WorldWideScience

Sample records for bimodal membrane behaviour

  1. Enhancing water flux of thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane by incorporation of bimodal silica nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Yin; Baolin Deng; Zhe Yang

    2016-01-01

    Modern reverse osmosis (RO)/nanofiltration (NF) membranes are primarily made of thin-film composites (TFC) fabricated through interfacial polymerization of m-phenylene diamine (MPD) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on a polysulfone (PSF) supporting membrane. In this study, two types of bimodal silica nanoparticles (~80 nm) with different internal pore structures were synthesized and incorporated into the polyamide (PA) thin-film layer during interfacial polymerization at concentrations varying fr...

  2. Enhancing water flux of thin-film nanocomposite (TFN membrane by incorporation of bimodal silica nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern reverse osmosis (RO/nanofiltration (NF membranes are primarily made of thin-film composites (TFC fabricated through interfacial polymerization of m-phenylene diamine (MPD and trimesoyl chloride (TMC on a polysulfone (PSF supporting membrane. In this study, two types of bimodal silica nanoparticles (~80 nm with different internal pore structures were synthesized and incorporated into the polyamide (PA thin-film layer during interfacial polymerization at concentrations varying from 0 to 0.1 wt%. The as-prepared membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR spectroscopy, and their performances were evaluated in terms of the water permeability and salt rejection. The results showed the water permeability increased with increasing BSN concentrations, reaching a maximum of 53.5 L m−2 h−1 at a bimodal silica nanoparticle (BSN concentration of 0.5 wt% (pressure at 300 psi, NaCl concentration: 2000 ppm. This represented a flux increase of approximately 40%, while a near constant salt rejection of 95% was maintained. The study demonstrated that the internal micro-mesoporous structures of bimodal silica nanoparticles contributed significantly to the membrane performance, which is consistent with previous studies with relatively uniform internal pores.

  3. Bimodality and re-entrant behaviour in the hierarchical self-assembly of polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C K, Sarika; Tomar, Gaurav; Basu, J K; Thiele, Uwe

    2015-12-14

    We show that a film of a suspension of polymer grafted nanoparticles on a liquid substrate can be employed to create two-dimensional nanostructures with a remarkable variation in the pattern length scales. The presented experiments also reveal the emergence of concentration-dependent bimodal patterns as well as re-entrant behaviour that involves length scales due to dewetting and compositional instabilities. The experimental observations are explained through a gradient dynamics model consisting of coupled evolution equations for the height of the suspension film and the concentration of polymer. Using a Flory-Huggins free energy functional for the polymer solution, we show in a linear stability analysis that the thin film undergoes dewetting and/or compositional instabilities depending on the concentration of the polymer in the solution. We argue that the formation via 'hierarchical self-assembly' of various functional nanostructures observed in different systems can be explained as resulting from such an interplay of instabilities. PMID:26406929

  4. Efficient and reusable polyamide-56 nanofiber/nets membrane with bimodal structures for air filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bowen; Zhang, Shichao; Wang, Xueli; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Nanofibrous media that both possess high airborne particle interception efficiency and robust air permeability would have broad technological implications for areas ranging from individual protection and industrial security to environmental governance; however, creating such filtration media has proved extremely challenging. Here we report a strategy to construct the bio-based polyamide-56 nanofiber/nets (PA-56 NFN) membranes with bimodal structures for effective air filtration via one-step electrospinning/netting. The PA-56 membranes are composed of completely covered two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin (∼20 nm) nanonets which are optimized by facilely regulating the solution concentration, and the bonded scaffold fibers constructed cavity structures which are synchronously created by using the CH3COOH inspiration. With integrated properties of small aperture, high porosity, and bonded scaffold, the resulting PA-56 NFN membranes exhibit high filtration efficiency of 99.995%, low pressure drop of 111 Pa, combined with large dust holding capacity of 49 g/m(2) and dust-cleaning regeneration ability, for filtrating ultrafine airborne particles in the most safe manner involving sieving principle and surface filtration. The successful synthesis of PA-56 NFN medium would not only make it a promising candidate for air filtration, but also provide new insights into the design and development of nanonet-based bimodal structures for various applications. PMID:26188726

  5. Efficient and reusable polyamide-56 nanofiber/nets membrane with bimodal structures for air filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bowen; Zhang, Shichao; Wang, Xueli; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Nanofibrous media that both possess high airborne particle interception efficiency and robust air permeability would have broad technological implications for areas ranging from individual protection and industrial security to environmental governance; however, creating such filtration media has proved extremely challenging. Here we report a strategy to construct the bio-based polyamide-56 nanofiber/nets (PA-56 NFN) membranes with bimodal structures for effective air filtration via one-step electrospinning/netting. The PA-56 membranes are composed of completely covered two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin (∼20 nm) nanonets which are optimized by facilely regulating the solution concentration, and the bonded scaffold fibers constructed cavity structures which are synchronously created by using the CH3COOH inspiration. With integrated properties of small aperture, high porosity, and bonded scaffold, the resulting PA-56 NFN membranes exhibit high filtration efficiency of 99.995%, low pressure drop of 111 Pa, combined with large dust holding capacity of 49 g/m(2) and dust-cleaning regeneration ability, for filtrating ultrafine airborne particles in the most safe manner involving sieving principle and surface filtration. The successful synthesis of PA-56 NFN medium would not only make it a promising candidate for air filtration, but also provide new insights into the design and development of nanonet-based bimodal structures for various applications.

  6. A bimodal catalytic membrane having a hydrogen-permselective silica layer on a bimodal catalytic support: Preparation and application to the steam reforming of methane

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuru, Toshinori; Shintani, Hiroaki; Yoshioka, Tomohisa; Asaeda, Masashi

    2006-01-01

    The steam reforming of methane for hydrogen production was experimentally investigated using catalytic membrane reactors, consisting of a microporous silica top layer, for the selective permeation of hydrogen, and an α-alumina support layer, for catalytic reaction of the steam reforming of methane. An α-alumina support layer with a bimodal structure, which was proposed for the enhanced dispersion of Ni catalysts, was prepared by impregnating γ-Al2O3 inside α-Al2O3 microfiltration membranes (1...

  7. Wang-Landau study of the critical behaviour of the bimodal 3D-Random Field Ising Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Laura; Ceva, Horacio

    2007-01-01

    We apply the Wang-Landau method to the study of the critical behaviour of the three dimensional Random Field Ising Model with a bimodal probability distribution. Our results show that for high values of the random field intensity the transition is first order, characterized by a double-peaked energy probability distribution at the transition temperature. On the other hand, the transition looks continuous for low values of the field intensity. In spite of the large sample to sample fluctuation...

  8. Sperm Membrane Behaviour during Cooling and Cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieme, H; Oldenhof, H; Wolkers, W F

    2015-09-01

    Native sperm is only marginally stable after collection. Cryopreservation of semen facilitates transport and storage for later use in artificial reproduction technologies, but cryopreservation processing may result in cellular damage compromising sperm function. Membranes are thought to be the primary site of cryopreservation injury. Therefore, insights into the effects of cooling, ice formation and protective agents on sperm membranes may help to rationally design cryopreservation protocols. In this review, we describe membrane phase behaviour of sperm at supra- and subzero temperatures. In addition, factors affecting membrane phase transitions and stability, sperm osmotic tolerance limits and mode of action of cryoprotective agents are discussed. It is shown how cooling only results in minor thermotropic non-cooperative phase transitions, whereas freezing causes sharp lyotropic fluid-to-gel phase transitions. Membrane cholesterol content affects suprazero membrane phase behaviour and osmotic tolerance. The rate and extent of cellular dehydration coinciding with freezing-induced membrane phase transitions are affected by the cooling rate and ice nucleation temperature and can be modulated by cryoprotective agents. Permeating agents such as glycerol can move across cellular membranes, whereas non-permeating agents such as sucrose cannot. Both, permeating and non-permeating protectants preserve biomolecular and cellular structures by forming a protective glassy state during freezing. PMID:26382025

  9. Bimodal behaviour of charge carriers in graphene induced by electric double layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sing-Jyun; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2016-07-01

    A theoretical investigation is performed into the electronic properties of graphene in the presence of liquid as a function of the contact area ratio. It is shown that the electric double layer (EDL) formed at the interface of the graphene and the liquid causes an overlap of the conduction bands and valance bands and increases the density of state (DOS) at the Fermi energy (EF). In other words, a greater number of charge carriers are induced for transport and the graphene changes from a semiconductor to a semimetal. In addition, it is shown that the dependence of the DOS at EF on the contact area ratio has a bimodal distribution which responses to the experimental observation, a pinnacle curve. The maximum number of induced carriers is expected to occur at contact area ratios of 40% and 60%. In general, the present results indicate that modulating the EDL provides an effective means of tuning the electronic properties of graphene in the presence of liquid.

  10. Bimodal behaviour of charge carriers in graphene induced by electric double layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sing-Jyun; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is performed into the electronic properties of graphene in the presence of liquid as a function of the contact area ratio. It is shown that the electric double layer (EDL) formed at the interface of the graphene and the liquid causes an overlap of the conduction bands and valance bands and increases the density of state (DOS) at the Fermi energy (EF). In other words, a greater number of charge carriers are induced for transport and the graphene changes from a semiconductor to a semimetal. In addition, it is shown that the dependence of the DOS at EF on the contact area ratio has a bimodal distribution which responses to the experimental observation, a pinnacle curve. The maximum number of induced carriers is expected to occur at contact area ratios of 40% and 60%. In general, the present results indicate that modulating the EDL provides an effective means of tuning the electronic properties of graphene in the presence of liquid. PMID:27464986

  11. Bimodal behaviour of charge carriers in graphene induced by electric double layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sing-Jyun; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is performed into the electronic properties of graphene in the presence of liquid as a function of the contact area ratio. It is shown that the electric double layer (EDL) formed at the interface of the graphene and the liquid causes an overlap of the conduction bands and valance bands and increases the density of state (DOS) at the Fermi energy (EF). In other words, a greater number of charge carriers are induced for transport and the graphene changes from a semiconductor to a semimetal. In addition, it is shown that the dependence of the DOS at EF on the contact area ratio has a bimodal distribution which responses to the experimental observation, a pinnacle curve. The maximum number of induced carriers is expected to occur at contact area ratios of 40% and 60%. In general, the present results indicate that modulating the EDL provides an effective means of tuning the electronic properties of graphene in the presence of liquid. PMID:27464986

  12. Dynamics of bimodality in vehicular traffic flows

    OpenAIRE

    Mullick, Arjun; Ray, Arnab K.

    2012-01-01

    A model equation has been proposed to describe bimodal features in vehicular traffic flows. The dynamics of the bimodal distribution reveals the existence of a fixed point that is connected to itself by a homoclinic trajectory. The mathematical conditions associated with bimodality have been established. The critical factors necessary for both a breaking of symmetry and a transition from bimodal to unimodal behaviour, in the manner of a bifurcation, have been analysed.

  13. Behaviour of Steel Arch Stabilized by a Textile Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, O.; Machacek, J.

    2015-11-01

    Behaviour of the slender steel arch supporting textile membranes in a membrane structure with respect to in-plane and out-of plane stability is investigated in the paper. In the last decades the textile membranes have been widely used to cover both common and exclusive structures due to progress in new membrane materials with eminent properties. Nevertheless, complex analysis of such membranes in interaction with steel structure (carbon/stainless steel perimeter or supporting elements) is rather demanding, even with specialized software. Laboratory model of a large membrane structure simulating a shelter roof of a concert stage was tested and the resulting stress/deflection values are presented. The model of a reasonable size was provided with prestressed membrane of PVC coated polyester fabric Ferrari® Précontraint 702S and tested under various loadings. The supporting steel structure consisted of two steel arch tubes from S355 grade steel and perimeter prestressed cables. The stability behaviour of the inner tube was the primary interest of the investigation. The SOFiSTiK software was used to analyse the structural behaviour in 3D. Numerical non-linear analysis of deflections and internal forces of the structure under symmetrical and asymmetrical loadings covers various membrane prestressing and specific boundary conditions. The numerical results are validated using test results. Finally, the preliminary recommendations for appropriate numerical modelling and stability design of the supporting structure are presented.

  14. Glycans pattern the phase behaviour of lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Guidotti, Guido; Manoharan, Vinothan N.; Stone, Howard A.

    2013-02-01

    Hydrated networks of glycans (polysaccharides)—in the form of cell walls, periplasms or gel-like matrices—are ubiquitously present adjacent to cellular plasma membranes. Yet, despite their abundance, the function of glycans in the extracellular milieu is largely unknown. Here we show that the spatial configuration of glycans controls the phase behaviour of multiphase model lipid membranes: inhomogeneous glycan networks stabilize large lipid domains at the characteristic length scale of the network, whereas homogeneous networks suppress macroscopic lipid phase separation. We also find that glycan-patterned phase separation is thermally reversible—thus indicating that the effect is thermodynamic rather than kinetic—and that phase patterning probably results from a preferential interaction of glycans with ordered lipid phases. These findings have implications for membrane-mediated transport processes, potentially rationalize long-standing observations that differentiate the behaviour of native and model membranes and may indicate an intimate coupling between cellular lipidomes and glycomes.

  15. Bimodal Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; Borinstein, Helsa B.; Thompson, Robin; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2008-01-01

    Speech-sign or "bimodal" bilingualism is exceptional because distinct modalities allow for simultaneous production of two languages. We investigated the ramifications of this phenomenon for models of language production by eliciting language mixing from eleven hearing native users of American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Instead of switching…

  16. Measurement of dynamic patterns of an elastic membrane at bi-modal vibration using high speed electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado, Jorge Sanchez; Lopez, Carlos Perez; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza [Grupo de Metrología Optica, Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, A. C. Loma del Bosque 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre, León, Guanajuato, 37150 (Mexico)

    2014-05-27

    Implementing a hybrid arrangement of Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) and high speed Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) we were able to measure the dynamic patterns of a flat rectangular elastic membrane clamped at its edges stimulated with the sum of two resonance frequencies. ESPI is a versatile technique to analyze in real-time the deformation of a membrane since its low computational cost and easy implementation of the optical setup. Elastic membranes present nonlinear behaviors when stimulated with low amplitude signals. The elastic membrane under test, with several non rational related vibrating modals below the 200 Hz, was stimulated with two consecutives resonant frequencies. The ESPI patterns, acquired at high speed rates, shown a similar behavior for the dual frequency stimulation as in the case of patterns formed with the entrainment frequency. We think this may be related to the effects observed in the application of dual frequency stimulation in ultrasound.

  17. Measurement of dynamic patterns of an elastic membrane at bi-modal vibration using high speed electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Jorge Sanchez; Lopez, Carlos Perez; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza

    2014-05-01

    Implementing a hybrid arrangement of Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) and high speed Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) we were able to measure the dynamic patterns of a flat rectangular elastic membrane clamped at its edges stimulated with the sum of two resonance frequencies. ESPI is a versatile technique to analyze in real-time the deformation of a membrane since its low computational cost and easy implementation of the optical setup. Elastic membranes present nonlinear behaviors when stimulated with low amplitude signals. The elastic membrane under test, with several non rational related vibrating modals below the 200 Hz, was stimulated with two consecutives resonant frequencies. The ESPI patterns, acquired at high speed rates, shown a similar behavior for the dual frequency stimulation as in the case of patterns formed with the entrainment frequency. We think this may be related to the effects observed in the application of dual frequency stimulation in ultrasound.

  18. In-vitro Degradation Behaviour of Irradiated Bacterial Cellulose Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial cellulose membrane synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum in coconut water medium has potential application for Guided bone Regeneration. However, this membrane may not meet some application requirements due to its low biodegradation properties. In this paper, incorporation of gamma irradiation into the membrane is a developed strategy to increase its biodegradability properties. The in-vitro degradation study in synthetic body fluid (SBF) of the irradiated membrane has been analyzed during periods of 6 months by means of weight loss, mechanical properties and scanning electron microscopy observation compared to that the un-irradiated one. The result showed that weight loss of irradiated membrane with 25 kGy and 50 kGy and immersed in SBF solution for 6 months reached 18% and 25% respectively. While un-irradiated membrane did not give significant weight loss. Tensile strength of membranes decreases with increasing of irradiation dose and further decreases in tensile strength is observed when irradiated membrane was followed by immersion in SBF solution. Microscope electron image of cellulose membranes shows that un-irradiated bacterial cellulose membrane consists of dense ultrafine fibril network structures, while irradiation result in cleavage of fibrils network of cellulose. The fibrils network become loosely after irradiated membrane immersed in SBF solution due to released of small molecular weight carbohydrates formed during by irradiation from the structure (author)

  19. In-vitro Degradation Behaviour of Irradiated Bacterial Cellulose Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Darwis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose membrane synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum in coconut water medium has potential application for Guided bone Regeneration. However, this membrane may not meet some application requirements due to its low biodegradation properties. In this paper, incorporation of gamma irradiation into the membrane is a developed strategy to increase its biodegradability properties. The in–vitro degradation study in synthetic body fluid (SBF of the irradiated membrane has been analyzed during periods of 6 months by means of weight loss, mechanical properties and scanning electron microscopy observation compared to that the un-irradiated one. The result showed that weight loss of irradiated membrane with 25 kGy and 50 kGy and immersed in SBF solution for 6 months reached 18% and 25% respectively. While un-irradiated membrane did not give significant weight loss. Tensile strength of membranes decreases with increasing of irradiation dose and further decreases in tensile strength is observed when irradiated membrane was followed by immersion in SBF solution. Microscope electron image of cellulose membranes shows that un-irradiated bacterial cellulose membrane consists of dense ultrafine fibril network structures, while irradiation result in cleavage of fibrils network of cellulose. The fibrils network become loosely after irradiated membrane immersed in SBF solution due to released of small molecular weight carbohydrates formed during by irradiation from the structure

  20. Polymorphic phase behaviour of phosphatidylglycerine in spinach thylakoid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krumova, S.K.B.; Dijkema, C.; Garab, G.; Amerongen, van H.

    2005-01-01

    Our data show that the phospholipids of chloroplast thylakoid membranes participate in non-lamellar phases and polymorphic changes. Although 31P NMR is sensitive solely to phospholipids, it seems plausible to assume that the transitions involve the entire lipid mixture, the non-lamellar propensity o

  1. Current-voltage behaviour of bipolar membranes in concentrated salt solutions investigated with chronopotentiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, F.G.; Vegt, van der N.F.A.; Strathmann, H.; Wessling, M.

    2002-01-01

    Chronopotentiometry is used as a tool to obtain detailed information on the transport behaviour of the bipolar membrane BP-1 in solutions of high sodium chloride concentration above the limiting current density. We discuss critically the interpretation of the observed transition times. The occurrenc

  2. Influence of membrane galactolipids and surface pressure on plastoquinone behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyo, Javier; Guaus, Ester; Torrent-Burgués, Juan

    2016-10-01

    In this work biomimetic monolayers of a MGDG, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, and DGDG, digalactosyldiacylglycerol mixture (MD), in a ratio close to that of the thylakoid membranes of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, have been prepared. The lipid mixture incorporates plastoquinone-9 (PQ), that is the electron and proton shuttle of the photosynthetic reaction centres. The MD:PQ mixtures have been firstly studied using surface pressure-area isotherms. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of those mixtures have been transferred onto a substrate forming a monolayer that mimics one of the bilayer sides of the thylakoid membranes. These monolayers have been characterized topographically and electrochemically. The results show the influence of PQ in the MD matrix and its partial expulsion when increasing the surface pressure, obtaining two main PQ positions in the MD matrix. The calculated apparent electron transfer rate constants indicate a different kinetic control for the reduction and the oxidation of the PQ/PQH2 couple, being kRapp(I)=0.7·10(-6)s(-1), kRapp(II)=2.2·10(-9)s(-1), kOapp(I)=7.4·10(-4)s(-1) and kOapp(II)=5.2·10(-5)s(-1), respectively. The comparison of the different galactolipid:PQ systems that our group has studied is also presented, concluding that the PQ position in the galactolipid matrix can be tuned according to several controlled variables. PMID:27317998

  3. Rejection of pharmaceuticals by nanofiltration (NF) membranes: Effect of fouling on rejection behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlangu, T. O.; Msagati, T. A. M.; Hoek, E. M. V.; Verliefde, A. R. D.; Mamba, B. B.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of membrane fouling by sodium alginate, latex and a combination of alginate + latex on the rejection behaviour of salts and organics. Sodium chloride and caffeine were selected to represent salts and organics, respectively. The effects of the presence of calcium chloride on the fouling behaviour and rejection of solutes were investigated. The results revealed that the salt rejection by virgin membranes was 47% while that of caffeine was 85%. Fouling by alginate, latex and combined alginate-latex resulted in flux decline of 25%, 37% and 17%, respectively. The addition of Ca2+ aggravated fouling and resulted in further flux decline to 37%. Fouling decreased salt rejection, an observation that was further aggravated by the addition on Ca2+. However, it was also observed that fouling with alginate and calcium and with latex and calcium minimised salt rejection by 30% and 31%, respectively. This reduction in salt rejection was attributed to the decrease in permeate flux (since rejection is a function of flux). There was a slight increase in caffeine rejection when the membrane was fouled with latex particles. Moreover, the presence of foulants on the membrane resulted in a decrease in the surface charge of the membrane. The results of this study have shown that the NF 270 membrane can be used to treat water samples contaminated with caffeine and other organic compounds that have physicochemical properties similar to those of caffeine.

  4. Ocean acidification impacts on sperm mitochondrial membrane potential bring sperm swimming behaviour near its tipping point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Peter; Binet, Monique T; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Doyle, Christopher J; Williamson, Jane E

    2015-04-01

    Broadcast spawning marine invertebrates are susceptible to environmental stressors such as climate change, as their reproduction depends on the successful meeting and fertilization of gametes in the water column. Under near-future scenarios of ocean acidification, the swimming behaviour of marine invertebrate sperm is altered. We tested whether this was due to changes in sperm mitochondrial activity by investigating the effects of ocean acidification on sperm metabolism and swimming behaviour in the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii. We used a fluorescent molecular probe (JC-1) and flow cytometry to visualize mitochondrial activity (measured as change in mitochondrial membrane potential, MMP). Sperm MMP was significantly reduced in ΔpH -0.3 (35% reduction) and ΔpH -0.5 (48% reduction) treatments, whereas sperm swimming behaviour was less sensitive with only slight changes (up to 11% decrease) observed overall. There was significant inter-individual variability in responses of sperm swimming behaviour and MMP to acidified seawater. We suggest it is likely that sperm exposed to these changes in pH are close to their tipping point in terms of physiological tolerance to acidity. Importantly, substantial inter-individual variation in responses of sperm swimming to ocean acidification may increase the scope for selection of resilient phenotypes, which, if heritable, could provide a basis for adaptation to future ocean acidification.

  5. Role of Bimodal RDX in LOVA Gun Propellant Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Joshi

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation reports the results of systematic studies on the use of bimodal RDX in low-vulnerability ammunition (LOVA gun propellants. Several formulations based on bimodal RDX as oxidiser, cellulose acetate as binder, and diocty1 phthalate or triacetin as plasticizer were processed with different proportions of 5 micrometer and 20 micrometer particle size of RDX samples in the range 100:0 to 60:40 ratios. The effect of varying the proportion of fine RDX of the two particle sizes on propellant burning behaviour was found to be quite significant. The study concluded that by using bimodal RDX, it is possible to modify burning behaviour without sacrificing low-vulnerability aspects of LOVA propellants.

  6. Open channel current noise analysis of S6 peptides from KvAP channel on bilayer lipid membrane shows bimodal power law scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Rajan; Malik, Chetan; Ghosh, Subhendu

    2016-06-01

    Open channel current noise in synthetic peptide S6 of KvAP channel was investigated in a voltage clamp experiment on bilayer lipid membrane (BLM). It was observed that the power spectral density (PSD) of the component frequencies follows power law with different slopes in different frequency ranges. In order to know the origin of the slopes PSD analysis was done with signal filtering. It was found that the first slope in the noise profile follows 1 / f pattern which exists at lower frequencies and has high amplitude current noise, while the second slope corresponds to 1 /f 2 - 3 pattern which exists at higher frequencies with low amplitude current noise. In addition, white noise was observed at very large frequencies. It was concluded that the plausible reason for the multiple power-law scaling is the existence of different modes of non-equilibrium ion transport through the S6 channel.

  7. Studies of the complexation behaviour of transition metals applicable in membrane technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Voorde, I. van de

    2008-01-01

    Many industrial processes make use of metal ions. These metal ions, however, end up in several effluent streams. Due to very strict discharge values, new technologies are constantly emerging for treating and purifying all kinds of wastewater. One of these innovative technologies is the Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) technique. The SLM technology is a membrane-based solvent extraction method that uses a micro-porous hydrophobic membrane as supporting layer. This membrane is impregnated with a...

  8. A bimodal biometric identification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghari, Mohammad S.; Khuwaja, Gulzar A.

    2013-03-01

    Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Physicals are related to the shape of the body. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. However, biometric authentication systems suffer from imprecision and difficulty in person recognition due to a number of reasons and no single biometrics is expected to effectively satisfy the requirements of all verification and/or identification applications. Bimodal biometric systems are expected to be more reliable due to the presence of two pieces of evidence and also be able to meet the severe performance requirements imposed by various applications. This paper presents a neural network based bimodal biometric identification system by using human face and handwritten signature features.

  9. Oculomotor interference of bimodal distractors

    OpenAIRE

    Heeman, Jessica; Nijboer, Tanja C. W.; van der Stoep, Nathan; Theeuwes, Jan; Stigchel, Stefan Van der

    2016-01-01

    When executing an eye movement to a target location, the presence of an irrelevant distracting stimulus can influence the saccade metrics and latency. The present study investigated the influence of distractors of different sensory modalities (i.e. auditory, visual and audiovisual) which were presented at various distances (i.e. close or remote) from a visual target. The interfering effects of a bimodal distractor were more pronounced in the spatial domain than in the temporal domain. The res...

  10. Dense inorganic membranes - studies on transport properties, defect chemistry and catalytic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshof, ten Johan Evert

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen separation with dense oxide membranes may be an attractive method for the production of oxygen from air. Another possible application is the direct supply of oxygen in membrane reactors for the (partial) oxidation of hydrocarbons. The driving force for oxygen permeation through dense mixed io

  11. Bimodal gene expression patterns in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolsky Yuri; Bugrim Andrej; Shi Weiwei; Kirillov Eugene; Bessarabova Marina; Nikolskaya Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We identified a set of genes with an unexpected bimodal distribution among breast cancer patients in multiple studies. The property of bimodality seems to be common, as these genes were found on multiple microarray platforms and in studies with different end-points and patient cohorts. Bimodal genes tend to cluster into small groups of four to six genes with synchronised expression within the group (but not between the groups), which makes them good candidates for robust conditional ...

  12. Performance Sampling and Bimodal Duration Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Jerker Denrell; Zur Shapira

    2006-01-01

    Performance sampling models of duration dependence in employee turnover and firm exit predict that hazard rates will initially be low, gradually rise to a maximum, and then fall. As we note in this paper, however, several empirical duration distributions have bimodal hazard rates. This paper shows that such bimodal hazard rates can be derived from existing models of performance sampling by small changes in the assumptions. In particular, bimodal hazard rates emerge if the mean or the variance...

  13. Mechanical behaviour of membrane electrode assembly (MEA during cold start of PEM fuel cell from subzero environment temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Durability is one of the most critical remaining issues impeding successful commercialization of broad PEM fuel cell transportation energy applications. Automotive fuel cells are likely to operate with neat hydrogen under load-following or load-levelled modes and be expected to withstand variations in environmental conditions, particularly in the context of temperature and atmospheric composition. In addition, they are also required to survive over the course of their expected operational lifetimes i.e., around 5,500 hrs, while undergoing as many as 30,000 startup/shutdown cycles. Cold start capability and survivability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEM in a subzero environment temperature remain a challenge for automotive applications. A key component of increasing the durability of PEM fuel cells is studying the behaviour of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA at the heart of the fuel cell. The present work investigates how the mechanical behaviour of MEA are influenced during cold start of the PEM fuel cell from subzero environment temperatures. Full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a PEM fuel cell has been developed to simulate the stresses inside the PEM fuel cell, which are occurring during fuel cell assembly (bolt assembling, and the stresses arise during fuel cell running due to the changes of temperature and relative humidity. The model is shown to be able to understand the many interacting, complex electrochemical, transport phenomena, and stresses distribution that have limited experimental data.

  14. Studies on yttrium and neodymium transportation behaviour using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary studies on rare earths transportation using Hollow Fibre Supported Liquid Membrane (HFSLM) were carried out. High purity yttrium finds applications in phosphors, super conductors, 90Y in radiopharmaceutical application, etc while neodymium finds use in permanent magnets, lasers, etc. Transportation studies were conducted using HFSLM Module of 'Liquicel X50 2.5x8 membrane contactor' in a continuous operation mode. The material of construction of membrane was polypropylene having 9950 fibres each of length 15 cm. Initially, 1 M 2-ethyl hexyl, 2-ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid (PC 88A) was loaded on the membrane under pressure. The membrane was washed with water both on the shell side and tube side to remove excess solvent. Feed comprising of 6.7 g/l each of Y and Nd in nitrate medium having feed acidity of 0.5 M HNO3 was passed at a rate of 80 ml/min (tube side) in separate runs. On the other side (shell), strip comprising of 3 M HNO3 was passed at the same flow rate. The run was made for 6 hours and samples were collected at fixed time intervals. The samples were analyzed for metal content using ICP-AES

  15. BSA adsorption on bimodal PEO brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, WTE; Iakovlev, PA; Norde, W; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen

    2005-01-01

    BSA adsorption onto bimodal PEO brushes at a solid surface was measured using optical reflectometry. Bimodal brushes consist of long (N = 770) and short (N = 48) PEO chains and were prepared on PS surfaces, applying mixtures of PS29-PEO48 and PS37-PEO770 block copolymers and using the Langmuir-Blodg

  16. BSA adsorption on bimodal PEO brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, W.T.E.; Iakovlev, P.A.; Norde, W.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    BSA adsorption onto bimodal PEO brushes at a solid surface was measured using optical reflectometry. Bimodal brushes consist of long (N=770) and short (N=48) PEO chains and were prepared on PS surfaces, applying mixtures of PS 29-PEO48 and PS37-PEO770 block copolymers and using the Langmuir-Blodgett

  17. Miniversal Deformations of Bimodal Picewise Linear Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Llop, Josep; Magret Planas, Maria dels Dolors; Pacha Andújar, Juan Ramón; Peña Carrera, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: Bimodal piecewise linear system, miniversal deformations, reduced forms. Bimodal linear systems are those consisting of two linear systems on each side of a given hyperplane, having continuous dynamics along that hyperplane. In this work, we focus on the derivation of (orthogonal) miniversal deformations, by using reduced forms.

  18. Membraner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Finn

    2009-01-01

    Notatet giver en kort introduktion til den statiske virkemåde af membraner og membrankonstruktioner......Notatet giver en kort introduktion til den statiske virkemåde af membraner og membrankonstruktioner...

  19. Behaviour of RO98pHt polyamide membrane in reverse osmosis and low reverse osmosis conditions for phenol removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, A M; León, G; Gómez, M; Murcia, M D; Gómez, E; Gómez, J L

    2011-10-01

    Phenolic compounds and their derivatives are very common pollutants in wastewaters. Among the methods described for their removal, pressure-driven membrane processes are considered as a reliable alternative. Our research group has previously studied phenol removal in reverse osmosis (RO) conditions and obtained very low rejection percentages. Subsequently, when low reverse osmosis (LRO) conditions were studied, the organic rejection percentages improved. To further our knowledge in this respect, the main objective of this work was to study the behaviour of the polyamide thin-film composite membrane RO98pHt used for phenol removal in RO and LRO conditions. The influence of different operating pressures, phenol feed concentrations and pH on permeate flux and phenol rejection was studied. Low reverse osmosis conditions led to higher phenol rejection percentages in all the assayed conditions, suggesting that other factors related to the molecular characteristics of the organic molecules, such as solubility, acidity and hydrogen bonding capacity, play an important role in the rejection percentage attained. As expected, permeate flux was greater in RO conditions. PMID:22329140

  20. Irreducible complexity of iterated symmetric bimodal maps

    OpenAIRE

    Lampreia, J. P.; Severino, R.; J. Sousa Ramos

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a tree structure for the iterates of symmetric bimodal maps and identify a subset which we prove to be isomorphic to the family of unimodal maps. This subset is used as a second factor for a $\\ast $-product that we define in the space of bimodal kneading sequences. Finally, we give some properties for this product and study the *-product induced on the associated Markov shifts.

  1. A Note on Bimodal Accretion Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Dullemond, C.P.; Turolla, R.

    1998-01-01

    The existence of bimodal disks is investigated. Following a simple argument based on energetic considerations we show that stationary, bimodal accretion disk models in which a Shakura--Sunyaev disk (SSD) at large radii matches an advection dominated accretion flow (ADAF) at smaller radii are never possible using the standard slim disk approach, unless some extra energy flux is present. The same argument, however, predicts the possibility of a transition from an outer Shapiro--Lightman--Eardle...

  2. Irreducible complexity of iterated symmetric bimodal maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lampreia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a tree structure for the iterates of symmetric bimodal maps and identify a subset which we prove to be isomorphic to the family of unimodal maps. This subset is used as a second factor for a ∗-product that we define in the space of bimodal kneading sequences. Finally, we give some properties for this product and study the ∗-product induced on the associated Markov shifts.

  3. Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket Analysis Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belair, Michael; Lavelle, Thomas; Saimento, Charles; Juhasz, Albert; Stewart, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars and beyond. One concept of operations for these missions utilizes the nuclear reactor to generate electrical power during coast phases, known as bimodal operation. This presentation focuses on the systems modeling and analysis efforts for a NERVA derived concept. The NERVA bimodal operation derives the thermal energy from the core tie tube elements. Recent analysis has shown potential temperature distributions in the tie tube elements that may limit the thermodynamic efficiency of the closed Brayton cycle used to generate electricity with the current design. The results of this analysis are discussed as well as the potential implications to a bimodal NERVA type reactor.

  4. Language choice in bimodal bilingual development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane eLillo-Martin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual children develop sensitivity to the language used by their interlocutors at an early age, reflected in differential use of each language by the child depending on their interlocutor. Factors such as discourse context and relative language dominance in the community may mediate the degree of language differentiation in preschool age children.Bimodal bilingual children, acquiring both a sign language and a spoken language, have an even more complex situation. Their Deaf parents vary considerably in access to the spoken language. Furthermore, in addition to code-mixing and code-switching, they use code-blending – expressions in both speech and sign simultaneously – an option uniquely available to bimodal bilinguals. Code-blending is analogous to code-switching sociolinguistically, but is also a way to communicate without suppressing one language. For adult bimodal bilinguals, complete suppression of the non-selected language is cognitively demanding. We expect that bimodal bilingual children also find suppression difficult, and use blending rather than suppression in some contexts. We also expect relative community language dominance to be a factor in children’s language choices.This study analyzes longitudinal spontaneous production data from four bimodal bilingual children and their Deaf and hearing interlocutors. Even at the earliest observations, the children produced more signed utterances with Deaf interlocutors and more speech with hearing interlocutors. However, while three of the four children produced >75% speech alone in speech target sessions, they produced <25% sign alone in sign target sessions. All four produced bimodal utterances in both, but more frequently in the sign sessions, potentially because they find suppression of the dominant language more difficult.Our results indicate that these children are sensitive to the language used by their interlocutors, while showing considerable influence from the dominant

  5. Bimodality and negative heat capacity in multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution addresses the question of the possible link between multifragmentation and the liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter. Bi-modality seems to be a robust signal of this link in the sense that theoretical calculations indicate that it is preserved even if a sizeable fraction of the available energy has not been shared among all the degrees of freedom. The corresponding measured properties are coherent with what is expected in a liquid-gas phase transition picture. Moreover, bi-modality and negative heat capacity are observed for the same set of events. (authors)

  6. Co-speech gesture in bimodal bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Shannon; Emmorey, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The effects of knowledge of sign language on co-speech gesture were investigated by comparing the spontaneous gestures of bimodal bilinguals (native users of American Sign Language and English; n = 13) and non-signing native English speakers (n = 12). Each participant viewed and re-told the Canary Row cartoon to a non-signer whom they did not know. Nine of the thirteen bimodal bilinguals produced at least one ASL sign, which we hypothesise resulted from a failure to inhibit ASL. Compared with...

  7. Periodicity in bimodal atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chia-Yun; Santos, Sergio, E-mail: santos-en@yahoo.com; Chiesa, Matteo [Laboratory for Energy and NanoScience (LENS), Institute Center for Future Energy (iFES), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Barcons, Victor [Departament de Disseny i Programació de Sistemes Electrònics, UPC - Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Bases, 61, 08242 Manresa (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2015-07-28

    Periodicity is fundamental for quantification and the application of conservation principles of many important systems. Here, we discuss periodicity in the context of bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM). The relationship between the excited frequencies is shown to affect and control both experimental observables and the main expressions quantified via these observables, i.e., virial and energy transfer expressions, which form the basis of the bimodal AFM theory. The presence of a fundamental frequency further simplifies the theory and leads to close form solutions. Predictions are verified via numerical integration of the equation of motion and experimentally on a mica surface.

  8. On a Symmetric, Nonlinear Birth-Death Process with Bimodal Transition Probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Martinucci; Antonio Di Crescenzo

    2009-01-01

    We consider a bilateral birth-death process having sigmoidal-type rates. A thorough discussion on its transient behaviour is given, which includes studying symmetry properties of the transition probabilities, finding conditions leading to their bimodality, determining mean and variance of the process, and analyzing absorption problems in the presence of 1 or 2 boundaries. In particular, thanks to the symmetry properties we obtain the avoiding transition probabilities in the presence of a pair...

  9. Controllability of Continuous Bimodal Linear Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Josep Ferrer; Juan R. Pacha; Marta Peña

    2013-01-01

    We consider bimodal linear systems consisting of two linear dynamics acting on each side of a given hyperplane, assuming continuity along the separating hyperplane. We prove that the study of controllability can be reduced to the unobservable case, and for these ones we obtain a simple explicit characterization of controllability for dimensions 2 and 3, as well as some partial criteria for higher dimensions.

  10. Bimodal mesoporous silica with bottleneck pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, M J; Brühwiler, D

    2015-11-01

    Bimodal mesoporous silica consisting of two sets of well-defined mesopores is synthesized by a partial pseudomorphic transformation of an ordered mesoporous starting material (SBA-15 type). The introduction of a second set of smaller mesopores (MCM-41 type) establishes a pore system with bottlenecks that restricts the access to the core of the bimodal mesoporous silica particles. The particle size and shape of the starting material are retained, but micropores present in the starting material disappear during the transformation, leading to a true bimodal mesoporous product. A varying degree of transformation allows the adjustment of the pore volume contribution of the two mesopore domains. Information on the accessibility of the mesopores is obtained by the adsorption of fluorescence-labeled poly(amidoamine) dendrimers and imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy. This information is correlated with nitrogen sorption data to provide insights regarding the spatial distribution of the two mesopore domains. The bimodal mesoporous materials are excellent model systems for the investigation of cavitation effects in nitrogen desorption isotherms. PMID:26399172

  11. Deaf Children's Bimodal Bilingualism and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanwick, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the research into deaf children's bilingualism and bilingual education through a synthesis of studies published over the last 15 years. This review brings together the linguistic and pedagogical work on bimodal bilingualism to inform educational practice. The first section of the review provides a synthesis of…

  12. Bimodal Networks as Candidates for Electroactive Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela;

    An alternative network formulation method was adopted in order to obtain a different type of silicone based elastomeric systems - the so-called bimodal networks - using two vinyl-terminated polydimethyl siloxanes (PDMS) of different molecular weight, a labelled crosslinker (3 or 4-functional), an...

  13. Enhanced antifouling behaviours of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane modified through blending with nano-TiO{sub 2}/polyethylene glycol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China); Wang, Zhiwei, E-mail: zwwang@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China); Zhang, Xingran [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China); Zheng, Xiang, E-mail: zhengxiang7825@163.com [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing, 100872 (China); Wu, Zhichao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nano-TiO{sub 2}/polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture was used to modify PVDF membranes. • The steric hindrance effects of PEG enabled the dispersion of nanoparticles. • The energy barrier between SMP and modified membranes was increased. • The modification by nano-TiO{sub 2}/PEG well improved the anti-fouling ability. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles/polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture was used to modify polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes aiming to improve their antifouling ability. The use of PEG could improve the dispersion of nanoparticles thanks to steric hindrance effects. Test results showed that compared to the original PVDF membrane, the modified membranes had higher hydrophilicity and lower negative Zeta potential, facilitating membrane fouling control. The extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) analysis indicated that the addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles improved their electron donor monopolarity, i.e., enhanced electron-donating ability. The interaction energy barrier between soluble microbial products (SMP) and membrane surfaces was also improved, indicating that anti-fouling ability of the modified membrane was elevated. The optimal dosage of nano-TiO{sub 2} was found to be 0.15%, and further increase of dosage resulted in the aggregation of nanoparticles which consequently impaired the modification efficiency. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring and SMP filtration tests confirmed the antifouling ability of the modified membrane.

  14. Enhanced antifouling behaviours of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane modified through blending with nano-TiO2/polyethylene glycol mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nano-TiO2/polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture was used to modify PVDF membranes. • The steric hindrance effects of PEG enabled the dispersion of nanoparticles. • The energy barrier between SMP and modified membranes was increased. • The modification by nano-TiO2/PEG well improved the anti-fouling ability. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles/polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture was used to modify polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes aiming to improve their antifouling ability. The use of PEG could improve the dispersion of nanoparticles thanks to steric hindrance effects. Test results showed that compared to the original PVDF membrane, the modified membranes had higher hydrophilicity and lower negative Zeta potential, facilitating membrane fouling control. The extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) analysis indicated that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles improved their electron donor monopolarity, i.e., enhanced electron-donating ability. The interaction energy barrier between soluble microbial products (SMP) and membrane surfaces was also improved, indicating that anti-fouling ability of the modified membrane was elevated. The optimal dosage of nano-TiO2 was found to be 0.15%, and further increase of dosage resulted in the aggregation of nanoparticles which consequently impaired the modification efficiency. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring and SMP filtration tests confirmed the antifouling ability of the modified membrane

  15. The bimodal theory of plasticity: A form-invariant generalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatos, Kostas P.

    2011-08-01

    independent yield stress parameters that the bimodal theory needs to take into consideration. Moreover, an analytical expression is provided of a relatively simple mathematical surface that possesses all known features of the FDM yield surface; currently captured with the aid of both experimental and computational means. The present study is guided by the existing relevant experimental evidence which, however, is principally associated with the plastic behaviour of solids reinforced by strong fibres. Nevertheless, several of the outlined developments are expected to be applicable to composite materials containing a single family of more compliant or even weak fibres.

  16. Generalized Hertz model for bimodal nanomechanical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuda, Aleksander; Kocuń, Marta; Meinhold, Waiman; Walters, Deron; Proksch, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Bimodal atomic force microscopy uses a cantilever that is simultaneously driven at two of its eigenmodes (resonant modes). Parameters associated with both resonances can be measured and used to extract quantitative nanomechanical information about the sample surface. Driving the first eigenmode at a large amplitude and a higher eigenmode at a small amplitude simultaneously provides four independent observables that are sensitive to the tip-sample nanomechanical interaction parameters. To demonstrate this, a generalized theoretical framework for extracting nanomechanical sample properties from bimodal experiments is presented based on Hertzian contact mechanics. Three modes of operation for measuring cantilever parameters are considered: amplitude, phase, and frequency modulation. The experimental equivalence of all three modes is demonstrated on measurements of the second eigenmode parameters. The contact mechanics theory is then extended to power-law tip shape geometries, which is applied to analyze the experimental data and extract a shape and size of the tip interacting with a polystyrene surface. PMID:27547614

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Bimodal Mesoporous Silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaofang; GUO Cuili; WANG Xiaoli; WU Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous silica with controllable bimodal pore size distribution was synthesized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as chemical template for small mesopores and silica gel as physical template for large mesopores.The structure of synthesized samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy,X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements.The experimental results show that bimodal mesoporous silica consists of small mesopores of about 3 nm and large mesopores of about 45 nm.The small mesopores which were formed on the external surface and pore walls of the silica gel had similar characters with those of MCM-41,while large mesopores were inherited from parent silica gel material.The pore size distribution of the synthesized silica can be adjusted by changing the relative content of TEOS and silica gel or the feeding sequence of silica gel and NH4OH.

  18. Refining Bimodal Microstructure of Materials with MSTRUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Matěj, Z.; Kadlecová, A.; Janeček, M.; Matějová, L. (Lenka); Dopita, M.; Kužel, R.

    2014-01-01

    The possibilities of modelling the diffraction profiles from bimodal microstructure in computer program MSTRUCT are demonstrated on two examples. A special Double Component profile effect can be utilized for such problems. At first it was applied to an analysis of a mixture of two nanocrystalline anatase powders with different crystallite sizes and the relative ratio of both components was determined from X-ray diffraction data. In the second case study, diffraction peaks from a pure polycry...

  19. Bimodal representation of the tropical intraseasonal oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Kazuyoshi [University of Hawaii, International Pacific Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Manoa Honolulu, HI (United States); Wang, Bin [University of Hawaii, Department of Meteorology and International Pacific Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Manoa Honolulu, HI (United States); Kajikawa, Yoshiyuki [Nagoya University, Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    The tropical intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) shows distinct variability centers and propagation patterns between boreal winter and summer. To accurately represent the state of the ISO at any particular time of a year, a bimodal ISO index was developed. It consists of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) mode with predominant eastward propagation along the equator and Boreal Summer ISO (BSISO) mode with prominent northward propagation and large variability in off-equatorial monsoon trough regions. The spatial-temporal patterns of the MJO and BSISO modes are identified with the extended empirical orthogonal function analysis of 31 years (1979-2009) OLR data for the December-February and June-August period, respectively. The dominant mode of the ISO at any given time can be judged by the proportions of the OLR anomalies projected onto the two modes. The bimodal ISO index provides objective and quantitative measures on the annual and interannual variations of the predominant ISO modes. It is shown that from December to April the MJO mode dominates while from June to October the BSISO mode dominates. May and November are transitional months when the predominant mode changes from one to the other. It is also shown that the fractional variance reconstructed based on the bimodal index is significantly higher than the counterpart reconstructed based on the Wheeler and Hendon's index. The bimodal ISO index provides a reliable real time monitoring skill, too. The method and results provide critical information in assessing models' performance to reproduce the ISO and developing further research on predictability of the ISO and are also useful for a variety of scientific and practical purposes. (orig.)

  20. Biomimetic synthesized bimodal nanoporous silica: Bimodal mesostructure formation and application for ibuprofen delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xu, Lu; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Hongyu; Lu, Fangzheng; Li, Sanming

    2016-01-01

    The present paper innovatively reports bimodal nanoporous silica synthesized using biomimetic method (B-BNS) with synthesized polymer (C16-L-serine) as template. Formation mechanism of B-BNS was deeply studied and exploration of its application as carrier of poorly water-soluble drug ibuprofen (IBU) was conducted. The bimodal nanopores and curved mesoscopic channels of B-BNS were achieved due to the dynamic self-assembly of C16-L-serine induced by silane coupling agent (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES) and silica source (tetraethoxysilane, TEOS). Characterization results confirmed the successful synthesis of B-BNS, and particularly, nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement demonstrated that B-BNS was meso-meso porous silica material. In application, B-BNS loaded IBU with high drug loading content due to its enlarged nanopores. After being loaded, IBU presented amorphous phase because nanoporous space and curved mesoscopic channels of B-BNS prevented the crystallization of IBU. In vitro release result revealed that B-BNS controlled IBU release with two release phases based on bimodal nanopores and improved dissolution in simulated gastric fluid due to crystalline conversion of IBU. It is convincible that biomimetic method provides novel theory and insight for synthesizing bimodal nanoporous silica, and unique functionalities of B-BNS as drug carrier can undoubtedly promote the application of bimodal nanoporous silica and development of pharmaceutical science.

  1. Evolution of electrolyte mixtures rejection behaviour using nanofiltration membranes under spiral wound and flat-sheet configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Reig i Amat, Mònica; Pagès, Neus; Licon, Edxon; Valderrama Angel, César Alberto; Gibert Agulló, Oriol; Yaroshchuk, Andriy; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2014-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) membranes can be used in different configurations. The aim of this work was to determine the reliability of the data obtained using flat-sheet (FS) laboratoryscale configuration when NF membranes are implemented at industrial scale level using spiral wound (SW) configuration. Ion rejections in salt mixtures with the two configurations types were analysed, modelled, evaluated and compared. In both cases of the study, the operation was carried out in cross-flow mode and w...

  2. The influence of temperature on the behaviour of mixed bacterial contamination of the shell membrane of the hen's egg.

    OpenAIRE

    Dolman, J.; Board, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    The inner membrane of the air cell of hens' eggs was inoculated with Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus xylosus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. The first mentioned eventually dominated the contamination of the albumen of eggs stored at 4, 15, and 20 degrees C. The last mentioned did so in eggs stored at 37 degrees C. The interval between inoculation of the membrane and gross contamination of the albumen was markedly influenced by site of contamination rela...

  3. The influence of temperature on the behaviour of mixed bacterial contamination of the shell membrane of the hen's egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, J; Board, R G

    1992-02-01

    The inner membrane of the air cell of hens' eggs was inoculated with Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus xylosus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. The first mentioned eventually dominated the contamination of the albumen of eggs stored at 4, 15, and 20 degrees C. The last mentioned did so in eggs stored at 37 degrees C. The interval between inoculation of the membrane and gross contamination of the albumen was markedly influenced by site of contamination relative to yolk movement. PMID:1547832

  4. Thermal behaviours and single cell performance of PBI-OO/PFSA blend membranes composited with Lewis acid nanoparticles for intermediate temperature DMFC application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J.; Wagner, P.; Agert, C.; Conrad, O. [Next Energy, EWE-Forschungszentrum fuer Energietechnologie e.V., Oldenburg (Germany); Luo, J. [Next Energy, EWE-Forschungszentrum fuer Energietechnologie e.V., Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2011-12-15

    Building on the improved proton conductivity at intermediate temperatures under anhydrous conditions using a 'proton donor-proton acceptor' concept demonstrated for the first time in the composite membrane made of inorganic lewis acid (boron-based electron-deficient nanoparticles) and a poly-[(1-(4,4'-diphenylether)-5-oxybenzimidazole)-benzimidazole] (PBI-OO)/perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) blend, we report here the thermal behaviours and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) single cell performance of these membranes at intermediate temperatures (90-120 C). It is found that the PFSA/PBI-OO blends and PFSA/PBI-OO/nano-BN composites show decreased thermal stability compared to pristine PFSA. We attribute this to a proton transfer reaction between the sulfonic acid and imidazole moieties of the constituent polymers inducing a decreased stability of the resulting sulfonate group. When operated with dry oxygen and methanol/water vapour, the single cell performance of PFSA/PBI-OO blends is slightly improved compared to that of pristine PFSA. The PFSA/PBI-OO/nano-BN composite membranes exhibit much better single cell performance at intermediate temperatures, which could be mainly attributed to its higher anhydrous proton conductivity. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Optimization of phase contrast in bimodal amplitude modulation AFM

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrnoosh Damircheli; Amir F. Payam; Ricardo Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Bimodal force microscopy has expanded the capabilities of atomic force microscopy (AFM) by providing high spatial resolution images, compositional contrast and quantitative mapping of material properties without compromising the data acquisition speed. In the first bimodal AFM configuration, an amplitude feedback loop keeps constant the amplitude of the first mode while the observables of the second mode have not feedback restrictions (bimodal AM). Here we study the conditions to enhance the ...

