. We expect that bimodal bilingual children also find suppression difficult, and use blending rather than suppression in some contexts. We also expect relative community language dominance to be a factor in children’s language choices.This study analyzes longitudinal spontaneous production data from four bimodal bilingual children and their Deaf and hearing interlocutors. Even at the earliest observations, the children produced more signed utterances with Deaf interlocutors and more speech with hearing interlocutors. However, while three of the four children produced >75% speech alone in speech target sessions, they produced <25% sign alone in sign target sessions. All four produced bimodal utterances in both, but more frequently in the sign sessions, potentially because they find suppression of the dominant language more difficult.Our results indicate that these children are sensitive to the language used by their interlocutors, while showing considerable influence from the dominant

  7. Bimodal condensation silicone elastomers as dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    unimodal refers to that there is one polymer only in the system. As an alternative to unimodal networks there are the bimodal networks where two polymers with significantly different molecular weights are mixed with one crosslinker. [2]Silicone rubber can be divided into condensation type and addition type...... according to the curing reaction. The advantages of condensation silicones compared to addition are the relatively low cost, the curing rate largely being independent of temperature, the excellent adhesion, and the catalyst being nontoxic. [3]In this work, a series of bimodal condensation silicone...

  8. A quasi-Newton approach to optimization problems with probability density constraints. [problem solving in mathematical programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, R. A.; Vanrooy, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    A quasi-Newton method is presented for minimizing a nonlinear function while constraining the variables to be nonnegative and sum to one. The nonnegativity constraints were eliminated by working with the squares of the variables and the resulting problem was solved using Tapia's general theory of quasi-Newton methods for constrained optimization. A user's guide for a computer program implementing this algorithm is provided.

  9. Refining Bimodal Microstructure of Materials with MSTRUCT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěj, Z.; Kadlecová, A.; Janeček, M.; Matějová, Lenka; Dopita, M.; Kužel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, S2 (2014), S35-S41 ISSN 0885-7156 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-23274S Grant - others:UK(CZ) UNCE 204023/2012 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : XRD * bimodal * crystallite size Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.636, year: 2014

  10. Deaf Children's Bimodal Bilingualism and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanwick, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the research into deaf children's bilingualism and bilingual education through a synthesis of studies published over the last 15 years. This review brings together the linguistic and pedagogical work on bimodal bilingualism to inform educational practice. The first section of the review provides a synthesis of…

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of the bimodal optical computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    1999-03-01

    In the bimodal optical computer, linear and nonlinear acts occur in rapid succession generating solutions to Ax equals b. Both chaos and stochastic resonance can appear in some cases. This is the first observation of such complexity effects in optical processors.

  12. Bimodal oscillations in nephron autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovtseva, Olga; Pavlov, A N; Mosekilde, E

    2002-01-01

    The individual functional unit of the kidney (the nephron) displays oscillations in its pressure and flow regulation at two different time scales: fast oscillations associated with a myogenic dynamics of the afferent arteriole, and slower oscillations arising from a delay in the tubuloglomerular ...

  13. Dynamical and statistical bimodality in nuclear fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, S.; Chaudhuri, G.; Gulminelli, F.

    2018-02-01

    The origin of bimodal behavior in the residue distribution experimentally measured in heavy ion reactions is reexamined using Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck simulations. We suggest that, depending on the incident energy and impact parameter of the reaction, both entrance channel and exit channel effects can be at the origin of the observed behavior. Specifically, fluctuations in the reaction mechanism induced by fluctuations in the collision rate, as well as thermal bimodality directly linked to the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, are observed in our simulations. Both phenomenologies were previously proposed in the literature but presented as incompatible and contradictory interpretations of the experimental measurements. These results indicate that heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies can be viewed as a powerful tool to study both bifurcations induced by out-of-equilibrium critical phenomena, as well as finite-size precursors of thermal phase transitions.

  14. The Efficiency of the Bimodal System Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of fast railway results in an increased applicationof Trailer Train bimodal system transportation. Thetraffic costs are multiply reduced, particularly the variablecosts. On the other hand the environmental pollution from exhaustgases is also reduced. Therefore, by the year 2010 cargotransport should be preponderant~v used which would be characterisedby fast electric trains producing less noise, at lowercosts and with clean environment.

  15. New bimodal pore catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinoda, Misao; Zhang, Yi; Yoneyama, Yoshiharu; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Tsubaki, Noritatsu [Department of Material System and Life Science, School of Engineering, Toyama University, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2004-11-15

    A simple preparation method of bimodal pore supports was developed by introducing SiO{sub 2} or ZrO{sub 2} sols into large pores of SiO{sub 2} gel pellets directly. The pores of the obtained bimodal pore supports distributed distinctly as two kinds of main pores. On the other hand, the increased BET surface area and decreased pore volume, compared to those of original silica gel, indicated that the obtained bimodal pore supports formed according to the designed route. The obtained bimodal pore supports were applied in liquid-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) where cobalt was supported. The bimodal pore catalysts presented the best reaction performance in liquid-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) as higher reaction rate and lower methane selectivities, because the spatial promotional effect of bimodal pore structure and chemical effect of the porous zirconia behaved inside the large pores of original silica gel.

  16. Reactive Sintering of Bimodal WC-Co Hardmetals

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tarraste; Kristjan Juhani; Jüri Pirso; Mart Viljus

    2015-01-01

    Bimodal WC-Co hardmetals were produced using novel technology - reactive sintering. Milled and activated tungsten and graphite powders were mixed with commercial coarse grained WC-Co powder and then sintered. The microstructure of produced materials was free of defects and consisted of evenly distributed coarse and fine tungsten carbide grains in cobalt binder. The microstructure, hardness and fracture toughness of reactive sintered bimodal WC-Co hardmetals is exhibited. Developed bimodal har...

  17. Impact of distributed generation in the probability density of voltage sags; Impacto da geracao distribuida na densidade de probabilidade de afundamentos de tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Alessandro Candido Lopes [CELG - Companhia Energetica de Goias, Goiania, GO (Brazil). Generation and Transmission. System' s Operation Center], E-mail: alessandro.clr@celg.com.br; Batista, Adalberto Jose [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil)], E-mail: batista@eee.ufg.br; Leborgne, Roberto Chouhy [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: rcl@ece.ufrgs.br; Emiliano, Pedro Henrique Mota, E-mail: ph@phph.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This article presents the impact of distributed generation in studies of voltage sags caused by faults in the electrical system. We simulated short-circuit-to-ground in 62 lines of 230, 138, 69 and 13.8 kV that are part of the electrical system of the city of Goiania, of Goias state . For each fault position was monitored the bus voltage of 380 V in an industrial consumer sensitive to such sags. Were inserted different levels of GD near the consumer. The simulations of a short circuit, with the monitoring bar 380 V, were performed again. A study using stochastic simulation Monte Carlo (SMC) was performed to obtain, at each level of GD, the probability curves and sags of the probability density and its voltage class. With these curves were obtained the average number of sags according to each class, that the consumer bar may be submitted annually. The simulations were performed using the Program Analysis of Simultaneous Faults - ANAFAS. In order to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the methods of simulation of this program and allow data entry via windows, a computational tool was developed in Java language. Data processing was done using the MATLAB software.

  18. On the Probability Density Function of the Crest to Trough Heights of Waves and on the Physics of Extreme Waves Including Results from Hurricane Camille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    bridge the gap between nonlinear periodic waves and their properties and the random nonlinear wave found in nature. Mansard and Funke (1982) needed to...14 illustrate attempts by Mansard and Funke C 1982 ) to generate various wave forms at a measurement point 22.8 m from the generator. The left hand...5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 TIME (S) *FIGURE 14 Desired and Measured Transients obtained in a Wave Tank. Redrawn from Mansard and Funke

  19. A turbulent time scale based k–ε model for probability density function modeling of turbulence/chemistry interactions: Application to HCCI combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroteaux, Fadila; Pommier, Pierre-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Turbulent time evolution is introduced in stochastic modeling approach. ► The particles number is optimized trough a restricted initial distribution. ► The initial distribution amplitude is modeled by magnitude of turbulence field. -- Abstract: Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine technology is known as an alternative to reduce NO x and particulate matter (PM) emissions. As shown by several experimental studies published in the literature, the ideally homogeneous mixture charge becomes stratified in composition and temperature, and turbulent mixing is found to play an important role in controlling the combustion progress. In a previous study, an IEM model (Interaction by Exchange with the Mean) has been used to describe the micromixing in a stochastic reactor model that simulates the HCCI process. The IEM model is a deterministic model, based on the principle that the scalar value approaches the mean value over the entire volume with a characteristic mixing time. In this previous model, the turbulent time scale was treated as a fixed parameter. The present study focuses on the development of a micro-mixing time model, in order to take into account the physical phenomena it stands for. For that purpose, a (k–ε) model is used to express this micro-mixing time model. The turbulence model used here is based on zero dimensional energy cascade applied during the compression and the expansion cycle; mean kinetic energy is converted to turbulent kinetic energy. Turbulent kinetic energy is converted to heat through viscous dissipation. Besides, in this study a relation to calculate the initial heterogeneities amplitude is proposed. The comparison of simulation results against experimental data shows overall satisfactory agreement at variable turbulent time scale

  20. Rapid measurement of the three-dimensional distribution of leaf orientation and the leaf angle probability density function using terrestrial LiDAR scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf orientation plays a fundamental role in many transport processes in plant canopies. At the plant or stand level, leaf orientation is often highly anisotropic and heterogeneous, yet most analyses neglect such complexity. In many cases, this is due to the difficulty in measuring the spatial varia...

  1. Characterization of Yellow Seahorse Hippocampus kuda feeding click sound signals in a laboratory environment: an application of probability density function and power spectral density analyses

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Saran, A.K.; Kuncolienker, D.S.; Sreepada, R.A.; Haris, K.; Fernandes, W.A

    Do the sounds generated by different-sized fish of different sexes differ from each other in temporal, spectral or intensity patterns? Such differences would enable the development of passive acoustic techniques to locate seahorses in open water...

  2. Parameterizing microphysical effects on variances and covariances of moisture and heat content using a multivariate probability density function: a study with CLUBB (tag MVCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brian M.; Larson, Vincent E.

    2016-11-01

    Microphysical processes, such as the formation, growth, and evaporation of precipitation, interact with variability and covariances (e.g., fluxes) in moisture and heat content. For instance, evaporation of rain may produce cold pools, which in turn may trigger fresh convection and precipitation. These effects are usually omitted or else crudely parameterized at subgrid scales in weather and climate models.A more formal approach is pursued here, based on predictive, horizontally averaged equations for the variances, covariances, and fluxes of moisture and heat content. These higher-order moment equations contain microphysical source terms. The microphysics terms can be integrated analytically, given a suitably simple warm-rain microphysics scheme and an approximate assumption about the multivariate distribution of cloud-related and precipitation-related variables. Performing the integrations provides exact expressions within an idealized context.A large-eddy simulation (LES) of a shallow precipitating cumulus case is performed here, and it indicates that the microphysical effects on (co)variances and fluxes can be large. In some budgets and altitude ranges, they are dominant terms. The analytic expressions for the integrals are implemented in a single-column, higher-order closure model. Interactive single-column simulations agree qualitatively with the LES. The analytic integrations form a parameterization of microphysical effects in their own right, and they also serve as benchmark solutions that can be compared to non-analytic integration methods.

  3. Speech Recognition and Cognitive Skills in Bimodal Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Håkan; Johansson, Björn; Magnusson, Lennart; Lyxell, Björn; Ellis, Rachel J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relation between speech recognition and cognitive skills in bimodal cochlear implant (CI) and hearing aid users. Method: Seventeen bimodal CI users (28-74 years) were recruited to the study. Speech recognition tests were carried out in quiet and in noise. The cognitive tests employed included the Reading Span Test and the…

  4. Roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodal gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peijiang; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Huang, Lifang; Zhou, Tianshou

    2015-06-01

    Some gene regulatory systems can exhibit bimodal distributions of mRNA or protein although the deterministic counterparts are monostable. This noise-induced bimodality is an interesting phenomenon and has important biological implications, but it is unclear how different sources of expression noise (each source creates so-called factorial noise that is defined as a component of the total noise) contribute separately to this stochastic bimodality. Here we consider a minimal model of gene regulation, which is monostable in the deterministic case. Although simple, this system contains factorial noise of two main kinds: promoter noise due to switching between gene states and transcriptional (or translational) noise due to synthesis and degradation of mRNA (or protein). To better trace the roles of factorial noise in inducing bimodality, we also analyze two limit models, continuous and adiabatic approximations, apart from the exact model. We show that in the case of slow gene switching, the continuous model where only promoter noise is considered can exhibit bimodality; in the case of fast switching, the adiabatic model where only transcriptional or translational noise is considered can also exhibit bimodality but the exact model cannot; and in other cases, both promoter noise and transcriptional or translational noise can cooperatively induce bimodality. Since slow gene switching and large protein copy numbers are characteristics of eukaryotic cells, whereas fast gene switching and small protein copy numbers are characteristics of prokaryotic cells, we infer that eukaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced mainly by promoter noise, whereas prokaryotic stochastic bimodality is induced primarily by transcriptional or translational noise.

  5. Fragmentation versus stability in bimodal coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galam, Serge

    1996-02-01

    Competing bimodal coalitions among a group of actors are discussed. First, a model from political sciences is revisited. Most of the model statements are found not to be contained in the model. Second, a new coalition model is built. It accounts for local versus global alignment with respect to the joining of a coalition. The existence of two competing world coalitions is found to yield one unique stable distribution of actors. On the opposite a unique world leadership allows the emergence of unstable relationships. In parallel to regular actors which have a clear coalition choice, “neutral”, “frustrated” and “risky” actors are produced. The cold war organisation after world war II is shown to be rather stable. The emergence of a fragmentation process from eastern group disappearance is explained as well as continuing western group stability. Some hints are obtained about possible policies to stabilize world nation relationships. European construction is analyzed with respect to European stability. Chinese stability is also discussed.

  6. Bimodal metal micro-nanopowders for powder injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervikov, Aleksandr; Rodkevich, Nikolay; Glazkova, Elena; Lerner, Marat

    2017-12-01

    The paper studies a bimodal metal powder composition designed to prepare feedstock for powder injection molding, as well as microstructure and porosity of sintered pats. Two kinds of metal powder compositions are used, in particular, a mixture of micro- and nanopowders and a bimodal powder prepared with dispersion of steel wire. The feedstock is prepared by mixing a bimodal metal powder composition with acetylacetone and paraffin wax. The microstructure of the debound parts is observed by scanning electron microscopy. The sintered parts are characterized by density measurements and metallographic analysis. The technique of the metal powder composition proves to affect the characteristics of sintered parts. Nanoparticles are shown in the interstitial spaces among the microparticles upon mixing micro- and nanopowders, but the regular distribution of nanoparticles on the surface of microparticles is observed in the bimodal powder providing the reduction of the porosity of sintered parts and increasing the density to the proper density of steel.

  7. Reactive Sintering of Bimodal WC-Co Hardmetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tarraste

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bimodal WC-Co hardmetals were produced using novel technology - reactive sintering. Milled and activated tungsten and graphite powders were mixed with commercial coarse grained WC-Co powder and then sintered. The microstructure of produced materials was free of defects and consisted of evenly distributed coarse and fine tungsten carbide grains in cobalt binder. The microstructure, hardness and fracture toughness of reactive sintered bimodal WC-Co hardmetals is exhibited. Developed bimodal hardmetal has perspective for demanding wear applications for its increased combined hardness and toughness. Compared to coarse material there is only slight decrease in fracture toughness (K1c is 14.7 for coarse grained and 14.4 for bimodal, hardness is increased from 1290 to 1350 HV units.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7511

  8. Doubly localized surface plasmon resonance in bimodally distributed silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, M

    2012-06-01

    Growth of bimodally distributed silver nanoparticles using sequential physical vapour deposition (PVD) is reported. Growth conditions of nanoparticles are defined in the following three steps: In the first step, nanoparticles are grown at a heated substrate and then exposed to atmosphere, in the second step, nanoparticles are vacuum annealed and finally re-deposition of silver is performed in the third step. This special way of deposition leads to the formation of bimodally distributed nanoparticles. It has been investigated that by changing the deposition time, different sets of bimodally distributed nanoparticles can be grown. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of such bimodally distributed nanoparticles generates double plasmon resonance peaks with overlapped absorption spectra. Double plasmon resonance peaks provide a quick indication of the existence of two sets of nanoparticles. LSPR spectra of such bimodally distributed nanoparticles could be modeled with double Lorentz oscillator model. Inclusion of double Lorentz oscillator model indicates that there exist two sets of non-interacting nanoparticles resonating at different plasma frequencies. It is also reported that silver nanoparticles grown at a heated substrate, again attain the new shape while being exposed to atmosphere, followed by vacuum annealing at the same temperature. This is because of physisorption of oxygen at the silver surface and change in surface free energy. The re-shaping due to the adsorbed oxygen on the surface is responsible for bimodal size distribution of nanoparticles.

  9. Bimodal Programming: A Survey of Current Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siburt, Hannah W; Holmes, Alice E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current clinical practice in approaches to bimodal programming in the United States. To be specific, if clinicians are recommending bimodal stimulation, who programs the hearing aid in the bimodal condition, and what method is used for programming the hearing aid? An 11-question online survey was created and sent via email to a comprehensive list of cochlear implant programming centers in the United States. The survey was sent to 360 recipients. Respondents in this study represented a diverse group of clinical settings (response rate: 26%). Results indicate little agreement about who programs the hearing aids, when they are programmed, and how they are programmed in the bimodal condition. Analysis of small versus large implant centers indicated small centers are less likely to add a device to the contralateral ear. Although a growing number of cochlear implant recipients choose to wear a hearing aid on the contralateral ear, there is inconsistency in the current clinical approach to bimodal programming. These survey results provide evidence of large variability in the current bimodal programming practices and indicate a need for more structured clinical recommendations and programming approaches.

  10. Investigation on the Bimodal Distribution of the Duration of Gamma-ray Bursts from BATSE Light Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Wenfei; Li, Tipei; Wu, Mei

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the bimodal distribution of the duration of BATSE gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) by analyzing light curves of 64 ms time resolution. We define the average pulse width of GRBs from the auto-correlation function of GRB profiles. The distribution of the average pulse width of GRBs is bimodal, suggesting that GRBs are composed of long-pulse GRBs and short-pulse GRBs. The average pulse width of long-pulse GRBs appears correlated with the peak flux, consistent with the time dilation e...

  11. Bimodal score distributions and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: fact or artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Tammy L; Harvey, Robert J

    2002-02-01

    We examined Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) score distributions computed using item response theory (IRT) to assess the generalizability of earlier bimodality reports that have been cited in support of the "type" versus "trait" view of personality. Using the BILOG IRT program to score a sample of approximately 12,000 individuals who participated in leadership development programs, theta score distributions for the 4 dimensions of the MBTI computed using 10 (the BILOG default) versus 50 quadrature points were compared. Results indicated that past reports of bimodality were artifacts caused by BILOG's default use of a small number of quadrature points; when larger numbers of points were used, score distributions became strongly center-weighted. Although our findings are not supportive of the "type"-based hypothesis, the extremely high correlations between theta scores (rs > .996) suggest that no practical differences would be expected as a function of the number-of-quadrature-points decision.

  12. Localization ability with bimodal hearing aids and bilateral cochlear implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Bernhard U.; Baumann, Uwe; Fastl, Hugo

    2004-09-01

    After successful cochlear implantation in one ear, some patients continue to use a hearing aid at the contralateral ear. They report an improved reception of speech, especially in noise, as well as a better perception of music when the hearing aid and cochlear implant are used in this bimodal combination. Some individuals in this bimodal patient group also report the impression of an improved localization ability. Similar experiences are reported by the group of bilateral cochlear implantees. In this study, a survey of 11 bimodally and 4 bilaterally equipped cochlear implant users was carried out to assess localization ability. Individuals in the bimodal implant group were all provided with the same type of hearing aid in the opposite ear, and subjects in the bilateral implant group used cochlear implants of the same manufacturer on each ear. Subjects adjusted the spot of a computer-controlled laser-pointer to the perceived direction of sound incidence in the frontal horizontal plane by rotating a trackball. Two subjects of the bimodal group who had substantial residual hearing showed localization ability in the bimodal configuration, whereas using each single device only the subject with better residual hearing was able to discriminate the side of sound origin. Five other subjects with more pronounced hearing loss displayed an ability for side discrimination through the use of bimodal aids, while four of them were already able to discriminate the side with a single device. Of the bilateral cochlear implant group one subject showed localization accuracy close to that of normal hearing subjects. This subject was also able to discriminate the side of sound origin using the first implanted device alone. The other three bilaterally equipped subjects showed limited localization ability using both devices. Among them one subject demonstrated a side-discrimination ability using only the first implanted device.

  13. Merging history of three bimodal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurogordato, S.; Sauvageot, J. L.; Bourdin, H.; Cappi, A.; Benoist, C.; Ferrari, C.; Mars, G.; Houairi, K.

    2011-01-01

    We present a combined X-ray and optical analysis of three bimodal galaxy clusters selected as merging candidates at z ~ 0.1. These targets are part of MUSIC (MUlti-Wavelength Sample of Interacting Clusters), which is a general project designed to study the physics of merging clusters by means of multi-wavelength observations. Observations include spectro-imaging with XMM-Newton EPIC camera, multi-object spectroscopy (260 new redshifts), and wide-field imaging at the ESO 3.6 m and 2.2 m telescopes. We build a global picture of these clusters using X-ray luminosity and temperature maps together with galaxy density and velocity distributions. Idealized numerical simulations were used to constrain the merging scenario for each system. We show that A2933 is very likely an equal-mass advanced pre-merger ~200 Myr before the core collapse, while A2440 and A2384 are post-merger systems (~450 Myr and ~1.5 Gyr after core collapse, respectively). In the case of A2384, we detect a spectacular filament of galaxies and gas spreading over more than 1 h-1 Mpc, which we infer to have been stripped during the previous collision. The analysis of the MUSIC sample allows us to outline some general properties of merging clusters: a strong luminosity segregation of galaxies in recent post-mergers; the existence of preferential axes - corresponding to the merging directions - along which the BCGs and structures on various scales are aligned; the concomitance, in most major merger cases, of secondary merging or accretion events, with groups infalling onto the main cluster, and in some cases the evidence of previous merging episodes in one of the main components. These results are in good agreement with the hierarchical scenario of structure formation, in which clusters are expected to form by successive merging events, and matter is accreted along large-scale filaments. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory, Chile (programs 072.A-0595, 075.A-0264, and 079.A-0425

  14. Pluto/Charon exploration utilizing a bi-modal PBR nuclear propulsion/power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetoklis, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a Pluto/Charon orbiter utilizing a bi-modal nuclear propulsion and power system based on the Particle Bed Reactor. The orbiter is sized for launch to Nuclear-Safe orbit atop a Titan IV or equivalent launch veicle. The bi-modal system provides thermal propulsion for Earth orbital departure and Pluto orbital capture, and 10 kWe of electric power for payload functions and for in-system maneuvering with ion thrusters. Ion thrusters are used to perform inclination changes about Pluto, a transfer from low Pluto orbit to low Charon orbit, and inclination changes about charon. A nominal payload can be deliverd in as little as 15 years, 1000 kg in 17 years, and close to 2000 kg in 20 years. Scientific return is enormously aided by the availability of up to 10 kWe, due to greater data transfer rates and more/better instruments. The bi-modal system can provide power at Pluto/Charon for 10 or more years, enabling an extremely robust, scientifically rewarding, and cost-effective exploration mission.

  15. Brain deactivation in the outperformance in bimodal tasks: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ching Chiang

    Full Text Available While it is known that some individuals can effectively perform two tasks simultaneously, other individuals cannot. How the brain deals with performing simultaneous tasks remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to assess which brain areas corresponded to various phenomena in task performance. Nineteen subjects were requested to sequentially perform three blocks of tasks, including two unimodal tasks and one bimodal task. The unimodal tasks measured either visual feature binding or auditory pitch comparison, while the bimodal task required performance of the two tasks simultaneously. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI results are compatible with previous studies showing that distinct brain areas, such as the visual cortices, frontal eye field (FEF, lateral parietal lobe (BA7, and medial and inferior frontal lobe, are involved in processing of visual unimodal tasks. In addition, the temporal lobes and Brodmann area 43 (BA43 were involved in processing of auditory unimodal tasks. These results lend support to concepts of modality-specific attention. Compared to the unimodal tasks, bimodal tasks required activation of additional brain areas. Furthermore, while deactivated brain areas were related to good performance in the bimodal task, these areas were not deactivated where the subject performed well in only one of the two simultaneous tasks. These results indicate that efficient information processing does not require some brain areas to be overly active; rather, the specific brain areas need to be relatively deactivated to remain alert and perform well on two tasks simultaneously. Meanwhile, it can also offer a neural basis for biofeedback in training courses, such as courses in how to perform multiple tasks simultaneously.

  16. Visualisation and characterisation of heterogeneous bimodal PDMS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Fleury, Clemence

    2014-01-01

    The existence of short-chain domains in heterogeneous bimodal PDMS networks has been confirmed visually, for the first time, through confocal fluorescence microscopy. The networks were prepared using a controlled reaction scheme where short PDMS chains were reacted below the gelation point...... bimodal networks with short-chain domains within a long-chain network. The average sizes of the short-chain domains were found to vary from 2.1 to 5.7 mm depending on the short-chain content. The visualised network structure could be correlated thereafter to the elastic properties, which were determined...... by rheology. All heterogeneous bimodal networks displayed significantly lower moduli than mono-modal PDMS elastomers prepared from the long polymer chains. Low-loss moduli as well as low-sol fractions indicate that low-elastic moduli can be obtained without compromising the network's structure...

  17. Performance Comparisons of Nanoaluminum, Coated Microaluminum and Their Bimodal Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, D. L.; Dokhan, A.; Johnson, C. E.

    2004-07-01

    Comparison studies of materials containing standard nano aluminum (ultrafine) and micro aluminum coated with BaSO4 were performed. Differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis output were used to observe the effect of adding an unconventional coating to micron-sized aluminum particle materials. These results were compared to those of ultrafine aluminum particles. Bimodal combinations of ultrafine aluminum and micron-sized aluminum (coated and uncoated) were observed also. These preliminary results showed an interaction between the ultrafine aluminum (UFAL) and micron-sized aluminum in bimodal mixtures.

  18. Aspects of stochastic resonance in Josephson junction, bimodal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the noise amplitude helps to define maximum SNR or peak SNR for an optimum amplitude of input noise. Although .... Here we consider a typical 2-parameter bimodal cubic map defined by. Xn+1 = b + aXn − X3 n. (2) ... due to shuttling with chaotic input of a logistic map (called chaotic resonance) have been reported earlier ...

  19. Interaural bimodal pitch matching with two-formant vowels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guérit, François; Chalupper, Josef; Santurette, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    For bimodal patients, with a hearing aid (HA) in one ear and a cochlear implant (CI) in the opposite ear, usually a default frequency-to-electrode map is used in the CI. This assumes that the human brain can adapt to interaural place-pitch mismatches. This “one-size-fits-all” method might be part...

  20. The Bimodal Color Distribution of Small Kuiper Belt Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.

    2017-04-01

    We conducted a two-night photometric survey of small Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) near opposition using the wide-field Hyper Suprime-Cam instrument on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. The survey covered about 90 deg2 of sky, with each field imaged in the g and I bands. We detected 356 KBOs, ranging in absolute magnitude from 6.5 to 10.4. Filtering for high-inclination objects within the hot KBO population, we show that the g - I color distribution is strongly bimodal, indicative of two color classes—the red and very red subpopulations. After categorizing objects into the two subpopulations by color, we present the first dedicated analysis of the magnitude distributions of the individual color subpopulations and demonstrate that the two distributions are roughly identical in shape throughout the entire size range covered by our survey. Comparing the color distribution of small hot KBOs with that of Centaurs, we find that they have similar bimodal shapes, thereby providing strong confirmation of previous explanations for the attested bimodality of Centaurs. We also show that the magnitude distributions of the two KBO color subpopulations and the two color subpopulations observed in the Jupiter Trojans are statistically indistinguishable. Finally, we discuss a hypothesis describing the origin of the KBO color bimodality based on our survey results. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  1. Asymmetric Bimodal Exponential Power Distribution on the Real Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Niyazi Çankaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric bimodal exponential power (ABEP distribution is an extension of the generalized gamma distribution to the real line via adding two parameters that fit the shape of peakedness in bimodality on the real line. The special values of peakedness parameters of the distribution are a combination of half Laplace and half normal distributions on the real line. The distribution has two parameters fitting the height of bimodality, so capacity of bimodality is enhanced by using these parameters. Adding a skewness parameter is considered to model asymmetry in data. The location-scale form of this distribution is proposed. The Fisher information matrix of these parameters in ABEP is obtained explicitly. Properties of ABEP are examined. Real data examples are given to illustrate the modelling capacity of ABEP. The replicated artificial data from maximum likelihood estimates of parameters of ABEP and other distributions having an algorithm for artificial data generation procedure are provided to test the similarity with real data. A brief simulation study is presented.

  2. Stochastic resonance and chaotic resonance in bimodal maps: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present the results of an extensive numerical study on the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in a bimodal cubic map. Both Gaussian random noise as well as deterministic chaos are used as input to drive the system between the basins. Our main result is that when two identical systems capable of stochastic ...

  3. A HYPOTHESIS FOR THE COLOR BIMODALITY OF JUPITER TROJANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most enigmatic and hitherto unexplained properties of Jupiter Trojans is their bimodal color distribution. This bimodality is indicative of two sub-populations within the Trojans, which have distinct size distributions. In this paper, we present a simple, plausible hypothesis for the origin and evolution of the two Trojan color sub-populations. In the framework of dynamical instability models of early solar system evolution, which suggest a common primordial progenitor population for both Trojans and Kuiper Belt objects, we use observational constraints to assert that the color bimodalities evident in both minor body populations developed within the primordial population prior to the onset of instability. We show that, beginning with an initial composition of rock and ices, location-dependent volatile loss through sublimation in this primordial population could have led to sharp changes in the surface composition with heliocentric distance. We propose that the depletion or retention of H 2 S ice on the surface of these objects was the key factor in creating an initial color bimodality. Objects that retained H 2 S on their surfaces developed characteristically redder colors upon irradiation than those that did not. After the bodies from the primordial population were scattered and emplaced into their current positions, they preserved this primordial color bimodality to the present day. We explore predictions of the volatile loss model—in particular, the effect of collisions within the Trojan population on the size distributions of the two sub-populations—and propose further experimental and observational tests of our hypothesis.

  4. A HYPOTHESIS FOR THE COLOR BIMODALITY OF JUPITER TROJANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E., E-mail: iwong@caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    One of the most enigmatic and hitherto unexplained properties of Jupiter Trojans is their bimodal color distribution. This bimodality is indicative of two sub-populations within the Trojans, which have distinct size distributions. In this paper, we present a simple, plausible hypothesis for the origin and evolution of the two Trojan color sub-populations. In the framework of dynamical instability models of early solar system evolution, which suggest a common primordial progenitor population for both Trojans and Kuiper Belt objects, we use observational constraints to assert that the color bimodalities evident in both minor body populations developed within the primordial population prior to the onset of instability. We show that, beginning with an initial composition of rock and ices, location-dependent volatile loss through sublimation in this primordial population could have led to sharp changes in the surface composition with heliocentric distance. We propose that the depletion or retention of H{sub 2}S ice on the surface of these objects was the key factor in creating an initial color bimodality. Objects that retained H{sub 2}S on their surfaces developed characteristically redder colors upon irradiation than those that did not. After the bodies from the primordial population were scattered and emplaced into their current positions, they preserved this primordial color bimodality to the present day. We explore predictions of the volatile loss model—in particular, the effect of collisions within the Trojan population on the size distributions of the two sub-populations—and propose further experimental and observational tests of our hypothesis.

  5. Rapid intensification and the bimodal distribution of tropical cyclone intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Ying; Tippett, Michael K; Sobel, Adam H; Camargo, Suzana J

    2016-02-03

    The severity of a tropical cyclone (TC) is often summarized by its lifetime maximum intensity (LMI), and the climatological LMI distribution is a fundamental feature of the climate system. The distinctive bimodality of the LMI distribution means that major storms (LMI >96 kt) are not very rare compared with less intense storms. Rapid intensification (RI) is the dramatic strengthening of a TC in a short time, and is notoriously difficult to forecast or simulate. Here we show that the bimodality of the LMI distribution reflects two types of storms: those that undergo RI during their lifetime (RI storms) and those that do not (non-RI storms). The vast majority (79%) of major storms are RI storms. Few non-RI storms (6%) become major storms. While the importance of RI has been recognized in weather forecasting, our results demonstrate that RI also plays a crucial role in the TC climatology.

  6. The Development of Bimodal Bilingualism: Implications for Linguistic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of linguistic phenomena contribute to our understanding of the architecture of the human linguistic system. In this paper we present a proposal dubbed Language Synthesis to capture bilingual phenomena including code-switching and 'transfer' as automatic consequences of the addition of a second language, using basic concepts of Minimalism and Distributed Morphology. Bimodal bilinguals, who use a sign language and a spoken language, provide a new type of evidence regarding possible bilingual phenomena, namely code-blending, the simultaneous production of (aspects of) a message in both speech and sign. We argue that code-blending also follows naturally once a second articulatory interface is added to the model. Several different types of code-blending are discussed in connection to the predictions of the Synthesis model. Our primary data come from children developing as bimodal bilinguals, but our proposal is intended to capture a wide range of bilingual effects across any language pair.

  7. A novel broadband bi-mode active frequency selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Gao, Jinsong; Xu, Nianxi; Shan, Dongzhi; Song, Naitao

    2017-05-01

    A novel broadband bi-mode active frequency selective surface (AFSS) is presented in this paper. The proposed structure is composed of a periodic array of convoluted square patches and Jerusalem Crosses. According to simulation results, the frequency response of AFSS definitely exhibits a mode switch feature between band-pass and band-stop modes when the diodes stay in ON and OFF states. In order to apply a uniform bias to each PIN diode, an ingenious biasing network based on the extension of Wheatstone bridge is adopted in prototype AFSS. The test results are in good agreement with the simulation results. A further physical mechanism of the bi-mode AFSS is shown by contrasting the distribution of electric field on the AFSS patterns for the two working states.

  8. A novel broadband bi-mode active frequency selective surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel broadband bi-mode active frequency selective surface (AFSS is presented in this paper. The proposed structure is composed of a periodic array of convoluted square patches and Jerusalem Crosses. According to simulation results, the frequency response of AFSS definitely exhibits a mode switch feature between band-pass and band-stop modes when the diodes stay in ON and OFF states. In order to apply a uniform bias to each PIN diode, an ingenious biasing network based on the extension of Wheatstone bridge is adopted in prototype AFSS. The test results are in good agreement with the simulation results. A further physical mechanism of the bi-mode AFSS is shown by contrasting the distribution of electric field on the AFSS patterns for the two working states.

  9. Mobile Education: Towards Affective Bi-modal Interaction for Adaptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthymios Alepis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One important field where mobile technology can make significant contributions is education. However one criticism in mobile education is that students receive impersonal teaching. Affective computing may give a solution to this problem. In this paper we describe an affective bi-modal educational system for mobile devices. In our research we describe a novel approach of combining information from two modalities namely the keyboard and the microphone through a multi-criteria decision making theory.

  10. 'Bi-modal' isoscalar giant dipole strength in 58Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, B.K.; Garg, U.; Hedden, M.; Koss, M.; Li, T.; Liu, Y.; Madhusudhana Rao, P.V.; Zhu, S.; Itoh, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Takeda, H.; Uchida, M.; Yasuda, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Hara, K.; Kawabata, T.; Akimune, H.; Harakeh, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    The strength distribution of the isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISGDR) in 58 Ni has been obtained over the energy range 10.5-49.5 MeV via extreme forward angle scattering (including 0 deg.) of 386 MeV α particles. We observe a 'bi-modal' E1 strength distribution for the first time in an A<90 nucleus. The observed ISGDR strength distribution is in reasonable agreement with the predictions of a recent RPA calculation

  11. Multifractal Characteristics of Bimodal Mercury Pore Size Distribution Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Bonini, C.; Alves, M. C.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    Characterization of Hg pore size distribution (PSDs) curves by monofractal or multifractal analysis has been demonstrated to be an useful tool, which allows a better understanding of the organization of the soil pore space. There are also evidences that multiscale analysis of different segments found in bimodal pore size distributions measured by Hg intrusion can provide further valuable information. In this study we selected bimodal PSDs from samples taken from an experimental area in São Paulo state, Brazil, where a revegetation trial was set up over saprolitic material. The saprolite was left abandoned after decapitation of an Oxisol for building purposes. The field trial consisted of various treatments with different grass species and amendments. Pore size distribution of the sampled aggregates was measured in the equivalent diameter range from 0.005 to about 50 μm and it was characterized by a bimodal pattern, so that two compartments, i.e. 0.005 to 0.2 μm and 0.2 to 50 μm, could be distinguished. The multifractal theory was used to analyse both segments. The scaling properties of these two segments could be fitted reasonably well with multifractal models. Multifractal parameters obtained for equivalent diameters for the segments > 0.2 and pore size distributions studied.

  12. On the effect of segregation on intense bimodal bed load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrostlík Štěpán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Open-channel two-phase flow above a granular mobile bed is studied experimentally and theoretically. In the two-phase flow, water serves as a carrying liquid for plastic grains transported as collisional contact load in the upper-stage plane bed regime. The investigation evaluates friction- and transport characteristics of the flow under the condition of intense collisional transport of grains and links them with the internal structure of the two-phase flow. The paper focusses on the effect of bimodal solids (mixed two fractions of grains of similar density and different size and shape on the flow characteristics and internal structure. Hence, experimental results obtained for the bimodal mixture are compared with results for individual grain fractions. The experiments show that the bimodal character of the transported solids affects the layered internal structure of the flow as a result of fraction segregation due primarily to gravity (kinetic sieving during transport. The segregation also affects the friction- and transport characteristics of intense bed load. In the paper, the effects are described and quantified.

  13. On the effect of segregation on intense bimodal bed load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrostlík, Štěpán; Matoušek, Václav

    Open-channel two-phase flow above a granular mobile bed is studied experimentally and theoretically. In the two-phase flow, water serves as a carrying liquid for plastic grains transported as collisional contact load in the upper-stage plane bed regime. The investigation evaluates friction- and transport characteristics of the flow under the condition of intense collisional transport of grains and links them with the internal structure of the two-phase flow. The paper focusses on the effect of bimodal solids (mixed two fractions of grains of similar density and different size and shape) on the flow characteristics and internal structure. Hence, experimental results obtained for the bimodal mixture are compared with results for individual grain fractions. The experiments show that the bimodal character of the transported solids affects the layered internal structure of the flow as a result of fraction segregation due primarily to gravity (kinetic) sieving during transport. The segregation also affects the friction- and transport characteristics of intense bed load. In the paper, the effects are described and quantified.

  14. Wear behavior of light-cured resin composites with bimodal silica nanostructures as fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruili; Bao, Shuang; Liu, Fengwei; Jiang, Xiaoze; Zhang, Qinghong; Sun, Bin; Zhu, Meifang

    2013-12-01

    To enhance wear behavior of resin composites, bimodal silica nanostructures including silica nanoparticles and silica nanoclusters were prepared and proposed as fillers. The silica nanoclusters, a combination of individually dispersed silica nanoparticles and their agglomerations, with size distribution of 0.07-2.70 μm, were fabricated by the coupling reaction between amino and epoxy functionalized silica nanoparticles, which were obtained by the surface modification of silica nanoparticles (~70 nm) using 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPS) as coupling agents, respectively. Silica nanoparticles and nanoclusters were then silanized with 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (γ-MPS) to prepare composites by mixing with bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and tri (ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). Experimental composites with various filler compositions were prepared and their wear behaviors were assessed in this work. The results suggested that composites with increasing addition of silica nanoparticles in co-fillers possessed lower wear volume and smoother worn surface. Particularly, the composite 53:17 with the optimum weight ratio of silica nanoparticles and silica nanoclusters presented the excellent wear behavior with respect to that of the commercial Esthet-X, although the smallest wear volume was achieved by Z350 XT. The introduction of bimodal silica nanostructures as fillers might provide a new sight for the design of resin composites with significantly improved wear resistance. Crown Copyright © 2013. All rights reserved.

  15. Bimodal and Gaussian Ising spin glasses in dimension two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2016-02-01

    An analysis is given of numerical simulation data to size L =128 on the archetype square lattice Ising spin glasses (ISGs) with bimodal (±J ) and Gaussian interaction distributions. It is well established that the ordering temperature of both models is zero. The Gaussian model has a nondegenerate ground state and thus a critical exponent η ≡0 , and a continuous distribution of energy levels. For the bimodal model, above a size-dependent crossover temperature T*(L ) there is a regime of effectively continuous energy levels; below T*(L ) there is a distinct regime dominated by the highly degenerate ground state plus an energy gap to the excited states. T*(L ) tends to zero at very large L , leaving only the effectively continuous regime in the thermodynamic limit. The simulation data on both models are analyzed with the conventional scaling variable t =T and with a scaling variable τb=T2/(1 +T2) suitable for zero-temperature transition ISGs, together with appropriate scaling expressions. The data for the temperature dependence of the reduced susceptibility χ (τb,L ) and second moment correlation length ξ (τb,L ) in the thermodynamic limit regime are extrapolated to the τb=0 critical limit. The Gaussian critical exponent estimates from the simulations, η =0 and ν =3.55 (5 ) , are in full agreement with the well-established values in the literature. The bimodal critical exponents, estimated from the thermodynamic limit regime analyses using the same extrapolation protocols as for the Gaussian model, are η =0.20 (2 ) and ν =4.8 (3 ) , distinctly different from the Gaussian critical exponents.

  16. Bimodal Virtual Reality Stroop for Assessing Distractor Inhibition in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Carlew, Anne R

    2016-04-01

    Executive functioning deficits found in college students with ASD may have debilitating effects on their everyday activities. Although laboratory studies tend to report unimpaired inhibition in autism, studies of resistance to distractor inhibition reveal difficulties. In two studies, we compared a Virtual Classroom task with paper-and-pencil and computerized Stroop modalities in typically developing individuals and individuals with ASD. While significant differences were not observed between ASD and neurotypical groups on the paper-and-pencil and computerized task, individuals with ASD performed significantly worse on the virtual task with distractors. Findings suggest the potential of the Virtual Classroom Bimodal Stroop task to distinguish between prepotent response inhibition (non-distraction condition) and resistance to distractor inhibition (distraction condition) in adults with high functioning autism.

  17. Small Low Mass Advanced PBR's for Bi-Modal Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, Hans; Todosow, Michael; Powell, James R.

    1994-07-01

    A preliminary assessment is made of a low mass bi-modal reactor for use as a propulsion unit and as a heat source for generating electricity. This reactor is based on the particle bed reactor (PBR) concept. It will be able to generate both thrust and electricity simultaneously. This assessment indicates that the reactor can generate approximately 6.8 (4) N of thrust using hydrogen as a coolant, and 100 KWe using a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion system. Two cooling paths pass through the reactor allowing simultaneous operation of both modes. The development of all the components for this reactor are within the experience base of the NTP project.

  18. Bifurcation Structures in a Bimodal Piecewise Linear Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia Panchuk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an overview of the results concerning dynamics of a piecewise linear bimodal map. The organizing principles of the bifurcation structures in both regular and chaotic domains of the parameter space of the map are discussed. In addition to the previously reported structures, a family of regions closely related to the so-called U-sequence is described. The boundaries of distinct regions belonging to these structures are obtained analytically using the skew tent map and the map replacement technique.

  19. Research on bimodal particle extinction coefficient during Brownian coagulation and condensation for the entire particle size regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hong; Lin Jianzhong

    2011-01-01

    The extinction coefficient of atmospheric aerosol particles influences the earth’s radiation balance directly or indirectly, and it can be determined by the scattering and absorption characteristics of aerosol particles. The problem of estimating the change of extinction coefficient due to time evolution of bimodal particle size distribution is studied, and two improved methods for calculating the Brownian coagulation coefficient and the condensation growth rate are proposed, respectively. Through the improved method based on Otto kernel, the Brownian coagulation coefficient can be expressed simply in powers of particle volume for the entire particle size regime based on the fitted polynomials of the mean enhancement function. Meanwhile, the improved method based on Fuchs–Sutugin kernel is developed to obtain the condensation growth rate for the entire particle size regime. And then, the change of the overall extinction coefficient of bimodal distributions undergoing Brownian coagulation and condensation can be estimated comprehensively for the entire particle size regime. Simulation experiments indicate that the extinction coefficients obtained with the improved methods coincide fairly well with the true values, which provide a simple, reliable, and general method to estimate the change of extinction coefficient for the entire particle size regime during the bimodal particle dynamic processes.

  20. Human and mouse switch-like genes share common transcriptional regulatory mechanisms for bimodality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tozeren Aydin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression is controlled over a wide range at the transcript level through complex interplay between DNA and regulatory proteins, resulting in profiles of gene expression that can be represented as normal, graded, and bimodal (switch-like distributions. We have previously performed genome-scale identification and annotation of genes with switch-like expression at the transcript level in mouse, using large microarray datasets for healthy tissue, in order to study the cellular pathways and regulatory mechanisms involving this class of genes. We showed that a large population of bimodal mouse genes encoding for cell membrane and extracellular matrix proteins is involved in communication pathways. This study expands on previous results by annotating human bimodal genes, investigating their correspondence to bimodality in mouse orthologs and exploring possible regulatory mechanisms that contribute to bimodality in gene expression in human and mouse. Results Fourteen percent of the human genes on the HGU133A array (1847 out of 13076 were identified as bimodal or switch-like. More than 40% were found to have bimodal mouse orthologs. KEGG pathways enriched for bimodal genes included ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and tight junction, showing strong similarity to the results obtained in mouse. Tissue-specific modes of expression of bimodal genes among brain, heart, and skeletal muscle were common between human and mouse. Promoter analysis revealed a higher than average number of transcription start sites per gene within the set of bimodal genes. Moreover, the bimodal gene set had differentially methylated histones compared to the set of the remaining genes in the genome. Conclusion The fact that bimodal genes were enriched within the cell membrane and extracellular environment make these genes as candidates for biomarkers for tissue specificity. The commonality of the important roles bimodal genes play in tissue

  1. The climatic imprint of bimodal distributions in vegetation cover for western Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Z.; Dekker, S. C.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Observed bimodal distributions of woody cover in western Africa provide evidence that alternative ecosystem states may exist under the same precipitation regimes. In this study, we show that bimodality can also be observed in mean annual shortwave radiation and above-ground biomass, which might

  2. Gaze-independent ERP-BCIs: augmenting performance through location-congruent bimodal stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlings, Marieke E.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Van Erp, Jan B. F.; Werkhoven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Gaze-independent event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) yield relatively low BCI performance and traditionally employ unimodal stimuli. Bimodal ERP-BCIs may increase BCI performance due to multisensory integration or summation in the brain. An additional advantage of bimodal BCIs may be that the user can choose which modality or modalities to attend to. We studied bimodal, visual-tactile, gaze-independent BCIs and investigated whether or not ERP components’ tAUCs and subsequent classification accuracies are increased for (1) bimodal vs. unimodal stimuli; (2) location-congruent vs. location-incongruent bimodal stimuli; and (3) attending to both modalities vs. to either one modality. We observed an enhanced bimodal (compared to unimodal) P300 tAUC, which appeared to be positively affected by location-congruency (p = 0.056) and resulted in higher classification accuracies. Attending either to one or to both modalities of the bimodal location-congruent stimuli resulted in differences between ERP components, but not in classification performance. We conclude that location-congruent bimodal stimuli improve ERP-BCIs, and offer the user the possibility to switch the attended modality without losing performance. PMID:25249947

  3. Nonlatching positive feedback enables robust bimodality by decoupling expression noise from the mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razooky, Brandon S.; Cao, Youfang; Hansen, Maike M. K.; Perelson, Alan S.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental to biological decision-making is the ability to generate bimodal expression patterns where 2 alternate expression states simultaneously exist. Here, we use a combination of single-cell analysis and mathematical modeling to examine the sources of bimodality in the transcriptional program controlling HIV’s fate decision between active replication and viral latency. We find that the HIV transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein manipulates the intrinsic toggling of HIV’s promoter, the long terminal repeat (LTR), to generate bimodal ON-OFF expression and that transcriptional positive feedback from Tat shifts and expands the regime of LTR bimodality. This result holds for both minimal synthetic viral circuits and full-length virus. Strikingly, computational analysis indicates that the Tat circuit’s noncooperative “nonlatching” feedback architecture is optimized to slow the promoter’s toggling and generate bimodality by stochastic extinction of Tat. In contrast to the standard Poisson model, theory and experiment show that nonlatching positive feedback substantially dampens the inverse noise-mean relationship to maintain stochastic bimodality despite increasing mean expression levels. Given the rapid evolution of HIV, the presence of a circuit optimized to robustly generate bimodal expression appears consistent with the hypothesis that HIV’s decision between active replication and latency provides a viral fitness advantage. More broadly, the results suggest that positive-feedback circuits may have evolved not only for signal amplification but also for robustly generating bimodality by decoupling expression fluctuations (noise) from mean expression levels. PMID:29045398

  4. Nonlatching positive feedback enables robust bimodality by decoupling expression noise from the mean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razooky, Brandon S. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States). Lab. of Virology and Infectious Disease; Gladstone Institutes (Virology and Immunology), San Francisco, CA (United States); Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary; Cao, Youfang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hansen, Maike M. K. [Gladstone Institutes (Virology and Immunology), San Francisco, CA (United States); Perelson, Alan S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Simpson, Michael L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary; Weinberger, Leor S. [Gladstone Institutes (Virology and Immunology), San Francisco, CA (United States); Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics; Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). QB3: California Inst. of Quantitative Biosciences; Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    2017-10-18

    Fundamental to biological decision-making is the ability to generate bimodal expression patterns where two alternate expression states simultaneously exist. Here in this study, we use a combination of single-cell analysis and mathematical modeling to examine the sources of bimodality in the transcriptional program controlling HIV’s fate decision between active replication and viral latency. We find that the HIV Tat protein manipulates the intrinsic toggling of HIV’s promoter, the LTR, to generate bimodal ON-OFF expression, and that transcriptional positive feedback from Tat shifts and expands the regime of LTR bimodality. This result holds for both minimal synthetic viral circuits and full-length virus. Strikingly, computational analysis indicates that the Tat circuit’s non-cooperative ‘non-latching’ feedback architecture is optimized to slow the promoter’s toggling and generate bimodality by stochastic extinction of Tat. In contrast to the standard Poisson model, theory and experiment show that non-latching positive feedback substantially dampens the inverse noise-mean relationship to maintain stochastic bimodality despite increasing mean-expression levels. Given the rapid evolution of HIV, the presence of a circuit optimized to robustly generate bimodal expression appears consistent with the hypothesis that HIV’s decision between active replication and latency provides a viral fitness advantage. More broadly, the results suggest that positive-feedback circuits may have evolved not only for signal amplification but also for robustly generating bimodality by decoupling expression fluctuations (noise) from mean expression levels.