  6. Bidirectional grapheme-phoneme activation in a bimodal detection task

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Ton; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans; Schreuder, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A divided attention paradigm was used to investigate whether graphemes and phonemes can mutually activate or inhibit each other during bimodal processing. In 3 experiments, Dutch subjects reacted to visual and auditory targets in single-channel or bimodal stimuli. In some bimodal conditions, the visual and auditory targets were nominally identical or redundant (e.g., visual A and auditory /a/); in others they were not (e.g., visual U and auditory /a/). Temporal aspects of cross-modal activati...

  7. Reactive Sintering of Bimodal WC-Co Hardmetals

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tarraste; Kristjan Juhani; Jüri Pirso; Mart Viljus

    2015-01-01

    Bimodal WC-Co hardmetals were produced using novel technology - reactive sintering. Milled and activated tungsten and graphite powders were mixed with commercial coarse grained WC-Co powder and then sintered. The microstructure of produced materials was free of defects and consisted of evenly distributed coarse and fine tungsten carbide grains in cobalt binder. The microstructure, hardness and fracture toughness of reactive sintered bimodal WC-Co hardmetals is exhibited. Developed bimodal har...

  8. LDV measurement of small nonlinearities in flat and curved membranes. A model for eardrum nonlinear acoustic behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Gladiné; Pieter, Muyshondt; Joris, Dirckx

    2016-06-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometry is an intrinsic highly linear measurement technique which makes it a great tool to measure extremely small nonlinearities in the vibration response of a system. Although the measurement technique is highly linear, other components in the experimental setup may introduce nonlinearities. An important source of artificially introduced nonlinearities is the speaker, which generates the stimulus. In this work, two correction methods to remove the effects of stimulus nonlinearity are investigated. Both correction methods were found to give similar results but have different pros and cons. The aim of this work is to investigate the importance of the conical shape of the eardrum as a source of nonlinearity in hearing. We present measurements on flat and indented membranes. The data shows that the curved membrane exhibit slightly higher levels of nonlinearity compared to the flat membrane.

  9. Structural Stability of Planar Bimodal Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Ferrer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural stability ensures that the qualitative behavior of a system is preserved under small perturbations. We study it for planar bimodal linear dynamical systems, that is, systems consisting of two linear dynamics acting on each side of a given hyperplane and assuming continuity along the separating hyperplane. We describe which one of these systems is structurally stable when (real spiral does not appear and when it does we give necessary and sufficient conditions concerning finite periodic orbits and saddle connections. In particular, we study the finite periodic orbits and the homoclinic orbits in the saddle/spiral case.

  10. Oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation behaviour of SiC based Pt nanocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhiman, Rajnish; Stamatin, Serban Nicolae; Andersen, Shuang Ma;

    2013-01-01

    Research with proton exchange membrane fuel cells has demonstrated their important potential as providers of clean energy. The commercialization of this type of fuel cell needs a breakthrough in electrocatalyst technology to reduce the relatively large amount of noble metal platinum used...

  11. Bimodal fibrous structures for tissue engineering: Fabrication, characterization and in vitro biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Arjun Prasad; Joshi, Mahesh Kumar; Kim, Jeong In; Unnithan, Afeesh Rajan; Lee, Joshua; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-08-15

    We report for the first time a polycaprolactone-human serum albumin (PCL-HSA) membrane with bimodal structures comprised of spider-web-like nano-nets and conventional fibers via facile electro-spinning/netting (ESN) technique. Such unique controllable morphology was developed by electrospinning the blend solution of PCL (8wt% in HFIP 1,1,1,3,3,3,-Hexafluoro-2-propanol) and HSA (10wt% deionized water). The phase separation during electrospinning caused the formation of bimodal structure. Various processing factors such as applied voltage, feeding rate, and distance between nozzle tip and collector were found responsible for the formation and distribution of the nano-nets throughout the nanofibrous mesh. Field emission electron microscopy (FE-SEM) confirmed that the nano-nets were composed of interlinked nanowires with an ultrathin diameter (10-30nm). When compared with a pure PCL membrane, the membrane containing nano-nets was shown to have better support for cellular activities as determined by cell viability and attachment assays. These results revealed that the blending of albumin, a hydrophilic biomolecule, with PCL, a hydrophobic polymer, proves to be an outstanding approach to developing membranes with controlled spider-web-like nano-nets for tissue engineering. PMID:27179176

  12. The Bimodality Index: A Criterion for Discovering and Ranking Bimodal Signatures from Cancer Gene Expression Profiling Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation: Identifying genes with bimodal expression patterns from large-scale expression profiling data is an important analytical task. Model-based clustering is popular for this purpose. That technique commonly uses the Bayesian information criterion (BIC for model selection. In practice, however, BIC appears to be overly sensitive and may lead to the identification of bimodally expressed genes that are unreliable or not clinically useful. We propose using a novel criterion, the bimodality index, not only to identify but also to rank meaningful and reliable bimodal patterns. The bimodality index can be computed using either a mixture model-based algorithm or Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques.Results: We carried out simulation studies and applied the method to real data from a cancer gene expression profiling study. Our findings suggest that BIC behaves like a lax cutoff based on the bimodality index, and that the bimodality index provides an objective measure to identify and rank meaningful and reliable bimodal patterns from large-scale gene expression datasets. R code to compute the bimodality index is included in the ClassDiscovery package of the Object-Oriented Microarray and Proteomic Analysis (OOMPA suite available at the web site http://bioinformatics.mdanderson.org/Software/OOMPA.

  13. Bimodal Color Distribution in Hierarchical Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Menci, N; Giallongo, E; Salimbeni, S

    2005-01-01

    We show how the observed bimodality in the color distribution of galaxies can be explained in the framework of the hierarchical clustering picture in terms of the interplay between the properties of the merging histories and the feedback/star-formation processes in the progenitors of local galaxies. Using a semi-analytic model of hierarchical galaxy formation, we compute the color distributions of galaxies with different luminosities and compare them with the observations. Our fiducial model matches the fundamental properties of the observed distributions, namely: 1) the distribution of objects brighter than M_r = -18 is clearly bimodal, with a fraction of red objects increasing with luminosity; 2) for objects brighter than M_r = -21 the color distribution is dominated by red objects with color u-r = 2.2-2.4; 3) the spread on the distribution of the red population is smaller than that of the blue population; 4) the fraction of red galaxies is larger in denser environments, even for low-luminosity objects; 5) ...

  14. Bimodal schwa: Evidence from acoustic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane-Tanaka, Noriko; Gick, Bryan; Bird, Sonya

    2001-05-01

    The question of whether schwa is targeted or targetless has been the subject of much debate (Browman et al., 1992; Browman and Goldstein, 1995; Gick, 1999, 2002). Gick (2002) found that there is a pharyngeal constriction during schwa relative to rest position, and concluded that schwa is not targetless. This experiment further showed a ``bimodal'' pattern in schwa in a nonrhotic speaker, indicating that the subject has distinct schwas in lexical words and function words. The present study examines the existence of the ``bimodal'' pattern in schwas in nonrhotic dialects through an acoustic experiment. It is predicted that there is a significant difference in formant values between lexical schwas and function schwas. Results to date indicate a significant difference in them between schwas in lexical versus function words, both between historical schwas and those derived from final /r/ reduction. Data from several additional nonrhotic subjects will be presented. Implications for intrusive r as well as for the phonological treatment of function words will be discussed. [Work funded by NSERC and SSHRC.

  15. Transfer learning for bimodal biometrics recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Zhiping; Sun, Shuifa; Chen, Yanfei; Gan, Haitao

    2013-10-01

    Biometrics recognition aims to identify and predict new personal identities based on their existing knowledge. As the use of multiple biometric traits of the individual may enables more information to be used for recognition, it has been proved that multi-biometrics can produce higher accuracy than single biometrics. However, a common problem with traditional machine learning is that the training and test data should be in the same feature space, and have the same underlying distribution. If the distributions and features are different between training and future data, the model performance often drops. In this paper, we propose a transfer learning method for face recognition on bimodal biometrics. The training and test samples of bimodal biometric images are composed of the visible light face images and the infrared face images. Our algorithm transfers the knowledge across feature spaces, relaxing the assumption of same feature space as well as same underlying distribution by automatically learning a mapping between two different but somewhat similar face images. According to the experiments in the face images, the results show that the accuracy of face recognition has been greatly improved by the proposed method compared with the other previous methods. It demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  16. On a Symmetric, Nonlinear Birth-Death Process with Bimodal Transition Probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Martinucci

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider a bilateral birth-death process having sigmoidal-type rates. A thorough discussion on its transient behaviour is given, which includes studying symmetry properties of the transition probabilities, finding conditions leading to their bimodality, determining mean and variance of the process, and analyzing absorption problems in the presence of 1 or 2 boundaries. In particular, thanks to the symmetry properties we obtain the avoiding transition probabilities in the presence of a pair of absorbing boundaries, expressed as a series.

  17. A note on bimodal singularities and mirror symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Mase, Makiko; UEDA, Kazushi

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the relation between transposition mirror symmetry of Berlund and H\\"ubsch for bimodal singularities and polar duality of Batyrev for associated toric K3 hypersurfaces. We also show that homological mirror symmetry for singularities implies the geometric construction of Coxeter-Dynkin diagrams of bimodal singularities by Ebeling and Ploog.

  18. Energetic Argument for Bimodal Black Hole Accretion discs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林一清; 卢炬甫; 顾为民

    2002-01-01

    Based on simple energetic considerations, we show that two crucial ingredients of bimodal black hole accretiondiscs, namely the sonic point and the transition radius, can be determined from the disc constant parameters.Thus, we can further justify the model of bimodal discs containing thermal instability triggered transition.

  19. Differentiable Families of Planar Bimodal Linear Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Josep Ferrer; M. Dolors Magret; Marta Peña

    2014-01-01

    We consider bimodal linear control systems consisting of two subsystems acting on each side of a given hyperplane, assuming continuity along it. For a differentiable family of planar bimodal linear control systems, we obtain its stratification diagram and, if controllability holds for each value of the parameters, we construct a differentiable family of feedbacks which stabilizes both subsystems for each value of the parameters.

  20. The Bimodal Bilingual Brain: Effects of Sign Language Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Bimodal bilinguals are hearing individuals who know both a signed and a spoken language. Effects of bimodal bilingualism on behavior and brain organization are reviewed, and an fMRI investigation of the recognition of facial expressions by ASL-English bilinguals is reported. The fMRI results reveal separate effects of sign language and spoken…

  1. Bimodal stimulation: benefits for music perception and sound quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucher, Catherine M; McDermott, Hugh J

    2009-01-01

    With recent expansions in cochlear implantation candidacy criteria, increasing numbers of implantees can exploit their remaining hearing by using bimodal stimulation (combining electrical stimulation via the implant with acoustic stimulation via hearing aids). This study examined the effect of bimodal stimulation on music perception and perceived sound quality. The perception of music and sound quality by nine post-lingually deafened adult implantees was examined in three conditions: implant alone, hearing aid alone and bimodal stimulation. On average, bimodal stimulation provided the best results for music perception and perceived sound quality when compared with results obtained with electrical stimulation alone. Thus, for implantees with usable acoustic hearing, bimodal stimulation may be advantageous when listening to music and other non-speech sounds. PMID:19230032

  2. Bimodal stimulation: benefits for music perception and sound quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucher, Catherine M; McDermott, Hugh J

    2009-01-01

    With recent expansions in cochlear implantation candidacy criteria, increasing numbers of implantees can exploit their remaining hearing by using bimodal stimulation (combining electrical stimulation via the implant with acoustic stimulation via hearing aids). This study examined the effect of bimodal stimulation on music perception and perceived sound quality. The perception of music and sound quality by nine post-lingually deafened adult implantees was examined in three conditions: implant alone, hearing aid alone and bimodal stimulation. On average, bimodal stimulation provided the best results for music perception and perceived sound quality when compared with results obtained with electrical stimulation alone. Thus, for implantees with usable acoustic hearing, bimodal stimulation may be advantageous when listening to music and other non-speech sounds.

  3. Bimodal and multimodal plant biomass particle mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H.

    2013-07-09

    An industrial feedstock of plant biomass particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein the particles are individually characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L, wherein the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces, and wherein the particles in the feedstock are collectively characterized by having a bimodal or multimodal size distribution.

  4. Sex identification in female crayfish is bimodal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquiloni, Laura; Massolo, Alessandro; Gherardi, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    Sex identification has been studied in several species of crustacean decapods but only seldom was the role of multimodality investigated in a systematic fashion. Here, we analyse the effect of single/combined chemical and visual stimuli on the ability of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii to identify the sex of a conspecific during mating interactions. Our results show that crayfish respond to the offered stimuli depending on their sex. While males rely on olfaction alone for sex identification, females require the combination of olfaction and vision to do so. In the latter, chemical and visual stimuli act as non-redundant signal components that possibly enhance the female ability to discriminate potential mates in the crowded social context experienced during mating period. This is one of the few clear examples in invertebrates of non-redundancy in a bimodal communication system.

  5. Bimodal condensation silicone elastomers as dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Lately, dielectric elastomers (DEs) which consist of an elastomer sandwiched between electrodes on both sides, have gained interest as materials for actuators, generators, and sensors. An ideal elastomer for DE uses is characterized by high extensibility, flexibility and good mechanical fatigue.......Moreover, a series of elastomers with the same mass ratio (7:3) between long and short PDMS chains were made at different humidity (90%, 70%, 50%, 30%, 10%) at 23oC. The dielectric and mechincal properties of the resulting elastomers were shown to depend strongly on the atmospheric humidity level.In addition......, the top and bottom surfaces of the elastomer (7:3) prepared at 23oC and 50% humidity were tested by water contact angle and optical microscope. The results show the bimodal condensation elastomer possesses structural heterogeneity, which may lead to favourable properties for DE applications....

  6. Emergence of bimodality in controlling complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Tao; Csóka, Endre; Pósfai, Márton; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to control complex systems is a fundamental challenge of contemporary science. Recently introduced tools to identify the driver nodes, nodes through which we can achieve full control, predict the existence of multiple control configurations, prompting us to classify each node in a network based on their role in control. Accordingly a node is critical, intermittent or redundant if it acts as a driver node in all, some or none of the control configurations. Here we develop an analytical framework to identify the category of each node, leading to the discovery of two distinct control modes in complex systems: centralized vs distributed control. We predict the control mode for an arbitrary network and show that one can alter it through small structural perturbations. The uncovered bimodality has implications from network security to organizational research and offers new insights into the dynamics and control of complex systems.

  7. Modelling static and dynamic behaviour of proton exchange membrane fuel cells on the basis of electro-chemical description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceraolo, M.; Miulli, C.; Pozio, A.

    A simplified dynamical model of a fuel cell of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) type, based on physical-chemical knowledge of the phenomena occurring inside the cell has been developed by the authors. The model has been implemented in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Lab tests have been carried out at ENEA's laboratories; and a good agreement has been found between tests and simulations, both in static and dynamic conditions. In a previous study [M. Ceraolo, R. Giglioli, C. Miulli, A. Pozio, in: Proceedings of the 18th International Electric Fuel Cell and Hybrid Vehicle Symposium (EVS18), Berlin, 20-24 October 2001, p. 306] the basic ideas of the model, as well as its experimental validation have been published. In the present paper, the full implementation of the model is reported in detail. Moreover, a procedure for evaluating all the needed numerical parameters is presented.

  8. Degradation behaviour and excess sludge production of mixed biocoenoses in membrane bioreactors; Abbauverhalten und Ueberschussschlammproduktion von Mischbiozoenosen in Membranbioreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraume, M. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik; Szewzyk, U. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Oekologie und Mikroorganismen

    1999-07-01

    In three different membrane bioreactors (technical scale and pilot scale), process engineering and microbiological studies were carried out over a period of up to three years. The sewage used was sugar-beet molasses slop and municipal sewage. All three plants exhibited stable COD degradation rates of 87 % (molasses slop) and 95 % (municipal sewage). They could be operated during the test period without regular removal of excess sludge. (orig.) [German] An drei unterschiedlichen Membranbioreaktoren (Technikums- und Pilotmassstab) wurden ueber einen Zeitraum von bis zu 3 Jahren verfahrenstechnische und mirkobiologische Untersuchungen durchgefuehrt. Als Abwasser wurde Zuckerrueben-Melasseschlempe und kommunales Abwasser eingesetzt. Alle drei Anlagen zeigten stabile CSB-Abbaugrade von 87% (Melasseschlempe) und 95% (kommunale Abwasser). Sie konnten ueber den Vesuchszeitraum ohne regelmaessigen Abzug von Ueberschussschlamm betrieben werden. (orig.)

  9. Self-assembly behaviours of primitive and modern lipid membrane solutions: a coarse-grained molecular simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Noriyoshi; Yoshimoto, Yuki; Yasuoka, Kenji; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu

    2016-07-28

    Researchers have studied the origin of life and the process of evolution on early Earth for decades. However, we lack a comprehensive understanding of biogenesis, because there are many stages in the formation and growth of the first cell. We investigate the self-replication processes of coacervate protocells using computer simulations of single-chain lipid and phospholipid aqueous mixtures. Based on a morphological phase diagram, we develop a model of prebiotic self-replication driven by only environmental factors (i.e. temperature and lipid concentrations) without any external force. Moreover, we investigate high concentration structures during the process of self-replication. These structures have an advantage in fusion and repair of cell membranes. Therefore, lipid hot spots may have existed in primordial soup. PMID:27378100

  10. Darcian preferential water flow and solute transport through bimodal porous systems: experiments and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Antonio; Comegna, Vincenzo; Basile, Angelo; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Severino, Gerardo

    2009-02-16

    Soils often exhibit a variety of small-scale heterogeneities such as inter-aggregate pores and voids which partition flow into separate regions. In this paper a methodological approach is discussed for characterizing the hydrological behaviour of a heterogeneous clayey-sandy soil in the presence of structural inter-aggregate pores. For the clay soil examined, it was demonstrated that, coupling the transfer function approach for analyzing BTCs and water retention data obtained with different methods from laboratory studies captures the bimodal geometry of the porous system along with the related existence of fast and slow flow paths. To be effectively and reliably applied this approach requires that the predominant effects of the soil hydrological behaviour near saturation be supported by accurate experimental data of both breakthrough curves (BTCs) and hydraulic functions for high water content values. This would allow the separation of flow phases and hence accurate identification of the processes and related parameters. PMID:19042056

  11. INTEGRATING NEPHELOMETER RESPONSE CORRECTIONS FOR BIMODAL SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correction factors are calculated for obtaining true scattering extinction coefficients from integrating nephelometer measurements. The corrections are based on the bimodal representation of ambient aerosol size distributions, and take account of the effects of angular truncation...

  12. Functionalized bimodal mesoporous silicas as carriers for controlled aspirin delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Sun, Jihong; Li, Yuzhen

    2011-08-01

    The bimodal mesoporous silica modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was performed as the aspirin carrier. The samples' structure, drug loading and release profiles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption and desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TG analysis, elemental analysis and UV-spectrophotometer. For further exploring the effects of the bimodal mesopores on the drug delivery behavior, the unimodal mesoporous material MCM-41 was also modified as the aspirin carrier. Meantime, Korsmeyer-Peppas equation ft= ktn was employed to analyze the dissolution data in details. It is indicated that the bimodal mesopores are beneficial for unrestricted drug molecules diffusing and therefore lead to a higher loading and faster releasing than that of MCM-41. The results show that the aspirin delivery properties are influenced considerably by the mesoporous matrix, whereas the large pore of bimodal mesoporous silica is the key point for the improved controlled-release properties.

  13. Reactive Sintering of Bimodal WC-Co Hardmetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tarraste

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bimodal WC-Co hardmetals were produced using novel technology - reactive sintering. Milled and activated tungsten and graphite powders were mixed with commercial coarse grained WC-Co powder and then sintered. The microstructure of produced materials was free of defects and consisted of evenly distributed coarse and fine tungsten carbide grains in cobalt binder. The microstructure, hardness and fracture toughness of reactive sintered bimodal WC-Co hardmetals is exhibited. Developed bimodal hardmetal has perspective for demanding wear applications for its increased combined hardness and toughness. Compared to coarse material there is only slight decrease in fracture toughness (K1c is 14.7 for coarse grained and 14.4 for bimodal, hardness is increased from 1290 to 1350 HV units.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7511

  14. Intelligent agents: adaptation of autonomous bimodal microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrice; Terry, Theodore B.

    2014-03-01

    Autonomous bimodal microsystems exhibiting survivability behaviors and characteristics are able to adapt dynamically in any given environment. Equipped with a background blending exoskeleton it will have the capability to stealthily detect and observe a self-chosen viewing area while exercising some measurable form of selfpreservation by either flying or crawling away from a potential adversary. The robotic agent in this capacity activates a walk-fly algorithm, which uses a built in multi-sensor processing and navigation subsystem or algorithm for visual guidance and best walk-fly path trajectory to evade capture or annihilation. The research detailed in this paper describes the theoretical walk-fly algorithm, which broadens the scope of spatial and temporal learning, locomotion, and navigational performances based on optical flow signals necessary for flight dynamics and walking stabilities. By observing a fly's travel and avoidance behaviors; and, understanding the reverse bioengineering research efforts of others, we were able to conceptualize an algorithm, which works in conjunction with decisionmaking functions, sensory processing, and sensorimotor integration. Our findings suggest that this highly complex decentralized algorithm promotes inflight or terrain travel mobile stability which is highly suitable for nonaggressive micro platforms supporting search and rescue (SAR), and chemical and explosive detection (CED) purposes; a necessity in turbulent, non-violent structured or unstructured environments.

  15. Earth storable bimodal engine, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    An in-depth study of an Earth Storable Bimodal (ESB) Engine using earth storable propellants N2O/N2H4 and operating in either a monopropellant or bipropellant mode was conducted. Detailed studies were completed for both a hot-gas, regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and a ducted hot-gas, film cooled thrust chamber. Hydrazine decomposition products were used for cooling in either configuration. The various arrangements and configurations of hydrazine reactors, secondary injectors, chambers and gimbal methods were considered. The two basic materials selected for the major components were columbium alloys and L-605. The secondary injector types considered were previously demonstrated by JPL and consisted of a liquid-on-gas triplet, a liquid-on-gas doublet, and a liquid-on-gas coaxial injector. Various design tradeoffs were made with different reactor types located at: the secondary injector station, the thrust chamber throat, and the nozzle/extension interface. Associated thermal, structural, and mass analyses were completed.

  16. Galaxy bimodality versus stellar mass and environment

    CERN Document Server

    Baldry, I; Bower, R; Glazebrook, K; Nichol, R; Bamford, S; Budavari, T

    2006-01-01

    We analyse a z<0.1 galaxy sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey focusing on the variation of the galaxy colour bimodality with stellar mass and projected neighbour density Sigma, and on measurements of the galaxy stellar mass functions. The characteristic mass increases with environmental density from about 10^10.6 Msun to 10^10.9 Msun (Kroupa IMF, H_0=70) for Sigma in the range 0.1--10 per Mpc^2. The galaxy population naturally divides into a red and blue sequence with the locus of the sequences in colour-mass and colour-concentration index not varying strongly with environment. The fraction of galaxies on the red sequence is determined in bins of 0.2 in log Sigma and log mass (12 x 13 bins). The red fraction f_r generally increases continuously in both Sigma and mass such that there is a unified relation: f_r = F(Sigma,mass). Two simple functions are proposed which provide good fits to the data. These data are compared with analogous quantities in semi-analytical models based on the Millennium N-body ...

  17. Merging history of three bimodal clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Maurogordato, S; Bourdin, H; Cappi, A; Benoist, C; Ferrari, C; Mars, G; Houairi, K

    2010-01-01

    We present a combined X-ray and optical analysis of three bimodal galaxy clusters selected as merging candidates at z ~ 0.1. These targets are part of MUSIC (MUlti--Wavelength Sample of Interacting Clusters), which is a general project designed to study the physics of merging clusters by means of multi-wavelength observations. Observations include spectro-imaging with XMM-Newton EPIC camera, multi-object spectroscopy (260 new redshifts), and wide-field imaging at the ESO 3.6m and 2.2m telescopes. We build a global picture of these clusters using X-ray luminosity and temperature maps together with galaxy density and velocity distributions. Idealized numerical simulations were used to constrain the merging scenario for each system. We show that A2933 is very likely an equal-mass advanced pre-merger ~ 200 Myr before the core collapse, while A2440 and A2384 are post-merger systems ~ 450 Myr and ~1.5 Gyr after core collapse, respectively). In the case of A2384, we detect a spectacular filament of galaxies and gas ...

  18. Audiovisual bimodal mutual compensation of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The perception of human languages is inherently a multi-modalprocess, in which audio information can be compensated by visual information to improve the recognition performance. Such a phenomenon in English, German, Spanish and so on has been researched, but in Chinese it has not been reported yet. In our experiment, 14 syllables (/ba, bi, bian, biao, bin, de, di, dian, duo, dong, gai, gan, gen, gu/), extracted from Chinese audiovisual bimodal speech database CAVSR-1.0, were pronounced by 10 subjects. The audio-only stimuli, audiovisual stimuli, and visual-only stimuli were recognized by 20 observers. The audio-only stimuli and audiovisual stimuli both were presented under 5 conditions: no noise, SNR 0 dB, -8 dB, -12 dB, and -16 dB. The experimental result is studied and the following conclusions for Chinese speech are reached. Human beings can recognize visual-only stimuli rather well. The place of articulation determines the visual distinction. In noisy environment, audio information can remarkably be compensated by visual information and as a result the recognition performance is greatly improved.

  19. Bi-Modal Methods: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji K. A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Various security challenges such as Boko Haram, theft, kidnapping, ISIL, abduction, and so on have been on a high rise as one of the major menace facing our society today. In order to overcome these challenges there is need for identification of the culprits to bring them to book. Uni-modal biometric is not enough to combat these security challenges because of its shortcomings which include- spoof attach, noise in the sensed data, inter class variation and so on. Combining two or more biometric features (bi-modal has been proved to provide better performance than uni-modal biometric approach for authentication and verification. This paper presents some literature on biometrics systems that can be employed in achieving a better accuracy in authentication and verification of biometric features. Different kind of fusion strategies to combine these characteristics, different available classifiers and fusion methodologies to achieve greater and accurate recognition performance were also discussed. It is hopeful that researchers in the area of biometrics will find this work very useful.

  20. Thermostatistics of a damped bimodal particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, João R.; Duarte Queirós, Sílvio M.

    2015-12-01

    We study the thermostatistics of a damped bimodal particle, i.e., a particle of mass m subject to a work reservoir that is analytically represented by the telegraph noise. Because of the colored nature of the noise, it does not fit the Lévy-Itô class of stochastic processes, making this system an instance of a nonequilibrium system in contact with a non-Gaussian external reservoir. We obtain the statistical description of the position and velocity, namely in the stationary state, as well as the (time-dependent) statistics of the energy fluxes in the system considering no constraints on the telegraph noise features. With that result we are able to give an account of the statistical properties of the large deviations of the injected and dissipated power that can change from sub-Gaussianity to super-Gaussianity depending on the color of the noise. By properly defining an effective temperature for this system, T , we are capable of obtaining an equivalent entropy production-exchange rate equal to the ratio between the dissipation of the medium, γ , and the mass of the particle, m , a relation that concurs with the case of a standard thermal reservoir at temperature, T =T .

  1. Audiovisual bimodal mutual compensation of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Zhi

    2001-01-01

    [1]Richard, P., Schumeyer, Kenneth E. B., The effect of visual information on word initial consonant perception of dysarthric speech, in Proc. ICSLP'96 October 3-6 1996, Philadephia, Pennsylvania, USA.[2]Goff, B. L., Marigny, T. G., Benoit, C., Read my lips...and my jaw! How intelligible are the components of a speaker's face? Eurospeech'95, 4th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology, Madrid, September 1995.[3]McGurk, H., MacDonald, J. Hearing lips and seeing voices, Nature, 1976, 264: 746.[4]Duran A. F., Mcgurk effect in Spanish and German listeners: Influences of visual cues in the perception of Spanish and German confliction audio-visual stimuli, Eurospeech'95. 4th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology, Madrid, September 1995.[5]Luettin, J., Visual speech and speaker recognition, Ph.D thesis, University of Sheffield, 1997.[6]Xu Yanjun, Du Limin, Chinese audiovisual bimodal speech database CAVSR1.0, Chinese Journal of Acoustics, to appear.[7]Zhang Jialu, Speech corpora and language input/output methods' evaluation, Chinese Applied Acoustics, 1994, 13(3): 5.

  2. On the controllability of bimodal piecewise linear systems

    OpenAIRE

    Çamlıbel, Mehmet Kanat; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Schumacher, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies controllability of bimodal systems that consist of two linear dynamics on each side of a given hyperplane. We show that the controllability properties of these systems can be inferred from those of linear systems for which the inputs are constrained in a certain way. Inspired by the earlier work on constrained controllability of linear systems, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for a bimodal piecewise linear system to be controllable.

  3. Learning bimodal structure in audio-visual data

    OpenAIRE

    Monaci, Gianluca; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Sommer, Friederich T.

    2009-01-01

    A novel model is presented to learn bimodally informative structures from audio-visual signals. The signal is represented as a sparse sum of audio- visual kernels. Each kernel is a bimodal function consisting of synchronous snippets of an audio waveform and a spatio-temporal visual basis function. To represent an audio-visual signal, the kernels can be positioned independently and arbitrarily in space and time. The proposed algorithm uses unsupervised learning to form dicti...

  4. Coupling granular activated carbon adsorption with membrane bioreactor treatment for trace organic contaminant removal: breakthrough behaviour of persistent and hydrophilic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luong N; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2013-04-15

    This study investigated the removal of trace organic contaminants by a combined membrane bioreactor - granular activated carbon (MBR-GAC) system over a period of 196 days. Of the 22 compounds investigated here, all six hydrophilic compounds with electron-withdrawing functional groups (i.e., metronidazole, carbamazepine, ketoprofen, naproxen, fenoprop and diclofenac) exhibited very low removal efficiency by MBR-only treatment. GAC post-treatment initially complemented MBR treatment very well; however, a compound-specific gradual deterioration of the removal of the above-mentioned problematic compounds was noted. While a 20% breakthrough of all four negatively charged compounds namely ketoprofen, naproxen, fenoprop and diclofenac occurred within 1000-3000 bed volumes (BV), the same level of breakthrough of the two neutral compounds metronidazole and carbamazepine did not occur until 11,000 BV. Single-solute isotherm parameters did not demonstrate any discernible correlation individually with any of the parameters that may govern adsorption onto GAC, such as log D, number of hydrogen-bond donor/acceptor groups, dipole moment or aromaticity ratio of the compounds. The isotherm data, however, could differentiate the breakthrough behaviour between negatively charged and neutral trace organic contaminants.

  5. The Bimodality Index: A Criterion for Discovering and Ranking Bimodal Signatures from Cancer Gene Expression Profiling Data

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Wang; Sijin Wen; Fraser Symmans, W; Lajos Pusztai; Coombes, Kevin R.

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Identifying genes with bimodal expression patterns from large-scale expression profiling data is an important analytical task. Model-based clustering is popular for this purpose. That technique commonly uses the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) for model selection. In practice, however, BIC appears to be overly sensitive and may lead to the identification of bimodally expressed genes that are unreliable or not clinically useful. We propose using a novel criterion, the bimodali...

  6. Localization ability with bimodal hearing aids and bilateral cochlear implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Bernhard U.; Baumann, Uwe; Fastl, Hugo

    2004-09-01

    After successful cochlear implantation in one ear, some patients continue to use a hearing aid at the contralateral ear. They report an improved reception of speech, especially in noise, as well as a better perception of music when the hearing aid and cochlear implant are used in this bimodal combination. Some individuals in this bimodal patient group also report the impression of an improved localization ability. Similar experiences are reported by the group of bilateral cochlear implantees. In this study, a survey of 11 bimodally and 4 bilaterally equipped cochlear implant users was carried out to assess localization ability. Individuals in the bimodal implant group were all provided with the same type of hearing aid in the opposite ear, and subjects in the bilateral implant group used cochlear implants of the same manufacturer on each ear. Subjects adjusted the spot of a computer-controlled laser-pointer to the perceived direction of sound incidence in the frontal horizontal plane by rotating a trackball. Two subjects of the bimodal group who had substantial residual hearing showed localization ability in the bimodal configuration, whereas using each single device only the subject with better residual hearing was able to discriminate the side of sound origin. Five other subjects with more pronounced hearing loss displayed an ability for side discrimination through the use of bimodal aids, while four of them were already able to discriminate the side with a single device. Of the bilateral cochlear implant group one subject showed localization accuracy close to that of normal hearing subjects. This subject was also able to discriminate the side of sound origin using the first implanted device alone. The other three bilaterally equipped subjects showed limited localization ability using both devices. Among them one subject demonstrated a side-discrimination ability using only the first implanted device.

  7. Bimodal Size-distribution of Bainite Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Hase, K.; García Mateo, Carlos; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2006-01-01

    There are two well-known phenomena associated with the bainite reaction, which have been exploited in the present work to enhance the mechanical behaviour of steel. Firstly, the bainite plate size decreases as the transformation temperature is reduced. Secondly, it is bad to have large regions of untransformed austenite in the microstructure; this is because they can transform, under the influence of external stress, into corresponding large regions of untempered, brittle martensite. By ad...

  8. A hypothesis for the color bimodality of Jupiter Trojans

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Ian

    2016-01-01

    One of the most enigmatic and hitherto unexplained properties of Jupiter Trojans is their bimodal color distribution. This bimodality is indicative of two sub-populations within the Trojans, which have distinct size distributions. In this paper, we present a simple, plausible hypothesis for the origin and evolution of the two Trojan color sub-populations. In the framework of dynamical instability models of early Solar System evolution, which suggest a common primordial progenitor population for both Trojans and Kuiper belt objects, we use observational constraints to assert that the color bimodalities evident in both minor body populations developed within the primordial population prior to the onset of instability. We show that, beginning with an initial composition of rock and ices, location-dependent volatile loss through sublimation in this primordial population could have led to sharp changes in the surface composition with heliocentric distance. We propose that the depletion or retention of H$_{2}$S ice...

  9. Observation of bimodality in nanocrystalline cobalt - ferri - chromites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, K. B.; Saija, K. G.; Zankat, K. B.; Kathad, C. R.; Shah, S. J.; Lakhani, V. K.; Vasoya, N. H.; Pathak, T. K.

    2015-06-01

    In this communication we present detail analysis of particle size distribution curves, differential size distribution and cumulative undersize distribution, recorded for nano particles of spinel ferrite system, CoCrxFe2-xO4 (x = 0.0, 1.1 and 2.0), synthesized by chemical co-precipitation technique. It is found that the distribution is bimodal as well as not mono disperse. Observed bimodality has been explained in the light of Ostwald ripening. Various parameters have been determined and the role of Cr3+ - substitution in governing signature of distribution patterns has been discussed.

  10. Scheme for Generation of Entanglement among Bimodal Cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xin-Guo; FENG Xun-Li

    2004-01-01

    @@ We present a scheme for generation of an entangled state in many spatially separated bimodal cavity modes via cavity quantum electrodynamics. A V-type three-level atom, initially prepared in a coherent superposition of its excited states, successively passes through both the bimodal cavities. If the atom is measured in its ground state after leaving the last cavity, an entangled state of many cavity modes can be generated. The conditions to generate the maximally entangled state with unity probability are worked out.

  11. Bimodal Bilingual Language Development of Hearing Children of Deaf Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Kristin; Chilla, Solveig

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a bimodal bilingual language acquisition model, this qualitative case study is the first in Germany to investigate the spoken and sign language development of hearing children of deaf adults (codas). The spoken language competence of six codas within the age range of 3;10 to 6;4 is assessed by a series of standardised tests (SETK 3-5,…

  12. Disturbance Decoupling for Continuous Piecewise Linear Bimodal Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, A.R.F.; Camlibel, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we tackle the disturbance decoupling problem for continuous bimodal piecewise linear systems. After establishing necessary and sufficient geometric conditions for such a system to be disturbance decoupled, we study state feed- back and dynamic feedback controllers, both mode-dependent

  13. Bimodal Hearing and Speech Perception with a Competing Talker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyschny, Verena; Landwehr, Markus; Hahn, Moritz; Walger, Martin; von Wedel, Hasso; Meister, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of bimodal stimulation upon hearing ability for speech recognition in the presence of a single competing talker. Method: Speech recognition was measured in 3 listening conditions: hearing aid (HA) alone, cochlear implant (CI) alone, and both devices together (CI + HA). To examine…

  14. Visualisation and characterisation of heterogeneous bimodal PDMS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Fleury, Clemence;

    2014-01-01

    by rheology. All heterogeneous bimodal networks displayed significantly lower moduli than mono-modal PDMS elastomers prepared from the long polymer chains. Low-loss moduli as well as low-sol fractions indicate that low-elastic moduli can be obtained without compromising the network's structure...

  15. A nonlinear theory of the bimodality of the Kuroshio extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierini, S.; Dijkstra, H.A.; Riccio, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Kuroshio Extension (KE) flow in the North Pacific Ocean displays a very distinctive decadal variability of bimodal character involving two completely different states (a large-meander “elongated” state and a small-meander “contracted” state) connected by very asymmetric temporal transitions. Alt

  16. Bimodal behavior of the Kuroshio and the Gulf Stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeits, M.J.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    For a long time, observations have been pointing out that the Kuroshio in the North Paciffc Ocean displays bimodal meandering behavior of the southern coast of Japan. For the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic Ocean, weakly and strongly deffected paths near the coast of South Carolina have been obser

  17. Does bimodal stimulus presentation increase ERP components usable in BCIs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, M.E.; Brouwer, A.M.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Blankertz, B.; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP)-based brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) employ differences in brain responses to attended and ignored stimuli. Typically, visual stimuli are used. Tactile stimuli have recently been suggested as a gaze-independent alternative. Bimodal stimuli could evoke additional brain

  18. On bimodality in warm season soil moisture observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuling, A.J.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Troch, P.A.A.

    2005-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the bimodality in warm season soil moisture observations in Illinois is evidence of a soil moisture-precipitation feedback. Other studies however provide little evidence for a strong feedback in this region. Here we show that seasonality in the meteorological cond

  19. Interaural bimodal pitch matching with two-formant vowels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guérit, François; Chalupper, Josef; Santurette, Sébastien;

    2013-01-01

    For bimodal patients, with a hearing aid (HA) in one ear and a cochlear implant (CI) in the opposite ear, usually a default frequency-to-electrode map is used in the CI. This assumes that the human brain can adapt to interaural place-pitch mismatches. This “one-size-fits-all” method might be part...

  20. Interaural bimodal pitch matching with two-formant vowels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerit, Francois Marie Louis Paul; Chalupper, Josef; Santurette, Sébastien;

    For bimodal patients, with a hearing aid (HA) in one ear and a cochlear implant (CI) in the opposite ear, usually a default frequency-to-electrode map is used in the CI. This assumes that the human brain can adapt to interaural place-pitch mismatches. This “one-size-fits-all” method might be part...

  1. A Hypothesis for the Color Bimodality of Jupiter Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-10-01

    One of the most enigmatic and hitherto unexplained properties of Jupiter Trojans is their bimodal color distribution. This bimodality is indicative of two sub-populations within the Trojans, which have distinct size distributions. In this paper, we present a simple, plausible hypothesis for the origin and evolution of the two Trojan color sub-populations. In the framework of dynamical instability models of early solar system evolution, which suggest a common primordial progenitor population for both Trojans and Kuiper Belt objects, we use observational constraints to assert that the color bimodalities evident in both minor body populations developed within the primordial population prior to the onset of instability. We show that, beginning with an initial composition of rock and ices, location-dependent volatile loss through sublimation in this primordial population could have led to sharp changes in the surface composition with heliocentric distance. We propose that the depletion or retention of H2S ice on the surface of these objects was the key factor in creating an initial color bimodality. Objects that retained H2S on their surfaces developed characteristically redder colors upon irradiation than those that did not. After the bodies from the primordial population were scattered and emplaced into their current positions, they preserved this primordial color bimodality to the present day. We explore predictions of the volatile loss model—in particular, the effect of collisions within the Trojan population on the size distributions of the two sub-populations—and propose further experimental and observational tests of our hypothesis.

  2. The bimodality of the Luzon Strait deep water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qingsong; ZHAO Jianru; ZHANG Junbiao; SHI Weiyong; LIU Chunqiu

    2014-01-01

    Combined conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts and Argo profiles, 3 086 historical hydrocasts were used to quantify the water column characteristics in the northern South China Sea (SCS) and its adjacent waters. Based on a two-dimensional“gravest empirical mode”(GEM), a gravitational potential (׋, a verti-cally integrated variable) was used as proxy for the vertical temperature profiles TG(p,׋).׋integrated from 8 MPa to the surface shows a close relationship with the temperature, except in the deep layer greater than 15 MPa, which was caused by the bimodal deep water in the region. The GEM temperature profiles successfully revealed the bimodality of the Luzon Strait deep water, that disparate hydrophic vertical profiles can pro-duce distinct specific volume anomaly (į) in the SCS and the western Philippine Sea (WPS), but failed in the Luzon Strait, where different temperature profiles may produce a sameį. A significant temperature diver-gence between the SCS water and the WPS water confirmed that the bimodal structure is strong. The deep-water bifurcation starts at about 15 MPa, and gets stronger with increasing depth . As the only deep channel connecting the bimodal-structure waters, water column characteristics in the Luzon Strait is in between, but much closer to the SCS water because of its better connectivity with the SCS. A bimodal temperature structure below 15 MPa reveals that there was a persistent baroclinic pressure gradient driving flow through the Luzon Strait. A volume flux predicted through the Bashi Channel with the hydraulic theory yields a value of 5.62×106 m3/s using all available profiles upstream and downstream of the overflow region, and 4.03×106 and 2.70×106 m3/s by exclusively using the profiles collected during spring and summer, respectively. No volume flux was calculated during autumn and winter because profiles are only available for the upstream of the Bashi Channel during the corresponding period.

  3. 概率可靠多播协议Bimodal Multicast的IOA形式规范%Formal specification of the Bimodal Multicast in IOA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭敬林; 刘西洋; 陈平

    2003-01-01

    介绍并讨论了Bimodal Multicast的应用特征和规范形式描述方法,给出了一个基于I/O自动机的描述方案,内容包括Bimodal Multicast中消息的表达,状态和动作的定义,并重点讨论了Bimodal Multicast的最近最先语义的描述方法.

  4. Experimental, analytical and computational investigation of bimodal elastomer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lockette, Paris Robert

    Advances in the synthesis of macromolecular materials have led to the creation of special classes of elastomers called bimodal because of their bimodal distributions of linear starting oligomers. Numerous studies on these materials have documented anomalous increases in ultimate strength and toughness at certain mixture combinations of the constituents but have not yet identified a cause for this behavior. In addition, the ability to predict optimal mixtures still eludes polymer chemists. Constitutive models for the behavior of bimodal materials are also unable to predict material behavior, but instead tend to capture results using complicated curve fitting and iterative schemes. This thesis uncovers topological and micromechanical sources of these enhanced properties using periodic, topological simulations of chain-level network formation and develops a constitutive model of the aggregate bimodal network. Using a topological framework, in conjunction with the eight-chain averaging scheme of Arruda and Boyce, this work develops optical and mechanical constitutive models for bimodal elastomers whose results compare favorably with data in the literature. The resulting bimodal network theory is able to predict material response for a range of bimodal compositions using only two sets of data, a direct improvement over previous models. The micromechanics of elastomeric deformation and chain orientation as described by the eight-chain model are further validated by comparing optical and mechanical data generated during large deformation shear tests on unimodal materials with finite element simulations. In addition, a newly developed optical anisotropy model for the Raman tensor of polymeric materials, generated using an eight-chain unit cell model, is shown to compare favorably with tensile data in the literature. Results generated using NETSIM, a computer program developed in this thesis, have revealed naturally occurring, self-reinforcing topological features

  5. Palaeontological evidence of membrane relationship in step-by-step membrane fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Wenzhe; DU, KAIHE

    2010-01-01

    Studies on membrane fusion in living cells indicate that initiation of membrane fusion is a transient and hard to capture process. Despite previous research, membrane behaviour at this point is still poorly understood. Recent palaeobotanical research has revealed snapshots of membrane fusion in a 15-million-year-old fossil pinaceous cone. To reveal the membrane behaviour during the fusion, we conducted more observations on the same fossil material. Several discernible steps of membrane fusion...

  6. CN Bimodality at Low Metallicity: The Globular Cluster M53

    CERN Document Server

    Martell, Sarah L; Briley, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    We present low resolution UV-blue spectroscopic observations of red giant stars in the globular cluster M53 ([Fe/H]=-1.84), obtained to study primordial abundance variations and deep mixing via the CN and CH absorption bands. The metallicity of M53 makes it an attractive target: a bimodal distribution of 3883 angstrom CN bandstrength is common in moderate- and high-metallicity globular clusters ([Fe/H] > -1.6) but unusual in those of lower metallicity ([Fe/H] < -2.0). We find that M53 is an intermediate case, and has a broad but not strongly bimodal distribution of CN bandstrength, with CN and CH bandstrengths anticorrelated in the less-evolved stars. Like many other globular clusters, M53 also exhibits a general decline in CH bandstrength and [C/Fe] abundance with rising luminosity on the red giant branch.

  7. Control of the differential interference contrast in reinjected bimode laser

    CERN Document Server

    Lacot, Eric; Hugon, Olivier; de Chatellus, Hugues Guillet

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated, both theoretically and experimentally, that it is possible to control (i.e., to enhance or cancel) the contrast of the interference pattern appearing in the intensity images obtained with a laser optical feedback imaging (LOFI) setup using a bimode laser. The laser is composed of two coupled orthogonally polarized states that interact (i.e., interfere) through the cross saturation laser dynamics. We created the contrast control by choosing the frequency shift (i.e., the beating frequency) between the feedback electric fields and the intracavity electric fields. We have shown that the interference contrast of the output power modulation of the laser total intensity is independent from the frequency shift and is always maximal. On the other hand, the interference contrast of each polarization state is frequency dependent. We obtained the maximal contrast when the frequency shift was equal to one of the resonance frequencies of the bimode dynamics, and was very low (and almost cancels) for ...

  8. Phase diagram of epidemic spreading - unimodal vs. bimodal probability distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Lancic, Alen; Antulov-Fantulin, Nino; Sikic, Mile; Stefancic, Hrvoje

    2009-01-01

    The disease spreading on complex networks is studied in SIR model. Simulations on empirical complex networks reveal two specific regimes of disease spreading: local containment and epidemic outbreak. The variables measuring the extent of disease spreading are in general characterized by a bimodal probability distribution. Phase diagrams of disease spreading for empirical complex networks are introduced. A theoretical model of disease spreading on m-ary tree is investigated both analytically a...

  9. Bimodal Bidding in Experimental All-Pay Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Christiane Ernst; Christian Thöni

    2013-01-01

    We report results from experimental first-price, sealed-bid, all-pay auctions for a good with a common and known value. We observe bidding strategies in groups of two and three bidders and under two extreme information conditions. As predicted by the Nash equilibrium, subjects use mixed strategies. In contrast to the prediction under standard assumptions, bids are drawn from a bimodal distribution: very high and very low bids are much more frequent than intermediate bids. Standard risk prefer...

  10. Fluoride-assisted synthesis of bimodal microporous SSZ-13 zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaochun; Kosinov, Nikolay; Hofmann, Jan P; Mezari, Brahim; Qian, Qingyun; Rohling, Roderigh; Weckhuysen, Bert M; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2016-02-21

    The presence of small amount of fluoride in alkaline hydrothermal synthesis of SSZ-13 zeolite yields bimodal microporous particles with substantially improved performance in the methanol-to-olefins (MTO) reaction. Hydrocarbon uptake measurements and fluorescence microspectroscopy of spent catalysts demonstrate enhanced diffusion through micropores at the grain boundaries of nanocrystals running through the zeolite particles. Fluoride-assisted SSZ-13 synthesis is a cheap and scalable approach to optimize the performance of MTO zeolite catalysts. PMID:26810114

  11. Mobile Education: Towards Affective Bi-modal Interaction for Adaptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthymios Alepis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One important field where mobile technology can make significant contributions is education. However one criticism in mobile education is that students receive impersonal teaching. Affective computing may give a solution to this problem. In this paper we describe an affective bi-modal educational system for mobile devices. In our research we describe a novel approach of combining information from two modalities namely the keyboard and the microphone through a multi-criteria decision making theory.

  12. Transconductance bimodal effect of PDSOI submicron H-gate MOSFETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Bo; Bi Jinshun; Bu Jianhui; Han Zhengsheng

    2013-01-01

    A bimodal effect of transconductance was observed in narrow channel PDSOI sub-micron H-gate PMOSFETs,which was accompanied with the degeneration of device performance.This paper presents a study of the transconductance bimodal effect based on the manufacturing process and electrical properties of those devices.It is shown that this effect is caused by a diffusion of donor impurities from the N+ region of body contact to the P+ poly gate at the neck of the H-gate,which would change the work function differences of the polysilicon gate and substrate.This means that the threshold voltage of the device is different in the width direction,which means that there are parasitic transistors paralleled with the main transistor at the neck of the H-gate.The subsequent devices were fabricated with layout optimization,and it is demonstrated that the bimodal transconductance can be eliminated by mask modification with N+ implantation more than 0.2μm away from a poly gate.

  13. Frequency-dependent loudness balancing in bimodal cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugen, Lidwien C E; Chalupper, Josef; Snik, Ad F M; van Opstal, A John; Mens, Lucas H M

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion In users of a cochlear implant (CI) and a hearing aid (HA) in contralateral ears, frequency-dependent loudness balancing between devices did, on average, not lead to improved speech understanding as compared to broadband balancing. However, nine out of 15 bimodal subjects showed significantly better speech understanding with either one of the fittings. Objectives Sub-optimal fittings and mismatches in loudness are possible explanations for the large individual differences seen in listeners using bimodal stimulation. Methods HA gain was adjusted for soft and loud input sounds in three frequency bands (0-548, 548-1000, and >1000 Hz) to match loudness with the CI. This procedure was compared to a simple broadband balancing procedure that reflected current clinical practice. In a three-visit cross-over design with 4 weeks between sessions, speech understanding was tested in quiet and in noise and questionnaires were administered to assess benefit in real world. Results Both procedures resulted in comparable HA gains. For speech in noise, a marginal bimodal benefit of 0.3 ± 4 dB was found, with large differences between subjects and spatial configurations. Speech understanding in quiet and in noise did not differ between the two loudness balancing procedures. PMID:26986743

  14. Gaze-independent ERP-BCIs: augmenting performance through location-congruent bimodal stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Marieke Elise Thurlings; Anne-Marie eBrouwer; Van Erp, Jan B.F.; Peter eWerkhoven

    2014-01-01

    Gaze-independent event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) yield relatively low BCI performance and traditionally employ unimodal stimuli. Bimodal ERP-BCIs may increase BCI performance due to multisensory integration or summation in the brain. An additional advantage of bimodal BCIs may be that the user can choose which modality or modalities to attend to. We studied bimodal, visual-tactile, gaze-independent BCIs and investigated whether or not ERP components’ tAUCs...

  15. Bimodal PE prepared with combined iron Ⅱ and nickel Ⅱ olefin polymerization catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Combined iron Ⅱ and nickel Ⅱ olefin polymerization catalysts could produce a kind of PE having the characters of ideal bimodal PE with appropriate conditions and catalysts. In the ethylene homopolymerization with triethylalkylaluminum (AlEt3) as the activator, the prepared bimodal PE contained not only branched PE of high molecular weight, but also linear PE of low molecular weight. And the amounts of both fractions were similar. Ideal bimodal PE resin was prepared in one polymerization reactor.

  16. Bimodal Benefits on Objective and Subjective Outcomes for Adult Cochlear Implant Users

    OpenAIRE

    Heo, Ji-Hye; Lee, Jae-Hee; Lee, Won-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Given that only a few studies have focused on the bimodal benefits on objective and subjective outcomes and emphasized the importance of individual data, the present study aimed to measure the bimodal benefits on the objective and subjective outcomes for adults with cochlear implant. Subjects and Methods Fourteen listeners with bimodal devices were tested on the localization and recognition abilities using environmental sounds, 1-talker, and 2-talker speech materials...

  17. Gaze-independent ERP-BCIs : Augmenting performance through location-congruent bimodal stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Thurlings, Marieke E.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Van Erp, Jan B.F.; Werkhoven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Gaze-independent event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) yield relatively low BCI performance and traditionally employ unimodal stimuli. Bimodal ERP-BCIs may increase BCI performance due to multisensory integration or summation in the brain. An additional advantage of bimodal BCIs may be that the user can choose which modality or modalities to attend to. We studied bimodal, visual-tactile, gaze-independent BCIs and investigated whether or not ERP components’ tAUCs...

  18. On the existence of hysteresis in the Kuramoto model with bimodal frequency distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Montbrió, Ernest; Pazó, Diego

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the transition to synchronization in the Kuramoto model with bimodal distributions of the natural frequencies. Previous studies have concluded that the model exhibits a hysteretic phase transition if the bimodal distribution is close to a unimodal one, due to the shallowness the central dip. Here we show that proximity to the unimodal-bimodal border does not necessarily imply hysteresis when the width, but not the depth, of the central dip tends to zero. We draw this conclusio...

  19. Robustness analysis of bimodal networks in the whole range of degree correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Mizutaka, Shogo; Tanizawa, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    We present exact analysis of the physical properties of bimodal networks specified by the two peak degree distribution fully incorporating the degree-degree correlation between node connection. The structure of the correlated bimodal network is uniquely determined by the Pearson coefficient of the degree correlation, keeping its degree distribution fixed. The percolation threshold and the giant component fraction of the correlated bimodal network are analytically calculated in the whole range...

  20. Existence of hysteresis in the Kuramoto model with bimodal frequency distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Pazó, Diego; Montbrió, Ernest

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the transition to synchronization in the Kuramoto model with bimodal distributions of the natural frequencies. Previous studies have concluded that the model exhibits a hysteretic phase transition if the bimodal distribution is close to a unimodal one, due to the shallowness the central dip. Here we show that proximity to the unimodal-bimodal border does not necessarily imply hysteresis when the width, but not the depth, of the central dip tends to zero. We draw this conclusion...

  1. Bimodal and Gaussian Ising spin glasses in dimension two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2016-02-01

    An analysis is given of numerical simulation data to size L =128 on the archetype square lattice Ising spin glasses (ISGs) with bimodal (±J ) and Gaussian interaction distributions. It is well established that the ordering temperature of both models is zero. The Gaussian model has a nondegenerate ground state and thus a critical exponent η ≡0 , and a continuous distribution of energy levels. For the bimodal model, above a size-dependent crossover temperature T*(L ) there is a regime of effectively continuous energy levels; below T*(L ) there is a distinct regime dominated by the highly degenerate ground state plus an energy gap to the excited states. T*(L ) tends to zero at very large L , leaving only the effectively continuous regime in the thermodynamic limit. The simulation data on both models are analyzed with the conventional scaling variable t =T and with a scaling variable τb=T2/(1 +T2) suitable for zero-temperature transition ISGs, together with appropriate scaling expressions. The data for the temperature dependence of the reduced susceptibility χ (τb,L ) and second moment correlation length ξ (τb,L ) in the thermodynamic limit regime are extrapolated to the τb=0 critical limit. The Gaussian critical exponent estimates from the simulations, η =0 and ν =3.55 (5 ) , are in full agreement with the well-established values in the literature. The bimodal critical exponents, estimated from the thermodynamic limit regime analyses using the same extrapolation protocols as for the Gaussian model, are η =0.20 (2 ) and ν =4.8 (3 ) , distinctly different from the Gaussian critical exponents.

  2. Transition for Optimal Paths in Bimodal Directed Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Hong

    2005-01-01

    @@ The problem for optimal paths in bimodal directed polymers is studied. It is shown that the distribution of the thermal average position of the endpoints of the optimal paths is discontinuous below the threshold p < pc. The origin is that there is a finite possibility that only one endpoint takes the global minimum energy for p < pc. Our results suggest that the percolation threshold for directed percolation is also the critical point of the transition for the possibility that the optimal paths converge to one endpoint.

  3. CN Bimodality at Low Metallicity: The Globular Cluster M53

    OpenAIRE

    Martell, Sarah L.; Smith, Graeme H.; Briley, Michael M.

    2007-01-01

    We present low resolution UV-blue spectroscopic observations of red giant stars in the globular cluster M53 ([Fe/H]=-1.84), obtained to study primordial abundance variations and deep mixing via the CN and CH absorption bands. The metallicity of M53 makes it an attractive target: a bimodal distribution of 3883 angstrom CN bandstrength is common in moderate- and high-metallicity globular clusters ([Fe/H] > -1.6) but unusual in those of lower metallicity ([Fe/H] < -2.0). We find that M53 is an i...

  4. Unobservable Planar Bimodal Linear Systems: Miniversal Deformations, Controllability and Stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer, Josep; Pacha, Juan R; Peña, Marta

    2012-01-01

    We consider the set of bimodal linear systems consisting of two linear dynamics acting on each side of a given hyperplane, assuming continuity along the separating hyperplane. Focusing on the unobservable planar ones, we obtain a simple explicit characterization of controllability. Moreover, we apply the canonical forms of these systems depending on two state variables to obtain explicitly miniversal deformations, to illustrate bifurcation diagrams and to prove that the unobservable controllable systems are stabilizable. Preprint of an article submitted for consideration in IJBC \\copyright 2011 copyright World Scientific Publishing Company http://www.worldscinet.com/ijbc/

  5. Porous Fe21Cr7Al1Mo0.5Y metal supports for oxygen transport membranes: Thermo-mechanical properties, sintering and corrosion behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, Julie; Mikkelsen, Lars; Persson, Åsa Helen;

    2013-01-01

    An Fe21Cr7Al1Mo0.5Y alumina-forming stainless steel is designed and evaluated as a material for porous supports for oxygen transport membranes. The thermal expansion coefficient, elastic modulus and creep rates of the alloy are presented. The microstructure, porosity and pre-oxidation conditions...... and creep rates are sufficiently low. Ceramic interlayers with graded porosity and pore-size were applied and co-fired with the metal supports, producing substrates that were shown to be viable for a 3 μm dense Ce 0.8Gd0.2O1.9 - δ oxygen transport membrane deposited using sputtering. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  6. A Connection Between Bulge Properties and the Bimodality of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Drory, Niv

    2007-01-01

    The global colors of galaxies have recently been shown to follow bimodal distributions. Galaxies separate into a ``red sequence'', populated prototypically by early-type galaxies, and a ``blue cloud'', whose typical objects are late-type disk galaxies. Intermediate-type (Sa-Sbc) galaxies populate both regions. It has been suggested that this bimodality reflects the two-component nature of disk-bulge galaxies. However, it has now been established that there are two types of bulges: ``classical bulges'' that are dynamically hot systems resembling (little) ellipticals, and ``pseudobulges'', dynamically cold, flattened, disk-like structures that could not have formed via violent relaxation. Therefore thee question is whether at types Sa-Sbc, where both bulge types are found, the red-blue dichotomy separates galaxies at some value of disk-to-bulge ratio, $B/T$, or, whether it separates galaxies of different bulge type, irrespective of their $B/T$. We identify classical bulges and pseudobulges morphologically with ...

  7. Globular Clusters as Tracers of Stellar Bimodality in Elliptical Galaxies: The Case of NGC 1399

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, J C; Geisler, D; Forte, Juan C.; Faifer, Favio; Geisler, Doug

    2004-01-01

    Globular cluster systems (GCS) frequently show a bi-modal distribution of the cluster integrated colours. This work explores the arguments to support the idea that the same feature is shared by the diffuse stellar population of the galaxy they are associated with. In the particular case of NGC 1399 the results show that the galaxy brightness profile and colour gradient as well as the behaviour of the cumulative globular cluster specific frequency, are compatible with the presence of two dominant stellar populations, associated with the so called "blue" and "red" globular cluster families. These globular families are characterized by different intrinsic specific frequencies (defined in terms of each stellar population): Sn=3.3 +/- 0.3 in the case of the red globulars and Sn=14.3 +/- 2.5 for the blue ones. We stress that this result is not necessarily conflicting with recent works that point out a clear difference between the metallicity distribution of (resolved) halo stars and globulars when comparing their n...

  8. Bimodal pollination system of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis involving hummingbirds and bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, S; Schmid, V S; Zillikens, A; Harter-Marques, B; Steiner, J

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of birds and insects as pollinators, we studied the floral biology of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis (L.) Grisebach in the biome of the Atlantic rain forest, southern Brazil. On Santa Catarina Island, flowering extends from mid-September to the end of December, with diurnal anthesis. The reproductive system is obligatory xenogamy, thus pollinator-dependent. Flowers secrete 31.84 μl of nectar per day, with a mean sugar concentration of 23.2%. Highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occur at the beginning of anthesis. Most floral traits are characteristic for ornithophily, and nectar production appears to be adapted to the energy demand of hummingbirds. Continued secretion of the sucrose-dominated nectar attracts and binds visitors to inflorescences, strengthening trapline foraging behaviour. Experiments assessing seed set after single flower visits were performed with the most frequent visitors, revealing the hummingbird Thalurania glaucopis as the most effective pollen vector. In addition, bees are also functional pollinators, as substantiated by their high visitation frequency. We conclude that this pollination system is bimodal. Thus, there is redundancy in the pollination service provided by birds and bees, granting a high probability of successful reproduction in Ae. nudicaulis. PMID:21134086

  9. Gaze-independent ERP-BCIs: augmenting performance through location-congruent bimodal stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Elise Thurlings

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gaze-independent event-related potential (ERP based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs yield relatively low BCI performance and traditionally employ unimodal stimuli. Bimodal ERP-BCIs may increase BCI performance due to multisensory integration or summation in the brain. An additional advantage of bimodal BCIs may be that the user can choose which modality or modalities to attend to. We studied bimodal, visual-tactile, gaze-independent BCIs and investigated whether or not ERP components’ tAUCs and subsequent classification accuracies are increased for (1 bimodal versus unimodal stimuli, (2 location-congruent versus location-incongruent bimodal stimuli, and (3 attending to both modalities versus to either one modality. We observed an enhanced bimodal (compared to unimodal P300 tAUC, which appeared to be positively affected by location-congruency (p=.056 and resulted in higher classification accuracies. Attending either to one or to both modalities of the bimodal location-congruent stimuli resulted in differences between ERP components, but not in classification performance. We conclude that location-congruent bimodal stimuli improve ERP-BCIs, and offer the user the possibility to switch the attended modality without losing performance.

  10. Bimodal distribution of glucose is nog universally useful for diagnosing diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vistisen, D.; Colagiuri, S.; Borch-Johnsen, K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Bimodality in the distribution of glucose has been used to define the cut point for the diagnosis of diabetes. Previous studies on bimodality have primarily been in populations with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, including one study in a white Caucasian population. All studies inclu

  11. Gaze-independent ERP-BCIs: augmenting performance through location-congruent bimodal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlings, Marieke E; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Van Erp, Jan B F; Werkhoven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Gaze-independent event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) yield relatively low BCI performance and traditionally employ unimodal stimuli. Bimodal ERP-BCIs may increase BCI performance due to multisensory integration or summation in the brain. An additional advantage of bimodal BCIs may be that the user can choose which modality or modalities to attend to. We studied bimodal, visual-tactile, gaze-independent BCIs and investigated whether or not ERP components' tAUCs and subsequent classification accuracies are increased for (1) bimodal vs. unimodal stimuli; (2) location-congruent vs. location-incongruent bimodal stimuli; and (3) attending to both modalities vs. to either one modality. We observed an enhanced bimodal (compared to unimodal) P300 tAUC, which appeared to be positively affected by location-congruency (p = 0.056) and resulted in higher classification accuracies. Attending either to one or to both modalities of the bimodal location-congruent stimuli resulted in differences between ERP components, but not in classification performance. We conclude that location-congruent bimodal stimuli improve ERP-BCIs, and offer the user the possibility to switch the attended modality without losing performance.

  12. Parametric Analysis of Tensile Properties of Bimodal Al Alloys by Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.L. Zhanga; S. Li; S.R. Nutt

    2009-01-01

    An axisymmetrical unit cell model was used to represent a bimodal Al alloy that was composed of both nano-grained (NG) and coarse-grained (CG) aluminum. Effects of microstructural and materials parameters on tensile properties of bimodal Al alloy were investigated by finite element method (FEM). The parameters analyzed included aspect ratios of CG Al and the unit cell, volume fraction of CG Al (VFCG), and yield strength and strain hardening exponent of CG Al. Aspect ratios of CG Al and the unit cell have no significant influence on tensile stress-strain response of the bimodal Al alloy. This phenomenon derives from the similarity in elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion between CG Al and NG Al. Conversely, tensile properties of bimodal Al alloy are extremely sensitive to VFCG, yield strength and strain hardening exponent of CG Al.Specifically, as VFCG increases, both yield strength and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the bimodal Al alloy decreases, while uniform strain of bimodal Al alloy increases. In addition, an increase in yield strength of CG Al results in an increase in both yield stress and UTS of bimodal Al alloy and a decrease in uniform strain of bimodal Al alloy. The lower capability in lowering the increase of stress concentration in NG Al due to a higher yield strength of CG Al causes the lower uniform strain of the bimodal Al alloy. When strain hardening exponent of CG Al increases, 0.2% yield stress, UT5, and uniform strain of the bimodal Al alloy increases. This can be attributed to the increased work-hardening ability of CG Al with a higher strain hardening exponent.

  13. Knowledge Engineering Aspects of Affective Bi-Modal Educational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alepis, Efthymios; Virvou, Maria; Kabassi, Katerina

    This paper analyses the knowledge and software engineering aspects of educational applications that provide affective bi-modal human-computer interaction. For this purpose, a system that provides affective interaction based on evidence from two different modes has been developed. More specifically, the system's inferences about students' emotions are based on user input evidence from the keyboard and the microphone. Evidence from these two modes is combined by a user modelling component that incorporates user stereotypes as well as a multi criteria decision making theory. The mechanism that integrates the inferences from the two modes has been based on the results of two empirical studies that were conducted in the context of knowledge engineering of the system. The evaluation of the developed system showed significant improvements in the recognition of the emotional states of users.

  14. Steady bimodal convection in a cylinder at large Prandtl numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, Jeffrey C.; Catton, Ivan

    1987-01-01

    Steady bimodal convection of an infinite Prandtl-number Boussinesq fluid in a cylinder is considered. An asymptotic analysis similar to the one used by Buell and Catton (1986) for axisymmetric convection yields a solvability condition that determines the radial wavenumber. The analysis is valid for convection far away from the origin, the lateral boundary, and any pattern dislocations. The azimuthal wave number is treated as a parameter, although in real systems it is dependent on the initial and boundary conditions. Results are presented for Rayleigh numbers between 14,000 and 60,000, and for azimuthal wave numbers between 5 and 7. It is shown that for increasing Rayleigh numbers, the selected radial wave number and the heat transfer tend to become independent of the azimuthal wave number. No quantitative experimental data are available, but one qualitative comparison is good.

  15. More stable yet bimodal geodynamo during the Cretaceous superchron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuillier, Florian; Gilder, Stuart A.; Wack, Michael; He, Kuang; Petersen, Nikolai; Singer, Brad S.; Jicha, Brian R.; Schaen, Allen J.; Colon, Dylan

    2016-06-01

    We report palaeomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar dating results from two sequences of basaltic lava flows deposited at the same locality in western China, yet separated in time by ~50 Myr: one set lies within the Cretaceous normal superchron at 112-115 Ma and a second at 59-70 Ma spanning the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. We find that magnetic field directions during the superchron exhibit bimodal populations: one with inclinations representative of a dipolar field and another with shallow inclinations that could reflect a more complex, multipolar field. However, the time-dependent variability in field directions was 50% lower during the superchron than after, which implies greater field stability during the superchron. Our results suggest that episodes of less dipolar field behavior occurred within the Cretaceous superchron and raise the question whether a second, more multipolar, field state is more persistent than previously thought.

  16. Bimodal star formation - Constraints from the solar neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Silk, J.

    1987-01-01

    The chemical evolution resulting from a simple model of bimodal star formulation is investigated, using constraints from the solar neighborhood to set the parameters of the initial mass function and star formation rate. The two modes are an exclusively massive star mode, which forms stars at an exponentially declining rate, and a mode which contains stars of all masses and has a constant star formation rate. Satisfactory agreement with the age-metallicity relation for the thin disk and with the metallicity structure of the thin-disk and spheroid stars is possible only for a small range of parameter values. The preferred model offers a resolution to several of the long-standing problems of galactic chemical evolution, including explanations of the age-metallicity relation, the gas consumption time scale, and the stellar cumulative metallicity distributions.

  17. Template synthesis of 3-D bimodal ordered porous silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A dual template synthesis combined with a modified bulk sol-gel process was used to prepare the three dimensional bimodal ordered porous silica, in which the macropore wall is mesoporous and both the pores are interconnected. The macropores were replicated from the template of the dried polystyrene colloidal crystal after being removed by calcination at high temperature, whislt the mesopores were achieved by burning off the surfactant in the gel. The ordered morphologies and interconnection of both the macropores and the mesopores were evidenced by the characterizations with SEM and TEM attached with electron diffraction. Nitrogen adsorption results also confirmed the interconnectivity, sizes and their distribution of the two sorts of pores. The effect of surfactant concentration and calcination conditions on mesopore size and its distribution was also investigated.

  18. Progress in Bimodal Polyethylene Produced by Metallocene Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG YuTao

    2001-01-01

    @@ The external new ways, kinds and recant advances of bimodal Polyethylene produced by metallocene catalyst were reviewed. For example, U.S.Pat.No 4939217 discloses an olefin polymerization supported catalyst comprising at least two different metallocenes each having different olefin polymerization termination rate constants in the presence of hydrogen. U.S.Pat. No.5077255 discloses an olefin polymerization supported catalyst comprising at least one metallocene of a metal, a non-metallocene transition metal and an alumoxane. The supported product is highly useful for the polymerization of olefins especially ethylene and especially for the copolymerization of ethylene and other mono and diolefins. U.S.Pat.No.5986024 discloses a process is provided for preparing polymer compositions which are multimodal in nature. The process involves contacting, under polymerization conditions, a selected addition polymerizable monomer with a metallocene catalyst having two or more distinct and chemically different active sites, and a catalyst activator.

  19. Progress in Bimodal Polyethylene Produced by Metallocene Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; YuTao

    2001-01-01

    The external new ways, kinds and recant advances of bimodal Polyethylene produced by metallocene catalyst were reviewed. For example, U.S.Pat.No 4939217 discloses an olefin polymerization supported catalyst comprising at least two different metallocenes each having different olefin polymerization termination rate constants in the presence of hydrogen. U.S.Pat. No.5077255 discloses an olefin polymerization supported catalyst comprising at least one metallocene of a metal, a non-metallocene transition metal and an alumoxane. The supported product is highly useful for the polymerization of olefins especially ethylene and especially for the copolymerization of ethylene and other mono and diolefins. U.S.Pat.No.5986024 discloses a process is provided for preparing polymer compositions which are multimodal in nature. The process involves contacting, under polymerization conditions, a selected addition polymerizable monomer with a metallocene catalyst having two or more distinct and chemically different active sites, and a catalyst activator.  ……

  20. METALLOCENE POLYETHYLENES WITH BROAD OR BIMODAL MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Seven new binuclear titanocenes with different linking bridges, unsubstituted or substituted on the Cp rings, were synthesized and tested for their effect on ethylene polymerization in the presence of MAO. The polyethylenes thus obtained had broad MWD or even bimodal GPC curves, as compared with that from two reference mononuclear titanocenes. This is explained by the difference in degree of steric hindrance around the active center sites imposed by the bulky substituted ligands assuming different configurations in the rotation of the catalyst molecules. Lower polymerization temperatures alleviate the effect of these configuration differences, as reflected in change in MW and -Mw/-Mn. This effect is not caused by decomposition or disproportionation of the binuclear titanocenes as evidenced by the stability of the catalyst.

  1. AGN Feedback and Bimodality in Cluster Core Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Fulai; Ruszkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a series of steady-state models of galaxy clusters, in which the hot intracluster gas is efficiently heated by active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback and thermal conduction, and in which the mass accretion rates are highly reduced compared to those predicted by the standard cooling flow models. We perform a global Lagrangian stability analysis. We show for the first time that the global radial instability in cool core clusters can be suppressed by the AGN feedback mechanism, provided that the feedback efficiency exceeds a critical lower limit. Furthermore, our analysis naturally shows that the clusters can exist in two distinct forms. Globally stable clusters are expected to have either: 1) cool cores stabilized by both AGN feedback and conduction, or 2) non-cool cores stabilized primarily by conduction. Intermediate central temperatures typically lead to globally unstable solutions. This bimodality is consistent with the recently observed anticorrelation between the flatness of the temperature...

  2. Proposal of bimodal solution for urban vehicular contamination problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Osorio Gómez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In research field of alternative solutions to internal combustion engine vehicles, the Politecnico di Milano has developed a design and manufacturing project for an adaptable electro-mechanical kit intended to transform a city car with en-dothermic propulsion into a bimodal one, using existent technologies and innovative solutions. This project involves mechanical and electrical competences in order to develop a new transmission parallel to the current endothermic propulsion and its control system. This paper describes, in general, the developed procedure to obtain the final proto-type. At first, the requirements and constraints to fulfil a standard transport urban cycle has been established and the vehicle to modify was selected, in this case the Fiat Grande Punto. Next, new components and the required space to their installation have been identified and specified, whilst mechanical components were designed and manufactured. Instruments of reverse engineering and virtual prototyping have been employed to carry out the geometrical models, simulations and layouts and to identify useful spaces in the vehicle. Finally, general modifications, installation of new components, implementation of control and data acquisition system, fine-tuning and check of specifications fulfilment have been carried out. A 30 km range working in electrical mode, with a top speed of 70 km/h, is assured with the developed kit. These results demonstrate the feasibility to implement a forward bimodal propulsion system into a com-mercial city car with a little invasive commercial kit, and now, the Politecnico is working at its industrialization and im-plementation to different models of city cars. Regione Lombardia (Regional government in Italy has funded this project as an investigation oriented to find new solutions to sustainable transport and reduction of environmental pollution.

  3. Dynamic behaviour of fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Weydahl, Helge

    2006-01-01

    This thesis addresses the dynamic behaviour of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and alkaline fuel cells (AFCs). For successful implementation in automotive vehicles and other applications with rapidly varying power demands, the dynamic behaviour of the fuel cell is critical. Knowledge of the load variation requirements as well as the response time of the cell at load change is essential for identifying the need for and design of a buffer system.The transient response of a PEMFC su...

  4. Diverse Kir expression contributes to distinct bimodal distribution of resting potentials and vasotone responses of arterioles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqin Yang

    Full Text Available The resting membrane potential (RP of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs is a major determinant of cytosolic calcium concentration and vascular tone. The heterogeneity of RPs and its underlying mechanism among different vascular beds remain poorly understood. We compared the RPs and vasomotion properties between the guinea pig spiral modiolar artery (SMA, brain arterioles (BA and mesenteric arteries (MA. We found: 1 RPs showed a robust bimodal distribution peaked at -76 and -40 mV evenly in the SMA, unevenly at -77 and -51 mV in the BA and ~-71 and -52 mV in the MA. Ba(2+ 0.1 mM eliminated their high RP peaks ~-75 mV. 2 Cells with low RP (~-45 mV hyperpolarized in response to 10 mM extracellular K(+, while cells with a high RP depolarized, and cells with intermediate RP (~-58 mV displayed an initial hyperpolarization followed by prolonged depolarization. Moderate high K(+ typically induced dilation, constriction and a dilation followed by constriction in the SMA, MA and BA, respectively. 3 Boltzmann-fit analysis of the Ba(2+-sensitive inward rectifier K(+ (Kir whole-cell current showed that the maximum Kir conductance density significantly differed among the vessels, and the half-activation voltage was significantly more negative in the MA. 4 Corresponding to the whole-cell data, computational modeling simulated the three RP distribution patterns and the dynamics of RP changes obtained experimentally, including the regenerative swift shifts between the two RP levels after reaching a threshold. 5 Molecular works revealed strong Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 transcripts and Kir2.1 immunolabeling in all 3 vessels, while Kir2.3 and Kir2.4 transcript levels varied. We conclude that a dense expression of functional Kir2.X channels underlies the more negative RPs in endothelial cells and a subset of VSMC in these arterioles, and the heterogeneous Kir function is primarily responsible for the distinct bimodal RPs among these arterioles. The fast Kir

  5. Monaural Beamforming in Bimodal Cochlear Implant Users: Effect of (A)symmetric Directivity and Noise Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, A. Miranda L.; Chalupper, Josef; Stokroos, Robert J.; George, Erwin L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate monaural beamforming in bimodally aided cochlear implant (CI) users. Design The study enrolled twelve adult bimodal listeners with at least six months of CI-experience and using a contralateral hearing aid (HA) most of the daytime. Participants were uniformly fitted with the same CI speech processor and HA, giving access to an identical monaural beamformer in both ears. A within-subject repeated measures design evaluated three directional configurations [omnidirectional, asymmetric directivity (in CI alone) and symmetric directivity (in both CI and HA)] in two noise types [stationary and fluctuating]. Bimodal speech reception thresholds (SRT) as well as listening effort ratings were assessed in a diffuse noise field. Results Symmetric monaural beamforming provided a significant SRT improvement of 2.6 dB SNR, compared to 1.6 dB SNR for asymmetric monaural beamforming. Directional benefits were similarly observed in stationary and fluctuating noise. Directivity did not contribute to less listening effort in addition to improvement in speech intelligibility. Bimodal performance was about 7 dB SNR worse in fluctuating than in stationary noise. Conclusions Monaural beamforming provided substantial benefit for speech intelligibility in noise for bimodal listeners. The greatest benefit occurred when monaural beamforming was activated symmetrically in both CI and HA. Monaural beamforming does not bridge the gap between bimodal and normal hearing performance, especially in fluctuating noise. Results advocate further bimodal co-operation. Trial Registration This trial was registered in www.trialregister.nl under number NTR4901. PMID:27537075

  6. Hydrographic influences on the summer dive behaviour of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in Atka Bay, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Trevor; Stansfield, L.; Bornemann, Horst; Plötz, Joachim; Marthán N Bester

    2013-01-01

    In order to gain insights into species-level behavioural responses to the physical environment, it is necessary to obtain information from various populations and at all times of year. We analysed the influences of physical environmental parameters on the mid-summer dive behaviour of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) from a little-known population at Atka Bay, Antarctica. Dive depth distributions followed a typical bimodal pattern also exhibited by seals from other populations and seals...

  7. CYCLIC PLASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF UFG COPPER UNDER CONTROLLED STRESS AND STRAIN LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Navrátilová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of stress- and strain-controlled loading on microstructure and cyclic plastic behaviour of ultrafine-grained copper prepared by equal channel angular pressing was examined. The stability of microstructure is a characteristic feature for stress-controlled test whereas grain coarsening and development of bimodal structure was observed after plastic strain-controlled tests. An attempt to explain the observed behaviour was made.

  8. MMP1 bimodal expression and differential response to inflammatory mediators is linked to promoter polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Print Cristin G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying the functional importance of the millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the human genome is a difficult challenge. Therefore, a reverse strategy, which identifies functionally important SNPs by virtue of the bimodal abundance across the human population of the SNP-related mRNAs will be useful. Those mRNA transcripts that are expressed at two distinct abundances in proportion to SNP allele frequency may warrant further study. Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1 is important in both normal development and in numerous pathologies. Although much research has been conducted to investigate the expression of MMP1 in many different cell types and conditions, the regulation of its expression is still not fully understood. Results In this study, we used a novel but straightforward method based on agglomerative hierarchical clustering to identify bimodally expressed transcripts in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC microarray data from 15 individuals. We found that MMP1 mRNA abundance was bimodally distributed in un-treated HUVECs and showed a bimodal response to inflammatory mediator treatment. RT-PCR and MMP1 activity assays confirmed the bimodal regulation and DNA sequencing of 69 individuals identified an MMP1 gene promoter polymorphism that segregated precisely with the MMP1 bimodal expression. Chromatin immunoprecipation (ChIP experiments indicated that the transcription factors (TFs ETS1, ETS2 and GATA3, bind to the MMP1 promoter in the region of this polymorphism and may contribute to the bimodal expression. Conclusions We describe a simple method to identify putative bimodally expressed RNAs from transcriptome data that is effective yet easy for non-statisticans to understand and use. This method identified bimodal endothelial cell expression of MMP1, which appears to be biologically significant with implications for inflammatory disease. (271 Words

  9. An effective inversion algorithm for retrieving bimodal aerosol particle size distribution from spectral extinction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ant Colony Optimization algorithm based on the probability density function (PDF-ACO) is applied to estimate the bimodal aerosol particle size distribution (PSD). The direct problem is solved by the modified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation (ADA, as an approximation for optically large and soft spheres, i.e., χ⪢1 and |m−1|⪡1) and the Beer–Lambert law. First, a popular bimodal aerosol PSD and three other bimodal PSDs are retrieved in the dependent model by the multi-wavelength extinction technique. All the results reveal that the PDF-ACO algorithm can be used as an effective technique to investigate the bimodal PSD. Then, the Johnson's SB (J-SB) function and the modified beta (M-β) function are employed as the general distribution function to retrieve the bimodal PSDs under the independent model. Finally, the J-SB and M-β functions are applied to recover actual measurement aerosol PSDs over Beijing and Shanghai obtained from the aerosol robotic network (AERONET). The numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that these two general functions, especially the J-SB function, can be used as a versatile distribution function to retrieve the bimodal aerosol PSD when no priori information about the PSD is available. - Highlights: • Bimodal PSDs are retrieved by ACO based on probability density function accurately. • J-SB and M-β functions can be used as the versatile function to recover bimodal PSDs. • Bimodal aerosol PSDs can be estimated by J-SB function more reasonably

  10. Bimodal zone of the soil textural triangle : common in tropical and subtropical regions

    OpenAIRE

    Condappa, D. De; Galle, Sylvie; Dewandel, B.; Haverkamp, Randel

    2008-01-01

    The USDA soil textural triangle shows a zone where sods have a low silt fraction compared with the fractions of sand and day. These soils have a particle-size distribution function showing two local maxima in weight percentage for the particle-size ranges of sand and clay. The soils are referred to as bimodal soil, with an associated bimodal zone in the soil textural triangle. It was shown that processes of pedogenesis in tropical and subtropical regions favor the generation of bimodal soils....

  11. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin

  12. The bimodal initial mass function in the Orion Nebula Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Drass, H; Chini, R; Bayo, A; Hackstein, M; Hoffmeister, V; Godoy, N; Vogt, N

    2016-01-01

    Due to its youth, proximity and richness the Orion Nebula Cloud (ONC) is an ideal testbed to obtain a comprehensive view on the Initial Mass Function (IMF) down to the planetary mass regime. Using the HAWK-I camera at the VLT, we have obtained an unprecedented deep and wide near-infrared JHK mosaic of the ONC (90% completeness at K~19.0mag, 22'x28). Applying the most recent isochrones and accounting for the contamination of background stars and galaxies, we find that ONC's IMF is bimodal with distinct peaks at about 0.25 and 0.025 M_sun separated by a pronounced dip at the hydrogen burning limit (0.08 M_sun), with a depth of about a factor 2-3 below the log-normal distribution. Apart from ~920 low-mass stars (M 0.005 M_sun, hence about ten times more substellar candidates than known before. The substellar IMF peak at 0.025 M_sun could be caused by BDs and IPMOs which have been ejected from multiple systems during the early star-formation process or from circumstellar disks.

  13. On the bimodal distribution of gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shude; Narayan, Ramesh; Piran, Tsvi

    1994-01-01

    Kouveliotou et al. recently confirmed that gamma-ray bursts are bimodal in duration. In this paper we compute the statistical properties of the short (less than or = 2 s) and long (greater than 2 s) bursts using a method of analysis that makes no assumption regarding the location of the bursts, whether in the Galaxy or at a cosmological distance. We find the 64 ms channel on Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) to be more sensitive to short bursts and the 1024 ms channel to be more sensitive to long bursts. We show that all the currently available data are consistent with the simple hypothesis that both short and long bursts have the same spatial distribution and that within each population the sources are standard candles. The rate of short bursts per unit volume is about 40% of the rate of long bursts. Although the durations of short and long gamma-ray bursts span several orders of magnitude and the total energy of a typical short burst is smaller than that of a typical long burst by a factor of about 20, surprisingly the peak luminosities of the two kinds of bursts are equal to within a factor of about 2.

  14. Utterance independent bimodal emotion recognition in spontaneous communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianhua; Pan, Shifeng; Yang, Minghao; Li, Ya; Mu, Kaihui; Che, Jianfeng

    2011-12-01

    Emotion expressions sometimes are mixed with the utterance expression in spontaneous face-to-face communication, which makes difficulties for emotion recognition. This article introduces the methods of reducing the utterance influences in visual parameters for the audio-visual-based emotion recognition. The audio and visual channels are first combined under a Multistream Hidden Markov Model (MHMM). Then, the utterance reduction is finished by finding the residual between the real visual parameters and the outputs of the utterance related visual parameters. This article introduces the Fused Hidden Markov Model Inversion method which is trained in the neutral expressed audio-visual corpus to solve the problem. To reduce the computing complexity the inversion model is further simplified to a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) mapping. Compared with traditional bimodal emotion recognition methods (e.g., SVM, CART, Boosting), the utterance reduction method can give better results of emotion recognition. The experiments also show the effectiveness of our emotion recognition system when it was used in a live environment.

  15. On the nature of bimodal initial velocity distribution of neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    I. BombaciUniversità di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica;; Popov, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    We propose that the bimodal nature of the kick velocity distribution of radio pulsars is connected with the dichotomy between hadronic stars ({\\it i.e.} neutron stars with no quark matter content) and quark stars. Bimodality can appear due to different mechanisms of explosion which leads to the formation of two types of compact stars or due to two different sets of parameters mastering a particular kick mechanism. The low velocity maximum (at $\\sim 100$ km s$^{-1}$) is connected with hadronic...

  16. Interferometer and sensor based on bimodal optical waveguides, and detection method

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez, Carlos; Zinoviev, Kirill; Laura M. Lechuga

    2007-01-01

    [EN]: Planar optical waveguide interferometer (15, 25, 35, 45) comprising: a substrate (8, 28, 38, 48); a bimodal waveguide (10, 20, 20', 30, 40) comprising at least one layer (1, 2, 3) deposited on said substrate (8, 28, 38, 48), said bimodal waveguide (10, 20, 20', 30, 40) being designed for supporting a zeroorder and a first-order transverse propagating modes, said transverse propagating modes having different dispersion; a sensor plate (21, 31, 41, 51) located in a se...

  17. Integration of Visual and Infrared Information in Bimodal Neurons of the Rattlesnake Optic Tectum

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Eric A.; Hartline, Peter H.

    1981-01-01

    Bimodal neurons in the rattlesnake tectum, which receive sensory input from the retina and from the infrared-sensing pit organ, exhibit novel, highly nonlinear cross-modality interactions. Some units respond only to simultaneous bimodal stimulation. Others respond to only one of the two modalities, but show greatly enhanced or depressed responses when stimulated simultaneously in the second modality. These cross-modality interactions may play an important role in recognizing and orienting tow...

  18. Multiple regimes of operation in bimodal AFM: understanding the energy of cantilever eigenmodes

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kiracofe; Arvind Raman; Dalia Yablon

    2013-01-01

    One of the key goals in atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging is to enhance material property contrast with high resolution. Bimodal AFM, where two eigenmodes are simultaneously excited, confers significant advantages over conventional single-frequency tapping mode AFM due to its ability to provide contrast between regions with different material properties under gentle imaging conditions. Bimodal AFM traditionally uses the first two eigenmodes of the AFM cantilever. In this work, the authors...

  19. A geometric construction of Coxeter-Dynkin diagrams of bimodal singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Ebeling, Wolfgang; Ploog, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the Berglund-H\\"ubsch transpose of a bimodal invertible polynomial and construct a triangulated category associated to the compactification of a suitable deformation of the singularity. This is done in such a way that the corresponding Grothendieck group with the (negative) Euler form can be described by a graph which corresponds to the Coxeter-Dynkin diagram with respect to a distinguished basis of vanishing cycles of the bimodal singularity.

  20. Speech Recognition Performance in Children with Cochlear Implants Using Bimodal Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rathna Kumar, S. B.; Mohanty, P.; Prakash, S. G. R.

    2010-01-01

    Cochlear implantees have considerably good speech understanding abilities in quiet surroundings. But, ambient noise poses significant difficulties in understanding speech for these individuals. Bimodal stimulation is still not used by many Indian implantees in spite of reports that bimodal stimulation is beneficial for speech understanding in noise as compared to cochlear implant alone and also prevents auditory deprivation in the un-implanted ear. The aim of the study is to evaluate the bene...

  1. The relative phonetic contributions of a cochlear implant and residual acoustic hearing to bimodal speech perceptiona

    OpenAIRE

    Sheffield, Benjamin M.; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2012-01-01

    The addition of low-passed (LP) speech or even a tone following the fundamental frequency (F0) of speech has been shown to benefit speech recognition for cochlear implant (CI) users with residual acoustic hearing. The mechanisms underlying this benefit are still unclear. In this study, eight bimodal subjects (CI users with acoustic hearing in the non-implanted ear) and eight simulated bimodal subjects (using vocoded and LP speech) were tested on vowel and consonant recognition to determine th...

  2. Binaural advantages in users of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkinakis, Kostas; Pak, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent users of bilateral and bimodal fittings should expect to benefit from all three different binaural advantages found to be present in normal-hearing listeners. Head-shadow and binaural squelch are advantages occurring under spatially separated speech and noise, while summation emerges when speech and noise coincide in space. For 14 bilateral or bimodal listeners, speech reception thresholds in the presence of four-talker babble were measured in sound-fiel...

  3. Not Just for Bimodal Neurons Anymore: The Contribution of Unimodal Neurons to Cortical Multisensory Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Allman, Brian L.; Keniston, Leslie P.; Meredith, M. Alex

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, neuronal studies of multisensory processing proceeded by first identifying neurons that were overtly multisensory (e.g., bimodal, trimodal) and then testing them. In contrast, the present study examined, without precondition, neurons in an extrastriate visual area of the cat for their responses to separate (visual, auditory) and combined-modality (visual and auditory) stimulation. As expected, traditional bimodal forms of multisensory neurons were identified. In addition, howev...

  4. Plasticity and Damage in Bimodal Grain Size Al-5083: Microstructural Finite Element

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Bimodal and nanocrystalline aluminum alloys are being investigated as stronger replacements for conventional polycrystalline aluminum alloys. Higher strengths are achieved by reducing the grain size of a metal; however, as the grain size is reduced the ductility diminishes. One solution that limits this decrease in ductility is the addition of a few microcrystalline grains into a nanocrystalline alloy, creating a bimodal microstructure that offers a better balance of strength and ductility....

  5. Dynamics of fully coupled rotators with unimodal and bimodal frequency distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Olmi, Simona; Torcini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the synchronization transition of a globally coupled network of N phase oscillators with inertia (rotators) whose natural frequencies are unimodally or bimodally distributed. In the unimodal case, the system exhibits a discontinuous hysteretic transition from an incoherent to a partially synchronized (PS) state. For sufficiently large inertia, the system reveals the coexistence of a PS state and of a standing wave (SW) solution. In the bimodal case, the hysteretic synchronization t...

  6. Robustness analysis of bimodal networks in the whole range of degree correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutaka, Shogo; Tanizawa, Toshihiro

    2016-08-01

    We present an exact analysis of the physical properties of bimodal networks specified by the two peak degree distribution fully incorporating the degree-degree correlation between node connections. The structure of the correlated bimodal network is uniquely determined by the Pearson coefficient of the degree correlation, keeping its degree distribution fixed. The percolation threshold and the giant component fraction of the correlated bimodal network are analytically calculated in the whole range of the Pearson coefficient from -1 to 1 against two major types of node removal, which are the random failure and the degree-based targeted attack. The Pearson coefficient for next-nearest-neighbor pairs is also calculated, which always takes a positive value even when the correlation between nearest-neighbor pairs is negative. From the results, it is confirmed that the percolation threshold is a monotonically decreasing function of the Pearson coefficient for the degrees of nearest-neighbor pairs increasing from -1 and 1 regardless of the types of node removal. In contrast, the node fraction of the giant component for bimodal networks with positive degree correlation rapidly decreases in the early stage of random failure, while that for bimodal networks with negative degree correlation remains relatively large until the removed node fraction reaches the threshold. In this sense, bimodal networks with negative degree correlation are more robust against random failure than those with positive degree correlation.

  7. Bimodal tholeiitic-dacitic magmatism and the Early Precambrian crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1974-01-01

    Interlayered plagioclase-quartz gneisses and amphibolites from 2.7 to more than 3.6 b.y. old form much of the basement underlying Precambrian greenstone belts of the world; they are especially well-developed and preserved in the Transvaal and Rhodesian cratons. We postulate that these basement rocks are largely a metamorphosed, volcanic, bimodal suite of tholeiite and high-silica low-potash dacite-compositionally similar to the 1.8-b.y.-old Twilight Gneiss - and partly intrusive equivalents injected into the lower parts of such volcanic piles. We speculate that magmatism in the Early Precambrian involved higher heat flow and more hydrous conditions than in the Phanerozoic. Specifically, we suggest that the early degassing of the Earth produced a basaltic crust and pyrolitic upper mantle that contained much amphibole, serpentine, and other hydrous minerals. Dehydration of the lower parts of a downgoing slab of such hydrous crust and upper mantle would release sufficient water to prohibit formation of andesitic liquid in the upper part of the slab. Instead, a dacitic liquid and a residuum of amphibole and other silica-poor phases would form, according to Green and Ringwood's experimental results. Higher temperatures farther down the slab would cause total melting of basalt and generation of the tholeiitic member of the suite. This type of magma generation and volcanism persisted until the early hydrous lithosphere was consumed. An implication of this hypothesis is that about half the present volume of the oceans formed before about 2.6 b.y. ago. ?? 1974.

  8. The Angstrom Exponent and Bimodal Aerosol Size Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Gregory L.; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent H.

    2005-01-01

    Powerlaws have long been used to describe the spectral dependence of aerosol extinction, and the wavelength exponent of the aerosol extinction powerlaw is commonly referred to as the Angstrom exponent. The Angstrom exponent is often used as a qualitative indicator of aerosol particle size, with values greater than two indicating small particles associated with combustion byproducts, and values less than one indicating large particles like sea salt and dust. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the Angstrom exponent and the mode parameters of bimodal aerosol size distributions using Mie theory calculations and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals. We find that Angstrom exponents based upon seven wavelengths (0.34, 0.38, 0.44, 0.5, 0.67, 0.87, and 1.02 micrometers) are sensitive to the volume fraction of aerosols with radii less then 0.6 micrometers, but not to the fine mode effective radius. The Angstrom exponent is also known to vary with wavelength, which is commonly referred to as curvature; we show how the spectral curvature can provide additional information about aerosol size distributions for intermediate values of the Angstrom exponent. Curvature also has a significant effect on the conclusions that can be drawn about two-wavelength Angstrom exponents; long wavelengths (0.67, 0.87 micrometers) are sensitive to fine mode volume fraction of aerosols but not fine mode effective radius, while short wavelengths (0.38, 0.44 micrometers) are sensitive to the fine mode effective radius but not the fine mode volume fraction.

  9. Folding Behaviour for Proteins BBL and E3BD with Gō-like Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Guang-Hong; ZHANG Jian; WANG Jun; WANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    @@ Folding behaviour of protein BBL and its homologue domain E3BD are studied by using an off-lattice Gō-like model. It is found that the folding behaviours of these two proteins are different. Protein BBL folds in a downhill manner, which is consistent with experiments. In contrast, protein E3BD folds cooperatively and has a bimodal distribution of the Q values (the similarity to the native state). By analysing the native structures of the two proteins, it is found that the difference in folding behaviours can be attributed to the different structural features described by the number of nonlocal contacts per residue.

  10. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications for...

  11. Bimodal Seismic Anisotropy at Cotopaxi volcano (Ecuador): Possible implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Douillet, Guilhem; Ruiz, Mario; Robin, Claude

    2010-05-01

    A shear wave splitting analysis was performed on Cotopaxi volcano, one of Ecuador most active and hazardous volcanoes, in order to investigate the stress state under this volcano. Cotopaxi volcano is located in a highly populated area including the capital Quito. It's eruptive cycle is approximately 120 ±70 years and apart from possible minor eruptions in 1942 and 1903-1904, the last volcanic activity dates from 1878-1885. Moreover, 15 years of increasing seismicity with some major crisis during the 1995-2010 periods, lead to the current very high seismic level. Finally two years of gas monitoring suggest that the Cotopaxi's emissions are currently intermittent and passive, but non negligible. We analyzed 102 regional tectonic events recorded between 2006 and 2009 at a network of five broad-band three-component seismic stations. These stations are located on all flanks of Cotopaxi. The events used were from several seismic sources located inside a radius of 200 kilometers from the volcano and illuminate all space directions. Seismic events were manually chosen based on their clear shear wave component in regards to the compression wave and to the noise. The data were computed using Matlab software. Polarization directions and delay times of split shear waves were found using a method based on the cross correlation of displacement waveforms of shear-waves at all possible rotation angles. Our results show a bimodal anisotropic behavior. One of the fast-directions axes follows the regional Ecuadorian tectonic general strain with a ESE direction. The other trend was found to be perpendicular to the regional strain. Other studies have shown that a 90° flip may take place either prior, during, or just after the main eruptive phase, or during hydraulic injections. This 90° flip is probably relied to micro cracks filling and pressuring, creating a local reverse strain field. There is not clear trend on temporal evolution of anisotropy distribution on our data. Only one

  12. The bimodal pH distribution of volcanic lake waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Luigi; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino; Saldi, Giuseppe

    2003-02-01

    Volcanic lake waters have a bimodal pH distribution with an acidic mode at pH 0.5-1.5 and a near neutral mode at pH 6-6.5, with relatively few samples having pH 3.5-5. To investigate the reasons for this distribution, the irreversible water-rock mass exchanges during the neutralization of acid SO 4-Cl waters with andesite, under both low- and high-temperature conditions, were simulated by means of the EQ3/6 software package, version 7.2. Reaction path modeling under low temperature and atmospheric P CO 2 and f O 2, suggests that several homogeneous and/or heterogeneous pH buffers exist both in the acidic and neutral regions, but no buffer is active in the intermediate, central pH region. Again, the same titration, under high-temperature, hydrothermal-magmatic conditions, is expected to produce comparatively infrequent aqueous solutions with pH values in the 3.5-5 range, upon their cooling below 100°C. Substantially different pH values are obtained depending on the cooling paths, either through boiling or conductive heat losses. These distinct pH values are governed by either HSO 4- and HCl (aq), in poorly neutralized aqueous solutions, or the CO 2(aq)/HCO 3- couple and the P CO 2 value as well, in neutralized aqueous solutions. Finally, mixing of the acid lake water with the aqueous solutions produced through high-temperature titration and cooled below 100°C is unlikely to generate mixtures with pH values higher than 3, unless the fraction of the acidic water originally present in the lake becomes very small, which means its virtually complete substitution. Summing up, the evidence gathered through reaction path modeling of the neutralization of acid lake waters with andesite, both at low and high temperatures, explains the scarcity of volcanic lake waters with measured pH values of 3.5-5.