  5. Bimodal distribution of glucose is not universally useful for diagnosing diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Dorte; Colagiuri, Stephen; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bimodality in the distribution of glucose has been used to define the cut point for the diagnosis of diabetes. Previous studies on bimodality have primarily been in populations with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, including one study in a white Caucasian population. All studies i...

  6. Annihilation probability density and other applications of the Schwinger multichannel method to the positron and electron scattering; Densidade de probabilidade de aniquilacao e outras aplicacoes do metodo multicanal de Schwinger ao espalhamento de positrons e eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varella, Marcio Teixeira do Nascimento

    2001-12-15

    We have calculated annihilation probability densities (APD) for positron collisions against He atom and H{sub 2} molecule. It was found that direct annihilation prevails at low energies, while annihilation following virtual positronium (Ps) formation is the dominant mechanism at higher energies. In room-temperature collisions (10{sup -2} eV) the APD spread over a considerable extension, being quite similar to the electronic densities of the targets. The capture of the positron in an electronic Feshbach resonance strongly enhanced the annihilation rate in e{sup +}-H{sub 2} collisions. We also discuss strategies to improve the calculation of the annihilation parameter (Z{sub eff} ), after debugging the computational codes of the Schwinger Multichannel Method (SMC). Finally, we consider the inclusion of the Ps formation channel in the SMC and show that effective configurations (pseudo eigenstates of the Hamiltonian of the collision ) are able to significantly reduce the computational effort in positron scattering calculations. Cross sections for electron scattering by polyatomic molecules were obtained in three different approximations: static-exchange (SE); tatic-exchange-plus-polarization (SEP); and multichannel coupling. The calculations for polar targets were improved through the rotational resolution of scattering amplitudes in which the SMC was combined with the first Born approximation (FBA). In general, elastic cross sections (SE and SEP approximations) showed good agreement with available experimental data for several targets. Multichannel calculations for e{sup -} -H{sub 2}O scattering, on the other hand, presented spurious structures at the electronic excitation thresholds (author)

  7. [What bimodal bilingual have to say about bilingual developing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this work is to present what our research with hearing children from Deaf parents, acquiring Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) and Portuguese, and American Sign Language (ASL) and English (Lillo-Martin et. al. 2010) have to say about bilingual development. The data analyzed in this study is part of the database of spontaneous interactions collected longitudinally, alternating contexts of sign and spoken languages. Moreover, there is data from experimental studies with tests in both pairs of languages that is incorporated to the present study. A general view about previous studies related to bimodal bilingual acquisition with hearing children, from "deaf" parents, will be presented. Then, we will show some linguistics aspects of this kind of acquisition found in our study and discuss about bilingual acquisition.

  8. Bimodal nature in low-energy fission of light actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagame, Yuichiro; Nishinaka, Ichiro; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Otsuki, Tsutomu; Sueki, Keisuke; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Kudo, Hisaaki.

    1995-01-01

    To solve various problems in the mass division process of light actinoids, some experiments on the basis of bimodal fission were carried. Mass and kinetic energy distribution of Th-232 and U-238 were determined. Pa-225 (N= 134) and Pa-227 (N=136), fission nuclei, were produced by Bi-209 + 0-16 and Bi-209 + 0-18 heavy ion nucleus reactions, and the mass yield distribution were determined by the time-of-flight method and the radiochemical procedure. From the results, two independent deforming processes were proved in the fission process of light actinoid nuclei. On the deforming process through the low fission barrier, nucleus fissioned after small deformation under the influence of stabilization of the shell structure of fission product. In the case of process through the high barrier, however, the nucleus fissioned after large deformation. The unsymmetrical mass division was derived from the former and the symmetrical one from the latter. (S.Y.)

  9. Event-related potentials to visual, auditory, and bimodal (combined auditory-visual) stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoğlu-Alkaç, Ummühan; Kedzior, Karina; Keskindemirci, Gonca; Ermutlu, Numan; Karamursel, Sacit

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the response properties of event related potentials to unimodal and bimodal stimulations. The amplitudes of N1 and P2 were larger during bimodal evoked potentials (BEPs) than auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) in the anterior sites and the amplitudes of P1 were larger during BEPs than VEPs especially at the parieto-occipital locations. Responses to bimodal stimulation had longer latencies than responses to unimodal stimulation. The N1 and P2 components were larger in amplitude and longer in latency during the bimodal paradigm and predominantly occurred at the anterior sites. Therefore, the current bimodal paradigm can be used to investigate the involvement and location of specific neural generators that contribute to higher processing of sensory information. Moreover, this paradigm may be a useful tool to investigate the level of sensory dysfunctions in clinical samples.

  10. Movement, drivers and bimodality of the South Asian High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nützel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The South Asian High (SAH is an important component of the summer monsoon system in Asia. In this study we investigate the location and drivers of the SAH at 100 hPa during the boreal summers of 1979 to 2014 on interannual, seasonal and synoptic timescales using seven reanalyses and observational data. Our comparison of the different reanalyses focuses especially on the bimodality of the SAH, i.e. the two preferred modes of the SAH centre location: the Iranian Plateau to the west and the Tibetan Plateau to the east. We find that only the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR reanalysis shows a clear bimodal structure of the SAH centre distribution with respect to daily and pentad (5 day mean data. Furthermore, the distribution of the SAH centre location is highly variable from year to year. As in simple model studies, which connect the SAH to heating in the tropics, we find that the mean seasonal cycle of the SAH and its centre are dominated by the expansion of convection in the South Asian region (70–130° E  ×  15–30° N on the south-eastern border of the SAH. A composite analysis of precipitation and outgoing long-wave radiation data with respect to the location of the SAH centre reveals that a more westward (eastward location of the SAH is related to stronger (weaker convection and rainfall over India and weaker (stronger precipitation over the western Pacific.

  11. The trade-off between heat tolerance and metabolic cost drives the bimodal life strategy at the air-water interface

    KAUST Repository

    Fusi, Marco

    2016-01-13

    The principle of oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance in ectotherms suggests that the long-term upper limits of an organism\\'s thermal niche are equivalent to the upper limits of the organism\\'s functional capacity for oxygen provision to tissues. Air-breathing ectotherms show wider thermal tolerances, since they can take advantage of the higher availability of oxygen in air than in water. Bimodal species move from aquatic to aerial media and switch between habitats in response to environmental variations such as cyclical or anomalous temperature fluctuations. Here we tested the prediction that bimodal species cope better with thermal stress than truly aquatic species using the crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus as a model species. When in water, oxygen consumption rates of P. marmoratus acutely rise during warming. Beyond a temperature threshold of 23 °C the crab\\'s aerobic metabolism in air remains lower than in water. In parallel, the haemolymph oxygen partial pressure of submerged animals progressive decreases during warming, while it remains low but constant during emersion. Our results demonstrate the ability of a bimodal breathing ectotherm to extend its thermal tolerance during air-breathing, suggesting that there are temperature-related physiological benefits during the evolution of the bimodal life style.

  12. Go big or die out: Bifurcation and bimodality in submarine sediment flow behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talling, P.; Paull, C. K.; Lintern, G.; Gwiazda, R.; Cartigny, M.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Xu, J.; Clare, M. A.; Parsons, D. R.; Simmons, S.; Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Hage, S.; McGann, M.; Pope, E.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Stacey, C.; Barry, J.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Chapplow, N.; Vendettuoli, D.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine flows of sediment (turbidity currents) flush globally significant volumes of sediment and organic carbon into deep-sea basins. These flows create the largest sediment accumulations on Earth, which hold valuable oil and gas reserves. These flows affect global carbon burial, how deep-sea ecosystems function, and pose a hazard to offshore infrastructure. Only river systems transport such large amounts of sediment across such long distances. However, there are remarkably few direct measurements from active submarine flows, which is a stark contrast to >1 million direct observations from rivers. Here we present unusually detailed information on frequency, power and runout distance of multiple submarine flows at two contrasting locations. The first data set comes from Monterey Canyon, offshore California, which is fed by littoral cells. The second site is a river-fed delta in Bute Inlet, British Columbia. In both cases, the timing and runout distance of submarine flows was documented using instruments on multiple moorings placed along the 50-km long flow pathway. A striking observation is that flow behaviour and runout is strongly bimodal in both locations. Flows tend to either dissipate rapidly, or runout through the entire mooring arrays. We thus test whether i) the character of short or long runout flows can be distinguished at the first mooring and ii) whether long and short runout flows have different triggers. It has been proposed that submarine flows have two modes of behaviour; either eroding and accelerating, or depositing and dissipating. These field data support such a view of bifurcation and bimodality in flow behaviour. However, some short runout flows resemble their longer runout cousins at the first mooring, and there is no clear relationship between flow trigger and runout. Thus, some flows reach a point where their character is no longer dependent on their initial trigger or initial structure, but on factors acting along the flow pathway.

  13. SU-F-T-191: 4D Dose Reconstruction of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) Based On Breathing Probability Density Function (PDF) From 4D Cone Beam Projection Images: A Study for Lung Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J; Ding, X; Liang, J; Zhang, J; Wang, Y; Yan, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: With energy repainting in lung IMPT, the dose delivered is approximate to the convolution of dose in each phase with corresponding breathing PDF. This study is to compute breathing PDF weighted 4D dose in lung IMPT treatment and compare to its initial robust plan. Methods: Six lung patients were evaluated in this study. Amsterdam shroud image were generated from pre-treatment 4D cone-beam projections. Diaphragm motion curve was extract from the shroud image and the breathing PDF was generated. Each patient was planned to 60 Gy (12GyX5). In initial plans, ITV density on average CT was overridden with its maximum value for planning, using two IMPT beams with robust optimization (5mm uncertainty in patient position and 3.5% range uncertainty). The plan was applied to all 4D CT phases. The dose in each phase was deformed to a reference phase. 4D dose is reconstructed by summing all these doses based on corresponding weighting from the PDF. Plan parameters, including maximum dose (Dmax), ITV V100, homogeneity index (HI=D2/D98), R50 (50%IDL/ITV), and the lung-GTV’s V12.5 and V5 were compared between the reconstructed 4D dose to initial plans. Results: The Dmax is significantly less dose in the reconstructed 4D dose, 68.12±3.5Gy, vs. 70.1±4.3Gy in the initial plans (p=0.015). No significant difference is found for the ITV V100, HI, and R50, 92.2%±15.4% vs. 96.3%±2.5% (p=0.565), 1.033±0.016 vs. 1.038±0.017 (p=0.548), 19.2±12.1 vs. 18.1±11.6 (p=0.265), for the 4D dose and initial plans, respectively. The lung-GTV V12.5 and V5 are significantly high in the 4D dose, 13.9%±4.8% vs. 13.0%±4.6% (p=0.021) and 17.6%±5.4% vs. 16.9%±5.2% (p=0.011), respectively. Conclusion: 4D dose reconstruction based on phase PDF can be used to evaluate the dose received by the patient. A robust optimization based on the phase PDF may even further improve patient care.

  14. Saturated hydraulic conductivity model computed from bimodal water retention curves for a range of New Zealand soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollacco, Joseph Alexander Paul; Webb, Trevor; McNeill, Stephen; Hu, Wei; Carrick, Sam; Hewitt, Allan; Lilburne, Linda

    2017-06-01

    Descriptions of soil hydraulic properties, such as the soil moisture retention curve, θ(h), and saturated hydraulic conductivities, Ks, are a prerequisite for hydrological models. Since the measurement of Ks is expensive, it is frequently derived from statistical pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Because it is usually more difficult to describe Ks than θ(h) from pedotransfer functions, Pollacco et al. (2013) developed a physical unimodal model to compute Ks solely from hydraulic parameters derived from the Kosugi θ(h). This unimodal Ks model, which is based on a unimodal Kosugi soil pore-size distribution, was developed by combining the approach of Hagen-Poiseuille with Darcy's law and by introducing three tortuosity parameters. We report here on (1) the suitability of the Pollacco unimodal Ks model to predict Ks for a range of New Zealand soils from the New Zealand soil database (S-map) and (2) further adaptations to this model to adapt it to dual-porosity structured soils by computing the soil water flux through a continuous function of an improved bimodal pore-size distribution. The improved bimodal Ks model was tested with a New Zealand data set derived from historical measurements of Ks and θ(h) for a range of soils derived from sandstone and siltstone. The Ks data were collected using a small core size of 10 cm diameter, causing large uncertainty in replicate measurements. Predictions of Ks were further improved by distinguishing topsoils from subsoil. Nevertheless, as expected, stratifying the data with soil texture only slightly improved the predictions of the physical Ks models because the Ks model is based on pore-size distribution and the calibrated parameters were obtained within the physically feasible range. The improvements made to the unimodal Ks model by using the new bimodal Ks model are modest when compared to the unimodal model, which is explained by the poor accuracy of measured total porosity. Nevertheless, the new bimodal model provides an

  15. Saturated hydraulic conductivity model computed from bimodal water retention curves for a range of New Zealand soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. P. Pollacco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions of soil hydraulic properties, such as the soil moisture retention curve, θ(h, and saturated hydraulic conductivities, Ks, are a prerequisite for hydrological models. Since the measurement of Ks is expensive, it is frequently derived from statistical pedotransfer functions (PTFs. Because it is usually more difficult to describe Ks than θ(h from pedotransfer functions, Pollacco et al. (2013 developed a physical unimodal model to compute Ks solely from hydraulic parameters derived from the Kosugi θ(h. This unimodal Ks model, which is based on a unimodal Kosugi soil pore-size distribution, was developed by combining the approach of Hagen–Poiseuille with Darcy's law and by introducing three tortuosity parameters. We report here on (1 the suitability of the Pollacco unimodal Ks model to predict Ks for a range of New Zealand soils from the New Zealand soil database (S-map and (2 further adaptations to this model to adapt it to dual-porosity structured soils by computing the soil water flux through a continuous function of an improved bimodal pore-size distribution. The improved bimodal Ks model was tested with a New Zealand data set derived from historical measurements of Ks and θ(h for a range of soils derived from sandstone and siltstone. The Ks data were collected using a small core size of 10 cm diameter, causing large uncertainty in replicate measurements. Predictions of Ks were further improved by distinguishing topsoils from subsoil. Nevertheless, as expected, stratifying the data with soil texture only slightly improved the predictions of the physical Ks models because the Ks model is based on pore-size distribution and the calibrated parameters were obtained within the physically feasible range. The improvements made to the unimodal Ks model by using the new bimodal Ks model are modest when compared to the unimodal model, which is explained by the poor accuracy of measured total porosity. Nevertheless, the new bimodal

  16. Yield stress of ultrafine-grained or nanocrystalline materials with a bimodal grain size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, C. S.; DeGiorgi, V. G.; E Moser, A.

    2018-02-01

    An attractive processing route for enhancing the yield strength of high-strength nanocrystalline metals and alloys while maintaining high ductility is to develop a bimodal grain size distribution (GSD), in which, supposedly, the finer grains provide strength, and the coarser grains maintain or even enhance ductility. We present a theoretical model predicting the strength of such a system, and show, analytically, how the yield stress is related to the various parameters of the bimodal GSD, such as volume fraction of the two components of the bimodal distribution and their standard deviations.

  17. Bimodal atomic force microscopy imaging of isolated antibodies in air and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez, N F; Lozano, J R; Herruzo, E T; Garcia, F; Garcia, R [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Richter, C; Sulzbach, T [NanoWorld Services GmbH, Schottkystrasse 10, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: rgarcia@imm.cnm.csic.es

    2008-09-24

    We have developed a dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) method based on the simultaneous excitation of the first two flexural modes of the cantilever. The instrument, called a bimodal atomic force microscope, allows us to resolve the structural components of antibodies in both monomer and pentameric forms. The instrument operates in both high and low quality factor environments, i.e., air and liquids. We show that under the same experimental conditions, bimodal AFM is more sensitive to compositional changes than amplitude modulation AFM. By using theoretical and numerical methods, we study the material contrast sensitivity as well as the forces applied on the sample during bimodal AFM operation.

  18. Utterance independent bimodal emotion recognition in spontaneous communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianhua; Pan, Shifeng; Yang, Minghao; Li, Ya; Mu, Kaihui; Che, Jianfeng

    2011-12-01

    Emotion expressions sometimes are mixed with the utterance expression in spontaneous face-to-face communication, which makes difficulties for emotion recognition. This article introduces the methods of reducing the utterance influences in visual parameters for the audio-visual-based emotion recognition. The audio and visual channels are first combined under a Multistream Hidden Markov Model (MHMM). Then, the utterance reduction is finished by finding the residual between the real visual parameters and the outputs of the utterance related visual parameters. This article introduces the Fused Hidden Markov Model Inversion method which is trained in the neutral expressed audio-visual corpus to solve the problem. To reduce the computing complexity the inversion model is further simplified to a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) mapping. Compared with traditional bimodal emotion recognition methods (e.g., SVM, CART, Boosting), the utterance reduction method can give better results of emotion recognition. The experiments also show the effectiveness of our emotion recognition system when it was used in a live environment.

  19. Plastic bimodal xylogenesis in conifers from continental Mediterranean climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Jesús Julio; Olano, José Miguel; Parras, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    *Seasonal radial-increment and xylogenesis data can help to elucidate how climate modulates wood formation in conifers. Few xylogenesis studies have assessed how plastic xylogenesis is in sympatric conifer species from continental Mediterranean areas, where low winter temperatures and summer drought constrain growth. *Here, we analysed intra-annual patterns of secondary growth in sympatric conifer species (Juniperus thurifera, Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris). Two field sites (xeric and mesic) were evaluated using dendrometers, microcores and climatic data. *A bimodal pattern of xylogenesis characterized by spring and autumn precipitation and subsequent cambial reactivation was detected in J. thurifera at both study sites and in P. halepensis at the xeric site, but was absent in P. sylvestris where growth was largely controlled by day length. In the xeric site J. thurifera exhibited an increased response to water availability in autumn relative to P. halepensis and summer cambial suppression was more marked in J. thurifera than in P. halepensis. *Juniperus thurifera exhibited increased plasticity in its xylogenesis pattern compared with sympatric pines, enabling this species to occupy sites with more variable climatic conditions. The plastic xylogenesis patterns of junipers in drought-stressed areas may also provide them with a competitive advantage against co-occurring pines.

  20. Time-predictable bimodal volcanism in the Coso Range, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.

    1982-01-01

    The bimodal Pleistocene part of the Coso volcanic field has erupted rhyolite and basalt at constant long-term rates during the past ∼0.5 m.y. Both basalt and high-silica rhyolite were erupted in several independent, geologically brief episodes. The interval between eruptions of rhyolite was proportional to the volume of the preceding eruption. Basaltic eruptions appear to have followed a similar pattern. These time-predictable relations would be expected if (1) extensional strain accumulates in roof rocks at a constant rate, (2) the accumulated strain is relieved by near-vertical fractures, which serve as conduits for eruptions, and (3) the volume of erupted material is proportional to the sum of the conduit (dike) widths. The long-term eruption rate of rhyolite is about 5.4 km3/m.y.; that of basalt is about 2.8 km3/m.y. These rates are less than those of magma supply inferred from heat-flow and petrologic arguments by factors of between 100 and 200.

  1. Bimodal distribution of damage morphology generated by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, K.R.C.; Jaraiz, M.; Martin-Bragado, I.; Rubio, J.E.; Castrillo, P.; Pinacho, R.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Benistant, F.

    2005-01-01

    A nucleation and evolution model of damage based on amorphous pockets (APs) has recently been developed and implemented in an atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulator. In the model, APs are disordered structures (I n V m ), which are agglomerates of interstitials (I) and vacancies (V). This model has been used to study the composition and size distribution of APs during different ion implantations. Depending strongly on the dose rate, ion mass and implant temperature, the APs can evolve to a defect population where the agglomerates have a similar number of I and V (n ∼ m), or to a defect population with pure I (m ∼ 0) and pure V (n ∼ 0) clusters, or a mixture of APs and clusters. This behaviour corresponds to a bimodal (APs/clusters) distribution of damage. As the AP have different thermal stability compared to the I and V clusters, the same damage concentration obtained through different implant conditions has a different damage morphology and, consequently, exhibit a different resistance to subsequent thermal treatments

  2. Bimodal behavior of post-measured entropy and one-way quantum deficit for two-qubit X states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurischev, Mikhail A.

    2018-01-01

    A method for calculating the one-way quantum deficit is developed. It involves a careful study of post-measured entropy shapes. We discovered that in some regions of X-state space the post-measured entropy \\tilde{S} as a function of measurement angle θ \\in [0,π /2] exhibits a bimodal behavior inside the open interval (0,π /2), i.e., it has two interior extrema: one minimum and one maximum. Furthermore, cases are found when the interior minimum of such a bimodal function \\tilde{S}(θ ) is less than that one at the endpoint θ =0 or π /2. This leads to the formation of a boundary between the phases of one-way quantum deficit via finite jumps of optimal measured angle from the endpoint to the interior minimum. Phase diagram is built up for a two-parameter family of X states. The subregions with variable optimal measured angle are around 1% of the total region, with their relative linear sizes achieving 17.5%, and the fidelity between the states of those subregions can be reduced to F=0.968. In addition, a correction to the one-way deficit due to the interior minimum can achieve 2.3%. Such conditions are favorable to detect the subregions with variable optimal measured angle of one-way quantum deficit in an experiment.

  3. Influence of Controlled Cooling in Bimodal Scaffold Fabrication Using Polymers with Different Melting Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Padilla, Hernan; Mendoza-Buenrostro, Christian; Cardenas, Diego; Rodriguez-Garcia, Aida; Rodriguez, Ciro A.

    2017-01-01

    The combination of different materials and capabilities to manufacture at several scales open new possibilities in scaffold design for bone regeneration. This work is focused on bimodal scaffolds that combine polylactic acid (PLA) melt extruded strands with polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun fibers. This type of bimodal scaffold offers better mechanical properties, compared to the use of PCL for the extruded strands, and provides potential a means for controlled drug and/or growth factor deli...

  4. Diverse Kir expression contributes to distinct bimodal distribution of resting potentials and vasotone responses of arterioles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqin Yang

    Full Text Available The resting membrane potential (RP of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs is a major determinant of cytosolic calcium concentration and vascular tone. The heterogeneity of RPs and its underlying mechanism among different vascular beds remain poorly understood. We compared the RPs and vasomotion properties between the guinea pig spiral modiolar artery (SMA, brain arterioles (BA and mesenteric arteries (MA. We found: 1 RPs showed a robust bimodal distribution peaked at -76 and -40 mV evenly in the SMA, unevenly at -77 and -51 mV in the BA and ~-71 and -52 mV in the MA. Ba(2+ 0.1 mM eliminated their high RP peaks ~-75 mV. 2 Cells with low RP (~-45 mV hyperpolarized in response to 10 mM extracellular K(+, while cells with a high RP depolarized, and cells with intermediate RP (~-58 mV displayed an initial hyperpolarization followed by prolonged depolarization. Moderate high K(+ typically induced dilation, constriction and a dilation followed by constriction in the SMA, MA and BA, respectively. 3 Boltzmann-fit analysis of the Ba(2+-sensitive inward rectifier K(+ (Kir whole-cell current showed that the maximum Kir conductance density significantly differed among the vessels, and the half-activation voltage was significantly more negative in the MA. 4 Corresponding to the whole-cell data, computational modeling simulated the three RP distribution patterns and the dynamics of RP changes obtained experimentally, including the regenerative swift shifts between the two RP levels after reaching a threshold. 5 Molecular works revealed strong Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 transcripts and Kir2.1 immunolabeling in all 3 vessels, while Kir2.3 and Kir2.4 transcript levels varied. We conclude that a dense expression of functional Kir2.X channels underlies the more negative RPs in endothelial cells and a subset of VSMC in these arterioles, and the heterogeneous Kir function is primarily responsible for the distinct bimodal RPs among these arterioles. The fast Kir

  5. Diverse Kir Expression Contributes to Distinct Bimodal Distribution of Resting Potentials and Vasotone Responses of Arterioles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuqin; Chen, Fangyi; Karasawa, Takatoshi; Ma, Ke-Tao; Guan, Bing-Cai; Shi, Xiao-Rui; Li, Hongzhe; Steyger, Peter S.; Nuttall, Alfred L.; Jiang, Zhi-Gen

    2015-01-01

    The resting membrane potential (RP) of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a major determinant of cytosolic calcium concentration and vascular tone. The heterogeneity of RPs and its underlying mechanism among different vascular beds remain poorly understood. We compared the RPs and vasomotion properties between the guinea pig spiral modiolar artery (SMA), brain arterioles (BA) and mesenteric arteries (MA). We found: 1) RPs showed a robust bimodal distribution peaked at -76 and -40 mV evenly in the SMA, unevenly at -77 and -51 mV in the BA and ~-71 and -52 mV in the MA. Ba2+ 0.1 mM eliminated their high RP peaks ~-75 mV. 2) Cells with low RP (~-45 mV) hyperpolarized in response to 10 mM extracellular K+, while cells with a high RP depolarized, and cells with intermediate RP (~-58 mV) displayed an initial hyperpolarization followed by prolonged depolarization. Moderate high K+ typically induced dilation, constriction and a dilation followed by constriction in the SMA, MA and BA, respectively. 3) Boltzmann-fit analysis of the Ba2+-sensitive inward rectifier K+ (Kir) whole-cell current showed that the maximum Kir conductance density significantly differed among the vessels, and the half-activation voltage was significantly more negative in the MA. 4) Corresponding to the whole-cell data, computational modeling simulated the three RP distribution patterns and the dynamics of RP changes obtained experimentally, including the regenerative swift shifts between the two RP levels after reaching a threshold. 5) Molecular works revealed strong Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 transcripts and Kir2.1 immunolabeling in all 3 vessels, while Kir2.3 and Kir2.4 transcript levels varied. We conclude that a dense expression of functional Kir2.X channels underlies the more negative RPs in endothelial cells and a subset of VSMC in these arterioles, and the heterogeneous Kir function is primarily responsible for the distinct bimodal RPs among these arterioles. The fast Kir-based regenerative shifts

  6. Multiple regimes of operation in bimodal AFM: understanding the energy of cantilever eigenmodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kiracofe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the key goals in atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging is to enhance material property contrast with high resolution. Bimodal AFM, where two eigenmodes are simultaneously excited, confers significant advantages over conventional single-frequency tapping mode AFM due to its ability to provide contrast between regions with different material properties under gentle imaging conditions. Bimodal AFM traditionally uses the first two eigenmodes of the AFM cantilever. In this work, the authors explore the use of higher eigenmodes in bimodal AFM (e.g., exciting the first and fourth eigenmodes. It is found that such operation leads to interesting contrast reversals compared to traditional bimodal AFM. A series of experiments and numerical simulations shows that the primary cause of the contrast reversals is not the choice of eigenmode itself (e.g., second versus fourth, but rather the relative kinetic energy between the higher eigenmode and the first eigenmode. This leads to the identification of three distinct imaging regimes in bimodal AFM. This result, which is applicable even to traditional bimodal AFM, should allow researchers to choose cantilever and operating parameters in a more rational manner in order to optimize resolution and contrast during nanoscale imaging of materials.

  7. BDVC (Bimodal Database of Violent Content): A database of violent audio and video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Martínez, Jose Luis; Mijes Cruz, Mario Humberto; Rodríguez Vázqu, Manuel Antonio; Rodríguez Espejo, Luis; Montoya Obeso, Abraham; García Vázquez, Mireya Saraí; Ramírez Acosta, Alejandro Álvaro

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays there is a trend towards the use of unimodal databases for multimedia content description, organization and retrieval applications of a single type of content like text, voice and images, instead bimodal databases allow to associate semantically two different types of content like audio-video, image-text, among others. The generation of a bimodal database of audio-video implies the creation of a connection between the multimedia content through the semantic relation that associates the actions of both types of information. This paper describes in detail the used characteristics and methodology for the creation of the bimodal database of violent content; the semantic relationship is stablished by the proposed concepts that describe the audiovisual information. The use of bimodal databases in applications related to the audiovisual content processing allows an increase in the semantic performance only and only if these applications process both type of content. This bimodal database counts with 580 audiovisual annotated segments, with a duration of 28 minutes, divided in 41 classes. Bimodal databases are a tool in the generation of applications for the semantic web.

  8. THE SLUGGS SURVEY: NGC 3115, A CRITICAL TEST CASE FOR METALLICITY BIMODALITY IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Conroy, Charlie; Arnold, Jacob A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J. [University of California Observatories and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Strader, Jay, E-mail: brodie@ucolick.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    Due to its proximity (9 Mpc) and the strongly bimodal color distribution of its spectroscopically well-sampled globular cluster (GC) system, the early-type galaxy NGC 3115 provides one of the best available tests of whether the color bimodality widely observed in GC systems generally reflects a true metallicity bimodality. Color bimodality has alternatively been attributed to a strongly nonlinear color-metallicity relation reflecting the influence of hot horizontal-branch stars. Here, we couple Subaru Suprime-Cam gi photometry with Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to accurately measure GC colors and a CaT index that measures the Ca II triplet. We find the NGC 3115 GC system to be unambiguously bimodal in both color and the CaT index. Using simple stellar population models, we show that the CaT index is essentially unaffected by variations in horizontal-branch morphology over the range of metallicities relevant to GC systems (and is thus a robust indicator of metallicity) and confirm bimodality in the metallicity distribution. We assess the existing evidence for and against multiple metallicity subpopulations in early- and late-type galaxies and conclude that metallicity bi/multimodality is common. We briefly discuss how this fundamental characteristic links directly to the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies.

  9. Synergistic dual positive feedback loops established by molecular sequestration generate robust bimodal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Ophelia S; El-Samad, Hana; Murray, Richard M

    2012-11-27

    Feedback loops are ubiquitous features of biological networks and can produce significant phenotypic heterogeneity, including a bimodal distribution of gene expression across an isogenic cell population. In this work, a combination of experiments and computational modeling was used to explore the roles of multiple feedback loops in the bimodal, switch-like response of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae galactose regulatory network. Here, we show that bistability underlies the observed bimodality, as opposed to stochastic effects, and that two unique positive feedback loops established by Gal1p and Gal3p, which both regulate network activity by molecular sequestration of Gal80p, induce this bimodality. Indeed, systematically scanning through different single and multiple feedback loop knockouts, we demonstrate that there is always a concentration regime that preserves the system's bimodality, except for the double deletion of GAL1 and the GAL3 feedback loop, which exhibits a graded response for all conditions tested. The constitutive production rates of Gal1p and Gal3p operate as bifurcation parameters because variations in these rates can also abolish the system's bimodal response. Our model indicates that this second loss of bistability ensues from the inactivation of the remaining feedback loop by the overexpressed regulatory component. More broadly, we show that the sequestration binding affinity is a critical parameter that can tune the range of conditions for bistability in a circuit with positive feedback established by molecular sequestration. In this system, two positive feedback loops can significantly enhance the region of bistability and the dynamic response time.

  10. High frequency compressional wave speed and attenuation measurements in water-saturated granular media with unimodal and bimodal grain size distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haesang; Seong, Woojae

    2018-02-01

    Compressional wave speed and attenuation were measured for water-saturated granular media employing five kinds of glass beads having unimodal and bimodal grain size distributions. Glass beads with grain sizes ranging from 250 to 850  μm were used for the acoustic measurements at a frequency range from 350 kHz to 1.1 MHz, which includes the transition range where scattering and non-scattering losses co-exist. The compressional wave speed and attenuation data are presented as a function of frequency and grain size distribution. The compressional wave speed and attenuation data show a variety of frequency dependencies for varying grain size distribution. The observed acoustic properties are investigated for the volume ratio of larger and smaller sized grains in the mixed bimodal media. Also, the measured results are compared with the empirical multiple scattering formula as a function of Rayleigh parameter  kd (product of wavenumber in the water k and mean grain diameter of the glass beads d) using weighted mean grain size. The measured results are also discussed, focusing on the geophysical difference between unimodal and bimodal mixed grains.

  11. Green's function based unparameterised multi-dimensional kernel density and likelihood ratio estimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kövesárki, P; Brock, I C; Quiroz, A E Nuncio

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a probability density estimator based on Green's function identities. A density model is constructed under the sole assumption that the probability density is differentiable. The method is implemented as a binary likelihood estimator for classification purposes, so issues such as mis-modeling and overtraining are also discussed. The identity behind the density estimator can be interpreted as a real-valued, non-scalar kernel method which is able to reconstruct differentiable density functions.

  12. Bimodal pollination system of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis involving hummingbirds and bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, S; Schmid, V S; Zillikens, A; Harter-Marques, B; Steiner, J

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of birds and insects as pollinators, we studied the floral biology of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Grisebach in the biome of the Atlantic rain forest, southern Brazil. On Santa Catarina Island, flowering extends from mid-September to the end of December, with diurnal anthesis. The reproductive system is obligatory xenogamy, thus pollinator-dependent. Flowers secrete 31.84 μl of nectar per day, with a mean sugar concentration of 23.2%. Highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occur at the beginning of anthesis. Most floral traits are characteristic for ornithophily, and nectar production appears to be adapted to the energy demand of hummingbirds. Continued secretion of the sucrose-dominated nectar attracts and binds visitors to inflorescences, strengthening trapline foraging behaviour. Experiments assessing seed set after single flower visits were performed with the most frequent visitors, revealing the hummingbird Thalurania glaucopis as the most effective pollen vector. In addition, bees are also functional pollinators, as substantiated by their high visitation frequency. We conclude that this pollination system is bimodal. Thus, there is redundancy in the pollination service provided by birds and bees, granting a high probability of successful reproduction in Ae. nudicaulis. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Emergent bimodality and switch induced by time delays and noises in a synthetic gene circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Du, Liping; Xie, Qingshuang; Wang, Tonghuan; Zeng, Chunhua; Nie, Linru; Duan, Weilong; Jia, Zhenglin; Wang, Canjun

    2017-10-01

    Based on the kinetic model for obtaining emergent bistability proposed by Tan et al. (2009), the effects of the fluctuations of protein synthesis rate and maximum dilution rate, the cross-correlation between two noises, and the time delay and the strength of the feedback loop in the synthetic gene circuit have been investigated through theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. Our results show that: (i) the fluctuations of protein synthesis rate and maximum dilution rate enhance the emergent bimodality of the probability distribution phenomenon, while the cross-correlation between two noises(λ), the time delay(τ) and the strength of the feedback loop(K) cause it to disappear; and (ii) the mean first passage time(MFPT) as functions of the noise strengths exhibits a maximum, this maximum is called noise-delayed switching (NDS) of the high concentration state. The NDS phenomenon shows that the noise can modify the stability of a metastable system in a counterintuitive way, the system remains in the metastable state for a longer time compared to the deterministic case. And the τ and the K enhances the stability of the ON state. The physical mechanisms for the switch between the ON and OFF states can be explained from the point of view of the effective potential.

  14. Lanthanide oxide and phosphate nanoparticles for thermometry and bimodal imaging =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debasu, Mengistie Leweyehu

    . Finalmente, estudam-se as propriedades de fotoluminescencia correspondentes as conversoes ascendente e descendente de energia em nanocristais de (Gd,Yb,Tb)PO4 sintetizados por via hidrotermica. A relaxividade (ressonancia magnetica) do 1H destes materiais sao investigadas, tendo em vista possiveis aplicacoes em imagem bimodal (luminescencia e ressonancia magnetica nuclear).

  15. Auditory-somatosensory bimodal stimulation desynchronizes brain circuitry to reduce tinnitus in guinea pigs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Kendra L; Martel, David T; Wu, Calvin; Basura, Gregory J; Roberts, Larry E; Schvartz-Leyzac, Kara C; Shore, Susan E

    2018-01-03

    The dorsal cochlear nucleus is the first site of multisensory convergence in mammalian auditory pathways. Principal output neurons, the fusiform cells, integrate auditory nerve inputs from the cochlea with somatosensory inputs from the head and neck. In previous work, we developed a guinea pig model of tinnitus induced by noise exposure and showed that the fusiform cells in these animals exhibited increased spontaneous activity and cross-unit synchrony, which are physiological correlates of tinnitus. We delivered repeated bimodal auditory-somatosensory stimulation to the dorsal cochlear nucleus of guinea pigs with tinnitus, choosing a stimulus interval known to induce long-term depression (LTD). Twenty minutes per day of LTD-inducing bimodal (but not unimodal) stimulation reduced physiological and behavioral evidence of tinnitus in the guinea pigs after 25 days. Next, we applied the same bimodal treatment to 20 human subjects with tinnitus using a double-blinded, sham-controlled, crossover study. Twenty-eight days of LTD-inducing bimodal stimulation reduced tinnitus loudness and intrusiveness. Unimodal auditory stimulation did not deliver either benefit. Bimodal auditory-somatosensory stimulation that induces LTD in the dorsal cochlear nucleus may hold promise for suppressing chronic tinnitus, which reduces quality of life for millions of tinnitus sufferers worldwide. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  16. Early Bimodal Stimulation Benefits Language Acquisition for Children With Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberly, Aaron C; Lowenstein, Joanna H; Nittrouer, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adding a low-frequency acoustic signal to the cochlear implant (CI) signal (i.e., bimodal stimulation) for a period of time early in life improves language acquisition. Children must acquire sensitivity to the phonemic units of language to develop most language-related skills, including expressive vocabulary, working memory, and reading. Acquiring sensitivity to phonemic structure depends largely on having refined spectral (frequency) representations available in the signal, which does not happen with CIs alone. Combining the low-frequency acoustic signal available through hearing aids with the CI signal can enhance signal quality. A period with this bimodal stimulation has been shown to improve language skills in very young children. This study examined whether these benefits persist into childhood. Data were examined for 48 children with CIs implanted under age 3 years, participating in a longitudinal study. All children wore hearing aids before receiving a CI, but upon receiving a first CI, 24 children had at least 1 year of bimodal stimulation (Bimodal group), and 24 children had only electric stimulation subsequent to implantation (CI-only group). Measures of phonemic awareness were obtained at second and fourth grades, along with measures of expressive vocabulary, working memory, and reading. Children in the Bimodal group generally performed better on measures of phonemic awareness, and that advantage was reflected in other language measures. Having even a brief period of time early in life with combined electric-acoustic input provides benefits to language learning into childhood, likely because of the enhancement in spectral representations provided.

  17. Application of a bi-modal PBR nuclear propulsion and power system to military missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetoklis, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of arms technology and space access combined with current economic realities in the United States are creating ever greater demands for more capable space-based military assets. The paper illustrates that bi-modal nuclear propulsion and power based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is a high-leverage tehcnology that can maximize utility while minimizing cost. Mission benefits offered by the bi-modal PBR, including enhanced maneuverability, lifetime, survivability, payload power, and operational flexibility, are discussed. The ability to deliver desired payloads on smaller boosters is also illustrated. System descriptions and parameters for 10 kWe and 100 kWe power output levels are summarized. It is demonstrated via design exercise that bi-modal PBR dramtically enhances performance of a military satellite in geosynchronous orbit, increasing payload mass, payload power, and maneuverability.

  18. A bimodal power and propulsion system based on cermet fuel and heat pipe energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polansky, G.F.; Gunther, N.A.; Rochow, R.F.; Bixler, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Bimodal space reactor systems provide both thermal propulsion for the spacecraft orbital transfer and electrical power to the spacecraft bus once it is on station. These systems have the potential to increase both the available payload in high energy orbits and the available power to that payload. These increased mass and power capabilities can be used to either reduce mission cost by permitting the use of smaller launch vehicles or to provide increased mission performance from the current launch vehicle. A major barrier to the deployment of these bimodal systems has been the cost associated with their development. This paper describes a bimodal reactor system with performance potential to permit more than 70% of the instrumented payload of the Titan IV/Centaur to be launched from the Atlas IIAS. The development cost is minimized by basing the design on existing component technologies

  19. Evidence of A Bimodal US GDP Growth Rate Distribution: A Wavelet Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Claudio Lera

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a quantitative characterisation of the fluctuations of the annualized growth rate of the real US GDP per capita at many scales, using a wavelet transform analysis of two data sets, quarterly data from 1947 to 2015 and annual data from 1800 to 2010. The chosen mother wavelet (first derivative of the Gaussian function applied to the logarithm of the real US GDP per capita provides a robust estimation of the instantaneous growth rate at different scales. Our main finding is that business cycles appear at all scales and the distribution of GDP growth rates can be well approximated by a bimodal function associated to a series of switches between regimes of strong growth rate $\\rho_\\text{high}$ and regimes of low growth rate $\\rho_\\text{low}$. The succession of such two regimes compounds to produce a remarkably stable long term average real annualized growth rate of 1.6% from 1800 to 2010 and $\\approx 2.0\\%$ since 1950, which is the result of a subtle compensation between the high and low growth regimes that alternate continuously. Thus, the overall growth dynamics of the US economy is punctuated, with phases of strong growth that are intrinsically unsustainable, followed by corrections or consolidation until the next boom starts. We interpret these findings within the theory of "social bubbles" and argue as a consequence that estimations of the cost of the 2008 crisis may be misleading. We also interpret the absence of strong recovery since 2008 as a protracted low growth regime $\\rho_\\text{low}$ associated with the exceptional nature of the preceding large growth regime.

  20. Mesoporous ethanesilica materials with bimodal and trimodal pore-size distributions synthesised in the presence of cobalt ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alufelwi M. Tshavhungwe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous organosilica materials containing ethane groups in their framework were formed with two and three pore sizes (i.e. bimodal and trimodal pores when synthesised by the sol-gel method in the presence of cobalt ions. The compounds 1,2-bistrimethoxysilylethane and tetraethylorthosilicate were used as silicon sources and the reactions were done in the presence of a surfactant, which served as a template. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy revealed that organic functional groups were incorporated into the ethanesilica. Powder X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption data indicated that the mesophase and textural properties (surface area, pore volume, pore diameter of the materials were dependent on the ageing temperature, the amount/ratio of silica precursors and cobalt ion incorporation. Secondary mesopores were drastically reduced by changing the ratio of silicon precursors.

  1. Some families of generalized Mathieu-type power series, associated probability distributions and related functional inequalities involving complete monotonicity and log-convexity

    OpenAIRE

    Tomovski, Zivorad; Mehrez, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    By making use of the familiar Mathieu series and its generalizations, the authors derive a number of new integral representations and present a systematic study of probability density functions and probability distributions associated with some generalizations of the Mathieu series. In particular, the mathematical expectation, variance and the characteristic functions, related to the probability density functions of the considered probability distributions are derived. As a consequence, some ...

  2. Generalized Probability Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Souto Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From the integration of nonsymmetrical hyperboles, a one-parameter generalization of the logarithmic function is obtained. Inverting this function, one obtains the generalized exponential function. Motivated by the mathematical curiosity, we show that these generalized functions are suitable to generalize some probability density functions (pdfs. A very reliable rank distribution can be conveniently described by the generalized exponential function. Finally, we turn the attention to the generalization of one- and two-tail stretched exponential functions. We obtain, as particular cases, the generalized error function, the Zipf-Mandelbrot pdf, the generalized Gaussian and Laplace pdf. Their cumulative functions and moments were also obtained analytically.

  3. A matrix-based approach to solving the inverse Frobenius-Perron problem using sequences of density functions of stochastically perturbed dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaokai; Coca, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The paper introduces a matrix-based approach to estimate the unique one-dimensional discrete-time dynamical system that generated a given sequence of probability density functions whilst subjected to an additive stochastic perturbation with known density.

  4. An examination of bimodal nuclear power and propulsion benefits for outer solar system missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.; Mondt, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of the NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. The radiological hazard associated with using Earth gravity assists on such missions was examined and shown to be small compared to that currently accepted on Earth fly-by missions involving RTGs. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive options for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Bimodal grain-size distribution of Chinese loess, and its palaeoclimatic implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, D.G.; Bloemendal, J.; Rea, D.K.; An, Z.S.; Vandenberghe, J.; Lu, H.; Su, R.; Liu, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Grain-size analysis indicates that Chinese loess generally shows a bimodal distribution with a coarse and a fine component. The coarse component, comprising the main part of the loess, has pronounced kurtosis and is well sorted, which is interpreted to be the product of dust storms generated by

  6. Spatial attention triggered by unimodal, crossmodal, and bimodal exogenous cues: a comparison of reflexive orienting mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santangelo, Valerio; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Postma, Albert

    The aim of this study was to establish whether spatial attention triggered by bimodal exogenous cues acts differently as compared to unimodal and crossmodal exogenous cues due to crossmodal integration. In order to investigate this issue, we examined cuing effects in discrimination tasks and

  7. Emotional Perception of Music in Children With Bimodal Fitting and Unilateral Cochlear Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Sareh; Jafari, Zahra; Motasaddi Zarandi, Masoud; Jalaie, Shohre; Mohagheghi, Hamed; Tale, Mohammad Reza

    2016-06-01

    Biological, structural, and acoustical constraints faced by cochlear implant (CI) users can alter the perception of music. Bimodal fitting not only provides bilateral hearing but can also improve auditory skills. This study was conducted to assess the impact of this amplification style on the emotional perception of music among children with hearing loss (HL). Twenty-five children with congenital severe to profound HL and unilateral CIs, 20 children with bimodal fitting, and 30 children with normal hearing participated in this study. Their emotional perceptions of music were measured using a method where children indicated happy or sad feelings induced by music by pointing to pictures of faces showing these emotions. Children with bimodal fitting obtained significantly higher mean scores than children with unilateral CIs for both happy and sad music items and in overall test scores (P emotional perception of music compared to unilateral CI. Given the influence of music in neurological and linguistic development and social interactions, it is important to evaluate the possible benefits of bimodal fitting prescriptions for individuals with unilateral CIs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Effects of Removing Low-Frequency Electric Information on Speech Perception with Bimodal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Jennifer R.; Eggleston, Jessica L.; Reavis, Kelly M.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Reiss, Lina A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to determine whether speech perception could be improved for bimodal listeners (those using a cochlear implant [CI] in one ear and hearing aid in the contralateral ear) by removing low-frequency information provided by the CI, thereby reducing acoustic-electric overlap. Method: Subjects were adult CI subjects with at…

  9. Possible human impacts on adaptive radiation: beak size bimodality in Darwin's finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P; Grant, Peter R; Rosemary Grant, B; Ford, Hugh A; Brewer, Mark J; Podos, Jeffrey

    2006-08-07

    Adaptive radiation is facilitated by a rugged adaptive landscape, where fitness peaks correspond to trait values that enhance the use of distinct resources. Different species are thought to occupy the different peaks, with hybrids falling into low-fitness valleys between them. We hypothesize that human activities can smooth adaptive landscapes, increase hybrid fitness and hamper evolutionary diversification. We investigated this possibility by analysing beak size data for 1755 Geospiza fortis measured between 1964 and 2005 on the island of Santa Cruz, Galápagos. Some populations of this species can display a resource-based bimodality in beak size, which mirrors the greater beak size differences among species. We first show that an historically bimodal population at one site, Academy Bay, has lost this property in concert with a marked increase in local human population density. We next show that a nearby site with lower human impacts, El Garrapatero, currently manifests strong bimodality. This comparison suggests that bimodality can persist when human densities are low (Academy Bay in the past, El Garrapatero in the present), but not when they are high (Academy Bay in the present). Human activities may negatively impact diversification in 'young' adaptive radiations, perhaps by altering adaptive landscapes.

  10. Phenotypic Diversity Using Bimodal and Unimodal Expression of Stress Response Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Bernardo, Javier; Dunlop, Mary J

    2016-05-24

    Populations of cells need to express proteins to survive the sudden appearance of stressors. However, these mechanisms may be taxing. Populations can introduce diversity, allowing individual cells to stochastically switch between fast-growing and stress-tolerant states. One way to achieve this is to use genetic networks coupled with noise to generate bimodal distributions with two distinct subpopulations, each adapted to a stress condition. Another survival strategy is to rely on random fluctuations in gene expression to produce continuous, unimodal distributions of the stress response protein. To quantify the environmental conditions where bimodal versus unimodal expression is beneficial, we used a differential evolution algorithm to evolve optimal distributions of stress response proteins given environments with sudden fluctuations between low and high stress. We found that bimodality evolved for a large range of environmental conditions. However, we asked whether these findings were an artifact of considering two well-defined stress environments (low and high stress). As noise in the environment increases, or when there is an intermediate environment (medium stress), the benefits of bimodality decrease. Our results indicate that under realistic conditions, a continuum of resistance phenotypes generated through a unimodal distribution is sufficient to ensure survival without a high cost to the population. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantum treatment of laser cooling on weak transitions: multipeaks and bimodal momentum distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilenkov, R. Ya; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.; Prudnikov, O. N.

    2018-01-01

    The work is devoted to the study of the features and parameters of the momentum distributions of atoms laser cooled on weak optical transitions. It was shown that atoms distributions are described by a bimodal momentum distribution whose characteristics depends on the parameters of the light field. In a strong field a velocity selective coherent population trapping effect is observed.

  12. mocca code for star cluster simulations - VI. Bimodal spatial distribution of blue stragglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypki, Arkadiusz; Giersz, Mirek

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents an analysis of formation mechanism and properties of spatial distributions of blue stragglers in evolving globular clusters, based on numerical simulations done with the mocca code. First, there are presented N-body and mocca simulations which try to reproduce the simulations presented by Ferraro et al. (2012). Then, we show the agreement between N-body and the mocca code. Finally, we discuss the formation process of the bimodal distribution. We report that we could not reproduce simulations from Ferraro et al. (2012). Moreover, we show that the so-called bimodal spatial distribution of blue stragglers is a very transient feature. It is formed for one snapshot in time and it can easily vanish in the next one. Moreover, we show that the radius of avoidance proposed by Ferraro et al. (2012) goes out of sync with the apparent minimum of the bimodal distribution after about two half-mass relaxation times (without finding out what is the reason for that). This finding creates a real challenge for the dynamical clock, which uses this radius to determine the dynamical age of globular clusters. Additionally, the paper discusses a few important problems concerning the apparent visibilities of the bimodal distributions, which have to be taken into account while studying the spatial distributions of blue stragglers.

  13. Deaf Parents of Cochlear-Implanted Children: Beliefs on Bimodal Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchiner, Julie Cantrell

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated 17 Deaf families in North America with cochlear-implanted children about their attitudes, beliefs, and practices on bimodal bilingualism (defined as using both a visual/manual language and an aural/oral language) in American Sign Language (ASL) and English. A survey and follow-up interviews with 8 families were conducted.…

  14. Resolving the age bimodality of galaxy stellar populations on kpc scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zibetti, Stefano; Gallazzi, Anna R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Charlot, S.; Galbany, L.; García Benito, R.; Kehrig, C.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Sánchez, S. F.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, C. J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-01-01

    Galaxies in the local Universe are known to follow bimodal distributions in the global stellar population properties. We analyse the distribution of the local average stellar population ages of 654 053 sub-galactic regions resolved on ˜1 kpc scales in a volume-corrected sample of 394 galaxies, drawn

  15. Resolving the age bimodality of galaxy stellar populations on kpc scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibetti, Stefano; Gallazzi, Anna R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Charlot, S.; Galbany, L.; García Benito, R.; Kehrig, C.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Sánchez, S. F.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, C. J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-06-01

    Galaxies in the local Universe are known to follow bimodal distributions in the global stellar population properties. We analyse the distribution of the local average stellar population ages of 654 053 sub-galactic regions resolved on ˜1 kpc scales in a volume-corrected sample of 394 galaxies, drawn from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) DR3 integral-field-spectroscopy survey and complemented by Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging. We find a bimodal local-age distribution, with an old and a young peak primarily due to regions in early-type galaxies and star-forming regions of spirals, respectively. Within spiral galaxies, the older ages of bulges and interarm regions relative to spiral arms support an internal age bimodality. Although regions of higher stellar mass surface density, μ*, are typically older, μ* alone does not determine the stellar population age and a bimodal distribution is found at any fixed μ*. We identify an 'old ridge' of regions of age ˜9 Gyr, independent of μ*, and a 'young sequence' of regions with age increasing with μ* from 1-1.5 to 4-5 Gyr. We interpret the former as regions containing only old stars, and the latter as regions where the relative contamination of old stellar populations by young stars decreases as μ* increases. The reason why this bimodal age distribution is not inconsistent with the unimodal shape of the cosmic-averaged star formation history is that (I) the dominating contribution by young stars biases the age low with respect to the average epoch of star formation, and (II) the use of a single average age per region is unable to represent the full time extent of the star formation history of 'young sequence' regions.

  16. Children with dyslexia show a reduced processing benefit from bimodal speech information compared to their typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Männel, Claudia

    2018-01-17

    During information processing, individuals benefit from bimodally presented input, as has been demonstrated for speech perception (i.e., printed letters and speech sounds) or the perception of emotional expressions (i.e., facial expression and voice tuning). While typically developing individuals show this bimodal benefit, school children with dyslexia do not. Currently, it is unknown whether the bimodal processing deficit in dyslexia also occurs for visual-auditory speech processing that is independent of reading and spelling acquisition (i.e., no letter-sound knowledge is required). Here, we tested school children with and without spelling problems on their bimodal perception of video-recorded mouth movements pronouncing syllables. We analyzed the event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) to visual-auditory speech information and compared this response to the MMR to monomodal speech information (i.e., auditory-only, visual-only). We found a reduced MMR with later onset to visual-auditory speech information in children with spelling problems compared to children without spelling problems. Moreover, when comparing bimodal and monomodal speech perception, we found that children without spelling problems showed significantly larger responses in the visual-auditory experiment compared to the visual-only response, whereas children with spelling problems did not. Our results suggest that children with dyslexia exhibit general difficulties in bimodal speech perception independently of letter-speech sound knowledge, as apparent in altered bimodal speech perception and lacking benefit from bimodal information. This general deficit in children with dyslexia may underlie the previously reported reduced bimodal benefit for letter-speech sound combinations and similar findings in emotion perception. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Unimodal Versus Bimodal EEG-fMRI Neurofeedback of a Motor Imagery Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Perronnet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback is a promising tool for brain rehabilitation and peak performance training. Neurofeedback approaches usually rely on a single brain imaging modality such as EEG or fMRI. Combining these modalities for neurofeedback training could allow to provide richer information to the subject and could thus enable him/her to achieve faster and more specific self-regulation. Yet unimodal and multimodal neurofeedback have never been compared before. In the present work, we introduce a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experimental protocol in which participants performed a motor-imagery task in unimodal and bimodal NF conditions. With this protocol we were able to compare for the first time the effects of unimodal EEG-neurofeedback and fMRI-neurofeedback versus bimodal EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback by looking both at EEG and fMRI activations. We also propose a new feedback metaphor for bimodal EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback that integrates both EEG and fMRI signal in a single bi-dimensional feedback (a ball moving in 2D. Such a feedback is intended to relieve the cognitive load of the subject by presenting the bimodal neurofeedback task as a single regulation task instead of two. Additionally, this integrated feedback metaphor gives flexibility on defining a bimodal neurofeedback target. Participants were able to regulate activity in their motor regions in all NF conditions. Moreover, motor activations as revealed by offline fMRI analysis were stronger during EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback than during EEG-neurofeedback. This result suggests that EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback could be more specific or more engaging than EEG-neurofeedback. Our results also suggest that during EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback, participants tended to regulate more the modality that was harder to control. Taken together our results shed first light on the specific mechanisms of bimodal EEG-fMRI-neurofeedback and on its added-value as compared to unimodal EEG-neurofeedback and fMRI-neurofeedback.

  18. Kinetic approaches to lactose operon induction and bimodality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Denis

    2013-05-21

    The quasi-equilibrium approximation is acceptable when molecular interactions are fast enough compared to circuit dynamics, but is no longer allowed when cellular activities are governed by rare events. A typical example is the lactose operon (lac), one of the most famous paradigms of transcription regulation, for which several theories still coexist to describe its behaviors. The lac system is generally analyzed by using equilibrium constants, contradicting single-event hypotheses long suggested by Novick and Weiner (1957). Enzyme induction as an all-or-none phenomenon. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 43, 553-566) and recently refined in the study of (Choi et al., 2008. A stochastic single-molecule event triggers phenotype switching of a bacterial cell. Science 322, 442-446). In the present report, a lac repressor (LacI)-mediated DNA immunoprecipitation experiment reveals that the natural LacI-lac DNA complex built in vivo is extremely tight and long-lived compared to the time scale of lac expression dynamics, which could functionally disconnect the abortive expression bursts and forbid using the standard modes of lac bistability. As alternatives, purely kinetic mechanisms are examined for their capacity to restrict induction through: (i) widely scattered derepression related to the arrival time variance of a predominantly backward asymmetric random walk and (ii) an induction threshold arising in a single window of derepression without recourse to nonlinear multimeric binding and Hill functions. Considering the complete disengagement of the lac repressor from the lac promoter as the probabilistic consequence of a transient stepwise mechanism, is sufficient to explain the sigmoidal lac responses as functions of time and of inducer concentration. This sigmoidal shape can be misleadingly interpreted as a phenomenon of equilibrium cooperativity classically used to explain bistability, but which has been reported to be weak in this system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  19. Cooperative binding of transcription factors promotes bimodal gene expression response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo S Gutierrez

    Full Text Available In the present work we extend and analyze the scope of our recently proposed stochastic model for transcriptional regulation, which considers an arbitrarily complex cis-regulatory system using only elementary reactions. Previously, we determined the role of cooperativity on the intrinsic fluctuations of gene expression for activating transcriptional switches, by means of master equation formalism and computer simulation. This model allowed us to distinguish between two cooperative binding mechanisms and, even though the mean expression levels were not affected differently by the acting mechanism, we showed that the associated fluctuations were different. In the present generalized model we include other regulatory functions in addition to those associated to an activator switch. Namely, we introduce repressive regulatory functions and two theoretical mechanisms that account for the biphasic response that some cis-regulatory systems show to the transcription factor concentration. We have also extended our previous master equation formalism in order to include protein production by stochastic translation of mRNA. Furthermore, we examine the graded/binary scenarios in the context of the interaction energy between transcription factors. In this sense, this is the first report to show that the cooperative binding of transcription factors to DNA promotes the "all-or-none" phenomenon observed in eukaryotic systems. In addition, we confirm that gene expression fluctuation levels associated with one of two cooperative binding mechanism never exceed the fluctuation levels of the other.

  20. Emotional Intensity Modulates the Integration of Bimodal Angry Expressions: ERP Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Pan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integration of information from face and voice plays a central role in social interactions. The present study investigated the modulation of emotional intensity on the integration of facial-vocal emotional cues by recording EEG for participants while they were performing emotion identification task on facial, vocal, and bimodal angry expressions varying in emotional intensity. Behavioral results showed the rates of anger and reaction speed increased as emotional intensity across modalities. Critically, the P2 amplitudes were larger for bimodal expressions than for the sum of facial and vocal expressions for low emotional intensity stimuli, but not for middle and high emotional intensity stimuli. These findings suggested that emotional intensity modulates the integration of facial-vocal angry expressions, following the principle of Inverse Effectiveness (IE in multimodal sensory integration.

  1. Formation of bimodal porous silica-titania monoliths by sol-gel route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzimuradov, O N, E-mail: ruzimuradov@rambler.ru [Department of General Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Uzbekistan, 15, Vuzgorodok, Tashkent, 100174 (Uzbekistan)

    2011-10-29

    Silica-titania monoliths with micrometer-scale macroporous and nanometer-scale mesoporous structure and high titania contents are prepared by sol-gel process and phase separation. Titanium alkoxide precursor was not effective in the preparation of high titania content composites because of strong decrease in phase separation tendency. Bimodal porous gels with high titania content were obtained by using inorganic salt precursors such as titanium sulfate and titanium chloride. Various characterization techniques, including SEM, XRD, Hg porosimetry and N{sub 2} adsorption have been carried out to investigate the formation process and physical-chemical properties of silica-titania monoliths. The characterization results show that the silica-titania monoliths possess a bimodal porous structure with well-dispersed titania inside silica network. The addition of titania in silica improves the thermal stability of both macroporous and mesoporous structures.

  2. Abundance inhomogeneities and atmospheric structure in CN-bimodal globular cluster giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Plez, Bertrand; Smith, Verne V.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested by several authors that the sodium and aluminum abundance variations correlating with CN-band strength, frequently observed in CN-bimodal globular cluster giants, could be spurious manifestations of different temperature structures in the 'CN-strong' and 'CN-weak' stars, caused by different molecular line blanketing related to the C, N, and O trio. For stellar parameters generally appropriate to giants in the intermediate metallicity CN-bimodal cluster M4, we demonstrate through new model atmosphere calculations, employing opacity sampling and spherical geometry, that the observed abundance anomalies cannot be the result of atmospheric temperature structure. Our results using spherical geometry are compared to identical calculations performed with plane-parallel geometry: the effects of atmospheric extension on derived abundances for all lines considered amount to less than 0.1 dex.

  3. A simple hydrothermal route to bimodal mesoporous nanorod {gamma}-alumina with high thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang; Han, Dezhi; Xue, Hongxia; Liu, Xinmei; Yan, Zifeng [China Univ. of Petroleum, Qingdao (China). State Key Lab. of Heavy Oil Processing

    2011-12-15

    In the presence of polyethylene glycol, bimodal mesoporous nanorod {gamma}-alumina was successfully synthesized via the thermal decomposition of ammonium aluminium carbonate hydroxide precursor which was prepared via hydrothermal processing with inorganic aluminium salt. The alumina exhibits high surface area (494 m{sup 2}g{sup -1}), large porosity (1.1 m{sup 3}g{sup -1}) and a particular double-pore structure after calcination at 500 C. The smaller pore diameter is concentrated on about 3 nm and the larger one is exhibited in the range of 10 - 38 nm. The scaffold-like aggregation of {gamma}-alumina nanorods endows this novel material with excellent thermal stability. A possible formation mechanism of bimodal mesoporous structure is also proposed in this study. (orig.)

  4. Exact results for the Kuramoto model with a bimodal frequency distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Barreto, E.; Strogatz, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a large system of globally coupled phase oscillators whose natural frequencies are bimodally distributed. The dynamics of this system has been the subject of long-standing interest. In 1984 Kuramoto proposed several conjectures about its behavior; ten years later, Crawford obtained...... the first analytical results by means of a local center manifold calculation. Nevertheless, many questions have remained open, especially about the possibility of global bifurcations. Here we derive the system’s stability diagram for the special case where the bimodal distribution consists of two equally......, where all the oscillators are desynchronized; partial synchrony, where a macro- scopic group of phase-locked oscillators coexists with a sea of desynchronized ones; and a standing wave state, where two counter-rotating groups of phase-locked oscillators emerge. Analytical results are presented...

  5. The climatic imprint of bimodal distributions in vegetation cover for western Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zun; Dekker, Stefan C.; van den Hurk, Bart J. J. M.; Dijkstra, Henk A.

    2016-06-01

    Observed bimodal distributions of woody cover in western Africa provide evidence that alternative ecosystem states may exist under the same precipitation regimes. In this study, we show that bimodality can also be observed in mean annual shortwave radiation and above-ground biomass, which might closely relate to woody cover due to vegetation-climate interactions. Thus we expect that use of radiation and above-ground biomass enables us to distinguish the two modes of woody cover. However, through conditional histogram analysis, we find that the bimodality of woody cover still can exist under conditions of low mean annual shortwave radiation and low above-ground biomass. It suggests that this specific condition might play a key role in critical transitions between the two modes, while under other conditions no bimodality was found. Based on a land cover map in which anthropogenic land use was removed, six climatic indicators that represent water, energy, climate seasonality and water-radiation coupling are analysed to investigate the coexistence of these indicators with specific land cover types. From this analysis we find that the mean annual precipitation is not sufficient to predict potential land cover change. Indicators of climate seasonality are strongly related to the observed land cover type. However, these indicators cannot predict a stable forest state under the observed climatic conditions, in contrast to observed forest states. A new indicator (the normalized difference of precipitation) successfully expresses the stability of the precipitation regime and can improve the prediction accuracy of forest states. Next we evaluate land cover predictions based on different combinations of climatic indicators. Regions with high potential of land cover transitions are revealed. The results suggest that the tropical forest in the Congo basin may be unstable and shows the possibility of decreasing significantly. An increase in the area covered by savanna and grass

  6. Annual and diurnal precipitation bimodal distributions as simulated by WRF-based CORDEX-Cetral America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, M. C.; Mejia, J.; Chang, H. I.; Ochoa, C. A.; Castro, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the ability of a regional climate model (RCM) to simulate the observed annual and diurnal cycles of precipitation over Central America (CA), the Caribbean Sea and NW South America (NWSA). The region's annual cycle is dominated by a bimodal precipitation annual cycle: over CA and the Caribbean, the mid-summer drought suppresses the rainy season in July-August; over the NWSA, and more pronouncedly over the Andes, the ITCZ meridional migration is argue to dominate the bimodal distribution of the annual cycle. The intricate land-ocean distribution, the complex terrain, and the long lasting mesoscale convective systems have been related to intricate bimodal diurnal distribution of precipitation over the far eastern Pacific and NWSA. A CORDEX-CA simulation based on the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model at 25 km grid size driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis for the period 1979-2015 was implemented. The simulations were evaluated using surface observations and the research-based High-Resolution Satellite Precipitation Product from TRMM (3B42) and CMORPH. We use spectral analysis to estimate the mean phase and amplitude spatial patterns at annual and diurnal time scales. We further contrast the consistencies and differences using more focus and higher resolution simulations based on WRF and ERA-Interim at 10km and convection-permitting simulations (<4 km grid sizes). The research discusses the flow and orographic dependencies on the ability to adequately simulate the annual and diurnal bimodal distributions of precipitation. These comparisons provide a high-level validation of the WRF-based CORDEX-CA's ability to simulate one of the rainniest region on earth and its basic but challenging small-scale spatial-temporal climate variations.

  7. Phenotypic Diversity Using Bimodal and Unimodal Expression of Stress Response Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Bernardo, Javier; Dunlop, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    Populations of cells need to express proteins to survive the sudden appearance of stressors. However, these mechanisms may be taxing. Populations can introduce diversity, allowing individual cells to stochastically switch between fast-growing and stress-tolerant states. One way to achieve this is to use genetic networks coupled with noise to generate bimodal distributions with two distinct subpopulations, each adapted to a stress condition. Another survival strategy is to rely on random fluct...

  8. How bilingualism protects the brain from aging: Insights from bimodal bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Emmorey, Karen; Gong, Gaolang; Yan, Xin; Feng, Xiaoxia; Zou, Lijuan; Ding, Guosheng

    2017-08-01

    Bilingual experience can delay cognitive decline during aging. A general hypothesis is that the executive control system of bilinguals faces an increased load due to controlling two languages, and this increased load results in a more "tuned brain" that eventually creates a neural reserve. Here we explored whether such a neuroprotective effect is independent of language modality, i.e., not limited to bilinguals who speak two languages but also occurs for bilinguals who use a spoken and a signed language. We addressed this issue by comparing bimodal bilinguals to monolinguals in order to detect age-induced structural brain changes and to determine whether we can detect the same beneficial effects on brain structure, in terms of preservation of gray matter volume (GMV), for bimodal bilinguals as has been reported for unimodal bilinguals. Our GMV analyses revealed a significant interaction effect of age × group in the bilateral anterior temporal lobes, left hippocampus/amygdala, and left insula where bimodal bilinguals showed slight GMV increases while monolinguals showed significant age-induced GMV decreases. We further found through cortical surface-based measurements that this effect was present for surface area and not for cortical thickness. Moreover, to further explore the hypothesis that overall bilingualism provides neuroprotection, we carried out a direct comparison of GMV, extracted from the brain regions reported above, between bimodal bilinguals, unimodal bilinguals, and monolinguals. Bilinguals, regardless of language modality, exhibited higher GMV compared to monolinguals. This finding highlights the general beneficial effects provided by experience handling two language systems, whether signed or spoken. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4109-4124, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Ecological, phenological and biochemical significance of bimodal fruiting of Boletus alutaceus morgan

    OpenAIRE

    Nandkumar Kamat

    2009-01-01

    Boletus alutaceus Morgan an ectomycorrhizal species was extensively studied from an ecologically fragmented microhabitt colonized by its' host plant Ficus benghalensis L. in the Goa University campus, Taleigao, Goa, India. Qualitatively the fruiting cycles were monitored for three years and thereafter detail ecological and morphological investigations were carried out in May and November 2004. A bimodal temporal fruting pattern emerged which may have significant ecological, phenological ...

  10. Velocity selection for ultra-cold atoms using bimodal mazer cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, A.; Qamar, S.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss the velocity selection of ultra-cold three-level atoms in Λ configuration using a micromazer. Our model is the same as discussed by Arun et al., for mazer action in a bimodal cavity. We have shown that significantly narrowed velocity distribution of ultra-cold atoms can be obtained in this system due to the presence of dark states. (author)

  11. Probability density fittings of corrosion test-data: Implications on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the use of corrosion inhibitor admixture in concrete had been identified as an easy, effective and economical ... for acceptable reduction in corrosion rate had been recommended by others. The American .... immersed, longitudinally, in plastic bowls containing respective test solution of aggressive agent. Each of the first ...

  12. METAPHOR: Probability density estimation for machine learning based photometric redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, V.; Cavuoti, S.; Brescia, M.; Vellucci, C.; Tortora, C.; Longo, G.

    2017-06-01

    We present METAPHOR (Machine-learning Estimation Tool for Accurate PHOtometric Redshifts), a method able to provide a reliable PDF for photometric galaxy redshifts estimated through empirical techniques. METAPHOR is a modular workflow, mainly based on the MLPQNA neural network as internal engine to derive photometric galaxy redshifts, but giving the possibility to easily replace MLPQNA with any other method to predict photo-z's and their PDF. We present here the results about a validation test of the workflow on the galaxies from SDSS-DR9, showing also the universality of the method by replacing MLPQNA with KNN and Random Forest models. The validation test include also a comparison with the PDF's derived from a traditional SED template fitting method (Le Phare).

  13. Indoor Localization with Probability Density Functionsd based on Bluetooth

    OpenAIRE

    Wendlandt, Kai; Robertson, Patrick; Berbig, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple system to help people navigate inside of buildings or even in outside areas close to buildings. It is based on the “RSSI” and “Transmit power” data of an established Bluetooth link. The system is in principle sufficient for the intended application (pedestrian, indoor), but it is certainly not a high resolution indoor location system. The achievable accuracy is dependent on the setup (number of access points and their constellation and available Bluetooth devices) but will...

  14. Classical-Quantum Correspondence by Means of Probability Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas, Gabino Torres; Morales-Guzman, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    Within the frame of the recently introduced phase space representation of non relativistic quantum mechanics, we propose a Lagrangian from which the phase space Schrodinger equation can be derived. From that Lagrangian, the associated conservation equations, according to Noether's theorem, are obtained. This shows that one can analyze quantum systems completely in phase space as it is done in coordinate space, without additional complications.

  15. METAPHOR: Probability density estimation for machine learning based photometric redshifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaro, V.; Cavuoti, S.; Brescia, M.; Vellucci, C.; Tortora, C.; Longo, G.

    2016-01-01

    We present METAPHOR (Machine-learning Estimation Tool for Accurate PHOtometric Redshifts), a method able to provide a reliable PDF for photometric galaxy redshifts estimated through empirical techniques. METAPHOR is a modular workflow, mainly based on the MLPQNA neural network as internal engine to

  16. Probability density fittings of corrosion test-data: Implications on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    half-circuit potential test data of other inhibitors in reported studies that had been submitted else- where (Okeniyi et al .... with the concrete to prevent leaching of the admixture solution into the wooden mould. Each of ... this connection, the instrument, through a true potentiostatic circuit, null any residual poten- tial difference ...

  17. Structural Reliability Using Probability Density Estimation Methods Within NESSUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Chrisos C. (Technical Monitor); Godines, Cody Ric

    2003-01-01

    A reliability analysis studies a mathematical model of a physical system taking into account uncertainties of design variables and common results are estimations of a response density, which also implies estimations of its parameters. Some common density parameters include the mean value, the standard deviation, and specific percentile(s) of the response, which are measures of central tendency, variation, and probability regions, respectively. Reliability analyses are important since the results can lead to different designs by calculating the probability of observing safe responses in each of the proposed designs. All of this is done at the expense of added computational time as compared to a single deterministic analysis which will result in one value of the response out of many that make up the density of the response. Sampling methods, such as monte carlo (MC) and latin hypercube sampling (LHS), can be used to perform reliability analyses and can compute nonlinear response density parameters even if the response is dependent on many random variables. Hence, both methods are very robust; however, they are computationally expensive to use in the estimation of the response density parameters. Both methods are 2 of 13 stochastic methods that are contained within the Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress (NESSUS) program. NESSUS is a probabilistic finite element analysis (FEA) program that was developed through funding from NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). It has the additional capability of being linked to other analysis programs; therefore, probabilistic fluid dynamics, fracture mechanics, and heat transfer are only a few of what is possible with this software. The LHS method is the newest addition to the stochastic methods within NESSUS. Part of this work was to enhance NESSUS with the LHS method. The new LHS module is complete, has been successfully integrated with NESSUS, and been used to study four different test cases that have been proposed by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). The test cases compare different probabilistic methods within NESSUS because it is important that a user can have confidence that estimates of stochastic parameters of a response will be within an acceptable error limit. For each response, the mean, standard deviation, and 0.99 percentile, are repeatedly estimated which allows confidence statements to be made for each parameter estimated, and for each method. Thus, the ability of several stochastic methods to efficiently and accurately estimate density parameters is compared using four valid test cases. While all of the reliability methods used performed quite well, for the new LHS module within NESSUS it was found that it had a lower estimation error than MC when they were used to estimate the mean, standard deviation, and 0.99 percentile of the four different stochastic responses. Also, LHS required a smaller amount of calculations to obtain low error answers with a high amount of confidence than MC. It can therefore be stated that NESSUS is an important reliability tool that has a variety of sound probabilistic methods a user can employ and the newest LHS module is a valuable new enhancement of the program.

  18. Spectra of globular clusters in the Sombrero galaxy: evidence for spectroscopic metallicity bimodality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Brito, Alan; Hau, George K. T.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Spitler, Lee R.; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.; Rhode, Katherine L.

    2011-11-01

    We present a large sample of over 200 integrated-light spectra of confirmed globular clusters (GCs) associated with the Sombrero (M104) galaxy taken with the Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) instrument on the Keck telescope. A significant fraction of the spectra have signal-to-noise ratio levels high enough to allow measurements of GC metallicities using the method of Brodie & Huchra. We find a distribution of spectroscopic metallicities in the range -2.2 < [Fe/H] < +0.1 that is bimodal, with peaks at [Fe/H]˜-1.4 and -0.6. Thus, the GC system of the Sombrero galaxy, like a few other galaxies now studied in detail, reveals a bimodal spectroscopic metallicity distribution supporting the long-held belief that colour bimodality reflects two metallicity subpopulations. This further suggests that the transformation from optical colour to metallicity for old stellar populations, such as GCs, is not strongly non-linear. We also explore the radial and magnitude distribution with metallicity for GC subpopulations but small number statistics prevent any clear trends in these distributions. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  19. Age bimodality in the central region of pseudo-bulges in S0 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Preetish K.; Barway, Sudhanshu; Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2017-11-01

    We present evidence for bimodal stellar age distribution of pseudo-bulges of S0 galaxies as probed by the Dn(4000) index. We do not observe any bimodality in age distribution for pseudo-bulges in spiral galaxies. Our sample is flux limited and contains 2067 S0 and 2630 spiral galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We identify pseudo-bulges in S0 and spiral galaxies, based on the position of the bulge on the Kormendy diagram and their central velocity dispersion. Dividing the pseudo-bulges of S0 galaxies into those containing old and young stellar populations, we study the connection between global star formation and pseudo-bulge age on the u - r colour-mass diagram. We find that most old pseudo-bulges are hosted by passive galaxies while majority of young bulges are hosted by galaxies that are star forming. Dividing our sample of S0 galaxies into early-type S0s and S0/a galaxies, we find that old pseudo-bulges are mainly hosted by early-type S0 galaxies while most of the pseudo-bulges in S0/a galaxies are young. We speculate that morphology plays a strong role in quenching of star formation in the disc of these S0 galaxies, which stops the growth of pseudo-bulges, giving rise to old pseudo-bulges and the observed age bimodality.

  20. RSMASS-D nuclear thermal propulsion and bimodal system mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donald B.; Marshall, Albert C.

    1997-01-01

    Two relatively simple models have been developed to estimate reactor, radiation shield, and balance of system masses for a particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear thermal propulsion concept and a cermet-core power and propulsion (bimodal) concept. The approach was based on the methodology developed for the RSMASS-D models. The RSMASS-D approach for the reactor and shield sub-systems uses a combination of simple equations derived from reactor physics and other fundamental considerations along with tabulations of data from more detailed neutron and gamma transport theory computations. Relatively simple models are used to estimate the masses of other subsystem components of the nuclear propulsion and bimodal systems. Other subsystem components include instrumentation and control (I&C), boom, safety systems, radiator, thermoelectrics, heat pipes, and nozzle. The user of these models can vary basic design parameters within an allowed range to achieve a parameter choice which yields a minimum mass for the operational conditions of interest. Estimated system masses are presented for a range of reactor power levels for propulsion for the PBR propulsion concept and for both electrical power and propulsion for the cermet-core bimodal concept. The estimated reactor system masses agree with mass predictions from detailed calculations with xx percent for both models.

  1. Die Bonding Performance Using Bimodal Cu Particle Paste Under Different Sintering Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Zhang, Hao; Li, Wanli; Jiu, Jinting; Nagao, Shijo; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2017-07-01

    A one-step polyol method was employed to synthesize bimodal Cu particles with average diameters around 200 nm and 1000 nm, respectively. The bimodal Cu particles were mixed with a reductive solvent of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to form a paste. The Cu paste was used as die bonding material to prepare Cu joints under N2 or vacuum sintering atmosphere. The results showed that the strength of the Cu joints in N2 atmosphere was always higher than that in vacuum. The shear strength of a Cu joint processed at 350°C under only 0.4 MPa bonding pressure in N2 was above 40 MPa, which was far higher than that obtained using single-sized nano-Cu particle paste. It is related to the dense packing of the bimodal Cu particles and slow decomposition behavior of the reductive PEG solvent. The reductive PEG solvent in the Cu paste, which effectively removed oxides on the surface of the Cu particles, was necessary for easy-oxidized Cu pastes. These results suggested that Cu pastes with suitable particle sizes, reducing solvent and sintering atmosphere could be a proper candidate for low-temperature and low-pressure bonding process.

  2. Thermal decomposition behavior of nano/micro bimodal feedstock with different solids loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joo Won; Lee, Won Sik; Park, Seong Jin

    2018-01-01

    Debinding is one of the most critical processes for powder injection molding. The parts in debinding process are vulnerable to defect formation, and long processing time of debinding decreases production rate of whole process. In order to determine the optimal condition for debinding process, decomposition behavior of feedstock should be understood. Since nano powder affects the decomposition behavior of feedstock, nano powder effect needs to be investigated for nano/micro bimodal feedstock. In this research, nano powder effect on decomposition behavior of nano/micro bimodal feedstock has been studied. Bimodal powders were fabricated with different ratios of nano powder, and the critical solids loading of each powder was measured by torque rheometer. Three different feedstocks were fabricated for each powder depending on solids loading condition. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiment was carried out to analyze the thermal decomposition behavior of the feedstocks, and decomposition activation energy was calculated. The result indicated nano powder showed limited effect on feedstocks in lower solids loading condition than optimal range. Whereas, it highly influenced the decomposition behavior in optimal solids loading condition by causing polymer chain scission with high viscosity.

  3. Stellar Rotation with Kepler and Gaia: Evidence for a Bimodal Star Formation History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, James

    2018-01-01

    Kepler stars with rotation periods measured via starspot modulations in their light curves have been matched against the astrometric data from Gaia Data Release 1. A total of 1,299 bright rotating stars were recovered, most with temperatures hotter than 5000 K. From these, 894 were selected as being near the main sequence. These main sequence stars show a bimodality in their rotation period distribution, centered around a ~600 Myr rotation-isochrone. This feature matches the bimodal period distribution found in cooler stars with Kepler, but was previously undetected for solar-type stars due to sample contamination by subgiant and binary stars. A tenuous connection between the rotation period and total proper motion is found, suggesting the period bimodality is due to the age distribution of stars within 300pc of the Sun, rather than a phase of rapid angular momentum loss. I will discuss how the combination of Kepler/K2/TESS with Gaia will enable us to map the star formation history of our galactic neighborhood.

  4. Comparative DNA isolation behaviours of silica and polymer based sorbents in batch fashion: monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore size distribution as a new sorbent for DNA isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günal, Gülçin; Kip, Çiğdem; Eda Öğüt, S; İlhan, Hasan; Kibar, Güneş; Tuncel, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore-size distribution were proposed as a high performance sorbent for DNA isolation in batch fashion under equilibrium conditions. The proposed sorbent including both macroporous and mesoporous compartments was synthesized 5.1 μm in-size, by a "staged shape templated hydrolysis and condensation method". Hydrophilic polymer based sorbents were also obtained in the form of monodisperse-macroporous microspheres ca 5.5 μm in size, with different functionalities, by a developed "multi-stage microsuspension copolymerization" technique. The batch DNA isolation performance of proposed material was comparatively investigated using polymer based sorbents with similar morphologies. Among all sorbents tried, the best DNA isolation performance was achieved with the monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore size distribution. The collocation of interconnected mesoporous and macroporous compartments within the monodisperse silica microspheres provided a high surface area and reduced the intraparticular mass transfer resistance and made easier both the adsorption and desorption of DNA. Among the polymer based sorbents, higher DNA isolation yields were achieved with the monodisperse-macroporous polymer microspheres carrying trimethoxysilyl and quaternary ammonium functionalities. However, batch DNA isolation performances of polymer based sorbents were significantly lower with respect to the silica microspheres.

  5. Development of cumulative distribution functions for dry bulb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) for eighteen locations in Nigeria were computed from long term hourly dry bulb temperature obtained from Nigerian Meteorological Services Agency, Oshodi, Nigeria for 1994-2008 or 1995-2009. Mathematical models were developed from the ...

  6. A method for ion distribution function evaluation using escaping neutral atom kinetic energy samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, P.R.; Ozaki, T.; Veshchev, E.A.; Sudo, S.

    2008-01-01

    A reliable method to evaluate the probability density function for escaping atom kinetic energies is required for the analysis of neutral particle diagnostic data used to study the fast ion distribution function in fusion plasmas. Digital processing of solid state detector signals is proposed in this paper as an improvement of the simple histogram approach. Probability density function for kinetic energies of neutral particles escaping from the plasma has been derived in a general form taking into account the plasma ion energy distribution, electron capture and loss rates, superposition along the diagnostic sight line and the magnetic surface geometry. A pseudorandom number generator has been realized that enables a sample of escaping neutral particle energies to be simulated for given plasma parameters and experimental conditions. Empirical probability density estimation code has been developed and tested to reconstruct the probability density function from simulated samples assuming. Maxwellian and classical slowing down plasma ion energy distribution shapes for different temperatures and different slowing down times. The application of the developed probability density estimation code to the analysis of experimental data obtained by the novel Angular-Resolved Multi-Sightline Neutral Particle Analyzer has been studied to obtain the suprathermal particle distributions. The optimum bandwidth parameter selection algorithm has also been realized. (author)

  7. Investigation of multi-functional theranostic liposomes and bimodal combination therapy of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkelani, Delaram

    Isotopes from the lanthanide series are suitable for intense localized radiotherapy of tumors and melanomas. 166Ho is a promising radioisotope for use in medical radiotherapy due to its relatively short half-life of 26.8 hours and emission of high-energy beta -particles. 166Ho can be produced in suitable quantities using the USGS 1 MW TRIGA reactor located at the Denver Federal Center. A prototype patch was created by RF sputtering holmium oxide onto Kapton foil. The prototype patch showed that $beta -particles have good penetration and rapid fall-off in the photographic paper. A few short comings were observed in the prototype holmium radiotherapy patch. The current RF sputtering process is slow and non-uniform. This may be due to using a holmium oxide target instead of a holmium metal target. Delamination was observed in some of the prototype patches. A design that contains the holmium deposition will be necessary. The activity and the presence of contaminants were analyzed using gamma-spectra dominated by an 80.6 keV gamma-ray. Irradiation and measurements of a holmium oxide radiotherapy patch that was sputtered for 1 h at 150 W show an activity of 7.03 +/- 0.35 mu Ci. Error is largely due to the error in the calibrated sources as well as inaccuracies from systematic error in the solid angle measurements and statistical error in measuring counts..

  8. Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Europium(III) DO3A as a Bimodal Imaging Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Sophie; Bloemen, Maarten; Vander Elst, Luce; Laurent, Sophie; Verbiest, Thierry; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2016-03-18

    A new prototype consisting of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles decorated with europium(III) ions encapsulated in a DO3A organic scaffold was designed as a platform for further development of bimodal contrast agents for MRI and optical imaging. The USPIO nanoparticles act as negative MRI contrast agents, whereas the europium(III) ion is a luminophore that is suitable for use in optical imaging detection. The functionalized USPIO nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, DLS, XRD, FTIR, and TXRF analysis, and a full investigation of the relaxometric and optical properties was conducted. The typical luminescence emission of europium(III) was observed and the main red emission wavelength was found at 614 nm. The relaxometric study of these ultrasmall nanoparticles showed r2 values of 114.8 mM(-1) Fes(-1) at 60 MHz, which is nearly double the r2 relaxivity of Sinerem(®). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Oncogenic Nras has bimodal effects on stem cells that sustainably increase competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Bohin, Natacha; Wen, Tiffany; Ng, Victor; Magee, Jeffrey; Chen, Shann-Ching; Shannon, Kevin; Morrison, Sean J

    2013-12-05

    'Pre-leukaemic' mutations are thought to promote clonal expansion of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by increasing self-renewal and competitiveness; however, mutations that increase HSC proliferation tend to reduce competitiveness and self-renewal potential, raising the question of how a mutant HSC can sustainably outcompete wild-type HSCs. Activating mutations in NRAS are prevalent in human myeloproliferative neoplasms and leukaemia. Here we show that a single allele of oncogenic Nras(G12D) increases HSC proliferation but also increases reconstituting and self-renewal potential upon serial transplantation in irradiated mice, all prior to leukaemia initiation. Nras(G12D) also confers long-term self-renewal potential to multipotent progenitors. To explore the mechanism by which Nras(G12D) promotes HSC proliferation and self-renewal, we assessed cell-cycle kinetics using H2B-GFP label retention and 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Nras(G12D) had a bimodal effect on HSCs, increasing the frequency with which some HSCs divide and reducing the frequency with which others divide. This mirrored bimodal effects on reconstituting potential, as rarely dividing Nras(G12D) HSCs outcompeted wild-type HSCs, whereas frequently dividing Nras(G12D) HSCs did not. Nras(G12D) caused these effects by promoting STAT5 signalling, inducing different transcriptional responses in different subsets of HSCs. One signal can therefore increase HSC proliferation, competitiveness and self-renewal through bimodal effects on HSC gene expression, cycling and reconstituting potential.

  10. Processing bimodal stimulus information under alcohol: is there a risk to being redundant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Mark T

    2010-10-01

    The impairing effects of alcohol are especially pronounced in environments that involve dividing attention across two or more stimuli. However, studies in cognitive psychology have identified circumstances in which the presentation of multiple stimuli can actually facilitate performance. The "redundant signal effect" (RSE) refers to the observation that individuals respond more quickly when information is presented as redundant, bimodal stimuli (e.g., aurally and visually), rather than as a single stimulus presented to either modality alone. The present study tested the hypothesis that the response facilitation attributed to RSE could reduce the degree to which alcohol slows information processing. Two experiments are reported. Experiment 1 demonstrated the validity of a reaction time model of RSE by showing that adults (N = 15) responded more quickly to redundant, bimodal stimuli (visual + aural) versus either stimuli presented individually. Experiment 2 used the RSE model to test the reaction time performance of 20 adults following three alcohol doses (0.0 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.65 g/kg). Results showed that alcohol slowed reaction time in a general dose-dependent manner in all three stimulus conditions with the reaction time (RT) speed-advantage of the redundant signal being maintained, even under the highest dose of alcohol. Evidence for an RT advantage to bimodal stimuli under alcohol challenges the general assumption that alcohol impairment is intensified in multistimulus environments. The current study provides a useful model to investigate how drug effects on behavior might be altered in contexts that involve redundant response signals.

  11. Impact of Bimodal Traffic on Latency in Optical Burst Switching Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of bimodal traffic composition on latency in optical burst switching networks. In particular, it studies the performance degradation to short-length packets caused by longer packets, both of which are part of a heterogeneous traffic model. The paper defines a customer satisfaction index for each of the classes of traffic, and a composite satisfaction index. The impact of higher overall utilization of the network as well as that of the ratio of the traffic mix on each of the customer satisfaction indices is specifically addressed.

  12. A bimodal temom model for particle Brownian coagulation in the continuum-slip regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a bimodal Taylor-series expansion moment of method is proposed to deal with Brownian coagulation in the continuum-slip regime, where the non-linear terms in the Cunningham correction factor is approximated by Taylor-series expansion technology. The results show that both the number concentration and volume fraction decrease with time in the smaller mode due to the intra and inter coagulation, and the asymptotic behavior of the larger mode is as same as that in the continuum regime.

  13. Effects of Strain Rate on Compressive Properties in Bimodal 7075 Al-SiCp Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungsoo; Choi, Jin Hyeok; Jo, Min Chul; Jo, Ilguk; Lee, Sang-Kwan; Lee, Sunghak

    2018-03-01

    A 7075 Al alloy matrix composite reinforced with SiC particulates (SiCps) whose sizes were 10 and 30 μm, i.e., a bimodal Al-SiCp composite, was made by a liquid pressing process, and its quasi-static and dynamic compressive properties were evaluated by using a universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar, respectively. Mg-Si-, Al-Fe-, and Cu-rich intermetallic compounds existed inside the Al matrix, but might not deteriorate compressive properties because of their low volume fraction (about 2.6%) which was much lower than that of SiCp. The dynamic compressive strength was higher than the quasi-static strength, and was higher in the specimen tested at 2800 s-1 than in the specimen tested at 1400 s-1 according to the strain-rate hardening. For explaining the strain data, the blocking extent of crack propagation by the Al matrix was quantitatively examined. The melting of Al matrix occurred by adiabatic heating was favorable for the improvement in compressive strain because it favorably worked for activating the shear band formation and for blocking the crack propagation, thereby leading to the excellent compressive strain (10.9-11.6%) as well as maximum compressive strength (1057-1147 MPa). Thus, the present bimodal 7075 Al-SiCp composite provides a promise for new applications to high-performance armor plates.

  14. Bimodal mortality dynamics for uveal melanoma: a cue for metastasis development traits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demicheli, Romano; Fornili, Marco; Biganzoli, Elia

    2014-01-01

    The study estimates mortality dynamics (event-specific hazard rates over a follow-up time interval) for uveal melanoma. Three thousands six hundred seventy two patients undergoing radical or conservative treatment for unilateral uveal melanoma, whose yearly follow-up data were reported in three published datasets, were analysed. Mortality dynamics was studied by estimating with the life-table method the discrete hazard rate for death. Smoothed curves were obtained by a Kernel-like smoothing procedure and a piecewise exponential regression model. The ratio deaths/patients at risk per year was the main outcome measure. The three explored hazard rate curves display a common bimodal pattern, with a sudden increase peaking at about three years, followed by reduction until the sixth-seventh year and a second surge peaking at about nine years after treatment. The bimodal pattern of mortality indicates that uveal melanoma metastatic development cannot be explained by a continuous growth model. Similar metastasis dynamics have been reported for other tumours, including early breast cancer, for which it supported a paradigm shift to an interrupted growth model, the implications of which are episodes of ‘tumour dormancy’. We propose that the concepts of tumour homeostasis, tumour dormancy and enhancement of metastasis growth related to primary tumour removal, convincingly explaining the clinical behaviour of breast cancer, may be used for uveal melanoma as well. To confirm this proposition, a careful analysis of uveal melanoma metastasis dynamics is strongly warranted

  15. Investigation of mixed fluorinated and triblock copolymer liquid crystals: imprint for mesostructured bimodal silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaker, Karine; Naboulsi, Issam; Stébé, Marie-José; Emo, Mélanie; Blin, Jean-Luc

    2015-05-15

    Due to the difference in «mutual phobicity» between fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon chains, mixtures of fluorinated and hydrogenated surfactants are excellent candidates to design bimodal systems having two types of mesopores. In literature, only a few papers deal with these bimodal systems. Here hexagonal liquid crystal mixtures of the polyoxyethylene fluoroalkyl ether [R(F)8(EO)9] and the Pluronic [P123] have been used to template this kind of mesostructure through the liquid crystal mechanism, which is barely considered. After the detailed investigation of the R(F)8(EO)9/P123/water liquid crystal domain, materials have been synthesized and characterized by small angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis. Our results show that this system provides two separate pore sizes in the materials over the mesoporous range. The ratio between the small mesopores and the large ones depends on the proportion between the porogens in the mixture. Nonetheless, we also outline that a minimum quantity of silica is required to recover the two hexagonal networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation of bimodal grain size 7075 aviation aluminum alloys and their corrosion properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming TIAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The bimodal grain size metals show improved strength and ductility compared to traditional metals; however, their corrosion properties are unknown. In order to evaluate the corrosion properties of these metals, the bimodal grain size 7075 aviation aluminum alloys containing different ratios of coarse (100 μm in diameter and fine (10 μm in diameter grains were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS. The effects of grain size as well as the mixture degree of coarse and fine grains on general corrosion were estimated by immersion tests, electrochemical measurements and complementary techniques such as scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope-energy disperse spectroscopy (TEM-EDS. The results show that, compared to fine grains, the coarse grains have a faster dissolution rate in acidic NaCl solution due to the bigger size, higher alloying elements content and larger area fraction of second phases in them. In coarse grains, the hydrogen ions have a faster reduction rate on cathodic second phases, therefore promoting the corrosion propagation. The mixture of coarse and fine grains also increases the electrochemical heterogeneity of alloys in micro-scale, and thus the increased mixture degree of these grains in metal matrix accelerates the corrosion rate of alloys in acidic NaCl solution.

  17. Human Exploration Mission Capabilities to the Moon, Mars, and Near Earth Asteroids Using ''Bimodal'' NTR Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley K. Borowski; Leonard A. Dudzinski; Melissa L. McGuire

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human exploration missions because of its high specific impulse (Isp ∼ 850 to 1000 s) and attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio (∼ 3 to 10). Because only a minuscule amount of enriched 235 U fuel is consumed in an NRT during the primary propulsion maneuvers of a typical Mars mission, engines configured both for propulsive thrust and modest power generation (referred to as 'bimodal' operation) provide the basis for a robust, power-rich stage with efficient propulsive capture capability at the moon and near-earth asteroids (NEAs), where aerobraking cannot be utilized. A family of modular bimodal NTR (BNTR) space transfer vehicles utilize a common core stage powered by three ∼15-klb f engines that produce 50 kW(electric) of total electrical power for crew life support, high data rate communications with Earth, and an active refrigeration system for long-term, zero-boiloff liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) storage. This paper describes details of BNTR engines and designs of vehicles using them for various missions

  18. Rotational multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound: bimodal system for intravascular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dinglong; Bec, Julien; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Gorpas, Dimitris; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Marcu, Laura

    2014-06-01

    We report the development and validation of a hybrid intravascular diagnostic system combining multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for cardiovascular imaging applications. A prototype FLIm system based on fluorescence pulse sampling technique providing information on artery biochemical composition was integrated with a commercial IVUS system providing information on artery morphology. A customized 3-Fr bimodal catheter combining a rotational side-view fiberoptic and a 40-MHz IVUS transducer was constructed for sequential helical scanning (rotation and pullback) of tubular structures. Validation of this bimodal approach was conducted in pig heart coronary arteries. Spatial resolution, fluorescence detection efficiency, pulse broadening effect, and lifetime measurement variability of the FLIm system were systematically evaluated. Current results show that this system is capable of temporarily resolving the fluorescence emission simultaneously in multiple spectral channels in a single pullback sequence. Accurate measurements of fluorescence decay characteristics from arterial segments can be obtained rapidly (e.g., 20 mm in 5 s), and accurate co-registration of fluorescence and ultrasound features can be achieved. The current finding demonstrates the compatibility of FLIm instrumentation with in vivo clinical investigations and its potential to complement conventional IVUS during catheterization procedures.

  19. Efficient and reusable polyamide-56 nanofiber/nets membrane with bimodal structures for air filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bowen; Zhang, Shichao; Wang, Xueli; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Nanofibrous media that both possess high airborne particle interception efficiency and robust air permeability would have broad technological implications for areas ranging from individual protection and industrial security to environmental governance; however, creating such filtration media has proved extremely challenging. Here we report a strategy to construct the bio-based polyamide-56 nanofiber/nets (PA-56 NFN) membranes with bimodal structures for effective air filtration via one-step electrospinning/netting. The PA-56 membranes are composed of completely covered two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin (∼20 nm) nanonets which are optimized by facilely regulating the solution concentration, and the bonded scaffold fibers constructed cavity structures which are synchronously created by using the CH3COOH inspiration. With integrated properties of small aperture, high porosity, and bonded scaffold, the resulting PA-56 NFN membranes exhibit high filtration efficiency of 99.995%, low pressure drop of 111 Pa, combined with large dust holding capacity of 49 g/m(2) and dust-cleaning regeneration ability, for filtrating ultrafine airborne particles in the most safe manner involving sieving principle and surface filtration. The successful synthesis of PA-56 NFN medium would not only make it a promising candidate for air filtration, but also provide new insights into the design and development of nanonet-based bimodal structures for various applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Human fatigue expression recognition through image-based dynamic multi-information and bimodal deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zengcai; Wang, Xiaojin; Qi, Yazhou; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Guoxin

    2016-09-01

    Human fatigue is an important cause of traffic accidents. To improve the safety of transportation, we propose, in this paper, a framework for fatigue expression recognition using image-based facial dynamic multi-information and a bimodal deep neural network. First, the landmark of face region and the texture of eye region, which complement each other in fatigue expression recognition, are extracted from facial image sequences captured by a single camera. Then, two stacked autoencoder neural networks are trained for landmark and texture, respectively. Finally, the two trained neural networks are combined by learning a joint layer on top of them to construct a bimodal deep neural network. The model can be used to extract a unified representation that fuses landmark and texture modalities together and classify fatigue expressions accurately. The proposed system is tested on a human fatigue dataset obtained from an actual driving environment. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method performs stably and robustly, and that the average accuracy achieves 96.2%.

  1. Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, Marina S; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2012-12-01

    A common complaint of the elderly is difficulty identifying and localizing auditory and visual sources, particularly in competing background noise. Spatial errors in the elderly may pose challenges and even threats to self and others during everyday activities, such as localizing sounds in a crowded room or driving in traffic. In this study, we investigated the influence of aging, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on the localization of auditory, visual, and combined auditory-visual (bimodal) targets. Head-restrained young and elderly subjects localized targets in a dark, echo-attenuated room using a manual laser pointer. Localization accuracy and precision (repeatability) were quantified for both ongoing and transient (remembered) targets at response delays up to 10 s. Because eye movements bias auditory spatial perception, localization was assessed under target fixation (eyes free, pointer guided by foveal vision) and central fixation (eyes fixed straight ahead, pointer guided by peripheral vision) conditions. Spatial localization across the frontal field in young adults demonstrated (1) horizontal overshoot and vertical undershoot for ongoing auditory targets under target fixation conditions, but near-ideal horizontal localization with central fixation; (2) accurate and precise localization of ongoing visual targets guided by foveal vision under target fixation that degraded when guided by peripheral vision during central fixation; (3) overestimation in horizontal central space (±10°) of remembered auditory, visual, and bimodal targets with increasing response delay. In comparison with young adults, elderly subjects showed (1) worse precision in most paradigms, especially when localizing with peripheral vision under central fixation; (2) greatly impaired vertical localization of auditory and bimodal targets; (3) increased horizontal overshoot in the central field for remembered visual and bimodal targets across response delays; (4) greater vulnerability to

  2. Superferromagnetism in mechanically alloyed fcc Fe23Cu77 with bimodal cluster size distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, N J O; Amaral, J S; Amaral, V S; Costa, B F O; Le Caer, G

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic measurements, x-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to characterize a nanostructured fcc Fe 23 Cu 77 at.% alloy prepared by high-energy ball-milling, addressing in particular the effect of clustering on the nature of the interacting magnetic entities. The interpretation of magnetization measurements leads to the conclusion that grains, whose mean size is ∼16 nm, contain two populations of magnetic Fe-rich nanoclusters with a bimodal size distribution. These two sets of clusters contain about 14 and 400 Fe atoms and have magnetic moments of 30 μ B and 860 μ B , respectively. The inter-cluster ferromagnetic interactions that lead to superferromagnetism with a Curie temperature T C ∼220 K can be described by a mean field determined by the smaller clusters only, which account for 90% of the magnetization.