  13. Lateral Erosion Encourages Vertical Incision in a Bimodal Alluvial River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    Sand can have a strong impact on gravel transport, increasing gravel transport rates by orders of magnitude as sand content increases. Recent experimental work by others indicates that adding sand to an armored bed can even cause armor to break-up and mobilize. These two elements together help explain observations from a bimodal sand and gravel-bedded river, where lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium breaks up the armor layer, encouraging further incision into the bed. Detailed bedload measurements were coupled with surface and subsurface grain size analyses and cross-sectional surveys in a seasonally-incised channel carved into the upper alluvial fan of the Pasig-Potrero River at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Pinatubo erupted in 1991, filling valleys draining the flanks of the volcano with primarily sand-sized pyroclastic flow debris. Twenty years after the eruption, sand-rich sediment inputs are strongly seasonal, with most sediment input to the channel during the rainy season. During the dry season, flow condenses from a wide braided planform to a single-thread channel in most of the upper basin, extending several km onto the alluvial fan. This change in planform creates similar unit discharge ranges in summer and winter. Lower sediment loads in the dry season drive vertical incision until the bed is sufficiently armored. Incision proceeds downstream in a wave, with increasing sediment transport rates and decreasing grain size with distance downstream, eventually reaching a gravel-sand transition and return to a braided planform. Incision depths in the gravel-bedded section exceeded 3 meters in parts of a 4 km-long study reach, a depth too great to be explained by predictions from simple winnowing during incision. Instead, lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium provides sufficient fine sediment to break up the armor surface, allowing incision to start anew and increasing the total depth of the seasonally-incised valley. Lateral migration is recorded in a

  14. Integrated propulsion and power modeling for bimodal nuclear thermal rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Joshua

    Bimodal nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR) engines have been shown to reduce the weight of space vehicles to the Moon, Mars, and beyond by utilizing a common reactor for propulsion and power generation. These savings lead to reduced launch vehicle costs and/or increased mission safety and capability. Experimental work of the Rover/NERVA program demonstrated the feasibility of NTR systems for trajectories to Mars. Numerous recent studies have demonstrated the economic and performance benefits of BNTR operation. Relatively little, however, is known about the reactor-level operation of a BNTR engine. The objective of this dissertation is to develop a numerical BNTR engine model in order to study the feasibility and component-level impact of utilizing a NERVA-derived reactor as a heat source for both propulsion and power. The primary contribution is to provide the first-of-its-kind model and analysis of a NERVA-derived BNTR engine. Numerical component models have been modified and created for the NERVA reactor fuel elements and tie tubes, including 1-D coolant thermodynamics and radial thermal conduction with heat generation. A BNTR engine system model has been created in order to design and analyze an engine employing an expander-cycle nuclear rocket and Brayton cycle power generator using the same reactor. Design point results show that a 316 MWt reactor produces a thrust and specific impulse of 66.6 kN and 917 s, respectively. The same reactor can be run at 73.8 kWt to produce the necessary 16.7 kW electric power with a Brayton cycle generator. This demonstrates the feasibility of BNTR operation with a NERVA-derived reactor but also indicates that the reactor control system must be able to operate with precision across a wide power range, and that the transient analysis of reactor decay heat merits future investigation. Results also identify a significant reactor pressure-drop limitation during propulsion and power-generation operation that is caused by poor tie tube

  15. Contributions of electric and acoustic hearing to bimodal speech and music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Joseph D; Galvin, John J; Landsberger, David M; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users have difficulty understanding speech in noisy listening conditions and perceiving music. Aided residual acoustic hearing in the contralateral ear can mitigate these limitations. The present study examined contributions of electric and acoustic hearing to speech understanding in noise and melodic pitch perception. Data was collected with the CI only, the hearing aid (HA) only, and both devices together (CI+HA). Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were adaptively measured for simple sentences in speech babble. Melodic contour identification (MCI) was measured with and without a masker instrument; the fundamental frequency of the masker was varied to be overlapping or non-overlapping with the target contour. Results showed that the CI contributes primarily to bimodal speech perception and that the HA contributes primarily to bimodal melodic pitch perception. In general, CI+HA performance was slightly improved relative to the better ear alone (CI-only) for SRTs but not for MCI, with some subjects experiencing a decrease in bimodal MCI performance relative to the better ear alone (HA-only). Individual performance was highly variable, and the contribution of either device to bimodal perception was both subject- and task-dependent. The results suggest that individualized mapping of CIs and HAs may further improve bimodal speech and music perception. PMID:25790349

  16. Contributions of electric and acoustic hearing to bimodal speech and music perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D Crew

    Full Text Available Cochlear implant (CI users have difficulty understanding speech in noisy listening conditions and perceiving music. Aided residual acoustic hearing in the contralateral ear can mitigate these limitations. The present study examined contributions of electric and acoustic hearing to speech understanding in noise and melodic pitch perception. Data was collected with the CI only, the hearing aid (HA only, and both devices together (CI+HA. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs were adaptively measured for simple sentences in speech babble. Melodic contour identification (MCI was measured with and without a masker instrument; the fundamental frequency of the masker was varied to be overlapping or non-overlapping with the target contour. Results showed that the CI contributes primarily to bimodal speech perception and that the HA contributes primarily to bimodal melodic pitch perception. In general, CI+HA performance was slightly improved relative to the better ear alone (CI-only for SRTs but not for MCI, with some subjects experiencing a decrease in bimodal MCI performance relative to the better ear alone (HA-only. Individual performance was highly variable, and the contribution of either device to bimodal perception was both subject- and task-dependent. The results suggest that individualized mapping of CIs and HAs may further improve bimodal speech and music perception.

  17. Bulge-disc decompositions and structural bimodality of Ursa Major cluster spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael; Courteau, Stéphane; Tully, R. Brent

    2009-02-01

    We present bulge and disc (B/D) decompositions of existing K' surface brightness profiles for 65 Ursa Major (UMa) cluster spiral galaxies. This improves upon the disc-only fits of Tully et al. The 1996 disc fits were used by Tully & Verheijen for their discovery of the bimodality of structural parameters in the UMa cluster galaxies. It is shown that our new one-dimensional B/D decompositions yield disc structural parameters that differ only slightly from the basic fits of Tully et al. and evidence for structural bimodality of UMa galaxies is maintained. Our B/D software for the decomposition of one-dimensional surface brightness profiles of galaxies uses a non-linear minimization scheme to recover the best-fitting Sérsic bulge and the exponential disc while accounting for the possible presence of a compact nucleus and spiral arms and for the effects of seeing and disc truncations. In agreement with Tully & Verheijen, we find that the distribution of near-infrared disc central surface brightnesses is bimodal with an F-test confidence of 80 per cent. There is also strong evidence for a local minimum in the luminosity function at . A connection between the brightness bimodality and a dynamical bimodality, based on new HI linewidths, is identified. The B/D parameters are presented in Table 1.

  18. The effects of bilateral electric and bimodal electric--acoustic stimulation on language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Chapman, Christopher

    2009-09-01

    There is no doubt that cochlear implants have improved the spoken language abilities of children with hearing loss, but delays persist. Consequently, it is imperative that new treatment options be explored. This study evaluated one aspect of treatment that might be modified, that having to do with bilateral implants and bimodal stimulation. A total of 58 children with at least one implant were tested at 42 months of age on four language measures spanning a continuum from basic to generative in nature. When children were grouped by the kind of stimulation they had at 42 months (one implant, bilateral implants, or bimodal stimulation), no differences across groups were observed. This was true even when groups were constrained to only children who had at least 12 months to acclimatize to their stimulation configuration. However, when children were grouped according to whether or not they had spent any time with bimodal stimulation (either consistently since their first implant or as an interlude to receiving a second) advantages were found for children who had some bimodal experience, but those advantages were restricted to language abilities that are generative in nature. Thus, previously reported benefits of simultaneous bilateral implantation early in a child's life may not extend to generative language. In fact, children may benefit from a period of bimodal stimulation early in childhood because low-frequency speech signals provide prosody and serve as an aid in learning how to perceptually organize the signal that is received through a cochlear implant. PMID:19713210

  19. Nucleation of cracks near the free surface in deformed metallic nanomaterials with a bimodal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovid'ko, I. A.; Sheinerman, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    A theoretical model that effectively describes the nucleation of cracks in stress fields of dislocation pile-ups near the free surface in metallic nanomaterials with a bimodal structure has been developed. The dependences of the critical shear stress τ c (for the formation of a crack with an equilibrium length of 10 nm on a dislocation pile-up near the surface) on the size d of a grain containing the dislocation pile-up have been calculated for copper with a bimodal structure. Theoretically, it has been found that the critical shear stress τ c for the nucleation of a crack near the free surface in a nanomaterial with a bimodal structure is approximately 30% higher than that for the crack nucleation within the nanomaterial at a distance from the free surface.

  20. Bimodal distribution of glucose is not universally useful for diagnosing diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Dorte; Colagiuri, Stephen; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2009-01-01

    excluding known diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Evaluation of Screening and Early Detection Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (DETECT-2) project is an international collaboration pooling surveys from all continents. These studies include surveys in which plasma glucose......OBJECTIVE: Bimodality in the distribution of glucose has been used to define the cut point for the diagnosis of diabetes. Previous studies on bimodality have primarily been in populations with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, including one study in a white Caucasian population. All studies...... included participants with known diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess whether a bimodal structure is a general phenomenon in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h plasma glucose that is useful for deriving a common cut point for diabetes in populations of different origin, both including and...

  1. Robustness analysis of bimodal networks in the whole range of degree correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Mizutaka, Shogo

    2016-01-01

    We present exact analysis of the physical properties of bimodal networks specified by the two peak degree distribution fully incorporating the degree-degree correlation between node connection. The structure of the correlated bimodal network is uniquely determined by the Pearson coefficient of the degree correlation, keeping its degree distribution fixed. The percolation threshold and the giant component fraction of the correlated bimodal network are analytically calculated in the whole range of the Pearson coefficient from $-1$ to $1$ against two major types of node removal, which are the random failure and the degree-based targeted attack. The Pearson coefficient for next-nearest-neighbor pairs is also calculated, which always takes a positive value even when the correlation between nearest-neighbor pairs is negative. From the results, it is confirmed that the percolation threshold is a monotonically decreasing function of the Pearson coefficient for the degrees of nearest-neighbor pairs increasing from $-1...

  2. A DSC and FTIR spectroscopic study of the effects of the epimeric coprostan-3-ols and coprostan-3-one on the thermotropic phase behaviour and organization of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes: Comparison with their 5-cholesten analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesch, Matthew G K; Lewis, Ruthven N A H; Mannock, David A; McElhaney, Ronald N

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of a comparative differential calorimetric and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of the effect of cholesterol and five analogues on the thermotropic phase behaviour and organization of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes. These sterols/steroids differ in both the nature and stereochemistry of the polar head group at C3 (β-OH, α-OH or CO) and in the presence or absence of a double bond in ring B and in the orientation of rings A and B. The Δ(5) sterols/steroid have a trans rather than a cis ring A/B junction, and the concentration of these compounds required to abolish the DPPC pretransition, inversely related to their relative ability to disorder gel state DPPC bilayers, decreases in the order β-OH > α-OH > CO. However, in the saturated ring junction-inverted (cis) series, these concentrations are much more similar, regardless of polar head group chemical structure. Similarly, the residual enthalpy of the DPPC main phase transition at 50 mol% sterol/steroid, which is inversely related to the miscibility of these compounds in fluid DPPC bilayers, also increases in the order β-OH > α-OH > CO, but this effect is attenuated in the saturated series with an inverted ring A/B orientation. Moreover, replacement of the double bond at C5-C6 with a saturated linkage and inversion of the ring A/B junction reduces both sterol/steroid solubility and the ability to order the hydrocarbon chains of fluid DPPC molecules all cases. Thus, the characteristic effects of sterols/steroids on fluid lipid bilayers are generally optimal when an OH group rather than CO group is present at C3, and when this OH group is in the equatorial (β) orientation, and when the orientation of the ring A/B fusion is trans rather than cis. Overall, these results demonstrate that variations in the saturation and stereochemistry of the steroid ring system influence the effect of variations in the nature and stereochemistry of the polar headgroup at C3

  3. The ESO UVES Advanced Data Products Quasar Sample - III. Evidence of Bimodality in the [N/alpha] Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Zafar, Tayyaba; Peroux, Celine; Molaro, Paolo; D'Odorico, Valentina; Vladilo, Giovanni; Popping, Attila

    2014-01-01

    We report here a study of nitrogen and $\\alpha$-capture element (O, S, and Si) abundances in 18 Damped Ly$\\alpha$ Absorbers (DLAs) and sub-DLAs drawn from the ESO-UVES Advanced Data Products (EUADP) database. We report 9 new measurements, 5 upper and 4 lower limits of nitrogen that when compiled with available nitrogen measurements from the literature makes a sample of 108 systems. The extended sample presented here confirms the [N/$\\alpha$] bimodal behaviour suggested in previous studies. Three-quarter of the systems show $\\langle$[N/$\\alpha$]$\\rangle=-0.85$ ($\\pm$0.20 dex) and one-quarter ratios are clustered at $\\langle$[N/$\\alpha$]$\\rangle= -1.41$ ($\\pm$0.14 dex). The high [N/$\\alpha$] plateau is consistent with the HII regions of dwarf irregular and blue compact dwarf galaxies although extended to lower metallicities and could be interpreted as the result of a primary nitrogen production by intermediate mass stars. The low [N/$\\alpha$] values are the lowest ever observed in any astrophysical site. In spi...

  4. Currículum Bimodal : reduirem el fracàs escolar?

    OpenAIRE

    Marquès, Pere

    2012-01-01

    Una investigació desenvolupada al Departament de Pedagogia Aplicada de la UAB ha estudiat l'aplicació del currículum bimodal, que separa els coneixements que s'han de memoritzar de les competències que s'han d'adquirir, en diversos centres d'ensenyament a Espanya i a Amèrica Llatina. Els resultats mostren una millora en el rendiment dels alumnes, alhora que també un increment en la seva motivació davant de les classes. Així, el currículum bimodal obre una porta a l'esperança en la millora de ...

  5. Evidence of bimodal crystallite size distribution in {mu}c-Si:H films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Sanjay K. [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces (UMR 7647 du CNRS), Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)], E-mail: sanjayk.ram@gmail.com; Islam, Md. Nazrul [QAED-SRG, Space Application Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad 380015 (India); Kumar, Satyendra [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Roca i Cabarrocas, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces (UMR 7647 du CNRS), Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2009-03-15

    We report on the microstructural characterization studies carried out on plasma deposited highly crystalline undoped microcrystalline silicon films to explore the crystallite size distribution present in this material. The modeling of results of spectroscopic ellipsometry using two different sized crystallites is corroborated by the deconvolution of experimental Raman profiles using a modeling method that incorporates a bimodal size distribution of crystallites. The presence of a bimodal size distribution of crystallites is demonstrated as well by the results of atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The qualitative agreement between the results of different studies is discussed.

  6. Tension Control of a Bimodal Coiler System by Final-State Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Mitsuo; Eda, Akihiro

    A bimodal coiler system is a system for winding the materials rolled in a tandem mill in a rolling plant. In the bimodal coiler system, the tension changes greatly when the tail end of materials being rolled emerge out of the final stand, and as a result, the winding process might be disturbed. In this study, we attempt to suppress the fluctuation in the tension by employing a feedforward method based on final-state control. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by performing simulations.

  7. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  8. Parallel Bimodal Bilingual Acquisition: A Hearing Child Mediated in a Deaf Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramér-Wolrath, Emelie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal case study was to describe bimodal and bilingual acquisition in a hearing child, Hugo, especially the role his Deaf family played in his linguistic education. Video observations of the family interactions were conducted from the time Hugo was 10 months of age until he was 40 months old. The family language was Swedish…

  9. The Taylor-expansion method of moments for the particle system with bimodal distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the multipoint Taylor expansion method of moments for the bimodal particle system. The collision effects are modeled by the internal and external coagulation terms. Simple theory and numerical tests are performed to prove the effect of the current model.

  10. ON THE PROPORTIONALITY OF FINE MASS CONCENTRATION AND EXTINCTION COEFFICIENT FOR BIMODAL SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a bimodal size distribution of ambient aerosol, an upper limit in particle size can be chosen for the fine aerosol fraction so that the extinction coefficient for light scattering and absorption is directly proportional to the fine mass concentration, with no dependence on th...

  11. Influence of attention on bimodal integration during emotional change decoding: ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuhai; Han, Lingzi; Pan, Zhihui; Luo, Yangmei; Wang, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Recent findings on audiovisual emotional interactions suggest that selective attention affects cross-sensory interaction from an early processing stage. However, the influence of attention manipulation on facial-vocal integration during emotional change perception is still elusive at this point. To address this issue, we asked participants to detect emotional changes conveyed by prosodies (vocal task) or facial expressions (facial task) while facial, vocal, and facial-vocal expressions were presented. At the same time, behavioral responses and electroencephalogram (EEG) were recorded. Behavioral results showed that bimodal emotional changes were detected with shorter response latencies compared to each unimodal condition, suggesting that bimodal emotional cues facilitated emotional change detection. Moreover, while the P3 amplitudes were larger for the bimodal change condition than for the sum of the two unimodal conditions regardless of attention direction, the N1 amplitudes were larger for the bimodal emotional change condition than for the sum of the two unimodal conditions under the attend-voice condition, but not under the attend-face condition. These findings suggest that selective attention modulates facial-vocal integration during emotional change perception in early sensory processing, but not in late cognitive processing stages. PMID:27238075

  12. Gaze-independent ERP-BCIs: augmenting performance through location-congruent bimodal stimuli.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Erp, van, Jan B.F.; Werkhoven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Gaze-independent event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) yield relatively low BCI performance and traditionally employ unimodal stimuli. Bimodal ERP-BCIs may increase BCI performance due to multisensory integration or summation in the brain. An additional advantage of bi

  13. Bimodal Emotion Congruency Is Critical to Preverbal Infants' Abstract Rule Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Angeline Sin Mei; Ma, Yuen Ki; Ho, Anna; Chow, Hiu Mei; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2016-01-01

    Extracting general rules from specific examples is important, as we must face the same challenge displayed in various formats. Previous studies have found that bimodal presentation of grammar-like rules (e.g. ABA) enhanced 5-month-olds' capacity to acquire a rule that infants failed to learn when the rule was presented with visual presentation of…

  14. Perception of Consonants in Reverberation and Noise by Adults Fitted with Bimodal Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michelle; Kokkinakis, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of a contralateral hearing aid to the perception of consonants, in terms of voicing, manner, and place-of-articulation cues in reverberation and noise by adult cochlear implantees aided by bimodal fittings. Method: Eight postlingually deafened adult cochlear implant (CI) listeners…

  15. Cross-Frequency Integration for Consonant and Vowel Identification in Bimodal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Braida, Louis D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Improved speech recognition in binaurally combined acoustic-electric stimulation (otherwise known as "bimodal hearing") could arise when listeners integrate speech cues from the acoustic and electric hearing. The aims of this study were (a) to identify speech cues extracted in electric hearing and residual acoustic hearing in the…

  16. Fano resonance in two-dimensional optical waveguide arrays with a bi-modal defect

    OpenAIRE

    Vicencio, R.; Gorbach, A.; Flach, S.

    2005-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional extension of the Fano-Anderson model on the basis of a two-dimensional optical waveguide array with a bi-modal defect. We demonstrate numerically the persistence of the Fano resonance in wavepacket scattering process by the defect. An analytical approximation is derived for the total scattered light power.

  17. Solving System Of Linear Equations Using The Bimodal Optical Computer (Experimental Results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habli, M. A.; Abushagur, M. A. G.; Caulfield, H. J.

    1988-08-01

    Hardware and software design of the Bimodal Optical Computer (BOC) and its implementations are presented. Experimental results of the BOC for solving a system of linear equations Ax = b is reported. The effect of calibration, the convergence reliability of the BOC, and the convergence of problems with singular matrices are studied.

  18. The Bi-Modal Organization: Balancing Autopoiesis and Fluid Social Networks for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharicz, Carol Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assist an organization to restructure as a bi-modal organization in order to achieve sustainability in today's highly complex business world. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is conceptual and is based on relevant literature and the authors' research and practice. Findings: Although fluid…

  19. Deaf Parents of Cochlear-Implanted Children: Beliefs on Bimodal Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchiner, Julie Cantrell

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated 17 Deaf families in North America with cochlear-implanted children about their attitudes, beliefs, and practices on bimodal bilingualism (defined as using both a visual/manual language and an aural/oral language) in American Sign Language (ASL) and English. A survey and follow-up interviews with 8 families were conducted.…

  20. An examination of bimodal nuclear power and propulsion benefits for outer solar system missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubrin, R. [Lockheed Martin Atronautics, PO Box 179, Denver, Colorado 80201 (United States); Mondt, J. [Jet Propulsion Lab, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of the NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. The radiological hazard associated with using Earth gravity assists on such missions was examined and shown to be small compared to that currently accepted on Earth fly-by missions involving RTGs. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive options for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Matching Automatic Gain Control Across Devices in Bimodal Cochlear Implant Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, L.C.E.; Chalupper, J.; Snik, A.F.M; Opstal, A.J. van; Mens, L.H.M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to improve bimodal benefit in listeners using a cochlear implant (CI) and a hearing aid (HA) in contralateral ears, by matching the time constants and the number of compression channels of the automatic gain control (AGC) of the HA to the CI. Equivalent AGC

  2. "Bimodal" Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) Propulsion for Future Human Mars Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Propulsion program is discussed. The Rover/NERVA program from 1959-1972 is compared with the current program. A key technology description, bimodal vehicle design for Mars Cargo and the crew transfer vehicle with inflatable module and artificial gravity capability, including diagrams are included. The LOX-Augmented NTR concept/operational features and characteristics are discussed.

  3. Possible human impacts on adaptive radiation: beak size bimodality in Darwin's finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P; Grant, Peter R; Rosemary Grant, B; Ford, Hugh A; Brewer, Mark J; Podos, Jeffrey

    2006-08-01

    Adaptive radiation is facilitated by a rugged adaptive landscape, where fitness peaks correspond to trait values that enhance the use of distinct resources. Different species are thought to occupy the different peaks, with hybrids falling into low-fitness valleys between them. We hypothesize that human activities can smooth adaptive landscapes, increase hybrid fitness and hamper evolutionary diversification. We investigated this possibility by analysing beak size data for 1755 Geospiza fortis measured between 1964 and 2005 on the island of Santa Cruz, Galápagos. Some populations of this species can display a resource-based bimodality in beak size, which mirrors the greater beak size differences among species. We first show that an historically bimodal population at one site, Academy Bay, has lost this property in concert with a marked increase in local human population density. We next show that a nearby site with lower human impacts, El Garrapatero, currently manifests strong bimodality. This comparison suggests that bimodality can persist when human densities are low (Academy Bay in the past, El Garrapatero in the present), but not when they are high (Academy Bay in the present). Human activities may negatively impact diversification in 'young' adaptive radiations, perhaps by altering adaptive landscapes.

  4. Effects of Removing Low-Frequency Electric Information on Speech Perception with Bimodal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Jennifer R.; Eggleston, Jessica L.; Reavis, Kelly M.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Reiss, Lina A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to determine whether speech perception could be improved for bimodal listeners (those using a cochlear implant [CI] in one ear and hearing aid in the contralateral ear) by removing low-frequency information provided by the CI, thereby reducing acoustic-electric overlap. Method: Subjects were adult CI subjects with at…

  5. A Retrospective Multicenter Study Comparing Speech Perception Outcomes for Bilateral Implantation and Bimodal Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blamey, Peter J.; Maat, Bert; Başkent, Deniz; Mawman, Deborah; Burke, Elaine; Dillier, Norbert; Beynon, Andy; Kleine-Punte, Andrea; Govaerts, Paul J.; Skarzynski, Piotr H.; Huber, Alexander M.; Sterkers-Artieres, Francoise; Van de Heyning, Paul; O'Leary, Stephen; Fraysse, Bernard; Green, Kevin; Sterkers, Olivier; Venail, Frederic; Skarzynski, Henryk; Vincent, Christophe; Truy, Eric; Dowell, Richard; Bergeron, Francois; Lazard, Diane S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare speech perception outcomes between bilateral implantation (cochlear implants [CIs]) and bimodal rehabilitation (one CI on one side plus one hearing aid [HA] on the other side) and to explore the clinical factors that may cause asymmetric performances in speech intelligibility

  6. Gaze-independent ERP-BCIs : Augmenting performance through location-congruent bimodal stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, M.E.; Brouwer, A.M.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Gaze-independent event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) yield relatively low BCI performance and traditionally employ unimodal stimuli. Bimodal ERP-BCIs may increase BCI performance due to multisensory integration or summation in the brain. An additional advantage of bi

  7. Song Recognition by Young Children with Cochlear Implants: Comparison between Unilateral, Bilateral, and Bimodal Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartov, Tamar; Most, Tova

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine song identification by preschoolers with normal hearing (NH) versus preschoolers with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Participants included 45 children ages 3;8-7;3 (years;months): 12 with NH and 33 with CIs, including 10 with unilateral CI, 14 with bilateral CIs, and 9 bimodal users (CI-HA) with unilateral CI and…

  8. Near-Infrared Squaraine Dye Encapsulated Micelles for in Vivo Fluorescence and Photoacoustic Bimodal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Joseph, James; Lin, Manjing; Menon, Nishanth Venugopal; Borah, Parijat; Ng, Hao Jun; Loong, Yun Xian; Kang, Yuejun; Yu, Sidney Wing-Kwong; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-06-23

    Combined near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging techniques present promising capabilities for noninvasive visualization of biological structures. Development of bimodal noninvasive optical imaging approaches by combining NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography demands suitable NIR-active exogenous contrast agents. If the aggregation and photobleaching are prevented, squaraine dyes are ideal candidates for fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging. Herein, we report rational selection, preparation, and micelle encapsulation of an NIR-absorbing squaraine dye (D1) for in vivo fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging. D1 was encapsulated inside micelles constructed from a biocompatible nonionic surfactant (Pluoronic F-127) to obtain D1-encapsulated micelles (D1(micelle)) in aqueous conditions. The micelle encapsulation retains both the photophysical features and chemical stability of D1. D1(micelle) exhibits high photostability and low cytotoxicity in biological conditions. Unique properties of D1(micelle) in the NIR window of 800-900 nm enable the development of a squaraine-based exogenous contrast agent for fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging above 820 nm. In vivo imaging using D1(micelle), as demonstrated by fluorescence and photoacoustic tomography experiments in live mice, shows contrast-enhanced deep tissue imaging capability. The usage of D1(micelle) proven by preclinical experiments in rodents reveals its excellent applicability for NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic bimodal imaging.

  9. Bimodal emotion congruency is critical to preverbal infants' abstract rule learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Angeline Sin Mei; Ma, Yuen Ki; Ho, Anna; Chow, Hiu Mei; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2016-05-01

    Extracting general rules from specific examples is important, as we must face the same challenge displayed in various formats. Previous studies have found that bimodal presentation of grammar-like rules (e.g. ABA) enhanced 5-month-olds' capacity to acquire a rule that infants failed to learn when the rule was presented with visual presentation of the shapes alone (circle-triangle-circle) or auditory presentation of the syllables (la-ba-la) alone. However, the mechanisms and constraints for this bimodal learning facilitation are still unknown. In this study, we used audio-visual relation congruency between bimodal stimulation to disentangle possible facilitation sources. We exposed 8- to 10-month-old infants to an AAB sequence consisting of visual faces with affective expressions and/or auditory voices conveying emotions. Our results showed that infants were able to distinguish the learned AAB rule from other novel rules under bimodal stimulation when the affects in audio and visual stimuli were congruently paired (Experiments 1A and 2A). Infants failed to acquire the same rule when audio-visual stimuli were incongruently matched (Experiment 2B) and when only the visual (Experiment 1B) or the audio (Experiment 1C) stimuli were presented. Our results highlight that bimodal facilitation in infant rule learning is not only dependent on better statistical probability and redundant sensory information, but also the relational congruency of audio-visual information. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=KYTyjH1k9RQ. PMID:26280911

  10. Versatile membrane deformation potential of activated pacsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Lin Goh

    Full Text Available Endocytosis is a fundamental process in signaling and membrane trafficking. The formation of vesicles at the plasma membrane is mediated by the G protein dynamin that catalyzes the final fission step, the actin cytoskeleton, and proteins that sense or induce membrane curvature. One such protein, the F-BAR domain-containing protein pacsin, contributes to this process and has been shown to induce a spectrum of membrane morphologies, including tubules and tube constrictions in vitro. Full-length pacsin isoform 1 (pacsin-1 has reduced activity compared to its isolated F-BAR domain, implicating an inhibitory role for its C-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3 domain. Here we show that the autoinhibitory, intramolecular interactions in pacsin-1 can be released upon binding to the entire proline-rich domain (PRD of dynamin-1, resulting in potent membrane deformation activity that is distinct from the isolated F-BAR domain. Most strikingly, we observe the generation of small, homogenous vesicles with the activated protein complex under certain experimental conditions. In addition, liposomes prepared with different methods yield distinct membrane deformation morphologies of BAR domain proteins and apparent activation barriers to pacsin-1's activity. Theoretical free energy calculations suggest bimodality of the protein-membrane system as a possible source for the different outcomes, which could account for the coexistence of energetically equivalent membrane structures induced by BAR domain-containing proteins in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest a versatile role for pacsin-1 in sculpting cellular membranes that is likely dependent both on protein structure and membrane properties.

  11. Lipid Gymnastics: Tethers and Fingers in membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, Lobat; Miller, Gregory; Parikh, Atul

    2009-03-01

    A significant body of evidence now links local mesoscopic structure (e.g., shape and composition) of the cell membrane with its function; the mechanisms by which cellular membranes adopt the specific shapes remain poorly understood. Among all the different structures adopted by cellular membranes, the tubular shape is one of the most surprising one. While their formation is typically attributed to the reorganization of membrane cytoskeleton, many exceptions exist. We report the instantaneous formation of tubular membrane mesophases following the hydration under specific thermal conditions. The shapes emerge in a bimodal way where we have two distinct diameter ranges for tubes, ˜20μm and ˜1μm, namely fat fingers and narrow tethers. We study the roughening of hydrated drops of 3 lipids in 3 different spontaneous curvatures at various temp. and ionic strength to figure out the dominant effect in selection of tethers and fingers. Dynamics of the tubes are of particular interest where we observe four distinct steps of birth, coiling, uncoiling and retraction with different lifetime on different thermal condition. These dynamics appear to reflect interplay between membrane elasticity, surface adhesion, and thermal or hydrodynamic gradient.

  12. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  13. Bimodal score distributions and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: fact or artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Tammy L; Harvey, Robert J

    2002-02-01

    We examined Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) score distributions computed using item response theory (IRT) to assess the generalizability of earlier bimodality reports that have been cited in support of the "type" versus "trait" view of personality. Using the BILOG IRT program to score a sample of approximately 12,000 individuals who participated in leadership development programs, theta score distributions for the 4 dimensions of the MBTI computed using 10 (the BILOG default) versus 50 quadrature points were compared. Results indicated that past reports of bimodality were artifacts caused by BILOG's default use of a small number of quadrature points; when larger numbers of points were used, score distributions became strongly center-weighted. Although our findings are not supportive of the "type"-based hypothesis, the extremely high correlations between theta scores (rs > .996) suggest that no practical differences would be expected as a function of the number-of-quadrature-points decision. PMID:11936208

  14. Super stellar clusters with a bimodal hydrodynamic solution: an Approximate Analytic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Wünsch, R; Palous, J; Tenorio-Tagle, G

    2007-01-01

    We look for a simple analytic model to distinguish between stellar clusters undergoing a bimodal hydrodynamic solution from those able to drive only a stationary wind. Clusters in the bimodal regime undergo strong radiative cooling within their densest inner regions, which results in the accumulation of the matter injected by supernovae and stellar winds and eventually in the formation of further stellar generations, while their outer regions sustain a stationary wind. The analytic formulae are derived from the basic hydrodynamic equations. Our main assumption, that the density at the star cluster surface scales almost linearly with that at the stagnation radius, is based on results from semi-analytic and full numerical calculations. The analytic formulation allows for the determination of the threshold mechanical luminosity that separates clusters evolving in either of the two solutions. It is possible to fix the stagnation radius by simple analytic expressions and thus to determine the fractions of the depo...

  15. Bimodality as a signal of liquid-gas phase transition in nuclei?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, O.; Lacroix, D.; Vient, E

    2005-09-15

    We use the HIPSE (Heavy-Ion Phase-Space Exploration) Model to discuss the origin of the bi-modality in charge asymmetry observed in nuclear reactions around the Fermi energy. We show that it may be related to the important angular momentum (spin) transferred into the quasi-projectile before secondary decay. As the spin overcomes the critical value, a sudden opening of decay channels is induced and leads to a bimodal distribution for the charge asymmetry. In the model, it is not assigned to a liquid-gas phase transition but to specific instabilities in nuclei with high spin. Therefore, we propose to use these reactions to study instabilities in rotating nuclear droplets. (authors)

  16. Recognition of Emotions using Energy Based Bimodal Information Fusion and Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Asawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-sensor information fusion is a rapidly developing research area which forms the backbone of numerous essential technologies such as intelligent robotic control, sensor networks, video and image processing and many more. In this paper, we have developed a novel technique to analyze and correlate human emotions expressed in voice tone & facial expression. Audio and video streams captured to populate audio and video bimodal data sets to sense the expressed emotions in voice tone and facial expression respectively. An energy based mapping is being done to overcome the inherent heterogeneity of the recorded bi-modal signal. The fusion process uses sampled and mapped energy signal of both modalities’s data stream and further recognize the overall emotional component using Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier with the accuracy 93.06%

  17. Bimodal Distribution of Sulfuric Acid Aerosols in the Upper Haze of Venus

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Peter; Crisp, David; Bardeen, Charles G; Yung, Yuk L

    2013-01-01

    The upper haze (UH) of Venus is variable on the order of days and it is populated by two particle modes. We use a 1D microphysics and vertical transport model based on the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres to evaluate whether interaction of upwelled cloud particles and sulfuric acid particles nucleated in situ on meteoric dust are able to generate the two size modes and whether their observed variability are due to cloud top vertical transient winds. Nucleation of photochemically produced sulfuric acid onto polysulfur condensation nuclei generates mode 1 cloud droplets that then diffuse upwards into the UH. Droplets generated in the UH from nucleation of sulfuric acid onto meteoric dust coagulate with the upwelled cloud particles and cannot reproduce the observed bimodal size distribution. The mass transport enabled by cloud top transient winds are able to generate a bimodal size distribution in a time scale consistent with observations. Sedimentation and convection in the middle and lower...

  18. Exact results for the Kuramoto model with a bimodal frequency distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Barreto, E.; Strogatz, S. H.;

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a large system of globally coupled phase oscillators whose natural frequencies are bimodally distributed. The dynamics of this system has been the subject of long-standing interest. In 1984 Kuramoto proposed several conjectures about its behavior; ten years later, Crawford obtained...... the first analytical results by means of a local center manifold calculation. Nevertheless, many questions have remained open, especially about the possibility of global bifurcations. Here we derive the system’s stability diagram for the special case where the bimodal distribution consists of two equally......, where all the oscillators are desynchronized; partial synchrony, where a macro- scopic group of phase-locked oscillators coexists with a sea of desynchronized ones; and a standing wave state, where two counter-rotating groups of phase-locked oscillators emerge. Analytical results are presented...

  19. Correction: Stimuli-responsive magnetic nanoparticles for tumor-targeted bimodal imaging and photodynamic/hyperthermia combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Sub; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Joo Young; Matsuda, Shofu; Hideshima, Sho; Mori, Yasurou; Osaka, Tetsuya; Na, Kun

    2016-07-01

    Correction for 'Stimuli-responsive magnetic nanoparticles for tumor-targeted bimodal imaging and photodynamic/hyperthermia combination therapy' by Kyoung Sub Kim, et al., Nanoscale, 2016, DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02273a. PMID:27300478

  20. Correction: Stimuli-responsive magnetic nanoparticles for tumor-targeted bimodal imaging and photodynamic/hyperthermia combination therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Sub; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Joo Young; Matsuda, Shofu; Hideshima, Sho; Mori, Yasurou; Osaka, Tetsuya; Na, Kun

    2016-06-01

    Correction for `Stimuli-responsive magnetic nanoparticles for tumor-targeted bimodal imaging and photodynamic/hyperthermia combination therapy' by Kyoung Sub Kim, et al., Nanoscale, 2016, DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02273a.

  1. Brain deactivation in the outperformance in bimodal tasks: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ching Chiang

    Full Text Available While it is known that some individuals can effectively perform two tasks simultaneously, other individuals cannot. How the brain deals with performing simultaneous tasks remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to assess which brain areas corresponded to various phenomena in task performance. Nineteen subjects were requested to sequentially perform three blocks of tasks, including two unimodal tasks and one bimodal task. The unimodal tasks measured either visual feature binding or auditory pitch comparison, while the bimodal task required performance of the two tasks simultaneously. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI results are compatible with previous studies showing that distinct brain areas, such as the visual cortices, frontal eye field (FEF, lateral parietal lobe (BA7, and medial and inferior frontal lobe, are involved in processing of visual unimodal tasks. In addition, the temporal lobes and Brodmann area 43 (BA43 were involved in processing of auditory unimodal tasks. These results lend support to concepts of modality-specific attention. Compared to the unimodal tasks, bimodal tasks required activation of additional brain areas. Furthermore, while deactivated brain areas were related to good performance in the bimodal task, these areas were not deactivated where the subject performed well in only one of the two simultaneous tasks. These results indicate that efficient information processing does not require some brain areas to be overly active; rather, the specific brain areas need to be relatively deactivated to remain alert and perform well on two tasks simultaneously. Meanwhile, it can also offer a neural basis for biofeedback in training courses, such as courses in how to perform multiple tasks simultaneously.

  2. Stochastic resonance and chaotic resonance in bimodal maps: A case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ambika; N V Sujatha; K P Harikrishnan

    2002-09-01

    We present the results of an extensive numerical study on the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in a bimodal cubic map. Both Gaussian random noise as well as deterministic chaos are used as input to drive the system between the basins. Our main result is that when two identical systems capable of stochastic resonance are coupled, the SNR of either system is enhanced at an optimum coupling strength. Our results may be relevant for the study of stochastic resonance in biological systems.

  3. Bi-Modal Face and Speech Authentication: a BioLogin Demonstration System

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel, Sébastien; Mariéthoz, Johnny; Rodriguez, Yann; Cardinaux, Fabien

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a bi-modal (face and speech) authentication demonstration system that simulates the login of a user using its face and its voice. This demonstration is called BioLogin. It runs both on Linux and Windows and the Windows version is freely available for download. Bio\\-Login is implemented using an open source machine learning library and its machine vision package.

  4. Human and mouse switch-like genes share common transcriptional regulatory mechanisms for bimodality

    OpenAIRE

    Tozeren Aydin; Ertel Adam

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Gene expression is controlled over a wide range at the transcript level through complex interplay between DNA and regulatory proteins, resulting in profiles of gene expression that can be represented as normal, graded, and bimodal (switch-like) distributions. We have previously performed genome-scale identification and annotation of genes with switch-like expression at the transcript level in mouse, using large microarray datasets for healthy tissue, in order to study the ...

  5. Costs and advantages in bimodal bilingual language production: Language-switching and dual-task paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of unimodal (spoken–spoken) language switching have often found longer reaction times and higher error rates in switch trials than in repeat trials, particularly for unbalanced bilinguals. Studies of hearing signers (bimodal bilinguals) have found that they often produce ‘code-blends’ rather than sequential code-switches; such simultaneous production is generally not possible in unimodal utterances. The present study explored sequential language switching and simultaneous lan...

  6. Spin squeezing in a bimodal condensate: spatial dynamics and particle losses

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yun; Treutlein, Philipp; Reichel, Jakob; Sinatra, Alice

    2009-01-01

    18 pages, 13 figures. Accepted for publication in European Physical Journal B International audience We propose an analytical method to study the entangled spatial and spin dynamics of interacting bimodal Bose-Einstein condensates. We show that at particular times during the evolution spatial and spin dynamics disentangle and the spin squeezing can be predicted by a simple two-mode model. We calculate the maximum spin squeezing achievable in experimentally relevant situations with Sodiu...

  7. THE BIMODAL MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION OF cis-POLYBUTADIENE POLYMERIZED WITH LANTHANIDE COMPLEX CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Rongshi; HU Huizhen; JIANG Liansheng

    1987-01-01

    The variation of the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of cis-polybutadiene in the course of polymerization catalyzed by lanthanide complex composed of triisobutyl aluminium or diisobutyl aluminium hydride was investigated by osmometry, viscometry and size exclusion chromatography. By analyzing the experimental data, the reasons of the appearance of bimodal molecular weight distribution were elucidated and the possible mechanisms of polymerization were discussed.

  8. Source analysis of bimodal event-related potentials with auditory-visual stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, H; Xie, X.; Yan, H; Feng, L; Xu, S; Hu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Dipole source analysis is applied to model brain generators of surface-recorded evoked potentials, epileptiform activity, and event-related potentials (ERP). The aim of this study was to explore brain activity of interaction between bimodal sensory cognition. Seven healthy volunteers were recruited in the study and ERP to these stimuli were recorded by 64 electrodes EEG recording system. Subjects were exposed to either the auditory and the visual stimulus alone or the combined auditory-visual...

  9. Improved Statistical Analysis of Low Abundance Phenomena in Bimodal Bacterial Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich Reinhard; Jan Roelof van der Meer

    2013-01-01

    Accurate detection of subpopulation size determinations in bimodal populations remains problematic yet it represents a powerful way by which cellular heterogeneity under different environmental conditions can be compared. So far, most studies have relied on qualitative descriptions of population distribution patterns, on population-independent descriptors, or on arbitrary placement of thresholds distinguishing biological ON from OFF states. We found that all these methods fall short of accura...

  10. Flatfoot diagnosis by a unique bimodal distribution of footprint index in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsieh Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 1000 scientific papers have been devoted to flatfoot issue. However, a bimodal distribution of flatfoot indices in school-aged children has never been discovered. The purposes of this study were to establish a new classification of flatfoot by characteristic in frequency distribution of footprint index and to endue the classification with discrepancy in physical fitness. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a longitudinal survey of physical fitness and body structure, weight bearing footprints and 3 physical fitness related tests were measured in 1228 school-aged children. Frequency distribution of initial data was tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality and a unique bimodal distribution of footprint index was identified. The frequency distribution of footprint index manifests two distinct modes, flatfoot and non-flatfoot, by deconvolution and bootstrapping procedures. A constant intersection value of 1.0 in Staheli's arch index and 0.6 in Chippaux-Smirak index could distinguish the two modes of children, and the value was constant in different age, sex, and weight status. The performance of the one leg balance was inferior in flatfoot girls (median, 4.0 seconds in flatfoot girls vs. 4.3 seconds in non-flatfoot girls, p = 0.04, 95% CI 0.404-0.484. DISCUSSION: The natural bimodality lends itself to a flatfoot classification. Bimodality suggests development of the child's foot arch would be a leap from one state to another, rather than a continuous growth as body height and weight. The underlying dynamics of the human foot arch and motor development will trigger research prospects.

  11. Flatfoot Diagnosis by a Unique Bimodal Distribution of Footprint Index in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Hsieh Chang; Yu-Chen Chen; Wen-Tien Yang; Pei-Chi Ho; Ai-Wen Hwang; Chien-Hung Chen; Jia-Hao Chang; Liang-Wey Chang

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 1000 scientific papers have been devoted to flatfoot issue. However, a bimodal distribution of flatfoot indices in school-aged children has never been discovered. The purposes of this study were to establish a new classification of flatfoot by characteristic in frequency distribution of footprint index and to endue the classification with discrepancy in physical fitness. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a longitudinal survey of physical fitness and body structure, weight b...

  12. Bimodal action of menthol on the transient receptor potential channel TRPA1

    OpenAIRE

    Karashima, Yuji; Damann, Nils; Prenen, Jean; Talavera Pérez, Karel; Segal Stanciu, Andrei; Voets, Thomas; Nilius, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    TRPA1 is a calcium-permeable nonselective cation transient receptor potential (TRP) channel that functions as an excitatory ionotropic receptor in nociceptive neurons. TRPA1 is robustly activated by pungent substances in mustard oil, cinnamon, and garlic and mediates the inflammatory actions of environmental irritants and proalgesic agents. Here, we demonstrate a bimodal sensitivity of TRPA1 to menthol, a widely used cooling agent and known activator of the related cold receptor TRPM8. In who...

  13. The climatic imprint of bimodal distributions in vegetation cover for western Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zun; Dekker, Stefan C.; van den Hurk, Bart J. J. M.; Dijkstra, Henk A.

    2016-06-01

    Observed bimodal distributions of woody cover in western Africa provide evidence that alternative ecosystem states may exist under the same precipitation regimes. In this study, we show that bimodality can also be observed in mean annual shortwave radiation and above-ground biomass, which might closely relate to woody cover due to vegetation-climate interactions. Thus we expect that use of radiation and above-ground biomass enables us to distinguish the two modes of woody cover. However, through conditional histogram analysis, we find that the bimodality of woody cover still can exist under conditions of low mean annual shortwave radiation and low above-ground biomass. It suggests that this specific condition might play a key role in critical transitions between the two modes, while under other conditions no bimodality was found. Based on a land cover map in which anthropogenic land use was removed, six climatic indicators that represent water, energy, climate seasonality and water-radiation coupling are analysed to investigate the coexistence of these indicators with specific land cover types. From this analysis we find that the mean annual precipitation is not sufficient to predict potential land cover change. Indicators of climate seasonality are strongly related to the observed land cover type. However, these indicators cannot predict a stable forest state under the observed climatic conditions, in contrast to observed forest states. A new indicator (the normalized difference of precipitation) successfully expresses the stability of the precipitation regime and can improve the prediction accuracy of forest states. Next we evaluate land cover predictions based on different combinations of climatic indicators. Regions with high potential of land cover transitions are revealed. The results suggest that the tropical forest in the Congo basin may be unstable and shows the possibility of decreasing significantly. An increase in the area covered by savanna and grass

  14. Generation of four-particle GHZ states in bimodal cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhen-Biao

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for preparing four-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states using two identical bimodal cavities, each supports two modes with different frequencies. This scheme is an alternative to another published work[Christopher C Gerry 1996 Phys. Rev. A 53 4591]. Comparisons between them are discussed. The fidelity and the probability of success influenced by cavity decay for the generated states are also considered.

  15. Multiphase flow modeling of a crude-oil spill site with a bimodal permeability distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, L.A.; Essaid, H.I.; Herkelrath, W.N.

    1997-01-01

    Fluid saturation, particle-size distribution, and porosity measurements were obtained from 269 core samples collected from six boreholes along a 90-m transect at a subregion of a crude-oil spill site, the north pool, near Bemidji, Minnesota. The oil saturation data, collected 11 years after the spill, showed an irregularly shaped oil body that appeared to be affected by sediment spatial variability. The particle-size distribution data were used to estimate the permeability (k) and retention curves for each sample. An additional 344 k estimates were obtained from samples previously collected at the north pool. The 613 k estimates were distributed bimodal log normally with the two population distributions corresponding to the two predominant lithologies: a coarse glacial outwash deposit and fine-grained interbedded lenses. A two-step geostatistical approach was used to generate a conditioned realization of k representing the bimodal heterogeneity. A cross-sectional multiphase flow model was used to simulate the flow of oil and water in the presence of air along the north pool transect for an 11-year period. The inclusion of a representation of the bimodal aquifer heterogeneity was crucial for reproduction of general features of the observed oil body. If the bimodal heterogeneity was characterized, hysteresis did not have to be incorporated into the model because a hysteretic effect was produced by the sediment spatial variability. By revising the relative permeability functional relation, an improved reproduction of the observed oil saturation distribution was achieved. The inclusion of water table fluctuations in the model did not significantly affect the simulated oil saturation distribution.

  16. High-strength ultrafine-grained Ti-Fe-Sn alloys with a bimodal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L C; Lu, H B; Pereloma, E V [Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Calin, M; Eckert, J, E-mail: lczhangimr@gmail.co, E-mail: laichang@uow.edu.a [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, PO Box 27 01 16, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The microstructure-mechanical properties relationship in ultrafine-grained Ti-Fe-Sn alloys with high strength and large plasticity was investigated. The alloys are mainly composed of a hypereutectic microstructure with micrometer-sized primary dendrites embedded in an ultrafine-grained eutectic matrix. The bimodal composites exhibit a fracture strength higher than 2350 MPa and an enhanced plasticity larger than 7%. The excellent mechanical properties are critically related to the microstructure features of the phase constituents in the alloys.

  17. Well-posed bimodal piecewise linear systems do not exhibit Zeno behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Camlibel, Kanat

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon of infinitely mode transitions in a finite time interval is called Zeno behavior in hybrid systems literature. It plays a critical role in the study of numerical methods and fundamental system and control theoretic properties of hybrid systems. This paper studies Zeno behavior for bimodal piecewise linear systems with possibly discontinuous dynamics. Our treatment is inspired by the work of Imura and Van der Schaft on the well-posedness of the same type of systems. The main con...

  18. Synthesis and characterization of intrinsically radiolabeled quantum dots for bimodal detection

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Minghao; Hoffman, David; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Yang, Likun; Lamichhane, Narottam; Zweit, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach was developed to synthesize radioactive quantum dots (r-QDs) thereby enabling both optical and radionuclide signals to be detected from the same intrinsic bimodal probe. This proof-of-concept is exemplified by the incorporation of the radionuclide 109Cadmium into the core/shell of the nanoparticle. Green and near infrared (NIR) emission intrinsic r-QDs were synthesized and characterized. Zwitterionic and Poly-polyethlene glycol (PEGylated) ligands were synthesized and used to...

  19. Bimodal Electron Fluxes of Nearly Relativistic Electrons during the Onset of Solar Particle Events: 1. Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Lingpeng; Kartavykh, Yulia; Klecker, Berndt; Krucker, Saem; Droege, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    We report for several solar energetic particle events intensity and anisotropy measurements of energetic electrons in the energy range ~ 27 to ~ 500 keV as observed with the Wind and ACE spacecraft in June 2000. The observations onboard Wind show bimodal pitch angle distributions (PAD), whereas ACE shows PADs with one peak, as usually observed for impulsive injection of electrons at the Sun. During the time of observation Wind was located upstream of the Earth's bow shock, in the dawn - noon ...

  20. An Oxidative Desulfurization Catalyst Based on Bimodal Mesoporous Silica Containing Quaternary Ammonium Heteropolyphosphamolybdenum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jian; Wu Haishun; Yang Lina; Ma Bo

    2016-01-01

    A bimodal mesoporous silica (BMMS) modiifed with amphiphilic compound (C19H42N)3(PMo12O40) (CTA-PMO) was prepared by the two-step impregnation method. Firstly, H3PMo12O40 was introduced into the bimodal mesoporous silica via impregnation, then C19H42NBr (CTAB) was grafted on the surface of BMMS containing H3PMo12O40 based on the chemical reaction between quaternary ammonium compound and the phosphomolybdic acid, and then the catalyst CTA-PMO/BMMS was obtained. The samples were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption and desorption, FTIR,31P-NMR, 29Si-NMR and TEM analyses. It is shown that the catalyst has a typical bimodal mesoporous structure, in which the small mesopore diameter is about 3.0 nm and the large mesopore diameter is about 5.0 nm. The chemical interaction happens between the Keggin structure and silica group of BMMS. Compared with the mono-modal porous Hβ and SBA-15 zeolites modiifed with CTA-PMO, CTA-PMO/BMMS showed better catalytic activity in the oxidative conversion of dibenzothiophene (DBT), and the desulfurization rate can reach about 94% with the help of extraction, and the catalyst can be separated by ifltration and reused directly. The catalytic oxidative desulfurization mechanism on CTA-PMO/BMMS was proposed and veriifed.

  1. International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor: Bimodal device and design sensitivities to energy confinement H-factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major concern of present-day tokamak design is the uncertainty in the plasma energy confinement scaling. We present sensitivities of designs similar to the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) to changes in the energy confinement H-factor (H) for cases designed for ignition (the ITER physics phase), long-pulse, current-driven operation (the ITER technology phase), and achievement of both phases in a single device (bimodal). For cases that require ignition, the cost increases sharply for H-factors below 2. For technology-phase cases, the costs are much less sensitive to H-factor variations. For bimodal cases with H≥ 1.8, the ignition criteria dominate if the energy multiplication factor Q need only be 5 in the technology phase; if Q ≥ 10 is required, the current drive criteria dominate. The bimodal cases are at most ∼10% more expensive than the more costly of the physics-only and technology-only cases. Thus, the present ITER scheme of replacing the blanket and shield of the device between phases may not be the most cost-effective way to accomplish the desired performance goals. Investigation of device sensitivity to the H-factor indicates that, as the H-factor decreases from 1.8 to 1.2 for a given device, the achievable Q drops from ∼10 to ∼5 and the divertor heat load increases by 50%. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Bimodal Density Distribution of Cryptodome Dacite from the 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoblitt, R.P.; Harmon, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    The explosion of a cryptodome at Mount St. Helens in 1980 produced two juvenile rock types that are derived from the same source magma. Their differences-color, texture and density-are due only to vesicularity differences. The vesicular gray dacite comprises bout 72% of the juvenile material; the black dacite comprises the other 28%. The density of juvenile dacite is bimodally distributed, with peaks at 1.6 g cm-3 (gray dacite) and 2.3 g cm-3 (black dacite). Water contents, deuterium abundances, and the relationship of petrographic structures to vapor-phase crystals indicate both rock types underwent pre-explosion subsurface vesiculation and degassing. The gray dacite underwent a second vesiculation event, probably during the 18 May explosion. In the subsurface, gases probably escaped through interconnected vesicles into the permeable volcanic edifice. We suggest that nonuniform degassing of an initially homogeneous magma produced volatile gradients in the cryptodome and that these gradients were responsible for the density bimodality. That is, water contents less than about 0.2-0.4 wt% produced vesicle growth rates that were slow in comparison to the pyroclast cooling rates; greater water contents produced vesicle growth rates that were fast in comparison to cooling rates. In this scheme, the dacite densities are bimodally distributed simply because, following decompression on 18 May 1980, one clast population vesiculated while the other did not. For clasts that did vesiculate, vesicle growth continued until it was arrested by fragmentation. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Preparation of Bimodal Mesoporous Silica Molecular Sieves from Organotrialkoxysilane and Tetraethoxysilane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Yanjun; Mu Lin; Dou Tao

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of silica with bimodal, disordered mesopores structure, by template-mediated sol-gel processing and subsequent heat-treatment process, was investigated. In the presence of nonionic surfactant Tx-15, the organically modified mesostructured nano-particles were synthesized by co-condensation of organosiloxane (RTES) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the first step, and then the bimodal porous silica was formed by the removal of the incorporated organic groups using programmed calcination. Here, RTES used was methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PhTES), respectively. Organotrialkoxysilane, TEOS and Tx-15 formed MSU-2-1iked assemblies, around which the nano-particles aggregated and cross-linked, considerably influencing the pore size distribution of both primary pores and secondary pores. By changing the type and amount of the organotrialkoxysilane added, a broad variety of silica with a controlled bimodal mesopore distribution could be easily synthesized. Textural and structural properties were determined by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption,and thermogravimetric analysis.

  4. Bulge-Disk Decompositions and Structural Bimodality of Ursa Major Cluster Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Michael; Tully, R Brent

    2008-01-01

    We present bulge and disk (B/D) decompositions of existing K'-band surface brightness profiles for 65 Ursa Major cluster spiral galaxies. This improves upon the disk-only fits of Tully et al. (1996). The 1996 disk fits were used by Tully & Verheijen (1997) for their discovery of the bimodality of structural parameters in the UMa cluster galaxies. It is shown that our new 1D B/D decompositions yield disk structural parameters that differ only slightly from the basic fits of Tully et al. and evidence for structural bimodality of UMa galaxies is maintained. Our B/D software for the decomposition of 1D surface brightness profiles of galaxies uses a non-linear minimization scheme to recover the best fitting Sersic bulge and exponential disk while accounting for the possible presence of a compact nucleus and spiral arms and for the effects of seeing and disk truncations. In agreement with Tully & Verheijen, we find that the distribution of near-infrared disk central surface brightnesses is bimodal with an F...

  5. Wind speed analysis in La Vainest, Mexico: a bimodal probability distribution case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, O.A.; Borja, M.A. [Energias No Convencionales, Morelos (Mexico). Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas

    2004-08-01

    The statistical characteristics of the wind speed in La Vainest, Oxoic, Mexico, have been analyzed by using wind speed data recorded by Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). By grouping the observations by annual, seasonal and wind direction, we show that the wind speed distribution, with calms included, is not represented by the typical two-parameter Weibull function. A mathematical formulation by using a bimodal Weibull and Weibull probability distribution function (PDF) has been developed to analyse the wind speed frequency distribution in that region. The model developed here can be applied for similar regions where the wind speed distribution presents a bimodal PDF. The two-parameter Weibull wind speed distribution must not be generalised, since it is not accurate to represent some wind regimes as the case of La Ventosa, Mexico. The analysis of wind data shows that computing the capacity factor for wind power plants to be installed in La Ventosa must be carded out by means of a bimodal PDF instead of the typical Weibull PDF. Otherwise, the capacity factor will be underestimated. (author)

  6. Physical Mechanism of Formation of the Bimodal Structure in the Meiyu Front System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xiao-Peng; GAO Shou-Ting; ZONG Zhi-Ping; LIU Wen-Ming; LI Xiao-Fan

    2005-01-01

    @@ The bimodal structure of the Meiyu front system is readdressed after Zhou et al.(2005). The physical mechanism of the formation of the bimodal distribution is discussed. The bimodal structure of the Meiyu front system considerably results from atmospheric moisture gradients, though atmospheric temperature gradients are also not negligible. According to the definition of equivalent potential temperature, and by scale analysis, we find that atmospheric equivalent potential temperature gradients, which could be regarded as an indicator of the Meiyu front system, could be mainly attributed to the variations of atmospheric potential temperature gradients with a scaling factor of 1 and moisture gradients multiplied by a scaling factor of an order of about 2.5 × 103,which means that small variations of atmospheric moisture gradients could lead to large variations of equivalent potential temperature gradients, and thus large variations of the Meiyu front system. Quantitative diagnostics with a mesoscale simulation data in the vicinity of the Meiyu front system show that moisture gradients contribute to equivalent potential temperature gradients more than potential temperature gradients.

  7. MOCCA code for star cluster simulations - VI. Bimodal spatial distribution of blue stragglers

    CERN Document Server

    Hypki, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of formation mechanism and properties of spatial distributions of blue stragglers in evolving globular clusters, based on numerical simulations done with the MOCCA code. First, there are presented N-body and MOCCA simulations which try to reproduce the simulations presented by Ferraro (2012). Then, the agreement between N-body and the MOCCA code is shown. Finally, we discuss the formation process of the bimodal distribution. We report that so-called bimodal spatial distribution of blue stragglers is a very transient feature. It is formed for one snapshot in time and it can easily vanish in the next one. Moreover, we show that the radius of avoidance proposed by Ferraro (2012) goes out of sync with the apparent minimum of the bimodal distribution after about two half-mass relaxation times. This finding creates a real challenge for the dynamical clock, which uses this radius to determine the dynamical age of globular clusters. Additionally, the paper discusses a few important prob...

  8. RSMASS-D nuclear thermal propulsion and bimodal system mass models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.B. [DSWA/FC, Thermionic Evaluation Facility 801 University Blvd. SE Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States); Marshall, A.C. [DSWA/FC, Thermionic Evaluation Facility 801 University Blvd. SE Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Two relatively simple models have been developed to estimate reactor, radiation shield, and balance of system masses for a particle bed reactor (PBR) nuclear thermal propulsion concept and a cermet-core power and propulsion (bimodal) concept. The approach was based on the methodology developed for the RSMASS-D models. The RSMASS-D approach for the reactor and shield sub-systems uses a combination of simple equations derived from reactor physics and other fundamental considerations along with tabulations of data from more detailed neutron and gamma transport theory computations. Relatively simple models are used to estimate the masses of other subsystem components of the nuclear propulsion and bimodal systems. Other subsystem components include instrumentation and control (I&C), boom, safety systems, radiator, thermoelectrics, heat pipes, and nozzle. The user of these models can vary basic design parameters within an allowed range to achieve a parameter choice which yields a minimum mass for the operational conditions of interest. Estimated system masses are presented for a range of reactor power levels for propulsion for the PBR propulsion concept and for both electrical power and propulsion for the cermet-core bimodal concept. The estimated reactor system masses agree with mass predictions from detailed calculations with xx percent for both models. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Tracing Outflows and Accretion: A Bimodal Azimuthal Dependence of MgII Absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzak, G G; Nielsen, N M

    2012-01-01

    We report a bimodality in the azimuthal angle distribution of gas around galaxies as traced by MgII absorption: Halo gas prefers to exist near the projected galaxy major and minor axes. The bimodality is demonstrated by computing the mean azimuthal angle probability distribution function using 88 spectroscopically confirmed MgII absorption-selected galaxies [W_r(2796)> 0.1A] and 35 spectroscopically confirmed non-absorbing galaxies [W_r(2796)<0.1A] imaged with HST and SDSS. The azimuthal angle distribution for non-absorbers is flat, indicating no azimuthal preference for gas characterized by W_r(2796)<0.1A. We find that blue star-forming galaxies clearly drive the bimodality. We compute an azimuthal angle dependent MgII absorption covering fraction and find that it is enhanced by as much as 20-30% along the major and minor axes. The equivalent width distribution for gas along the major axis is likely skewed toward weaker MgII absorption than for gas along the projected minor axis. These combined results...

  10. Bimodality emerges from transport model calculations of heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy

    CERN Document Server

    Mallik, S; Chaudhuri, G

    2016-01-01

    This work is a continuation of our effort [Phys. Rev. C 91, 034616 (2015)] to examine if signatures of a phase transition can be extracted from transport model calculations of heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy. A signature of first order phase transition is the appearance of a bimodal distribution in $P_m(k)$ in finite systems. Here P_m(k) is the probability that the maximum of the multiplicity distribution occurs at mass number k. Using a well-known model for event generation (BUU plus fluctuation), we do two cases of central collision: mass 40 on mass 40 and mass 120 on mass 120. Bimodality is seen in both the cases. The results are quite similar to those obtained in statistical model calculations. An intriguing feature is seen. We observe that at the energy where bimodality occurs. other phase transition like signatures appear. There are breaks in certain first order derivatives. We then examine if such breaks appear in standard Botzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) calculations without fluctuations. ...

  11. A New Method of Moments for the Bimodal Particle System in the Stokes Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-hua Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper studied the particle system in the Stokes regime with a bimodal distribution. In such a system, the particles tend to congregate around two major sizes. In order to investigate this system, the conventional method of moments (MOM should be extended to include the interaction between different particle clusters. The closure problem for MOM arises and can be solved by a multipoint Taylor-expansion technique. The exact expression is deduced to include the size effect between different particle clusters. The collision effects between different modals could also be modeled. The new model was simply tested and proved to be effective to treat the bimodal system. The results showed that, for single-modal particle system, the results from new model were the same as those from TEMOM. However, for the bimodal particle system, there was a distinct difference between the two models, especially for the zero-order moment. The current model generated fewer particles than TEMOM. The maximum deviation reached about 15% for m0 and 4% for m2. The detailed distribution of each submodal could also be investigated through current model.

  12. Membrane Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Sadler, Mary E; Greiner, Anthony D; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Min, Kyungnan; Zhang, Kai; Arabi, Sara; Burbano, Marie S; Kent, Fraser; Shoaf, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2014, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, fixed film and anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:26420079

  13. Membrane Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Burbano, Marie S; Sadler, Mary E; Diamond, Jason; Baker, Simon; Greiner, Anthony D; Arabi, Sara; Wong, Joseph; Doody, Alexandra; Padhye, Lokesh P; Sears, Keith; Kistenmacher, Peter; Kent, Fraser; Tootchi, Leila; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Saddredini, Sara; Schilling, Bill; Min, Kyungnan; McCandless, Robert; Danker, Bryce; Gamage, Neranga P; Wang, Sunny; Aerts, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2015, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:27620084

  14. Multicomponent membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

  15. Folate receptor-targeted fluorescent paramagnetic bimodal liposomes for tumor imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding N

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nan Ding1,2, Yao Lu1, Robert J Lee3, Chang Yang1, Lei Huang1, Jian Liu1, Guangya Xiang1,41School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 3Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA; 4Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China The first three authors contributed equally to this work. Rationale and objective: Receptor-targeted delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents can lead to enhanced efficacy for both. Multimodality imaging offers unique advantages over traditional single modality imaging. Tumor marker folate receptor (FR-targeted fluorescent paramagnetic bimodal liposomes were synthesized to co-deliver paramagnetic and fluorescence agents for magnetic resonance (MR and optical bimodal imaging contrast enhancement. Materials and methods: Fluorescent and paramagnetic bimodal liposomes were synthesized with a mean diameter of 136 nm and a low polydispersity index. The liposomes incorporated folate-PEG3350-CHEMS for FR targeting, Gd(III[N,N-Bis-stearylamidomethyl-N’-amidomethyl]diethylenetriamine tetraacetic acid (Gd-DTPA-BSA for MR contrast, and calcein for fluorescence. To determine the specificity and efficiency of delivery, the liposomes were evaluated in FR-positive KB and HeLa cells and FR-negative A549 cells, which were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and flow cytometry (FCM. Results: FR-specific and efficient cellular uptake of the FR-targeted bimodal liposomes was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and by FCM. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of KB cells treated with FR

  16. Improved statistical analysis of low abundance phenomena in bimodal bacterial populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Reinhard

    Full Text Available Accurate detection of subpopulation size determinations in bimodal populations remains problematic yet it represents a powerful way by which cellular heterogeneity under different environmental conditions can be compared. So far, most studies have relied on qualitative descriptions of population distribution patterns, on population-independent descriptors, or on arbitrary placement of thresholds distinguishing biological ON from OFF states. We found that all these methods fall short of accurately describing small population sizes in bimodal populations. Here we propose a simple, statistics-based method for the analysis of small subpopulation sizes for use in the free software environment R and test this method on real as well as simulated data. Four so-called population splitting methods were designed with different algorithms that can estimate subpopulation sizes from bimodal populations. All four methods proved more precise than previously used methods when analyzing subpopulation sizes of transfer competent cells arising in populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas knackmussii B13. The methods' resolving powers were further explored by bootstrapping and simulations. Two of the methods were not severely limited by the proportions of subpopulations they could estimate correctly, but the two others only allowed accurate subpopulation quantification when this amounted to less than 25% of the total population. In contrast, only one method was still sufficiently accurate with subpopulations smaller than 1% of the total population. This study proposes a number of rational approximations to quantifying small subpopulations and offers an easy-to-use protocol for their implementation in the open source statistical software environment R.

  17. Improved statistical analysis of low abundance phenomena in bimodal bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Friedrich; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2013-01-01

    Accurate detection of subpopulation size determinations in bimodal populations remains problematic yet it represents a powerful way by which cellular heterogeneity under different environmental conditions can be compared. So far, most studies have relied on qualitative descriptions of population distribution patterns, on population-independent descriptors, or on arbitrary placement of thresholds distinguishing biological ON from OFF states. We found that all these methods fall short of accurately describing small population sizes in bimodal populations. Here we propose a simple, statistics-based method for the analysis of small subpopulation sizes for use in the free software environment R and test this method on real as well as simulated data. Four so-called population splitting methods were designed with different algorithms that can estimate subpopulation sizes from bimodal populations. All four methods proved more precise than previously used methods when analyzing subpopulation sizes of transfer competent cells arising in populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas knackmussii B13. The methods' resolving powers were further explored by bootstrapping and simulations. Two of the methods were not severely limited by the proportions of subpopulations they could estimate correctly, but the two others only allowed accurate subpopulation quantification when this amounted to less than 25% of the total population. In contrast, only one method was still sufficiently accurate with subpopulations smaller than 1% of the total population. This study proposes a number of rational approximations to quantifying small subpopulations and offers an easy-to-use protocol for their implementation in the open source statistical software environment R. PMID:24205184

  18. The geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Paleoproterozoic Green Mountain arc: A composite(?), bimodal, oceanic, fringing arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D.S.; Barnes, C.G.; Premo, W.R.; Snoke, A.W.

    2011-01-01

    The inferred subduction affinity of the ~1780-Ma Green Mountain arc, a dominantly bimodal igneous terrane (together with immature marine and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks) accreted to the southern margin of the Wyoming province, is integral to arc-accretion models of the Paleoproterozoic growth of southern Laurentia. Conversely, the dominantly bimodal nature of many putative arc-related igneous suites throughout southern Laurentia, including the Green Mountain arc, has also been used to support models of growth by extension of pre-existing crust. We report new geochemical and isotopic data from ~1780-Ma gabbroic and granodioritic to tonalitic rocks of the Big Creek Gneiss, interpreted as consanguineous with previously studied metavolcanic rocks of the Green Mountain Formation.The ~1780-Ma Big Creek Gneiss mafic rocks show clear geochemical signatures of a subduction origin and provide no supporting evidence for extensional tectonism. The ~1780-Ma Big Creek Gneiss felsic rocks are attributed to partial melting of mafic and/or mixed lower-crustal material. The bimodal nature of the suite results from the combination of arc basalts and felsic crustal melts. The lack of andesite is consistent with the observed tholeiitic differentiation trend of the mafic magmas. The lower e{open}Nd(1780Ma) values for the felsic rocks vs. the mafic rocks suggest that the unexposed lower crust of the arc may be older than the arc and that Trans-Hudson- or Penokean-aged rocks possibly form the substratum of the arc. Our results reinforce previous interpretations that arc-related magmatism played a key role in the Paleoproterozoic crustal growth of southern Laurentia, but also support the possibility of unexposed older crust as basement to the arcs. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Bimodal fluxes of near-relativistic electrons during the onset of solar particle events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartavykh, Y. Y.; Dröge, W.; Klecker, B.

    2013-07-01

    We report for several solar energetic particle events (SEPs) intensity and anisotropy measurements of energetic electrons in the energy range ˜27 to ˜500 keV as observed with the Wind and ACE spacecraft in June 2000. The observations onboard Wind show bimodal pitch angle distributions (PADs), whereas ACE shows PADs with one peak, as usually observed for impulsive injection of electrons at the Sun. During the time of observation Wind was located upstream of the Earth's bow shock, in the dawn-noon sector, at distances of ˜40 to ˜70REfrom the Earth, and magnetically well connected to the quasi-parallel bow shock, whereas ACE, located at the libration point L1, was not connected to the bow shock. The electron intensity-time profiles and energy spectra show that the backstreaming electrons observed at Wind are not of magnetospheric origin. The observations rather suggest that the bimodal electron PADs are due to reflection or scattering at an obstacle located at a distance of less than ˜150RE in the antisunward direction, compatible with the bow shock or magnetosheath of the magnetosphere of the Earth. For a modeling of the observations, we have performed transport simulations which include the effects of pitch angle diffusion, adiabatic focusing, and reflection at a boundary close to the point of observation. The results of the simulations demonstrate that the bimodal PADs are compatible with the reflection of electrons at a nearby boundary, at distances of ˜70RE. This finding is supported by the orbital configuration and the magnetic field direction: Whereas ACE is not connected, Wind is well connected to the magnetosphere of the Earth.

  20. Engineering three-dimensional maximally entangled states for two modes in a bimodal cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhen-Biao; Su Wan-Jun

    2007-01-01

    An alternative scheme is proposed for engineering three-dimensional maximally entangled states for two modes of a superconducting microwave cavity. In this scheme, an appropriately prepared four-level atom is sent through a bimodal cavity. During its passing through the cavity, the atom is coupled resonantly with two cavity modes simultaneously and addressed by a classical microwave pulse tuned to the required transition. Then the atomic states are detected to collapse two modes onto a three-dimensional maximally entangled state. The scheme is different from the previous one in which two nonlocal cavities are used. A comparison between them is also made.

  1. Bulge-Disk Decompositions and Structural Bimodality of Ursa Major Cluster Spiral Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Michael; Courteau, Stephane; Tully, R. Brent

    2008-01-01

    We present bulge and disk (B/D) decompositions of existing K'-band surface brightness profiles for 65 Ursa Major cluster spiral galaxies. This improves upon the disk-only fits of Tully et al. (1996). The 1996 disk fits were used by Tully & Verheijen (1997) for their discovery of the bimodality of structural parameters in the UMa cluster galaxies. It is shown that our new 1D B/D decompositions yield disk structural parameters that differ only slightly from the basic fits of Tully et al. and ev...

  2. Parallel Bimodal Bilingual Acquisition : A Hearing Child Mediated in a Deaf Family

    OpenAIRE

    Cramér-Wolrath, Emelie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal case study was to describe bimodal and bilingual acquisition in a hearing child, Hugo, and in what ways these were guided by his Deaf family. Video observations of the family interactions were conducted from Hugo’s age of 10 months until he was 40 months old. The family language was Swedish Sign Language (SSL). With Hugo, however, the parents used one language base in which single gestural signs or vocal words were often simultaneously inserted, the latter when no...

  3. Time shift in slope failure prediction between unimodal and bimodal modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciervo, Fabio; Casini, Francesca; Nicolina Papa, Maria; Medina, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Together with the need to use more appropriate mathematical expressions for describing hydro-mechanical soil processes, a challenge issue relates to the need of considering the effects induced by terrain heterogeneities on the physical mechanisms, taking into account the implications of the heterogeneities in affecting time-dependent hydro-mechanical variables, would improve the prediction capacities of models, such as the ones used in early warning systems. The presence of the heterogeneities in partially-saturated slopes results in irregular propagation of the moisture and suction front. To mathematically represent the "dual-implication" generally induced by the heterogeneities in describing the hydraulic terrain behavior, several bimodal hydraulic models have been presented in literature and replaced the conventional sigmoidal/unimodal functions; this presupposes that the scale of the macrostructure is comparable with the local scale (Darcy scale), thus the Richards' model can be assumed adequate to mathematically reproduce the processes. The purpose of this work is to focus on the differences in simulating flow infiltration processes and slope stability conditions originated from preliminary choices of hydraulic models and contextually between different approaches to evaluate the factor of safety (FoS). In particular, the results of two approaches are compared. The first one includes the conventional expression of the FoS under saturated conditions and the widespread used hydraulic model of van Genuchten-Mualem. The second approach includes a generalized FoS equation for infinite-slope model under variably saturated soil conditions (Lu and Godt, 2008) and the bimodal Romano et al.'s (2011) functions to describe the hydraulic response. The extension of the above mentioned approach to the bimodal context is based on an analytical method to assess the effects of the hydraulic properties on soil shear developed integrating a bimodal lognormal hydraulic function

  4. Impact of Bimodal Traffic on Latency in Optical Burst Switching Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of bimodal traffic composition on latency in optical burst switching networks. In particular, it studies the performance degradation to short-length packets caused by longer packets, both of which are part of a heterogeneous traffic model. The paper defines a customer satisfaction index for each of the classes of traffic, and a composite satisfaction index. The impact of higher overall utilization of the network as well as that of the ratio of the traffic mix on each of the customer satisfaction indices is specifically addressed.

  5. Development of Bimodal Grain Structures in Nb-Containing High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels during Slab Reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Debalay; Davis, Claire; Strangwood, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Bimodal (mixed coarse and fine) grain structures, which have been observed in some Nb-containing thermomechanically-controlled rolled steel plates, adversely affect their mechanical properties by causing scatter in cleavage fracture stress values. It is known that bimodal grain structures can develop during reheating prior to rolling; however, no quantitative predictions of the level of bimodality or the critical reheat temperatures for formation have been reported. In this article, three high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel slabs with varying microalloying additions (Ti, Nb, and V) have been characterized in the as-continuously cast and reheated (to various temperatures in the range 1050 °C to 1225 °C) conditions to determine the link between their grain size distribution (and any bimodality observed) and the microalloy precipitate type, size, and distribution. The as-cast slabs showed inhomogeneous microalloying precipitate distributions with the separation between precipitate-rich and precipitate-poor regions being consistent with interdendritic segregation and hence, the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS). The susceptibility of the slabs to the formation of bimodality, based on the steel chemical compositions and critical reheat temperature ranges has been identified, both experimentally and theoretically using ThermoCalc (Thermo-Calc Software, Stockholm, Sweden) modeling of precipitate stability in the solute-rich and the solute-depleted regions formed during casting.

  6. The behaviour of polyaniline-coated PVC membrane based on 7, 16-didecyl-1, 4, 10, 13-tetraoxa-7, 16-diazacyclooctadecane for pH measurements in highly acidic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Ansari; M Arvand; L Heydari

    2014-01-01

    Polyaniline(PANI) chemically coated on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane based on a neutral carrier 7,16-didecyl-1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-7,16-diazacyclooctadecane (kryptofix 22 DD) as the active component has been developed for determination of pH values ranging from pH 0.1-1. The effect of experimental parameters such as membrane composition, nature and amount of plasticizer, lipophilic additives and thickness of PANI film on the potential response of the pH electrode was investigated. The electrode has an apparent Nernstian response slope of 54.5 ± 0.4 mV pH-1 (at 20°C). The equilibrium water content of the electrode was determined in pure water and NaCl solution (I = 0.1 mol Kg-1). The electrode had low electric resistance, good potential stability and reproducibility (±1.5 mV, = 10). It has a rapid potential response to changes of pH (15 s). The excellent performance in terms of linearity, stability and fast response makes this device suitable for pH measurements in highly acidic media.

  7. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  8. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  9. Three Stages of Mesozoic Bimodal Igneous Rocks and Their Tectonic Implications on the Continental Margin of Southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Guangfu; YANG Zhuliang; CHEN Rong; SHEN Jialin; WEI Naiyi; ZHOU Yuzhang

    2004-01-01

    There are large-scale Mesozoic bimodal igneous rock associations on the continental margin of southeastern China. They aroused extensive attention in the 1980s because of their specific tectonic implications, and have been found frequently during recent geological surveys. This paper reviews the studies of regional Mesozoic bimodal rocks, and concludes that they can be subdivided into three stages, i.e., the Early Jurassic (209-170 Ma, the first (Ⅰ) stage), the Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous (154-121 Ma, the second (Ⅱ) stage), and the late Early Cretaceous-Late Cretaceous (115-85 Ma, the third (Ⅲ) stage). These three stages of bimodal rocks were formed in different tectonic settings, and are important indicators for regional Mesozoic tectonic evolution.

  10. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing.

  11. Pollination, mating and reproductive fitness in a plant population with bimodal floral-tube length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B; Pauw, A; Cole, W W; Barrett, S C H

    2016-08-01

    Mating patterns and natural selection play important roles in determining whether genetic polymorphisms are maintained or lost. Here, we document an atypical population of Lapeirousia anceps (Iridaceae) with a bimodal distribution of floral-tube length and investigate the reproductive mechanisms associated with this pattern of variation. Flowers were visited exclusively by the long-proboscid fly Moegistorhynchus longirostris (Nemestrinidae), which exhibited a unimodal distribution of proboscis length and displayed a preference for long-tubed phenotypes. Despite being visited by a single pollinator species, allozyme markers revealed significant genetic differentiation between open-pollinated progeny of long- and short-tubed phenotypes suggesting mating barriers between them. We obtained direct evidence for mating barriers between the floral-tube phenotypes through observations of pollinator foraging, controlled hand pollinations and measurements of pollen competition and seed set. Intermediate tube-length phenotypes produced fewer seeds in the field than either long- or short-tubed phenotypes. Although floral-tube length bimodality may not be a stable state over long timescales, reproductive barriers to mating and low 'hybrid' fitness have the potential to contribute to the maintenance of this state in the short term. PMID:27206242

  12. Study of the magnetorheology of aqueous suspensions of extremely bimodal magnetite particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viota, J. L.; Durán, J. D. G.; Delgado, A. V.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we describe the magnetorheological behavior of aqueous suspensions consisting of magnetite particles of two size populations, in the micrometer and nanometer scale, respectively. Previous works on the magnetorheology of oil-based fluids demonstrated that the addition of nanoparticles has a very significant effect on the intensity of the magnetorheological effect. The present contribution confirms such results in the case of aqueous fluids, based on the dependence of the yield stress and the viscosity of the bimodal suspensions on both the composition of the mixtures and the magnetic field strength. It is demonstrated that for a given concentration of micrometer particles, increasing the amount of nanometer magnetite provokes a clear enhancement in the yield stress for all the magnetic fields applied. This is proposed to be due to the formation of heterogeneous aggregates that improve the stability of the suspensions and ease the building of well-arranged field-induced structures. The behavior of both the yield stress and the post-yield viscosity agrees better with the predictions of standard chain models when the relative proportion of both types of particles confers optimum stability to the bimodal dispersions.

  13. Bimodal versus Weibull wind speed distributions: an analysis of wind energy potential in La Venta, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, O.A.; Borja, M.A.

    2004-07-01

    The International Standard IEC 61400-12 and other international recommendations suggest the use of the two-parameter Weibull probability distribution function (PDF) to estimate the Annual Energy Production (AEP) of a wind turbine. Most of the commercial software uses the unimodal Weibull PDF as the default option to carry out estimations of AEP, which in turn, are used to optimise wind farm layouts. Furthermore, AEP is essential data to assess the economic feasibility of a wind power project. However, in some regions of the world, the use of these widely adopted and recommended methods lead to incorrect results. This is the case for the region of La Ventosa in Mexico, where the frequency of the wind speed shows a bimodal distribution. In this work, mathematical formulations by using a Weibull PDF and a bimodal distribution are established to compare the AEP, the capacity factor and the levelised production cost for a specific wind turbine. By combining one year of wind speed data with the hypothetic power performance of the Vestas V27-225 kW wind turbine, it was found that using the Weibull PDF underestimates AEP (and thus the Capacity Factor) by about 12%. (author)

  14. Bimodality in binary Au + Au collisions from 60 to 100 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deexcitation of quasi-projectiles (QP) released in binary Au on Au collisions as been studied from 60 to 100 MeV/u. Bimodality between two different decay patterns has been observed for intermediate violence collisions. The main experimental result is that the system jumps from one mode to the other on a narrow range of energy deposit and/or impact parameter. The sorting of the events (according to the violence of the collision) has been provided by the perpendicular energy of the light charged particles emitted on the quasi-target side. Such a sorting prevents spurious autocorrelation effects between the sorting variable and the observed mechanism. The two modes of the QP decay correspond on the one side to residue or fission fragments production, and on the other side to the multifragmentation channel. A detailed study has been performed in order to try to establish the origin of the observed bimodality in disentangling dynamical or geometrical effects from bulk matter properties linked with a liquid-gas type phase transition. The whole set of data is coherent with a dominant role of the deposited excitation energy as it is expected from theoretical arguments.(lattice gas model) in the framework of a liquid-gas phase transition picture. (authors)

  15. Human mammary epithelial cells exhibit a bimodal correlated random walk pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka A Potdar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organisms, at scales ranging from unicellular to mammals, have been known to exhibit foraging behavior described by random walks whose segments confirm to Lévy or exponential distributions. For the first time, we present evidence that single cells (mammary epithelial cells that exist in multi-cellular organisms (humans follow a bimodal correlated random walk (BCRW. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cellular tracks of MCF-10A pBabe, neuN and neuT random migration on 2-D plastic substrates, analyzed using bimodal analysis, were found to reveal the BCRW pattern. We find two types of exponentially distributed correlated flights (corresponding to what we refer to as the directional and re-orientation phases each having its own correlation between move step-lengths within flights. The exponential distribution of flight lengths was confirmed using different analysis methods (logarithmic binning with normalization, survival frequency plots and maximum likelihood estimation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because of the presence of non-uniform turn angle distribution of move step-lengths within a flight and two different types of flights, we propose that the epithelial random walk is a BCRW comprising of two alternating modes with varying degree of correlations, rather than a simple persistent random walk. A BCRW model rather than a simple persistent random walk correctly matches the super-diffusivity in the cell migration paths as indicated by simulations based on the BCRW model.

  16. Anhydrides-Cured Bimodal Rubber-Like Epoxy Asphalt Composites: From Thermosetting to Quasi-Thermosetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present engineering practices show the potential that epoxy asphalt composites (EACs would be a better choice to obtain long life for busy roads. To understand the service performance–related thermorheological properties of prepared bimodal anhydrides-cured rubber-like EACs (REACs, a direct tensile tester, dynamic shear rheometer and mathematical model were used. Tensile tests demonstrate that all the REACs reported here are more flexible than previously reported anhydrides-cured REACs at both 20 and 0 °C. The better flexibility is attributed to the change of bimodal networks, in which cross-linked short chains decreased and cross-linked long chains increased, relatively. Strain sweeps show that all the REACs have linear viscoelastic (LVE properties when their strains are smaller than 1.0% from −35 to 120 °C. Temperature sweeps illustrate that the thermorheological properties of REACs evolve from thermosetting to quasi-thermosetting with asphalt content, and all the REACs retain solid state and show elastic properties in the experimental temperature range. A Cole–Cole plot and Black diagram indicate that all the REACs are thermorheologically simple materials, and the master curves were constructed and well-fitted by the Generalized Logistic Sigmoidal models. This research provides a facile approach to tune the thermorheological properties of the REACs, and the cheaper quasi-thermosetting REAC facilitates their advanced applications.

  17. Chitosan oligosaccharide based Gd-DTPA complex as a potential bimodal magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Cao, Juan; Zhang, Qi; Lu, Zheng-rong; Hua, Ming-qing; Zhang, Xiao-yan; Gao, Hu

    2016-01-01

    A new gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) complex (Gd-DTPA-DMABA-CS11) as a potential bimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent with fluorescence was synthesized. It was synthesized by the incorporation of 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMABA) and chitosan oligosaccharide (CSn; n=11) with low polydispersity index to DTPA anhydride and then chelated with gadolinium chloride. The structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), (1)H NMR, elemental analysis and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). MRI measurements in vitro were evaluated. The results indicated that Gd-DTPA-DMABA-CS11 provided higher molar longitudinal relaxivity (r1) (12.95mM(-1)·s(-1)) than that of commercial Gd-DTPA (3.63mM(-1)·s(-1)) at 0.5T. Gd-DTPA-DMABA-CS11 also emitted fluorescence, and the intensity was much stronger than that of Gd-DTPA. Therefore, it can be meanwhile used in fluorescent imaging for improving the sensitivity in clinic diagnosis. Gd-DTPA-DMABA-CS11 as a potential contrast agent is preliminarily stable in vitro. The results of thermodynamic action between Gd-DTPA-DMABA-CS11 and bovine serum albumin (BSA) illustrated that the binding process was exothermic and spontaneous, and the main force was van der Waals' interaction and hydrogen bond. The preliminary study suggested that Gd-DTPA-DMABA-CS11 could be used in both magnetic resonance and fluorescent imaging as a promising bimodal contrast agent.

  18. Bimodality of light and s-elements in M4 (NGC 6121)

    CERN Document Server

    Villanova, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    All Globular Clusters (GCs) studied in detail so far host two or more populations of stars. Theoretical models suggest that the second population is formed from gas polluted by processed material produced by massive stars of the first generation. However the nature of the polluter is a matter of strong debate. Several candidates have been proposed: massive main-sequence stars (fast rotating or binaries), intermediate-mass AGB stars, or SNeII. We studied red giant branch (RGB) stars in the GC M4 (NGC 6121) to measure their chemical signature. We confirm the presence of a bimodal population, first discovered by Marino et al. (2008). The two groups have different C,$^{12}$C/$^{13}$C,N,O,Na content, but share the same Li,C+N+O,Mg,Al,Si,Ca,Ti,Cr,Fe,Ni,Zr,Ba and Eu abundance. Quite surprisingly the two groups differ also in their Y abundance. The absence of a spread in $\\alpha$-elements, Eu and Ba makes SNeII and AGB stars unlikely as polluters. On the other hand, massive main-sequence stars can explain the bimodal...

  19. Bimodal regime in young massive clusters leading to subsequent stellar generations

    CERN Document Server

    Wünsch, Richard; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Ehlerová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Massive stars in young massive clusters insert tremendous amounts of mass and energy into their surroundings in the form of stellar winds and supernova ejecta. Mutual shock-shock collisions lead to formation of hot gas, filling the volume of the cluster. The pressure of this gas then drives a powerful cluster wind. However, it has been shown that if the cluster is massive and dense enough, it can evolve in the so--called bimodal regime, in which the hot gas inside the cluster becomes thermally unstable and forms dense clumps which are trapped inside the cluster by its gravity. We will review works on the bimodal regime and discuss the implications for the formation of subsequent stellar generations. The mass accumulates inside the cluster and as soon as a high enough column density is reached, the interior of the clumps becomes self-shielded against the ionising radiation of stars and the clumps collapse and form new stars. The second stellar generation will be enriched by products of stellar evolution from t...

  20. Bimodality in binary Au + Au collisions from 60 to 100 MeV/u

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, M.; Tamain, B.; Bougault, R. [Caen Univ., Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, IN2P3-CNRS, ISMRA, 14 (France)] [and others

    2003-03-01

    The deexcitation of quasi-projectiles (QP) released in binary Au on Au collisions as been studied from 60 to 100 MeV/u. Bimodality between two different decay patterns has been observed for intermediate violence collisions. The main experimental result is that the system jumps from one mode to the other on a narrow range of energy deposit and/or impact parameter. The sorting of the events (according to the violence of the collision) has been provided by the perpendicular energy of the light charged particles emitted on the quasi-target side. Such a sorting prevents spurious autocorrelation effects between the sorting variable and the observed mechanism. The two modes of the QP decay correspond on the one side to residue or fission fragments production, and on the other side to the multifragmentation channel. A detailed study has been performed in order to try to establish the origin of the observed bimodality in disentangling dynamical or geometrical effects from bulk matter properties linked with a liquid-gas type phase transition. The whole set of data is coherent with a dominant role of the deposited excitation energy as it is expected from theoretical arguments.(lattice gas model) in the framework of a liquid-gas phase transition picture. (authors)

  1. Bimodal Electron Fluxes of Nearly Relativistic Electrons during the Onset of Solar Particle Events: 1. Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Lingpeng; Klecker, Berndt; Krucker, Saem; Droege, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    We report for several solar energetic particle events intensity and anisotropy measurements of energetic electrons in the energy range ~ 27 to ~ 500 keV as observed with the Wind and ACE spacecraft in June 2000. The observations onboard Wind show bimodal pitch angle distributions (PAD), whereas ACE shows PADs with one peak, as usually observed for impulsive injection of electrons at the Sun. During the time of observation Wind was located upstream of the Earth's bow shock, in the dawn - noon sector, at distances of ~ 40 to ~ 70 Earth radii away from the Earth, and magnetically well connected to the quasi-parallel bow shock, whereas ACE, located at the libration point L1, was not connected to the bow shock. The electron intensity-time profiles and energy spectra show that the backstreaming electrons observed at Wind are not of magnetospheric origin. The observations rather suggest that the bi-modal electron PADs are due to reflection or scattering at an obstacle located at a distance of less than ~ 150 Earth r...

  2. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...... of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling...

  3. Fundamentals of soil behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Gens Solé, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews in summary form the generalised behaviour of soils under nonisothermal and chemically varying conditions. This generalised soil behaviour underlies the performance of a number of ground improvement techniques. The behaviour of frozen soil is examined first showing that some concepts of unsaturated soil mechanics appear to be readily applicable. Afterwards, the observation that volumetric behaviour of saturated and unsaturated soils at high temperature is similar, leads to th...

  4. 不同离子强度下蛋白质在PVDF膜面吸附行为评价%Evaluation on adsorption behaviour of protein on PVDF membrane surface under different ionic strengths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米娜; 王磊; 苗瑞; 高哲; 刘婷婷

    2016-01-01

    为考察不同离子强度下牛血清蛋白( BSA)在聚偏氟乙烯( PVDF)膜面的吸附行为及吸附层结构特征,使用耗散型石英晶体微天平( QCM-D)结合自制的PVDF膜片,综合膜污染及膜性能恢复实验,解析离子强度对超滤膜蛋白质污染的影响机理.结果表明:离子强度由0增加到1 mmol/L时,分子间静电排斥力的减弱增强了BSA在PVDF表面的吸附量,膜面形成刚性密实的BSA吸附层,膜污染加剧;相反,离子强度增大到10及100 mmol/L时,水合排斥力逐渐增强,有效减小PVDF-BSA、BSA-BSA间的相互作用力,致使BSA在PVDF表面的吸附量减小,形成松散柔软的BSA吸附层,膜污染大幅度减缓,膜通量恢复率有效提升.%To investigate the deposition and adsorption behavior of BSA on the PVDF surface and the structure of the BSA adsorption layers over a range of ionic strengths, a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) combined with a self-made PVDF-coated sensor crystal was used in this study. These results were combined with those of fouling experiments and the flux recovery rate ( at corresponding ionic strengths) to obtain visual insight into the effect of ionic strength on membrane BSA fouling behavior. Results show that when the ionic strength increased from 0 to 1 mmol/L, the adsorption amount of BSA on PVDF surface was increased, and a denser and more compact BSA layer was formed, accompanied by the enhancement of membrane fouling, which was mainly attributed to the decrease of electrostatic repulsion forces. But on the contrary, when ionic strength increased to 10 and 100 mmol/L, the PVDF-BSA and BSA-BSA interaction forces are weakened due to an increase in the hydration repulsion force, which results a decrease in adsorption amount of BSA on PVDF surface, a more nonrigid and soft BSA layer was formed, and membrane fouling decreased significantly. Moreover, the flux recovery rate was increase significantly at high ionic strength.

  5. Microstructure, plastic deformation and strengthening mechanisms of an Al–Mg–Si alloy with a bimodal grain structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakoori Oskooie, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-16471 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asgharzadeh, H., E-mail: asgharzadeh@tabrizu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-16471 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kim, H.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Al6063 with bimodal grain structures was fabricated by a powder metallurgy route. • The bimodal alloys showed a reasonable ductility together with a high strength. • Grain boundary strengthening was reduced at higher fraction of coarse grains. • The enhanced tensile ductility was attributed to crack blunting and delamination. - Abstract: Al6063 alloys with bimodal grain size distributions comprised of ultrafine-grained (UFG) and coarse-grained (CG) regions were produced via mechanical milling followed by hot extrusion. High-energy planetary ball milling for 22.5 h with a rotational speed of 350 rpm was employed for the synthesis of nanocrystalline Al6063 powders. The as-milled Al6063 powders were mixed with 15, 30, and 45 vol.% of the unmilled powders and then the powder mixtures were consolidated via extrusion at 450 °C with an extrusion ratio of 9:1. The microstructure of the bimodal extrudates was investigated using optical microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) detector. The deformation behavior was investigated by means of uniaxial tensile tests. The bimodal Al6063 exhibited balanced mechanical properties, including high yield stress and ultimate tensile strength resulting from the UFG regions together with reasonable ductility attained from the CG areas. The fracture surfaces demonstrated a ductile fracture mode, in which the dimple size was correlated with the grain structure. The strengthening mechanisms are discussed based on the dislocation models and the functions of the CGs in the deformation behavior and ductility enhancement of bimodal Al6063 are explored.

  6. Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, Marina S; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2012-12-01

    A common complaint of the elderly is difficulty identifying and localizing auditory and visual sources, particularly in competing background noise. Spatial errors in the elderly may pose challenges and even threats to self and others during everyday activities, such as localizing sounds in a crowded room or driving in traffic. In this study, we investigated the influence of aging, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on the localization of auditory, visual, and combined auditory-visual (bimodal) targets. Head-restrained young and elderly subjects localized targets in a dark, echo-attenuated room using a manual laser pointer. Localization accuracy and precision (repeatability) were quantified for both ongoing and transient (remembered) targets at response delays up to 10 s. Because eye movements bias auditory spatial perception, localization was assessed under target fixation (eyes free, pointer guided by foveal vision) and central fixation (eyes fixed straight ahead, pointer guided by peripheral vision) conditions. Spatial localization across the frontal field in young adults demonstrated (1) horizontal overshoot and vertical undershoot for ongoing auditory targets under target fixation conditions, but near-ideal horizontal localization with central fixation; (2) accurate and precise localization of ongoing visual targets guided by foveal vision under target fixation that degraded when guided by peripheral vision during central fixation; (3) overestimation in horizontal central space (±10°) of remembered auditory, visual, and bimodal targets with increasing response delay. In comparison with young adults, elderly subjects showed (1) worse precision in most paradigms, especially when localizing with peripheral vision under central fixation; (2) greatly impaired vertical localization of auditory and bimodal targets; (3) increased horizontal overshoot in the central field for remembered visual and bimodal targets across response delays; (4) greater vulnerability to

  7. Oxygen-limited thermal tolerance is seen in a plastron-breathing insect and can be induced in a bimodal gas exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberk, Wilco C. E. P.; Bilton, David T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thermal tolerance has been hypothesized to result from a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand. However, the generality of this hypothesis has been challenged by studies on various animal groups, including air-breathing adult insects. Recently, comparisons across taxa have suggested that differences in gas exchange mechanisms could reconcile the discrepancies found in previous studies. Here, we test this suggestion by comparing the behaviour of related insect taxa with different gas exchange mechanisms, with and without access to air. We demonstrate oxygen-limited thermal tolerance in air-breathing adults of the plastron-exchanging water bug Aphelocheirus aestivalis. Ilyocoris cimicoides, a related, bimodal gas exchanger, did not exhibit such oxygen-limited thermal tolerance and relied increasingly on aerial gas exchange with warming. Intriguingly, however, when denied access to air, oxygen-limited thermal tolerance could also be induced in this species. Patterns in oxygen-limited thermal tolerance were found to be consistent across life-history stages in these insects, with nymphs employing the same gas exchange mechanisms as adults. These results advance our understanding of oxygen limitation at high temperatures; differences in the degree of respiratory control appear to modulate the importance of oxygen in setting tolerance limits. PMID:25964420

  8. Measuring Thermoforming Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, W.; Hopmann, C.; Ederleh, L.; Begemann, M.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoforming is the process of choice for manufacturing thin-gauge or large-area parts for packaging or technical applications. The process allows low-weight parts to be produced rapidly and economically from thermoplastic semi-finished products. A technical and consequently economical problem is the choice of the right material in combination with the thermoformability of the product. The prediction of thermoformability includes the aspired product features and geometry and defined wall thickness distributions, depending on the specific stretchability of the semifinished product. In practice, thermoformability is estimated by empirical tests with the particular semi-finished product using e.g. staged pyramidal moulds or model cars. With this method, it still cannot be ensured that the product can be thermoformed with the intended properties. A promising alternative is the forming simulation using finite element analysis (FEA). For the simulation, it is necessary to describe the material behaviour using defined material models and the appropriate parameters. Therefore, the stress-/strain-behaviour of the semi-finished product under defined conditions is required. There are several, entirely different measurement techniques used in industry and at research facilities. This paper compares a choice of different measurement techniques to provide an objective basis for future work and research. The semi-finished products are examined with the Membrane-Inflation-Rheometer (MIR), an equibiaxial strain rheometer. A flat sample is heated to the desired temperature in silicone oil. During the measurement, a servohydraulic linear drive advances a piston, thus displacing the hot silicone oil and inflating the specimen to form a sphere. Further measurements are carried out with the Karo IV Laboratory Stretching Machine at Brückner Maschinenbau GmbH & Co. KG, Siegsdorf, Germany. The samples are heated using hot air. During the biaxial stretching, the resulting forces at the

  9. Effect of the bimodality of a QD array on the optical properties and threshold characteristics of QD lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadtochiy, A. M., E-mail: al.nadtochy@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University, Nanotechnology Research and Education Centre (Russian Federation); Mintairov, S. A.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation); Rouvimov, S. S. [University of Notre Dame (United States); Shernyakov, Yu. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation); Payusov, A. S.; Maximov, M. V.; Zhukov, A. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University, Nanotechnology Research and Education Centre (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Heterostructures with InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized on vicinal GaAs (001) substrates. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra and threshold characteristics of edge-emitting QD lasers are studied in the temperature range 10-400 K. The structural properties of QDs are examined by transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the PL spectra demonstrates the bimodality of the QD array, which leads to an unusual temperature behavior of the PL spectra and threshold current density. A model of the population of a bimodal QD array by carriers, describing the observed phenomena, is considered.

  10. Self-organized coordination in collective response of non-interacting agents: Emergence of bimodality in box-office success

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Anindya S

    2013-01-01

    Many socio-economic phenomena are characterized by the appearance of a few "hit" products having a substantially higher popularity compared to their often equivalent competitors, reflected in a bimodal distribution of response (success). Using the example of box-office performance of movies, we show that the empirically observed bimodality can emerge via self-organization in a model where agents (theatres) independently decide whether to adapt a new movie. The response exhibits extreme variability even in the absence of learning or communication between agents and suggests that properly timing the release is a key determinant of box-office success.

  11. Effect of the bimodality of a QD array on the optical properties and threshold characteristics of QD lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterostructures with InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized on vicinal GaAs (001) substrates. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra and threshold characteristics of edge-emitting QD lasers are studied in the temperature range 10-400 K. The structural properties of QDs are examined by transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the PL spectra demonstrates the bimodality of the QD array, which leads to an unusual temperature behavior of the PL spectra and threshold current density. A model of the population of a bimodal QD array by carriers, describing the observed phenomena, is considered

  12. Effect of Microstructure on the Electro-Mechanical Behaviour of Cu Films on Polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J.; Glushko, O.; Marx, V. M.; Kirchlechner, C.; Cordill, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    Metal films on polymer substrates are commonly used in flexible electronic devices and may be exposed to large deformations during application. For flexible electronics, the main requirement is to remain conductive while stretching and compressing. Therefore, the electro-mechanical behaviour of 200-nm-thick Cu films on polyimide with two different microstructures (as-deposited and annealed) were studied by executing in situ fragmentation experiments with x-ray diffraction, under an atomic force microscope, and with 4-point probe resistance measurements in order to correlate the plastic deformation with the electrical behaviour. The three in situ techniques clearly demonstrate different behaviours controlled by the microstructure. Interestingly, the as-deposited film with a bi-modal microstructure is more suited for flexible electronic applications than an annealed film with homogenous 1- µm-sized grains. The as-deposited film reaches a higher yield stress, with unchanged electrical conductivity, and does not show extensive surface deformation during straining.

  13. Limiting current density and water dissociation in bipolar membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strathmann, H.; Krol, J.J.; Rapp, H.-J.; Eigenberger, G.

    1997-01-01

    The behaviour of bipolar membranes in NaCl and Na2SO4 solutions is discussed. The membranes are characterized in terms of their limiting current densities. Below the limiting current density the electric current is carried by salt ions migrating from the transition region between the anion and the c

  14. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    , Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  15. Type Ia Supernovae with Bi-Modal Explosions Are Common -- Possible Smoking Gun for Direct Collisions of White-Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Subo; Kushnir, Doron; Prieto, Jose L

    2014-01-01

    We discover clear doubly-peaked line profiles in 3 out of ~20 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with high-quality nebular-phase spectra. The profiles are consistently present in three well-separated Co/Fe emission features. The two peaks are respectively blue-shifted and red-shifted relative to the host galaxies and are separated by ~5000 km/s. The doubly-peaked profiles directly reflect a bi-modal velocity distribution of the radioactive Ni56 in the ejecta that powers the emission of these SNe. Due to their random orientations, only a fraction of SNe with intrinsically bi-modal velocity distributions will appear as doubly-peaked spectra. Therefore SNe with intrinsic bi-modality are likely common, especially among the SNe in the low-luminosity (~40% of all SNe Ia) part on the Philips relation \\Delta m15(B) >~ 1.3. Bi-modality is naturally expected from direct collisions of white dwarfs (WDs) due to the detonation of both WDs and is demonstrated in a 3D 0.64 M_Sun-0.64 M_Sun WD collision simulation.