  3. CCD ubvy photometry of the bimodal main-sequence cluster NGC 3680

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony-Twarog, B.J.; Twarog, B.A.; Shodhan, S. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence (USA))

    1989-11-01

    CCD uvby photometry for the intermediate age, southern open cluster, NGC 3680, is analyzed. For a reddening of E(b-y) = 0.034, a true cluster modulus of 9.74 + or - 0.20 and a cluster metallicity of Fe/H abundance = 0.10 + or - 0.09, based on 18 probable nonbinary members of the cluster brighter than V = 14. The color-magnitude diagram for the cluster suggests that, although the main sequence may be subject to the same bimodal distibution as NGC 752, the likely source in both clusters is a combination of binaries and a sharply curved turnoff. The color-magnitude diagram is compared to the theoretical isochrones of Bertelli et al. (1988), showing an age of (1.9 + or - 0.3) X 10 to the 9th yr. 27 refs.

  4. Bimodal wireless sensing with dual-channel wide bandgap heterostructure varactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deen, David A.; Osinsky, Andrei; Miller, Ross

    2014-01-01

    A capacitive wireless sensing scheme is developed that utilizes an AlN/GaN-based dual-channel varactor. The dual-channel heterostructure affords two capacitance plateaus within the capacitance-voltage (CV) characteristic, owing to the two parallel two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) located at respective AlN/GaN interfaces. The capacitance plateaus are leveraged for the definition of two resonant states of the sensor when implemented in an inductively-coupled resonant LRC network for wireless readout. The physics-based CV model is compared with published experimental results, which serve as a basis for the sensor embodiment. The bimodal resonant sensor is befitting for a broad application space ranging from gas, electrostatic, and piezoelectric sensors to biological and chemical detection

  5. Theoretical study of the frequency shift in bimodal FM-AFM by fractional calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, Elena T; Garcia, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Bimodal atomic force microscopy is a force-microscopy method that requires the simultaneous excitation of two eigenmodes of the cantilever. This method enables the simultaneous recording of several material properties and, at the same time, it also increases the sensitivity of the microscope. Here we apply fractional calculus to express the frequency shift of the second eigenmode in terms of the fractional derivative of the interaction force. We show that this approximation is valid for situations in which the amplitude of the first mode is larger than the length of scale of the force, corresponding to the most common experimental case. We also show that this approximation is valid for very different types of tip-surface forces such as the Lennard-Jones and Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov forces.

  6. Theoretical study of the frequency shift in bimodal FM-AFM by fractional calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Herruzo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bimodal atomic force microscopy is a force-microscopy method that requires the simultaneous excitation of two eigenmodes of the cantilever. This method enables the simultaneous recording of several material properties and, at the same time, it also increases the sensitivity of the microscope. Here we apply fractional calculus to express the frequency shift of the second eigenmode in terms of the fractional derivative of the interaction force. We show that this approximation is valid for situations in which the amplitude of the first mode is larger than the length of scale of the force, corresponding to the most common experimental case. We also show that this approximation is valid for very different types of tip–surface forces such as the Lennard-Jones and Derjaguin–Muller–Toporov forces.

  7. Heatpipe power system and heatpipe bimodal system design and development options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.; Emrich, W.J. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The Heatpipe Power System (HPS) is a potential, near-term, low-cost space fission power system. The Heatpipe Bimodal System (HBS) is a potential, near-term, low-cost space fission power and/or propulsion system. Both systems will be composed of independent modules, and all components operate within the existing databases. The HPS and HBS have relatively few system integration issues; thus, the successful development of a module is a significant step toward verifying system feasibility and performance estimates. A prototypic HPS module is being fabricated, and testing is scheduled to begin in November 1996. A successful test will provide high confidence that the HPS can achieve its predicted performance

  8. Particle filtering with path sampling and an application to a bimodal ocean current model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weare, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a recursive particle filtering algorithm designed to filter high dimensional systems with complicated non-linear and non-Gaussian effects. The method incorporates a parallel marginalization (PMMC) step in conjunction with the hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) scheme to improve samples generated by standard particle filters. Parallel marginalization is an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) strategy that uses lower dimensional approximate marginal distributions of the target distribution to accelerate equilibration. As a validation the algorithm is tested on a 2516 dimensional, bimodal, stochastic model motivated by the Kuroshio current that runs along the Japanese coast. The results of this test indicate that the method is an attractive alternative for problems that require the generality of a particle filter but have been inaccessible due to the limitations of standard particle filtering strategies.

  9. Bimodal bilingualism as multisensory training?: Evidence for improved audiovisual speech perception after sign language exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua T; Darcy, Isabelle; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to characterize effects of learning a sign language on the processing of a spoken language. Specifically, audiovisual phoneme comprehension was assessed before and after 13 weeks of sign language exposure. L2 ASL learners performed this task in the fMRI scanner. Results indicated that L2 American Sign Language (ASL) learners' behavioral classification of the speech sounds improved with time compared to hearing nonsigners. Results indicated increased activation in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) after sign language exposure, which suggests concomitant increased phonological processing of speech. A multiple regression analysis indicated that learner's rating on co-sign speech use and lipreading ability was correlated with SMG activation. This pattern of results indicates that the increased use of mouthing and possibly lipreading during sign language acquisition may concurrently improve audiovisual speech processing in budding hearing bimodal bilinguals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Conventions for sign and speech transcription of child bimodal bilingual corpora in ELAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen Pichler, Deborah; Hochgesang, Julie A; Lillo-Martin, Diane; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2010-01-01

    This article extends current methodologies for the linguistic analysis of sign language acquisition to cases of bimodal bilingual acquisition. Using ELAN, we are transcribing longitudinal spontaneous production data from hearing children of Deaf parents who are learning either American Sign Language (ASL) and American English (AE), or Brazilian Sign Language (Libras, also referred to as Língua de Sinais Brasileira/LSB in some texts) and Brazilian Portuguese (BP). Our goal is to construct corpora that can be mined for a wide range of investigations on various topics in acquisition. Thus, it is important that we maintain consistency in transcription for both signed and spoken languages. This article documents our transcription conventions, including the principles behind our approach. Using this document, other researchers can chose to follow similar conventions or develop new ones using our suggestions as a starting point.

  11. On the inverse transform of Laplace transforms that contain (products of) the parabolic cylinder function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veestraeten, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Laplace transforms of the transition probability density and distribution functions for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process contain the product of two parabolic cylinder functions, namely Dv(x)Dv(y) and Dv(x)Dv−1(y), respectively. The inverse transforms of these products have as yet not been

  12. X-ray diffraction microstructural analysis of bimodal size distribution MgO nano powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suminar Pratapa; Budi Hartono

    2009-01-01

    Investigation on the characteristics of x-ray diffraction data for MgO powdered mixture of nano and sub-nano particles has been carried out to reveal the crystallite-size-related microstructural information. The MgO powders were prepared by co-precipitation method followed by heat treatment at 500 degree Celsius and 1200 degree Celsius for 1 hour, being the difference in the temperature was to obtain two powders with distinct crystallite size and size-distribution. The powders were then blended in air to give the presumably bimodal-size- distribution MgO nano powder. High-quality laboratory X-ray diffraction data for the powders were collected and then analysed using Rietveld-based MAUD software using the lognormal size distribution. Results show that the single-mode powders exhibit spherical crystallite size (R) of 20(1) nm and 160(1) nm for the 500 degree Celsius and 1200 degree Celsius data respectively with the nano metric powder displays narrower crystallite size distribution character, indicated by lognormal dispersion parameter of 0.21 as compared to 0.01 for the sub-nano metric powder. The mixture exhibits relatively more asymmetric peak broadening. Analysing the x-ray diffraction data for the latter specimen using single phase approach give unrealistic results. Introducing two phase models for the double-phase mixture to accommodate the bimodal-size-distribution characteristics give R = 100(6) and σ = 0.62 for the nano metric phase and R = 170(5) and σ= 0.12 for the σ sub-nano metric phase. (author)

  13. Effect of meta-carborane on segmental dynamics in a bimodal Poly(dimethylsiloxane) network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewicki, J; Maxwell, R S; Patel, M; Herberg, J; Swain, A C; Liggat, J; Pethrick, R

    2008-06-11

    Bimodal networks of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) filled with varying amounts of icosahedral meta-carborane (m-CB) have been developed and characterized by broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and static {sup 1}H Multiple Quantum Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MQ NMR). Both BDS and MQ NMR showed evidence for a decrease in the polymer chain dynamics. BDS spectra quantified a normal-mode relaxation near 40 Hz at 40 C. The frequency maximum observed for filled samples decreased with increasing m-CB content until contents greater than 5 wt. %. The width of the relaxation spectrum increased with the addition of small quantities of filler and decreased with filler contents greater that 5 wt. %. Agglomeration effects were observed at loadings greater than 5 wt % as manifest by the onset of low frequency Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) processes. The MQ NMR data allowed the characterization of distributions of the residual dipolar couplings, <{Omega}{sub d}> and thus in the dynamic order parameter, Sb, consistent with the bimodal network architecture expected from the synthesis protocol used. Upon addition of less than 10 wt.% m-CB filler, the mean <{Omega}{sub d}> for the longer chains increased by 46% and the width of the distribution increased by 33%. The mean <{Omega}{sub d}> for the shorter chains increased by much less, indicative of preferential dispersion of the filler particles in the long chain domains of the network structure. We conclude that the mechanism of reinforcement is likely a free volume space filling at low loadings transitioning to complex molecular filler and polymer chain interaction phenomena at higher loadings.

  14. Effect of Kerr-like medium on a two-level atom in interaction with bimodal oscillator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdalla, M. S.; Křepelka, Jaromír; Peřina, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, - (2006), s. 1563-1577 ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC P11.003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : kerr-like medium * two-level atom * bimodal oscillator Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.024, year: 2006

  15. Primary particle diameter differentiation and bimodality identification by five analytical methods using gold nanoparticle size distributions synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzel, Alexander; Gökce, Bilal; Menzel, Andreas; Plech, Anton; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2018-03-01

    For a known material, the size distribution of a nanoparticle colloid is a crucial parameter that defines its properties. However, measured size distributions are not easy to interpret as one has to consider weighting (e.g. by light absorption, scattering intensity, volume, surface, number) and the way size information was gained. The radius of a suspended nanoparticle can be given as e.g. sphere equivalent, hydrodynamic, Feret or radius of gyration. In this study, gold nanoparticles in water are synthesized by pulsed-laser ablation (LAL) and fragmentation (LFL) in liquids and characterized by various techniques (scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), analytical disc centrifugation (ADC), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-vis spectroscopy with Mie-Gans Theory) to study the comparability of different analytical techniques and determine the method that is preferable for a given task related to laser-generated nanoparticles. In particular, laser-generated colloids are known to be bimodal and/or polydisperse, but bimodality is sometimes not analytically resolved in literature. In addition, frequently reported small size shifts of the primary particle mode around 10 nm needs evaluation of its statistical significance related to the analytical method. Closely related to earlier studies on SAXS, different colloids in defined proportions are mixed and their size as a function of the nominal mixing ratio is analyzed. It is found that the derived particle size is independent of the nominal mixing ratio if the colloid size fractions do not overlap considerably. Conversely, the obtained size for colloids with overlapping size fractions strongly depends on the nominal mixing ratio since most methods cannot distinguish between such fractions. Overall, SAXS and ADC are very accurate methods for particle size analysis. Further, the ability of different methods to determine the nominal mixing ratio of sizes fractions is studied

  16. Noncovalent Ruthenium(II) Complexes-Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composites for Bimodal Photothermal and Photodynamic Therapy with Near-Infrared Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingyu; Huang, Huaiyi; Huang, Juanjuan; Chen, Hongmin; Wang, Jinquan; Qiu, Kangqiang; Zhao, Donglei; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-10-21

    To enhance the efficacy and optimize the treatment of cancers, the integration of multimodal treatment strategies leading to synergistic effects is a promising approach. The coassembly of multifunctional agents for systematic therapies has received considerable interest in cancer treatment. Herein, Ru(II) complex-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (Ru@SWCNTs) are developed as nanotemplates for bimodal photothermal and two-photon photodynamic therapy (PTT-TPPDT). SWCNTs have the ability to load a great amount of Ru(II) complexes (Ru1 or Ru2) via noncovalent π-π interactions. The loaded Ru(II) complexes are efficiently released by the photothermal effect of irradiation from an 808 nm diode laser (0.25 W/cm(2)). The released Ru(II) complexes produce singlet oxygen species ((1)O2) upon two-photon laser irradiation (808 nm, 0.25 W/cm(2)) and can be used as a two-photon photodynamic therapy (TPPDT) agent. Based on the combination of photothermal therapy and two-photon photodynamic therapy, Ru@SWCNTs have greater anticancer efficacies than either PDT using Ru(II) complexes or PTT using SWCNTs in two-dimensional (2D) cancer cell and three-dimensional (3D) multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) models. Furthermore, in vivo tumor ablation is achieved with excellent treatment efficacy under a diode laser (808 nm) irradiation at the power density of 0.25 W/cm(2) for 5 min. This study examines an efficacious bimodal PTT and TPPDT nanoplat form for the development of cancer therapeutics.

  17. Bimodal stimulus timing-dependent plasticity in primary auditory cortex is altered after noise exposure with and without tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Koehler, Seth D; Shore, Susan E

    2015-12-01

    Central auditory circuits are influenced by the somatosensory system, a relationship that may underlie tinnitus generation. In the guinea pig dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), pairing spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) stimulation with tones at specific intervals and orders facilitated or suppressed subsequent tone-evoked neural responses, reflecting spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Furthermore, after noise-induced tinnitus, bimodal responses in DCN were shifted from Hebbian to anti-Hebbian timing rules with less discrete temporal windows, suggesting a role for bimodal plasticity in tinnitus. Here, we aimed to determine if multisensory STDP principles like those in DCN also exist in primary auditory cortex (A1), and whether they change following noise-induced tinnitus. Tone-evoked and spontaneous neural responses were recorded before and 15 min after bimodal stimulation in which the intervals and orders of auditory-somatosensory stimuli were randomized. Tone-evoked and spontaneous firing rates were influenced by the interval and order of the bimodal stimuli, and in sham-controls Hebbian-like timing rules predominated as was seen in DCN. In noise-exposed animals with and without tinnitus, timing rules shifted away from those found in sham-controls to more anti-Hebbian rules. Only those animals with evidence of tinnitus showed increased spontaneous firing rates, a purported neurophysiological correlate of tinnitus in A1. Together, these findings suggest that bimodal plasticity is also evident in A1 following noise damage and may have implications for tinnitus generation and therapeutic intervention across the central auditory circuit. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Finite-thrust optimization of interplanetary transfers of space vehicle with bimodal nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharytonov, Oleksii M.; Kiforenko, Boris M.

    2011-08-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion is one of the leading promising technologies for primary space propulsion for manned exploration of the solar system due to its high specific impulse capability and sufficiently high thrust-to-weight ratio. Another benefit of NTR is its possible bimodal design, when nuclear reactor is used for generation of a jet thrust in a high-thrust mode and (with an appropriate power conversion system) as a source of electric power to supply the payload and the electric engines in a low-thrust mode. The model of the NTR thrust control was developed considering high-thrust NTR as a propulsion system of limited power and exhaust velocity. For the proposed model the control of the thrust value is accomplished by the regulation of reactor thermal power and propellant mass flow rate. The problem of joint optimization of the combination of high- and low-thrust arcs and the parameters of bimodal NTR (BNTR) propulsion system is considered for the interplanetary transfers. The interplanetary trajectory of the space vehicle is formed by the high-thrust NTR burns, which define planet-centric maneuvers and by the low-thrust heliocentric arcs where the nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is used. The high-thrust arcs are analyzed using finite-thrust approach. The motion of the corresponding dynamical system is realized in three phase spaces concerning the departure planet-centric maneuver by means of high-thrust NTR propulsion, the low-thrust NEP heliocentric maneuver and the approach high-thrust NTR planet-centric maneuver. The phase coordinates are related at the time instants of the change of the phase spaces due to the relations between the space vehicle masses. The optimal control analysis is performed using Pontryagin's maximum principle. The numerical results are analyzed for Earth-Mars "sprint" transfer. The optimal values of the parameters that define the masses of NTR and NEP subsystems have been evaluated. It is shown that the low

  19. Compressibility and tablet forming ability of bimodal granule mixtures: Experiments and DEM simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Josefina; Alderborn, Göran; Frenning, Göran

    2018-04-05

    Compressibility and tablet forming ability (compactibility) of bimodal mixtures of differently sized granules formed from microcrystalline cellulose were studied experimentally and numerically with the discrete element method (DEM). Compression data was analysed using the Kawakita equation. A multi-body contact law that accounts for contact dependence resulting from plastic incompressibility/geometric hardening was used in the DEM simulations. The experimental Kawakita a and 1/b parameters both depended non-monotonically on composition (weight fraction of large particles). For the a parameter, this dependence was explained by variations in the porosity of the initial granule beds; for the 1/b parameter, other factors were found to be of importance as well. The numerical results generally compared favourably with the experiments, demonstrating the usefulness of the DEM at high relative densities, provided that a suitable multi-particle contact model is used. For all mixtures, the tensile strength of the formed tablets increased with increasing applied pressure. The tensile strength generally decreased with increasing fraction of large particle, and this decrease was more rapid for large differences in particle size. A possible interpretation of these findings was proposed, in terms of differences in lateral support of small particles in the vicinity of large particles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fighting Hepatitis B in North Korea: Feasibility of a Bi-modal Prevention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnewehr, Markus; Stich, August

    2015-11-01

    In North Korea, the prevalence of hepatitis B is high due to natural factors, gaps in vaccination, and the lack of antiviral treatment. Aid projects are urgently needed, however impeded by North Korea's political and economical situation and isolation. The feasibility of a joint North Korean and German humanitarian hepatitis B prevention program was assessed. Part 1: Hepatitis B vaccination catch-up campaign. Part 2: Implementation of endoscopic ligation of esophageal varices (EVL) by trainings in Germany and North Korea. By vaccinating 7 million children between 2010 and 2012, the hepatitis B vaccination gap was closed. Coverage of 99.23% was reached. A total of 11 hepatitis B-induced liver cirrhosis patients (mean age 41.1 yr) with severe esophageal varices and previous bleedings were successfully treated by EVL without major complications. A clinical standard operating procedure, a feedback system and a follow-up plan were developed. The bi-modal preventive strategy was implemented successfully. Parts of the project can serve as an example for other low-income countries, however its general transferability is limited due to the special circumstances in North Korea.

  1. Sensitivity of bimodal listeners to interaural time differences with modulated single- and multiple-channel stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francart, Tom; Lenssen, Anneke; Wouters, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, it was shown that users of a cochlear implant and a contralateral hearing aid are sensitive to interaural time differences (ITDs). In the current study, we investigated (1) the influence on ITD sensitivity of bilaterally varying the place of excitation in the cochlea and of modulation frequency, and (2) the sensitivity to ITD with a 3-channel stimulus generated using continuous-interleaved-sampling (CIS)-like processing. The stimuli were (1) a high-frequency carrier (acoustic sinusoid and single-electrode electric pulse train), modulated with a half-wave-rectified low-frequency sinusoid (a so-called transposed stimulus), and (2) a 3-channel stimulus, generated by sending an acoustic click train through processing similar to the CIS strategy. Four bimodal listeners were sensitive to ITD for both stimulus types. For the first stimulus type, there was no significant influence on ITD sensitivity of the acoustic carrier frequency. Performance decreased with increasing modulation frequency with a limit of sensitivity at around 150-200 Hz. Sensitivity was similar for the single- and 3-channel stimulus. The results indicate the possibility of ITD perception with adapted clinical processors, which can lead to improved sound source localization and binaural unmasking. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Thermal stability of bimodal microstructure in magnesium alloy AZ91 processed by ECAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantělejev, Libor, E-mail: pantelejev@fme.vutbr.cz [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); NETME Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Štěpánek, Roman [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); NETME Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Man, Ondřej [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-09-15

    The changes in microstructure of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) processed magnesium alloy AZ91 during thermal exposure were studied in this paper. The microstructure stability was investigated by means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), which allowed to measure the changes in grain size, mutual ratio of low-angle boundaries (LABs) to high-angle ones (HABs) and local lattice distortion evaluated by the kernel average misorientation (KAM) parameter. It was found experimentally that the threshold temperature at which significant grain coarsening takes place is 350 °C. No modification to mean grain diameter occurs below this temperature, nonetheless, some changes in LAB and HAB fraction, as well as in local lattice distortion, can be observed. - Highlights: • Thermal stability of bimodal UFG AZ91 alloy was assessed by means of EBSD. • Threshold temperature for pronounced grain coarsening was found at 350 °C. • Below 350 °C increase in LAB fraction and local lattice distortion takes place. • Local lattice distortion (LLD) can be well described using KAM approach. • LLD is influenced by coarsening and precipitation of Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} particles.

  3. Influence of reproductive mode on metabolic costs of reproduction: insight from the bimodal lizard Zootoca vivipara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Thomas; Lourdais, Olivier; DeNardo, Dale F; Heulin, Benoit

    2014-11-15

    Examination of the selective forces behind the transition from oviparity to viviparity in vertebrates must include an understanding of the relative energy costs of the two reproductive modes. However, interspecific comparisons of reproductive mode are confounded by numerous other inherent differences among the species. Therefore, we compared oxygen consumption, as a reflection of energy costs, during reproduction in oviparous and viviparous females of the reproductively bimodal lizard Zootoca vivipara (Jaquin 1787). Female oxygen consumption progressively increased over the course of reproduction, peaking just prior to parition when it was 46% (oviparous form) and 82% (viviparous form) higher than it was at the pre-reproductive stage. Total increase in oxygen consumption (TIOC) during the pre-ovulation period was not different between the reproductive modes. Conversely, post-ovulation TIOC was more than three times higher in viviparous females, reflecting a dramatic increase in embryonic metabolism as well as maternal metabolic costs of pregnancy (MCP). MCP accounted for 22% of total metabolism in viviparous females, whereas it was negligible in oviparous females. Our results demonstrate that egg retention through the first third of development, as is typical of most oviparous squamates, entails minimal maternal energy demand, while extending retention imposes much greater metabolic constraints. Selection for transition from oviparity to viviparity must therefore provide benefits that outweigh not only the added burden associated with prolonged embryonic retention, but also the substantial additional energy costs that are incurred. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. THE BIMODALITY OF ACCRETION IN T TAURI STARS AND BROWN DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobyov, E. I.; Basu, Shantanu

    2009-01-01

    We present numerical solutions of the collapse of prestellar cores that lead to the formation and evolution of circumstellar disks. The disk evolution is then followed for up to three million years. A variety of models of different initial masses and rotation rates allow us to study disk accretion around brown dwarfs and low-mass T Tauri stars (TTSs), with central object mass M * sun , as well as intermediate- and upper-mass TTSs (0.2 M sun * sun ). Our models include self-gravity and allow for nonaxisymmetric motions. In addition to the self-consistently generated gravitational torques, we introduce an effective turbulent α-viscosity with α = 0.01, which allows us particularly to model accretion in the low-mass regime where disk self-gravity is diminishing. A range of models with observationally motivated values of the initial ratio of rotational-to-gravitational energy yield a correlation between mass accretion rate M-dot and M * that is relatively steep, as observed. Additionally, our modeling reveals evidence for a bimodality in the M-dot - M * correlation, with a steeper slope at lower masses and a shallower slope at intermediate and upper masses, as also implied by observations. Furthermore, we show that the neglect of disk self-gravity leads to a much steeper M-dot - M * relation for intermediate- and upper-mass TTSs. This demonstrates that an accurate treatment of global self-gravity is essential to understanding observations of circumstellar disks.

  5. [An analysis of code-switching phenomenon in bimodal bilinguals (Libras and Portuguese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Aline Nunes; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2012-01-01

    An interesting linguistic phenomenon that happens in the interaction among bilingual people is code-switching. In this paper, we are investigating code-switching among oral Brazilian Portuguese and Brazilian Sign Language - Libras, in a same enunciative chain, with the goal of identifying and analyzing the use of code-switching in the speech of a child and an adult (both hearing from deaf parents), interacting in an intermodal bilingual context, with deaf and hearing interlocutors. Code-switching in languages, in this case, occurs when a person stops to speak in Portuguese and he/she alternates to sign. This present research is a starting study, with qualitative analysis of data. Our corpus is composed of nine sections of interactions in Libras and oral Portuguese, recorded in video, part of the Bimodal Bilingual Development Project from UFSC. The data shows that adult and child's characteristics of code-switching seem to have similarities and differences. The adult seems to switch more worried about the course of the interaction. On the other hand, the child did not seem to use code-switching for specific pragmatic reasons. In regard to the switching extension, it is noted that both the child and the adult used more than one word sentences. The role of the interlocutors seems to be decisive in the interactions investigated here - especially for the adult, since the child is still acquiring awareness about the role of the interlocutor in an interaction.

  6. Bimodal cell death induced by high radiation doses in the radioresistant sf9 insect cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandna, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This study was conducted to investigate the mode(s) of cell death induced by high radiation doses in the highly radioresistant Sf9 insect ovarian cell line. Methods: Cells were exposed to γ-radiation doses 200Gy and 500Gy, harvested at various time intervals (6h-72h) following irradiation, and subjected to cell morphology assay, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay) and Annexin-V labeling for the detection of membrane phosphatidylserine externalization. Cell morphology was assessed in cells entrapped and fixed in agarose gel directly from the cell suspension, thus preventing the possible loss of fragments/ apoptotic bodies. Surviving fraction of Sf9 cells was 0.01 at 200Gy and 98%) undergoing extensive DNA fragmentation at 500Gy, whereas the frequency of cells with DNA fragmentation was considerably less (∼12%) at 200Gy. Conclusions: While the mode of cell death at 200Gy seems to be different from typical apoptosis, a dose of 500Gy induced bimodal cell death, with typical apoptotic as well as the atypical cell death observed at 200Gy

  7. Calcium provision to oviparous and viviparous embryos of the reproductively bimodal lizard Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James R; Ecay, Tom W; Heulin, Benoit

    2009-08-01

    Embryos of oviparous squamate reptiles typically obtain calcium from both yolk and eggshell but differ from other oviparous amniotes (turtles, birds and crocodilians) because they are heavily dependent on calcium-rich yolk. Eggs of viviparous squamates lack calcareous eggshells, and embryos receive calcium solely from yolk or from both yolk and placenta. The pattern of calcium mobilization by amniote embryos has been predicted to influence the evolution of viviparity if embryos are dependent on calcium from the eggshell and calcium placentotrophy evolves subsequent to viviparity. We studied the pattern of maternal provision and embryonic utilization of calcium of an oviparous and a viviparous population of the reproductively bimodal lizard Lacerta vivipara to test the hypotheses: (1) oviparous embryos are not dependent on eggshell calcium and (2) calcium content of viviparous hatchlings does not differ from oviparous hatchlings. Our findings do not support either of these hypotheses because oviparous females oviposited eggs with heavily calcified shells and calcium-poor yolk, and embryonic mobilization of shell calcium was greater than for other oviparous squamates. The calcium content of yolk from viviparous females did not differ from oviparous yolk, but viviparous eggs lacked calcareous eggshells. Uterine secretion by viviparous females compensated for the low calcium content of yolk, and placental calcium transfer was among the highest recorded for squamates. The pattern of calcium provision in these two populations suggests that dependence on uterine calcium, either stored temporarily in an eggshell or transferred directly across a placenta, did not constrain the evolution of reproductive mode in this lineage.

  8. Improvement of and Parameter Identification for the Bimodal Time-Varying Modified Kanai-Tajimi Power Spectral Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiguo Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Kanai-Tajimi power spectrum filtering method proposed by Du Xiuli et al., a genetic algorithm and a quadratic optimization identification technique are employed to improve the bimodal time-varying modified Kanai-Tajimi power spectral model and the parameter identification method proposed by Vlachos et al. Additionally, a method for modeling time-varying power spectrum parameters for ground motion is proposed. The 8244 Orion and Chi-Chi earthquake accelerograms are selected as examples for time-varying power spectral model parameter identification and ground motion simulations to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the improved bimodal time-varying modified Kanai-Tajimi power spectral model. The results of this study provide important references for designing ground motion inputs for seismic analyses of major engineering structures.

  9. A Cumulant Expansion for the Time Correlation Functions of Solutions to Linear Stochastic Differential Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the cumulant expansion for linear stochastic differential equations, hitherto used to compute one-time averages of the solution process, is also capable of yielding the two-time correlation and probability density functions. The general case with a coefficient matrix, an

  10. Habitat association and seasonality in a mosaic and bimodal hybrid zone between Chorthippus brunneus and C. jacobsi (Orthoptera: Acrididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I Bailey

    Full Text Available Understanding why some hybrid zones are bimodal and others unimodal can aid in identifying barriers to gene exchange following secondary contact. The hybrid zone between the grasshoppers Chorthippus brunneus and C. jacobsi contains a mix of allopatric parental populations and inter-mingled bimodal and unimodal sympatric populations, and provides an ideal system to examine the roles of local selection and gene flow between populations in maintaining bimodality. However, it is first necessary to confirm, over a larger spatial scale, previously identified associations between population composition and season and habitat. Here we use cline-fitting of one morphological and one song trait along two valley transects, and intervening mountains, to confirm previously identified habitat associations (mountain versus valley and seasonal changes in population composition. As expected from previous findings of studies on a smaller spatial scale, C. jacobsi dominated mountain habitats and mixed populations dominated valleys, and C. brunneus became more prevalent in August. Controlling for habitat and incorporating into the analysis seasonal changes in cline parameters and the standard errors of parental trait values revealed wider clines than previous studies (best estimates of 6.4 to 24.5 km in our study versus 2.8 to 4.7 km in previous studies and increased percentage of trait variance explained (52.7% and 61.5% for transects 1 and 2 respectively, versus 17.6%. Revealing such strong and consistent patterns within a complex hybrid zone will allow more focused examination of the causes of variation in bimodality in mixed populations, in particular the roles of local selection versus habitat heterogeneity and gene flow between differentiated populations.

  11. Monte Carlo analysis of field water flow comparing uni- and bimodal effective hydraulic parameters for structured soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, A; Basile, A; Comegna, A; Lamaddalena, N

    2009-02-16

    Soil structure critically affects the hydrological behaviour of soils. In this paper, we examined the impact of areal heterogeneity of hydraulic properties of a structured soil on soil ensemble behaviour for various soil water flow processes with different top boundary conditions (redistribution and drainage plus evaporation and infiltration). Using a numerical solution of the Richards' equation in a stochastic framework, the ensemble characteristics and flow dynamics were studied for drying and wetting processes observed during a time interval of ten days when a series of relatively intense rainfall events occurred. The effects of using unimodal and bimodal interpretative models of hydraulic properties on the ensemble hydrological behaviour of the soil were illustrated by comparing predictions to mean water contents measured over time in several sites at field scale. Although the differences between unimodal and bimodal fitting are not significant in terms of goodness of fit, the differences in process predictions are considerable with the bimodal soil simulating water content measurements much better than unimodal soil. We also investigated the relative contribution of the soil variability of each parameter on the variance of the water contents obtained as the main output of the stochastic simulations. The variability of the structural parameter, weighting the two pore space fractions in the bimodal interpretative model, has the largest contribution to water content variance. The contribution of each parameter depends only partly on the coefficient of variation, much more on the sensitivity of the model to the parameters and on the flow process being observed. We observed that the contribution of the retention parameters to uncertainty increases during drainage processes; the opposite occurs with the hydraulic conductivity parameters.

  12. Habitat association and seasonality in a mosaic and bimodal hybrid zone between Chorthippus brunneus and C. jacobsi (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Richard I; Saldamando-Benjumea, Clara I; Tatsuta, Haruki; Butlin, Roger K

    2012-01-01

    Understanding why some hybrid zones are bimodal and others unimodal can aid in identifying barriers to gene exchange following secondary contact. The hybrid zone between the grasshoppers Chorthippus brunneus and C. jacobsi contains a mix of allopatric parental populations and inter-mingled bimodal and unimodal sympatric populations, and provides an ideal system to examine the roles of local selection and gene flow between populations in maintaining bimodality. However, it is first necessary to confirm, over a larger spatial scale, previously identified associations between population composition and season and habitat. Here we use cline-fitting of one morphological and one song trait along two valley transects, and intervening mountains, to confirm previously identified habitat associations (mountain versus valley) and seasonal changes in population composition. As expected from previous findings of studies on a smaller spatial scale, C. jacobsi dominated mountain habitats and mixed populations dominated valleys, and C. brunneus became more prevalent in August. Controlling for habitat and incorporating into the analysis seasonal changes in cline parameters and the standard errors of parental trait values revealed wider clines than previous studies (best estimates of 6.4 to 24.5 km in our study versus 2.8 to 4.7 km in previous studies) and increased percentage of trait variance explained (52.7% and 61.5% for transects 1 and 2 respectively, versus 17.6%). Revealing such strong and consistent patterns within a complex hybrid zone will allow more focused examination of the causes of variation in bimodality in mixed populations, in particular the roles of local selection versus habitat heterogeneity and gene flow between differentiated populations.

  13. Approximations to the Probability of Failure in Random Vibration by Integral Equation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Close approximations to the first passage probability of failure in random vibration can be obtained by integral equation methods. A simple relation exists between the first passage probability density function and the distribution function for the time interval spent below a barrier before...... passage probability density. The results of the theory agree well with simulation results for narrow banded processes dominated by a single frequency, as well as for bimodal processes with 2 dominating frequencies in the structural response....... outcrossing. An integral equation for the probability density function of the time interval is formulated, and adequate approximations for the kernel are suggested. The kernel approximation results in approximate solutions for the probability density function of the time interval, and hence for the first...

  14. The role of martensitic transformation on bimodal grain structure in ultrafine grained AISI 304L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabooni, S., E-mail: s.sabooni@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ngan, A.H.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-06-11

    In the present study, metastable AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel samples were subjected to different cold rolling reductions from 70% to 93%, followed by annealing at 700 °C for 300 min to form ultrafine grained (UFG) austenite with different grain structures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoindentation were used to characterize the martensitic transformation, in order to relate it to the bimodal distribution of the austenite grain size after subsequent annealing. The results showed that the martensite morphology changed from lath type in the 60% rolled sample to a mixture of lath and dislocation-cell types in the higher rolling reductions. Calculation of the Gibbs free energy change during the reversion treatment showed that the reversion mechanism is shear controlled at the annealing temperature and so the morphology of the reverted austenite is completely dependent on the morphology of the deformation induced martensite. It was found that the austenite had a bimodal grain size distribution in the 80% rolled and annealed state and this is related to the existence of different types of martensite. Increasing the rolling reduction to 93% followed by annealing caused changing of the grain structure to a monomodal like structure, which was mostly covered with small grains of around 300 nm. The existence of bimodal austenite grain size in the 80% rolled and annealed 304L stainless steel led to the improvement of ductility while maintaining a high tensile strength in comparison with the 93% rolled and annealed sample.

  15. Significant Corrosion Resistance in an Ultrafine-Grained Al6063 Alloy with a Bimodal Grain-Size Distribution through a Self-Anodic Protection Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Shakoori Oskooie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The bimodal microstructures of Al6063 consisting of 15, 30, and 45 vol. % coarse-grained (CG bands within the ultrafine-grained (UFG matrix were synthesized via blending of high-energy mechanically milled powders with unmilled powders followed by hot powder extrusion. The corrosion behavior of the bimodal specimens was assessed by means of polarization, steady-state cyclic polarization and impedance tests, whereas their microstructural features and corrosion products were examined using optical microscopy (OM, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The bimodal Al6063 containing 15 vol. % CG phase exhibits the highest corrosion resistance among the bimodal microstructures and even superior electrochemical behavior compared with the plain UFG and CG materials in the 3.5% NaCl solution. The enhanced corrosion resistance is attributed to the optimum cathode to anode surface area ratio that gives rise to the formation of an effective galvanic couple between CG areas and the UFG matrix. The operational galvanic coupling leads to the domination of a “self-anodic protection system” on bimodal microstructure and consequently forms a uniform thick protective passive layer over it. In contrast, the 45 vol. % CG bimodal specimen shows the least corrosion resistance due to the catastrophic galvanic corrosion in UFG regions. The observed results for UFG Al6063 suggest that metallurgical tailoring of the grain structure in terms of bimodal microstructures leads to simultaneous enhancement in the electrochemical behavior and mechanical properties of passivable alloys that are usually inversely correlated. The mechanism of self-anodic protection for passivable metals with bimodal microstructures is discussed here for the first time.

  16. Hybrid independent component analysis by adaptive LUT activation function neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Simone

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an efficient implementation of unsupervised adaptive-activation function neurons dedicated to one-dimensional probability density estimation, with application to independent component analysis. The proposed implementation is a computationally light improvement to adaptive pseudo-polynomial neurons, recently presented in Fiori, S. (2000a). Blind signal processing by the adaptive activation function neurons. Neural Networks, 13(6), 597-611, and is based upon the concept of 'look-up table' (LUT) neurons.

  17. Conventional and Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Artificial Gravity Mars Transfer Vehicle Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of countermeasures have been developed to address the debilitating physiological effects of zero-gravity (0-g) experienced by cosmonauts and astronauts during their approximately 0.5 to 1.2 year long stays in low Earth orbit (LEO). Longer interplanetary flights, combined with possible prolonged stays in Mars orbit, could subject crewmembers to up to approximately 2.5 years of weightlessness. In view of known and recently diagnosed problems associated with 0-g, an artificial gravity (AG) spacecraft offers many advantages and may indeed be an enabling technology for human flights to Mars. A number of important human factors must be taken into account in selecting the rotation radius, rotation rate, and orientation of the habitation module or modules. These factors include the gravity gradient effect, radial and tangential Coriolis forces, along with cross-coupled acceleration effects. Artificial gravity Mars transfer vehicle (MTV) concepts are presented that utilize both conventional NTR, as well as, enhanced bimodal nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR) propulsion. The NTR is a proven technology that generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (Isp) capability of approximately 900 s-twice that of today's best chemical rockets. The AG/MTV concepts using conventional Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) carry twin cylindrical International Space Station (ISS)- type habitation modules with their long axes oriented either perpendicular or parallel to the longitudinal spin axis of the MTV and utilize photovoltaic arrays (PVAs) for spacecraft power. The twin habitat modules are connected to a central operations hub located at the front of the MTV via two pressurized tunnels that provide the rotation radius for the habitat modules. For the BNTR AG/MTV option, each engine has its own closed secondary helium(He)-xenon (Xe) gas loop and Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU) that can generate 10s of kilowatts (kWe) of spacecraft electrical power during the mission coast phase

  18. Hendra Virus Spillover is a Bimodal System Driven by Climatic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gerardo; Yanez-Arenas, Carlos; Plowright, Raina K; Chen, Carla; Roberts, Billie; Skerratt, Lee F

    2018-01-18

    Understanding environmental factors driving spatiotemporal patterns of disease can improve risk mitigation strategies. Hendra virus (HeV), discovered in Australia in 1994, spills over from bats (Pteropus sp.) to horses and thence to humans. Below latitude - 22°, almost all spillover events to horses occur during winter, and above this latitude spillover is aseasonal. We generated a statistical model of environmental drivers of HeV spillover per month. The model reproduced the spatiotemporal pattern of spillover risk between 1994 and 2015. The model was generated with an ensemble of methods for presence-absence data (boosted regression trees, random forests and logistic regression). Presences were the locations of horse cases, and absences per spatial unit (2.7 × 2.7 km pixels without spillover) were sampled with the horse census of Queensland and New South Wales. The most influential factors indicate that spillover is associated with both cold-dry and wet conditions. Bimodal responses to several variables suggest spillover involves two systems: one above and one below a latitudinal area close to - 22°. Northern spillovers are associated with cold-dry and wet conditions, and southern with cold-dry conditions. Biologically, these patterns could be driven by immune or behavioural changes in response to food shortage in bats and horse husbandry. Future research should look for differences in these traits between seasons in the two latitudinal regions. Based on the predicted risk patterns by latitude, we recommend enhanced preventive management for horses from March to November below latitude 22° south.

  19. Bimodal Biometric Verification Using the Fusion of Palmprint and Infrared Palm-Dorsum Vein Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a reliable and robust biometric verification method based on bimodal physiological characteristics of palms, including the palmprint and palm-dorsum vein patterns. The proposed method consists of five steps: (1 automatically aligning and cropping the same region of interest from different palm or palm-dorsum images; (2 applying the digital wavelet transform and inverse wavelet transform to fuse palmprint and vein pattern images; (3 extracting the line-like features (LLFs from the fused image; (4 obtaining multiresolution representations of the LLFs by using a multiresolution filter; and (5 using a support vector machine to verify the multiresolution representations of the LLFs. The proposed method possesses four advantages: first, both modal images are captured in peg-free scenarios to improve the user-friendliness of the verification device. Second, palmprint and vein pattern images are captured using a low-resolution digital scanner and infrared (IR camera. The use of low-resolution images results in a smaller database. In addition, the vein pattern images are captured through the invisible IR spectrum, which improves antispoofing. Third, since the physiological characteristics of palmprint and vein pattern images are different, a hybrid fusing rule can be introduced to fuse the decomposition coefficients of different bands. The proposed method fuses decomposition coefficients at different decomposed levels, with different image sizes, captured from different sensor devices. Finally, the proposed method operates automatically and hence no parameters need to be set manually. Three thousand palmprint images and 3000 vein pattern images were collected from 100 volunteers to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results show a false rejection rate of 1.20% and a false acceptance rate of 1.56%. It demonstrates the validity and excellent performance of our proposed method comparing to other methods.

  20. Bimodal Biometric Verification Using the Fusion of Palmprint and Infrared Palm-Dorsum Vein Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Lung; Wang, Shih-Hung; Cheng, Hsu-Yung; Fan, Kuo-Chin; Hsu, Wei-Lieh; Lai, Chin-Rong

    2015-12-12

    In this paper, we present a reliable and robust biometric verification method based on bimodal physiological characteristics of palms, including the palmprint and palm-dorsum vein patterns. The proposed method consists of five steps: (1) automatically aligning and cropping the same region of interest from different palm or palm-dorsum images; (2) applying the digital wavelet transform and inverse wavelet transform to fuse palmprint and vein pattern images; (3) extracting the line-like features (LLFs) from the fused image; (4) obtaining multiresolution representations of the LLFs by using a multiresolution filter; and (5) using a support vector machine to verify the multiresolution representations of the LLFs. The proposed method possesses four advantages: first, both modal images are captured in peg-free scenarios to improve the user-friendliness of the verification device. Second, palmprint and vein pattern images are captured using a low-resolution digital scanner and infrared (IR) camera. The use of low-resolution images results in a smaller database. In addition, the vein pattern images are captured through the invisible IR spectrum, which improves antispoofing. Third, since the physiological characteristics of palmprint and vein pattern images are different, a hybrid fusing rule can be introduced to fuse the decomposition coefficients of different bands. The proposed method fuses decomposition coefficients at different decomposed levels, with different image sizes, captured from different sensor devices. Finally, the proposed method operates automatically and hence no parameters need to be set manually. Three thousand palmprint images and 3000 vein pattern images were collected from 100 volunteers to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results show a false rejection rate of 1.20% and a false acceptance rate of 1.56%. It demonstrates the validity and excellent performance of our proposed method comparing to other methods.

  1. Bimodal Biometric Verification Using the Fusion of Palmprint and Infrared Palm-Dorsum Vein Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Lung; Wang, Shih-Hung; Cheng, Hsu-Yung; Fan, Kuo-Chin; Hsu, Wei-Lieh; Lai, Chin-Rong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a reliable and robust biometric verification method based on bimodal physiological characteristics of palms, including the palmprint and palm-dorsum vein patterns. The proposed method consists of five steps: (1) automatically aligning and cropping the same region of interest from different palm or palm-dorsum images; (2) applying the digital wavelet transform and inverse wavelet transform to fuse palmprint and vein pattern images; (3) extracting the line-like features (LLFs) from the fused image; (4) obtaining multiresolution representations of the LLFs by using a multiresolution filter; and (5) using a support vector machine to verify the multiresolution representations of the LLFs. The proposed method possesses four advantages: first, both modal images are captured in peg-free scenarios to improve the user-friendliness of the verification device. Second, palmprint and vein pattern images are captured using a low-resolution digital scanner and infrared (IR) camera. The use of low-resolution images results in a smaller database. In addition, the vein pattern images are captured through the invisible IR spectrum, which improves antispoofing. Third, since the physiological characteristics of palmprint and vein pattern images are different, a hybrid fusing rule can be introduced to fuse the decomposition coefficients of different bands. The proposed method fuses decomposition coefficients at different decomposed levels, with different image sizes, captured from different sensor devices. Finally, the proposed method operates automatically and hence no parameters need to be set manually. Three thousand palmprint images and 3000 vein pattern images were collected from 100 volunteers to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results show a false rejection rate of 1.20% and a false acceptance rate of 1.56%. It demonstrates the validity and excellent performance of our proposed method comparing to other methods. PMID:26703596

  2. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.; Noble, C.; Martinell, J.; Borowski, S.

    2000-01-01

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible

  3. SUBARU WEAK-LENSING STUDY OF A2163: BIMODAL MASS STRUCTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, N.; Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Maurogordato, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present a weak-lensing analysis of the merging cluster A2163 using Subaru/Suprime-Cam and CFHT/Mega-Cam data and discuss the dynamics of this cluster merger, based on complementary weak-lensing, X-ray, and optical spectroscopic data sets. From two-dimensional multi-component weak-lensing analysis, we reveal that the cluster mass distribution is well described by three main components including the two-component main cluster A2163-A with mass ratio 1:8, and its cluster satellite A2163-B. The bimodal mass distribution in A2163-A is similar to the galaxy density distribution, but appears as spatially segregated from the brightest X-ray emitting gas region. We discuss the possible origins of this gas-dark-matter offset and suggest the gas core of the A2163-A subcluster has been stripped away by ram pressure from its dark matter component. The survival of this gas core from the tidal forces exerted by the main cluster lets us infer a subcluster accretion with a non-zero impact parameter. Dominated by the most massive component of A2163-A, the mass distribution of A2163 is well described by a universal Navarro-Frenk-White profile as shown by a one-dimensional tangential shear analysis, while the singular-isothermal sphere profile is strongly ruled out. Comparing this cluster mass profile with profiles derived assuming intracluster medium hydrostatic equilibrium (H.E.) in two opposite regions of the cluster atmosphere has allowed us to confirm the prediction of a departure from H.E. in the eastern cluster side, presumably due to shock heating. Yielding a cluster mass estimate of M 500 = 11.18 +1.64 –1.46 × 10 14 h –1 M ☉ , our mass profile confirms the exceptionally high mass of A2163, consistent with previous analyses relying on the cluster dynamical analysis and Y X mass proxy.

  4. A Crewed Mission to Apophis Using a Hybrid Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David R.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Burke, Laura M.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    A BNTEP system is a dual propellant, hybrid propulsion concept that utilizes Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion during high thrust operations, providing 10's of kilo-Newtons of thrust per engine at a high specific impulse (Isp) of 900 s, and an Electric Propulsion (EP) system during low thrust operations at even higher Isp of around 3000 s. Electrical power for the EP system is provided by the BNTR engines in combination with a Brayton Power Conversion (BPC) closed loop system, which can provide electrical power on the order of 100's of kWe. High thrust BNTR operation uses liquid hydrogen (LH2) as reactor coolant propellant expelled out a nozzle, while low thrust EP uses high pressure xenon expelled by an electric grid. By utilizing an optimized combination of low and high thrust propulsion, significant mass savings over a conventional NTR vehicle can be realized. Low thrust mission events, such as midcourse corrections (MCC), tank settling burns, some reaction control system (RCS) burns, and even a small portion at the end of the departure burn can be performed with EP. Crewed and robotic deep space missions to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) are best suited for this hybrid propulsion approach. For these mission scenarios, the Earth return V is typically small enough that EP alone is sufficient. A crewed mission to the NEA Apophis in the year 2028 with an expendable BNTEP transfer vehicle is presented. Assembly operations, launch element masses, and other key characteristics of the vehicle are described. A comparison with a conventional NTR vehicle performing the same mission is also provided. Finally, reusability of the BNTEP transfer vehicle is explored.

  5. Bimodal Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (BFAHP) For Coronary Heart Disease Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabahi, Farnaz

    2018-04-03

    Rooted deeply in medical multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM), risk assessment is very important especially when applied to the risk of being affected by deadly diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD risk assessment is a stochastic, uncertain, and highly dynamic process influenced by various known and unknown variables. In recent years, there has been a great interest in fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP), a popular methodology for dealing with uncertainty in MCDM. This paper proposes a new FAHP, bimodal fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (BFAHP) that augments two aspects of knowledge, probability and validity, to fuzzy numbers to better deal with uncertainty. In BFAHP, fuzzy validity is computed by aggregating the validities of relevant risk factors based on expert knowledge and collective intelligence. By considering both soft and statistical data, we compute the fuzzy probability of risk factors using the Bayesian formulation. In BFAHP approach, these fuzzy validities and fuzzy probabilities are used to construct a reciprocal comparison matrix. We then aggregate fuzzy probabilities and fuzzy validities in a pairwise manner for each risk factor and each alternative. BFAHP decides about being affected and not being affected by ranking of high and low risks. For evaluation, the proposed approach is applied to the risk of being affected by CHD using a real dataset of 152 patients of Iranian hospitals. Simulation results confirm that adding validity in a fuzzy manner can accrue more confidence of results and clinically useful especially in the face of incomplete information when compared with actual results. Applying the proposed BFAHP on CHD risk assessment of the dataset, it yields high accuracy rate above 85% for correct prediction. In addition, this paper recognizes that the risk factors of diastolic blood pressure in men and high-density lipoprotein in women are more important in CHD than other risk factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  6. First results from the IllustrisTNG simulations: the galaxy colour bimodality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Dylan; Pillepich, Annalisa; Springel, Volker; Weinberger, Rainer; Hernquist, Lars; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Genel, Shy; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Marinacci, Federico; Naiman, Jill

    2018-03-01

    We introduce the first two simulations of the IllustrisTNG project, a next generation of cosmological magnetohydrodynamical simulations, focusing on the optical colours of galaxies. We explore TNG100, a rerun of the original Illustris box, and TNG300, which includes 2 × 25003 resolution elements in a volume 20 times larger. Here, we present first results on the galaxy colour bimodality at low redshift. Accounting for the attenuation of stellar light by dust, we compare the simulated (g - r) colours of 109 simulation, as well as excellent quantitative agreement with the observations, with a sharp transition in median colour from blue to red at a characteristic M⋆ ˜ 1010.5 M⊙. Investigating the build-up of the colour-mass plane and the formation of the red sequence, we demonstrate that the primary driver of galaxy colour transition is supermassive black hole feedback in its low accretion state. Across the entire population the median colour transition time-scale Δtgreen is ˜1.6 Gyr, a value which drops for increasingly massive galaxies. We find signatures of the physical process of quenching: at fixed stellar mass, redder galaxies have lower star formation rates, gas fractions, and gas metallicities; their stellar populations are also older and their large-scale interstellar magnetic fields weaker than in bluer galaxies. Finally, we measure the amount of stellar mass growth on the red sequence. Galaxies with M⋆ > 1011 M⊙ which redden at z < 1 accumulate on average ˜25 per cent of their final z = 0 mass post-reddening; at the same time, ˜18 per cent of such massive galaxies acquire half or more of their final stellar mass while on the red sequence.