  16. On the existence, uniqueness and nature of Caratheodory and Filippov solutions for bimodal piecewise affine dynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quang, Thuan; Camlibel, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the well-posedness (in the sense of existence and uniqueness of solutions) and nature of solutions for discontinuous bimodal piecewise affine systems in a differential inclusion setting. First, we show that the conditions guaranteeing uniqueness of Filippov solutions in t

  17. Insight into the structural mechanism of the bi-modal action of an NCAM mimetic, the C3 peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiselyov, Vladislav V; Li, Shizhong; Berezin, Vladimir;

    2009-01-01

    proposed. In one of them, the FGFR Ig2-Ig3 modules are involved in binding to NCAM, whereas in another - the FGFR "acid box" region mediates the interaction. The bi-modal effect of C3 can be explained in the context of the former model and is not consistent with the latter, thus providing evidence in...

  18. SWRC fit - a nonlinear fitting program with a water retention curve for soils having unimodal and bimodal pore structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, K.

    2007-02-01

    The soil hydraulic parameters for analyzing soil water movement can be determined by fitting a soil water retention curve to a certain function, i.e., a soil hydraulic model. For this purpose, the program "SWRC Fit," which performs nonlinear fitting of soil water retention curves to 5 models by Levenberg-Marquardt method, was developed. The five models are the Brooks and Corey model, the van Genuchten model, Kosugi's log-normal pore-size distribution model, Durner's bimodal pore-size distribution model, and a bimodal log-normal pore-size distribution model propose in this study. This program automatically determines all the necessary conditions for the nonlinear fitting, such as the initial estimate of the parameters, and, therefore, users can simply input the soil water retention data to obtain the necessary parameters. The program can be executed directly from a web page at http://purl.org/net/swrc/; a client version of the software written in numeric calculation language GNU Octave is included in the electronic supplement of this paper. The program was used for determining the soil hydraulic parameters of 420 soils in UNSODA database. After comparing the root mean square error of the unimodal models, the van Genuchten and Kosugi's models were better than the Brooks and Corey model. The bimodal log-normal pore-size distribution model had similar fitting performance to Durner's bimodal pore-size distribution model.

  19. SWRC fit – a nonlinear fitting program with a water retention curve for soils having unimodal and bimodal pore structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Seki

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The soil hydraulic parameters for analyzing soil water movement can be determined by fitting a soil water retention curve to a certain function, i.e., a soil hydraulic model. For this purpose, the program "SWRC Fit," which performs nonlinear fitting of soil water retention curves to 5 models by Levenberg-Marquardt method, was developed. The five models are the Brooks and Corey model, the van Genuchten model, Kosugi's log-normal pore-size distribution model, Durner's bimodal pore-size distribution model, and a bimodal log-normal pore-size distribution model propose in this study. This program automatically determines all the necessary conditions for the nonlinear fitting, such as the initial estimate of the parameters, and, therefore, users can simply input the soil water retention data to obtain the necessary parameters. The program can be executed directly from a web page at http://purl.org/net/swrc/; a client version of the software written in numeric calculation language GNU Octave is included in the electronic supplement of this paper. The program was used for determining the soil hydraulic parameters of 420 soils in UNSODA database. After comparing the root mean square error of the unimodal models, the van Genuchten and Kosugi's models were better than the Brooks and Corey model. The bimodal log-normal pore-size distribution model had similar fitting performance to Durner's bimodal pore-size distribution model.

  20. The Impact of Bimodal Bilingual Parental Input on the Communication and Language Development of a Young Deaf Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Elizabeth; Brown, P. Margaret; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the impact of bimodal bilingual parental input on the communication and language development of a young deaf child. The participants in this case study were a severe-to-profoundly deaf boy and his hearing parents, who were enrolled in a bilingual (English and Australian Sign Language) homebased early intervention programme. The…

  1. A scheme for conditional quantum phase gate via bimodal cavity and a Λ-type three-level atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jian-Wu; Fang Mao-Fa; Liao Xiang-Ping; Zheng Xiao-Juan

    2006-01-01

    We propose a scheme to implement a two-qubit conditional quantum phase gate for the intracavity field via a single three-level Λ-type atom driven by two modes in a high-Q cavity. The quantum information is encoded on the Fock states of the bimodal cavity. The gate's averaged fidelity is expected to reach 99.8%.

  2. Head Shadow, Squelch, and Summation Effects with an Energetic or Informational Masker in Bilateral and Bimodal CI Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyschny, Verena; Landwehr, Markus; Hahn, Moritz; Lang-Roth, Ruth; Walger, Martin; Meister, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of noise (energetic) and speech (energetic plus informational) maskers on the head shadow (HS), squelch (SQ), and binaural summation (SU) effect in bilateral and bimodal cochlear implant (CI) users. Method: Speech recognition was measured in the presence of either a competing…

  3. Magnetic complexity as an explanation for bimodal rotation populations among young stars

    CERN Document Server

    Garraffo, Cecilia; Cohen, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Observations of young open clusters have revealed a bimodal distribution of fast and slower rotation rates that has proven difficult to explain with predictive models of spin down that depend on rotation rates alone. The Metastable Dynamo Model proposed recently by Brown, employing a stochastic transition probability from slow to more rapid spin down regimes, appears to be more successful but lacks a physical basis for such duality. Using detailed 3D MHD wind models computed for idealized multipole magnetic fields, we show that surface magnetic field complexity can provide this basis. Both mass and angular momentum losses decline sharply with increasing field complexity. Combined with observation evidence for complex field morphologies in magnetically active stars, our results support a picture in which young, rapid rotators lose angular momentum in an inefficient way because of field complexity. During this slow spin-down phase, magnetic complexity is eroded, precipitating a rapid transition from weak to str...

  4. (Gd,Yb,Tb)PO4 up-conversion nanocrystals for bimodal luminescence-MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debasu, Mengistie L.; Ananias, Duarte; Pinho, Sonia L. C.; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.; Carlos, Luís D.; Rocha, João

    2012-07-01

    Up-conversion (Gd,Yb,Tb)PO4 materials and their potential for bimodal imaging have received little attention in the literature. Herein, we report the first study on the up-conversion emission of (Gd,Yb,Tb)PO4 nanocrystals synthesized via a hydrothermal method at 150 °C. These materials exhibit ultraviolet, blue and green up-conversion emissions upon excitation with a 980 nm continuous wave laser diode. The intensity of the blue-emission band at 479 nm, ascribed to the cooperative up-conversion emission of a pair of excited Yb3+ ions, depends on the Yb3+/Tb3+ concentration ratio, calcination temperature and particle size. Strong green up-conversion emission of Tb3+ is observed at 543 nm for the 5D4 --> 7F5 transition. Relaxometry measurements reveal that the nanocrystals are efficient T2-weighted (negative) contrast agents which, combined with visible-light emission generated by infrared excitation, affords them considerable potential for being used in bimodal, photoluminescence-magnetic resonance, imaging.Up-conversion (Gd,Yb,Tb)PO4 materials and their potential for bimodal imaging have received little attention in the literature. Herein, we report the first study on the up-conversion emission of (Gd,Yb,Tb)PO4 nanocrystals synthesized via a hydrothermal method at 150 °C. These materials exhibit ultraviolet, blue and green up-conversion emissions upon excitation with a 980 nm continuous wave laser diode. The intensity of the blue-emission band at 479 nm, ascribed to the cooperative up-conversion emission of a pair of excited Yb3+ ions, depends on the Yb3+/Tb3+ concentration ratio, calcination temperature and particle size. Strong green up-conversion emission of Tb3+ is observed at 543 nm for the 5D4 --> 7F5 transition. Relaxometry measurements reveal that the nanocrystals are efficient T2-weighted (negative) contrast agents which, combined with visible-light emission generated by infrared excitation, affords them considerable potential for being used in bimodal

  5. Bimodal quasi-oscillatory and spectral behavior in Scorpius X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priedhorsky, W.; Hasinger, G.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Middleditch, J.; Parmar, A.

    1986-01-01

    Exosat observations of Sco X-1 obtained using the Xe and/or Ar detectors for a total of about 80,000 s during four runs on August 24-27, 1985 are reported and analyzed. Two modes of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) corresponding to the quiescent and active states of Sco X-1 and to two modes of spectral behavior are identified and characterized, confirming the findings of Priedhorsky (1985) and Middleditch and Priedhorsky (1986). In the quiescent state, the QPO frequency is about 6 Hz and is anticorrelated with intensity, and the spectral hardness ratio (14-21 vs 2-7 keV) varies steeply with intensity; in the active state, QPO frequency is correlated with intensity and varies from 10 to 20 Hz, and the spectral-hardness-ratio/intensity curve is flatter. Previous observations of bimodal behavior in other bands are summarized, and theoretical models proposed to explain them are discussed.

  6. Bimodal momentum distribution of laser-cooled atoms in optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Dion, Claude M; Kastberg, Anders; Sjölund, Peder

    2016-01-01

    We study, numerically and experimentally, the momentum distribution of atoms cooled in optical lattices. Using semi-classical simulations, we show that this distribution is bimodal, made up of a central feature corresponding to "cold", trapped atoms, with tails of "hot", untrapped atoms, and that this holds true also for very shallow potentials. Careful analysis of the distribution of high-momentum untrapped atoms, both from simulations and experiments, shows that the tails of the distribution does not follow a normal law, hinting at a power-law distribution and non-ergodic behavior. We also revisit the phenomenon of d\\'ecrochage, the potential depth below which the temperature of the atoms starts increasing.

  7. Bimodal momentum distribution of laser-cooled atoms in optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Claude M.; Jonsell, Svante; Kastberg, Anders; Sjölund, Peder

    2016-05-01

    We study, numerically and experimentally, the momentum distribution of atoms cooled in optical lattices. Using semiclassical simulations, we show that this distribution is bimodal, made up of a central feature corresponding to "cold," trapped atoms, with tails of "hot," untrapped atoms, and that this holds true also for very shallow potentials. Careful analysis of the distribution of high-momentum untrapped atoms, both from simulations and experiments, shows that the tails of the distribution do not follow a normal law, hinting at a power-law distribution and nonergodic behavior. We also revisit the phenomenon leading to the existence of an optimal cooling point, i.e., a potential depth below which the temperature of the atoms starts increasing.

  8. Origin of bimodal fluorescence enhancement factors of Chlorobaculum tepidum reaction centers on silver island films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkowski, Sebastian; Czechowski, Nikodem; Ashraf, Khuram U; Szalkowski, Marcin; Lokstein, Heiko; Cogdell, Richard J; Kowalska, Dorota

    2016-08-01

    We focus on the spectral dependence of plasmon-induced enhancement of fluorescence of Chlorobaculum tepidum reaction centers. When deposited on silver island film, they exhibit up to a 60-fold increase in fluorescence. The dependence of enhancement factors on the excitation wavelength is not correlated with the absorption spectrum of the plasmonic structure. In particular, the presence of one (or multiple) trimers of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein reveals itself in bimodal distribution of enhancement factors for the excitation at 589 nm, the wavelength corresponding to bacteriochlorophyll absorption of FMO and the core of the RC. We conclude that the structure of multichromophoric complexes can substantially affect the impact of plasmonic excitations, which is important in the context of assembling functional biohybrid systems. PMID:27406896

  9. Fabrication and Dealloying Behavior of Monolithic Nanoporous Copper Ribbons with Bimodal Channel Size Distributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbo Liu; Shichao Zhang; Ning Li; Jiwei Zheng; Yalan Xing

    2012-01-01

    Monolithic nanoporous copper (NPC) ribbons with bimodal channel size distributions can be fabricated through chemical dealloying of Mg-32 Cu alloy in an acidic solution at room temperature. The microstructure of the as- dealloyed samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. These NPC ribbons are composed of interconnected large-sized channels (hundreds of nm) with highly porous channel walls (tens of nm). Both large- and small-sized channels are open, bicontinuous, and interpenetrating. Additionally, it is the first time to find that the evolution process of porous structure along the thickness direction of samples during the dealloying is from the interior to exterior, which is just contrary to the coarsening process along the thickness direction during the post-dealloying. Meanwhile, the corresponding mechanism is discussed in detail.

  10. Synthesis and tuning of bimodal mesoporous silica by combined hydrocarbon/fluorocarbon surfactant templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Rong; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Knutson, Barbara L; Rankin, Stephen E

    2009-06-01

    Hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon surfactants show highly nonideal mixing that under some conditions results in demixing of the two types of surfactants into distinct populations of fluorocarbon-rich and hydrocarbon-rich aggregates. This also occurs in materials prepared by cooperative assembly of hydrolyzed tetraethoxysilane with mixtures of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and 1,1,2,2-tetrahydro-perfluorodecylpyridinium chloride (HFDePC). Here, we report conditions under which demixed micelles lead to bimodal mesoporous materials (including specific concentrations of ammonia and salt in the synthesis solution) and show that the sizes of the hydrocarbon-templated and fluorocarbon-templated pores can be finely and independently controlled by adding lipophilic or fluorophilic oils, respectively. Nitrogen sorption isotherms and transmission electron microscopy provide clear evidence for a single phase of demixed but disordered wormhole-like pores. PMID:19323503

  11. Decoupled polarization dynamics of incoherent waves and bimodal spectral incoherent solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, A; Garnier, J; Michel, C; Xu, G; Fatome, J; Wright, L G; Wise, F W; Picozzi, A

    2016-09-01

    We consider the propagation of strongly incoherent waves in optical fibers in the framework of the vector nonlinear Schrödinger equation (VNLSE) accounting for the Raman effect. On the basis of the wave turbulence theory, we derive a kinetic equation that greatly simplifies the VNLSE and provides deep physical insight into incoherent wave dynamics. When applied to the study of polarization effects, the theory unexpectedly reveals that the linear polarization components of the incoherent wave evolve independently from each other, even in the presence of weak fiber birefringence. When applied to light propagation in bimodal fibers, the theory reveals that the incoherent modal components can be strongly coupled. After a complex transient, the modal components self-organize into a vector spectral incoherent soliton: The two solitons self-trap and propagate with a common velocity in frequency space. PMID:27607955

  12. Rarefaction effects in dilute granular Poiseuille flow: Knudsen minimum and temperature bimodality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Achal; Alam, Meheboob

    2015-11-01

    The gravity-driven flow of smooth inelastic hard-disks through a channel, analog of granular Poiseuille flow, is analysed using event-driven simulations. We find that the variation of the mass-flow rate (Q) with Knudsen number (Kn) can be non-monotonic in the elastic limit (i.e. the restitution coefficient en --> 1) in channels with very smooth walls. The Knudsen minimum effect (i.e. the minimum flow rate occurring at Kn ~ O (1) for the Poiseuille flow of a molecular gas) is found to be absent in a granular gas with en competition between dissipation and rarefaction seems to be responsible for the observed dependence of both mass-flow rate and temperature bimodality on Kn and en . [Alam etal. 2015, JFM (revised)].

  13. Unimodular bimode gravity and the coherent scalar-graviton field as galaxy dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Pirogov, Yu F

    2011-01-01

    The explicit violation of general relativity is adopted as an origin of dark matter and dark energy of the gravitational nature. The violation of the local scale invariance alone, with the residual unimodular invariance/relativity, is considered as a paradigm. Besides the four-volume preserving deformation mode -- the transverse-tensor graviton -- the metric comprises a compression mode -- the scalar graviton, or the {\\em systolon}. The unimodular invariant metric theory of the bimode gravity is worked out. Due to a non-dynamical scalar density -- the dark {\\em modulus} -- the theory is general covariant. To substantially reduce the primordial ambiguity of the effective Lagrangian a dynamical global symmetry -- the {\\em compression} one -- is superimposed at the classical level, with the subsequent spontaneous breaking of the symmetry displayed. The static spherically symmetric field configuration in the empty, but possibly for the origin, space is studied. A three-parameter solution describing a new static s...

  14. Bimodal bilingualism as multisensory training?: Evidence for improved audiovisual speech perception after sign language exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua T; Darcy, Isabelle; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to characterize effects of learning a sign language on the processing of a spoken language. Specifically, audiovisual phoneme comprehension was assessed before and after 13 weeks of sign language exposure. L2 ASL learners performed this task in the fMRI scanner. Results indicated that L2 American Sign Language (ASL) learners' behavioral classification of the speech sounds improved with time compared to hearing nonsigners. Results indicated increased activation in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) after sign language exposure, which suggests concomitant increased phonological processing of speech. A multiple regression analysis indicated that learner's rating on co-sign speech use and lipreading ability was correlated with SMG activation. This pattern of results indicates that the increased use of mouthing and possibly lipreading during sign language acquisition may concurrently improve audiovisual speech processing in budding hearing bimodal bilinguals. PMID:26740404

  15. Magnetic Complexity as an Explanation for Bimodal Rotation Populations among Young Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffo, Cecilia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer

    2015-07-01

    Observations of young open clusters have revealed a bimodal distribution of fast and slower rotation rates that has proven difficult to explain with predictive models of spin down that depend on rotation rates alone. The Metastable Dynamo Model proposed recently by Brown, employing a stochastic transition probability from slow to more rapid spin down regimes, appears to be more successful but lacks a physical basis for such duality. Using detailed 3D MHD wind models computed for idealized multipole magnetic fields, we show that surface magnetic field complexity can provide this basis. Both mass and angular momentum losses decline sharply with increasing field complexity. Combined with observation evidence for complex field morphologies in magnetically active stars, our results support a picture in which young, rapid rotators lose angular momentum in an inefficient way because of field complexity. During this slow spin-down phase, magnetic complexity is eroded, precipitating a rapid transition from weak to strong wind coupling.

  16. CCD ubvy photometry of the bimodal main-sequence cluster NGC 3680

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony-Twarog, B.J.; Twarog, B.A.; Shodhan, S. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence (USA))

    1989-11-01

    CCD uvby photometry for the intermediate age, southern open cluster, NGC 3680, is analyzed. For a reddening of E(b-y) = 0.034, a true cluster modulus of 9.74 + or - 0.20 and a cluster metallicity of Fe/H abundance = 0.10 + or - 0.09, based on 18 probable nonbinary members of the cluster brighter than V = 14. The color-magnitude diagram for the cluster suggests that, although the main sequence may be subject to the same bimodal distibution as NGC 752, the likely source in both clusters is a combination of binaries and a sharply curved turnoff. The color-magnitude diagram is compared to the theoretical isochrones of Bertelli et al. (1988), showing an age of (1.9 + or - 0.3) X 10 to the 9th yr. 27 refs.

  17. Origin of bimodal fluorescence enhancement factors of Chlorobaculum tepidum reaction centers on silver island films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkowski, Sebastian; Czechowski, Nikodem; Ashraf, Khuram U; Szalkowski, Marcin; Lokstein, Heiko; Cogdell, Richard J; Kowalska, Dorota

    2016-08-01

    We focus on the spectral dependence of plasmon-induced enhancement of fluorescence of Chlorobaculum tepidum reaction centers. When deposited on silver island film, they exhibit up to a 60-fold increase in fluorescence. The dependence of enhancement factors on the excitation wavelength is not correlated with the absorption spectrum of the plasmonic structure. In particular, the presence of one (or multiple) trimers of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein reveals itself in bimodal distribution of enhancement factors for the excitation at 589 nm, the wavelength corresponding to bacteriochlorophyll absorption of FMO and the core of the RC. We conclude that the structure of multichromophoric complexes can substantially affect the impact of plasmonic excitations, which is important in the context of assembling functional biohybrid systems.

  18. Carboniferous Bimodal Volcanic Rocks and Their Plate Tectonic Setting,Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏邦栋; 施光宇; 等

    1992-01-01

    The Carboniferous volcanic rocks in western Hainan Island consist of a series of oceanic tholeite and rhyoporphyrite,showing bimodal nature.Similar geochemical characters,in terms of abun-daces and relative rations of incompatible elements and REE and the REE patterns,between the basalt and continental rift-associated tholeiite indicate the occurrence of Late Paleozoic rifting in the area.The basaltic magma,with a low degree of evolution,was originated from deep mantle,show-ing contamination by low crustal material.The rhyolite is thought to be formed from partial melting of the continental crust by higher thermal flow in a rift environment rather than from fractional crystallization of a basaltic magma.

  19. MAGNETIC COMPLEXITY AS AN EXPLANATION FOR BIMODAL ROTATION POPULATIONS AMONG YOUNG STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garraffo, Cecilia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Observations of young open clusters have revealed a bimodal distribution of fast and slower rotation rates that has proven difficult to explain with predictive models of spin down that depend on rotation rates alone. The Metastable Dynamo Model proposed recently by Brown, employing a stochastic transition probability from slow to more rapid spin down regimes, appears to be more successful but lacks a physical basis for such duality. Using detailed 3D MHD wind models computed for idealized multipole magnetic fields, we show that surface magnetic field complexity can provide this basis. Both mass and angular momentum losses decline sharply with increasing field complexity. Combined with observation evidence for complex field morphologies in magnetically active stars, our results support a picture in which young, rapid rotators lose angular momentum in an inefficient way because of field complexity. During this slow spin-down phase, magnetic complexity is eroded, precipitating a rapid transition from weak to strong wind coupling.

  20. Theoretical study of the frequency shift in bimodal FM-AFM by fractional calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Herruzo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bimodal atomic force microscopy is a force-microscopy method that requires the simultaneous excitation of two eigenmodes of the cantilever. This method enables the simultaneous recording of several material properties and, at the same time, it also increases the sensitivity of the microscope. Here we apply fractional calculus to express the frequency shift of the second eigenmode in terms of the fractional derivative of the interaction force. We show that this approximation is valid for situations in which the amplitude of the first mode is larger than the length of scale of the force, corresponding to the most common experimental case. We also show that this approximation is valid for very different types of tip–surface forces such as the Lennard-Jones and Derjaguin–Muller–Toporov forces.

  1. Ligand conjugation to bimodal poly(ethylene glycol) brush layers on microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cherry C; Borden, Mark A

    2010-08-17

    Using microbubbles as model systems, we examined molecular diffusion and binding to colloidal surfaces in bimodal poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brush layers. A microbubble is a gaseous colloidal particle with a diameter of less than 10 mum, of which the surface comprises amphiphilic phospholipids self-assembled to form a lipid monolayer shell. Due to the compressible gas core, microbubbles provide a sensitive acoustic response and are currently used as ultrasound contrast agents. Similar to the design of long circulating liposomes, PEG chains are typically incorporated into the shell of microbubbles to form a steric barrier against coalescence and adsorption of macromolecules to the microbubble surface. We introduced a buried-ligand architecture (BLA) design where the microbubble surface was coated with a bimodal PEG brush. After microbubbles were generated, fluorescent ligands with different molecular weights were conjugated to the tethered functional groups on the shorter PEG chains, while the longer PEG chains served as a shield to protect these ligands from exposure to the surrounding environment. BLA microbubbles reduced the binding of macromolecules (>10 kDa) to the tethers due to the steric hindrance of the PEG overbrush while allowing the uninhibited attachment of small molecules (microbubbles compared to exposed-ligand architecture (ELA) microbubbles. The binding of SA-FITC to BLA microbubbles suggested a possible phase separation between the lipid species on the surface leading to populations of revealed and concealed ligands. Ligand conjugation kinetics was independent of microbubble size, regardless of ligand size or microbubble architecture. We observed, for the first time, streptavidin-induced surface structure formation for ELA microbubbles and proposed that this phenomenon may be correlated to flow cytometry scattering measurements. We therefore demonstrated the feasibility of postlabeling for small-molecule ligands to BLA microbubbles to generate

  2. Simulation of the Brownian coagulation of nanoparticles with initial bimodal size distribution via moment method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Zhong Lin; Fu-Jun Gan

    2012-01-01

    The Brownian coagulation of nanoparticles with initial bimodal size distribution,i.e.,mode i and j,is numerically studied using the moment method.Evolutions of particle number concentration,geometric average diameter and geometric standard deviation are given in the free molecular regime,the continuum regime,the free molecular regimand transition regime,the free molecular regime and contin-uum regime,respectively.The results show that,both in the free molecular regime and the continuum regime,the number concentration of mode i and j decreases with increasing time.The evolutions of particle geometric average diameter with different initial size distribution are quite different.Both intra-modal and inter-modal coagulation finally make the polydispersed size distribution become monodispersed.As time goes by,the size distribution with initial bimodal turns to be unimodal and shifts to a larger particle size range.In the free molecular regime and transition regime,the intermodal coagulation becomes dominant when the number concentrations of mode i and j are of the same order.The effects of the number concentration of mode i and mode j on the evolution of geometric average diameter of mode j are negligible,while the effects of the number concentration of mode j on the evolution of geometric average diameter of mode j is distinct.In the free molecular regime and continuum regime,the higher the initial number concentration of mode j,the more obvious the variation of the number concentration of mode i.

  3. X-Ray Diffraction Microstructural Analysis of Bimodal-Size-Distribution MgO Nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratapa, Suminar; Hartono, Budi

    2010-01-01

    Investigation on the characteristics of x-ray diffraction data for MgO powdered mixture of nano and sub-nano particles has been carried out to reveal the crystallite-size-related microstructural information. The MgO powders were prepared by co-precipitation method followed by heat treatment at 500, 800 and 1200° C for 1 hour, being the difference in the temperature was to obtain two powders with distinct crystallite size and size-distribution. The powders were then carefully blended in air to give the presumably strain-free, bimodal-size-distribution MgO nanopowder. High-quality laboratory X-ray diffraction data for the powders were collected and then analysed using Rietveld-based MAUD software using the lognormal size distribution. Results show that the single-mode powders exhibit spherical crystallite size (Dv) of 29(1) nm, 36(1) and 185(0) nm for the 500, 800 and 1200° C data respectively with the nanometric powder displays slightly narrower crystallite size distribution character, indicated by lognormal dispersion parameter (σ) of 0.22 as compared to 0.18 for the sub-nanometric 1200° C powder. The mixture exhibits relatively more asymmetric peak broadening. By analysing the x-ray diffraction data of the latter specimen by using the single phase approach the results obtained was not according to experimental finding. Introducing two phase models for the `double-phase' 500-1200 mixture to accommodate the bimodal-size-distribution characteristics give Dv = 34(2) and σ = 0.10 for the `nanometric phase' and Dv = 363(0) and σ = 1.38 for the `sub-nanometric phase'.

  4. Evidence for a bimodal size distribution for the suspended aerosol particles on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, A. A.; Montmessin, F.; Rodin, A. V.; Korablev, O. I.; Määttänen, A.; Maltagliati, L.; Bertaux, J.-L.

    2014-03-01

    First simultaneous analysis of the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) atmospheric extinctions from SPICAM/Mars Express solar occultations in the beginning of the Northern summer (Ls = 56-97°) is presented. The two SPICAM channels allow sounding of the martian atmosphere in the spectral range from 0.118 to 1.7 μm at the altitudes from 10 to 80 km. Based on Mie scattering theory with adequate refraction indices for dust and H2O ice, a bimodal distribution of aerosol has been inferred from the SPICAM measurements. The coarser mode is represented by both dust and H2O particles with average radius of 0.7 and 1.2 μm, respectively, with number density from 0.01 to 10 particles in cm3. Clouds belonging to the aphelion cloud belt have been observed in midlatitudes in the Southern and the Northern hemispheres at altitudes of 20-30 km. The clouds are formed of large particles, and their opacity in the UV and the IR is below 0.03. The finer mode with a radius of 0.04-0.07 μm and a number density from 1 cm-3 at 60 km to 1000 cm-3 at 20 km has been detected in both hemispheres. In the Southern hemisphere the finer mode extends up to 70 km, whereas in the Northern hemisphere it is confined below 30-40 km. The lack of condensation nuclei is consistent, but could not fully explain the high water supersaturation observed between 30 and 50 km in the same Northern hemisphere dataset (Maltagliati L., Montmessin, F., Fedorova, A., Korablev, O., Forget, F., Bertaux, J.-L. [2011]. Science 333, 1868-1871). The average size of the fine mode (∼50 nm) and the large number density (up to 1000 cm-3) most likely corresponds to Aitken particles (r survival of the observed bimodal distribution.

  5. Effect of meta-carborane on segmental dynamics in a bimodal Poly(dimethylsiloxane) network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewicki, J; Maxwell, R S; Patel, M; Herberg, J; Swain, A C; Liggat, J; Pethrick, R

    2008-06-11

    Bimodal networks of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) filled with varying amounts of icosahedral meta-carborane (m-CB) have been developed and characterized by broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and static {sup 1}H Multiple Quantum Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MQ NMR). Both BDS and MQ NMR showed evidence for a decrease in the polymer chain dynamics. BDS spectra quantified a normal-mode relaxation near 40 Hz at 40 C. The frequency maximum observed for filled samples decreased with increasing m-CB content until contents greater than 5 wt. %. The width of the relaxation spectrum increased with the addition of small quantities of filler and decreased with filler contents greater that 5 wt. %. Agglomeration effects were observed at loadings greater than 5 wt % as manifest by the onset of low frequency Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) processes. The MQ NMR data allowed the characterization of distributions of the residual dipolar couplings, <{Omega}{sub d}> and thus in the dynamic order parameter, Sb, consistent with the bimodal network architecture expected from the synthesis protocol used. Upon addition of less than 10 wt.% m-CB filler, the mean <{Omega}{sub d}> for the longer chains increased by 46% and the width of the distribution increased by 33%. The mean <{Omega}{sub d}> for the shorter chains increased by much less, indicative of preferential dispersion of the filler particles in the long chain domains of the network structure. We conclude that the mechanism of reinforcement is likely a free volume space filling at low loadings transitioning to complex molecular filler and polymer chain interaction phenomena at higher loadings.

  6. Development of a steady state creep behavior model of polycrystalline tungsten for bimodal space reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, A.; Hanan, N.A.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Gruber, E.E.

    1995-02-01

    The fuel element for one of the many reactor concepts being currently evaluated for bimodal applications in space consists of spherical fuel particles clad with tungsten or alloys of tungsten. The fuel itself consists of stabilized UO{sub 2}. One of the life limiting phenomena for the fuel element is failure of the cladding because of creep deformation. This report summarizes the information available in literature regarding the creep deformation of tungsten and its alloys and proposes a relation to be used for calculating the creep strains for elevated temperatures in the low stress region ({sigma} {le} 20 MPa). Also, results of the application of this creep relation to one of the reactor design concepts (NEBA-3) are discussed. Based on the traditional definition of creep deformation, the temperatures of 1500 K to 2900 K for tungsten and its alloys are considered to be in the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} temperature range. In this temperature range, the rate controlling mechanisms for creep deformation are believed to be non-conservative motion of screw dislocations and short circuit diffusional paths. Extensive theoretical work on creep and in particular for creep of tungsten and its alloys have been reported in the literature. These theoretical efforts have produced complex mathematical models that require detailed materials properties. These relations, however, are not presently suitable for the creep analysis because of lack of consistent material properties required for their use. Variations in material chemistry and thermomechanical pre-treatment of tungsten have significant effects on creep and the mechanical properties. Analysis of the theoretical models and limited data indicates that the following empirical relation originally proposed by M. Jacox of INEL and the Air Force Phillips Laboratory, for calculating creep deformation of tungsten cladding, can be used for the downselection of preliminary bimodal reactor design concepts.

  7. Role of block copolymer adsorption versus bimodal grafting on nanoparticle self-assembly in polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Di Nicola, Matteo; Khani, Mohammad M; Jestin, Jacques; Benicewicz, Brian C; Kumar, Sanat K

    2016-09-14

    We compare the self-assembly of silica nanoparticles (NPs) with physically adsorbed polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) copolymers (BCP) against NPs with grafted bimodal (BM) brushes comprised of long, sparsely grafted PS chains and a short dense carpet of P2VP chains. As with grafted NPs, the dispersion state of the BCP NPs can be facilely tuned in PS matrices by varying the PS coverage on the NP surface or by changes in the ratio of the PS graft to matrix chain lengths. Surprisingly, the BCP NPs are remarkably better dispersed than the NPs tethered with bimodal brushes at comparable PS grafting densities. We postulate that this difference arises because of two factors inherent in the synthesis of the NPs: In the case of the BCP NPs the adsorption process is analogous to the chains being "grafted to" the NP surface, while the BM case corresponds to "grafting from" the surface. We have shown that the "grafted from" protocol yields patchy NPs even if the graft points are uniformly placed on each particle. This phenomenon, which is caused by chain conformation fluctuations, is exacerbated by the distribution function associated with the (small) number of grafts per particle. In contrast, in the case of BCP adsorption, each NP is more uniformly coated by a P2VP monolayer driven by the strongly favorable P2VP-silica interactions. Since each P2VP block is connected to a PS chain we conjecture that these adsorbed systems are closer to the limit of spatially uniform sparse brush coverage than the chemically grafted case. We finally show that the better NP dispersion resulting from BCP adsorption leads to larger mechanical reinforcement than those achieved with BM particles. These results emphasize that physical adsorption of BCPs is a simple, effective and practically promising strategy to direct NP dispersion in a chemically unfavorable polymer matrix. PMID:27502154

  8. Towards high water permeability in triazine-framework-based microporous membranes for dehydration of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu Pan; Wang, Huan; Chung, Tai Shung

    2015-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of a series of triazine framework-based microporous (TFM) membranes under different conditions has been explored in this work. The pristine TFM membrane is in situ fabricated in the course of polymer synthesis via a facile Brønsted-acid-catalyzed cyclotrimerizaiton reaction. The as-synthesized polymer exhibits a microporous network with high thermal stability. The free volume size of the TFM membranes gradually evolved from a unimodal distribution to a bimodal distribution under annealing, as analyzed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The emergence of the bimodal distribution is probably ascribed to the synergetic effect of quenching and thermal cyclization reaction. In addition, the fractional free volume (FFV) of the membranes presents a concave trend with increasing annealing temperature. Vapor sorption tests reveal that the mass transport properties are closely associated with the free volume evolution, which provides an optimal condition for dehydration of biofuels. A promising separation performance with extremely high water permeability has been attained for dehydration of an 85 wt % ethanol aqueous solution at 45 °C. The study on the free volume evolution of the TFM membranes may provide useful insights about the microstructure and mass transport behavior of the microporous polymeric materials.

  9. Bimodal stimulus timing-dependent plasticity in primary auditory cortex is altered after noise exposure with and without tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Koehler, Seth D; Shore, Susan E

    2015-12-01

    Central auditory circuits are influenced by the somatosensory system, a relationship that may underlie tinnitus generation. In the guinea pig dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), pairing spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) stimulation with tones at specific intervals and orders facilitated or suppressed subsequent tone-evoked neural responses, reflecting spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Furthermore, after noise-induced tinnitus, bimodal responses in DCN were shifted from Hebbian to anti-Hebbian timing rules with less discrete temporal windows, suggesting a role for bimodal plasticity in tinnitus. Here, we aimed to determine if multisensory STDP principles like those in DCN also exist in primary auditory cortex (A1), and whether they change following noise-induced tinnitus. Tone-evoked and spontaneous neural responses were recorded before and 15 min after bimodal stimulation in which the intervals and orders of auditory-somatosensory stimuli were randomized. Tone-evoked and spontaneous firing rates were influenced by the interval and order of the bimodal stimuli, and in sham-controls Hebbian-like timing rules predominated as was seen in DCN. In noise-exposed animals with and without tinnitus, timing rules shifted away from those found in sham-controls to more anti-Hebbian rules. Only those animals with evidence of tinnitus showed increased spontaneous firing rates, a purported neurophysiological correlate of tinnitus in A1. Together, these findings suggest that bimodal plasticity is also evident in A1 following noise damage and may have implications for tinnitus generation and therapeutic intervention across the central auditory circuit. PMID:26289461

  10. Bimodal stimulus timing-dependent plasticity in primary auditory cortex is altered after noise exposure with and without tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Koehler, Seth D; Shore, Susan E

    2015-12-01

    Central auditory circuits are influenced by the somatosensory system, a relationship that may underlie tinnitus generation. In the guinea pig dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), pairing spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) stimulation with tones at specific intervals and orders facilitated or suppressed subsequent tone-evoked neural responses, reflecting spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Furthermore, after noise-induced tinnitus, bimodal responses in DCN were shifted from Hebbian to anti-Hebbian timing rules with less discrete temporal windows, suggesting a role for bimodal plasticity in tinnitus. Here, we aimed to determine if multisensory STDP principles like those in DCN also exist in primary auditory cortex (A1), and whether they change following noise-induced tinnitus. Tone-evoked and spontaneous neural responses were recorded before and 15 min after bimodal stimulation in which the intervals and orders of auditory-somatosensory stimuli were randomized. Tone-evoked and spontaneous firing rates were influenced by the interval and order of the bimodal stimuli, and in sham-controls Hebbian-like timing rules predominated as was seen in DCN. In noise-exposed animals with and without tinnitus, timing rules shifted away from those found in sham-controls to more anti-Hebbian rules. Only those animals with evidence of tinnitus showed increased spontaneous firing rates, a purported neurophysiological correlate of tinnitus in A1. Together, these findings suggest that bimodal plasticity is also evident in A1 following noise damage and may have implications for tinnitus generation and therapeutic intervention across the central auditory circuit.

  11. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  12. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane Collabora......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...

  13. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild;

    coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...

  14. Nutrition, neurotoxicants & aggressive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaalberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition, neurotoxicants and aggressive behaviour Antisocial behaviour, such as violence, is explained not only by the social environment, as was long believed. Also nutrients and neurotoxicants might play a role. Whether this is the case was studied in this thesis. In two empirical studies possibl

  15. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano;

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...

  16. Behavioural hybrid process calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, H.; Krilavicius, T.

    2005-01-01

    Process algebra is a theoretical framework for the modelling and analysis of the behaviour of concurrent discrete event systems that has been developed within computer science in past quarter century. It has generated a deeper nderstanding of the nature of concepts such as observable behaviour in th

  17. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  18. Transport through track etched polymeric blend membrane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamlendra Awasthi; Vaibhav Kulshreshtha; B Tripathi; N K Acharya; M Singh; Y K Vijay

    2006-06-01

    Polymer blends of polycarbonate (PC) and polysulphone (PSF) having thickness, 27 m, are prepared by solution cast method. The transport properties of pores in a blend membrane are examined. The pores were produced in this membrane by a track etching technique. For this purpose, a thin polymer membrane was penetrated by a single heavy ion of Ni7+ of 100 MeV, followed by preferential chemical etching of the ion track. Ion permeation measurements show that pores in polymeric membrane are charged or neutralized, which depends upon the variation in concentration of the solvent. The – curve at concentration, N/10, shows that the pores are negatively charged, whereas at concentration, N/20, the linear nature of – curve indicates that the pores approach towards neutralized state and on further concentration, N/40, the pores become fully neutralized, consequently the rectifier behaviour of pores has been omitted. The gas permeability of hydrogen and carbon dioxide of this membrane was measured with increasing etching time. The permeability was measured from both the sides. Permeability at the front was larger than the permeability at the back which shows asymmetric behaviour of membranes.

  19. Consumer behaviour analysis and the behavioural perspective model.

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, G.R.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; James, V.K.; Schrezenmaier, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the FIRST of TWO linked articles on consumer behavioural analysis. Cognitive theories have dominated the field of consumer behaviour for the last few decades, however, an observed lack of consistency between attitudes and behaviour has suggested the need to investigate more thoroughly situational and behavioural variables. Consumer behaviour analysis can be viewed as an alternative theoretical approach that emphasizes situational variables and measures of behaviour. Within consumer be...

  20. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  1. Design and Development of the MITEE-B Bi-Modal Nuclear Propulsion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, John C.; Powell, James R.; Maise, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of compact, ultra-lightweight high performance nuclear thermal propulsion engines have concentrated on systems that only deliver high thrust. However, many potential missions also require substantial amounts of electric power. Studies of a new, very compact and lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine that provides both high propulsive thrust and high electric power for planetary science missions are described. The design is a modification of the MITEE nuclear thermal engine concept that provided only high propulsive thrust. In the new design, MITEE-B, separate closed cooling circuits are incorporated into the reactor, which transfers useful amounts of thermal energy to a small power conversion system that generates continuous electric power over the full life of the mission, even when the engine is not delivering propulsive thrust. Two versions of the MITEE-B design are described and analyzed. Version 1 generates 1 kW(e) of continuous power for control of the spacecraft, sensors, data transmission, etc. This power level eliminates the need for RTG's on missions to the outer planets, and allowing considerably greater operational capability for the spacecraft. This, plus its high thrust and high specific impulse propulsive capabilities, makes MITEE-B very attractive for such missions. In Version 2, of MITEE-B, a total of 20 kW(e) is generated, enabling the use of electric propulsion. The combination of high open cycle propulsion thrust (20,000 Newtons) with a specific impulse of ~1000 seconds for short impulse burns, and long term (months to years), electric propulsion greatly increases MITEE's ΔV capability. Version 2 of MITEE-B also enables the production and replenishment of H2 propellant using in-situ resources, such as electrolysis of water from the ice sheet on Europa and other Jovian moons. This capability would greatly increase the ΔV available for certain planetary science missions. The modifications to the MITEE multiple pressure tube

  2. Can Sulfur Explain the Bimodal Color Distribution Observed in the Jupiter Trojans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Mahjoub, Ahmed; Poston, Michael; Brown, Michael E.; Eiler, John; Ehlmann, Bethany; Hodyss, Robert; Hand, Kevin P.; Carlson, Robert W.; Wong, Ian

    2016-10-01

    We present a series of experiments aimed at exploring the hypothesis that the presence or absence of H2S ice on the surface of primitive icy bodies in the early solar system is responsible for the bimodal color distribution of the Jupiter Trojans.Central to our proposed hypothesis is a location-dependent sublimation of ices in the primordial trans-neptunian disk which would have divided objects according to whether they retained H2S on their surfaces for sufficient time to incorporate their constituents into irradiated organic crusts. The irradiated crusts of objects with and without H2S would have different chemistry and therefore different optical properties. Dynamical instability models of the early solar system (e.g. Morbidelli et al., 2005, Nesvorny et al., 2013) predict that Trojans, formed from this primordial population, were later emplaced inward to co-orbit with Jupiter during large-scale rearrangement events. According to our hypothesis, the Trojans today would show evidence of their primordial location with respect to the H2S sublimation line in the form of a bimodal distribution in surface chemistry, and thus color.We present laboratory spectroscopy experiments in support of this hypothesis. Numerous thin ice films composed of H2O, CH3OH, NH3, were produced both with and without H2S. Subsequent processing of these icy bodies was simulated using electron irradiation and heating. Visible reflectance spectra show significant reddening when H2S is present. Mid-infrared spectra confirm the formation of non-volatile sulfur-containing molecules in the products of H2S-containing ices. The infrared spectral properties of the organic residues remaining at room temperature show that sulfur significantly changes the chemistry of these irradiation-produced organics. These experiments suggest that the presence of specific sulfur-bearing chemical species may play an important role in the colors of both the KBOs and Trojans today. This testable hypothesis could feed

  3. Bimodal distribution of sulfuric acid aerosols in the upper haze of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peter; Zhang, Xi; Crisp, David; Bardeen, Charles G.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2014-03-01

    Observations by the SPICAV/SOIR instruments aboard Venus Express have revealed that the upper haze (UH) of Venus, between 70 and 90 km, is variable on the order of days and that it is populated by two particle modes. We use a one-dimensional microphysics and vertical transport model based on the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres to evaluate whether interaction of upwelled cloud particles and sulfuric acid particles nucleated in situ on meteoric dust are able to generate the two observed modes, and whether their observed variability are due in part to the action of vertical transient winds at the cloud tops. Nucleation of photochemically produced sulfuric acid onto polysulfur condensation nuclei generates mode 1 cloud droplets, which then diffuse upwards into the UH. Droplets generated in the UH from nucleation of sulfuric acid onto meteoric dust coagulate with the upwelled cloud particles and therefore cannot reproduce the observed bimodal size distribution. By comparison, the mass transport enabled by transient winds at the cloud tops, possibly caused by sustained subsolar cloud top convection, are able to generate a bimodal size distribution in a time scale consistent with Venus Express observations. Below the altitude where the cloud particles are generated, sedimentation and vigorous convection causes the formation of large mode 2 and mode 3 particles in the middle and lower clouds. Evaporation of the particles below the clouds causes a local sulfuric acid vapor maximum that results in upwelling of sulfuric acid back into the clouds. In the case where the polysulfur condensation nuclei are small and their production rate is high, coagulation of small droplets onto larger droplets in the middle cloud may set up an oscillation in the size modes of the particles such that precipitation of sulfuric acid “rain” may be possible immediately below the clouds once every few Earth months. Reduction of the polysulfur condensation nuclei production

  4. Finite-thrust optimization of interplanetary transfers of space vehicle with bimodal nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharytonov, Oleksii M.; Kiforenko, Boris M.

    2011-08-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion is one of the leading promising technologies for primary space propulsion for manned exploration of the solar system due to its high specific impulse capability and sufficiently high thrust-to-weight ratio. Another benefit of NTR is its possible bimodal design, when nuclear reactor is used for generation of a jet thrust in a high-thrust mode and (with an appropriate power conversion system) as a source of electric power to supply the payload and the electric engines in a low-thrust mode. The model of the NTR thrust control was developed considering high-thrust NTR as a propulsion system of limited power and exhaust velocity. For the proposed model the control of the thrust value is accomplished by the regulation of reactor thermal power and propellant mass flow rate. The problem of joint optimization of the combination of high- and low-thrust arcs and the parameters of bimodal NTR (BNTR) propulsion system is considered for the interplanetary transfers. The interplanetary trajectory of the space vehicle is formed by the high-thrust NTR burns, which define planet-centric maneuvers and by the low-thrust heliocentric arcs where the nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is used. The high-thrust arcs are analyzed using finite-thrust approach. The motion of the corresponding dynamical system is realized in three phase spaces concerning the departure planet-centric maneuver by means of high-thrust NTR propulsion, the low-thrust NEP heliocentric maneuver and the approach high-thrust NTR planet-centric maneuver. The phase coordinates are related at the time instants of the change of the phase spaces due to the relations between the space vehicle masses. The optimal control analysis is performed using Pontryagin's maximum principle. The numerical results are analyzed for Earth-Mars "sprint" transfer. The optimal values of the parameters that define the masses of NTR and NEP subsystems have been evaluated. It is shown that the low

  5. Sedentary behaviour in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the amount of time children spend in sedentary behaviour and to determine if there are specific factors that associate with sedentary behaviour in children. The following search terms were used to identify relevant articles: sedentary behaviour, inactivity, television, computer, video games, small screen, sitting, prevalence, patterns, correlates, factors and determinants. The databases used to conduct the search included PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and Academic Search Premier. The studies reviewed were limited to those that sampled children (2-18 years), were written in English and used a measure of sedentary behaviour as the dependent variable. Several studies reported the time spent watching television or the proportion of children at or above a threshold for television viewing (eg, ≥3 h/day). Among the accelerometer studies included, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is the largest and reported ∼6.1, 7.5 and 8.0 h/day mean sedentary time in children 6-11, 12-15 and 16-19 years old, respectively. Taken together, the existing literature across the world indicates a slightly higher level of sedentary behaviour in older children. Higher levels of sedentary behaviour were also reported in non-white children, children from lower socioeconomic status background and children from households with more access to televisions/computers. Lower levels of sedentary behaviour were reported in children whose parents have rules/limitations on screen time. PMID:21836174

  6. El "Currículum Bimodal" millora les notes i redueix el fracàs escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Marquès, Pere

    2013-01-01

    Pere Marquès, director del Grup DIM, "Didàctica, Innovació i Multimèdia," vinculat a la UAB i membre del Departament de Pedagogia Aplicada ha conduït una investigació de dos anys sobre l'anomenat "Currículum Bimodal". L'estudi indica que aquest mètode augmenta la motivació de l'alumne i, a més, ben aplicat, facilita un augment significatiu en el seu rendiment. Els alumnes milloren les notes, reduint així el fracàs escolar. La majoria de professors que ja ha aplicat el "Currículum Bimodal" vol...

  7. Texture Evaluation of a Bi-Modal Structure During Static Recrystallization of Hot-Deformed Mg-Al-Sn Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Abu Syed Humaun; Su, Jing; Yue, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Mg-Al-Sn alloy was hot compressed at 523 K (250 °C) and annealed at 623 K (350 °C) for various times. The initial as-deformed microstructure was partially dynamic recrystallized with strain-induced precipitates on the recrystallized grain boundaries. After annealing at 623 K (350 °C), static recrystallization (SRX) of the bimodal microstructure took place where, at this temperature, no static precipitates formed. The goal of this work was to study the effect of dynamic precipitation on the texture evolution during the SRX process. Progressive texture evolution was studied during annealing by electron backscattered diffraction technique through a microstructure-tracking process. It was found that the grain-coarsening mechanism during the early stage of annealing is not totally controlled by the basal-oriented grains. Also, it was found that the dynamic precipitates may have significant influence in the early texture weakening during annealing of a bimodal structure.

  8. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour.

  9. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour. PMID:26385066

  10. Preparation of Bimodal Porous Silica with Excellent Mechanical Strength%具有高机械强度的双孔硅胶的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明芳; 赵天波; 徐文国; 李凤艳; 王岳

    2006-01-01

    The macroporous structure was formed in the wet gels by controlling the phase separation process induced by the hydrolysis and polycondensaton of alkoxysilane. Further bimodal porous silica with good mechanical strength can be obtained by aging process.

  11. Método bimodal para cuantificar propiedades no topográficas en microscopía de fuerzas

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Herruzo, Elena; García García, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Método bimodal para cuantificar propiedades no topográficas en microscopía de fuerzas, basado en modular en frecuencia y de forma simultánea al menos dos modos de vibración de la micropalanca de un microscopio, que emplea los desplazamientos de frecuencia de los modos excitados y los cambios en la fuerzas de excitación para cuantificar propiedades nanomecánicas

  12. Generation of four-photon GHZ states based on interaction between a four-level atom and two bimodal cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Deng-yu; TANG Shi-qing; WANG Xin-wer; XIE Li-jun; ZHAN Xiao-gui; CHEN Yin-hua

    2012-01-01

    A simple scheme is presented for generating four-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states with interaction between a four-level atom and two bimodal cavities.In the proposed protocol,the quantum information is encoded on Fock states of the cavity fields.The detection of the atom can collapse the cavity to the desired state.The experimental feasibility of our proposal is also discussed.

  13. Generation of four-photon entangled states based on interaction between a three-level atom and two bimodal cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dengyu; TANG Shiqing; WANG Xinwen; XIE Lijun; ZHAN Xiaogui; CHEN Yinhua

    2011-01-01

    A simple scheme is presented for generating four-photon entangled states with interaction between a three-level atom and two bimodal cavities.In the proposed protocol,the quantum information is encoded on Fock states of the cavity fields.The detection of the atom can collapse the cavity made/wave function to the desired state.The experimental feasibility of our proposal is also discussed.

  14. Role of bimodal stimulation for auditory-perceptual skills development in children with a unilateral cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, P; Giannantonio, S; Scorpecci, A; Pianesi, F; Micardi, M; Resca, A

    2015-12-01

    This is a prospective randomised study that evaluated the differences arising from a bimodal stimulation compared to a monaural electrical stimulation in deaf children, particularly in terms of auditory-perceptual skills development. We enrolled 39 children aged 12 to 36 months, suffering from severe-to-profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with residual hearing on at least one side. All were unilaterally implanted: 21 wore only the cochlear implant (CI) (unilateral CI group), while the other 18 used the CI and a contralateral hearing aid at the same time (bimodal group). They were assessed with a test battery designed to appraise preverbal and verbal auditory-perceptual skills immediately before and 6 and 12 months after implantation. No statistically significant differences were observed between groups at time 0, while at 6 and 12 months children in the bimodal group had better scores in each test than peers in the unilateral CI group. Therefore, although unilateral deafness/hearing does not undermine hearing acuity in normal listening, the simultaneous use of a CI and a contralateral hearing aid (binaural hearing through a bimodal stimulation) provides an advantage in terms of acquisition of auditory-perceptual skills, allowing children to achieve the basic milestones of auditory perception faster and in greater number than children with only one CI. Thus, "keeping awake" the contralateral auditory pathway, albeit not crucial in determining auditory acuity, guarantees benefits compared with the use of the implant alone. These findings provide initial evidence to establish shared guidelines for better rehabilitation of patients undergoing unilateral cochlear implantation, and add more evidence regarding the correct indications for bilateral cochlear implantation. PMID:26900251

  15. Habitat association and seasonality in a mosaic and bimodal hybrid zone between Chorthippus brunneus and C. jacobsi (Orthoptera: Acrididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I Bailey

    Full Text Available Understanding why some hybrid zones are bimodal and others unimodal can aid in identifying barriers to gene exchange following secondary contact. The hybrid zone between the grasshoppers Chorthippus brunneus and C. jacobsi contains a mix of allopatric parental populations and inter-mingled bimodal and unimodal sympatric populations, and provides an ideal system to examine the roles of local selection and gene flow between populations in maintaining bimodality. However, it is first necessary to confirm, over a larger spatial scale, previously identified associations between population composition and season and habitat. Here we use cline-fitting of one morphological and one song trait along two valley transects, and intervening mountains, to confirm previously identified habitat associations (mountain versus valley and seasonal changes in population composition. As expected from previous findings of studies on a smaller spatial scale, C. jacobsi dominated mountain habitats and mixed populations dominated valleys, and C. brunneus became more prevalent in August. Controlling for habitat and incorporating into the analysis seasonal changes in cline parameters and the standard errors of parental trait values revealed wider clines than previous studies (best estimates of 6.4 to 24.5 km in our study versus 2.8 to 4.7 km in previous studies and increased percentage of trait variance explained (52.7% and 61.5% for transects 1 and 2 respectively, versus 17.6%. Revealing such strong and consistent patterns within a complex hybrid zone will allow more focused examination of the causes of variation in bimodality in mixed populations, in particular the roles of local selection versus habitat heterogeneity and gene flow between differentiated populations.

  16. Role of bimodal stimulation for auditory-perceptual skills development in children with a unilateral cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, P; Giannantonio, S; Scorpecci, A; Pianesi, F; Micardi, M; Resca, A

    2015-12-01

    This is a prospective randomised study that evaluated the differences arising from a bimodal stimulation compared to a monaural electrical stimulation in deaf children, particularly in terms of auditory-perceptual skills development. We enrolled 39 children aged 12 to 36 months, suffering from severe-to-profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with residual hearing on at least one side. All were unilaterally implanted: 21 wore only the cochlear implant (CI) (unilateral CI group), while the other 18 used the CI and a contralateral hearing aid at the same time (bimodal group). They were assessed with a test battery designed to appraise preverbal and verbal auditory-perceptual skills immediately before and 6 and 12 months after implantation. No statistically significant differences were observed between groups at time 0, while at 6 and 12 months children in the bimodal group had better scores in each test than peers in the unilateral CI group. Therefore, although unilateral deafness/hearing does not undermine hearing acuity in normal listening, the simultaneous use of a CI and a contralateral hearing aid (binaural hearing through a bimodal stimulation) provides an advantage in terms of acquisition of auditory-perceptual skills, allowing children to achieve the basic milestones of auditory perception faster and in greater number than children with only one CI. Thus, "keeping awake" the contralateral auditory pathway, albeit not crucial in determining auditory acuity, guarantees benefits compared with the use of the implant alone. These findings provide initial evidence to establish shared guidelines for better rehabilitation of patients undergoing unilateral cochlear implantation, and add more evidence regarding the correct indications for bilateral cochlear implantation.

  17. Intensity fluctuations in bimodal micropillar lasers enhanced by quantum-dot gain competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leymann, H. A. M.; Hopfmann, C.; Albert, F.; Foerster, A.; Khanbekyan, M.; Schneider, C.; Höfling, S.; Forchel, A.; Kamp, M.; Wiersig, J.; Reitzenstein, S.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate correlations between orthogonally polarized cavity modes of a bimodal micropillar laser with a single layer of self-assembled quantum dots in the active region. While one emission mode of the microlaser demonstrates a characteristic S-shaped input-output curve, the output intensity of the second mode saturates and even decreases with increasing injection current above threshold. Measuring the photon autocorrelation function g(2)(τ) of the light emission confirms the onset of lasing in the first mode with g(2)(0) approaching unity above threshold. In contrast, strong photon bunching associated with superthermal values of g(2)(0) is detected for the other mode for currents above threshold. This behavior is attributed to gain competition of the two modes induced by the common gain material, which is confirmed by photon cross-correlation measurements revealing a clear anticorrelation between emission events of the two modes. The experimental studies are in qualitative agreement with theoretical studies based on a microscopic semiconductor theory, which we extend to the case of two modes interacting with the common gain medium. Moreover, we treat the problem by a phenomenological birth-death model extended to two interacting modes, which reveals that the photon probability distribution of each mode has a double-peak structure, indicating switching behavior of the modes for pump rates around threshold.

  18. Thermal stability of bimodal microstructure in magnesium alloy AZ91 processed by ECAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantělejev, Libor, E-mail: pantelejev@fme.vutbr.cz [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); NETME Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Štěpánek, Roman [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); NETME Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Man, Ondřej [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-09-15

    The changes in microstructure of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) processed magnesium alloy AZ91 during thermal exposure were studied in this paper. The microstructure stability was investigated by means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), which allowed to measure the changes in grain size, mutual ratio of low-angle boundaries (LABs) to high-angle ones (HABs) and local lattice distortion evaluated by the kernel average misorientation (KAM) parameter. It was found experimentally that the threshold temperature at which significant grain coarsening takes place is 350 °C. No modification to mean grain diameter occurs below this temperature, nonetheless, some changes in LAB and HAB fraction, as well as in local lattice distortion, can be observed. - Highlights: • Thermal stability of bimodal UFG AZ91 alloy was assessed by means of EBSD. • Threshold temperature for pronounced grain coarsening was found at 350 °C. • Below 350 °C increase in LAB fraction and local lattice distortion takes place. • Local lattice distortion (LLD) can be well described using KAM approach. • LLD is influenced by coarsening and precipitation of Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} particles.

  19. A Bi-modal Model for Chinese Cities: City Size, Car Use and Land Rent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Teqi; WANG Liang; ZHOU Binxue

    2016-01-01

    China is experiencing rapid urbanization and motorization.Urban transport congestion poses a challenge to the cities of China.Policies have been made trying to control the car use and the land use in Chinese cities without sound modelling researches.The existing literature on monocentric city modelling has shown that the parameters are critical for the outcome of the modelling.Following the Alonso-type monocentric model,this paper introduces a bi-modal model to simulate the city size,the distribution of land rent and the modal substitution in Chinese cities.We set the key parameters according to the recent available data of China's cities,and re-explain the hypothesis of the model.Then we make a sensitivity analysis to reveal the impacts of key parameters on the Chinese cities.According to the results,we find that the wage,the price of car use and the agriculture rent have significant impacts on city size.The land supply for the private transport or the public transport has the strongest impacts on car use and the level of transport congestion.The total population of the city and the wage level have strong impacts on land rent.Some results are counter-intuitive,but explainable.We also discuss implication of these results for policy making.

  20. Evidence for a bimodal distribution of hybrid indices in a hybrid zone with high admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jessica L; Dhillon, Rashpal S; Schulte, Patricia M

    2015-12-01

    The genetic structure of a hybrid zone can provide insights into the relative roles of the various factors that maintain the zone. Here, we use a multilocus approach to characterize a hybrid zone between two subspecies of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus, Walbaum 1792) found along the Atlantic coast of North America. We first analysed clinal variation along the Atlantic coast using a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) displacement loop (D-loop) and a panel of nine nuclear microsatellite markers. A model constraining all clines to the same width and centre was not significantly different from a model in which the clines were allowed to vary independently. Locus-by-locus analysis indicated that the majority of nuclear clines shared the same centre as the mtDNA cline, and the widths of these clines were also narrower than that predicted by a neutral model, suggesting that selection is operating to maintain the hybrid zone. However, two of the nuclear clines had widths greater than the neutral prediction and had centres that were displaced relative to the mtDNA cline centre. We also found that a marsh located near the centre of the mtDNA cline demonstrated a bimodal distribution of nuclear hybrid index values, suggesting a deficit of first-generation hybrids and backcrossed genotypes. Thus, selection against hybrid genotypes may be playing a role in maintaining this hybrid zone and the associated steep nuclear and mtDNA clines. PMID:27019720

  1. Silica micro/nanospheres for theranostics: from bimodal MRI and fluorescent imaging probes to cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanka Walia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano-theranostics offer remarkable potential for future biomedical technology with simultaneous applications for diagnosis and therapy of disease sites. Through smart and careful chemical modifications of the nanoparticle surface, these can be converted to multifunctional tiny objects which in turn can be used as vehicle for delivering multimodal imaging agents and therapeutic material to specific target sites in vivo. In this sense, bimodal imaging probes that simultaneously enable magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence imaging have gained tremendous attention because disease sites can be characterized quick and precisely through synergistic multimodal imaging. But such hybrid nanocomposite materials have limitations such as low chemical stability (magnetic component and harsh cytotoxic effects (fluorescent component and, hence, require a biocompatible protecting agent. Silica micro/nanospheres have shown promise as protecting agent due to the high stability and low toxicity. This review will cover a full description of MRI-active and fluorescent multifunctional silica micro/nanospheres including the design of the probe, different characterization methods and their application in imaging and treatment in cancer.

  2. The millisecond pulsar mass distribution: Evidence for bimodality and constraints on the maximum neutron star mass

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, John; Ozel, Feryal; Barr, Ewan; Champion, David J; Freire, Paulo C C

    2016-01-01

    The mass function of neutron stars (NSs) contains information about the late evolution of massive stars, the supernova explosion mechanism, and the equation-of-state of cold, nuclear matter beyond the nuclear saturation density. A number of recent NS mass measurements in binary millisecond pulsar (MSP) systems increase the fraction of massive NSs (with $M > 1.8$ M$_{\\odot}$) to $\\sim 20\\% $ of the observed population. In light of these results, we employ a Bayesian framework to revisit the MSP mass distribution. We find that a single Gaussian model does not sufficiently describe the observed population. We test alternative empirical models and infer that the MSP mass distribution is strongly asymmetric. The diversity in spin and orbital properties of high-mass NSs suggests that this is most likely not a result of the recycling process, but rather reflects differences in the NS birth masses. The asymmetry is best accounted for by a bimodal distribution with a low mass component centred at $1.393_{-0.029}^{+0.0...

  3. Elastic and viscoelastic characterization of inhomogeneous polymers by bimodal atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung K.; Ito, Makiko; Nakajima, Ken

    2016-08-01

    The elastic and viscoelastic responses of inhomogeneous polymers upon interacting with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe are simultaneously characterized by a bimodal AFM approach namely the amplitude- and frequency-modulation (AM–FM) method. In this approach, the AFM probe is operated in the AM mode at the first flexural frequency and in the FM mode at a higher flexural frequency. The AM mode provides information about the viscoelasticity of polymers in terms of the mechanical loss tangent, whereas the modulus of polymers is obtained as a function of the frequency shift of flexural frequencies in both modes. For a glassy polymer blend, the AM–FM method provides a consistent result in both the elastic modulus and loss tangent in comparison with those obtained by other methods. Moreover, a significant improvement of the contrast and lateral resolution in the AM–FM modulus image can be observed. However, the current approach shows a substantial increase in the modulus of rubbery polymers.

  4. Unimodular bimode gravity and the coherent scalar-graviton field as galaxy dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirogov, Yu. F.

    2012-06-01

    An explicit violation of the general gauge invariance/relativity is adopted as the origin of dark matter and dark energy in the context of gravitation. The violation of the local scale invariance alone, with the residual unimodular one, is considered. Besides the four-volume preserving deformation mode—the transverse-tensor graviton—the metric comprises a compression mode—the scalar graviton, or the systolon. A unimodular invariant and general covariant metric theory of the bimode/scalar-tensor gravity is consistently worked out. To reduce the primordial ambiguity of the theory a dynamical global symmetry is imposed, with its subsequent spontaneous breaking revealed. The static spherically symmetric case in empty space, except possibly for the origin, is studied. A three-parameter solution describing a new static space structure—the dark lacuna—is constructed. It enjoys the property of gravitational confinement, with the logarithmic potential of gravitational attraction at the periphery, and results in asymptotically flat rotation curves. Comprising a super-massive dark fracture (a scalar-modified black hole) at the origin surrounded by a cored dark halo, the dark lacunas are proposed as a prototype model of galaxies, implying an ultimate account for the distributed non-gravitational matter and putative asphericity or rotation.

  5. Haloing in bimodal magnetic colloids: The role of field-induced phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnet, C.; Kuzhir, P.; Bossis, G.; Meunier, A.; Suloeva, L.; Zubarev, A.

    2012-07-01

    If a suspension of magnetic micrometer-sized and nanosized particles is subjected to a homogeneous magnetic field, the nanoparticles are attracted to the microparticles and form thick anisotropic halos (clouds) around them. Such clouds can hinder the approach of microparticles and result in effective repulsion between them [M. T. López-López, A. Yu. Zubarev, and G. Bossis, Soft Matter10.1039/c0sm00261e 6, 4346 (2010)]. In this paper, we present detailed experimental and theoretical studies of nanoparticle concentration profiles and of the equilibrium shapes of nanoparticle clouds around a single magnetized microsphere, taking into account interactions between nanoparticles. We show that at a strong enough magnetic field, the ensemble of nanoparticles experiences a gas-liquid phase transition such that a dense liquid phase is condensed around the magnetic poles of a microsphere while a dilute gas phase occupies the rest of the suspension volume. Nanoparticle accumulation around a microsphere is governed by two dimensionless parameters—the initial nanoparticle concentration (φ0) and the magnetic-to-thermal energy ratio (α)—and the three accumulation regimes are mapped onto a α-φ0 phase diagram. Our local thermodynamic equilibrium approach gives a semiquantitative agreement with the experiments on the equilibrium shapes of nanoparticle clouds. The results of this work could be useful for the development of the bimodal magnetorheological fluids and of the magnetic separation technologies used in bioanalysis and water purification systems.

  6. Bimodal Distribution of Area-Weighted Latitude of Sunspots And Solar North-South Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Heon-Young

    2011-01-01

    We study the latitudinal distribution of sunspots observed from 1874 to 2009 using the center-of-latitude (COL). We calculate COL by taking the area-weighted mean latitude of sunspots for each calendar month. We then form the latitudinal distribution of COL for the sunspots appearing in the northern and southern hemispheres separately, and in both hemispheres with unsigned and signed latitudes, respectively. We repeat the analysis with subsets which are divided based on the criterion of which hemisphere is dominant for a given solar cycle. Our primary findings are as follows: (1) COL is not monotonically decreasing with time in each cycle. Small humps can be seen (or short plateaus) around every solar maxima. (2) The distribution of COL resulting from each hemisphere is bimodal, which can well be represented by the double Gaussian function. (3) As far as the primary component of the double Gaussian function is concerned, for a given data subset, the distributions due to the sunspots appearing in two different...

  7. Parametric Sizing of Composite Metal Lined Tanks for Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Roche, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    A computational method is described to evaluate the structural performance of composite over-wrapped metal lined LH2 tanks. This work was performed in support of the human space exploration initiative undertaken by NASA. The method is a judicious combination of available computer codes for finite elements, composite mechanics, durability, damage tracking, and damage tolerance. To illustrate the effectiveness of the analytical approach, composite over-wrapped LH2 core tanks of the Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) were sized parametrically using launch loads and burst test requirements. The benefits and debits of inserting advanced composite technology into existing LH2 tank design concepts are evaluated in the paper. Results obtained indicate that LH2 tanks made from tape placement carbon fiber in a toughened epoxy matrix backed by a metallic liner for hermiticity are able to: (1) sustain micro-cracking in the matrix of the composite system prior to liner failure, (2) offer significant weight savings as compared to present technology (up to 31%), and (3) use unified design and weight configuration to support both launch loads and burst test requirements. The structural performance and sizing evaluation was performed for composite tanks varying in length from 10 m to 28 m. Weight calculations for the composite over-wrapped tanks show that the larger the tank length, the larger the weight savings (compared to those of traditional metallic tanks).

  8. Bimodal modulation by nicotine of anxiety in the social interaction test: role of the dorsal hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, S E; Kenny, P J; Ouagazzal, A M

    1998-12-01

    In conditions generating moderate levels of anxiety in the social interaction test (low light, unfamiliar arena or high light, familiar arena), parenteral administration of nicotine had bimodal actions, low doses (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg i.p.) had anxiolytic effects and high doses (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg i.p.) had anxiogenic effects. In test conditions where anxiety was lowest (low light, familiar arena) and highest (high light, unfamiliar arena), nicotine was without effect after intraperitoneal or hippocampal administration. Thus, nicotine plays a modulatory role in which the activity of other neurotransmitters is crucial to its expression. After bilateral administration to the dorsal hippocampus, nicotine (0.1-8.0 microg) had anxiogenic effects in conditions of moderate anxiety; mecamylamine (30 ng) was silent in these conditions, indicating no intrinsic tone. Our results show that the dorsal hippocampus is one area that can mediate anxiogenic effects in the social interaction test, but the brain region mediating anxiolytic effects remains to be identified.

  9. Discrete Step Sizes of Molecular Motors Lead to Bimodal Non-Gaussian Velocity Distributions under Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Huong T.; Chakrabarti, Shaon; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D.

    2016-08-01

    Fluctuations in the physical properties of biological machines are inextricably linked to their functions. Distributions of run lengths and velocities of processive molecular motors, like kinesin-1, are accessible through single-molecule techniques, but rigorous theoretical models for these probabilities are lacking. Here, we derive exact analytic results for a kinetic model to predict the resistive force (F )-dependent velocity [P (v )] and run length [P (n )] distribution functions of generic finitely processive molecular motors. Our theory quantitatively explains the zero force kinesin-1 data for both P (n ) and P (v ) using the detachment rate as the only parameter. In addition, we predict the F dependence of these quantities. At nonzero F , P (v ) is non-Gaussian and is bimodal with peaks at positive and negative values of v , which is due to the discrete step size of kinesin-1. Although the predictions are based on analyses of kinesin-1 data, our results are general and should hold for any processive motor, which walks on a track by taking discrete steps.

  10. Strong bimodality in the host halo mass of central galaxies from galaxy-galaxy lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Zu, Ying; White, Simon; Henriques, Bruno; More, Surhud

    2015-01-01

    We use galaxy-galaxy lensing to study the dark matter halos surrounding a sample of Locally Brightest Galaxies (LBGs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We measure mean halo mass as a function of the stellar mass and colour of the central galaxy. Mock catalogues constructed from semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations demonstrate that most LBGs are the central objects of their halos, greatly reducing interpretation uncertainties due to satellite contributions to the lensing signal. Over the full stellar mass range, $10.3 10.7$. Tests using the mock catalogues and on the data themselves clarify the effects of LBG selection and show that it cannot artificially induce a systematic dependence of halo mass on LBG colour. The bimodality in halo mass at fixed stellar mass is reproduced by the astrophysical model underlying our mock catalogue, but the sign of the effect is inconsistent with recent, nearly parameter-free age-matching models. The sign and magnitude of the effect can, however, be reproduced...

  11. The origin of bimodal grain-size distribution for aeolian deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongchong; Mu, Guijin; Xu, Lishuai; Zhao, Xue

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric dust deposition is a common phenomenon in arid and semi-arid regions. Bimodal grain size distribution (BGSD) (including the fine component and coarse component) of aeolian deposits has been widely reported. But the origin of this pattern is still debated. Here, we focused on the sedimentary process of modern dust deposition, and analyzed the grain size distribution of modern dust deposition, foliar dust, and aggregation of the aeolian dust collected in Cele Oasis, southern margin of Tarim Basin. The results show that BGSD also appear in a dust deposition. The content of fine components (dust storm is significant less than that from subsequent floating dust. Fine component also varies with altitude. These indicate that modern dust deposition have experienced changing aerodynamic environment and be reworked during transportation and deposition, which is likely the main cause for BGSD. The dusts from different sources once being well-mixed in airflow are hard to form multiple peaks respectively corresponding with different sources. In addition, the dust deposition would appear BGSD whether aggregation or not. Modern dust deposition is the continuation of ancient dust deposition. They both may have the same cause of formation. Therefore, the origin of BGSD should provide a theoretical thinking for reconstructing the palaeo-environmental changes with the indicator of grain size.

  12. Strong bimodality in the host halo mass of central galaxies from galaxy-galaxy lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Wang, Wenting; Zu, Ying; White, Simon; Henriques, Bruno; More, Surhud

    2016-04-01

    We use galaxy-galaxy lensing to study the dark matter haloes surrounding a sample of locally brightest galaxies (LBGs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We measure mean halo mass as a function of the stellar mass and colour of the central galaxy. Mock catalogues constructed from semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations demonstrate that most LBGs are the central objects of their haloes, greatly reducing interpretation uncertainties due to satellite contributions to the lensing signal. Over the full stellar mass range, 10.3 10.7. Tests using the mock catalogues and on the data themselves clarify the effects of LBG selection and show that it cannot artificially induce a systematic dependence of halo mass on LBG colour. The bimodality in halo mass at fixed stellar mass is reproduced by the astrophysical model underlying our mock catalogue, but the sign of the effect is inconsistent with recent, nearly parameter-free age-matching models. The sign and magnitude of the effect can, however, be reproduced by halo occupation distribution models with a simple (few-parameter) prescription for type dependence.

  13. Self-similar growth of an alluvial fan fed with bimodal sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Pauline; Voller, Vaughan; Paola, Chris; Devauchelle, Olivier; Lajeunesse, Eric; Barrier, Laurie; Métivier, François

    2016-04-01

    At the outlet of mountain ranges, rivers flow onto flatter lowlands. The associated change of slope causes sediment deposition. As the river is free to move laterally, it builds conical sedimentary structures called alluvial fans. Their location at the interface between erosional and depositional areas makes them valuable sedimentary archives. To decipher these sedimentary records, we need to understand the dynamics of their growth. We carried out a series of experiments to investigate the growth of alluvial fans fed with mixed sediments. The density difference between silica and coal sediments mimics a bimodal grain-size distribution in nature. The sediment and water discharges are constant during an experiment. During the run, we track the evolution of the surface pattern by digital imaging. At the end of each run, we acquire the fan topography using a scanning laser. Finally, we cut a radial cross section to visualize the sedimentary deposit. We observe there is a distinct slope break at the transition that dominates the overall curvature of the fan surface. Based on mass conservation and observations, we propose that this alluvial fan grows in a self-similar way, thus causing the transition between silica and coal deposits to be a straight line. The shape of the experimental transition accords with this prediction.

  14. On the Origin of Bimodality in Galaxy Properties: Cold Flows vs. Shock Heating, Clustering and Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Dekel, A; Dekel, Avishai; Birnboim, Yuval

    2004-01-01

    We address the origin of the robust bi-modality in galaxies about a critical stellar mass ~3x10^10 Msol. Less massive galaxies tend to be ungrouped blue star-forming discs correlated along a fundamental line. More massive galaxies are typically grouped red old-star spheroids on a fundamental plane hosting AGNs. M/L is at a minimum near the critical mass. Color-magnitude data show a gap between the red and blue sequences, extremely red luminous galaxies already at z~1, a truncation of today's blue sequence above L*, and massive starbursts at z~2-4. We propose that these features are driven by the thermal properties of the inflowing gas and their interplay with the clustering and feedback processes, all functions of the dark-matter halo mass associated with a similar scale. In haloes below a critical shock-heating mass Ms~6x10^11 Msol, discs are built by cold streams, not heated by a virial shock, yielding efficient early star formation (SFR). It is regulated by supernova and radiative feedbacks into a long seq...

  15. Mesoporous europo-gadolinosilicate nanoparticles as bimodal medical imaging agents and a potential theranostic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Nicholas M K; Kennedy, Danielle F; Kirby, Nigel; Moffat, Bradford A; Muir, Benjamin W; Caruso, Rachel A; Drummond, Calum J

    2013-06-01

    The mesoporous structure of sol-gel prepared gadolinium and europium doped silicate nanoparticles has been found to be highly dependent on the formulated composition, with synthesised samples displaying both disordered and hexagonally ordered mesoporous packing symmetry. The degree of pore ordering within the nanoparticles has a strong correlation with the total lanthanide (Gd(3+) and Eu(3+) ) concentration. The gadolinosilicates are excellent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) longitudinal (T1 ) agents. The longitudinal relaxivity (r1 ) and transverse (r2 ) relaxivity, a measure of MRI contrast agent efficiency, were up to four times higher than the clinically employed Omniscan (gadodiamide); with r1 up to 20.6 s(-1) mM(-1) and r2 of 66.2 s(-1) mM(-1) compared to 5.53 and 4.64 s(-1) mM(-1) , respectively, for Omniscan. In addition, the europium content of all the samples studied is below the self-quenching limit, which results in a strong luminescence response from the nanoparticles on excitation at 250 nm. The Eu-Gd silicate nanoparticles act as bimodal imaging agents for MRI and luminescence. These mesoporous nanoparticles also have the potential to serve as encapsulation and controlled release matrices for pharmaceuticals. They are therefore a promising multimodal theranostic platform. PMID:23296572

  16. Bimodal Control of Heat Transport at Graphene–Metal Interfaces Using Disorder in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehyeon; Khan, Muhammad Ejaz; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Eui-Sup; Suh, Joonki; Wu, Junqiao; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Jeong Young; Lyeo, Ho-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Thermal energy transport across the interfaces of physically and chemically modified graphene with two metals, Al and Cu, was investigated by measuring thermal conductance using the time-domain thermoreflectance method. Graphene was processed using a He2+ ion-beam with a Gaussian distribution or by exposure to ultraviolet/O3, which generates structural or chemical disorder, respectively. Hereby, we could monitor changes in the thermal conductance in response to varying degrees of disorder. We find that the measured conductance increases as the density of the physical disorder increases, but undergoes an abrupt modulation with increasing degrees of chemical modification, which decreases at first and then increases considerably. Moreover, we find that the conductance varies inverse proportionally to the average distance between the structural defects in the graphene, implying a strong in-plane influence of phonon kinetics on interfacial heat flow. We attribute the bimodal results to an interplay between the distinct effects on graphene’s vibrational modes exerted by graphene modification and by the scattering of modes. PMID:27698372

  17. Superdiffusive motion of membrane-targeting C2 domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnola, Grace; Nepal, Kanti; Schroder, Bryce W.; Peersen, Olve B.; Krapf, Diego

    2015-12-01

    Membrane-targeting domains play crucial roles in the recruitment of signalling molecules to the plasma membrane. For most peripheral proteins, the protein-to-membrane interaction is transient. After proteins dissociate from the membrane they have been observed to rebind following brief excursions in the bulk solution. Such membrane hops can have broad implications for the efficiency of reactions on membranes. We study the diffusion of membrane-targeting C2 domains using single-molecule tracking in supported lipid bilayers. The ensemble-averaged mean square displacement (MSD) exhibits superdiffusive behaviour. However, traditional time-averaged MSD analysis of individual trajectories remains linear and does not reveal superdiffusion. Our observations are explained in terms of bulk excursions that introduce jumps with a heavy-tail distribution. These hopping events allow proteins to explore large areas in a short time. The experimental results are shown to be consistent with analytical models of bulk-mediated diffusion and numerical simulations.

  18. The Information Of The Milky Way From 2MASS Whole Sky Star Count: The Bimodal Color Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chan-Kao; Ko, Chung-Ming; Peng, Ting-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The J-Ks color distribution (CD) with a bin size of 0.05 magnitude for the entire Milky Way has been carried out by using the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog (2MASS PSC). The CDs are bimodal, which has a red peak at 0.8 < J-Ks < 0.85 and a blue peak at 0.3 < J-Ks < 0.4. The colors of the red peak are more or less the same for the whole sky, but that of the blue peak depend on Galactic latitude, (J-Ks ~ 0.35 at low Galactic latitudes and 0.35 < J-Ks < 0.4 for other sky areas). The blue peak dominates the bimodal CDs at low Galactic latitudes and becomes comparable with the red peak in other sky regions. In order to explain the bimodal distribution and the global trend shown by the all sky 2MASS CDs, we assemble an empirical HR diagram, which is composed by observational-based near infrared HR diagrams and color magnitude diagrams, and incorporate a Milky Way model. In the empirical HR diagram, the main sequence stars turnoff the thin disk is relatively bluer, (J-Ks)0 = 0.31, wh...

  19. Duration Distribution of Fermi/GBM Gamma-Ray Bursts: Instrumental Selection Effect of the Bimodal T90 Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Ying; Yi, Shuang-Xi; Liang, Yun-Feng; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Jin; Lu, Hou-Jun; Lu, Rui-Jing; Lu, Lian-Zhong; Zhang, Bing

    2012-01-01

    The durations (T_{90}) of 315 Fermi GRBs detected with the GBM-NaI detectors (8-1000 KeV) by 2011 September are calculated using the Bayesian Block method. We compare the T_{90} distribution of the GBM-NaI sample to that observed with CGRO/BATSE (25-2000 keV), BeppoSAX/GRBM (40-700 KeV), HETE-2/FREGATE (6-80 keV), and Swift/BAT (15-150 keV). We show that the T_{90} distribution of the GBM-NaI GRB sample is bimodal, with a statistical significance level being comparable to that observed with BeppoSAX/GRBM and Swift/BAT but much lower than that observed with CGRO/BATSE. No bimodal T_{90} distribution is found in the HETE-2 GRB sample. Taking T_{90}=2 seconds as the division line between long and short GRBs, the ratio of short to long GRB numbers are 0:95, 51:557, 111:892, 39:253, and 500:1541 for the HETE-2/FREGATE, Swift/BAT, BeppoSAX/GRBM, GBM-NaI, and CGRO/BATSE GRB samples, respectively. These results suggest that the bimodal T_{90} distribution would be due to an instrumental selection effect. We investiga...

  20. The effect of oxide particles on the strength and ductility of bulk iron with a bimodal grain size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, C.; Tejedor, R. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rodríguez-baracaldo, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. Colombia (Colombia); Benito, J.A., E-mail: Josep.a.benito@upc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, EUETIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Comte d' Urgell 187, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic de Manresa, Plaça de la Ciencia, 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Cabrera, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic de Manresa, Plaça de la Ciencia, 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain)

    2015-03-11

    The strength and ductility of bulk nanostructured and ultrafine-grained iron containing 0.39% oxygen by weight was determined by tensile tests. Samples were obtained by consolidation of milled iron powder at 500 °C. Heat treatments were designed to cover a wide range of grain sizes spanning from 100 to 2000 nm with different percentages of coarse and nanostructured grain areas, which was defined as a bimodal grain size distribution. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the diameter, volume fraction and location of oxides in the microstructure. The strength was analysed following two approaches. The first one was based on the strong effect of oxides and involved the use of a mixed particle-grain boundary strengthening model, and the second one was based on simple grain boundary strengthening. The mixed model underestimated the strength of nanostructured samples, whereas the simple grain boundary model worked better. However, for specimens with a bimodal grain size, the fitting of the mixed model was better. In this case, the more effective particle strengthening was related to the dispersion of oxides inside the large ferrite grains. In addition, the bimodal samples showed an acceptable combination of strength and ductility. Again, the ferrite grains containing oxides promoted strain hardening due to the increase in dislocation activity.

  1. The role of martensitic transformation on bimodal grain structure in ultrafine grained AISI 304L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabooni, S., E-mail: s.sabooni@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ngan, A.H.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-06-11

    In the present study, metastable AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel samples were subjected to different cold rolling reductions from 70% to 93%, followed by annealing at 700 °C for 300 min to form ultrafine grained (UFG) austenite with different grain structures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoindentation were used to characterize the martensitic transformation, in order to relate it to the bimodal distribution of the austenite grain size after subsequent annealing. The results showed that the martensite morphology changed from lath type in the 60% rolled sample to a mixture of lath and dislocation-cell types in the higher rolling reductions. Calculation of the Gibbs free energy change during the reversion treatment showed that the reversion mechanism is shear controlled at the annealing temperature and so the morphology of the reverted austenite is completely dependent on the morphology of the deformation induced martensite. It was found that the austenite had a bimodal grain size distribution in the 80% rolled and annealed state and this is related to the existence of different types of martensite. Increasing the rolling reduction to 93% followed by annealing caused changing of the grain structure to a monomodal like structure, which was mostly covered with small grains of around 300 nm. The existence of bimodal austenite grain size in the 80% rolled and annealed 304L stainless steel led to the improvement of ductility while maintaining a high tensile strength in comparison with the 93% rolled and annealed sample.

  2. Non-aqueous retention measurements: ultrafiltration behaviour of polystyrene solutions and colloidal silver particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerlage, M.A.M.; Heijnen, M.L.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.; Strathmann, H.

    1996-01-01

    The retention behaviour of polyimide ultrafiltration membranes was investigated using dilute solutions of polystyrene in ethyl acetate as test solutions. It is shown that flow-induced deformation of the polystyrene chains highly affects the membrane retention. This coil-stretch transition is not ins

  3. Psychology: Inducing green behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen, John

    2013-02-01

    Economic arguments, such as saving money, are often used to promote pro-environmental actions -- for example, reducing energy use. However, research shows that people's environmental motives are sometimes better drivers of behavioural change.

  4. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  5. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-08-26

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The

  6. Electrophysiology of mycoplasma membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Schummer, U.; Schiefer, H G

    1983-01-01

    The influence of transmembrane ion fluxes on mycoplasma membrane potentials was studied. Fluorescence intensity of potential-sensitive carbocyanine dyes was calibrated vs. electric membrane potential. Potassium and sodium ion diffusion potentials significantly contributed to mycoplasma membrane potential. Chloride ions were obviously freely permeable across mycoplasma membranes. Under growth conditions the mycoplasma membrane potential was estimated to be delta psi = - 80 mV.

  7. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  8. Concentration-dependent bimodal effect of specific 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) ligands on cell death processes induced by ammonium chloride: potential implications for neuropathological effects due to hyperammonemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Beatriz; Veenman, Leo; Bode, Julia; Leschiner, Svetlana; Gavish, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    The role of the 18-kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO) in cell death induced by NH4Cl (1-50 mM) for 24-72 hours to human glioblastoma U118MG cells was investigated. Cell death was already observed after 48 hours of treatment with NH4Cl at 5 mM. Dose and time-responses curves indicated that 15 mM of NH4Cl applied for 72 hours was the optimal condition for our viability assays. For example, 72 hours of 15 mM of NH4Cl caused a 50.3% increase in propidium iodide uptake, and lactate dehydrogenase release was 41.2% of the positive control, indicating significant increases in cell death. Furthermore, compared to vehicle control, these experimental conditions resulted in a significant decrease of 44.9% of the mitochondrial activity, a 62.3% increase in incidence of collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, and an increase of 49.0% of cardiolipin peroxidation. In addition, a significant 4.3 fold increase in the maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of TSPO was found in NH4Cl-exposed cells. Surprisingly, western blot analysis and real-time PCR did not demonstrate changes in TSPO expression. We also found that neither NH4Cl nor glutamine (a metabolic product of enhanced NH4Cl levels) inhibited binding of the TSPO ligand [(3)H]PK 11195. Interestingly, we observed a bimodal effect of the TSPO ligands PK 11195, Ro5-4864, and FGIN-1-27 on the toxicity of NH4Cl; such that 1-100 nM concentrations of TSPO ligands were protective, while concentrations above 1 μM enhanced NH4Cl-induced cell death processes. In conclusion, TSPO takes part in a bimodal way in the lethal effects induced by NH4Cl in glial type cells. PMID:24168369

  9. From biological membranes to biomimetic model membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological membranes play an essential role in the cellular protection as well as in the control and the transport of nutrients. Many mechanisms such as molecular recognition, enzymatic catalysis, cellular adhesion and membrane fusion take place into the biological membranes. In 1972, Singer et al. provided a membrane model, called fluid mosaic model, in which each leaflet of the bilayer is formed by a homogeneous environment of lipids in a fluid state including globular assembling of proteins and glycoproteins. Since its conception in 1972, many developments were brought to this model in terms of composition and molecular organization. The main development of the fluid mosaic model was made by Simons et al. (1997 and Brown et al. (1997 who suggested that membrane lipids are organized into lateral microdomains (or lipid rafts with a specific composition and a molecular dynamic that are different to the composition and the dynamic of the surrounding liquid crystalline phase. The discovery of a phase separation in the plane of the membrane has induced an explosion in the research efforts related to the biology of cell membranes but also in the development of new technologies for the study of these biological systems. Due to the high complexity of biological membranes and in order to investigate the biological processes that occur on the membrane surface or within the membrane lipid bilayer, a large number of studies are performed using biomimicking model membranes. This paper aims at revisiting the fundamental properties of biological membranes in terms of membrane composition, membrane dynamic and molecular organization, as well as at describing the most common biomimicking models that are frequently used for investigating biological processes such as membrane fusion, membrane trafficking, pore formation as well as membrane interactions at a molecular level.

  10. Behaviour of hydrogen in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the behaviour of hydrogen in liquid sodium with the aid of the hydrogen sensor of nickel membrane. The study was carried out in a natural circulation sodium loop which consisted of a hot zone and a cold zone. It was observed that at constant cold zone temperature, the partial pressure of hydrogen in liquid sodium at hot zone decreases slightly with increasing temperature. On the other hand, at constant temperature of hot zone, a logarithmic plot of hydrogen partial pressure versus the reciprocal temperature of cold zone yielded a straight line. This study also showed that the diffusion of hydrogen in liquid sodium through the membrane is the rate controlling step for the process, rather than a surface reaction. (author)

  11. Rewards for safe road behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    It is known from psychology that behaviour can be changed more quickly and long lasting by rewarding desirable behaviour than by penalizing undesirable behaviour. Rewarding road safety behaviour can also be effective, as shown by research into, for instance, the use of seatbelts and driving speeds.

  12. Information behaviour: models and concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the research area of information behaviour. Information behaviour is defined as the behaviour of individuals in relation to information sources and channels, which results as a consequence of their information need, and encompasses passive and active searching of information, and its use. Theoretical foundations are presented, as well as some fundamental conceptual models of information behaviour and related concepts: information searching behaviour, which occurrs in active, purposeful searching for information, regardless of the information source used; and information seeking behaviour, which represents a micro-level of information searching behaviour, and is expressed by those individuals who interact with information retrieval systems.

  13. Bimodal Silurian and Lower Devonian volcanic rock assemblages in the Machias-Eastport area, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Olcott; Moench, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Exposed in the Machias-Eastport area of southeastern Maine is the thickest (at least 8,000 m), best exposed, best dated, and most nearly complete succession of Silurian and Lower Devonian volcanic strata in the coastal volcanic belt, remnants of which crop out along the coasts of southern New Brunswick, Canada, and southeastern New England in the United States. The volcanics were erupted through the 600-700-million-year-old Avalonian sialic basement. To test the possibility that this volcanic belt was a magmatic arc above a subduction zone prior to presumed Acadian continental collision, samples representing the entire section in the Machias-Eastport area of Maine were chemically analyzed. Three strongly bimodal assemblages of volcanic rocks and associated intrusives are recognized, herein called the Silurian, older Devonian, and younger Devonian assemblages. The Silurian assemblage contains typically nonporphyritic high-alumina tholeiitic basalts, basaltic andesites, and diabase of continental characterand calc-alkalic rhyolites, silicic dacites, and one known dike of andesite. These rocks are associated with fossiliferous, predominantly marine strata of the Quoddy, Dennys, and Edmunds Formations, and the Leighton Formation of the Pembroke Group (the stratigraphic rank of both is revised herein for the Machias-Eastport area), all of Silurian age. The shallow marine Hersey Formation (stratigraphic rank also revised herein) of the Pembroke Group, of latest Silurian age (and possibly earliest Devonian, as suggested by an ostracode fauna), contains no known volcanics; and it evidently was deposited during a volcanic hiatus that immediately preceded emergence of the coastal volcanic belt and the eruption of the older Devonian assemblage. The older Devonian assemblage, in the lagoonal to subaerial Lower Devonian Eastport Formation, contains tholeiitic basalts and basaltic andesites, typically with abundant plagioclase phenocrysts and typically richer in iron and

  14. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Van, Lier, G

    2008-01-01

    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A self-forming dynamic membrane only requires a support material over which a cake layer is formed, which determines the rejection properties of the system. The present research studies the applicat...

  15. A Crewed Mission to Apophis Using a Hybrid Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David R.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Burke, Laura M.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    A BNTEP system is a dual propellant, hybrid propulsion concept that utilizes Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion during high thrust operations, providing 10's of kilo-Newtons of thrust per engine at a high specific impulse (Isp) of 900 s, and an Electric Propulsion (EP) system during low thrust operations at even higher Isp of around 3000 s. Electrical power for the EP system is provided by the BNTR engines in combination with a Brayton Power Conversion (BPC) closed loop system, which can provide electrical power on the order of 100's of kWe. High thrust BNTR operation uses liquid hydrogen (LH2) as reactor coolant propellant expelled out a nozzle, while low thrust EP uses high pressure xenon expelled by an electric grid. By utilizing an optimized combination of low and high thrust propulsion, significant mass savings over a conventional NTR vehicle can be realized. Low thrust mission events, such as midcourse corrections (MCC), tank settling burns, some reaction control system (RCS) burns, and even a small portion at the end of the departure burn can be performed with EP. Crewed and robotic deep space missions to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) are best suited for this hybrid propulsion approach. For these mission scenarios, the Earth return V is typically small enough that EP alone is sufficient. A crewed mission to the NEA Apophis in the year 2028 with an expendable BNTEP transfer vehicle is presented. Assembly operations, launch element masses, and other key characteristics of the vehicle are described. A comparison with a conventional NTR vehicle performing the same mission is also provided. Finally, reusability of the BNTEP transfer vehicle is explored.

  16. Label-free bimodal waveguide immunosensor for rapid diagnosis of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Jesús; González-Guerrero, Ana Belén; Domínguez, Carlos; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-11-15

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is an acute bacterial infection of ascitic fluid; it has a high incidence in cirrhotic patients and it is associated with high mortality. In such a situation, early diagnosis and treatment is crucial for the survival of the patient. However, bacterial analysis in ascitic fluid is currently based on culture methods, which are time-consuming and laborious. We report here the application of a photonic interferometer biosensor based on a bimodal waveguide (BiMW) for the rapid and label-free detection of bacteria directly in ascitic fluid. The device consists of a straight waveguide in which two modes of the same polarization interfere while interacting with the external medium through their evanescent fields. A bimolecular event occurring on the sensor area of the device (e.g. capturing bacteria) will differently affect each light mode, inducing a variation in the phase of the light exiting at the output of the waveguide. In this work, we demonstrate the quantitative detection of Bacillus cereus in buffer medium and Escherichia coli in undiluted ascitic fluid from cirrhotic patients. In the case of Bacillus cereus detection, the device was able to specifically detect bacteria at relevant concentrations in 12.5min and in the case of Escherichia coli detection, the analysis time was 25min. Extrapolation of the data demonstrated that the detection limits of the biosensor could reach few bacteria per milliliter. Based on the results obtained, we consider that the BiMW biosensor is positioned as a promising new clinical tool for user-friendly, cost-effective and real-time microbiological analysis.

  17. Label-free bimodal waveguide immunosensor for rapid diagnosis of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Jesús; González-Guerrero, Ana Belén; Domínguez, Carlos; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-11-15

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is an acute bacterial infection of ascitic fluid; it has a high incidence in cirrhotic patients and it is associated with high mortality. In such a situation, early diagnosis and treatment is crucial for the survival of the patient. However, bacterial analysis in ascitic fluid is currently based on culture methods, which are time-consuming and laborious. We report here the application of a photonic interferometer biosensor based on a bimodal waveguide (BiMW) for the rapid and label-free detection of bacteria directly in ascitic fluid. The device consists of a straight waveguide in which two modes of the same polarization interfere while interacting with the external medium through their evanescent fields. A bimolecular event occurring on the sensor area of the device (e.g. capturing bacteria) will differently affect each light mode, inducing a variation in the phase of the light exiting at the output of the waveguide. In this work, we demonstrate the quantitative detection of Bacillus cereus in buffer medium and Escherichia coli in undiluted ascitic fluid from cirrhotic patients. In the case of Bacillus cereus detection, the device was able to specifically detect bacteria at relevant concentrations in 12.5min and in the case of Escherichia coli detection, the analysis time was 25min. Extrapolation of the data demonstrated that the detection limits of the biosensor could reach few bacteria per milliliter. Based on the results obtained, we consider that the BiMW biosensor is positioned as a promising new clinical tool for user-friendly, cost-effective and real-time microbiological analysis. PMID:27183281

  18. Bimodal effect of oxidative stress in internal anal sphincter smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagmohan; Kumar, Sumit; Rattan, Satish

    2015-09-01

    Changes in oxidative stress may affect basal tone and relaxation of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle in aging. We examined this issue by investigating the effects of the oxidative stress inducer 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione (LY-83583) in basal as well as U-46619-stimulated tone, and nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) relaxation in rat IAS. LY-83583, which works via generation of reactive oxygen species in living cells, produced a bimodal effect in IAS tone: lower concentrations (0.1 nM to 10 μM) produced a concentration-dependent increase, while higher concentrations (50-100 μM) produced a decrease in IAS tone. An increase in IAS tone by lower concentrations was associated with an increase in RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) activity. This was evident by the increase in RhoA/ROCK in the particulate fractions, in ROCK activity, and in the levels of phosphorylated (p) (Thr696)-myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 and p(Thr18/Ser19)-20-kDa myosin light chain. Conversely, higher concentrations of LY-83583 produced inhibitory effects on RhoA/ROCK. Interestingly, both the excitatory and inhibitory effects of LY-83583 in the IAS were reversed by superoxide dismutase. The excitatory effects of LY-83583 were found to resemble those with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibition by l-NNA, since it produced a significant increase in the IAS tone and attenuated NANC relaxation. These effects of LY-83583 and l-NNA were reversible by l-arginine. This suggests the role of nNOS inhibition and RhoA/ROCK activation in the increase in IAS tone by LY-83583. These data have important implications in the pathophysiology and therapeutic targeting of rectoanal disorders, especially associated with IAS dysfunction.

  19. Outbreak of hepatitis E with bimodal peak in rural area of Bhavnagar, India, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devang A Raval

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Rise in the number of jaundice cases were reported on 24 th of June 2010, in Dhola village, India. We investigated the outbreak to identify the source of infection and to facilitate control measures. Materials and Methods : We confirmed the outbreak by reviewing the rate of acute viral hepatitis in the year 2009-10. We defined a case of acute hepatitis as an acute illness with (a discrete onset of symptoms and (b jaundice or elevated serum aminotransferase levels, since March 2010 in Dhola village. We described the outbreak in terms of time, place, and person. We tested 20 blood samples of the case patient for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag, and immunoglobulin M (IgM antibody for hepatitis A and E. We collected water samples for the bacteriological examination, and to test free chlorine in the water. Results : A total of 137 cases (attack rate 27.2/1000 were reported in this outbreak from March to August 2010. The attack rate was highest among the age group of 20-29 years. The attack rate was significantly higher in male (35/1000 than in female (18/1000. Out of 20 case-patients, 19 were found positive for hepatitis E virus (HEV IgM antibodies. The water samples taken from households contained more than 10 coliforms in 100 ml sample. The relative risk of developing hepatitis E among people using pipeline water against those using ground water was 3.23 (95% CI of RR 1.59, 6.57. Conclusion : Outbreak that affected Dhola village was due to hepatitis E virus. Fecal contamination of water was the most likely source of this bimodal outbreak of hepatitis E.

  20. Formulation and evaluation of bilayer tablet for bimodal release of venlafaxine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Munira M; Kane, Snehal; Abhang, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to develop a bilayer tablet of venlafaxine hydrochloride for bimodal drug release. In the present investigation authors have tried to explore fenugreek mucilage (FNM) for bioadhesive sustained release layer. The attempt has been made to combine FNM with well studied bioadhesive polymers like hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), Carbopol, and Xanthan Gum. The formulations were evaluated for swelling Index, ex vivo bioadhesion, water uptake studies, in vitro drug release and dissolution kinetics was studied. Substantial bioadhesion force (2.4 ± 0.023 g) and tablet adhesion retention time (24 ± 2 h) was observed with FNM and HPMC combination at 80:20 ratio. The dissolution kinetics followed the Higuchi model (R (2) = 0.9913) via a non-Fickian diffusion controlled release mechanism after the initial burst. The 3(2) full factorial design was employed in the present study. The type of polymers used in combination with FNM (X1) and percent polymer replaced with FNM (X2) were taken as independent formulations variables. The selected responses, bioadhesion force (0.11-0.25 ± 0.023 g), amount of drug released in 10 h, Y10 (78.20-95.78 ± 1.24%) and bioadhesive strength, (19-24 ± 2 h) presented good correlation with the selected independent variables. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the optimized bilayer formulations showed no significant difference in the cumulative amount of drug release after 15 min, but significant difference (p < 0.05) in the amount of drug released after 1 hr till 12 h from optimized formulations was observed. The natural mucilage like FNM could be successfully incorporated into tablet with only 20% replacement with HPMC and it showed good bioadhesiveness and sustained drug release. PMID:26217229

  1. Formulation And Evaluation Of Bilayer Tablet for Bimodal Release of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munira eMomin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to develop a bilayer tablet of venlafexine hydrochloride for bimodal drug release. In the present investigation authors have tried to explore Fenugreek Mucilage (FNM for bioadhesive sustained release layer. The attempt has been made to combine FNM with well studied bioahesive polymers like Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose, Carbopol and Xanthan Gum. The formulations were evaluated for swelling Index, ex-vivo bioadhesion, water uptake studies, in-vitro drug release and dissolution kinetics was studied. Substantial bioadhesion force (2.4±0.023 gms and tablet adhesion retention time (24±2 hrs was observed with FNM and HPMC combination at 80:20 ratio. The dissolution kinetics followed the Higuchi model (R2 =0.9913 via a non-Fickian diffusion controlled release mechanism after the initial burst. The 32 full factorial design was employed in the present study. The type of polymers used in combination with FNM (X1 and percent polymer replaced with FNM (X2 were taken as independent formulations variables. The selected responses, bioadhesion force (0.11-0.25±0.023gm, amount of drug released in 10 h, Y10 (78.20–95.78±1.24 % and bioadhesive strength, (19-24±2hrs presented good correlation with the selected independent variables. Statistical analysis (ANOVA of the optimized bilayer formulations showed no significant difference in the cumulative amount of drug release after 15 min, but significant difference (p < 0.05 in the amount of drug released after 1 hr till 12 h from optimized formulations was observed. The natural mucilage like FNM could be successfully incorporated into tablet with only 20% replacement with HPMC and it showed good bioadhesiveness and sustained drug release.