  7. Functional Integral Approach to the Solution of a System of Stochastic Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayryan Edik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the evaluation of the characteristics of the solution of a system of stochastic differential equations is presented. This method is based on the representation of a probability density function p through a functional integral. The functional integral representation is obtained by means of the Onsager-Machlup functional technique for a special case when the diffusion matrix for the SDE system defines a Riemannian space with zero curvature.

  8. Functional Integral Approach to the Solution of a System of Stochastic Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayryan, Edik; Egorov, Alexander; Kulyabov, Dmitri; Malyutin, Victor; Sevastianov, Leonid

    2018-02-01

    A new method for the evaluation of the characteristics of the solution of a system of stochastic differential equations is presented. This method is based on the representation of a probability density function p through a functional integral. The functional integral representation is obtained by means of the Onsager-Machlup functional technique for a special case when the diffusion matrix for the SDE system defines a Riemannian space with zero curvature.

  9. Development of a Prototype Web GIS-Based Disaster Management System for Safe Operation of the Next Generation Bimodal Tram, South Korea—Focused Flooding and Snowfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Seok Jang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Korea Railroad Research Institute (KRRI has developed a bimodal tram and advanced bus rapid transit (BRT system which is an optimized public transit system created by mixing the railway’s punctual operation and the bus’ easy and convenient access. The bimodal tram system provides mass-transportation service with an eco-friendly and human-centered approach. Natural disasters have been increasing worldwide in recent years, including floods, snow, and typhoons disasters. Flooding is the most frequent natural disaster in many countries and is increasingly a concern with climate change; it seriously affects people’s lives and productivity, causing considerable economic loss and significant damage. Enhanced conventional disaster management systems are needed to support comprehensive actions to secure safety and convenience. The objective of this study is to develop a prototype version of a Web GIS-based bimodal tram disaster management system (BTDMS using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM 5.0 to enhance on-time operation and safety of the bimodal tram system. The BTDMS was tested at the bimodal tram test railroad by simulating probable maximum flood (PMF and snow melting for forecasting flooding and snow covered roads. This result could provide the basis for plans to protect against flooding disasters and snow covered roads in operating the bimodal tram system. The BTDMS will be used to assess and predict weather impacts on roadway conditions and operations and thus has the potential to influence economic growth. The methodology presented in this paper makes it possible to manage impacts of flooding and snowfall on urban transportation and enhance operation of the bimodal tram system. Such a methodology based on modeling could be created for most metropolitan areas in Korea and in many other countries.

  10. Globular clusters as tracers of stellar bimodality in elliptical galaxies: the case of NGC 1399

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Juan C.; Faifer, Favio; Geisler, Doug

    2005-02-01

    Globular cluster systems (GCSs) frequently show a bimodal distribution of cluster integrated colours. This work explores the arguments to support the idea that the same feature is shared by the diffuse stellar population of the galaxy they are associated with. The particular case of NGC 1399, one of the dominant central galaxies in the Fornax cluster, for which a new B surface brightness profile and (B-RKC) colours are presented, is discussed taking advantage of a recently published wide-field study of its GCS. The results show that the galaxy brightness profile and colour gradient, as well as the behaviour of the cumulative globular cluster specific frequency, are compatible with the presence of two dominant stellar populations, associated with the so-called `blue' and `red' globular cluster families. These globular families are characterized by different intrinsic specific frequencies (defined in terms of each stellar population): Sn= 3.3 +/- 0.3 in the case of the red globulars and Sn= 14.3 +/- 2.5 for the blue ones. We stress that this result does not necessarily conflict with recent works that point out a clear difference between the metallicity distribution of (resolved) halo stars and globulars when comparing their number statistics. The region within 0.5arcmin of the centre shows a deviation from the model profile (in both surface brightness and colour) that may be explained in terms of the presence of a bulge-like high-metallicity component. Otherwise, the model gives an excellent fit up to 12arcmin (or 66.5Kpc) from the centre, the galactocentric limit of our blue brightness profile. The inferred specific frequencies imply that, in terms of their associated stellar populations, the formation of the blue globulars took place with an efficiency about six times higher than that corresponding to their red counterparts. The similarity of the spatial distribution of the blue globulars with that inferred for dark matter, as well as with that of the X

  11. Bulk rock and melt inclusion analyses indicate bimodal distribution in Calbuco volcano (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano, Salvatrice; Bolle, Olivier; Schiano, Pierre; Cluzel, Nicolas; Vander Auwera, Jacqueline

    2014-05-01

    Calbuco is an active stratovolcano situated in the central SVZ (Southern Volcanic Zone) of the Andes at 41.2°S. The dominant rock-type is basaltic andesite containing macrocrysts of plagioclase (An57-91), olivine (Fo60-81), clinopyroxene (Mg# 74-85), orthopyroxene (Mg# 66-75) and rare amphibole (mostly pargasitic) in a micro-crystalline matrix. Orthopyroxene frequently occurs as a reaction rim surrounding olivine suggestive of a peritectic reaction. The oldest lava unit (Calbuco 1) contains basaltic andesites that are notably lower in MgO and higher in Al2O3 than the other samples. Some dacitic compositions have also been identified. Bulk rock analyses define a low-K calc-alkaline trend with however two basalts plotting in the tholeiite field in the AFM diagram. Bulk rocks display a differentiation trend of decreasing CaO, FeOt and MgO and increasing K2O and P2O5 with increasing SiO2. Typical negative anomalies in Nb, Ta and Th are shown in spiderdiagrams whereas there is no Eu anomaly in REE patterns. In variation diagrams, a clear compositional gap occurs between 61 and 65 wt. % SiO2. Investigation of melt inclusions was performed on homogenized and naturally quenched inclusions hosted in olivine and clinopyroxene crystals. Their composition mimics the differentiation trend observed in the bulk samples, including a bimodal distribution. The melt inclusions analyzed in olivine range in composition from 45 to 58 wt. % SiO2 whereas those occurring in clinopyroxene range from 70 and 76 wt. % SiO2. The compositional gap of the melt inclusions thus overlaps that of the whole rocks. The observed differentiation trend from basalt to basaltic andesite (49 to 58 wt. % SiO2) perfectly fits published experimental trends acquired on hydrous basalts at different crustal pressures, water concentrations and oxygen fugacities at subduction zones and can be accounted for by a fractional crystallization process where a bulk cumulate made of plagioclase, olivine, clinopyroxene and

  12. Application of Bimodal Master Curve Approach on KSNP RPV steel SA508 Gr. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Minchul; Choi, Kwonjae; Lee, Bongsang

    2014-01-01

    . To overcome these limitations of a conventional MC approach, a SINTAP lower tail analysis procedure, BMC (Bimodal Master Curve), and RIMC (Randomly Inhomogeneous Master Curve) are introduced.

  13. Magnetically engineered SnO2 quantum dots as a bimodal agent for optical and magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dipa; Gupta, Jagriti; Thakur, Dinbandhu; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2017-12-01

    Combining more than one imaging technique into a single system can outweigh the limitations of conventional imaging techniques. Pairing optically active quantum dots (QDs) with superparamagnetic MRI agent is an adorable way to develop probes for bimodal imaging. Tiny SnO2 quantum dot embedded iron oxide (IO) nanocomposite (SQD-IO) is synthesized. This combines the superparamagnetic property of IO nanoparticles (NPs) and special optical properties of SnO2 QDs, and is explored as a bimodal imaging agent. Morphological studies of the nanocomposite reveal that 3 nm tiny SnO2 QDs are embedded in ~30 nm γ-Fe2O3 NPs. The SQD-IO preserves the intrinsic superparamagnetic behaviour of its constituent IO NPs with a magnetization ~21.4 emu g‑1 measured at an applied field of 20k Oe. The emission colour of the nanocomposite is tuned by simply varying the excitation wavelength. The centre of the emission band shifts from 570 to 600 nm as the excitation alters from 488 to 535 nm. The cytotoxicity assessment indicates that the nanocomposite is suitable for its in vitro use. Transverse proton relaxivity (141 mM‑1 s‑1) of the nanocomposite is higher than the widely used negative contrast agent Feridex (R2  =  98.3 mM‑1 s‑1). The confocal laser scanning microscope images give evidence of the cellular uptake behaviour of SQD-IO in HeLa cells and it is seen that QDs retain their optical properties within the intracellular environment. The high R2 value for MRI and the tunable florescence images of HeLa cells essentially establish SQD-IO as a potential probe for bimodal imaging.

  14. The Model Analysis of a Complex Tuning Fork Probe and Its Application in Bimodal Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new electromechanical coupling model was built to quantitatively analyze the tuning fork probes, especially the complex ones. A special feature of a novel, soft tuning fork probe, that the second eigenfrequency of the probe was insensitive to the effective force gradient, was found and used in a homemade bimodal atomic force microscopy to measure power dissipation quantitatively. By transforming the mechanical parameters to the electrical parameters, a monotonous and concise method without using phase to calculate the power dissipation was proposed.

  15. Comparison of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant users on speech recognition with competing talker, music perception, affective prosody discrimination and talker identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullington, Helen E; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Despite excellent performance in speech recognition in quiet, most cochlear implant users have great difficulty with speech recognition in noise, music perception, identifying tone of voice, and discriminating different talkers. This may be partly due to the pitch coding in cochlear implant speech processing. Most current speech processing strategies use only the envelope information; the temporal fine structure is discarded. One way to improve electric pitch perception is to utilize residual acoustic hearing via a hearing aid on the non-implanted ear (bimodal hearing). This study aimed to test the hypothesis that bimodal users would perform better than bilateral cochlear implant users on tasks requiring good pitch perception. Design Four pitch-related tasks were used: Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) sentences spoken by a male talker with a competing female, male, or child talker. Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia. This is a music test with six subtests examining pitch, rhythm and timing perception, and musical memory. Aprosodia Battery. This has five subtests evaluating aspects of affective prosody and recognition of sarcasm. Talker identification using vowels spoken by ten different talkers (three male, three female, two boys, and two girls). Bilateral cochlear implant users were chosen as the comparison group. Thirteen bimodal and thirteen bilateral adult cochlear implant users were recruited; all had good speech perception in quiet. Results There were no significant differences between the mean scores of the bimodal and bilateral groups on any of the tests, although the bimodal group did perform better than the bilateral group on almost all tests. Performance on the different pitch-related tasks was not correlated, meaning that if a subject performed one task well they would not necessarily perform well on another. The correlation between the bimodal users' hearing threshold levels in the aided ear and their performance on these tasks was weak

  16. Comparison of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant users on speech recognition with competing talker, music perception, affective prosody discrimination, and talker identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullington, Helen E; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-02-01

    Despite excellent performance in speech recognition in quiet, most cochlear implant users have great difficulty with speech recognition in noise, music perception, identifying tone of voice, and discriminating different talkers. This may be partly due to the pitch coding in cochlear implant speech processing. Most current speech processing strategies use only the envelope information; the temporal fine structure is discarded. One way to improve electric pitch perception is to use residual acoustic hearing via a hearing aid on the nonimplanted ear (bimodal hearing). This study aimed to test the hypothesis that bimodal users would perform better than bilateral cochlear implant users on tasks requiring good pitch perception. Four pitch-related tasks were used. 1. Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) sentences spoken by a male talker with a competing female, male, or child talker. 2. Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia. This is a music test with six subtests examining pitch, rhythm and timing perception, and musical memory. 3. Aprosodia Battery. This has five subtests evaluating aspects of affective prosody and recognition of sarcasm. 4. Talker identification using vowels spoken by 10 different talkers (three men, three women, two boys, and two girls). Bilateral cochlear implant users were chosen as the comparison group. Thirteen bimodal and 13 bilateral adult cochlear implant users were recruited; all had good speech perception in quiet. There were no significant differences between the mean scores of the bimodal and bilateral groups on any of the tests, although the bimodal group did perform better than the bilateral group on almost all tests. Performance on the different pitch-related tasks was not correlated, meaning that if a subject performed one task well they would not necessarily perform well on another. The correlation between the bimodal users' hearing threshold levels in the aided ear and their performance on these tasks was weak. Although the bimodal cochlear

  17. Green's function based density estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesarki, Peter; Brock, Ian C.; Nuncio Quiroz, Adriana Elizabeth [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    A method was developed based on Green's function identities to estimate probability densities. This can be used for likelihood estimations and for binary classifications. It offers several advantages over neural networks, boosted decision trees and other, regression based classifiers. For example, it is less prone to overtraining, and it is much easier to combine several samples. Some capabilities are demonstrated using ATLAS data.

  18. Bimodal Fluorescence and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Water-Soluble Hexagonal NaYF4:Ce,Tb,Gd Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Ting Ren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the feasibility of using hexagonal-phase NaYF4:Ce,Tb,Gd nanocrystals as bimodal probes for fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR imaging. Using a facile and user-friendly strategy, the NaYF4:Ce,Tb,Gd nanocrystals were synthesized with good water dispensability, high quantum yield (26%, and decent MR T1 relaxivity (r1=2.87 mM−1 s−1. The NaYF4:Ce,Tb,Gd NCs conjugated by folic acid presented great efficiency in fluorescence imaging of C6 glioma cells in vitro. Meanwhile, in in vivo MR experiments on rats, the NaYF4:Ce,Tb,Gd NCs also significantly increased T1 signal in the liver, spleen, and kidney even with a low probe dose. The proposed NaYF4:Ce,Tb,Gd nanoprobes hold promise for simultaneous bimodal fluorescence and MR bioimaging.

  19. Development and initial assessment of a new paradigm for assessing cognitive and motor inhibition: the bimodal virtual-reality Stroop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Mylène; Joyal, Christian C; Nolin, Pierre

    2012-09-30

    Assessing and predicting inhibition in adults is a common assignment for clinicians. However, there is no single measure of inhibition that is complete, sensitive and enjoyable. The main goal of this study was to develop a virtual reality neuropsychological task (the bimodal VR-Stroop) capable of measuring both cognitive (control of internal and external interference) and motor inhibition (a go no-go paradigm with reaction time variation, commission errors and omissions). Preliminary data obtained with 71 healthy adult participants confirmed that the VR-Stroop is capable of eliciting the Stroop effect with bimodal stimuli. Initial validation data also suggested that measures of the VR-Stroop significantly correlate with measures of the Elevator counting with distracters, the Continuous Performance Task (CPT-II), and the Stop-it task. Finally, regression analyses indicated that commission errors and variability of reaction times at the VR-Stroop were significantly predicted by scores of the Elevator task and the CPT-II. These preliminary results suggest that the VR-Stroop is an interesting measure of cognitive and motor inhibition for adults, although confirmatory investigations are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparing perceived auditory width to the visual image of a performing ensemble in contrasting bi-modal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Daniel L; Braasch, Jonas; Myrbeck, Shane A

    2012-01-01

    Despite many studies investigating auditory spatial impressions in rooms, few have addressed the impact of simultaneous visual cues on localization and the perception of spaciousness. The current research presents an immersive audiovisual environment in which participants were instructed to make auditory width judgments in dynamic bi-modal settings. The results of these psychophysical tests suggest the importance of congruent audio visual presentation to the ecological interpretation of an auditory scene. Supporting data were accumulated in five rooms of ascending volumes and varying reverberation times. Participants were given an audiovisual matching test in which they were instructed to pan the auditory width of a performing ensemble to a varying set of audio and visual cues in rooms. Results show that both auditory and visual factors affect the collected responses and that the two sensory modalities coincide in distinct interactions. The greatest differences between the panned audio stimuli given a fixed visual width were found in the physical space with the largest volume and the greatest source distance. These results suggest, in this specific instance, a predominance of auditory cues in the spatial analysis of the bi-modal scene. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  1. Effect of bimodal harmonic structure design on the deformation behaviour and mechanical properties of Co-Cr-Mo alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajpai, Sanjay Kumar; Sawangrat, Choncharoen; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Ciuca, Octav Paul; Ameyama, Kei

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, Co-Cr-Mo alloy compacts with a unique bimodal microstructural design, harmonic structure design, were successfully prepared via a powder metallurgy route consisting of controlled mechanical milling of pre-alloyed powders followed by spark plasma sintering. The harmonic structured Co-Cr-Mo alloy with bimodal grain size distribution exhibited relatively higher strength together with higher ductility as compared to the coarse-grained specimens. The harmonic Co-Cr-Mo alloy exhibited a very complex deformation behavior wherein it was found that the higher strength and the high retained ductility are derived from fine-grained shell and coarse-grained core regions, respectively. Finally, it was observed that the peculiar spatial/topological arrangement of stronger fine-grained and ductile coarse-grained regions in the harmonic structure promotes uniformity of strain distribution, leading to improved mechanical properties by suppressing the localized plastic deformation during straining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrogen permeation resistant heat pipe for bi-modal reactors. Final report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, M.T.; Anderson, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    The principal objective of this program was to demonstrate technology that will make a sodium heat pipe tolerant of hydrogen permeation for a bimodal space reactor application. Special focus was placed on techniques which enhance the permeation of hydrogen out of the heat pipe. Specific objectives include: define the detailed requirements for the bimodal reactor application; design and fabricate a prototype heat pipe tolerant of hydrogen permeation; and test the prototype heat pipe and demonstrate that hydrogen which permeates into the heat pipe is removed or reduced to acceptable levels. The results of the program were fully successful. Analyses were performed on two different heat pipe designs and an experimental heat pipe was fabricated and tested. A model of the experimental heat pipe was developed to predict the enhancement in the hydrogen permeation rate out of the heat pipe. A significant improvement in the rate at which hydrogen permeates out of a heat pipe was predicted for the use of the special condenser geometry developed here. Agreement between the model and the experimental results was qualitatively good. Inclusion of the additional effects of fluid flow in the heat pipe are recommended for future work

  3. Modeling the Hydrological Cycle in the Atmosphere of Mars: Influence of a Bimodal Size Distribution of Aerosol Nucleation Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaposhnikov, Dmitry S.; Rodin, Alexander V.; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Fedorova, Anna A.; Kuroda, Takeshi; Hartogh, Paul

    2018-02-01

    We present a new implementation of the hydrological cycle scheme into a general circulation model of the Martian atmosphere. The model includes a semi-Lagrangian transport scheme for water vapor and ice and accounts for microphysics of phase transitions between them. The hydrological scheme includes processes of saturation, nucleation, particle growth, sublimation, and sedimentation under the assumption of a variable size distribution. The scheme has been implemented into the Max Planck Institute Martian general circulation model and tested assuming monomodal and bimodal lognormal distributions of ice condensation nuclei. We present a comparison of the simulated annual variations, horizontal and vertical distributions of water vapor, and ice clouds with the available observations from instruments on board Mars orbiters. The accounting for bimodality of aerosol particle distribution improves the simulations of the annual hydrological cycle, including predicted ice clouds mass, opacity, number density, and particle radii. The increased number density and lower nucleation rates bring the simulated cloud opacities closer to observations. Simulations show a weak effect of the excess of small aerosol particles on the simulated water vapor distributions.

  4. Bimodal imaging probes for combined PET and OI: recent developments and future directions for hybrid agent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Uwe; Wängler, Björn; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Wängler, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging--and especially positron emission tomography (PET)--has gained increasing importance for diagnosis of various diseases and thus experiences an increasing dissemination. Therefore, there is also a growing demand for highly affine PET tracers specifically accumulating and visualizing target structures in the human body. Beyond the development of agents suitable for PET alone, recent tendencies aim at the synthesis of bimodal imaging probes applicable in PET as well as optical imaging (OI), as this combination of modalities can provide clinical advantages. PET, due to the high tissue penetration of the γ-radiation emitted by PET nuclides, allows a quantitative imaging able to identify and visualize tumors and metastases in the whole body. OI on the contrary visualizes photons exhibiting only a limited tissue penetration but enables the identification of tumor margins and infected lymph nodes during surgery without bearing a radiation burden for the surgeon. Thus, there is an emerging interest in bimodal agents for PET and OI in order to exploit the potential of both imaging techniques for the imaging and treatment of tumor diseases. This short review summarizes the available hybrid probes developed for dual PET and OI and discusses future directions for hybrid agent development.

  5. Bimodal distribution of the magnetic dipole moment in nanoparticles with a monomodal distribution of the physical size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijssel, Jos van; Kuipers, Bonny W.M.; Erné, Ben H.

    2015-01-01

    High-frequency applications of magnetic nanoparticles, such as therapeutic hyperthermia and magnetic particle imaging, are sensitive to nanoparticle size and dipole moment. Usually, it is assumed that magnetic nanoparticles with a log-normal distribution of the physical size also have a log-normal distribution of the magnetic dipole moment. Here, we test this assumption for different types of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the 5–20 nm range, by multimodal fitting of magnetization curves using the MINORIM inversion method. The particles are studied while in dilute colloidal dispersion in a liquid, thereby preventing hysteresis and diminishing the effects of magnetic anisotropy on the interpretation of the magnetization curves. For two different types of well crystallized particles, the magnetic distribution is indeed log-normal, as expected from the physical size distribution. However, two other types of particles, with twinning defects or inhomogeneous oxide phases, are found to have a bimodal magnetic distribution. Our qualitative explanation is that relatively low fields are sufficient to begin aligning the particles in the liquid on the basis of their net dipole moment, whereas higher fields are required to align the smaller domains or less magnetic phases inside the particles. - Highlights: • Multimodal fits of dilute ferrofluids reveal when the particles are multidomain. • No a priori shape of the distribution is assumed by the MINORIM inversion method. • Well crystallized particles have log-normal TEM and magnetic size distributions. • Defective particles can combine a monomodal size and a bimodal dipole moment

  6. Bimodal distribution of risk for childhood obesity in urban Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Schwartz, Norah; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-08-01

    In Mexico, higher socioeconomic status (SES) has been found to be associated with increased risk for obesity in children. Within developed urban areas, however, there may be increased risk among lower SES children. Students in grades 4-6 from five public schools in Tijuana and Tecate, Mexico, were interviewed and weight, height and waist circumference (WC) measurements were taken. Interviews consisted of questions on food frequency, food insecurity, acculturation, physical activity and lifestyle practices. Multivariate logistic models were used to assess risk factors for obesity (having a body mass index [BMI] ≥95th percentile) and abdominal obesity (a WC >90th percentile) using Stata 11.0. Five hundred and ninety students were enrolled; 43.7% were overweight or obese, and 24.3% were obese and 20.2% had abdominal obesity. Independent risk factors for obesity included watching TV in English (odds ratio [OR] 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.41) and perceived child food insecurity (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.05-2.36). Decreased risk for obesity was associated with female sex (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.96), as was regular multivitamin use (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.94). Risk obesity was also decreased with increased taco consumption (≥1×/week; OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.96). Independent risk factors for abdominal obesity included playing video games ≥1×/week (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11-2.96) and older age group (10-11 years, OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.29-4.73 and ≥12 years, OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.09-4.49). Increased consumption of tacos was also associated with decreased risk for abdominal obesity (≥1×/week; OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.40-1.00). We found a bimodal distribution for risk of obesity and abdominal obesity in school aged children on the Mexican border with the United States. Increased risk for obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with factors indicative of lower and higher SES including watching TV in English, increased video game playing and perceived food insecurity

  7. Exposure of xenopus laevis tadpoles to cadmium reveals concentration-dependent bimodal effects on growth and monotonic effects on development and thyroid gland activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Xenopus laevis were exposed to 0-855 ??g cadmium (Cd)/l (measured concentrations) in FETAX medium from fertilization to 47 days postfertilization. Measurements included embryonic survival and, at 47 days, tadpole survival, snout-vent length, tail length, total length, hindlimb length, weight, Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage of development, initiation of metamorphic climax (??? NF 58), and thyroid follicle cell height. Embryonic and larval survival were unaffected by Cd. Relative to control tadpoles, reduced tail and total length were observed at 0.1- 8 and at 855 ??g Cd/l; and reduced snout-vent length, hindlimb length, and weight were observed at 0.1-1 and at 855 ??g Cd/l. Mean stage of development and rate of initiation of climax were unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l; however, none of the tadpoles exposed to 855 ??g Cd/l progressed beyond mid-premetamorphosis (NF 51). Thyroid glands with fully formed follicles were observed in all tadpoles ??? NF 49 examined. Follicle cell height was unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l but it was reduced at 855 ??g/l; in the latter, cell height was reduced even when compared with NF 49-51 tadpoles pooled from the 0 to 84 ??g Cd/l groups. In conclusion, (1) Cd affected tadpole growth in a bimodal pattern with the first and second inhibitory modes at concentrations below and above 84 ??g Cd/l, respectively; (2) exposure to high Cd concentrations (855 ??g/l) reduced thyroid activity and arrested tadpole development at mid-premetamorphosis; and (3) unlike its effect on growth, Cd inhibited tadpole development and thyroid function in a seemingly monotonic pattern.

  8. The quantum transverse spin-2 Ising model with a bimodal random-field in the pair approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canko, O.; Albayrak, E.; Keskin, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the bimodal random-field spin-2 Ising system in a transverse field by combining the pair approximation with the discretized path-integral representation. The exact equations for the second-order phase transition lines and tricritical points are obtained in terms of the random field H, the transverse field G and the coordination number z. It is found that there are some critical values for H and G where the tricritical points disappear for given z. We have also observed that the system presents reentrant behavior which may be caused by the quantum effects and randomness. The phase diagram with respect to the random field and the second-order phase transition temperature are studied extensively for given values of the transverse field and the coordination number

  9. Systematic study of the dolomite (104) surface by bimodal dynamic force microscopy in ultra-high vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Shigeki; Pina, Carlos M; Bubendorf, Alexander; Fessler, Gregor; Glatzel, Thilo; Gnecco, Enrico; Meyer, Ernst

    2013-02-08

    We have investigated the morphology and structure of dolomite MgCa(CO(3))(2)(104) surfaces by bimodal dynamic force microscopy with flexural and torsional resonance modes in ultra-high vacuum at room temperature. We found that the surface slowly decomposes by degassing CO(2) in a vacuum and becomes covered by amorphous clusters, presumably MgO and CaO. By choosing an optimal sample preparation procedure (i.e. cleaving in a vacuum and mild annealing for stabilizing clusters for a short time), atomically clean surfaces were obtained. The complex tip-sample interaction, arising from carbonate groups and Mg and Ca atoms of the surface, induces a large variety of atomic-scale imaging features.

  10. Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of gadolinium-doped green luminescent carbon dots as a bimodal nanoprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ningqiang; Wang, Hao; Li, Shuai; Deng, Yunlong; Chen, Xiao'ai; Ye, Ling; Gu, Wei

    2014-09-16

    The development of multimodal nanoprobes is highly desired in medical imaging because it integrates the advantages of multiple imaging modes. In this study, the gadolinium-doped green luminescent carbon dots (Gd-CDs) were prepared by the simple one-step microwave-assisted polyol method. The obtained Gd-CDs emitted a unique green photoluminescence with a quantum yield of 5.4%. The Gd-CDs exhibited a low cytotoxicity and could optically label the C6 glioma cells. Meanwhile, the r1 relaxivity of Gd-CDs was measured to be 11.356 mM(-1) s(-1). This high r1 value together with the r2/r1 ratio close to 1 nominates Gd-CDs as an excellent T1 contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. These Gd-CDs combining two complementary imaging modalities are therefore a promising bimodal nanoprobe in medical imaging for a better diagnosis.

  11. Modeling violations of the race model inequality in bimodal paradigms: co-activation from decision and non-decision components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eZehetleitner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The redundant-signals paradigm (RSP is designed to investigate response behavior in perceptual tasks in which response-relevant targets are defined by either one or two features, or modalities. The common finding is that responses are speeded for redundantly compared to singly defined targets. This redundant-signals effect (RSE can be accounted for by race models if the response times do not violate the race model inequality (RMI. When there are violations of the RMI, race models are effectively excluded as a viable account of the RSE. The common alternative is provided by co-activation accounts, which assume that redundant target signals are integrated at some processing stage. However, ‘co-activation’ has mostly been only indirectly inferred and the accounts have only rarely been explicitly modeled; if they were modeled, the RSE has typically been assumed to have a decisional locus. Yet, there are also indications in the literature that the RSE might originate, at least in part, at a non-decisional or motor stage. In the present study, using a distribution analysis of sequential-sampling models (ex-Wald and Ratcliff Diffusion model, the locus of the RSE was investigated for two bimodal (audio-visual detection tasks that strongly violated the RMI, indicative of substantial co-activation. Three model variants assuming different loci of the RSE were fitted to the quantile reaction time proportions: a decision, a non-decision, and a combined variant both to vincentized group as well as individual data. The results suggest that for the two bimodal detection tasks, co-activation has a shared decisional and non-decisional locus. These findings point to the possibility that the mechanisms underlying the RSE depend on the specifics (task, stimulus, conditions, etc. of the experimental paradigm.

  12. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Stellar angular momentum of about 2300 galaxies: unveiling the bimodality of massive galaxy properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark T.; Cappellari, Michele; Li, Hongyu; Mao, Shude; Bershady, Matthew; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Law, David R.; Pan, Kaike; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B.; Yan, Renbin

    2018-03-01

    We measure λ _{R_e}, a proxy for galaxy specific stellar angular momentum within one effective radius, and the ellipticity, ɛ, for about 2300 galaxies of all morphological types observed with integral field spectroscopy as part of the MaNGA survey, the largest such sample to date. We use the (λ _{R_e}, ɛ ) diagram to separate early-type galaxies into fast and slow rotators. We also visually classify each galaxy according to its optical morphology and two-dimensional stellar velocity field. Comparing these classifications to quantitative λ _{R_e} measurements reveals tight relationships between angular momentum and galaxy structure. In order to account for atmospheric seeing, we use realistic models of galaxy kinematics to derive a general approximate analytic correction for λ _{R_e}. Thanks to the size of the sample and the large number of massive galaxies, we unambiguously detect a clear bimodality in the (λ _{R_e}, ɛ ) diagram which may result from fundamental differences in galaxy assembly history. There is a sharp secondary density peak inside the region of the diagram with low λ _{R_e} and ɛ definition for slow rotators. Most of these galaxies are visually classified as non-regular rotators and have high velocity dispersion. The intrinsic bimodality must be stronger, as it tends to be smoothed by noise and inclination. The large sample of slow rotators allows us for the first time to unveil a secondary peak at ±90○ in their distribution of the misalignments between the photometric and kinematic position angles. We confirm that genuine slow rotators start appearing above M ≥ 2 × 1011M⊙ where a significant number of high-mass fast rotators also exist.

  13. Value of bimodal (18)F-choline-PET/MRI and trimodal (18)F-choline-PET/MRI/TRUS for the assessment of prostate cancer recurrence after radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparo, Francesco; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Romagnoli, Andrea; Piccazzo, Riccardo; Monticone, Michela; Cevasco, Luca; Campodonico, Fabio; Conzi, Giuseppe Maria; Carmignani, Giorgio; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Between 27% and 53% of all patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiation therapy (RT) as the first-line treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) develop a biochemical recurrence. Imaging plays a pivotal role in restaging by helping to distinguish between local relapse and metastatic disease (i.e., lymph-node and skeletal metastases). At present, the most promising tools for assessing PCa patients with biochemical recurrence are multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with radio-labeled choline derivatives. The main advantage of mpMRI is its high diagnostic accuracy in detecting local recurrence, while choline-PET/CT is able to identify lymph-node metastases when they are not suspicious on morphological imaging. The most recent advances in the field of fusion imaging have shown that multimodal co-registration, synchronized navigation, and combined interpretation are more valuable than the individual; separate assessment offered by different diagnostic techniques. The objective of the present essay was to describe the value of bimodal choline-PET/mpMRI fusion imaging and trimodal choline-PET/mpMRI/transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) in the assessment of PCa recurrence after RP and RT. Bimodal choline-PET/mpMRI fusion imaging allows morphological, functional, and metabolic information to be combined, thereby overcoming the limitations of each separate imaging modality. In addition, trimodal real-time choline-PET/mpMRI/TRUS fusion imaging may be useful for the planning and real-time guidance of biopsy procedures in order to obtain histological confirmation of the local recurrence.

  14. Twin Peaks? No Evidence of Bimodal Distribution of Outcomes in Clinical Trials of Nonsurgical Interventions for Spinal Pain: An Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Neil E; Kamper, Steven J; Stevens, Matthew L; Li, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    The presence of bimodal outcome distributions has been used as a justification for conducting responder analyses, in addition to, or in place of analyses of the mean between-group difference, in clinical trials and systematic reviews of interventions for pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of participants' pain outcomes for evidence of bimodal distribution. We sourced data on participant outcomes from a convenience sample of 10 trials of nonsurgical interventions (exercise, manual therapy, medication) for spinal pain. We assessed normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test. When the Shapiro-Wilk test suggested non-normality we inspected distribution plots visually and attempted to classify them. To test whether responder analyses detected a meaningful number of additional patients experiencing substantial improvements we also calculated the risk difference and number needed to treat to benefit. We found no compelling evidence suggesting that outcomes were bimodally distributed for any of the intervention groups. Responder analysis would not meaningfully alter our interpretation of these data compared with the mean between group difference. Our findings suggest that bimodal distribution of outcomes should not be assumed in interventions for spinal pain and do not support the automatic prioritization of responder analysis over the between group difference in the evaluation of treatment effectiveness for pain. Secondary analysis of clinical trials of nonsurgical interventions for spinal pain found no evidence for bimodally distributed outcomes. The findings do not support the automatic prioritization of responder analyses over the average between group difference in the evaluation of treatment effectiveness for spinal pain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Noise exposure alters long-term neural firing rates and synchrony in primary auditory and rostral belt cortices following bimodal stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Joseph D; Forrest, Taylor J; Basura, Gregory J

    2017-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that bimodal stimulation (spinal trigeminal nucleus [Sp5] paired with best frequency tone) altered neural tone-evoked and spontaneous firing rates (SFRs) in primary auditory cortex (A1) 15 min after pairing in guinea pigs with and without noise-induced tinnitus. Neural responses were enhanced (+10 ms) or suppressed (0 ms) based on the bimodal pairing interval. Here we investigated whether bimodal stimulation leads to long-term (up to 2 h) changes in tone-evoked and SFRs and neural synchrony (correlate of tinnitus) and if the long-term bimodal effects are altered following noise exposure. To obviate the effects of permanent hearing loss on the results, firing rates and neural synchrony were measured three weeks following unilateral (left ear) noise exposure and a temporary threshold shift. Simultaneous extra-cellular single-unit recordings were made from contralateral (to noise) A1 and dorsal rostral belt (RB); an associative auditory cortical region thought to influence A1, before and after bimodal stimulation (pairing intervals of 0 ms; simultaneous Sp5-tone and +10 ms; Sp5 precedes tone). Sixty and 120 min after 0 ms pairing tone-evoked and SFRs were suppressed in sham A1; an effect only preserved 120 min following pairing in noise. Stimulation at +10 ms only affected SFRs 120 min after pairing in sham and noise-exposed A1. Within sham RB, pairing at 0 and +10 ms persistently suppressed tone-evoked and SFRs, while 0 ms pairing in noise markedly enhanced tone-evoked and SFRs up to 2 h. Together, these findings suggest that bimodal stimulation has long-lasting effects in A1 that also extend to the associative RB that is altered by noise and may have persistent implications for how noise damaged brains process multi-sensory information. Moreover, prior to bimodal stimulation, noise damage increased neural synchrony in A1, RB and between A1 and RB neurons. Bimodal stimulation led to persistent changes in neural synchrony in

  16. Single-Cell Behavior and Population Heterogeneity: Solving an Inverse Problem to Compute the Intrinsic Physiological State Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Spetsieris, Konstantinos; Zygourakis, Kyriacos

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of isogenic cell populations can be described by cell population balance models that account for phenotypic heterogeneity. To utilize the predictive power of these models, however, we must know the rates of single-cell reaction and division and the bivariate partition probability density function. These three intrinsic physiological state (IPS) functions can be obtained by solving an inverse problem that requires knowledge of the phenotypic distributions for the overall cell popu...

  17. Bimodal Virtual Reality Stroop for Assessing Distractor Inhibition in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D.; Carlew, Anne R.

    2016-01-01

    Executive functioning deficits found in college students with ASD may have debilitating effects on their everyday activities. Although laboratory studies tend to report unimpaired inhibition in autism, studies of resistance to distractor inhibition reveal difficulties. In two studies, we compared a Virtual Classroom task with paper-and-pencil and…

  18. A One-year, Short-Stay Crewed Mars Mission Using Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) - A Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    A crewed mission to Mars poses a signi cant challenge in dealing with the physiolog- ical issues that arise with the crew being exposed to a near zero-gravity environment as well as signi cant solar and galactic radiation for such a long duration. While long sur- face stay missions exceeding 500 days are the ultimate goal for human Mars exploration, short round trip, short surface stay missions could be an important intermediate step that would allow NASA to demonstrate technology as well as study the physiological e ects on the crew. However, for a 1-year round trip mission, the outbound and inbound hy- perbolic velocity at Earth and Mars can be very large resulting in a signi cant propellant requirement for a high thrust system like Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Similarly, a low thrust Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system requires high electrical power lev- els (10 megawatts electric (MWe) or more), plus advanced power conversion technology to achieve the lower speci c mass values needed for such a mission. A Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) system is examined here that uses three high thrust Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) engines allowing short departure and capture maneuvers. The engines also generate electrical power that drives a low thrust Electric Propulsion (EP) system used for ecient interplanetary transit. This combined system can help reduce the total launch mass, system and operational requirements that would otherwise be required for equivalent NEP or Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) mission. The BNTEP system is a hybrid propulsion concept where the BNTR reactors operate in two separate modes. During high-thrust mode operation, each BNTR provides 10's of kilo- Newtons of thrust at reasonably high speci c impulse (Isp) of 900 seconds for impulsive trans-planetary injection and orbital insertion maneuvers. When in power generation / EP mode, the BNTR reactors are coupled to a Brayton power conversion system allowing each

  19. Multifunctional magnetic-hollow gold nanospheres for bimodal cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Ling-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Quan; An, Jie; Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Kai; Qin, Meng-Yao; Fang, Bi-Yun; Li, Cheng; Xuan, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Shuai; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Ma, Zhi-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional nanocomposites combining imaging and therapeutic functions have great potential for cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this work, we developed a novel theranostic agent based on hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO). Taking advantage of the excellent magnetic properties of SPIO and strong near-infrared (NIR) absorption property of HGNs, such nanocomposites were applied to targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) of cancer cells. In vitro results demonstrated they displayed significant contrast enhancement for T 2 -weighted MRI and strong PAI signal enhancement. Simultaneously, the nanocomposites exhibited a high photothermal effect under the irradiation of the near-infrared laser and can be used as efficient photothermal therapy (PTT) agents for selective killing of cancer cells. All these results indicated that such nanocomposites combined with MRI-PAI and PTT functionality can have great potential for effective cancer diagnosis and therapy. (paper)

  20. Synthesis of the Novel Type of Bimodal Ceramic Nanowires from Polymer and Composite Fibrous Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Tański

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to produce SiO2 and TiO2 nanowires via the electrospinning process from a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP/Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS/Titanium (IV butoxide (TNBT/dimethylformamide (DMF and ethanol (EtOH solution. The as-obtained nanofibers were calcined at temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 600 °C in order to remove the organic phase. The one-dimensional ceramic nanostructures were studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM and a transmission electron microscope (TEM to analyze the influence of the used temperature on the morphology and structures of the obtained ceramic nanomaterials. In order to examine the chemical structure of the nanowires, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDX and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were used. The optical property analysis was performed on the basis of UV-Vis spectra of absorbance as a function of the wavelength. Using the modified Swanepoel method, which the authors proposed and the recorded absorbance spectra allowed to determine the banded refractive index n, real n′ and imaginary k part of the refractive index as a function of the wavelength, complex dielectric permeability ε, and real and imaginary part εr and εi of the dielectric permeability as a function of the radiation energy of the produced ceramic nanowires.

  1. Contrasting origin of two A-type rhyolite series from the Early Permian Nomgon bimodal volcanic association (Southern Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovsky, A. M.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Savatenkov, V. M.; Kudryashova, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    A-type rhyolites of contrasting compositions and eruption characters were revealed among two volcanic series of the Early Permian bimodal association in the Nomgon graben. Rhyolites of the lower volcanic series formed extrusions, lava domes, and tuff horizons. They had low FeOt, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y, and REE concentrations and also a moderately depleted Nd isotope composition (ɛNd( T) = 6.7-7.1). Their formation was related to anatexis of the juvenile continental crust, triggered by the thermal effect of mafic magmas. Rhyolites of the upper volcanic series formed extensive lava flows and dikes. Their composition was characterized by high FeOt, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y, and REE concentrations, and also depleted Nd isotope characteristics (ɛNd( T) = 7.7-9.0). These rhyolite melts formed under long-term crystallizational differentiation of basaltoids in the intracrustal magmatic chambers, with limited participation of crustal contamination. The source of magmas for the upper volcanic series was the sublithospheric mantle.

  2. Tensile Properties of Medium Mn Steel with a Bimodal UFG α + γ and Coarse δ-Ferrite Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seonjong; Shin, Sunmi; Kwon, Minhyeok; Lee, Kyooyoung; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2017-04-01

    While the tensile strength and elongation obtained for medium Mn steel would appear to make it a candidate material in applications which require formable ultra-high strength materials, many secondary aspects of the microstructure-properties relationships have not yet been given enough attention. In this contribution, the microstructural and tensile properties of medium Mn steel with a bimodal microstructure consisting of an ultra-fine grained ferrite + austenite constituent and coarse-grained delta-ferrite are therefore reviewed in detail. The tensile properties of ultra-fine-grained intercritically annealed medium Mn steel reveal a complex dependence on the intercritical annealing temperature. This dependence is related to the influence of the intercritical annealing temperature on the activation of the plasticity-enhancing mechanisms in the microstructure. The kinetics of deformation twinning and strain-induced transformation in the ultra-fine grained austenite play a prominent role in determining the strain hardening of medium Mn steel. While excellent strength-ductility combinations are obtained when deformation twinning and strain-induced transformation occur gradually and in sequence, large elongations are also observed when strain-induced transformation plasticity is not activated. In addition, the localization of plastic flow is observed to occur in samples after intercritical annealing at intermediate temperatures, suggesting that both strain hardening and strain rate sensitivity are influenced by the properties of the ultra-fine-grained austenite.

  3. Identification of Ultrasonic Echolucent Carotid Plaques Using Discrete Fréchet Distance Between Bimodal Gamma Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yanling; Meng, Long; Qian, Ming; Wong, Kelvin; Abbott, Derek; Zheng, Rongqin; Zheng, Hairong; Niu, Lili

    2017-03-01

    Echolucent carotid plaques are associated with acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (ACCEs) in atherosclerotic patients. The aim of this study was to develop a computer-aided method for identifying echolucent plaques. A total of 315 ultrasound images of carotid plaques (105 echo-rich, 105 intermediate and 105 echolucent) collected from 153 patients were included in this study. A bimodal gamma distribution was proposed to model the pixel statistics in the gray scale images of plaques. The discrete Fréchet distance features (DFDFs) of each plaque were extracted based on the statistical model. The most discriminative features (MDFs) were obtained from DFDFs by linear discriminant analysis, and a k-nearestneighbor classifier was implemented for classification of different types of plaques. The classification accuracy of the three types of plaques using MDFs can reach 77.46%. When a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was produced to identify echolucent plaques, the area under the curve was 0.831. Our results indicate potential feasibility of the method for identifying echolucent plaques based on DFDFs. Our method may potentially improve the ability of noninvasive ultrasonic examination in risk prediction of ACCEs for patients with plaques.

  4. Development and validation of a biologically realistic tissue-mimicking material for photoacoustics and other bimodal optical-acoustic modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, William C.; Jia, Congxian; Wear, Keith A.; Garra, Brian S.; Pfefer, T. Joshua

    2017-03-01

    Recent years have seen rapid development of hybrid optical-acoustic imaging modalities with broad applications in research and clinical imaging, including photoacoustic tomography (PAT), photoacoustic microscopy, and ultrasound-modulated optical tomography. Tissue-mimicking phantoms are an important tool for objectively and quantitatively simulating in vivo imaging system performance. However, no standard tissue phantoms exist for such systems. One major challenge is the development of tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs) that are both highly stable and possess biologically realistic properties. To address this need, we have explored the use of various formulations of PVC plastisol (PVCP) based on varying mixtures of several liquid plasticizers. We developed a custom PVCP formulation with optical absorption and scattering coefficients, speed of sound, and acoustic attenuation that are tunable and tissue-relevant. This TMM can simulate different tissue compositions and offers greater mechanical strength than hydrogels. Optical properties of PVCP samples with varying composition were characterized using integrating sphere spectrophotometry and the inverse adding-doubling method. Acoustic properties were determined using a broadband pulse-transmission technique. To demonstrate the utility of this bimodal TMM, we constructed an image quality phantom designed to enable quantitative evaluation of PAT spatial resolution. The phantom was imaged using a custom combined PAT-ultrasound imaging system. Results indicated that this more biologically realistic TMM produced performance trends not captured in simpler liquid phantoms. In the future, this TMM may be broadly utilized for performance evaluation of optical, acoustic, and hybrid optical-acoustic imaging systems.

  5. Cancerous epithelial cell lines shed extracellular vesicles with a bimodal size distribution that is sensitive to glutamine inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Steven Michael; Kirby, Brian J; Antonyak, Marc A; Cerione, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles (ESVs) facilitate a unique mode of cell–cell communication wherein vesicle uptake can induce a change in the recipient cell's state. Despite the intensity of ESV research, currently reported data represent the bulk characterization of concentrated vesicle samples with little attention paid to heterogeneity. ESV populations likely represent diversity in mechanisms of formation, cargo and size. To better understand ESV subpopulations and the signaling cascades implicated in their formation, we characterize ESV size distributions to identify subpopulations in normal and cancerous epithelial cells. We have discovered that cancer cells exhibit bimodal ESV distributions, one small-diameter and another large-diameter population, suggesting that two mechanisms may govern ESV formation, an exosome population and a cancer-specific microvesicle population. Altered glutamine metabolism in cancer is thought to fuel cancer growth but may also support metastatic niche formation through microvesicle production. We describe the role of a glutaminase inhibitor, compound 968, in ESV production. We have discovered that inhibiting glutamine metabolism significantly impairs large-diameter microvesicle production in cancer cells. (paper)

  6. Cancerous epithelial cell lines shed extracellular vesicles with a bimodal size distribution that is sensitive to glutamine inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Steven Michael; Antonyak, Marc A.; Cerione, Richard A.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2014-12-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles (ESVs) facilitate a unique mode of cell-cell communication wherein vesicle uptake can induce a change in the recipient cell's state. Despite the intensity of ESV research, currently reported data represent the bulk characterization of concentrated vesicle samples with little attention paid to heterogeneity. ESV populations likely represent diversity in mechanisms of formation, cargo and size. To better understand ESV subpopulations and the signaling cascades implicated in their formation, we characterize ESV size distributions to identify subpopulations in normal and cancerous epithelial cells. We have discovered that cancer cells exhibit bimodal ESV distributions, one small-diameter and another large-diameter population, suggesting that two mechanisms may govern ESV formation, an exosome population and a cancer-specific microvesicle population. Altered glutamine metabolism in cancer is thought to fuel cancer growth but may also support metastatic niche formation through microvesicle production. We describe the role of a glutaminase inhibitor, compound 968, in ESV production. We have discovered that inhibiting glutamine metabolism significantly impairs large-diameter microvesicle production in cancer cells.

  7. Probing viscoelastic surfaces with bimodal tapping-mode atomic force microscopy: Underlying physics and observables for a standard linear solid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solares, Santiago D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents computational simulations of single-mode and bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) with particular focus on the viscoelastic interactions occurring during tip-sample impact. The surface is modeled by using a standard linear solid model, which is the simplest system that can reproduce creep compliance and stress relaxation, which are fundamental behaviors exhibited by viscoelastic surfaces. The relaxation of the surface in combination with the complexities of bimodal tip-sample impacts gives rise to unique dynamic behaviors that have important consequences with regards to the acquisition of quantitative relationships between the sample properties and the AFM observables. The physics of the tip-sample interactions and its effect on the observables are illustrated and discussed, and a brief research outlook on viscoelasticity measurement with intermittent-contact AFM is provided.

  8. On the self-organizing process of large scale shear flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, Andrew P. L. [Department of Applied Maths, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Yorkshire S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Kim, Eun-jin [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, Yorkshire S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Liu, Han-Li [High Altitude Observatory, National Centre for Atmospheric Research, P. O. BOX 3000, Boulder, Colorado 80303-3000 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Self organization is invoked as a paradigm to explore the processes governing the evolution of shear flows. By examining the probability density function (PDF) of the local flow gradient (shear), we show that shear flows reach a quasi-equilibrium state as its growth of shear is balanced by shear relaxation. Specifically, the PDFs of the local shear are calculated numerically and analytically in reduced 1D and 0D models, where the PDFs are shown to converge to a bimodal distribution in the case of finite correlated temporal forcing. This bimodal PDF is then shown to be reproduced in nonlinear simulation of 2D hydrodynamic turbulence. Furthermore, the bimodal PDF is demonstrated to result from a self-organizing shear flow with linear profile. Similar bimodal structure and linear profile of the shear flow are observed in gulf stream, suggesting self-organization.

  9. Bacterial-Chromatin Structural Proteins Regulate the Bimodal Expression of the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE Pathogenicity Island in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Leh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE encodes a type 3 secretion system (T3SS essential for pathogenesis. This pathogenicity island comprises five major operons (LEE1 to LEE5, with the LEE5 operon encoding T3SS effectors involved in the intimate adherence of bacteria to enterocytes. The first operon, LEE1, encodes Ler (LEE-encoded regulator, an H-NS (nucleoid structuring protein paralog that alleviates the LEE H-NS silencing. We observed that the LEE5 and LEE1 promoters present a bimodal expression pattern, depending on environmental stimuli. One key regulator of bimodal LEE1 and LEE5 expression is ler expression, which fluctuates in response to different growth conditions. Under conditions in vitro considered to be equivalent to nonoptimal conditions for virulence, the opposing regulatory effects of H-NS and Ler can lead to the emergence of two bacterial subpopulations. H-NS and Ler share nucleation binding sites in the LEE5 promoter region, but H-NS binding results in local DNA structural modifications distinct from those generated through Ler binding, at least in vitro. Thus, we show how two nucleoid-binding proteins can contribute to the epigenetic regulation of bacterial virulence and lead to opposing bacterial fates. This finding implicates for the first time bacterial-chromatin structural proteins in the bimodal regulation of gene expression.

  10. Anorthosite assimilation and the origin of the Mg/Fe-related bimodality of pristine moon rocks - Support for the magmasphere hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, P. H.

    1986-01-01

    The geochemical bimodality of pristine rocks led to proposals that a major fraction of the crust (the Mg rich suite) formed in cumulates in numerous intrusions slightly younger than the magmasphere. It is suggested that assimilation helped to engender the bimodal patterns. Mass/energy balance calculations indicate that large proportions of plagioclase were probably assimilated from the older (Magmasphere-generated) ferroan anorthosite crust by most of the Mg-rich intrusive melts. The magmasphere, in the absence of assimilation probably did not yield appreciable plagioclase until fractional crystallization of mafic silicates had diminished the melt mg ratio to about 0.42. However, assuming identical melt composition, an Mg-rich intrusion assimilating ferroan anorthosite would have reached plagioclase saturation at a much higher mg, about 0.66. It is suggested that the current version of the magmasphere hypothesis (ferroan anorthosites = magmasphere flotation cumulates; Mg-rich rocks = products of younger, localized intrusions) is the only plausable mechanism for engendering the Mg/Fe-relate bimodality.

  11. A novel and robust method for testing bimodality and characterizing porcine adipocytes of adipose tissue of 5 purebred lines of pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testroet, Eric D; Sherman, Peter; Yoder, Chad; Testroet, Amber; Reynolds, Carmen; O'Neil, Mathew; Lei, Soi Meng; Beitz, Donald C; Baas, Tom J

    2017-04-03

    Adipocyte sizes from adipose tissue of mature animals form a bimodal distribution, thus reporting mean cell size is misleading. The objectives of this study were to develop a robust method for testing bimodality of porcine adipocytes, describe the size distribution with an informative metric, and statistically test hypertrophy and appearance of new small adipocytes, possibly resulting from hyperplasia or lipid filling of previously divided fibroblastic cells. Ninety-three percent of adipose samples measured were bimodal (P testing hyperplasia or lipid filling of previously divided fibroblastic cells based upon the probability of an adipocyte falling into 2 chosen competing "bins" as adiposity increases. We also conclude that increased adiposity is correlated positively with an adipocyte being found in the minor mode (r = 0.46) and correlated negatively with an adipocyte being found in the major mode (r = -0.22), providing evidence of either hyperplasia or lipid filling of previously divided fibroblastic cells. We additionally conclude that as adiposity increases, the mode of the major distribution of cells occurs at a larger diameter of adipocyte, indicating hypertrophy.

  12. The effect of hearing aid bandwidth on speech recognition performance of listeners using a cochlear implant and contralateral hearing aid (bimodal hearing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Arlene C.; Svirsky, Mario A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine how the bandwidth of the hearing aid (HA) fitting affects bimodal speech recognition of listeners with a cochlear implant (CI) in one ear and severe-to-profound hearing loss in the unimplanted ear (but with residual hearing sufficient for wideband amplification using NAL-RP prescriptive guidelines; unaided thresholds no poorer than 95 dB HL through 2000 Hz). Design Recognition of sentence material in quiet and in noise was measured with the CI alone and with CI plus HA as the amplification provided by the hearing aid in the high and mid-frequency regions was systematically reduced from the wideband condition (NAL-RP prescription). Modified bandwidths included upper frequency cutoffs of 2,000, 1,000 or 500 Hz. Results On average, significant bimodal benefit was obtained when the hearing aid provided amplification at all frequencies with aidable residual hearing. Limiting the hearing aid bandwidth to only low frequency amplification (below 1000 Hz) did not yield significant improvements in performance over listening with the CI alone. Conclusion These data suggest the importance of providing amplification across as wide a frequency region as permitted by audiometric thresholds in the hearing aid used by bimodal users. PMID:23632973

  13. Functional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoua Gandia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effects of inhaled Mg alone and associated with F in the treatment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. 43 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups and exposed to inhaled NaCl 0.9%, MeCh, MgSO4 and MgF2. Pulmonary changes were assessed by means of functional tests and quantitative histological examination of lungs and trachea. Results revealed that delivery of inhaled Mg associated with F led to a significant decrease of total lung resistance better than inhaled Mg alone (p < 0.05. Histological examinations illustrated that inhaled Mg associated with F markedly suppressed muscular hypertrophy (p = 0.034 and bronchoconstriction (p = 0.006 in MeCh treated rats better than inhaled Mg alone. No histological changes were found in the trachea. This study showed that inhaled Mg associated with F attenuated the main principle of the central components of changes in MeCh provoked experimental asthma better than inhaled Mg alone, potentially providing a new therapeutic approach against asthma.

  14. Brain activations during bimodal dual tasks depend on the nature and combination of component tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Rinne, Teemu; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or “simple” (speaker-gender or font-shade) discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley's model “modality atypical,” that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks. PMID:25767443

  15. Brain activations during bimodal dual tasks depend on the nature and combination of component tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eSalo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or simple (speaker-gender or font-shade discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley’s model modality atypical, that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks.

  16. Brain activations during bimodal dual tasks depend on the nature and combination of component tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Rinne, Teemu; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activations during nine different dual tasks in which the participants were required to simultaneously attend to concurrent streams of spoken syllables and written letters. They performed a phonological, spatial or "simple" (speaker-gender or font-shade) discrimination task within each modality. We expected to find activations associated specifically with dual tasking especially in the frontal and parietal cortices. However, no brain areas showed systematic dual task enhancements common for all dual tasks. Further analysis revealed that dual tasks including component tasks that were according to Baddeley's model "modality atypical," that is, the auditory spatial task or the visual phonological task, were not associated with enhanced frontal activity. In contrast, for other dual tasks, activity specifically associated with dual tasking was found in the left or bilateral frontal cortices. Enhanced activation in parietal areas, however, appeared not to be specifically associated with dual tasking per se, but rather with intermodal attention switching. We also expected effects of dual tasking in left frontal supramodal phonological processing areas when both component tasks required phonological processing and in right parietal supramodal spatial processing areas when both tasks required spatial processing. However, no such effects were found during these dual tasks compared with their component tasks performed separately. Taken together, the current results indicate that activations during dual tasks depend in a complex manner on specific demands of component tasks.

  17. A Bimodal Hybrid Model for Time-Dependent Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaei-Sabegh, Saman; Shoaeifar, Nasser; Shoaeifar, Parva

    2018-03-01

    The evaluation of evidence provided by geological studies and historical catalogs indicates that in some seismic regions and faults, multiple large earthquakes occur in cluster. Then, the occurrences of large earthquakes confront with quiescence and only the small-to-moderate earthquakes take place. Clustering of large earthquakes is the most distinguishable departure from the assumption of constant hazard of random occurrence of earthquakes in conventional seismic hazard analysis. In the present study, a time-dependent recurrence model is proposed to consider a series of large earthquakes that occurs in clusters. The model is flexible enough to better reflect the quasi-periodic behavior of large earthquakes with long-term clustering, which can be used in time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard analysis with engineering purposes. In this model, the time-dependent hazard results are estimated by a hazard function which comprises three parts. A decreasing hazard of last large earthquake cluster and an increasing hazard of the next large earthquake cluster, along with a constant hazard of random occurrence of small-to-moderate earthquakes. In the final part of the paper, the time-dependent seismic hazard of the New Madrid Seismic Zone at different time intervals has been calculated for illustrative purpose.

  18. Educação bimodal no curso de pedagogia: aprendizagens em estatística aplicada à educação/Bimodal education in the pedagogy course: learnings in statistics applied to education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Scherer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta e analisa uma estética de Educação Bimodal –parte presencial e parte virtual -, identificando atitudes, espaços e ações de professores e alunos que favorecem aprendizagens e comunicações em ambientes presencias e virtuais, coerente com a estética da complexidade. O estudo foi desenvolvido a partir da epistemologia genética, a teoria autopoiética, a interdisciplinaridade e a educação libertadora. Para fins de apresentação e análise dessa estética, são discutidos os movimentos de aprendizagem e comunicação de alunos e professora – a pesquisadora -, na disciplina de Estatística Aplicada à Educação, no curso de Pedagogia de um Centro Universitário de Santa Catarina. This article presents and analyzes the aesthetics of blended learning – half held in classroom, half held virtually – identifying attitudes and places as well as students and teachers actions in order to create a favorable atmosphere for the learning and communication processes which take place in virtual and face to face environments, being coherent with the aesthetics of complexity. This study was developed based on theories such as an genetic epistemology, autopoietic theory, interdisciplinarity and libertarian education. In order to present and analyze the aesthetics, learning and communication movements occurred among students and teacher – who was the researcher – involved in a “Estatística Aplicada à Educação”, offered by the Education Course at Centro Universitário of Santa Catarina.

  19. Probability density fittings of corrosion test-data: Implications on C 6 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This was done to investigate the suitability of the results of the fitted test-data, by these distributions, for modelling the effectiveness of C6H15NO3, triethanolamine (TEA), admixtures on the corrosion of steel-rebar in concrete in NaCl and in H2SO4 test-media. For this, six different concentrations of TEA were admixed in ...

  20. METAPHOR: a machine-learning-based method for the probability density estimation of photometric redshifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavuoti, S.; Amaro, V.; Brescia, M.; Vellucci, C.; Tortora, C.; Longo, G.

    A variety of fundamental astrophysical science topics require the determination of very accurate photometric redshifts (photo-z). A wide plethora of methods have been developed, based either on template models fitting or on empirical explorations of the photometric parameter space.

  1. Digital simulation of two-dimensional random fields with arbitrary power spectra and non-Gaussian probability distribution functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yura, Harold; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2012-01-01

    Methods for simulation of two-dimensional signals with arbitrary power spectral densities and signal amplitude probability density functions are disclosed. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set with the......Methods for simulation of two-dimensional signals with arbitrary power spectral densities and signal amplitude probability density functions are disclosed. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set...... with the desired spectral distribution, after which this colored Gaussian probability distribution is transformed via an inverse transform into the desired probability distribution. In most cases the method provides satisfactory results and can thus be considered an engineering approach. Several illustrative...

  2. Hyaluronan-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for bimodal breast cancer imaging and photothermal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rui-Meng Yang,1,* Chao-Ping Fu,2,* Jin-Zhi Fang,1 Xiang-Dong Xu,1 Xin-Hua Wei,1 Wen-Jie Tang,1 Xin-Qing Jiang,1 Li-Ming Zhang2 1Department of Radiology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, 2School of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Theranostic nanoparticles with both imaging and therapeutic abilities are highly promising in successful diagnosis and treatment of the most devastating cancers. In this study, the dual-modal imaging and photothermal effect of hyaluronan (HA-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (HA-SPIONs, which was developed in a previous study, were investigated for CD44 HA receptor-overexpressing breast cancer in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Heat is found to be rapidly generated by near-infrared laser range irradiation of HA-SPIONs. When incubated with CD44 HA receptor-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro, HA-SPIONs exhibited significant specific cellular uptake and specific accumulation confirmed by Prussian blue staining. The in vitro and in vivo results of magnetic resonance imaging and photothermal ablation demonstrated that HA-SPIONs exhibited significant negative contrast enhancement on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and photothermal effect targeted CD44 HA receptor-overexpressing breast cancer. All these results indicated that HA-SPIONs have great potential for effective diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, surface functionalization, bioactive glycosaminoglycan, magnetic resonance imaging, cellular uptake, breast carcinoma

  3. Theranostic liposomes as a bimodal carrier for magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent and photosensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupin-Mrugalska, Paulina; Sobotta, Lukasz; Warowicka, Alicja; Wereszczynska, Beata; Zalewski, Tomasz; Gierlich, Piotr; Jarek, Marcin; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Kempka, Marek; Gapinski, Jacek; Jurga, Stefan; Mielcarek, Jadwiga

    2018-03-01

    The present study is focused on the development of liposomes bearing gadolinium chelate (GdLip) providing two functionalities for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photodynamic therapy of cancer. A lipid derivative of gadolinium(III) diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid salt (GdDTPA1) was inserted in the liposomal membrane and served as MRI contrast agent whereas a zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was used as a model photosensitizer. In addition to conventional liposomes, pegylated lipids were used for the preparation of "stealth" liposomes. The characterization of different GdLip formulations involved evaluation of the liposomes size by nanoparticle tracking analysis, thermal phase behavior by differential scanning calorimetry and ZnPc-mediated singlet oxygen production. Furthermore, relaxivity measurements were performed as well as cytotoxicity and photodynamic activity against cancerous and normal cell lines was studied. Size and thermal behavior were only slightly influenced by GdLip composition, however it distinctly affected singlet oxygen production of ZnPc-loaded GdLip. The quantum yields of singlet oxygen generation by zinc phthalocyanine incorporated in GdLip containing cationic or/and pegylated lipids were smaller than those obtained for non-pegylated carriers with l-α-phosphatidylglycerol. In general, all formulations of GdLip, irrespectively of composition, were characterized by relaxivities higher than those of commercially used contrast agents (e.g. Magnevist®). NMR study has shown that the incorporation of ZnPc into the formulations of GdLip increases the relaxation parameters r 1 and r 2 , compared to the values for the non-loaded vesicles. GdDTPA1 did not influence the photodynamic activity of ZnPc against HeLa cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacterial-Chromatin Structural Proteins Regulate the Bimodal Expression of the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) Pathogenicity Island in EnteropathogenicEscherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leh, Hervé; Khodr, Ahmad; Bouger, Marie-Christine; Sclavi, Bianca; Rimsky, Sylvie; Bury-Moné, Stéphanie

    2017-08-08

    In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) encodes a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) essential for pathogenesis. This pathogenicity island comprises five major operons ( LEE1 to LEE5 ), with the LEE5 operon encoding T3SS effectors involved in the intimate adherence of bacteria to enterocytes. The first operon, LEE1 , encodes Ler (LEE-encoded regulator), an H-NS (nucleoid structuring protein) paralog that alleviates the LEE H-NS silencing. We observed that the LEE5 and LEE1 promoters present a bimodal expression pattern, depending on environmental stimuli. One key regulator of bimodal LEE1 and LEE5 expression is ler expression, which fluctuates in response to different growth conditions. Under conditions in vitro considered to be equivalent to nonoptimal conditions for virulence, the opposing regulatory effects of H-NS and Ler can lead to the emergence of two bacterial subpopulations. H-NS and Ler share nucleation binding sites in the LEE5 promoter region, but H-NS binding results in local DNA structural modifications distinct from those generated through Ler binding, at least in vitro Thus, we show how two nucleoid-binding proteins can contribute to the epigenetic regulation of bacterial virulence and lead to opposing bacterial fates. This finding implicates for the first time bacterial-chromatin structural proteins in the bimodal regulation of gene expression. IMPORTANCE Gene expression stochasticity is an emerging phenomenon in microbiology. In certain contexts, gene expression stochasticity can shape bacterial epigenetic regulation. In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the interplay between H-NS (a nucleoid structuring protein) and Ler (an H-NS paralog) is required for bimodal LEE5 and LEE1 expression, leading to the emergence of two bacterial subpopulations (with low and high states of expression). The two proteins share mutual nucleation binding sites in the LEE5 promoter region. In vitro , the binding of H

  5. Bi-Modal Model for Neutron Emissions from PuO2 and MOX Holdup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, Howard; Lafleur, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    O 2 particles has been studied for several decades by health physicists, because the primary health hazard of plutonium is breathing the airborne particles. The air dispersal mechanism results from the smaller particles in the top layer of powder that are lifted into the air by the electrostatic charge buildup from the alpha decay process, and the air convection carries the particles to new more distant locations. If there is open plutonium powder in a glove-box, the surfaces at more distant locations will become contaminated over time. The range of an alpha particle in a solid or powder is a function of the particle energy, the material density, and the atomic number A of the material. The average energy of a plutonium alpha particle is ∼5.2 MeV and the range in air is ∼37 mm. The range in other materials can be estimated via the Bragg-Kleenman equation. For plutonium, A is 94, and the typical density for a single particle is ∼11.5 g/cm 3 , but for a powder, the density would be less because of the air packing fraction. The significance of the small diameter is that the range of the alpha particle is ∼50 μm for powder density 2.5 and significantly less for a single particle with density 11.5, so the thin deposit of separate small particles will have a greatly reduced (α,n) yield. The average alpha transit length to the surface in the isolated MOX particle would be < 2.5 μm; whereas, the range of the alpha particle is much longer. Thus, most of the alpha particles would escape from the MOX particle and be absorbed by the walls and air. The air dispersal particles will have access to a large surface area that includes the walls, whereas, the powder contact surface area will be orders of magnitude smaller. Thus, the vast majority of the glove-box surface area does not produce the full (α,n) reaction neutron yield, even from the O 2 in the PuO 2 as well as any impurity contamination such as H 2 O. To obtain a more quantitative estimate of the neutron (

  6. Late sodic metasomatism evidences in bimodal volcanic rocks of the Acampamento Velho Alloformation, Neoproterozoic III, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Del Pilar M. de Almeida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A mineralogical study was carried out in mafic and felsic volcanic rocks of the Acampamento Velho Alloformation at Cerro do Bugio, Perau and Serra de Santa Bárbara areas (Camaquã Basin in southern Brazil. The Acampamento Velho bimodal event consists of two associations: lower mafic at the base and upper felsic at the top. Plagioclase and alkali-feldspar were studied using an electronic microprobe, and magnetite, ilmenite, rutile, illite and alkali-feldspar were investigated through scanning electron microscopy. The rocks were affected by a process of late sodic autometasomatism. In mafic rocks, Ca-plagioclase was transformed to albite and pyroxenes were altered. In felsic rocks, sanidine was partially pseudomorphosed, generating heterogeneous alkali-feldspar. In this association, unstable Ti-rich magnetite was replaced by rutile and ilmenite. In mafic rocks, the crystallization sequence was: (1 Ti-rich magnetite (?, (2 pyroxene and Ca-plagioclase, (3 albite (alteration to Ca-plagioclase, (4 sericite, chlorite and calcite (alteration to pyroxene, and kaolinite (alteration to plagioclase/albite. In felsic rocks: (1 zircon, (2 Ti-rich magnetite, (3 sanidine, (4 quartz. The introduction of late Na-rich fluids, generated the formation of (5 heterogeneous alkali-feldspar, (6 ilmenite and rutile from the Ti-rich magnetite, (7 albite in the spherulites. Finally, alteration of sanidine, vitroclasts and pumice to (8 illite.Um estudo mineralógico de detalhe foi realizado nas rochas vulcânicas da Aloformação Acampamento Velho nos Cerros do Bugio, Perau e Serra de Santa Bárbara (Bacia do Camaquã, sudeste do Brasil. Este evento bimodal é constituído por duas associações: máfica inferior na base e félsica superior no topo. Foram estudados grãos de plagioclásio e feldspato alcalino com o uso de microssonda eletrônica, sendo que, magnetita,ilmenita, rutilo e ilita além de feldspato alcalino foram pesquisados através do microscópio eletr

  7. Deformation Behavior of Ultra-Strong and Ductile Mg-Gd-Y-Zn-Zr Alloy with Bimodal Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Fan, G. H.; Nakata, T.; Liang, X.; Chi, Y. Q.; Qiao, X. G.; Cao, G. J.; Zhang, T. T.; Huang, M.; Miao, K. S.; Zheng, M. Y.; Kamado, S.; Xie, H. L.

    2018-02-01

    An ultra-strong and ductile Mg-8.2Gd-3.8Y-1Zn-0.4Zr (wt pct) alloy was developed by using hot extrusion to modify the microstructure via forced-air cooling and an artificial aging treatment. A superior strength-ductility balance was obtained that had a tensile yield strength of 466 MPa and an elongation to failure of 14.5 pct. The local strain evolution during the in situ testing of the ultra-strong and ductile alloy was quantitatively analyzed with high-resolution electron backscattered diffraction and digital image correlation. The fracture behavior during the tensile test was characterized by synchrotron X-ray tomography along with SEM and STEM observations. The alloy showed a bimodal microstructure, consisting of dynamically recrystallized (DRXed) grains with random orientations and elongated hot-worked grains with parallel to the extrusion direction. The DRXed grains were deformed by the basal slip and the hot-worked grains were deformed by the prismatic slip dominantly. The strain evolution analysis indicated that the multilayered structure relaxed the strain localization via strain transfer from the DRXed to the hot-worked regions, which led to the high ductility of the alloy. Precipitation of the γ' on basal planes and the β' phases on the prismatic planes of the α-Mg generated closed volumes, which enhanced the strength by pinning dislocations effectively, and contributed to the high ductility by impeding the propagation of micro-cracks inside the grains. The deformation incompatibility between the hot-worked grains and the arched block-shaped long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phases induced the crack initiation and propagation, which fractured the alloy.

  8. Interference with the production of infectious viral particles and bimodal inhibition of replication are broadly conserved antiviral properties of IFITMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartour, Kevin; Nguyen, Xuan-Nhi; Appourchaux, Romain; Assil, Sonia; Barateau, Véronique; Bloyet, Louis-Marie; Burlaud Gaillard, Julien; Confort, Marie-Pierre; Escudero-Perez, Beatriz; Gruffat, Henri; Hong, Saw See; Moroso, Marie; Reynard, Olivier; Reynard, Stéphanie; Decembre, Elodie; Ftaich, Najate; Rossi, Axel; Wu, Nannan; Arnaud, Frédérick; Baize, Sylvain; Dreux, Marlène; Gerlier, Denis; Paranhos-Baccala, Glaucia; Volchkov, Viktor; Roingeard, Philippe; Cimarelli, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    IFITMs are broad antiviral factors that block incoming virions in endosomal vesicles, protecting target cells from infection. In the case of HIV-1, we and others reported the existence of an additional antiviral mechanism through which IFITMs lead to the production of virions of reduced infectivity. However, whether this second mechanism of inhibition is unique to HIV or extends to other viruses is currently unknown. To address this question, we have analyzed the susceptibility of a broad spectrum of viruses to the negative imprinting of the virion particles infectivity by IFITMs. The results we have gathered indicate that this second antiviral property of IFITMs extends well beyond HIV and we were able to identify viruses susceptible to the three IFITMs altogether (HIV-1, SIV, MLV, MPMV, VSV, MeV, EBOV, WNV), as well as viruses that displayed a member-specific susceptibility (EBV, DUGV), or were resistant to all IFITMs (HCV, RVFV, MOPV, AAV). The swapping of genetic elements between resistant and susceptible viruses allowed us to point to specificities in the viral mode of assembly, rather than glycoproteins as dominant factors of susceptibility. However, we also show that, contrarily to X4-, R5-tropic HIV-1 envelopes confer resistance against IFITM3, suggesting that viral receptors add an additional layer of complexity in the IFITMs-HIV interplay. Lastly, we show that the overall antiviral effects ascribed to IFITMs during spreading infections, are the result of a bimodal inhibition in which IFITMs act both by protecting target cells from incoming viruses and in driving the production of virions of reduced infectivity. Overall, our study reports for the first time that the negative imprinting of the virion particles infectivity is a conserved antiviral property of IFITMs and establishes IFITMs as a paradigm of restriction factor capable of interfering with two distinct phases of a virus life cycle.

  9. Bimodal Long-lasting Components in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts: Promising Electromagnetic Counterparts to Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisaka, Shota; Sakamoto, Takanori [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5258 (Japan); Ioka, Kunihito, E-mail: kisaka@phys.aoyama.ac.jp, E-mail: tsakamoto@phys.aoyama.ac.jp, E-mail: kunihito.ioka@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-09-10

    Long-lasting emission of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is crucial to reveal the physical origin of the central engine as well as to detect electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to gravitational waves (GWs) from neutron star binary mergers. We investigate 65 X-ray light curves of short GRBs, which is six times more than previous studies, by combining both Swift /BAT and XRT data. The light curves are found to consist of two distinct components at >5 σ with bimodal distributions of luminosity and duration, i.e., extended (with a timescale of ≲10{sup 3} s) and plateau emission (with a timescale of ≳10{sup 3} s), which are likely the central engine activities, but not afterglows. The extended emission has an isotropic energy comparable to the prompt emission, while the plateau emission has ∼0.01–1 times this energy. Half (50%) of our sample has both components, while the other half is consistent with having both components. This leads us to conjecture that almost all short GRBs have both the extended and plateau emission. The long-lasting emission can be explained by the jets from black holes with fallback ejecta, and could power macronovae (or kilonovae) like GRB 130603B and GRB 160821B. Based on the observed properties, we quantify the detectability of EM counterparts to GWs, including the plateau emission scattered to the off-axis angle, with CALET /HXM, INTEGRAL /SPI-ACS, Fermi /GBM, MAXI /GSC, Swift /BAT, XRT, the future ISS-Lobster /WFI, Einstein Probe /WXT, and eROSITA .

  10. Slab break-off triggered lithosphere - asthenosphere interaction at a convergent margin: The Neoproterozoic bimodal magmatism in NW India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Pandit, Manoj K.; Zhao, Jun-Hong; Chen, Wei-Terry; Zheng, Jian-Ping

    2018-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Malani Igneous Suite (MIS) is described as the largest felsic igneous province in India. The linearly distributed Sindreth and Punagarh basins located along eastern margin of this province represent the only site of bimodal volcanism and associated clastic sediments within the MIS. The in-situ zircon U-Pb dating by LA-ICPMS reveals that the Sindreth rhyolites were erupted at 769-762 Ma. Basaltic rocks from both the basins show distinct geochemical signatures that suggest an E-MORB source for Punagarh basalts (low Ti/V ratios of 40.9-28.2) and an OIB source (high Ti/V ratios of 285-47.6) for Sindreth basalts. In the absence of any evidence of notable crustal contamination, these features indicate heterogeneous mantle sources for them. The low (La/Yb)CN (9.34-2.10) and Sm/Yb (2.88-1.08) ratios of Punagarh basalts suggest a spinel facies, relatively shallow level mantle source as compared to a deeper source for Sindreth basalts, as suggested by high (La/Yb)CN (7.24-5.24) and Sm/Yb (2.79-2.13) ratios. Decompression melting of an upwelling sub-slab asthenosphere through slab window seems to be the most plausible mechanism to explain the geochemical characteristics. Besides, the associated felsic volcanics show A2-type granite signatures, such as high Y/Nb (5.97-1.55) and Yb/Ta (9.36-2.57) ratios, consistent with magma derived from continental crust that has been through a cycle of continent-continent collision or an island-arc setting. A localized extension within an overall convergent scenario is interpreted for Sindreth and Punagarh volcanics. This general convergent setting is consistent with the previously proposed Andean-type continental margin for NW Indian block, the Seychelles and Madagascar, all of which lay either at the periphery of Rodinia supercontinent or slightly off the Supercontinent.

  11. Encoding noxious heat by spike bursts of antennal bimodal hygroreceptor (dry) neurons in the carabid Pterostichus oblongopunctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Anne; Merivee, Enno; Nurme, Karin; Sibul, Ivar; Muzzi, Maurizio; Di Giulio, Andrea; Williams, Ingrid; Tooming, Ene

    2017-04-01

    Despite thermosensation being crucial in effective thermoregulation behaviour, it is poorly studied in insects. Very little is known about encoding of noxious high temperatures by peripheral thermoreceptor neurons. In carabids, thermo- and hygrosensitive neurons innervate antennal dome-shaped sensilla (DSS). In this study, we demonstrate that several essential fine structural features of dendritic outer segments of the sensory neurons in the DSS and the classical model of insect thermo- and hygrosensitive sensilla differ fundamentally. Here, we show that spike bursts produced by the bimodal dry neurons in the antennal DSS may contribute to the sensation of noxious heat in P. oblongopunctatus. Our electrophysiological experiments showed that, at temperatures above 25 °C, these neurons switch from humidity-dependent regular spiking to temperature-dependent spike bursting. Five out of seven measured parameters of the bursty spike trains, the percentage of bursty dry neurons, the CV of ISIs in a spike train, the percentage of bursty spikes, the number of spikes in a burst and the ISIs in a burst, are unambiguously dependent on temperature and thus may precisely encode both noxious high steady temperatures up to 45 °C as well as rapid step-changes in it. The cold neuron starts to produce temperature-dependent spike bursts at temperatures above 30-35 °C. Thus, the two neurons encode different but largely overlapping ranges in noxious heat. The extent of dendritic branching and lamellation of the neurons largely varies in different DSS, which might be the structural basis for their variation in threshold temperatures for spike bursting.

  12. Possible detection of a bimodal cloud distribution in the atmosphere of HAT-P-32 A b from multiband photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregloan-Reed, J.; Southworth, J.; Mancini, L.; Mollière, P.; Ciceri, S.; Bruni, I.; Ricci, D.; Ayala-Loera, C.; Henning, T.

    2018-03-01

    We present high-precision photometry of eight separate transit events in the HAT-P-32 planetary system. One transit event was observed simultaneously by two telescopes of which one obtained a simultaneous multiband light curve in three optical bands, giving a total of 11 transit light curves. Due to the filter selection and in conjunction with using the defocused photometry technique, we were able to obtain an extremely high-precision, ground-based transit in the u band (350 nm), with an rms scatter of ≈1 mmag. All 11 transits were modelled using PRISM and GEMC, and the physical properties of the system calculated. We find the mass and radius of the host star to be 1.182 ± 0.041 M⊙ and 1.225 ± 0.015 R⊙, respectively. For the planet, we find a mass of 0.80 ± 0.14 MJup, a radius of 1.807 ± 0.022 RJup, and a density of 0.126 ± 0.023 ρJup. These values are consistent with those found in the literature. We also obtain a new orbital ephemeris for the system T0 = BJD/TDB 2 454 420.447187(96) + 2.15000800(10) × E. We measured the transmission spectrum of HAT-P-32 A b and compared it to theoretical transmission spectra. Our results indicate a bimodal cloud particle distribution consisting of Rayleigh-like haze and grey absorbing cloud particles within the atmosphere of HAT-P-32 A b.

  13. PARAMETERIZED LAYOUT SYNTHESIS OF A CMOS-COMPATIBLE SCANNING MICROMIRROR WITH ELECTROTHERMAL ACTUATION AND BIMODAL RESONANT BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Camacho León

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una metodología de síntesis de parámetros para la automatización del diseño de un microespejo de escaneado compatible CMOS con comportamiento resonante bimodal. El microespejo está suspendido por actuadores térmicos bimorfos en voladizo con accionamiento fuera del plano. La metodología propone la optimización de espesores y el escaneo en el segundo modo de resonancia como estrategias para superar el conflicto característico entre el desempeño estático y dinámico del dispositivo. El objetivo es obtener automáticamente los parámetros de diseño del dispositivo que, de manera concurrente, maximizan el ángulo de rotación, minimizan el consumo de energía y satisfacen tanto las limitaciones de fabricación de un proceso CMOS estándar como las especificaciones de alto nivel para la posición del eje de rotación en el segundo modo de resonancia, la frecuencia de escaneado y el voltaje máximo de actuación. La metodología utiliza un espacio de diseño de nivel intermedio, definido por la razón de resistencia térmica a resistencia eléctrica del dispositivo a temperatura ambiente, para acoplar las restricciones del esfuerzo térmico máximo con la densidad de corriente eléctrica máxima de los materiales CMOS. El procedimiento de evaluación de funciones objetivos se desarrolla sobre la base de un modelo de elementos concentrados de la resistencia térmica del dispositivo para explorar sistemáticamente el espacio de diseño utilizando variaciones paramétricas. La metodología se aplica para diseñar un microescáner que tiene aplicaciones en sistemas imagenológicos de coherencia óptica. El desempeño del microescáner sintetizado es verificado por simulaciones mediante el método de elementos finitos. Los resultados obtenidos numéricamente presentan un buen ajuste con las especificaciones de alto nivel.

  14. Why do Galaxies Stop Forming Stars? New Evidence for the Role of AGN-feedback in Driving Galaxy Bimodality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluck, Asa; Teimoorinia, Hossen; Ellison, Sara L.; Mendel, Trevor

    2018-01-01

    One of the most striking features of the population of local galaxies is that the distributions of several key galaxy properties are highly bimodal (e.g. color and star formation rate). In general, high mass galaxies in dense environments, with bulge-dominated morphologies and pressure supported kinematics are more frequently passive (non-star forming) than lower mass galaxies in low density environments, with disc-dominated morphologies and rotationally supported kinematics. Understanding which, if any, of these correlations is causally related to the ‘quenching’ of star formation in galaxies remains an active and hotly debated area of investigation in modern astrophysics.Theoretically, a wealth of physical processes have been evoked to account for central galaxy quenching, including halo mass quenching from virial shocks, feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN; in either the quasar or radio mode), stabilizing torques from central mass concentrations, feedback from supernovae, or even magnetic fields interacting with the hot gas halo.I will present strong new statistical evidence which suggests that the quenched fraction of local central galaxies is primarily related to their central kinematics (Bluck et al. 2016; 2017 in prep.). I will show that this is broadly consistent with quenching from AGN feedback, through a detailed comparison with a semi-analytic model and a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation.Using a sample of over half a million local galaxies from the SDSS DR7, we go on to develop a number of sophisticated techniques, including machine learning with artificial neural networks, to rank the importance of galaxy properties to quenching (Teimoorinia, Bluck & Ellison 2016). We find that properties closely correlated with the central supermassive black hole are highly favoured statistically to predict whether a galaxy will be star forming or not. Perhaps surprisingly, stellar mass and halo mass have no impact on star formation activity in central

  15. An Eye Tracking Study on the Perception and Comprehension of Unimodal and Bimodal Linguistic Inputs by Deaf Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Mastrantuono

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An eye tracking experiment explored the gaze behavior of deaf individuals when perceiving language in spoken and sign language only, and in sign-supported speech (SSS. Participants were deaf (n = 25 and hearing (n = 25 Spanish adolescents. Deaf students were prelingually profoundly deaf individuals with cochlear implants (CIs used by age 5 or earlier, or prelingually profoundly deaf native signers with deaf parents. The effectiveness of SSS has rarely been tested within the same group of children for discourse-level comprehension. Here, video-recorded texts, including spatial descriptions, were alternately transmitted in spoken language, sign language and SSS. The capacity of these communicative systems to equalize comprehension in deaf participants with that of spoken language in hearing participants was tested. Within-group analyses of deaf participants tested if the bimodal linguistic input of SSS favored discourse comprehension compared to unimodal languages. Deaf participants with CIs achieved equal comprehension to hearing controls in all communicative systems while deaf native signers with no CIs achieved equal comprehension to hearing participants if tested in their native sign language. Comprehension of SSS was not increased compared to spoken language, even when spatial information was communicated. Eye movements of deaf and hearing participants were tracked and data of dwell times spent looking at the face or body area of the sign model were analyzed. Within-group analyses focused on differences between native and non-native signers. Dwell times of hearing participants were equally distributed across upper and lower areas of the face while deaf participants mainly looked at the mouth area; this could enable information to be obtained from mouthings in sign language and from lip-reading in SSS and spoken language. Few fixations were directed toward the signs, although these were more frequent when spatial language was transmitted. Both

  16. An Eye Tracking Study on the Perception and Comprehension of Unimodal and Bimodal Linguistic Inputs by Deaf Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrantuono, Eliana; Saldaña, David; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Isabel R

    2017-01-01

    An eye tracking experiment explored the gaze behavior of deaf individuals when perceiving language in spoken and sign language only, and in sign-supported speech (SSS). Participants were deaf ( n = 25) and hearing ( n = 25) Spanish adolescents. Deaf students were prelingually profoundly deaf individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) used by age 5 or earlier, or prelingually profoundly deaf native signers with deaf parents. The effectiveness of SSS has rarely been tested within the same group of children for discourse-level comprehension. Here, video-recorded texts, including spatial descriptions, were alternately transmitted in spoken language, sign language and SSS. The capacity of these communicative systems to equalize comprehension in deaf participants with that of spoken language in hearing participants was tested. Within-group analyses of deaf participants tested if the bimodal linguistic input of SSS favored discourse comprehension compared to unimodal languages. Deaf participants with CIs achieved equal comprehension to hearing controls in all communicative systems while deaf native signers with no CIs achieved equal comprehension to hearing participants if tested in their native sign language. Comprehension of SSS was not increased compared to spoken language, even when spatial information was communicated. Eye movements of deaf and hearing participants were tracked and data of dwell times spent looking at the face or body area of the sign model were analyzed. Within-group analyses focused on differences between native and non-native signers. Dwell times of hearing participants were equally distributed across upper and lower areas of the face while deaf participants mainly looked at the mouth area; this could enable information to be obtained from mouthings in sign language and from lip-reading in SSS and spoken language. Few fixations were directed toward the signs, although these were more frequent when spatial language was transmitted. Both native and

  17. Drilling constraints on bimodal volcanism and subsequent formation of contrasted uppermost crustal compositions at the middle Okinawa Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, T.; Takaya, Y.; Mukae, N.; Nagase, T.; Tindell, T.; Totsuka, S.; Uno, Y.; Yonezu, K.; Nozaki, T.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Kumagai, H.; Maeda, L.; Shipboard Scientist, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough (OT) is a young and actively spreading back-arc basin, extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. The OT is believed to be in an initial rifting stage (starting from 6-9 Ma), prior to the normal/stable seafloor spreading which constitutes the main stage of back-arc basin formation. Two drilling cruises ‒ the IODP Exp. 331 and SIP CK14-04 D/V Chikyu Cruise (Exp. 907) in 2010 and 2014 ‒ were conducted at the Iheya North Knoll, middle OT. The Iheya North Knoll is a domal volcanic complex consisting of small volcanic bodies. On these cruises, pumiceous gravel and altered rhyolitic rocks, as well as hemi-pelagic sediments, hydrothermal clay and Kuroko-type ores, were recovered from the upper 200 m of the crust. From Feb. 11, 2016 to Mar. 17, 2016, the SIP CK16-01 (Exp. 908) D/V Chikyu cruise was conducted at Iheya North Knoll and the sediment-covered rifting center of the Iheya-Minor Ridge area, middle OT. The Iheya-Minor ridge area is also an active hydrothermal field, located 25 km southeast of the Iheya North Knoll. In this area, basaltic rocks are widely distributed, and drilling has confirmed that the basaltic materials continue to 120 m below the seafloor. From an igneous petrological point of view, the volcanic rocks in the Okinawa Trough are characterized by bimodal basaltic and rhyolitic compositions, with a compositional gap between SiO2 = 56-66 wt%. The origin of the rhyolitic rock has been interpreted as magmatic differentiation of basaltic magma. However, the existence of an active basalt-hosted hydrothermal field in the Iheya-Minor ridge area suggests the presence of hot basaltic rocks at a shallow position in the crust, and reaching recharged seawater at this depth. Furthermore, the composition of felsic rocks just after the compositional gap (SiO2 = 67 wt%) is very similar to that of the minimum melt of a granitic system, and experimental partial melt of hydrous basalt. Therefore

  18. Efecto de la distribución bimodal de grano en la ductilidad de hierro nanoestructurado obtenido por molienda mecánica

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, Casimir; Benito Páramo, José Antonio; Cabrera Marrero, José M.

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo versa sobre la fabricación de piezas consolidadas de hierro a partir de polvo de hierro puro con estructura nanocristalina obtenido mediante proceso de molienda mecánica (MM) en un molino de bolas planetario. Las piezas son sometidas a tratamientos térmicos posteriores a la consolidación para obtener una distribución bimodal de grano. Dichos compactos son caracterizados mecánicamente (ensayos de microtracción y microindentación) como a nivel microestructural (EBSD, MEB). D...

  19. Efecto de la distribución bimodal de grano en la ductilidad de hierro nanoestructurado obtenido por proceso de molienda mecánica

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Quesada, Casimir; Benito Páramo, José Antonio; Cabrera Marrero, José M.

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo versa sobre la fabricación de piezas consolidadas de hierro a partir de polvo de hierro puro con estructura nanocristalina obtenido mediante el proceso de molienda mecánica (MM) en un molino de bolas planetario. Las piezas son sometidas a tratamientos térmicos posteriores a la consolidación para obtener una distribución bimodal de grano. Dichos compactos son caracterizados mecánicamente (ensayos de microtracción y microindentación) y microestructuralmente (EBSD...

  20. Diseño, ejecución y evalucación de un curso bimodal para la Escuela de Ciencias de Comunicación Colectiva

    OpenAIRE

    Araya Rivera, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Resumen:El presente ensayo pretende reflexionar sobre el desarrollo y la evaluación de un curso bimodal, Teorías y Técnicas del Guión Radiofónico, en la Escuela de Ciencias de la Comunicación Colectiva de la Universidad de Costa Rica. La experiencia se llevó a cabo en el 2006 y tuvo como propósito valorar las posibilidades que ofrecen las aulas virtuales a estudiantes y docentes. Las conclusiones señalan aspectos tecnológicos y de carácter conceptual, que permiten establecer recomendaciones d...

  1. Tracers for fluorescence-guided surgery: how elongation of the polymethine chain in cyanine dyes alters the pharmacokinetics of a (bimodal) c[RGDyK] tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Tessa; van Willigen, Danny M; Spa, Silvia J; Hensbergen, Albertus W; van der Wal, Steffen; de Korne, Clarize M; Welling, Mick M; van der Poel, Henk G; Hardwick, James C H; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2018-02-15

    Objectives: The potential of (receptor-mediated) fluorescence-based image-guided surgery tracers is generally linked to the near-infrared emission profile and good manufacturing production (GMP) availability of fluorescent dyes. Surprisingly, little is known about the critical interaction between the structural composition of the dye and the pharmacokinetics of the tracers. In this study, a bimodal/hybrid tracer design was used to systematically and quantitatively evaluate the influence of elongation of the polymethine chain in a fluorescent cyanine (Cy) dye on the imaging potential of a targeted (RGD-based) tracer. Methods: As model system, the integrin marker ανβ3 was targeted using c[RGDyK] vectors functionalized with a ( 111 In-)DTPA chelate and a fluorescent dye (Cy3-(SO3)Methyl-COOH (λem 580nm), Cy5-(SO3)Methyl-COOH (λem 680nm), or Cy7-(SO3)Methyl-COOH (λem 780nm)). Tracers were analyzed for differences in (photo-) physical properties, serum protein binding, chemical/optical stability and signal penetration through tissue. Receptor affinities (KD) were evaluated using saturation and competition experiments. In vivo biodistribution (SPECT imaging and percentage injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g)) was assessed in tumor-bearing mice and complimented with in- and ex vivo fluorescence images obtained using a clinical grade multispectral fluorescence laparoscope. Results: Two carbon-atom-step variations in the polymethine chain of the fluorescent Cy-dyes were shown to significantly influence the chemical and photophysical characteristics e.g. stability, brightness and tissue penetration of the hybrid RGD-tracers. Herein DTPA-Cy5-(SO3)Methyl-COOH-c[RGDyK] systematically outperformed its Cy3- and Cy7- derivatives. Radioactivity-based evaluation of in vivo tracer pharmacokinetics yielded the lowest non-specific uptake and highest tumor-to-background ratio (T/B) for DTPA-Cy5-(SO3)Methyl-COOH-c[RGDyK] (13.2 ± 1.7), with the Cy3- and Cy7- analogs trailing at

  2. The origin of bimodal luminescence of β-SiAlON:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors as revealed by fluorescence microscopy and cathodoluminescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Mao, Zhi-Yong [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Inorganic Coating Materials Research Center, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zeng, Xiong-Hui [Electron Microscope Lab, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Yu-Qiang [The Research Center of Structural Ceramic Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhao, Yang [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Inorganic Coating Materials Research Center, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xu, Fang-Fang, E-mail: ffxu@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhu, Ying-Chun [Inorganic Coating Materials Research Center, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu, Xue-Jian [Electron Microscope Lab, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bimodal emission is originated from β-SiAlON grains with z ≥ 2. • Coexistence of two kinds of emission centers in the β-SiAlON phase is definite. • Fluorescence microscopy shows influence of the z value on emission of β-SiAlON. - Abstract: Eu{sup 2+}-doped SiAlON phosphors with the composition of Eu{sub x}Si{sub 6−z}Al{sub z}O{sub z}N{sub 8−z} (0.5 ≤ z ≤ 3) at a fixed x = 0.01 were synthesized by the gas pressure sintering method. Dependence of luminescence properties on the phase compositions in β-SiAlON:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors has been examined via fluorescence microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with a cathodoluminescence spectrometer and an energy dispersive spectrometer. Bimodal emission (green and violet) from β-SiAlON phase is observed in the samples with z ≥ 2, indicating co-existence of two different kinds of coordination for Eu{sup 2+} ions in the host lattice.

  3. Linkage disequilibrium in the insulin gene region: Size variation at the 5{prime} flanking polymorphism and bimodality among {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} alleles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, R.E.; Spielman, R.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The 5{prime} flanking polymorphism (5{prime}FP), a hypervariable region at the 5{prime} end of the insulin gene, has {open_quotes}class 1{close_quotes} alleles (650-900 bp long) that are in positive linkage disequilibrium with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The authors report that precise sizing of the 5{prime}FP yields a bimodal frequency distribution of class 1 allele lengths. Class 1 alleles belonging to the lower component (650-750 bp) of the bimodal distribution were somewhat more highly associated with IDDM than were alleles from the upper component (760-900 bp), but the difference was not statistically significant. They also examined 5{prime}FP length variation in relation to allelic variation at nearby polymorphisms. At biallelic RFLPs on both sides of the 5{prime}FP, they found that one allele exhibits near-total association with the upper component of the 5FP class 1 distribution. Such associations represent a little-known but potentially wide-spread form of linkage disequilibrium. In this type of disequilibrium, a flanking allele has near-complete association with a single mode of VNTR alleles whose lengths represent consecutive numbers of tandem repeats (CNTR). Such extreme disequilibrium between a CNTR mode and flanking alleles may originate and persist because length mutations at some VNTR loci usually add or delete only one or two repeat units. 22 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Elimination of Bimodal Size in InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots for Preparation of 1.3-μm Quantum Dot Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiang-Bin; Ding, Ying; Ma, Ben; Zhang, Ke-Lu; Chen, Ze-Sheng; Li, Jing-Lun; Cui, Xiao-Ran; Xu, Ying-Qiang; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan

    2018-02-21

    The device characteristics of semiconductor quantum dot lasers have been improved with progress in active layer structures. Self-assembly formed InAs quantum dots grown on GaAs had been intensively promoted in order to achieve quantum dot lasers with superior device performances. In the process of growing high-density InAs/GaAs quantum dots, bimodal size occurs due to large mismatch and other factors. The bimodal size in the InAs/GaAs quantum dot system is eliminated by the method of high-temperature annealing and optimized the in situ annealing temperature. The annealing temperature is taken as the key optimization parameters, and the optimal annealing temperature of 680 °C was obtained. In this process, quantum dot growth temperature, InAs deposition, and arsenic (As) pressure are optimized to improve quantum dot quality and emission wavelength. A 1.3-μm high-performance F-P quantum dot laser with a threshold current density of 110 A/cm 2 was demonstrated.

  5. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Summer Precipitation in Mexico under the Influence of the MJO, with Emphasis on the Bimodal Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigón, J.; Romero-Centeno, R.; Barrett, B.; Ordoñez-Perez, P.

    2017-12-01

    In many regions of Mexico, precipitation occurs in a very well defined annual cycle with peaks in May-June and September-October and a relative minimum in the middle of the rainy season known as the midsummer drought (MSD). The MJO is the most important mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropics, and, although some studies have shown its evident influence on summer precipitation in Mexico, its role in modulating the bimodal pattern of the summer precipitation cycle is still an open question. The spatio-temporal variability of summer precipitation in Mexico is analyzed through composite analysis according to the phases of the MJO, using the very high resolution CHIRPS precipitation data base and gridded data from the CFSR reanalysis to analyzing the MJO influence on the atmospheric circulation over Mexico and its adjacent basins. In general, during MJO phases 8-2 (4-6) rainfall is above-normal (below-normal), although, in some cases, the summer rainfall patterns during the same phase present considerable differences. The atmospheric circulation shows low (high) troposphere southwesterly (northeasterly) wind anomalies in southern Mexico under wetter conditions compared with climatological patterns, while the inverse pattern is observed under drier conditions. Composite anomalies of several variables also agreed well with those rainfall anomalies. Finally, a MJO complete cycle that reinforces (weakens) the bimodal pattern of summer rainfall in Mexico was found.

  6. Inter-laboratory comparison on the size and stability of monodisperse and bimodal synthetic reference particles for standardization of extracellular vesicle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, Anaïs; Meli, Felix; van der Pol, Edwin; Yuana, Yuana; Gollwitzer, Christian; Krumrey, Michael; Cizmar, Petr; Buhr, Egbert; Pétry, Jasmine; Sebaihi, Noham; de Boeck, Bert; Fokkema, Vincent; Bergmans, Rob; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2016-03-01

    In future, measurements of extracellular vesicles in body fluids could become a standard diagnostic tool in medicine. For this purpose, reliable and traceable methods, which can be easily applied in hospitals, have to be established. Within the European Metrological Research Project (EMRP) ‘Metrological characterization of micro-vesicles from body fluids as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers’ (www.metves.eu), various nanoparticle reference materials were developed and characterized. We present results of an international comparison among four national metrology institutes and a university hospital. The size distributions of five monodisperse and two bimodal spherical particle samples with diameters ranging from 50 nm to 315 nm made out of silica and polystyrene were compared. Furthermore, the stability of the samples was verified over a period of 18 months. While monodisperse reference particle samples above a certain size level lead to good agreements of the size measurements among the different methods, small and bimodal samples show the limitations of current ‘clinical’ methods. All samples proved to be stable within the uncertainty of the applied methods.

  7. Inter-laboratory comparison on the size and stability of monodisperse and bimodal synthetic reference particles for standardization of extracellular vesicle measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolet, Anaïs; Meli, Felix; Van der Pol, Edwin; Yuana, Yuana; Nieuwland, Rienk; Gollwitzer, Christian; Krumrey, Michael; Cizmar, Petr; Buhr, Egbert; Pétry, Jasmine; Sebaihi, Noham; De Boeck, Bert; Fokkema, Vincent; Bergmans, Rob

    2016-01-01

    In future, measurements of extracellular vesicles in body fluids could become a standard diagnostic tool in medicine. For this purpose, reliable and traceable methods, which can be easily applied in hospitals, have to be established. Within the European Metrological Research Project (EMRP) ‘Metrological characterization of micro-vesicles from body fluids as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers’ (www.metves.eu), various nanoparticle reference materials were developed and characterized. We present results of an international comparison among four national metrology institutes and a university hospital. The size distributions of five monodisperse and two bimodal spherical particle samples with diameters ranging from 50 nm to 315 nm made out of silica and polystyrene were compared. Furthermore, the stability of the samples was verified over a period of 18 months. While monodisperse reference particle samples above a certain size level lead to good agreements of the size measurements among the different methods, small and bimodal samples show the limitations of current ‘clinical’ methods. All samples proved to be stable within the uncertainty of the applied methods. (paper)

  8. Si/Ag composite with bimodal micro-nano porous structure as a high-performance anode for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qin; Zhao, Dianyun; Duan, Huimei; Zhou, Qiuxia; Xu, Caixia

    2015-03-12

    A one-step dealloying method is employed to conveniently fabricate a bimodal porous (BP) Si/Ag composite in high throughput under mild conditions. Upon dealloying the carefully designed SiAgAl ternary alloy in HCl solution at room temperature, the obtained Si/Ag composite has a uniform bicontinuous porous structure in three dimensions with micro-nano bimodal pore size distribution. Compared with the traditional preparation methods for porous Si and Si-based composites, this dealloying route is easily operated and environmentally benign. More importantly, it is convenient to realize the controllable components and uniform distribution of Si and Ag in the product. Owing to the rich porosity of the unique BP structure and the incorporation of highly conductive Ag, the as-made Si/Ag composite possesses the improved conductivity and alleviated volume changes of the Si network during repeated charging and discharging. As expected, the BP Si/Ag anode exhibits high capacity, excellent cycling reversibility, long cycling life and good rate capability for lithium storage. When the current rate is up to 1 A g(-1), BP Si/Ag can deliver a stable reversible capacity above 1000 mA h g(-1), and exhibits a capacity retention of up to 89.2% against the highest capacity after 200 cycles. With the advantages of unique performance and easy preparation, the BP Si/Ag composite holds great application potential as an advanced anode material for Li-ion batteries.

  9. New insights into the origin of the bimodal volcanism in the middle Okinawa Trough: not a basalt-rhyolite differentiation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Zeng, Zhigang; Chen, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Yin, Xuebo

    2017-04-01

    In the middle Okinawa Trough (MOT), rhyolites have been typically considered as products of crystallization differentiation of basaltic magma as a feature of bimodal volcanism. However, the evidence is insufficient. This paper compared chemical trends of volcanic rocks from the MOT with fractional crystallization simulation models and experimental results and utilized trace element modeling combined with Rayleigh fractionation calculations to re-examine fractional crystallization processes in generating rhyolites. Both qualitative and quantitative studies indicate that andesites, rather than rhyolites, originate by fractional crystallization from basalts in the MOT. Furthermore, we established two batch-melting models for the MOT rhyolites and proposed that type 1 rhyolites are produced by remelting of andesites with amphiboles in the residue, while type 2 rhyolites are derived from remelting of andesites without residual amphiboles. It is difficult to produce melts with a SiO2 content ranging from 62% to 68% either by magmatic differentiation from basalts or by remelting of andesites, and this difficulty might help account for the compositional gap (Daly gap) for bimodal volcanism in the Okinawa Trough.

  10. Propuesta de solución bimodal al problema de la contaminación vehicular urbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Osorio Gómez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En el campo de investigación de los vehículos con propulsiones alternativas al motor de combustión interna, el Politecnico di Milano ha desarrollado un proyecto para el diseño y fabricación del prototipo de un kit electrome-cánico a instalar en un vehículo urbano comercial, mediante la aplicación de tecnologías existentes y soluciones innovativas. El proyecto involucra competencias de naturaleza mecánica y eléctrica para el desarrollo y gestión de una nueva transmisión paralela a la propulsión endotérmica. Este documento describe en manera general el procedimiento para la realización del prototipo final. Inicialmente fueron identificadas las características nece-sarias para cumplir con un ciclo urbano estándar y se seleccionó el automóvil a modificar, en este caso un vehículo Fiat Grande Punto. Con los requerimientos establecidos se procedió a la identificación y especificación de los nuevos componentes y de los espacios útiles para su instalación y se diseñaron y fabricaron los componentes mecánicos nece-sarios. Para la realización de los modelos geométricos se utilizaron instrumentos de reverse engineering y modelación virtual. Por último, se realizó el montaje de los nuevos componentes y la instalación eléctrica, se modificó el sistema electrónico de control del vehículo y se efectuaron las pruebas de verificación, donde se confirmó el cumplimiento de la autonomía eléctrica de 30 km y la velocidad máxima en modalidad eléctrica de 70 km/h. Estos resultados demues-tran la factibilidad de la transformación de un vehículo de propulsión endotérmica a propulsión bimodal mediante la instalación de un kit poco invasivo. Actualmente se está trabajando en su industrialización y aplicación a diferentes modelos de vehículo urbano. Este proyecto ha sido financiado por la Regione Lombardia (Gobierno regional italiano como un proyecto de investigación orientado a la búsqueda de nuevas soluciones para

  11. Morphological content and color indices bimodality of a new galaxy sample at the redshifts z < 0.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrycheva, D. V.

    2017-04-01

    The thesis deals with a study of the morphological content and color indices bimodality of a new sample of 317 018 galaxies with absolute magnitudes -24m classification on the base of relations between color indices and one of such parameters as the inverse concentration index, absolute magnitude, de Vaucouleurs radius or scale radius are proposed. It is allowed us to distinguish galaxies into three morphological classes: 1) early types - elliptical and lenticular, E-S0; 2) spirals, Sa-Scd; 3) last spirals, Sd-Sdm, and irregular galaxies, Im/BCG. We also applied the machine learning method for morphological classification of galaxies using absolute magnitudes, color indices, inverse concentration index C50/C90 of galaxies from our sample. We compared various methods, and found that the Random Forest method provides the highest accuracy, namely, 91% of galaxy types are classified correctly (96% early and 80% late types). Applying machine learning methods and two dimensional diagrams likely the color indices and one of the aforementioned parameters, we set the morphological content of galaxies from SDSS DR9 sample at z -20.7m (N = 137 786). The environmental density of galaxies was characterized by the value of inverse volume (1/V) of the Voronoi cell. It is found that the share of early-type galaxies (with quenching star formation) decrease with a redshift as compare with a share of the late types. When the environmental density of the central galaxies is higher (i.e., when 1/V is lower), it is more probably that the central galaxies are of the early morphological types. It is also shown that the higher the environmental density near the central galaxy, the more likely that it has an early morphological type. The fraction of the early type galaxies among the bright central galaxies is higher (78%) than in the sample of neighbor galaxies (26%). It is obtained that the higher percentage of the central early-type galaxies in the sample, the greater their share in the

  12. A bimodal neurophysiological study of motor control in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a step towards core mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Hartmut; Hoegl, Thomas; Moll, Gunther H; Kratz, Oliver

    2014-04-01

    implementation of motor control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder reflecting compensatory cognitive mechanisms as a result of a basal motor cortical inhibitory deficit (reduced activation of inhibitory intracortical interneurons). Both deviant inhibitory and attentional processes, which are not related to each other, seem to be characteristic for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder at the neural level in motor control tasks. The underlying neural mechanisms, which are probably not restricted to the motor cortex and the posterior attention network, may play a key role in the pathophysiology of this child psychiatric disorder. The high classification rate can further be interpreted as a step towards the development of neural markers. In summary, the bimodal neurophysiological concept may contribute to developing an integrative framework for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  13. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. II. A TEST ON THE NONLINEARITY SCENARIO FOR COLOR BIMODALITY USING THE u-BAND COLORS: THE CASE OF M87 (NGC 4486)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Hak-Sub; Cho, Jaeil; Chung, Chul; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Blakeslee, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The optical color distributions of globular clusters (GCs) in most large elliptical galaxies are bimodal. Based on the assumed linear relationship between GC colors and their metallicities, the bimodality has been taken as evidence of two GC subsystems with different metallicities in each galaxy and has led to a number of theories in the context of galaxy formation. More recent observations and modeling of GCs, however, suggests that the color-metallicity relations (CMRs) are inflected, and thus colors likely trace metallicities in a nonlinear manner. The nonlinearity could produce bimodal color distributions from a broad underlying metallicity spread, even if it is unimodal. Despite the far-reaching implications, whether CMRs are nonlinear and whether the nonlinearity indeed causes the color bimodality are still open questions. Given that the spectroscopic refinement of CMRs is still very challenging, we here propose a new photometric technique to probe the possible nonlinear nature of CMRs. In essence, a color distribution of GCs is a 'projected' distribution of their metallicities. Since the form of CMRs hinges on which color is used, the shape of color distributions varies depending significantly on the colors. Among other optical colors, the u-band related colors (e.g., u – g and u – z) are theoretically predicted to exhibit significantly less inflected CMRs than other preferred CMRs (e.g., for g – z). As a case study, we performed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFPC2 archival u-band photometry for the M87 (NGC 4486) GC system with confirmed color bimodality. We show that the u-band color distributions are significantly different from that of g – z and consistent with our model predictions. With more u-band measurements, this method will support or rule out the nonlinear CMR scenario for the origin of GC color bimodality with high confidence. The HST/WFC3 observations in F336W for nearby large elliptical galaxies are highly anticipated in this regard.

  14. Integrated analysis and visualization of group differences in structural and functional brain connectivity: Applications in typical ageing and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Langen; T.J.H. White (Tonya); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); W.J. Niessen (Wiro)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractStructural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uniand bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of

  15. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity : Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, C.D.; White, T.; Ikram, M.A.; Vernooij, M.W.; Niessen, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of

  16. A discrete stress-strength interference model based on universal generating function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zongwen; Huang Hongzhong; Liu Yu

    2008-01-01

    Continuous stress-strength interference (SSI) model regards stress and strength as continuous random variables with known probability density function. This, to some extent, results in a limitation of its application. In this paper, stress and strength are treated as discrete random variables, and a discrete SSI model is presented by using the universal generating function (UGF) method. Finally, case studies demonstrate the validity of the discrete model in a variety of circumstances, in which stress and strength can be represented by continuous random variables, discrete random variables, or two groups of experimental data

  17. Comment on 'the use of the Henyey-Greenstein phase function in Monte Carlo simulations in biomedical optics'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzoni, T; Leung, T S; Gandjbakhche, A H; Rüfenacht, D; Delpy, D T

    2006-11-21

    In this letter the authors highlight the presence of an error appearing in the discussion of the note 'The use of the Henyey-Greenstein phase function in Monte Carlo simulations in biomedical optics' previously published by them (Binzoni et al 2006 Phys. Med. Biol. 51 N313). In the light of this error, the discussion and conclusions in the original paper are revised in this letter and the role of the use of the phase functions in MC simulations, interpreted in probabilistic terms, is better clarified. The exact definition for the probability density function for the deflection angle, in the case of the Henyey-Greenstein model, is also given.

  18. Analysis and modification of defective surface aggregates on PCDTBT:PCBM solar cell blends using combined Kelvin probe, conductive and bimodal atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hanaul; Diaz, Alfredo J; Solares, Santiago D

    2017-01-01

    Organic photovoltaic systems comprising donor polymers and acceptor fullerene derivatives are attractive for inexpensive energy harvesting. Extensive research on polymer solar cells has provided insight into the factors governing device-level efficiency and stability. However, the detailed investigation of nanoscale structures is still challenging. Here we demonstrate the analysis and modification of unidentified surface aggregates. The aggregates are characterized electrically by Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM), whereby the correlation between local electrical potential and current confirms a defective charge transport. Bimodal AFM modification confirms that the aggregates exist on top of the solar cell structure, and is used to remove them and to reveal the underlying active layer. The systematic analysis of the surface aggregates suggests that the structure consists of PCBM molecules.

  19. Generation of felsic rocks of bimodal volcanic suites from thinned and rifted continental margins: Geochemical and Nd, Sr, Pb-isotopic evidence from Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Hamilton, Tark S.; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2017-11-01

    The compositionally bimodal volcanic rocks of the Eocene-Miocene Masset Formation from Queen Charlotte basin, Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada, underlie an area greater than 5000 km2 where their exposed sections are up to 1.6 km thick. The suite of mafic and felsic rocks (dacites and rhyolites) that erupted closely spaced in time, in both submarine and subaerial conditions, was associated with significant crustal extension and thin continental crust ( 19-24 km thick), with volcanism persisting for 35 Ma (from 46 to 11 Ma). Predominant mafic types (mafic:felsic 2:1) are moderately enriched mid-ocean-ridge-like basalts that were derived by a partial melting of a heterogeneous spinel peridotite source. Felsic rocks are plagioclase-phyric, two pyroxene-bearing, mainly peraluminous types which have Nd, Pb and Sr isotopic compositions overlapping those of basalts including high positive ƐNd(t) values (up to >+6). The chondrite-normalized REE patterns show light REE enrichment but flat heavy REE along with a variable negative Eu anomaly. Mineralogy, major and trace elements, Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic data and model calculations using MELTS are consistent with a derivation of felsic rocks from the basalts by fractional crystallization. The intercalation of basaltic and felsic rocks suggests the existence of separate, simultaneously active plumbing and feeder systems and relatively stable magma chamber(s) to generate large volumes of differentiated felsic magmas by fractional crystallization. The Masset rocks provide an example for the generation of felsic magmas of bimodal volcanic suites during rifting along a thinned continental margin. Appendix 1b Representative analyses of minerals of the Masset Formation felsic rocks

  20. Facile Synthesis of Gd-Cu-In-S/ZnS Bimodal Quantum Dots with Optimized Properties for Tumor Targeted Fluorescence/MR In Vivo Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weitao; Guo, Weisheng; Gong, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Bingbo; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Na; Yang, Wentao; Tu, Yu; Fang, Xiangming; Chang, Jin

    2015-08-26

    Dual-modal imaging techniques have gained intense attention for their potential role in the dawning era of tumor early accurate diagnosis. Chelate-free robust dual-modal imaging nanoprobes with high efficiency and low toxicity are of essential importance for tumor targeted dual-modal in vivo imaging. It is still a crucial issue to endow Cd-free dual-modal nanoprobes with bright fluorescence as well as high relaxivity. Herein, a facile synthetic strategy was developed to prepare Gd-doped CuInS/ZnS bimodal quantum dots (GCIS/ZnS, BQDs) with optimized properties. The fluorescent properties of the GCIS/ZnS BQDs can be thoroughly optimized by varying reaction temperature, aging time, and ZnS coating. The amount of Gd precursor can be well-controlled to realize the optimized balance between the MR relaxivity and optical properties. The obtained hydrophobic GCIS/ZnS BQDs were surface engineered into aqueous phase with PEGylated dextran-stearyl acid polymeric lipid vesicles (PEG-DS PLVs). Upon the phase transfer, the hydrophilic GCIS/ZnS@PLVs exhibited pronounced near-infrared fluorescence as well as high longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 9.45 mM(-1) S(-1)) in water with good colloidal stability. In vivo tumor-bearing animal experiments further verified GCIS/ZnS@PLVs could achieve tumor-targeted MR/fluorescence dual-modal imaging. No toxicity was observed in the in vivo and ex vivo experiments. The GCIS/ZnS@PLVs present great potential as bimodal imaging contrast agents for tumor diagnosis.

  1. Poly(amino acid) functionalized maghemite and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perego, Davide; Manuel Domínguez-Vera, José; Gálvez, Natividad; Masciocchi, Norberto; Guagliardi, Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Bimodal MRI/OI imaging probes are of great interest in nanomedicine. Although many organic polymers have been studied thoroughly for in vivo applications, reports on the use of poly(amino acid)s as coating polymers are scarce. In this paper, poly-(d-glutamic acid, d-lysine) (PGL) has been used for coating maghemite and gold nanoparticles. An advantage of this flexible and biocompatible polymer is that, once anchored to the nanoparticle surface, dangling lysine amino groups are available for the incorporation of new functionalities. As an example, Alexa Fluor derivatives have been attached to PGL-coated maghemite nanoparticles to obtain magnetic/fluorescent materials. These dual-property materials could be used as bimodal MRI/OI probes for in vivo imaging. (paper)

  2. Strong semiclassical approximation of Wigner functions for the Hartree dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Athanassoulis, Agissilaos

    2011-01-01

    We consider the Wigner equation corresponding to a nonlinear Schrödinger evolution of the Hartree type in the semiclassical limit h → 0. Under appropriate assumptions on the initial data and the interaction potential, we show that the Wigner function is close in L 2 to its weak limit, the solution of the corresponding Vlasov equation. The strong approximation allows the construction of semiclassical operator-valued observables, approximating their quantum counterparts in Hilbert-Schmidt topology. The proof makes use of a pointwise-positivity manipulation, which seems necessary in working with the L 2 norm and the precise form of the nonlinearity. We employ the Husimi function as a pivot between the classical probability density and the Wigner function, which - as it is well known - is not pointwise positive in general.

  3. Zeros of smallest modulus of functions resembling exp(z

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth B. Stolarsky

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine (in various senses the zeros of the Laplace transform of a signed mass distribution is of great importance for many problems in classical analysis and number theory. For example, if the mass consists of finitely many atoms, the transform is an exponential polynomial. This survey studies what is known when the distribution is a probability density function of small variance, and examines in what sense the zeros must have large moduli. In particular, classical results on Bessel function zeros, of Szegö on zeros of partial sums of the exponential, of I. J. Schoenberg on k-times positive functions, and a result stemming from Graeffe's method, are all presented from a unified probabilistic point of view.

  4. Altering Practices to Include Bimodal-bilingual (ASL-Spoken English) Programming at a Small School for the Deaf in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Karen; Enns, Charlotte; Arbuckle, Shauna

    2018-01-01

    Bimodal-bilingual programs are emerging as one way to meet broader needs and provide expanded language, educational and social-emotional opportunities for students who are deaf and hard of hearing (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Paludneviciene & Harris, R. (2011). Impact of cochlear implants on the deaf community. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.), Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 3-19). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press). However, there is limited research on students' spoken language development, signed language growth, academic outcomes or the social-emotional factors associated with these programs (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Nussbaum, D & Scott, S. (2011). The cochlear implant education center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.) Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 175-205). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. The cochlear implant education center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In Paludnevicience & Leigh (Eds). Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 175-205). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press; Spencer, P. & Marschark, M. (Eds.) (2010). Evidence-based practice in educating deaf and hard-of-hearing students. New York, NY: Oxford University Press). The purpose of this case study was to look at formal and informal student outcomes as well as staff and parent perceptions during the first 3 years of implementing a bimodal-bilingual (ASL and spoken English) program within an ASL milieu at a small school for the deaf. Speech and language assessment results for five students were analyzed over a 3-year period and indicated that the students made significant positive gains in all areas, although results were variable. Staff and parent

  5. Permeability and reactivity of Thermotoga maritima in latex bimodal blend coatings at 80 degrees C: a model high temperature biocatalytic coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngberg, Olav K; Solheid, Chris; Charaniya, Salim; Ma, Yue; Thiagarajan, Venkata; Scriven, L E; Flickinger, Michael C

    2005-06-01

    Thermostable polymers cast as thin, porous coatings or membranes may be useful for concentrating and stabilizing hyperthermophilic microorganisms as biocatalysts. Hydrogel matrices can be unstable above 65 degrees C. Therefore a 55-microm thick, two layer (cell coat + polymer top coat) bimodal, adhesive latex coating of partially coalesced polystyrene particles was investigated at 80 degrees C using Thermotoga maritima as a model hyperthermophile. Coating permeability (pore structure) was critical for maintaining T. maritima viability. The permeability of bimodal coatings generated from 0.8 v/v of a suspension of non-film-forming 800 nm polystyrene particles with high glass transition temperature (T(g) = 94 degrees C, 26.9% total solids) blended with 0.2 v/v of a suspension of film-forming 158 nm polyacrylate/styrene particles (T(g) approximately -5 degrees C, 40.9% total solids) with 0.3 g sucrose/g latex was measured in a KNO3 diffusion cell. Diffusivity ratio remained above 0.04 (D(eff)/D) when incubated at 80 degrees C in artificial seawater (ASW) for 5 days. KNO3 permeability was corroborated by cryogenic-SEM images of the pore structure. In contrast, the permeability of a mono-dispersed acrylate/vinyl acetate latex Rovace SF091 (T(g) approximately 10 degrees C) rapidly decreased and became impermeable after 2 days incubation in ASW at 80 degrees C. Thermotoga maritima were entrapped in these coatings at a cell density of 49 g cell wet weight/liter of coating volume, 25-fold higher than the density in liquid culture. Viable T. maritima were released from single-layer coatings at 80 degrees C but accurate measurement of the percentage of viable entrapped cells by plate counting was not successful. Metabolic activity could be measured in bilayer coatings by utilization of glucose and maltose, which was identical for latex-entrapped and suspended cells. Starch was hydrolyzed for 200 h by latex-entrapped cells due to the slow diffusion of starch through the

  6. Single-cell behavior and population heterogeneity: solving an inverse problem to compute the intrinsic physiological state functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetsieris, Konstantinos; Zygourakis, Kyriacos

    2012-04-15

    The dynamics of isogenic cell populations can be described by cell population balance models that account for phenotypic heterogeneity. To utilize the predictive power of these models, however, we must know the rates of single-cell reaction and division and the bivariate partition probability density function. These three intrinsic physiological state (IPS) functions can be obtained by solving an inverse problem that requires knowledge of the phenotypic distributions for the overall cell population, the dividing cell subpopulation and the newborn cell subpopulation. We present here a robust computational procedure that can accurately estimate the IPS functions for heterogeneous cell populations. A detailed parametric analysis shows how the accuracy of the inverse solution is affected by discretization parameters, the type of non-parametric estimators used, the qualitative characteristics of phenotypic distributions and the unknown partitioning probability density function. The effect of finite sampling and measurement errors on the accuracy of the recovered IPS functions is also assessed. Finally, we apply the procedure to estimate the IPS functions of an E. coli population carrying an IPTG-inducible genetic toggle network. This study completes the development of an integrated experimental and computational framework that can become a powerful tool for quantifying single-cell behavior using measurements from heterogeneous cell populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A human endogenous protein exerts multi-role biomimetic chemistry in synthesis of paramagnetic gold nanostructures for tumor bimodal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weitao; Wu, Xiaoli; Dou, Yan; Chang, Jin; Xiang, Chenyang; Yu, Jiani; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xiuli; Zhang, Bingbo

    2018-04-01

    Protein-mediated biomimetic nanoparticles because of simplicity of their synthesis, subdued nonspecific adsorption, improved pharmacokinetics, and biocompatibility have been receiving increasing attention recently. Nevertheless, only a handful of proteins have been developed for biomimetic synthesis. Worse still, most of them are constrained on single-function usages in chemistry. Exploring new functional proteins, especially those with multi-dentate moieties for multi-role biomimetic chemistry, still remains a substantial challenge. Here, we report on a human endogenous protein, glutathione S-transferase (GST), with favorable amino acid motifs, that has innate talents in incubating high quality gold nanoparticles without adding reducing agents at physiological temperature, and particularly can further anchor gadolinium ions without adding extra chelators. The resultant paramagnetic AuNPs@GST Gd exhibits highly crystallization and uniform size of ca. 10 nm. Compared with clinical contrast agents (Iopamidol, Magnevist), AuNPs@GST Gd shows better imaging performance (e.g. enhanced relaxivity and larger X-ray attenuation efficiency) with clear evidence from Monte Carlo simulation and in vitro experimental results. Further in vivo imaging demonstrates good tumor targeting and clearance of AuNPs@GST Gd without obvious systemic toxicity. Particularly, low immunogenicity of AuNPs@GST Gd is certified by immunological status evaluation of T cells after stimulated with them. This study for the first time demonstrates the manipulation of a human protein for multi-role biomimetic chemistry depending on its unique amino acid motifs and its incorporation into a synthetic agent for potentially addressing some critical issues in cancer nanotheranostics such as synthetic methodology, biocompatibility, function integration, targeting, and immunogenicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue? = What bimodal bilingual have to say about bilingual developing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadros, Ronice Müller de

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL e Inglês (LILLO-MARTIN et al. 2010 têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente, nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada

  9. Preparation and characterization of ZnS:Tb,Gd and ZnS:Er,Yb,Gd nanoparticles for bimodal magnetic-fluorescent imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Wang, Wei; Chen, Kezheng

    2013-02-07

    As bimodal magnetic-fluorescent imaging agents, the preparation of ZnS:Tb,Gd and ZnS:Er,Yb,Gd nanoparticles via a facile homogeneous precipitation method is reported. The results show that these nanoparticles are almost spherical in shape with a diameter of 100-200 nm approximately and a major phase of wurtzite-structured ZnS. The products can successfully label the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and present low toxicity even at concentrations up to 5 mg mL(-1). Additionally, for the ZnS:Er,Yb,Gd nanoparticles calcinated above 950 °C, NIR-to-visible up-conversion fluorescence were obtained, which is believed to be superior to traditional ZnS-based bioimaging agents with down conversion. In MRI studies, they reveal a longitudinal relaxivity rate (r(1)) of 39.46 mM(-1) s(-1) and 57.8 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively, which are much larger than the conventional Gd-DTPA and currently reported Gd-base nanoparticles, suggesting great potential as MRI agents.

  10. Stochasticity of TOL plasmid catabolic promoters sets a bimodal expression regime in Pseudomonas putida mt-2 exposed to m-xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Rocha, Rafael; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2012-10-01

    The expression dynamics of the catabolic promoters of the TOL plasmid pWW0 has been examined in single cells of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 exposed to m-xylene. To this end, we employed an á la carte bi-cistronic gfp-lacZ reporter system for generating monocopy transcriptional fusions to each of the four promoters (Pr, Ps, Pu and Pm) of the regulatory network. Whereas expression of xylR (the master regulatory gene of the TOL system) behaved in a unimodal fashion, the activation of Pu and Pm displayed a high degree of stochasticity. This event resulted in a time-dependent shift in the bacterial population between two induction states without intermediate expression levels. Bimodality of the Pm promoter for the lower TOL pathway was largely due to the propagation of the Ps output throughout the network, which caused stochastic overproduction of the second regulator of the system, XylS. Surprisingly, activation of Pm by the form of XylS that was bound to the pathway intermediate 3-methylbenzoate was relatively minor. These stochastic phenomena in response to m-xylene disappeared in the stationary phase. Taken together, the data suggests that genetically homogeneous populations of P. putida mt-2 employ a strategy of phenotypic variation (metabolic bet-hedging) when confronted with mixtures of nutrients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Diseño, ejecución y evalucación de un curso bimodal para la Escuela de Ciencias de Comunicación Colectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araya Rivera, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente ensayo pretende reflexionar sobre el desarrollo y la evaluación de un curso bimodal, Teorías y Técnicas del Guión Radiofónico, en la Escuela de Ciencias de la Comunicación Colectiva de la Universidad de Costa Rica. La experiencia se llevó a cabo en el 2006 y tuvo como propósito valorar las posibilidades que ofrecen las aulas virtuales a estudiantes y docentes. Las conclusiones señalan aspectos tecnológicos y de carácter conceptual, que permiten establecer recomendaciones didácticas para mejorar la docencia universitaria.Abstract:This essay reflects on the implementation and the evaluation of a B-learning course, Radio Scriptwriting Theories and Techniques, at the School of Mass Communication Sciences, University of Costa Rica. The experience took place in 2006 and was intended to assess the potential of e-learning platforms for students and teachers. The conclusions indicate technological and conceptual aspects, which can establish recommendations for improving university teaching.

  12. Hybrid alginate-polyester bimodal network hydrogel for tissue engineering--Influence of structured water on long-term cellular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finosh, G T; Jayabalan, M; Vandana, S; Raghu, K G

    2015-11-01

    The development of biodegradable scaffolds (which promote cell-binding, proliferation, long-term cell viability and required biomechanical stability) for cardiac tissue engineering is a challenge. In this study, biosynthetic amphiphilic hybrid hydrogels were prepared using a graft comacromer of natural polysaccharide alginate and synthetic polyester polypropylene fumarate (PPF). Monomodal network hydrogel (HPAS-NO) and bimodal network hydrogel (HPAS-AA) were prepared. Between the two hydrogels, HPAS-AA hydrogel excels over the HPAS-NO hydrogel. HPAS-AA hydrogel is mechanically more stable in the culture medium and undergoes gradual degradation in vitro in PBS (phosphate buffered saline). HPAS-AA contains nano-porous structure and acquires structured water (non-freezing-bound water) (53.457%) along with free water (11.773%). It absorbs more plasma proteins and prevents platelet adsorption and hemolysis when contacted with blood. HPAS-AA hydrogel is cytocompatible and promote 3D cell growth (≈ 70%) of L929 fibroblast even after 18 days and H9C2 cardiomyoblasts. The enhanced and long-term cellular growth of HPAS-AA hydrogel is attributed to the cell responsive features of structured water. HPAS-AA hydrogel can be a better candidate for cardiac tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fabrication of bimodal porous silicate with silicalite-1 core/mesoporous shell structures and synthesis of nonspherical carbon and silica nanocases with hollow core/mesoporous shell structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jong-Sung; Yoon, Suk Bon; Lee, Yun Jo; Yoon, Kyung Byung

    2005-04-21

    In this work, an attempt has been made to modify the shape and nanostructure of core-shell materials, which have been usually generated on the basis of amorphous spherical cores. Novel core-shell silicate particles, each of which consists of a silicalite-1 zeolite crystal core and mesoporous shell (ZCMS), were synthesized for the first time. The ZCMS core-shell particles are unique because they are of pseudohexagonal prismatic shape and have hierarchical porosity of both a uniform microporous core and a mesoporous shell coexisting in a particle framework. The nonspherical bimodal porous core-shell particles were then utilized as templates to fabricate a new carbon replica structure. Interestingly, the pore replication process was carried out only through the mesopores in the shell, and not through the micropores due to the narrower micropore size in the core, resulting in nonspherical carbon nanocases with a hollow core and mesoporous shell (HCMS) structure. Nonspherical silica nanocases with HCMS structure were also generated by replication using the carbon nanocases as templates, which are not possible to synthesize through other synthetic methods. Interestingly, the pseudohexagonal prismatic shape of the zeolite crystals was transferred onto the carbon and silica nanocases.

  14. A whispering bat that screams: bimodal switch of foraging guild from gleaning to aerial hawking in the desert long-eared bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Talya D; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W

    2014-09-01

    Echolocating bats have historically been classified as either loud aerial hawkers or whispering gleaners. Some bat species can forage in multiple ways and others have demonstrated limited flexibility in the amplitude of their echolocation calls. The desert long-eared bat, Otonycteris hemprichii, has been said to be a passive gleaning whispering bat preying on terrestrial arthropods such as scorpions. Using an acoustic tracking system, we recorded individuals flying at foraging and drinking sites and compared their flight height, flight speed, call duration, pulse interval and source levels with those of gleaning individuals previously recorded using the same setup. We found differences in all variables with the strongest difference in source levels, where bats called at a mean of 119 dB peSPL (compared with 75 dB peSPL when gleaning). Bat faecal analysis indicated that their diet differed from previous studies and that prey species were capable of flight. We conclude that the bats switched from passive gleaning to capturing airborne insects (aerial hawking). Although whispering bats have been known to opportunistically catch insects on the wing, in the present study we show a full bimodal switch between foraging guilds with the respective changes in source level to those typical of a true aerial hawker. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO:CeO2:nanocellulose:PANI bionanocomposite. A bimodal agent for arsenic adsorption and antibacterial action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, B K; Chaliha, C; Kalita, E; Kalita, M C

    2016-09-05

    In the present study we report the generation of a bimodal, ZnO:CeO2:nanocellulose:polyaniline bionanocomposite having an appreciable remediation efficiency for dissolved Arsenic along with a noticeable antibacterial activity. The microstructural analysis of the synthesized bionanocomposite was carried out by TEM, XRD and FTIR studies, which confirmed the incorporation of the nanoscaled ZnO and CeO2 in the polymeric nanocellulose:polyaniline matrix. The bionanocomposite exhibited a remediation efficiency above ∼95% against As under different adsorbent concentrations and pH conditions. The biosorption mechanism of As on the nanobiosorbent was found to conform to the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. Antibacterial assays for the bionanocomposite showed a high antibacterial activity with MIC50 values of 10.6μgml(-1) against the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and 10.3μgml(-1) against the Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Thus, the bionanocomposite shall be of high interest as a novel and sustainable matrix for the design of coats/devices that effectuate arsenic adsorption and microbial control, to generate contaminant free potable water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 64Cu radiolabeled nano-materials as bimodal contrast agent for optical imaging and Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonat, A.M.; Roux, A.; Yahia-Ammar, A.; Charbonniere, L.J.; Platas-Iglesias, C.; Camerle, F.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent nano-crystals made of semiconductor material, also called Quantum Dots, are ideal agents for long-term or real-time optical imaging. They have been found to outperform traditional organic fluorescent dyes in many ways (size-tunable optical properties, high quantum yields, high extinction coefficients, resistance to photo bleaching). We have developed a microwave method for the synthesis of highly luminescent water soluble CdTe x S 1-x nano-crystals (Φ= 53% at 600 nm). Their surface functionalization has been developed and controlled using a Nile-Red derivative as a fluorescent marker. The same coupling strategy will be used to incorporate 64 Cu-radiotracers for PET imaging at the surface of the Quantum Dots. A large variety of poly-aza-macrocyclic ligands, have been studied in order to optimize the in vivo stability of the 64 Cu-radiolabeled complexes and their efficiency as radiopharmaceuticals

  17. The 20th anniversary of interleukin-2 therapy: bimodal role explaining longstanding random induction of complete clinical responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coventry, Brendon J; Ashdown, Martin L

    2012-01-01

    This year marks the twentieth anniversary of the approval by the US Food and Drug Administration of interleukin-2 (IL2) for use in cancer therapy, initially for renal cell carcinoma and later for melanoma. IL2 therapy for cancer has stood the test of time, with continued widespread use in Europe, parts of Asia, and the US. Clinical complete responses are variably reported at 5%–20% for advanced malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, with strong durable responses and sustained long-term 5–10-year survival being typical if complete responses are generated. The literature was reviewed for the actions and clinical effects of IL2 on subsets of T cells. The influence of IL2 on clinical efficacy was also sought. The review revealed that IL2 is capable of stimulating different populations of T cells in humans to induce either T effector or T regulatory responses. This apparent “functional paradox” has confounded a clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the clinical effects that are observed during and following administration of IL2 therapy. An average complete response rate of around 7% in small and large clinical trials using IL2 for advanced renal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma has been shown from a recent review of the literature. This review considers the published literature concerning the actions and emerging clinical effects of IL2 therapy, spanning its 20-year period in clinical use. It further details some of the recently described “bimodal” effects of IL2 to explain the apparent functional paradox, and how IL2 might be harnessed to emerge rapidly as a much more effective and predictable clinical agent in the near future

  18. A new insight into high-strength Ti62Nb12.2Fe13.6Co6.4Al5.8 alloys with bimodal microstructure fabricated by semi-solid sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L H; Yang, C; Kang, L M; Qu, S G; Li, X Q; Zhang, W W; Chen, W P; Li, Y Y; Li, P J; Zhang, L C

    2016-03-31

    It is well known that semi-solid forming could only obtain coarse-grained microstructure in a few alloy systems with a low melting point, such as aluminum and magnesium alloys. This work presents that semi-solid forming could also produce novel bimodal microstructure composed of nanostructured matrix and micro-sized (CoFe)Ti2 twins in a titanium alloy, Ti62Nb12.2Fe13.6Co6.4Al5.8. The semi-solid sintering induced by eutectic transformation to form a bimodal microstructure in Ti62Nb12.2Fe13.6Co6.4Al5.8 alloy is a fundamentally different approach from other known methods. The fabricated alloy exhibits high yield strength of 1790 MPa and plastic strain of 15.5%. The novel idea provides a new insight into obtaining nano-grain or bimodal microstructure in alloy systems with high melting point by semi-solid forming and into fabricating high-performance metallic alloys in structural applications.

  19. The GPS Motif Is a Molecular Switch for Bimodal Activities of Adhesion Class G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Prömel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCR form the second largest group of seven-transmembrane-spanning (7TM receptors whose molecular layout and function differ from canonical 7TM receptors. Despite their essential roles in immunity, tumorigenesis, and development, the mechanisms of aGPCR activation and signal transduction have remained obscure to date. Here, we use a transgenic assay to define the protein domains required in vivo for the activity of the prototypical aGPCR LAT-1/Latrophilin in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that the GPCR proteolytic site (GPS motif, the molecular hallmark feature of the entire aGPCR class, is essential for LAT-1 signaling serving in two different activity modes of the receptor. Surprisingly, neither mode requires cleavage but presence of the GPS, which relays interactions with at least two different partners. Our work thus uncovers the versatile nature of aGPCR activity in molecular detail and places the GPS motif in a central position for diverse protein-protein interactions.

  20. The GPS motif is a molecular switch for bimodal activities of adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prömel, Simone; Frickenhaus, Marie; Hughes, Samantha; Mestek, Lamia; Staunton, David; Woollard, Alison; Vakonakis, Ioannis; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schnabel, Ralf; Russ, Andreas P; Langenhan, Tobias

    2012-08-30

    Adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCR) form the second largest group of seven-transmembrane-spanning (7TM) receptors whose molecular layout and function differ from canonical 7TM receptors. Despite their essential roles in immunity, tumorigenesis, and development, the mechanisms of aGPCR activation and signal transduction have remained obscure to date. Here, we use a transgenic assay to define the protein domains required in vivo for the activity of the prototypical aGPCR LAT-1/Latrophilin in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that the GPCR proteolytic site (GPS) motif, the molecular hallmark feature of the entire aGPCR class, is essential for LAT-1 signaling serving in two different activity modes of the receptor. Surprisingly, neither mode requires cleavage but presence of the GPS, which relays interactions with at least two different partners. Our work thus uncovers the versatile nature of aGPCR activity in molecular detail and places the GPS motif in a central position for diverse protein-protein interactions. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bimodal processing of olfactory information in an amphibian nose: odor responses segregate into a medial and a lateral stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliem, Sebastian; Syed, Adnan S; Sansone, Alfredo; Kludt, Eugen; Tantalaki, Evangelia; Hassenklöver, Thomas; Korsching, Sigrun I; Manzini, Ivan

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to the single sensory surface present in teleost fishes, several spatially segregated subsystems with distinct molecular and functional characteristics define the mammalian olfactory system. However, the evolutionary steps of that transition remain unknown. Here we analyzed the olfactory system of an early diverging tetrapod, the amphibian Xenopus laevis, and report for the first time the existence of two odor-processing streams, sharply segregated in the main olfactory bulb and partially segregated in the olfactory epithelium of pre-metamorphic larvae. A lateral odor-processing stream is formed by microvillous receptor neurons and is characterized by amino acid responses and Gαo/Gαi as probable signal transducers, whereas a medial stream formed by ciliated receptor neurons is characterized by responses to alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones, and Gαolf/cAMP as probable signal transducers. To reveal candidates for the olfactory receptors underlying these two streams, the spatial distribution of 12 genes from four olfactory receptor gene families was determined. Several class II and some class I odorant receptors (ORs) mimic the spatial distribution observed for the medial stream, whereas a trace amine-associated receptor closely parallels the spatial pattern of the lateral odor-processing stream. Other olfactory receptors (some class I odorant receptors and vomeronasal type 1 receptors) and odor responses (to bile acids, amines) were not lateralized, the latter not even in the olfactory bulb, suggesting an incomplete segregation. Thus, the olfactory system of X. laevis exhibits an intermediate stage of segregation and as such appears well suited to investigate the molecular driving forces behind olfactory regionalization.

  2. Estimation of Extreme Response and Failure Probability of Wind Turbines under Normal Operation using Probability Density Evolution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Liu, W. F.

    2013-01-01

    distribution instead of any other approximate schemes of fitted distribution currently used in statistical extrapolation techniques. Besides, the comparative studies against the classical fitted distributions and the standard Monte Carlo techniques are carried out. Numerical results indicate that PDEM exhibits...

  3. Bimodality of light and s-elements in M4 (NGC 6121). A hint for the massive main-sequence star pollution scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.

    2011-11-01

    Context. All globular clusters (GCs) studied in detail host two or more populations of stars (the multiple population phenomenon). Theoretical models suggest that the second population is formed from gas polluted by processed material produced by massive stars of the first generation. However the nature of the polluters is matter of strong debate. Several candidates have been proposed: massive main-sequence stars (fast rotating or binaries), intermediate-mass AGB stars, or SNeII. Aims: We studied red giant branch (RGB) stars in the GC M4 (NGC 6121) to measure their chemical signature. Our goal is to measure abundances for many key elements (from Li to Eu) in order to derive constraints on the polluters responsible for the multiple populations. Methods: We observed 23 RGB stars below the RGB-bump using the GIRAFFE spectroscopic facility installed on VLT2. Spectra cover a wide range and allowed us to measure light (Li, C, 12C/13C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al), α (Si, Ca, Ti), iron-peak (Cr, Fe, Ni), light-s (Y), heavy-s (Ba), and r (Eu) elements. We supplemented this study by analyzing an additional subsample of the UVES spectra in order to gather further clues about light s-elements of different atomic number (Y and Zr). Results: We confirm the presence of a bimodal population. Stars can be easily separated according to their N content. The two groups have different C, 12C/13C, N, O, Na content, but share the same Li, C+N+O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zr, Ba and Eu abundance. Quite surprisingly the two groups differ also in their Y abundance. This result is strongly supported also by the analysis of the UVES spectra. Conclusions: The absence of a spread in α-elements, Eu and Ba makes SNeII and AGB stars unlikely as polluters. On the other hand, massive main-sequence stars can explain the bimodality of Y through the weak s-process. This statement is confirmed independently also by literature data on Rb and Pb. The lack of a Mg/Al spread and the extension of the [O

  4. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garboś, Sławomir; Święcicka, Dorota

    2015-11-01

    The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947 μg/L and 1.23 μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources - migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bimodal porous TiO2 structures templated by graft copolymer/homopolymer blend for dye-sensitized solar cells with polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Sang-Yup; Cho, Hyung Hee; Kim, Jong Hak

    2016-12-01

    Bimodal porous TiO2 (BP-TiO2) with large surface area, high porosity, good interconnectivity, and excellent light-scattering ability are synthesized via a facile one-step method using a self-assembled blend template consisting of an amphiphilic poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) graft copolymer and a hydrophobic poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) homopolymer. The hydrophilically surface-modified TiO2 nanoparticles selectively interact with the hydrophilic POEM chains, while the addition of the PVC homopolymer increases the hydrophobic domain size, resulting in the formation of dual pores (i.e., macropores and mesopores). The sizes and numbers of macropores can easily be controlled by changing the molecular weight and amount of the PVC homopolymer. The polymer electrolyte dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated with BP-TiO2 photoanodes exhibited energy conversion efficiencies of up to 7.6% at 100 mW cm-2, which is much higher than those of mesoporous TiO2 (5.8%) with PVC-g-POEM only and conventional nanocrystalline TiO2 (4.9%) with commercial Dyesol paste. The enhanced energy conversion efficiencies mostly resulted from the light-scattering effects of the macropores, which increased the light-harvesting efficiencies. The improved light-harvesting and photovoltaic performances of the DSSCs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy.

  6. On the impact of the Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS on the biogeochemistry and biology of the Adriatic and Ionian Seas (Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Civitarese

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 20-year time-series of the vertically averaged salinity and nutrient data in the Southern Adriatic shows that the two parameters are subject to strong decadal variability. In addition, it is documented that nutrient and salinity variations are out of phase. Nutrients in the Ionian and in the Adriatic vary in parallel except that generally the nutrient content in the Adriatic is lower than in the Ionian, a fact that has been attributed to primary producer consumption following the winter convective mixing. As shown earlier, North Ionian Gyre (NIG changes its circulation sense on a decadal scale due to the Bimodal Oscillating System, i.e. the feedback mechanism between the Adriatic and Ionian. Cyclonic circulation causes a downwelling of the nitracline along the borders of the NIG and a decrease in the nutrient content of the water flowing into the Adriatic across the Otranto Strait, and vice versa. In addition, the highly oligotrophic central area of the Ionian shows annual blooms only during cyclonic NIG circulation. Inversion of the sense of the NIG results in the advection of Modified Atlantic Water or of the Levantine/Eastern Mediterranean waters in the Adriatic. Here, we show that the presence of allochtonous organisms from Atlantic/Western Mediterranean and Eastern Mediterranean/temperate zone in the Adriatic are concurrent with the anticyclonic and cyclonic circulations of the NIG, respectively. On the basis of the results presented, a revision of the theory of Adriatic ingressions formulated in the early 1950s is proposed.

  7. Functionalization of nickel nanowires with a fluorophore aiming at new probes for multimodal bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Paula C; Sousa, Célia T; Araújo, João P; Guiomar, António J; Trindade, Tito

    2013-11-15

    This work reports research on the development of bimodal magnetic and fluorescent 1D nanoprobes. First, ferromagnetic nickel nanowires (NiNW) have been prepared by Ni electrodeposition in an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. The highly ordered self-assembled AAO nanoporous templates were fabricated using a two-step anodization method of aluminum foil. The surface of the NiNW were then modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI) which was previously labeled with an organic dye (fluorescein isothiocyanate: FITC) via covalent bonding. The ensuing functionalized NiNW exhibited the characteristic green fluorescence of FITC and could be magnetically separated from aqueous solutions by using a NdFeB magnet. Finally, the interest of these bimodal NiNW as nanoprobes for in vitro cell separation and biolabeling was preliminary assessed in a proof of principle experiment that involved the attachment of biofunctionalized NiNW to blood cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonparametric Information Geometry: From Divergence Function to Referential-Representational Biduality on Statistical Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Divergence functions are the non-symmetric “distance” on the manifold, Μθ, of parametric probability density functions over a measure space, (Χ,μ. Classical information geometry prescribes, on Μθ: (i a Riemannian metric given by the Fisher information; (ii a pair of dual connections (giving rise to the family of α-connections that preserve the metric under parallel transport by their joint actions; and (iii a family of divergence functions ( α-divergence defined on Μθ x Μθ, which induce the metric and the dual connections. Here, we construct an extension of this differential geometric structure from Μθ (that of parametric probability density functions to the manifold, Μ, of non-parametric functions on X, removing the positivity and normalization constraints. The generalized Fisher information and α-connections on M are induced by an α-parameterized family of divergence functions, reflecting the fundamental convex inequality associated with any smooth and strictly convex function. The infinite-dimensional manifold, M, has zero curvature for all these α-connections; hence, the generally non-zero curvature of M can be interpreted as arising from an embedding of Μθ into Μ. Furthermore, when a parametric model (after a monotonic scaling forms an affine submanifold, its natural and expectation parameters form biorthogonal coordinates, and such a submanifold is dually flat for α = ± 1, generalizing the results of Amari’s α-embedding. The present analysis illuminates two different types of duality in information geometry, one concerning the referential status of a point (measurable function expressed in the divergence function (“referential duality” and the other concerning its representation under an arbitrary monotone scaling (“representational duality”.

  9. Characterization of van der Waals type bimodal,- lambda,- meta- and spinodal phase transitions in liquid mixtures, solid suspensions and thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenholm, Jarl B

    2018-03-01

    The perfect gas law is used as a reference when selecting state variables (P, V, T, n) needed to characterize ideal gases (vapors), liquids and solids. Van der Waals equation of state is used as a reference for models characterizing interactions in liquids, solids and their mixtures. Van der Waals loop introduces meta- and unstable states between the observed gas (vapor)-liquid P-V transitions at low T. These intermediate states are shown to appear also between liquid-liquid, liquid-solid and solid-solid phase transitions. First-order phase transitions are characterized by a sharp discontinuity of first-order partial derivatives (P, S, V) of Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies. Second-order partial derivatives (K T , B, C V , C P , E) consist of a static contribution relating to second-order phase transitions and a relaxation contribution representing the degree of first-order phase transitions. Bimodal (first-order) and spinodal (second-order) phase boundaries are used to separate stable phases from metastable and unstable phases. The boundaries are identified and quantified by partial derivatives of molar Gibbs free energy or chemical potentials with respect to P, S, V and composition (mole fractions). Molecules confined to spread Langmuir monolayers or adsorbed Gibbs monolayers are characterized by equation of state and adsorption isotherms relating to a two-dimensional van der Waals equation of state. The basic work of two-dimensional wetting (cohesion, adsorption, spreading, immersion), have to be adjusted by a horizontal surface pressure in the presence of adsorbed vapor layers. If the adsorption is extended to liquid films a vertical surface pressure (Π) may be added to account for the lateral interaction, thus restoring PV = ΠAh dependence of thin films. Van der Waals attraction, Coulomb repulsion and structural hydration forces contribute to the vertical surface pressure. A van der Waals type coexistence of ordered (dispersed) and disordered

  10. The upconversion luminescence and magnetism in Yb{sup 3+}/Ho{sup 3+} co-doped LaF{sub 3} nanocrystals for potential bimodal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamchand, Sasidharanpillai S., E-mail: syamchand.ss@gmail.com; George, Sony, E-mail: emailtosony@gmail.com [University of Kerala, Department of Chemistry (India)

    2016-12-15

    morphological studies in HeLa cells. The upconversion luminescence and magnetism together with biocompatibility enables the adaptability of the present system as a nanoprobe for potential bimodal imaging.

  11. New technique for a simultaneous estimation of the level density and radiative strength functions of dipole transitions at E sub e sub x<=B sub n -0.5 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khitrov, V A

    2001-01-01

    The new, model-independent method to estimate simultaneously the level densities excited in the (n,gamma) reaction and the radiative strength functions of dipole transitions is developed. The method can be applied for any nucleus and reaction followed by cascade gamma-emission. It is just necessary to measure the intensities of two-step gamma-cascades depopulating one or several high-excited states and determine the quanta ordering in the main portion of the observed cascades. The method provides a sufficiently narrow interval of most probable densities of levels with given J suppi and radiative strength functions of dipole transitions populating them.

  12. Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous Bimodal Volcanic Rocks of the Ještěd Range Unit (W Sudetes): Constraints on the Development of the Variscan Orogenic Wedge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kachlík, V.; Patočka, František

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2001), s. 74-75 ISSN 1210-9606. [Meeting of the Czech Tectonic Studies Group /6./. Donovaly - Nízké Tatry, 03.05.2001-06.05.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3111102; GA AV ČR IAA3013802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : bimodal metavolcanics * Variscan orogeny * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://geolines.gli.cas.cz/fileadmin/volumes/volume13/G13-074.pdf

  13. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of the Neogene bimodal volcanism in the Yükselen area, NW Konya (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençoğlu Korkmaz, Gülin; Asan, Kürşad; Kurt, Hüseyin; Morgan, Ganerød

    2017-05-01

    Bimodal volcanic suites occur in both orogenic and anorogenic geotectonic settings. Although their formation can be attributed to either fractional crystallization from basaltic parents to felsic derivatives or partial melting of different sources, the origin of bimodal suites is still unclear. By reporting mineral chemistry, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry data, this study aims to investigate the genesis of bimodal basalt-dacite association from the Yükselen area located on the northern end of the Sulutas Volcanic Complex (Konya, Central Anatolia). The Yükselen area volcanic rocks are represented by basaltic lava flows, and dacitic dome with enclaves and pyroclastics. Basaltic flows and pyroclastic rocks are interlayered with the Neogene fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary units, while dacitic rocks cut the pre-Neogene basement in the area. A biotite separation from dacites yielded 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 16.11 ± 0.18 Ma. On the other hand, a whole rock sample from basalts gave two plateau ages of 16.45 ± 0.76 Ma and 22.37 ± 0.65 Ma for the first steps and next steps, respectively. The investigated basalts are sodic alkaline, and characterized by ocean island basalt (OIB)-like anorogenic geochemical signatures. However, dacites are calc-alkaline and metaluminous, and carry geochemical signatures of orogenic adakites. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic systematics suggest that the basalts were derived from an asthenospheric mantle source enriched by recycled crustal rocks. The dacites show more enriched Sr and Pb ratios and more depleted Nd ones relative to the basalts, which at the first glance might be attributed to crustal contamination of the associated basalts. However, trace element features of the dacites rule out cogenetic relationship between the two rock types, and point to an origin by melting of lower crust. On the other hand, enclaves share several elemental and isotopic characteristics with the dacites, and appear to be fragments

  14. Efficient fractal-based mutation in evolutionary algorithms from iterated function systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Sanz, S.; Aybar-Ruíz, A.; Camacho-Gómez, C.; Pereira, E.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we present a new mutation procedure for Evolutionary Programming (EP) approaches, based on Iterated Function Systems (IFSs). The new mutation procedure proposed consists of considering a set of IFS which are able to generate fractal structures in a two-dimensional phase space, and use them to modify a current individual of the EP algorithm, instead of using random numbers from different probability density functions. We test this new proposal in a set of benchmark functions for continuous optimization problems. In this case, we compare the proposed mutation against classical Evolutionary Programming approaches, with mutations based on Gaussian, Cauchy and chaotic maps. We also include a discussion on the IFS-based mutation in a real application of Tuned Mass Dumper (TMD) location and optimization for vibration cancellation in buildings. In both practical cases, the proposed EP with the IFS-based mutation obtained extremely competitive results compared to alternative classical mutation operators.

  15. Time dependent human hip joint lubrication for periodic motion with stochastic asymmetric density function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzcholski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with the calculation of the human hip joint parameters for periodic, stochastic unsteady, motion with asymmetric probability density function for gap height. The asymmetric density function indicates that the stochastic probabilities of gap height decreasing are different in comparison with the probabilities of the gap height increasing. The models of asymmetric density functions are considered on the grounds of experimental observations. Some methods are proposed for calculation of pressure distributions and load carrying capacities for unsteady stochastic conditions in a super thin layer of biological synovial fluid inside the slide biobearing gap limited by a spherical bone acetabulum. Numerical calculations are performed in Mathcad 12 Professional Program, by using the method of finite differences. This method assures stability of numerical solutions of partial differential equations and gives proper values of pressure and load carrying capacity forces occurring in human hip joints.

  16. Relations between functional norms of a non-negative function and its square root on the positive cone of Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechevsky, Lubomir T.; Grip, Niklas

    2009-11-01

    In this communication we study in detail the relations between the smoothness of f and √f in the case when the smoothness of the univariate non-negative functions f is measured via Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin space scales. The results obtained can be considered also as embedding theorems for usual Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces and their analogues in Hellinger metric. These results can be used in constrained approximation using wavelets, with applications to probability density estimation in speech recognition, non-negative non-parametric regression-function estimation in positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging, shape/order-preserving and/or one-sided approximation and many others.

  17. TOPoS . II. On the bimodality of carbon abundance in CEMP stars Implications on the early chemical evolution of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Spite, M.; Limongi, M.; Chieffi, A.; Klessen, R. S.; François, P.; Molaro, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Zaggia, S.; Spite, F.; Plez, B.; Cayrel, R.; Christlieb, N.; Clark, P. C.; Glover, S. C. O.; Hammer, F.; Koch, A.; Monaco, L.; Sbordone, L.; Steffen, M.

    2015-07-01

    Context. In the course of the Turn Off Primordial Stars (TOPoS) survey, aimed at discovering the lowest metallicity stars, we have found several carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. These stars are very common among the stars of extremely low metallicity and provide important clues to the star formation processes. We here present our analysis of six CEMP stars. Aims: We want to provide the most complete chemical inventory for these six stars in order to constrain the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the abundance patterns. Methods: We analyse both X-Shooter and UVES spectra acquired at the VLT. We used a traditional abundance analysis based on OSMARCS 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model atmospheres and the turbospectrum line formation code. Results: Calcium and carbon are the only elements that can be measured in all six stars. The range is -5.0 ≤ [Ca/H] band we derived A(C) = 7.26. For SDSS J1035+0641 we were not able to detect any iron lines, yet we could place a robust (3σ) upper limit of [Fe/H] band and a low-carbon band. We propose an interpretation of this bimodality according to which the stars on the high-carbon band are the result of mass transfer from an AGB companion, while the stars on the low-carbon band are genuine fossil records of a gas cloud that has also been enriched by a faint supernova (SN) providing carbon and the lighter elements. The abundance pattern of the UIP stars shows a large star-to-star scatter in the [X/Ca] ratios for all elements up to aluminium (up to 1 dex), but this scatter drops for heavier elements and is at most of the order of a factor of two. We propose that this can be explained if these stars are formed from gas that has been chemically enriched by several SNe, that produce the roughly constant [X/Ca] ratios for the heavier elements, and in some cases the gas has also been polluted by the ejecta of a faint SN that contributes the lighter elements in variable amounts. The absence of lithium in

  18. Virtual brain mapping: Meta-analysis and visualization in functional neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    Results from functional neuroimaging such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance are often reported as sets of 3-dimensional coordinates in Talairach stereotactic space. By utilizing data collected in the BrainMap database and from our own small XML database we can...... data matrix. By conditioning on elements in the databases other than the coordinate data, e.g., anatomical labels associated with many coordinates we can make conditional novelty detection identifying outliers in the database that might be errorneous entries or seldom occuring patterns. In the Brain......Map database we found errors, e.g., stemming from confusion of centimeters and millimeters during entering and errors in the original article. Conditional probability density modeling also enables generation of probabilistic atlases and automatic probabilistic anatomical labeling of new coordinates...

  19. Computing Likelihood Functions for High-Energy Physics Experiments when Distributions are Defined by Simulators with Nuisance Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Neal, Radford, M

    2008-01-01

    When searching for new phenomena in high-energy physics, statistical analysis is complicated by the presence of nuisance parameters, representing uncertainty in the physics of interactions or in detector properties. Another complication, even with no nuisance parameters, is that the probability distributions of the models are speci ed only by simulation programs, with no way of evaluating their probability density functions. I advocate expressing the result of an experiment by means of the likelihood function, rather than by frequentist con dence intervals or p-values. A likelihood function for this problem is dif- cult to obtain, however, for both of the reasons given above. I discuss ways of circumventing these problems by reducing dimensionality using a classi er and employing simulations with multiple values for the nuisance parameters.

  20. Design and characterization of a cough simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhu, Chao; Ji, Zhiming; Lin, Chao-Hsin

    2017-02-23

    Expiratory droplets from human coughing have always been considered as potential carriers of pathogens, responsible for respiratory infectious disease transmission. To study the transmission of disease by human coughing, a transient repeatable cough simulator has been designed and built. Cough droplets are generated by different mechanisms, such as the breaking of mucus, condensation and high-speed atomization from different depths of the respiratory tract. These mechanisms in coughing produce droplets of different sizes, represented by a bimodal distribution of 'fine' and 'coarse' droplets. A cough simulator is hence designed to generate transient sprays with such bimodal characteristics. It consists of a pressurized gas tank, a nebulizer and an ejector, connected in series, which are controlled by computerized solenoid valves. The bimodal droplet size distribution is characterized for the coarse droplets and fine droplets, by fibrous collection and laser diffraction, respectively. The measured size distributions of coarse and fine droplets are reasonably represented by the Rosin-Rammler and log-normal distributions in probability density function, which leads to a bimodal distribution. To assess the hydrodynamic consequences of coughing including droplet vaporization and polydispersion, a Lagrangian model of droplet trajectories is established, with its ambient flow field predetermined from a computational fluid dynamics simulation.

  1. Spectral theory, zeta functions and the distribution of periodic points for Collet-Eckmann maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Gerhard; Nowicki, Tomasz

    1992-09-01

    We study unimodal interval maps T with negative Schwarzian derivative satisfying the Collet-Eckmann condition | DT n ( Tc)|≧ Kλ {c/n} for some constants K>0 and λc>1 ( c is the critical point of T). We prove exponential mixing properties of the unique invariant probability density of T, describe the long term behaviour of typical (in the sense of Lebesgue measure) trajectories by Central Limit and Large Deviations Theorems for partial sum processes of the formS_n = Σ _{i = 0}^{n - 1} f(T^i x), and study the distribution of “typical” periodic orbits, also in the sense of a Central Limit Theorem and a Large Deviations Theorem. This is achieved by proving quasicompactness of the Perron Frobenius operator and of similar transfer operators for the Markov extension of T and relating the isolated eigenvalues of these operators to the poles of the corresponding Ruelle zeta functions.

  2. Modulation of energy levels, wave functions and dynamics of 2-D one electron quantum dots: Influence of size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Parikshit [Department of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Section, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, Birbhum, 731 235 West Bengal (India); Ghosh, Manas [Department of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Section, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, Birbhum, 731 235 West Bengal (India)], E-mail: pcmg77@rediffmail.com

    2008-11-03

    We explore the modulation of energy levels, wave functions and the dynamics of harmonically confined single electron quantum dots as a function of dot size. The system of interest is a 2-D system in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field and anharmonic perturbations. We show that for given strengths of the confining potentials, descriptors like level spacing distribution and probability density reveal significant dependence on dot size. The pattern of time evolution of eigenstates of the unperturbed system is also analyzed when an external time varying electric field is switched on. The system reveals a long-time dynamics that leads to a kind of localization in the unperturbed state space. The dynamical features are also found to be size dependent. The presence of cubic anharmonicity in the confining field brings in new features in the dynamics.

  3. The Luminosity Functions of Old and Intermediate-Age Globular Clusters in NGC 3610

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmore, B. C.; Schweizer, F.; Kundu, A.; Miller, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    The WFPC2 Camera on board HST has been used to obtain high-resolution images of NGC 3610, a dynamically young elliptical galaxy. These observations supersede shorter, undithered HST observations where an intermediate-age population of globular clusters was first discovered. The new observations show the bimodal color distribution of globular clusters more clearly, with peaks at (V-I)o = 0.95 and 1.17. The luminosity function (LF) of the blue, metal-poor population of clusters in NGC 3610 turn...

  4. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn D Langen

    Full Text Available Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significantly different connections comparing multiple metrics are presented. On the global level, "bi-modal comparison plots" show the distribution of uni- and bi-modal group differences and the relationship between structure and function. Differences between brain lobes are visualized using "worm plots". Group differences in connections are examined with an existing visualization, the "connectogram". These visualizations were evaluated in two proof-of-concept studies: (1 middle-aged versus elderly subjects; and (2 patients with schizophrenia versus controls. Each included two measures derived from diffusion weighted images and two from functional magnetic resonance images. The structural measures were minimum cost path between two anatomical regions according to the "Statistical Analysis of Minimum cost path based Structural Connectivity" method and the average fractional anisotropy along the fiber. The functional measures were Pearson's correlation and partial correlation of mean regional time series. The relationship between structure and function was similar in both studies. Uni-modal group differences varied greatly between connectivity types. Group differences were identified in both studies globally, within brain lobes and between regions. In the aging study, minimum cost path was highly effective in identifying group differences on all levels; fractional anisotropy and mean correlation showed smaller differences on the brain lobe and regional levels. In the schizophrenia study, minimum cost path and fractional anisotropy showed differences on the global level and within brain lobes; mean correlation showed small differences on the lobe level. Only

  5. Inclusion of Dispersion Effects in Density Functional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelhøj, Andreas

    In this thesis, applications and development will be presented within the field of van der Waals interactions in density functional theory. The thesis is based on the three projects: i) van der Waals interactions effect on the structure of liquid water at ambient conditions, ii) development...... lower first peak consistent with recent experiments, while the outer structure is completely smeared out. The water structures obtained from the ab initio van der Waals simulations clearly resemble high-density liquid water, whereas the PBE molecular dynamics simulation with equivalent computational...... setup resembles low-density liquid. Mixing the vdW-DF2 and the experimental low-density liquid in a 70/30% ratio gives agreement with experimental results. This is consistent with the bimodal picture of water. Also, in this thesis the BEEF-vdW exchange-correlation functional is presented based...

  6. Comparison of Wind Energy Generation Using the Maximum Entropy Principle and the Weibull Distribution Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Proper knowledge of the wind characteristics of a site is of fundamental importance in estimating wind energy output from a selected wind turbine. The present paper focuses on assessing the suitability and accuracy of the fitted distribution function to the measured wind speed data for Baburband site in Sindh Pakistan. Comparison is made between the wind power densities obtained using the fitted functions based on Maximum Entropy Principle (MEP and Weibull distribution. In case of MEP-based function a system of (N+1 non-linear equations containing (N+1 Lagrange multipliers is defined as probability density function. The maximum entropy probability density functions is calculated for 3–9 low order moments obtained from measured wind speed data. The annual actual wind power density (PA is found to be 309.25 W/m2 while the Weibull based wind power density (PW is 297.25 W/m2. The MEP-based density for orders 5, 7, 8 and 9 (PE is 309.21 W/m2, whereas for order 6 it is 309.43 W/m2. To validate the MEP-based function, the results are compared with the Weibull function and the measured data. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test is performed between the cdf of the measured wind data and the fitted distribution function (Q95 = 0.01457 > Q = 10−4. The test confirms the suitability of MEP-based function for modeling measured wind speed data and for the estimation of wind energy output from a wind turbine. R2 test is also performed giving analogous behavior of the fitted MEP-based pdf to the actual wind speed data (R2 ~ 0.9. The annual energy extracted using the chosen wind turbine based on Weibull function is PW = 2.54 GWh and that obtained using MEP-based function is PE = 2.57–2.67 GWh depending on the order of moments.

  7. INTERACTIVE VISUALIZATION OF PROBABILITY AND CUMULATIVE DENSITY FUNCTIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Potter, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF), and its corresponding cumulative density function (CDF), provide direct statistical insight into the characterization of a random process or field. Typically displayed as a histogram, one can infer probabilities of the occurrence of particular events. When examining a field over some two-dimensional domain in which at each point a PDF of the function values is available, it is challenging to assess the global (stochastic) features present within the field. In this paper, we present a visualization system that allows the user to examine two-dimensional data sets in which PDF (or CDF) information is available at any position within the domain. The tool provides a contour display showing the normed difference between the PDFs and an ansatz PDF selected by the user and, furthermore, allows the user to interactively examine the PDF at any particular position. Canonical examples of the tool are provided to help guide the reader into the mapping of stochastic information to visual cues along with a description of the use of the tool for examining data generated from an uncertainty quantification exercise accomplished within the field of electrophysiology.

  8. Ground state energy and wave function of an off-centre donor in spherical core/shell nanostructures: Dielectric mismatch and impurity position effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibral, Asmaa [Equipe d’Optique et Electronique du Solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B.P. 20 El Jadida Principale, El Jadida 24000 (Morocco); Laboratoire d’Instrumentation, Mesure et Contrôle, Département de Physique, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B.P. 20 El Jadida Principale, El Jadida (Morocco); Zouitine, Asmae [Département de Physique, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Enseignement Technique, Université Mohammed V Souissi, B.P. 6207 Rabat-Instituts, Rabat (Morocco); Assaid, El Mahdi, E-mail: eassaid@yahoo.fr [Equipe d’Optique et Electronique du Solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B.P. 20 El Jadida Principale, El Jadida 24000 (Morocco); Laboratoire d’Instrumentation, Mesure et Contrôle, Département de Physique, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B.P. 20 El Jadida Principale, El Jadida (Morocco); Feddi, El Mustapha [Département de Physique, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Enseignement Technique, Université Mohammed V Souissi, B.P. 6207 Rabat-Instituts, Rabat (Morocco); and others

    2014-09-15

    Ground state energy and wave function of a hydrogen-like off-centre donor impurity, confined anywhere in a ZnS/CdSe spherical core/shell nanostructure are determined in the framework of the envelope function approximation. Conduction band-edge alignment between core and shell of nanostructure is described by a finite height barrier. Dielectric constant mismatch at the surface where core and shell materials meet is taken into account. Electron effective mass mismatch at the inner surface between core and shell is considered. A trial wave function where coulomb attraction between electron and off-centre ionized donor is used to calculate ground state energy via the Ritz variational principle. The numerical approach developed enables access to the dependence of binding energy, coulomb correlation parameter, spatial extension and radial probability density with respect to core radius, shell radius and impurity position inside ZnS/CdSe core/shell nanostructure.

  9. Bimodal ex vivo expansion of T cells from patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a prerequisite for adoptive cell transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Niels; Andersen, Mads Hald; Wenandy, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    during culture. Interferon (INF)-¿ detection by Elispot and Cr(51) release assay determined the specificity and functional capacity of selected TIL pre- and post-rapid expansion. Results. TIL bulk cultures were expanded in 80% of the patients included, showing tumor specificity in 60% of the patients...

  10. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-06-01

    Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Hong-Ou-Mandel effect in terms of the temporal biphoton wave function with two arrival-time variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, M. V.; Sysoeva, A. A.; Vintskevich, S. V.; Grigoriev, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    The well-known Hong-Ou-Mandel effect is revisited. Two physical reasons are discussed for the effect to be less pronounced or even to disappear: differing polarizations of photons coming to the beamsplitter and delay time of photons in one of two channels. For the latter we use the concepts of biphoton frequency and temporal wave functions depending, correspondingly, on two frequency continuous variables of photons and on two time variables t 1 and t 2 interpreted as the arrival times of photons to the beamsplitter. Explicit expressions are found for the probability densities and total probabilities for photon pairs to be split between two channels after the beamsplitter and to be unsplit, when two photons appear together in one of two channels.

  12. Optical properties of bimodally distributed InAs quantum dots grown on digital AlAs0.56Sb0.44 matrix for use in intermediate band solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Mukul C.; Liang, Baolai; Laghumavarapu, Ramesh B.; Wang, Guodong; Das, Aparna; Juang, Bor-Chau; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2017-06-01

    High-quality InAs quantum dots (QDs) with nominal thicknesses of 5.0-8.0 monolayers were grown on a digital AlAs0.56Sb0.44 matrix lattice-matched to the InP(001) substrate. All QDs showed bimodal size distribution, and their optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL measurements. Power dependent PL exhibited a linear relationship between the peak energy and the cube root of the excitation power for both the small QD family (SQDF) and the large QD family (LQDF), which is attributed to the type-II transition. The PL intensity, peak energy, and carrier lifetime of SQDF and LQDF showed very sensitive at high temperature. Above 125 K, the PL intensity ratio increased continuously between LQDF and SQDF, the peak energy shifted anomalously in SQDF, and the longer carrier radiative lifetime (≥3.0 ns at 77 K) reduced rapidly in SQDF and slowly in LQDF. These results are ascribed to thermally activated carrier escape from SQDF into the wetting layer, which then relaxed into LQDF with low-localized energy states.

  13. The role of the bimodal distribution of ultra-fine silicon phase and nano-scale V-phase (AlSi2Sc2) on spark plasma sintered hypereutectic Al–Si–Sc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghukiran, Nadimpalli; Kumar, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Hypereutectic Al–Si and Al–Si–Sc alloys were spark plasma sintered from corresponding gas-atomized powders. The microstructures of the Al–Si and Al–Si–Sc alloys possessed remarkably refined silicon particles in the size range of 0.38–3.5 µm and 0.35–1.16 µm respectively in contrast to the silicon particles of size greater than 100 µm typically found in conventionally cast alloys. All the sintered alloys exhibited significant ductility of as high as 85% compressive strain without failure even with the presence of relatively higher weight fraction of the brittle silicon phase. Moreover, the Al–Si–Sc alloys have shown appreciable improvement in the compressive strength over their binary counterparts due to the presence of intermetallic compound AlSi 2 Sc 2 of size 10–20 nm distributed uniformly in the matrix of those alloys. The dry sliding pin-on-disc wear tests showed improvement in the wear performance of the sintered alloys with increase in silicon content in the alloys. Further, the Al–Si–Sc ternary alloys with relatively lesser silicon content exhibited appreciable improvement in the wear resistance over their binary counterparts. The Al–Si–Sc alloys with bimodal distribution of the strengthening phases consisting of ultra-fine (sub-micron size) silicon particles and the nano-scale AlSi 2 Sc 2 improved the strength and wear properties of the alloys while retaining significant amount of ductility.

  14. Bimodal spectroscopy in elastic scattering and spatially resolved auto-fluorescence: instrumentation, light-tissues interaction modeling and application to ex vivo and in vivo biological tissues characterization for cancers detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pery, Emilie

    2007-01-01

    This research activity aims at developing and validating a multimodal spectroscopy method in elastic scattering and auto-fluorescence to characterize biological tissues in vitro and in vivo. It is articulated in four axes. At first, instrumentation is considered with the development, the engineering and the experimental characterization of a fibers bimodal, multi-points spectrometry system allowing the acquisition of spectra in vivo (variable distances, fast acquisition). Secondly, the optical properties of tissues are modelled with the development and the experimental validation on phantoms of a photons propagation simulation algorithm in turbid media and multi-fluorescent. Thirdly, an experimental study has been conducted ex vivo on fresh and cryo-preserved arterial rings. It confirms the complementarity of spectroscopic measurements in elastic scattering and auto-fluorescence, and validates the method of multi-modality spectroscopy and the simulation of photons propagation algorithm. Results have well proved a correlation between rheological and optical properties. Finally, one second experimental study in vivo related to a pre-clinical tumoral model of bladder has been carried out. It highlights a significant difference in diffuse reflectance and/or auto-fluorescence and/or intrinsic fluorescence between healthy, inflammatory and tumoral tissues, on the basis of specific wavelength. The results of not supervised classification show that the combination of various spectroscopic approaches increases the reliability of the diagnosis. (author) [fr

  15. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of an basalt-Trachyte-Rhyolite suite in the Spilli area (south of Siahkal, north of Iran: evidences of continental rift-related bimodal magmatism in Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrooz Haghnazar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The spilli volcanic rocks suite consisting of Basalt- Trachyte- Rhyolite with upper Cretaceous, outcrop in the northern part of Alborz and south of Siahkal area (east of the Guilan province. Based on geochemical data, the studied suite attributed to transitional to alkali series. Negative correlation of Al2O3, CaO, P2O5 and positive correlation of Rb and Th versus SiO2 reveal the occurrence of fractional crystallization process. Also, the negative correlation of Sr versus Y, Sr/Zr versus Sr and CaO/Al2O3 versus SiO2 show that fractionation of plagioclase has played an important role in petrogenesis of the spilli Suite. The hypotheses is supported by the negative anomalies of Eu, Ba and Sr. The overall geochemical evidences indicate that the basic rocks belong to intra-continental rift zone whereas the felsic rocks are classified as A1 type derived from parent basaltic magmas via fractional crystallization in an anorogenic setting. The studied magmatism share many similarities with bimodal magmatism in continental rift zones.

  16. Energies and wave functions of an off-centre donor in hemispherical quantum dot: Two-dimensional finite difference approach and ritz variational principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakra Mohajer, Soukaina; El Harouny, El Hassan [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Abdelmalek Essaadi, B.P. 2121 M’Hannech II, 93030 Tétouan (Morocco); Ibral, Asmaa [Equipe d’Optique et Electronique du Solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B. P. 20 El Jadida Principale, El Jadida (Morocco); Laboratoire d’Instrumentation, Mesure et Contrôle, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Chouaïb Doukkali, B. P. 20 El Jadida Principale, El Jadida (Morocco); El Khamkhami, Jamal [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Abdelmalek Essaadi, B.P. 2121 M’Hannech II, 93030 Tétouan (Morocco); and others

    2016-09-15

    Eigenvalues equation solutions of a hydrogen-like donor impurity, confined in a hemispherical quantum dot deposited on a wetting layer and capped by an insulating matrix, are determined in the framework of the effective mass approximation. Conduction band alignments at interfaces between quantum dot and surrounding materials are described by infinite height barriers. Ground and excited states energies and wave functions are determined analytically and via one-dimensional finite difference approach in case of an on-center donor. Donor impurity is then moved from center to pole of hemispherical quantum dot and eigenvalues equation is solved via Ritz variational principle, using a trial wave function where Coulomb attraction between electron and ionized donor is taken into account, and by two-dimensional finite difference approach. Numerical codes developed enable access to variations of donor total energy, binding energy, Coulomb correlation parameter, spatial extension and radial probability density with respect to hemisphere radius and impurity position inside the quantum dot.

  17. Energies and wave functions of an off-centre donor in hemispherical quantum dot: Two-dimensional finite difference approach and ritz variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakra Mohajer, Soukaina; El Harouny, El Hassan; Ibral, Asmaa; El Khamkhami, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Eigenvalues equation solutions of a hydrogen-like donor impurity, confined in a hemispherical quantum dot deposited on a wetting layer and capped by an insulating matrix, are determined in the framework of the effective mass approximation. Conduction band alignments at interfaces between quantum dot and surrounding materials are described by infinite height barriers. Ground and excited states energies and wave functions are determined analytically and via one-dimensional finite difference approach in case of an on-center donor. Donor impurity is then moved from center to pole of hemispherical quantum dot and eigenvalues equation is solved via Ritz variational principle, using a trial wave function where Coulomb attraction between electron and ionized donor is taken into account, and by two-dimensional finite difference approach. Numerical codes developed enable access to variations of donor total energy, binding energy, Coulomb correlation parameter, spatial extension and radial probability density with respect to hemisphere radius and impurity position inside the quantum dot.

  18. Self-Transducible Bimodal PDX1-FOXP3 Protein Lifts Insulin Secretion and Curbs Autoimmunity, Boosting Tregs in Type 1 Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, Christina; Radichev, Ilian A; Ellefson, Jacob; Williams, Mark; Savinov, Alexei Y

    2018-01-03

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by massive destruction of insulin-producing β cells by autoreactive T lymphocytes, arising via defective immune tolerance. Therefore, effective anti-T1D therapeutics should combine autoimmunity-preventing and insulin production-restoring properties. We constructed a cell-permeable PDX1-FOXP3-TAT fusion protein (FP) composed of two transcription factors: forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), the master regulator of differentiation and functioning of self-tolerance-promoting Tregs, and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX1), the crucial factor supporting β cell development and maintenance. The FP was tested in vitro and in a non-obese diabetic mouse T1D model. In vitro, FP converted naive CD4 + T cells into a functional "Treg-like" subset, which suppressed cytokine secretion, downregulated antigen-specific responses, and curbed viability of diabetogenic effector cells. In hepatic stem-like cells, FP potentiated endocrine transdifferentiation, inducing expression of Insulin2 and other β lineage-specific genes. In vivo, FP administration to chronically diabetic mice triggered (1) a significant elevation of insulin and C-peptide levels, (2) the formation of insulin-containing cell clusters in livers, and (3) a systemic anti-inflammatory shift (higher Foxp3 + CD4 + CD25 + T cell frequencies, elevated rates of IL-10-producing cells, and reduced rates of IFN-γ-secreting cells). Overall, in accordance with its design, PDX1-FOXP3-TAT FP delivered both Treg-stabilizing anti-autoimmune and de novo insulin-producing effects, proving its anti-T1D therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. LIF: A new Kriging based learning function and its application to structural reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhili; Wang, Jian; Li, Rui; Tong, Cao

    2017-01-01

    The main task of structural reliability analysis is to estimate failure probability of a studied structure taking randomness of input variables into account. To consider structural behavior practically, numerical models become more and more complicated and time-consuming, which increases the difficulty of reliability analysis. Therefore, sequential strategies of design of experiment (DoE) are raised. In this research, a new learning function, named least improvement function (LIF), is proposed to update DoE of Kriging based reliability analysis method. LIF values how much the accuracy of estimated failure probability will be improved if adding a given point into DoE. It takes both statistical information provided by the Kriging model and the joint probability density function of input variables into account, which is the most important difference from the existing learning functions. Maximum point of LIF is approximately determined with Markov Chain Monte Carlo(MCMC) simulation. A new reliability analysis method is developed based on the Kriging model, in which LIF, MCMC and Monte Carlo(MC) simulation are employed. Three examples are analyzed. Results show that LIF and the new method proposed in this research are very efficient when dealing with nonlinear performance function, small probability, complicated limit state and engineering problems with high dimension. - Highlights: • Least improvement function (LIF) is proposed for structural reliability analysis. • LIF takes both Kriging based statistical information and joint PDF into account. • A reliability analysis method is constructed based on Kriging, MCS and LIF.

  20. Influence of the level of fit of a density probability function to wind-speed data on the WECS mean power output estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta, Jose A.; Ramirez, Penelope; Velazquez, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Static methods which are based on statistical techniques to estimate the mean power output of a WECS (wind energy conversion system) have been widely employed in the scientific literature related to wind energy. In the static method which we use in this paper, for a given wind regime probability distribution function and a known WECS power curve, the mean power output of a WECS is obtained by resolving the integral, usually using numerical evaluation techniques, of the product of these two functions. In this paper an analysis is made of the influence of the level of fit between an empirical probability density function of a sample of wind speeds and the probability density function of the adjusted theoretical model on the relative error ε made in the estimation of the mean annual power output of a WECS. The mean power output calculated through the use of a quasi-dynamic or chronological method, that is to say using time-series of wind speed data and the power versus wind speed characteristic of the wind turbine, serves as the reference. The suitability of the distributions is judged from the adjusted R 2 statistic (R a 2 ). Hourly mean wind speeds recorded at 16 weather stations located in the Canarian Archipelago, an extensive catalogue of wind-speed probability models and two wind turbines of 330 and 800 kW rated power are used in this paper. Among the general conclusions obtained, the following can be pointed out: (a) that the R a 2 statistic might be useful as an initial gross indicator of the relative error made in the mean annual power output estimation of a WECS when a probabilistic method is employed; (b) the relative errors tend to decrease, in accordance with a trend line defined by a second-order polynomial, as R a 2 increases

  1. Relatively slow stochastic gene-state switching in the presence of positive feedback significantly broadens the region of bimodality through stabilizing the uninduced phenotypic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Wu, Pingping; Qian, Hong; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    2018-03-01

    Within an isogenic population, even in the same extracellular environment, individual cells can exhibit various phenotypic states. The exact role of stochastic gene-state switching regulating the transition among these phenotypic states in a single cell is not fully understood, especially in the presence of positive feedback. Recent high-precision single-cell measurements showed that, at least in bacteria, switching in gene states is slow relative to the typical rates of active transcription and translation. Hence using the lac operon as an archetype, in such a region of operon-state switching, we present a fluctuating-rate model for this classical gene regulation module, incorporating the more realistic operon-state switching mechanism that was recently elucidated. We found that the positive feedback mechanism induces bistability (referred to as deterministic bistability), and that the parameter range for its occurrence is significantly broadened by stochastic operon-state switching. We further show that in the absence of positive feedback, operon-state switching must be extremely slow to trigger bistability by itself. However, in the presence of positive feedback, which stabilizes the induced state, the relatively slow operon-state switching kinetics within the physiological region are sufficient to stabilize the uninduced state, together generating a broadened parameter region of bistability (referred to as stochastic bistability). We illustrate the opposite phenotype-transition rate dependence upon the operon-state switching rates in the two types of bistability, with the aid of a recently proposed rate formula for fluctuating-rate models. The rate formula also predicts a maximal transition rate in the intermediate region of operon-state switching, which is validated by numerical simulations in our model. Overall, our findings suggest a biological function of transcriptional "variations" among genetically identical cells, for the emergence of bistability and

  2. Adaptive Hessian-based Non-stationary Gaussian Process Response Surface Method for Probability Density Approximation with Application to Bayesian Solution of Large-scale Inverse Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    popular discrete norms, namely, the mean squared error, the `1-norm, the `2-norm, and the Hellinger norm [16]. 7.1. One-dimensional examples. The first...over a LHC grid of 20,000 points. Method MSE `1-norm `2-norm Hellinger norm GP 6.55e-06 4.35 3.62e-01 1.74 RBF 3.77e-16 1.23e-02 2.75e-06 5.31e-03 For... Hellinger norm GP 1.45e-06 3.15 1.70e-01 1.22 RBF 2.55e-3 2.31e1 7.14 1.04e1 As mentioned in Section 6, the ability of our proposed method in seeking the

  3. Cost-Risk Trade-off of Solar Radiation Management and Mitigation under Long-Tailed Climate Sensitivity Probability Density Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, E.; Mohammadi Khabbazan, M.; Held, H.

    2016-12-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) might be able to reduce the anthropogenic global mean temperature rise but unable to do so for other climate variables such as precipitation, particularly with respect to regional disparities due to changes in planetary energy budget. We apply cost-risk analysis (CRA), which is a decision analytic framework that trades off the expected welfare-loss from climate policies costs against the climate risks from exceeding an environmental target. Here, in both global- and `Giorgi'-regional-scale analyses, we study the optimal mix of SRM and mitigation under probabilistic knowledge about climate sensitivity, in our numerics ranging from 1.01°C to 7.17°C. To do so, we generalize CRA for the sake of including temperature risk, global and regional precipitation risks. Social welfare is maximized in three scenarios, considering a convex combination of climate risks: temperature-risk-only, precipitation-risk-only, and equally weighted both-risks. Our global results represent 100%, 65%, and 90% compliance with 2°C-temperature target and simultaneously 0%, 100%, and 100% compliance with 2°C-compatible-precipitation corridor respectively in temperature-risk-only, precipitation-risk-only, and both-risks scenarios. On the other hand, our regional results emphasize that SRM would alleviate the global mean temperature to be complied with 2°C-temperature target for about 100%, 95%, and 95% of climate sensitivities in temperature-risk-only, precipitation-risk-only, and both-risks scenarios, respectively. However, half of the regions suffer a very high precipitation risks when the society only cares about global temperature reduction in temperature-risk-only scenario. Our results indicate that although SRM might almost substitute for mitigation in the global analysis, it only saves about a half of the welfare-loss in a purely mitigation-based analysis (from economic costs and climate risks, in terms of BGE) when considering regional precipitation risks.

  4. Probability distribution functions for intermittent scrape-off layer plasma fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorsen, A.; Garcia, O. E.

    2018-03-01

    A stochastic model for intermittent fluctuations in the scrape-off layer of magnetically confined plasmas has been constructed based on a super-position of uncorrelated pulses arriving according to a Poisson process. In the most common applications of the model, the pulse amplitudes are assumed exponentially distributed, supported by conditional averaging of large-amplitude fluctuations in experimental measurement data. This basic assumption has two potential limitations. First, statistical analysis of measurement data using conditional averaging only reveals the tail of the amplitude distribution to be exponentially distributed. Second, exponentially distributed amplitudes leads to a positive definite signal which cannot capture fluctuations in for example electric potential and radial velocity. Assuming pulse amplitudes which are not positive definite often make finding a closed form for the probability density function (PDF) difficult, even if the characteristic function remains relatively simple. Thus estimating model parameters requires an approach based on the characteristic function, not the PDF. In this contribution, the effect of changing the amplitude distribution on the moments, PDF and characteristic function of the process is investigated and a parameter estimation method using the empirical characteristic function is presented and tested on synthetically generated data. This proves valuable for describing intermittent fluctuations of all plasma parameters in the boundary region of magnetized plasmas.

  5. Linearization of Optimal Compressor Function and Design of Piecewise Linear Compandor for Gaussian Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTIC, D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The constraints on the quantizer model are usually related to how complex the model can be designed and implemented. For the given bit rate, it is desirable to provide the highest possible signal to quantization noise ratio (SQNR with reasonable complexity of a quantizer model. In order to avoid the influence of compressor function nonlinearity and the difficulties appearing in implementing and designing, especially in the Gaussian probability density function case, in this paper we linearize the optimal compressor function within the segments. We take advantage of piecewise linearization of the optimal compressor function, as a convenient solution for less complex designing compared to the asymptotically optimal compandor, and we provide performances close to the ones of the asymptotically optimal compandor. This makes our model useful in applications where the design and implementation complexity is a decisive factor. We propose a piecewise linear compandor (PLC with an equal number of reproduction levels per nonuniformly spaced segments, where the segment thresholds are allotted to the equidistant optimal compressor function values. We study how the number of segments affects SQNR of the PLC. Features of the proposed PLC indicate its theoretical and practical significance in quantization of Gaussian source signals.

  6. Analysis of wind speed distributions: Wind distribution function derived from minimum cross entropy principles as better alternative to Weibull function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantar, Yeliz Mert; Usta, Ilhan

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the minimum cross entropy (MinxEnt) principle is applied for the first time to the wind energy field. This principle allows the inclusion of previous information of a wind speed distribution and covers the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle, which is also discussed by Li and Li and Ramirez as special cases in their wind power study. The MinxEnt probability density function (pdf) derived from the MinxEnt principle are used to determine the diurnal, monthly, seasonal and annual wind speed distributions. A comparison between MinxEnt pdfs defined on the basis of the MinxEnt principle and the Weibull pdf on wind speed data, which are taken from different sources and measured in various regions, is conducted. The wind power densities of the considered regions obtained from Weibull and MinxEnt pdfs are also compared. The results indicate that the pdfs derived from the MinxEnt principle fit better to a variety of measured wind speed data than the conventionally applied empirical Weibull pdf. Therefore, it is shown that the MinxEnt principle can be used as an alternative method to estimate both wind distribution and wind power accurately

  7. Modulatory effects of Gs-coupled excitatory opioid receptor functions on opioid analgesia, tolerance, and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, S M; Shen, K F

    1996-11-01

    Electrophysiologic studies of opioid effects on nociceptive types of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in organotypic cultures have shown that morphine and most mu, delta, and kappa opioid agonists can elicit bimodal excitatory as well as inhibitory modulation of the action potential duration (APD) of these cells. Excitatory opioid effects have been shown to be mediated by opioid receptors that are coupled via Gs to cyclic AMP-dependent ionic conductances that prolong the APD, whereas inhibitory opioid effects are mediated by opioid receptors coupled via Gi/Go to ionic conductances that shorten the APD. Selective blockade of excitatory opioid receptor functions by low (ca. pM) concentrations of naloxone, naltrexone, etorphine and other specific agents markedly increases the inhibitory potency of morphine or other bimodally acting agonists and attenuates development of tolerance/dependence. These in vitro studies have been confirmed by tail-flick assays showing that acute co-treatment of mice with morphine plus ultra-low-dose naltrexone or etorphine remarkably enhances the antinociceptive potency of morphine whereas chronic co-treatment attenuates development of tolerance and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-jumping symptoms.

  8. Unsupervised Learning and Pattern Recognition of Biological Data Structures with Density Functional Theory and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Juan, Hung-Hui; Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing

    2018-01-11

    By introducing the methods of machine learning into the density functional theory, we made a detour for the construction of the most probable density function, which can be estimated by learning relevant features from the system of interest. Using the properties of universal functional, the vital core of density functional theory, the most probable cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries in a studying system can be simultaneously and automatically determined and the plausibility is erected on the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems. For the method validation and pragmatic applications, interdisciplinary problems from physical to biological systems were enumerated. The amalgamation of uncharged atomic clusters validated the unsupervised searching process of the cluster numbers and the corresponding cluster boundaries were exhibited likewise. High accurate clustering results of the Fisher's iris dataset showed the feasibility and the flexibility of the proposed scheme. Brain tumor detections from low-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging datasets and segmentations of high-dimensional neural network imageries in the Brainbow system were also used to inspect the method practicality. The experimental results exhibit the successful connection between the physical theory and the machine learning methods and will benefit the clinical diagnoses.

  9. On convergence of differential evolution over a class of continuous functions with unique global optimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sayan; Das, Swagatam; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Suresh, Kaushik

    2012-02-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is arguably one of the most powerful stochastic real-parameter optimization algorithms of current interest. Since its inception in the mid 1990s, DE has been finding many successful applications in real-world optimization problems from diverse domains of science and engineering. This paper takes a first significant step toward the convergence analysis of a canonical DE (DE/rand/1/bin) algorithm. It first deduces a time-recursive relationship for the probability density function (PDF) of the trial solutions, taking into consideration the DE-type mutation, crossover, and selection mechanisms. Then, by applying the concepts of Lyapunov stability theorems, it shows that as time approaches infinity, the PDF of the trial solutions concentrates narrowly around the global optimum of the objective function, assuming the shape of a Dirac delta distribution. Asymptotic convergence behavior of the population PDF is established by constructing a Lyapunov functional based on the PDF and showing that it monotonically decreases with time. The analysis is applicable to a class of continuous and real-valued objective functions that possesses a unique global optimum (but may have multiple local optima). Theoretical results have been substantiated with relevant computer simulations.

  10. Detecting spatial patterns with the cumulant function – Part 1: The theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Naveau

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In climate studies, detecting spatial patterns that largely deviate from the sample mean still remains a statistical challenge. Although a Principal Component Analysis (PCA, or equivalently a Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF decomposition, is often applied for this purpose, it provides meaningful results only if the underlying multivariate distribution is Gaussian. Indeed, PCA is based on optimizing second order moments, and the covariance matrix captures the full dependence structure of multivariate Gaussian vectors. Whenever the application at hand can not satisfy this normality hypothesis (e.g. precipitation data, alternatives and/or improvements to PCA have to be developed and studied. To go beyond this second order statistics constraint, that limits the applicability of the PCA, we take advantage of the cumulant function that can produce higher order moments information. The cumulant function, well-known in the statistical literature, allows us to propose a new, simple and fast procedure to identify spatial patterns for non-Gaussian data. Our algorithm consists in maximizing the cumulant function. Three families of multivariate random vectors, for which explicit computations are obtained, are implemented to illustrate our approach. In addition, we show that our algorithm corresponds to selecting the directions along which projected data display the largest spread over the marginal probability density tails.

  11. Measurement as absorption of Feynman trajectories: Collapse of the wave function can be avoided

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.

    2002-01-01

    We define a measuring device (detector) of the coordinate of quantum particle as an absorbing wall that cuts off the particle's wave function. The wave function in the presence of such a detector vanishes on the detector. The trace the absorbed particles leave on the detector is identified as the absorption current density on the detector. This density is calculated from the solution of Schroedinger's equation with a reflecting boundary at the detector. This current density is not the usual Schroedinger current density. We define the probability distribution of the time of arrival to a detector in terms of the absorption current density. We define coordinate measurement by an absorbing wall in terms of four postulates. In the resulting theory the quantum-mechanical collapse of the wave function is replaced with the usual collapse of the probability distribution after observation. Two measurement experiments are proposed to measure time of arrival and the probability density function of a freely propagating two-dimensional Gaussian packet from the measurement of the absorption current on two planes

  12. Bimodal extinction without cross-modal extinction.

    OpenAIRE

    Inhoff, A W; Rafal, R D; Posner, M J

    1992-01-01

    Three patients with unilateral neurological injury were clinically examined. All showed consistent unilateral extinction in the tactile and visual modalities on simultaneous intramodal stimulation. There was virtually no evidence for cross-modal extinction, however, so that contralateral stimulation of one modality would have extinguished perception of ipsilateral stimuli in the other modality. It is concluded that the attentional system controlling the encoding of tactile and visual stimuli ...

  13. Impact of Zygosity on Bimodal Phenotype Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst-Hansen, Thomas; Abad, Elena; Muntasell, Aura

    2017-01-01

    . Here, we study this question making use of the natural genetic variability of human populations, which allows us to compare the expression profiles of a receptor protein in natural killer cells among donors infected with human cytomegalovirus with one or two copies of the allele. Crucially...

  14. Multiplicative processes and power laws in human reaction times derived from hyperbolic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, José M.

    2012-01-01

    In sensory psychophysics reaction time is a measure of the stochastic latency elapsed from stimulus presentation until a sensory response occurs as soon as possible. A random multiplicative model of reaction time variability is investigated for generating the reaction time probability density functions. The model describes a generic class of hyperbolic functions by Piéron's law. The results demonstrate that reaction time distributions are the combination of log-normal with power law density functions. A transition from log-normal to power law behavior is found and depends on the transfer of information in neurons. The conditions to obtain Zipf's law are analyzed. -- Highlights: ► I have examined human reaction time variability by random multiplicative processes. ► A transition from power law to log-normal distributions is described. ► The transition depends on the transfer of information in neurons. ► Zipf's law in reaction time distributions depends on the exponent of Piéron's law.

  15. Solution of the quantum fluid dynamical equations with radial basis function interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xu-Guang; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel; Askar, Attila

    2000-01-01

    The paper proposes a numerical technique within the Lagrangian description for propagating the quantum fluid dynamical (QFD) equations in terms of the Madelung field variables R and S, which are connected to the wave function via the transformation ψ=exp{(R+iS)/(ℎ/2π)}. The technique rests on the QFD equations depending only on the form, not the magnitude, of the probability density ρ=|ψ| 2 and on the structure of R=(ℎ/2π)/2 ln ρ generally being simpler and smoother than ρ. The spatially smooth functions R and S are especially suitable for multivariate radial basis function interpolation to enable the implementation of a robust numerical scheme. Examples of two-dimensional model systems show that the method rivals, in both efficiency and accuracy, the split-operator and Chebychev expansion methods. The results on a three-dimensional model system indicates that the present method is superior to the existing ones, especially, for its low storage requirement and its uniform accuracy. The advantage of the new algorithm is expected to increase for higher dimensional systems to provide a practical computational tool. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  16. Solution of the quantum fluid dynamical equations with radial basis function interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xu-Guang; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel; Askar, Attila

    2000-05-01

    The paper proposes a numerical technique within the Lagrangian description for propagating the quantum fluid dynamical (QFD) equations in terms of the Madelung field variables R and S, which are connected to the wave function via the transformation ψ=exp\\{(R+iS)/ħ\\}. The technique rests on the QFD equations depending only on the form, not the magnitude, of the probability density ρ=\\|ψ\\|2 and on the structure of R=ħ/2 ln ρ generally being simpler and smoother than ρ. The spatially smooth functions R and S are especially suitable for multivariate radial basis function interpolation to enable the implementation of a robust numerical scheme. Examples of two-dimensional model systems show that the method rivals, in both efficiency and accuracy, the split-operator and Chebychev expansion methods. The results on a three-dimensional model system indicates that the present method is superior to the existing ones, especially, for its low storage requirement and its uniform accuracy. The advantage of the new algorithm is expected to increase for higher dimensional systems to provide a practical computational tool.

  17. Palaeoenvironmental transfer functions in a bayesian framework with application to holocene climate variability in the near east

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoelzel, C. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    2006-07-01

    This thesis presents the development of statistical climatological-botanical transfer functions in order to provide reconstructions of Holocene climate variability in the Near East region. Two classical concepts, the biomisation as well as the indicator taxa approach, are translated into a Bayesian network. Fossil pollen spectra of laminated sediments from the Ein Gedi location at the western shoreline of the Dead Sea and from the crater lake Birkat Ram in the northern Golan serve as proxy data, covering the past 10000 and 6500 years, respectively. The climatological variables are winter temperature, summer temperature, and annual precipitation, obtained from the 0.5 x 0.5 degree climatology CRU TS 1.0. The Bayesian biome model is based on the three main vegetation territories, the Mediterranean, the Irano-Turanian, and the Saharo-Arabian territory, which are digitized on the same grid as the climate data. From their spatial extend, a classification in the phase space is described by estimating the conditional probability for the existence of a certain biome given the climate. These biome specific likelihood functions are modelled by a generalised linear model, including second order monomials of the climate variables. A statistical mixture model is applied to the biome probabilities as estimated by the Ein Gedi data, resulting in a posterior probability density function for the three dimensional climate state vector. The indicator taxa model is based on the distribution of 15 Mediterranean taxa. Their spatial extend allows to estimate the taxon specific likelihood functions. In this case, they are conditional probability density functions for the climate state vector given the existence of a certain taxon. In order to address the general problem of multivariate non-normally distributed populations, multivariate normal Copulas are used, which allow to create distribution functions with gamma as well as normal marginal distributions. Applying the model to the Birkat

  18. Two-body Schrödinger wave functions in a plane-wave basis via separation of dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerke, Jonathan; Poirier, Bill

    2018-03-01

    Using a combination of ideas, the ground and several excited electronic states of the helium atom and the hydrogen molecule are computed to chemical accuracy—i.e., to within 1-2 mhartree or better. The basic strategy is very different from the standard electronic structure approach in that the full two-electron six-dimensional (6D) problem is tackled directly, rather than starting from a single-electron Hartree-Fock approximation. Electron correlation is thus treated exactly, even though computational requirements remain modest. The method also allows for exact wave functions to be computed, as well as energy levels. From the full-dimensional 6D wave functions computed here, radial distribution functions and radial correlation functions are extracted—as well as a 2D probability density function exhibiting antisymmetry for a single Cartesian component. These calculations support a more recent interpretation of Hund's rule, which states that the lower energy of the higher spin-multiplicity states is actually due to reduced screening, rather than reduced electron-electron repulsion. Prospects for larger systems and/or electron dynamics applications appear promising.

  19. Probabilistic solution of nonlinear oscillators excited by combined Gaussian and Poisson white noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. T.; Er, G. K.; Iu, V. P.; Kou, K. P.

    2011-06-01

    The stationary probability density function (PDF) solution of the stochastic response of nonlinear oscillators is investigated in this paper. The external excitation is assumed to be a combination of Gaussian and Poisson white noises. The PDF solution is governed by the generalized Kolmogorov equation which is solved by the exponential-polynomial closure (EPC) method. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the EPC method, different nonlinear oscillators are considered in numerical analysis. Nonlinearity exists either in displacement or in velocity for these nonlinear oscillators. The impulse arrival rate, mono-modal PDF and bi-modal PDF are also considered in this study. Compared to the PDF given by Monte Carlo simulation, the EPC method presents good agreement with the simulated result, which can also be observed in the tail region of the PDF solution.

  20. Fitting Statistical Distributions Functions on Ozone Concentration Data at Coastal Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Yazid Nasir; Nurul Adyani Ghazali; Muhammad Izwan Zariq Mokhtar; Norhazlina Suhaimi

    2016-01-01

    Ozone is known as one of the pollutant that contributes to the air pollution problem. Therefore, it is important to carry out the study on ozone. The objective of this study is to find the best statistical distribution for ozone concentration. There are three distributions namely Inverse Gaussian, Weibull and Lognormal were chosen to fit one year hourly average ozone concentration data in 2010 at Port Dickson and Port Klang. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method was used to estimate the parameters to develop the probability density function (PDF) graph and cumulative density function (CDF) graph. Three performance indicators (PI) that are normalized absolute error (NAE), prediction accuracy (PA), and coefficient of determination (R 2 ) were used to determine the goodness-of-fit criteria of the distribution. Result shows that Weibull distribution is the best distribution with the smallest error measure value (NAE) at Port Klang and Port Dickson is 0.08 and 0.31, respectively. The best score for highest adequacy measure (PA: 0.99) with the value of R 2 is 0.98 (Port Klang) and 0.99 (Port Dickson). These results provide useful information to local authorities for prediction purpose. (author)