  2. Using bimodal MRI/fluorescence imaging to identify host angiogenic response to implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichevski, Alexandra; Simaan Yameen, Haneen; Dafni, Hagit; Neeman, Michal; Seliktar, Dror

    2015-04-21

    Therapies that promote angiogenesis have been successfully applied using various combinations of proangiogenic factors together with a biodegradable delivery vehicle. In this study we used bimodal noninvasive monitoring to show that the host response to a proangiogenic biomaterial can be drastically affected by the mode of implantation and the surface area-to-volume ratio of the implant material. Fluorescence/MRI probes were covalently conjugated to VEGF-bearing biodegradable PEG-fibrinogen hydrogel implants and used to document the in vivo degradation and liberation of bioactive constituents in an s.c. rat implantation model. The hydrogel biodegradation and angiogenic host response with three types of VEGF-bearing implant configurations were compared: preformed cylindrical plugs, preformed injectable microbeads, and hydrogel precursor, injected and polymerized in situ. Although all three were made with identical amounts of precursor constituents, the MRI data revealed that in situ polymerized hydrogels were fully degraded within 2 wk; microbead degradation was more moderate, and plugs degraded significantly more slowly than the other configurations. The presence of hydrogel degradation products containing the fluorescent label in the surrounding tissues revealed a distinct biphasic release profile for each type of implant configuration. The purported in vivo VEGF release profile from the microbeads resulted in highly vascularized s.c. tissue containing up to 16-fold more capillaries in comparison with controls. These findings demonstrate that the configuration of an implant can play an important role not only in the degradation and resorption properties of the materials, but also in consequent host angiogenic response. PMID:25825771

  3. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible

  4. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A

  5. Analysis of the Nonlinear Elastic Response of Rubber Membrane with Embedded Circular Rigid Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbing Sang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubber membranes exhibit a particular nonlinear elastic behaviour known as hyper elasticity. Analysis has been proposed by utilizing the modified strain energy function from Gao’s constitutive model, in order to reveal the mechanical property of rubber membrane containing circular rigid inclusion. Rubber membrane is taken into incompressible materials under axisymmetric stretch, based on finite deformations theory. Stress distribution of different constitutive parameters has been analyzed by deducing the basic governing equation. The effects on membrane deformation by different parameters and the failure reasons of rubber membrane have been discussed, which provides reasonable reference for the design of rubber membrane.

  6. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  7. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  8. Erythrocyte membrane proteins and membrane skeleton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yiqin; LIU Junfan

    2007-01-01

    Considerable advances in the research field of erythrocyte membrane were achieved in the recent two decades.New findings in the structure-function correlation and interactions of erythrocyte membrane proteins have attracted extensive attention.Interesting progress was also made in the molecular pathogenesis of erythrocyte membrane disorders.Advances in the composition,function and interaction of erythrocyte membrane proteins,erythrocyte membrane skeleton,and relevant diseases are briefly described and summarized here on the basis of domestic and world literatures.

  9. Development of a Prototype Web GIS-Based Disaster Management System for Safe Operation of the Next Generation Bimodal Tram, South Korea—Focused Flooding and Snowfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Seok Jang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Korea Railroad Research Institute (KRRI has developed a bimodal tram and advanced bus rapid transit (BRT system which is an optimized public transit system created by mixing the railway’s punctual operation and the bus’ easy and convenient access. The bimodal tram system provides mass-transportation service with an eco-friendly and human-centered approach. Natural disasters have been increasing worldwide in recent years, including floods, snow, and typhoons disasters. Flooding is the most frequent natural disaster in many countries and is increasingly a concern with climate change; it seriously affects people’s lives and productivity, causing considerable economic loss and significant damage. Enhanced conventional disaster management systems are needed to support comprehensive actions to secure safety and convenience. The objective of this study is to develop a prototype version of a Web GIS-based bimodal tram disaster management system (BTDMS using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM 5.0 to enhance on-time operation and safety of the bimodal tram system. The BTDMS was tested at the bimodal tram test railroad by simulating probable maximum flood (PMF and snow melting for forecasting flooding and snow covered roads. This result could provide the basis for plans to protect against flooding disasters and snow covered roads in operating the bimodal tram system. The BTDMS will be used to assess and predict weather impacts on roadway conditions and operations and thus has the potential to influence economic growth. The methodology presented in this paper makes it possible to manage impacts of flooding and snowfall on urban transportation and enhance operation of the bimodal tram system. Such a methodology based on modeling could be created for most metropolitan areas in Korea and in many other countries.

  10. Changing physician prescribing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J

    2006-01-01

    Didactic approaches to educating physicians and/or other health professionals do not produce changes in learner behaviour. Similarly, printed materials and practice guidelines have not been shown to change prescribing behaviour. Evidence-based educational approaches that do have an impact on provider behaviour include: teaching aimed at identified learning needs; interactive educational activities; sequenced and multifaceted interventions; enabling tools such as patient education programs, flow charts, and reminders; educational outreach or academic detailing; and audit and feedback to prescribers. Dr. Jean Gray reflects over the past 25 years on how there has been a transformation in the types of activities employed to improve prescribing practices in Nova Scotia. The evolution of Continuing Medical Education (CME) has resulted in the creation of the Drug Evaluation Alliance of Nova Scotia (DEANS) program, which is one exemplar of an evidence-based educational approach to improving physician prescribing in that province. Key words: Evidence-based, education, prescribing.

  11. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  12. Bimodal pore distribution on soils under conservation management system for coffee crop Distribuição bimodal de poros em solos sob sistema conservacionista de manejo do solo no cultivo cafeeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Carla E. Carducci; Geraldo C. Oliveira; Walmes M. Zeviani; Vico M. P. Lima; Milson E. Serafim

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at detailing bimodal pore distribution by means of water retention curve in an oxidic-gibbsitic Latosol and in a kaolinitic cambisol Latossol under conservation management system of coffee crop. Samples were collected at depths of 20; 40; 80; 120 and 160 cm on coffee trees rows and between rows under oxidic-gibbsitic Latosol (LVd) and kaolinitic cambisol Latossol (LVAd). Water retention curve was determined at matrix potentials (Ψm) -1; -2; -4; -6; -10 kPa obtained from t...

  13. A membrane disdrometer based on membrane vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raindrop sizes were indirectly determined through the distinctive vibrations and sounds that occur when raindrops of different sizes impact on a membrane. The relationships between diameter, raindrop kinetic momentum, membrane deflection, and impact force were analyzed. Membrane deflection and vibration models were created, and the optimum membrane diameter and thickness were identified. A prototype membrane disdrometer was developed on the basis of these findings. The relationship between raindrop size and membrane vibration sound pressure was determined experimentally. The fundamental parameter of raindrop size recognition was used. The test results indicate that raindrops 0.4–2.0 mm in diameter can be detected by the proposed membrane disdrometer, and 50 raindrops per second in a zone area of 28.3 cm2 can be detected in natural rain. (paper)

  14. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  15. A magnetic/fluorometric bimodal sensor based on a carbon dots-MnO2 platform for glutathione detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Chen, Xi; Chai, Ran; Xing, Chengfen; Li, Huanrong; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2016-07-01

    A novel magnetic/fluorometric bimodal sensor was built from carbon dots (CDs) and MnO2. The resulting sensor was sensitive to glutathione (GSH), leading to apparent enhancement of magnetic resonance (MR) and fluorescence signals along with visual changes. The bimodal detection strategy is based on the decomposition of the CDs-MnO2 through a redox reaction between GSH and MnO2. This process causes the transformation from non-MR-active MnO2 to MR-active Mn2+, and is accompanied by fluorescence restoration of CDs. Compared with a range of other CDs, the polyethylenimine (PEI) passivated CDs (denoted as pCDs) were suitable for detection due to their positive surface potential. Cross-validation between MR and fluorescence provided detailed information regarding the MnO2 reduction process, and revealed the three distinct stages of the redox process. Thus, the design of a CD-based sensor for the magnetic/fluorometric bimodal detection of GSH was emphasized for the first time. This platform showed a detection limit of 0.6 μM with a linear range of 1-200 μM in the fluorescence mode, while the MR mode exhibited a linear range of 5-200 μM and a GSH detection limit of 2.8 μM with a visible change being observed rapidly at 1 μM in the MR images. Furthermore, the introduction of the MR mode allowed the biothiols to be easily identified. The integration of CD fluorescence with an MR response was demonstrated to be promising for providing detailed information and discriminating power, and therefore extend the application of CDs in sensing and imaging.A novel magnetic/fluorometric bimodal sensor was built from carbon dots (CDs) and MnO2. The resulting sensor was sensitive to glutathione (GSH), leading to apparent enhancement of magnetic resonance (MR) and fluorescence signals along with visual changes. The bimodal detection strategy is based on the decomposition of the CDs-MnO2 through a redox reaction between GSH and MnO2. This process causes the transformation from non

  16. Synthesis and characterization of microporous inorganic membranes for propylene/propane separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoli

    Membrane-based gas separation is promising for efficient propylene/propane (C3H6/C3H8) separation with low energy consumption and minimum environment impact. Two microporous inorganic membrane candidates, MFI-type zeolite membrane and carbon molecular sieve membrane (CMS) have demonstrated excellent thermal and chemical stability. Application of these membranes into C3H6/C3H 8 separation has not been well investigated. This dissertation presents fundamental studies on membrane synthesis, characterization and C3H 6/C3H8 separation properties of MFI zeolite membrane and CMS membrane. MFI zeolite membranes were synthesized on α-alumina supports by secondary growth method. Novel positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) techniques were used to non-destructively characterize the pore structure of these membranes. PAS reveals a bimodal pore structure consisting of intracrystalline zeolitic micropores of ~0.6 nm in diameter and irregular intercrystalline micropores of 1.4 to 1.8 nm in size for the membranes. The template-free synthesized membrane exhibited a high permeance but a low selectivity in C3H 6/C3H8 mixture separation. CMS membranes were synthesized by coating/pyrolysis method on mesoporous gamma-alumina support. Such supports allow coating of thin, high-quality polymer films and subsequent CMS membranes with no infiltration into support pores. The CMS membranes show strong molecular sieving effect, offering a high C3H 6/C3H8 mixture selectivity of ~30. Reduction in membrane thickness from 500 nm to 300 nm causes an increase in C3H8 permeance and He/N2 selectivity, but a decrease in the permeance of He, N 2 and C3H6 and C3H6/C 3H8 selectivity. This can be explained by the thickness dependent chain mobility of the polymer film resulting in final carbon membrane of reduced pore size with different effects on transport of gas of different sizes, including possible closure of C3H6-accessible micropores. CMS membranes demonstrate excellent C3H6/C 3H8 separation

  17. Adsorption of microcystins and anatoxin-a on nanofiltration membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Ribau Teixeira, Margarida; Rosa, Maria João

    2011-01-01

    This work pretends to study the adsorption of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and anatoxin-a (ATX-a) on nanofiltration membranes and to understand the adsorption behaviour with the solution chemistry (background natural organic matter (NOM) and in the presence of ATX-a). Results demonstrate that MC-LR adsorption increases with water recovery due to the increase in MC-LR feed concentration. MC-LR adsorption is governed by hydrophobic interactions established between the membrane surface and...

  18. Investigation on the physical-mechanical properties of dental resin composites reinforced with novel bimodal silica nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruili; Zhang, Maolin; Liu, Fengwei; Bao, Shuang; Wu, Tiantian; Jiang, Xiaoze; Zhang, Qinghong; Zhu, Meifang

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of bimodal silica nanostructures comprising of SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs, ~70 nm) and SiO2 nanoclusters (SiO2 NCs, 0.07-2.70 μm) on physical-mechanical properties of resin-based composites (RBCs). SiO2 NPs and SiO2 NCs were prepared with the Stöber method and the coupling reaction, respectively, then silanized and employed as fillers to construct RBCs using a mixture of bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and tri(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) as the organic matrix. Results showed that the properties of RBCs were influenced by the filler ratios of bimodal silica nanostructures, and the appropriate amount of SiO2 NPs could effectively increase the activating light efficiency and filler packing density of RBCs. Among all experimental RBCs, RBC 50-20 (SiO2 NPs:SiO2 NCs=50:20, wt/wt) presented the highest degree of conversion (71.6±1.1%), the lowest polymerization shrinkage (2.6±0.1%), and the enhanced flexural strength (104.8±4.4 MPa), flexural modulus (6.2±0.3 GPa), and compressive strength (205.8±14.3 MPa), which were improved by 44%, 19%, 28%, 48%, and 42% in comparison with those of RBC 0-60 (SiO2 NPs:SiO2 NCs=0:60, wt/wt), respectively. Besides, in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of RBC 50-20 indicated its acceptable cytotoxicity. Although the best performance was achieved by commercial Z350 XT, the introduction of bimodal silica nanostructures might provide the enhanced physical-mechanical properties of RBCs, compared with those of RBC 0-60 reinforced with unimodal SiO2 NCs.

  19. Composite sensor membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arun; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Yue, Min

    2008-03-18

    A sensor may include a membrane to deflect in response to a change in surface stress, where a layer on the membrane is to couple one or more probe molecules with the membrane. The membrane may deflect when a target molecule reacts with one or more probe molecules.

  20. Compositional asynchronous membrane systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cosmin Bonchis; Cornel Izbasa; Gabriel Ciobanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithmic way of building complex membrane systems by coupling elementary membranes. Its application seems particularly valuable in the case of asynchronous membrane systems, since the resulting membrane system remains asynchronous. The composition method is based on a handshake mechanism implemented by using antiport rules and promoters.

  1. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  2. Behavioural Finance: Theory and Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Jurevičienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the importance of behavioural finance theories in household decision-making process. Behavioural finance theories investigate emotional characteristics to explain subjective factors and irrational anomalies in financial markets. In this regard, behavioural theories and behavioural anomalies in the decision-making process are examined; the application opportunities in the financial market are described. The aim of investigation is to determine the basic features and slopes of behavioural finance in concordance with financial decisions of a household. The survey method was applied to ascertain financial behaviour of literate households.

  3. Detergents in Membrane Protein Purification and Crystallisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, Anandhi; Vrielink, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Detergents play a significant role in structural and functional characterisation of integral membrane proteins (IMPs). IMPs reside in the biological membranes and exhibit a great variation in their structural and physical properties. For in vitro biophysical studies, structural and functional analyses, IMPs need to be extracted from the membrane lipid bilayer environment in which they are found and purified to homogeneity while maintaining a folded and functionally active state. Detergents are capable of successfully solubilising and extracting the IMPs from the membrane bilayers. A number of detergents with varying structure and physicochemical properties are commercially available and can be applied for this purpose. Nevertheless, it is important to choose a detergent that is not only able to extract the membrane protein but also provide an optimal environment while retaining the correct structural and physical properties of the protein molecule. Choosing the best detergent for this task can be made possible by understanding the physical and chemical properties of the different detergents and their interaction with the IMPs. In addition, understanding the mechanism of membrane solubilisation and protein extraction along with crystallisation requirements, if crystallographic studies are going to be undertaken, can help in choosing the best detergent for the purpose. This chapter aims to present the fundamental properties of detergents and highlight information relevant to IMP crystallisation. The first section of the chapter reviews the physicochemical properties of detergents and parameters essential for predicting their behaviour in solution. The second section covers the interaction of detergents with the biologic membranes and proteins followed by their role in membrane protein crystallisation. The last section will briefly cover the types of detergent and their properties focusing on custom designed detergents for membrane protein studies. PMID:27553232

  4. Bimodal agonism: a new desensitization in a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel is coordinated by two adjacent binding domains

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kerry (Siu Cheong)

    2008-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are activated by direct binding of cyclic nucleotide (CN) to the binding domain (BD). How CN binding is coupled to channel opening remains unresolved. Bimodal agonism is found in the catfish olfactory CNGA2 subtype when cGMP is the agonist: initial cGMP binding events activate the channel while additional cGMP binding events deactivate the channel. The C-terminal region of the BD was previously shown to determine ligand selectivity and efficacy; therefor...

  5. SWRC fit ? a nonlinear fitting program with a water retention curve for soils having unimodal and bimodal pore structure

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, K.

    2007-01-01

    The soil hydraulic parameters for analyzing soil water movement can be determined by fitting a soil water retention curve to a certain function, i.e., a soil hydraulic model. For this purpose, the program "SWRC Fit," which performs nonlinear fitting of soil water retention curves to 5 models by Levenberg-Marquardt method, was developed. The five models are the Brooks and Corey model, the van Genuchten model, Kosugi's log-normal pore-size distribution model, Durner's bimodal pore-size distribu...

  6. Stages of bimodal and alkaline-granite magmatism in the Western Transbaikalia (geochronological data of the Tugnui depression)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the character of alkaline-rhyolite and alkaline-granite magmatism in the Western Transbaikalia, the geological and geochronological studies in the region of Tugnui Depression are performed. Results of Rb-Sr dating of the rocks of bimodal and alkaline-rhyolitoid associations has shown that the territory of Western Transbaikalia, and in particular Tugnui Depression, was the region of repeatedly manifested magmatism for 150 million years beginning from the Early Permian (∼ 285 million years) and finishing by the Early Cretaceous period (∼ 140 million years)

  7. Early miocene bimodal volcanism, Northern Wilson Creek Range, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, J.B.; Willis, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    Early Miocene volcanism in the northern Wilson Creek Range, Lincoln County, Nevada, produced an interfingered sequence of high-silica rhyolite (greater than 74% SiO2) ash-flow tuffs, lava flows and dikes, and mafic lava flows. Three new potassium-argon ages range from 23.9 ?? 1.0 Ma to 22.6 ?? 1.2 Ma. The rocks are similar in composition, stratigraphic character, and age to the Blawn Formation, which is found in ranges to the east and southeast in Utah, and, therefore, are herein established as a western extension of the Blawn Formation. Miocene volcanism in the northern Wilson Creek Range began with the eruption of two geochemically similar, weakly evolved ash-flow tuff cooling units. The lower unit consists of crystal-poor, loosely welded, lapilli ash-flow tuffs, herein called the tuff member of Atlanta Summit. The upper unit consists of homogeneous, crystal-rich, moderately to densely welded ash-flow tuffs, herein called the tuff member of Rosencrans Peak. This unit is as much as 300 m thick and has a minimum eruptive volume of 6.5 km3, which is unusually voluminous for tuffs in the Blawn Formation. Thick, conspicuously flow-layered rhyolite lava flows were erupted penecontemporaneously with the tuffs. The rhyolite lava flows have a range of incompatible trace element concentrations, and some of them show an unusual mixing of aphyric and porphyritic magma. Small volumes of alkaline, vesicular, mafic flows containing 50 weight percent SiO2 and 2.3 weight percent K2O were extruded near the end of the rhyolite volcanic activity. The Blawn Formation records a shift in eruptive style and magmatic composition in the northern Wilson Creek Range. The Blawn was preceded by voluminous Oligocene eruptions of dominantly calc-alkaline orogenic magmas. The Blawn and younger volcanic rocks in the area are low-volume, bimodal suites of high-silica rhyolite tuffs and lava flows and mafic lava flows.

  8. Laboratory Experiments of Sand Ripples with Bimodal Size Distributions Under Asymmetric Oscillatory Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calantoni, J.; Landry, B. J.

    2010-12-01

    The dynamics of sand ripples are vital to understanding numerous coastal processes such as sediment transport, wave attenuation, boundary layer development, and seafloor acoustic properties. Though significant laboratory research has been conducted to elucidate oscillatory flow morphodynamics under various constant and transient forcing conditions, the majority of the previous experiments were conducted only for beds with unimodal size distributions of sediment. Recent oscillatory flow experiments as well as past laboratory observations in uniform flows suggest that the presence of heterogeneous size sand compositions may significantly impact ripple morphology, resulting in a variety of observable effects (e.g., sediment sorting, bed armoring, and altered transport rates). Experimental work was conducted in a small oscillatory flow tunnel at the Sediment Dynamics Laboratory at the Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center. Three different monochromatic oscillatory forcings having velocity asymmetry were used to study sand ripple dynamics over five bimodal and two unimodal sediment beds. The seven different mixtures were composed using two unimodal sands of different colors (blue/white) and median grain diameters (d=0.31 mm / d=0.65 mm) combined into various mixtures by mass (i.e., 0/100; 10/90; 25/75; 50/50; 75/25; 90/10; and 100/0 which denotes mass percentage of blue/white sand, respectively, within each mixture). High-definition video of the sediment bed profile was acquired in conjunction with sediment trap measurements to resolve differences in ripple geometries, migration and evolution rates due to the different sediment mixtures and flow conditions. Observational findings clearly illustrate sediment stratification within ripple crests and the depth of the active mixing layer in addition to supporting sediment sorting in previous research on symmetric oscillatory flows in which the larger grains collect on top of ripple crests and smaller grains in the

  9. Gas flux measurements of episodic bimodal eruptive activity at Karymsky volcano (Kamchatka, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, S.; Galle, B.; Melnikov, D.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanoes of intermediate magmatic composition commonly exhibit episodes of intermittent gas and ash emission of variable duration. Due to the multiple conditions present at each system, different mechanisms have been proposed to account for the observed activity, and without key measurements at hand, a definite understanding of the situation might not be singled out. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Central Kamchatka, has presented a remarkably stable pattern of bimodal eruption since a few weeks after its violent reactivation in 1996. Periods of quasi-periodic explosive emissions with typical recurrence intervals of 3-10 min are alternated with episodes of semi-continuous discharge which intensity has a typical modulation at a frequency of 1 Hz. Geophysical studies at Karymsky have identified the main visual, seismic and acoustic features of these two eruption modalities. From these observations, the time scales of the processes have been defined and relevant models have been formulated, according to which the two modes are controlled by the rheological properties of an intruding gas-saturated magma batch and a shallow gas-depleted magma plug. Explosions are explained as the consequence of the formation of temporary sealing, overpressure buildup and vent clearance. Clearly, direct measurements of the gas emission rate are the key parameter to test such models. In this work, we report on the results of a field campaign for SO2 gas measurements carried out at Karymsky during 10-14 September 2011. We deployed 2 NOVAC-type, scanning DOAS systems as well as 1 rapid wide-Field of View mini-DOAS plume tracker. With this setup, we derived time-resolved SO2 flux, plume height, direction and speed, and detected pulses of increasing emission with high temporal resolution. We observed phases of explosive and quiescent degassing with variable amounts of ash emission and detected intensity changes of the associated acoustic signals. The repose time intervals between these

  10. Measuring innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Jong; D. den Hartog

    2010-01-01

    Both scientists and practitioners emphasize the importance of innovative work behaviour (IWB) of individual employees for organizational success, but the measurement of IWB is still at an evolutionary stage. This article is concerned with developed a measure of IWB with four potential dimensions: th

  11. Behavioural Real Estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Salzman (Diego); R.C.J. Zwinkels (Remco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe behavioural approach to decision making under uncertainty combines insights from psychology and sociology into economic decision making. It steps away from the normative homo economicus and introduces a positive approach to human decision making under uncertainty. We provide an overv

  12. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...

  13. Behaviour Genetics of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of pigs can be divided into several categories, which include maternal behavior, aggressive behavior, sexual behavior, feeding behavior, and various other forms of emotional behavior. Domestication has caused many changes in the original behaviour of boar, such as in reproductive and sexual behaviour, and has lead to a general increase in social tolerance between animals. Further modifications in behaviour are also possible, as suggested by the optimization of environmental factors which affect maternal behavior. The behaviour of a sow after farrowing appeared as a consequence of natural selection for protection of piglets from predators in the wild boar population, and affects the survival of piglets and the longevity of the sow in breeding. The behavior of the sows which includes the protection of the piglets from predators appears as a consequence of natural selection in the wild boar population. Familiarity with the molecular mechanisms which determine the patterns of behavior enables understanding of behavioral problems such as aggressiveness and helps the improvement of the well-being of pigs. Research conducted on pigs has determined that there are regions on chromosomes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15, and chromosome X which can explain the genetic aspect of appearance of some behavioral patterns in sows. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the behavioral patterns appeared in the populations of domestic breeds of pigs and their genetic aspects, which knowledge may provide some help in improving the production qualities and creating higher economic gain during production.

  14. PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF SUICIDE BEHAVIOUR*

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Evidence from genetic research, monoamine studies and psychopharmacological trials points towards a possible biological predisposition and precipitant for suicidal behaviour. The implications for early detection and management based on a biological model have been discussed. The limitations of the model have been discussed.

  15. Modelling cellular behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.

  16. Managing Behaviour in Classrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹柯

    2008-01-01

    Managing the class is a fussy but indispensable job for the class teacher. The relationship between teachers and students is a subtle one, which is different with each group. So it is a duty to manage their behaviour, meanwhile the teachers'skills of management appears more important.

  17. Locomotion and postural behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a survey of the diversity of primate locomotor behaviour for people who are involved in research using laboratory primates. The main locomotor modes displayed by primates are introduced with reference to some general morphological adaptations. The relationships between locomotor behaviour and body size, habitat structure and behavioural context will be illustrated because these factors are important determinants of the evolutionary diversity of primate locomotor activities. They also induce the high individual plasticity of the locomotor behaviour for which primates are well known. The article also provides a short overview of the preferred locomotor activities in the various primate families. A more detailed description of locomotor preferences for some of the most common laboratory primates is included which also contains information about substrate preferences and daily locomotor activities which might useful for laboratory practice. Finally, practical implications for primate husbandry and cage design are provided emphasizing the positive impact of physical activity on health and psychological well-being of primates in captivity.

  18. Words in the Bilingual Brain: An fNIRS Brain Imaging Investigation of Lexical Processing in Sign-Speech Bimodal Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioulia eKovelman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Early bilingual exposure, especially exposure to two languages in different modalities such as speech and sign, can profoundly affect an individual’s language, culture and cognition. Here we explore the hypothesis that bimodal dual language exposure can also affect the brain’s organization for language. These changes occur across brain regions universally important for language and parietal regions especially critical for sign language (Newman et al., Nature Neuroscience, 2002. We investigated three groups of participants (N=29 that completed a word repetition task in American Sign Language (ASL during fNIRS brain imaging. Those groups were (i hearing ASL-English bimodal bilinguals (n=5, (ii deaf American Sign Language (ASL signers (n=7, and (iii English monolinguals naïve to sign language (n=17. The key finding of the present study is that bimodal bilinguals showed reduced activation in left parietal regions relative to deaf ASL signers when asked to use only ASL. In contrast, this group of bimodal signers showed greater activation in left temporo-parietal regions relative to English monolinguals when asked to switch between their two languages (Kovelman, Petitto et al., 2009. Converging evidence now suggest that bimodal bilingual experience changes the brain bases of language, including the left temporo-parietal regions known to be critical for sign language processing (Emmorey et al., 2007. The results provide insight into the resilience and constraints of neural plasticity for language and bilingualism.

  19. A cognitive human behaviour model for pedestrian behaviour simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hollmann, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian behaviour simulation models are being developed with the intention to simulate human behaviour in various environments in both non-emergency and emergency situations. These models are applied with the objective to understand the underlying causes and dynamics of pedestrian behaviour and how the environment or the environment’s intrinsic procedures can be adjusted in order to provide an improvement of human comfort and safety. In order to realistically model pedestrian behaviour...

  20. ‘Nudging’ behaviours in healthcare: insights from behavioural economics

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin G. Voyer

    2015-01-01

    Since the creation of the Behavioural Insight Team in 2010, the word ‘nudge’ has become a popular one in social and public policy. According to policymakers and managers, applications of behavioural economics to public sector management results in increased policy efficiency and savings. This article offers a critical perspective on the topic, and discusses how the application of behavioural economics can foster innovative healthcare management. It first reviews behavioural economics principl...

  1. Behavioural lateralisation in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Espmark

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus kept in corrals or otherwise forced to clump typically start milling in response to stressing events. This behaviour is generally considered to have an antipredator effect. An inquiry on herd behaviour, to which 35 Norwegian reindeer husbandry districts responded, showed that 32 experienced that corralled rein¬deer consistently circled leftwards, whereas the remaining three reported consistently rightward circling. Regular monitoring of a reindeer herd in central Norway over a two-year period (1993-94, and experimental studies on a fraction of the same herd, revealed the following traits. Free-ranging reindeer showed no right- or left-turning preference during grazing or browsing, but when the reindeer were driven into corrals or forced to clump in the open they invariably rotated leftwards. The circling of corralled reindeer was triggered at an average group size of 20 to 25 animals, apparently independently of the age and sex of the animals. When they dug craters in the snow to reach food, the reindeer used their left foreleg significantly more often than their right. In 23 out of 35 reindeer, the right hemisphere of the brain was heavier than the left. However, in the sample as a whole, the weights of the left and right hemispheres did not differ significantly. Lateralised behaviour in reindeer is thought to be determined by natural and stress induced asymmetries in brain structure and hormonal activity. In addition, learning is probably important for passing on the behaviour between herd members and generations. Differences in lateralised behaviour between nearby herds are thought to be related primarily to different exposure to stress and learning, whereas genetical and environmental fac¬tors (e.g. diet, age structure and sex ratio are probably more important for explaining differences between distant pop¬ulations.

  2. Electrostatically gated membrane permeability in inorganic protocells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Harbron, Rachel L.; Weaver, Jonathan V. M.; Binks, Bernard P.; Mann, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    Although several strategies are now available to produce functional microcompartments analogous to primitive cell-like structures, little progress has been made in generating protocell constructs with self-controlled membrane permeability. Here we describe the preparation of water-dispersible colloidosomes based on silica nanoparticles and delineated by a continuous semipermeable inorganic membrane capable of self-activated, electrostatically gated permeability. We use crosslinking and covalent grafting of a pH-responsive copolymer to generate an ultrathin elastic membrane that exhibits selective release and uptake of small molecules. This behaviour, which depends on the charge of the copolymer coronal layer, serves to trigger enzymatic dephosphorylation reactions specifically within the protocell aqueous interior. This system represents a step towards the design and construction of alternative types of artificial chemical cells and protocell models based on spontaneous processes of inorganic self-organization.

  3. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  4. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs...

  5. Membrane fluids and Dirac membrane fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M G

    2004-01-01

    The relation between two different methods of membrane fluid description is clarified by construction of combined method. Dirac membrane field appears naturally in new approach. It provides a possibility to consider new aspects of electrodynamics-type theories with electric and magnetic sources. The membrane fluid models automatically prohibit simulatenos existence of electric and magnetic currents. Possible applications to the dark energy problem are mentioned.

  6. Sheet Membrane Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Zapata, Felipe; Dillion, Paul; Castillo, Juan; Vonau, Walter; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Frodge, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    A document describes a sheet membrane spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME), which allows for the use of one common water tank that can supply cooling water to the astronaut and to the evaporator. Test data showed that heat rejection performance dropped only 6 percent after being subjected to highly contaminated water. It also exhibited robustness with respect to freezing and Martian atmospheric simulation testing. Water was allowed to freeze in the water channels during testing that simulated a water loop failure and vapor backpressure valve failure. Upon closing the backpressure valve and energizing the pump, the ice eventually thawed and water began to flow with no apparent damage to the sheet membrane. The membrane evaporator also serves to de-gas the water loop from entrained gases, thereby eliminating the need for special degassing equipment such as is needed by the current spacesuit system. As water flows through the three annular water channels, water evaporates with the vapor flowing across the hydrophobic, porous sheet membrane to the vacuum side of the membrane. The rate at which water evaporates, and therefore, the rate at which the flowing water is cooled, is a function of the difference between the water saturation pressure on the water side of the membrane, and the pressure on the vacuum side of the membrane. The primary theory is that the hydrophobic sheet membrane retains water, but permits vapor pass-through when the vapor side pressure is less than the water saturation pressure. This results in evaporative cooling of the remaining water.

  7. Neuroendocrine control of maternal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Caughey, Sarah Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Maternal behaviour during the peri-partum period, albeit in differing forms, can be observed in all mammals, thus it must serve an important evolutionary purpose in enabling the successful raising of offspring. Maternal behaviour is comprised of a large suite of behaviours; in rodents these are generally defined as lactation, pup retrieval, maternal aggression and pup grooming. The maternal behaviour circuitry involves many brain regions including the hypothalamus and the limbi...

  8. Factors Influencing Drivers' Speeding Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Wallén Warner, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Every year many people all over the world are killed and severely injured in road traffic accidents. Even though driving too fast is a behaviour well known to contribute to both the number and the outcome of these accidents, drivers are still speeding. The general aim of this thesis, and its five empirical studies, is therefore to further the knowledge about drivers speeding behaviour by using the theory of planned behaviour and the model underpinning the driver behaviour questionnaire as fra...

  9. New generalized poisson mixture model for bimodal count data with drug effect: An application to rodent brief‐access taste aversion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, J; Orlu Gul, M; Cortina‐Borja, M; Tuleu, C; Standing, JF

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacodynamic (PD) count data can exhibit bimodality and nonequidispersion complicating the inclusion of drug effect. The purpose of this study was to explore four different mixture distribution models for bimodal count data by including both drug effect and distribution truncation. An example dataset, which exhibited bimodal pattern, was from rodent brief‐access taste aversion (BATA) experiments to assess the bitterness of ascending concentrations of an aversive tasting drug. The two generalized Poisson mixture models performed the best and was flexible to explain both under and overdispersion. A sigmoid maximum effect (Emax) model with logistic transformation was introduced to link the drug effect to the data partition within each distribution. Predicted density‐histogram plot is suggested as a model evaluation tool due to its capability to directly compare the model predicted density with the histogram from raw data. The modeling approach presented here could form a useful strategy for modeling similar count data types. PMID:27472892

  10. Hierarchical control of porous silica by pH adjustment: Alkyl polyamines as surfactants for bimodal silica synthesis and its carbon replica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, G.; Carrillo, A. I.; Linares, N.; Serrano, E.; García-Martínez, J.

    2009-08-01

    Bimodal macro-mesoporous silica networks have been prepared in a simple one-pot synthesis using an inexpensive tetramine surfactant and tetraethoxysilane as a silica precursor. These novel materials show high pore volumes and templated mesopores (average pore size 3.0 nm) embedded in 20 nm thick walls forming interparticle large meso/macropores. The judicious control of the pH during the silica formation allows for the precise control of the interparticle condensation, likely due to the change in the interaction between the tetramine surfactant and the silica precursors. Finally, a highly porous carbon replica with bimodal porosity was prepared by using the bimodal silica as a hard sacrificial template. The microstructure of the silica template was accurately transferred to the carbon material obtaining high surface areas (up to 1300 m 2 g -1) and total pore volumes ≥2 cm 3 g -1.

  11. SYNTHESIS OF BIMODAL POLYETHYLENE WITH UNSYMMETRICAL α-DIIMINE NICKEL COMPLEXES: INFLUENCE OF LIGAND BACKBONE AND UNSYM-SUBSTITUTED ANILINE MOIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-yang Gao; Feng-shou Liu; Hai-bin Hu; Fang-ming Zhu; Qing Wu

    2013-01-01

    A series of unsymmetrical α-diimine nickel complexes with various backbones and substituted aniline moieties were synthesized and characterized.The crystallographic analysis of the nickel complexes confirmed the existence of mesoand rac-configuration in solid structure.Nickel complexes after activation by MAO were screened for ethylene polymerization to evaluate backbone substituent effect on synthesis of bimodal PE.Acenaphthyl nickel complex with planar backbone afforded a bimodal PE with a broad polydispersity,whereas camphyl nickel complex with rigid and bulky backbone afforded a monomodal PE with a narrow polydispersity.Steric effect of aniline moiety for acenaphthyl nickel complex was also examined,and bimodal PE with dominant high-molecular-weight fraction was obtained by modifying substituents on aniline moiety.

  12. The spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds modulates bimodal audiovisual integration: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Yu, Hongtao; Wu, Yan; Gao, Ning

    2016-08-26

    The integration of multiple sensory inputs is essential for perception of the external world. The spatial factor is a fundamental property of multisensory audiovisual integration. Previous studies of the spatial constraints on bimodal audiovisual integration have mainly focused on the spatial congruity of audiovisual information. However, the effect of spatial reliability within audiovisual information on bimodal audiovisual integration remains unclear. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effect of spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds on audiovisual integration. Three relevant ERP components emerged: the first at 140-200ms over a wide central area, the second at 280-320ms over the fronto-central area, and a third at 380-440ms over the parieto-occipital area. Our results demonstrate that ERP amplitudes elicited by audiovisual stimuli with reliable spatial relationships are larger than those elicited by stimuli with inconsistent spatial relationships. In addition, we hypothesized that spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus enhances feedback projections to the primary visual cortex from multisensory integration regions. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial linking of visual and auditory information depends on spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus and occurs at a relatively late stage of processing. PMID:27392755

  13. The Near-Earth Distribution of Fe/O for Solar Energetic Particle Events: Is It Bimodal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonRosenvinge, Tycho; Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.

    2009-01-01

    Pallavicini et al. (1977) suggested that there are two separate classes of solar soft X-ray events, impulsive and gradual. Cane et al. (1986) suggested that there might be two corresponding classes of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. For both soft X-ray events and for SEP events, the fundamental question was whether there were two distinct classes of events or, alternatively, whether there was a continuum of event types with impulsive and gradual events at opposite ends of the distribution. Reames (1988) published results showing a bimodal distribution of Fe/O, which clearly suggested that there really are two distinct event types. Reames (2002) went further and suggested that impulsive events and gradual events were caused by two different types of solar events at the Sun corresponding to two different magnetic topologies. The energetic particles seen near earth from the two different event classes were considered to be accelerated in solar flares for impulsive events and by CME-driven shocks for gradual events. The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft was launched in 1997 and has made observations of SEP events over the most recent solar activity cycle. We will examine data from the SIS and ULEIS instruments on ACE to see if the bimodal distribution of Fe/O is also evident in that data.

  14. Influence of Summer Monsoon on Asymmetric Bimodal Pattern of Tropical Cyclogenesis Frequency over the Bay of Bengal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Wen; HUANG Fei

    2013-01-01

    influence of summer monsoon on tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) is explored using an empirical genesis potential (GP) index.The annual cycle of cyclogenesis frequency over the BoB shows an asymmetric bimodal pattern with the maximum genesis number appearing in late October and the second largest in early May.The two peaks correspond to the withdrawal and onset of the BoB summer monsoon,respectively.The semimonthly GP index calculated without TC days over the BoB is consistent with TC genesis frequency,indicating that the index captures the monsoon-induced changes in the environment that are responsible for the seasonal variation of TC genesis frequency.Of the four environmental variables (i.e.,low-level vorticity,mid-level relative humidity,potential intensity,and vertical wind shear) that enter into the GP index,the potential intensity makes the largest contribution to the bimodal distribution,followed by vertical wind shear due to small wind speed during the summer monsoon onset and withdrawal.The difference in TC genesis frequency between autumn and late spring is mainly owing to the relative humidity difference because a divergence (convergence) of horizontal moisture flux associated with cold dry northerlies (warm wet westerlies) dominates the BoB in late spring (autumn).

  15. The spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds modulates bimodal audiovisual integration: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Yu, Hongtao; Wu, Yan; Gao, Ning

    2016-08-26

    The integration of multiple sensory inputs is essential for perception of the external world. The spatial factor is a fundamental property of multisensory audiovisual integration. Previous studies of the spatial constraints on bimodal audiovisual integration have mainly focused on the spatial congruity of audiovisual information. However, the effect of spatial reliability within audiovisual information on bimodal audiovisual integration remains unclear. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effect of spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds on audiovisual integration. Three relevant ERP components emerged: the first at 140-200ms over a wide central area, the second at 280-320ms over the fronto-central area, and a third at 380-440ms over the parieto-occipital area. Our results demonstrate that ERP amplitudes elicited by audiovisual stimuli with reliable spatial relationships are larger than those elicited by stimuli with inconsistent spatial relationships. In addition, we hypothesized that spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus enhances feedback projections to the primary visual cortex from multisensory integration regions. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial linking of visual and auditory information depends on spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus and occurs at a relatively late stage of processing.

  16. Formation of a bimodal structure in ultrafine Ti–Fe–Nb alloys with high-strength and enhanced ductility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, G.H., E-mail: ghcao@shu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Engineering, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Peng, Y.F.; Liu, N.; Li, X.; Lei, Z.S.; Ren, Z.M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Gerthsen, D. [Laboratorium für Elektronenmikroskopie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Russell, A.M. [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Ames Laboratory of the U.S.D.O.E., Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2300 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Bulk (Ti{sub 70.5}Fe{sub 29.5}){sub 100−x}Nb{sub x} (x=0, 3, 5 and 7 at%) alloys were prepared by cold crucible levitation melting, and their mechanical properties were tested in compression at room temperature. A (Ti{sub 70.5}Fe{sub 29.5}){sub 97}Nb{sub 3} alloy specimen in compression exhibited an ultimate compressive strength of 2.53 GPa and a compressive plastic strain of 15%. Electron microscope observations indicated that lamellar structures present in the eutectic Ti{sub 70.5}Fe{sub 29.5} alloy could be modified by the addition of Nb to obtain a bimodal structure. The improvement of the mechanical properties is attributed to two factors: (1) the bimodal phase size distribution with micrometer-sized primary β-Ti dendrites embedded inside a matrix of refined ultrafine eutectics (β-Ti+TiFe), and (2) the larger lattice mismatches between the β-Ti and TiFe phases in Nb-modified eutectic Ti–Fe alloys that introduce coherency strain at the interface. The orientation relationship of A2 β-Ti with B2 TiFe in binary and Nb-modified Ti–Fe alloys is TiFe (110)[001] || β-Ti (110)[001].

  17. The VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey. Beyond color bimodality: the mix of galaxy populations up to z~2

    CERN Document Server

    Franzetti, P; MacCagni, D; Garilli, B; Vergani, D; Guzzo, L; Tresse, L; Ilbert, O; Lamareille, F; Contini, T; Lefèvre, O; Zamorani, G; Brinchmann, J; Charlot, S; Bottini, D; Le Brun, V; Picat, J P; Scaramella, R; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Arnaboldi, M; Arnouts, S; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Cappi, A; Ciliegi, P; Foucaud, S; Gavignaud, I; Iovino, A; McCracken, H J; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; Mazure, A; Meneux, B; Merighi, R; Paltani, S; Pellò, R; Pollo, A; Pozzetti, L; Radovich, M; Zucca, E; Cucciati, O; Walcher, C J

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the mix of star-forming and passive galaxies up to z~2, based on the first epoch VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) data.In agreement with previous works we find that the galaxy rest-frame color distribution follows a bimodal distribution at z<=1, and we establish that this bimodality holds up to z~2. The details of the rest-frame color distribution depend however on redshift and on galaxy luminosity: faint galaxies are bluer than the luminous ones over the whole redshift range of our data, and galaxies become bluer as redshift increases. This blueing trend does not depend, to a first approximation, on galaxy luminosity. Using our spectroscopic dataset we can also separate galaxies based on a star-formation, estimated combining the equivalent width of the [OII] emission line and the strength of the Dn(4000) break. The comparison between this spectral classification and the rest-frame colors shows that about 35-40 % of the red objects are star forming galaxies. Hence we conclude that the ...

  18. An SZ take on cluster radio haloes -- I. Global scaling and bi-modality using Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Kaustuv

    2011-01-01

    Giant radio haloes in galaxy clusters are the primary evidence for the existence of relativistic particles (cosmic rays) and magnetic fields over Mpc scales. Observational tests for the different theoretical models explaining their powering mechanism have so far been obtained through X-ray selection of clusters, e.g. by comparing cluster X-ray luminosities with radio halo power. Here we present the first global scaling relations between radio halo power and integrated Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect measurements, using the Planck all-sky cluster catalog and published radio data. The correlation agrees well with previous scaling measurements based on X-ray data, and offers a more direct probe into the mass dependence inside radio haloes. However, we find no strong indication for a bi-modal cluster population split between radio halo and radio quiet objects. We discuss the possible causes for this apparent lack of bi-modality, and compare the observed slope of the radio-SZ correlation with competing theoretical ...

  19. Bimodal Fluorescence and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Water-Soluble Hexagonal NaYF4:Ce,Tb,Gd Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Ting Ren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the feasibility of using hexagonal-phase NaYF4:Ce,Tb,Gd nanocrystals as bimodal probes for fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR imaging. Using a facile and user-friendly strategy, the NaYF4:Ce,Tb,Gd nanocrystals were synthesized with good water dispensability, high quantum yield (26%, and decent MR T1 relaxivity (r1=2.87 mM−1 s−1. The NaYF4:Ce,Tb,Gd NCs conjugated by folic acid presented great efficiency in fluorescence imaging of C6 glioma cells in vitro. Meanwhile, in in vivo MR experiments on rats, the NaYF4:Ce,Tb,Gd NCs also significantly increased T1 signal in the liver, spleen, and kidney even with a low probe dose. The proposed NaYF4:Ce,Tb,Gd nanoprobes hold promise for simultaneous bimodal fluorescence and MR bioimaging.

  20. Bimodal distribution of the magnetic dipole moment in nanoparticles with a monomodal distribution of the physical size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijssel, Jos van; Kuipers, Bonny W.M.; Erné, Ben H., E-mail: B.H.Erne@uu.nl

    2015-04-15

    High-frequency applications of magnetic nanoparticles, such as therapeutic hyperthermia and magnetic particle imaging, are sensitive to nanoparticle size and dipole moment. Usually, it is assumed that magnetic nanoparticles with a log-normal distribution of the physical size also have a log-normal distribution of the magnetic dipole moment. Here, we test this assumption for different types of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the 5–20 nm range, by multimodal fitting of magnetization curves using the MINORIM inversion method. The particles are studied while in dilute colloidal dispersion in a liquid, thereby preventing hysteresis and diminishing the effects of magnetic anisotropy on the interpretation of the magnetization curves. For two different types of well crystallized particles, the magnetic distribution is indeed log-normal, as expected from the physical size distribution. However, two other types of particles, with twinning defects or inhomogeneous oxide phases, are found to have a bimodal magnetic distribution. Our qualitative explanation is that relatively low fields are sufficient to begin aligning the particles in the liquid on the basis of their net dipole moment, whereas higher fields are required to align the smaller domains or less magnetic phases inside the particles. - Highlights: • Multimodal fits of dilute ferrofluids reveal when the particles are multidomain. • No a priori shape of the distribution is assumed by the MINORIM inversion method. • Well crystallized particles have log-normal TEM and magnetic size distributions. • Defective particles can combine a monomodal size and a bimodal dipole moment.

  1. The stability of lifestyle behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M; Ranchor, AV; Sanderman, R; Bouma, J; van den Heuvel, WJA

    1998-01-01

    Background The stability of Lifestyle behaviour has been studied over a 4-year period in a sample of 1400 men in The Netherlands. The influence of both socioeconomic status and age was studied in relation to lifestyle behaviour change. Methods Lifestyle behaviour was analysed by means of index score

  2. Investigation of influence of preparation and heat treatment on deformation behaviour of the alloy NiTi after ECAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work objective was focused on investigation of deformation behaviour of NiTi-based shape memory alloys with respect to technology of their preparation. Deformation behaviour was assessed by unconventional forming methods, particularly by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE)-but in combination with preceding rotary forging (swaging). Classical light microscopy, as well as X-ray diffraction, was used for evaluation of structural framework of castings and of material after forming. It was established that the alloy Ni50.6-Ti (at.%) after ECAE and re-crystallisation annealing shows bi-modal distribution of mosaic blocks, i.e. mosaic blocks larger than 10 μm and blocks smaller than 10 μm. For determination of re-crystallisation temperature in deformed materials 7 modes of heat treatment were applied. It was proven that the temperature of 600 deg. C was the starting temperature that initiated re-crystallisation.

  3. Could piracetam potentiate behavioural effects of psychostimulants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slais, Karel; Machalova, Alena; Landa, Leos; Vrskova, Dagmar; Sulcova, Alexandra

    2012-08-01

    Press and internet reports mention abuse of nootropic drug piracetam (PIR) in combination with psychostimulants methamphetamine (MET) or 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). These combinations are believed to produce more profound desirable effects, while decreasing hangover. However, there is a lack of valid experimental studies on such drug-drug interactions in the scientific literature available. Our hypothesis proposes that a functional interaction exists between PIR and amphetamine psychostimulants (MET and MDMA) which can potentiate psychostimulant behavioural effects. Our hypothesis is supported by the results of our pilot experiment testing acute effects of drugs given to mice intraperitoneally (Vehicle, n=12; MET 2.5mg/kg, n=10; MDMA 2.5mg/kg, n=11; PIR 300 mg/kg, n=12; PIR+MET, n=12; PIR+MDMA, n=11) in the Open Field Test (Actitrack, Panlab, Spain). PIR given alone caused no significant changes in mouse locomotor/exploratory behaviour, whereas the same dose combined with either MET or MDMA significantly enhanced their stimulatory effects. Different possible neurobiological mechanism underlying drug-drug interaction of PIR with MET or MDMA are discussed, as modulation of dopaminergic, glutamatergic or cholinergic brain systems. However, the interaction with membrane phospholipids seems as the most plausible mechanism explaining PIR action on activities of neurotransmitter systems. Despite that our behavioural experiment cannot serve for explanation of the pharmacological mechanisms of these functional interactions, it shows that PIR effects can increase behavioural stimulation of amphetamine drugs. Thus, the reported combining of PIR with MET or MDMA by human abusers is not perhaps a coincidental phenomenon and may be based on existing PIR potential to intensify acute psychostimulant effects of these drugs of abuse. PMID:22607774

  4. Effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on membrane fouling in anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodi; Koh, Yoong Keat Kelvin; Ng, How Yong

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) have been regarded as a potential solution to achieve energy neutrality in the future wastewater treatment plants. Coupling ceramic membranes into AnMBRs offers great potential as ceramic membranes are resistant to corrosive chemicals such as cleaning reagents and harsh environmental conditions such as high temperature. In this study, ceramic membranes with pore sizes of 80, 200 and 300 nm were individually mounted in three anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating real domestic wastewater to examine the treatment efficiencies and to elucidate the effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on fouling behaviours. The average overall chemical oxygen demands (COD) removal efficiencies could reach around 86-88%. Although CH4 productions were around 0.3 L/g CODutilised, about 67% of CH4 generated was dissolved in the liquid phase and lost in the permeate. When filtering mixed liquor of similar properties, smaller pore-sized membranes fouled slower in long-term operations due to lower occurrence of pore blockages. However, total organic removal efficiencies could not explain the fouling behaviours. Liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectrophotometer and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence and ultra-violet detectors were used to analyse the DOMs in detail. The major foulants were identified to be biopolymers that were produced in microbial activities. One of the main components of biopolymers--proteins--led to different fouling behaviours. It is postulated that the proteins could pass through porous cake layers to create pore blockages in membranes. Hence, concentrations of the DOMs in the soluble fraction of mixed liquor (SML) could not predict membrane fouling because different components in the DOMs might have different interactions with membranes.

  5. Limiting current density and water dissociation in bipolar membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Strathmann, H.; Krol, J.J.; Rapp, H.-J.; Eigenberger, G.

    1997-01-01

    The behaviour of bipolar membranes in NaCl and Na2SO4 solutions is discussed. The membranes are characterized in terms of their limiting current densities. Below the limiting current density the electric current is carried by salt ions migrating from the transition region between the anion and the cation exchange layer of the bipolar membrane. In steady state these ions are replaced by salt ions transported from the bulk solutions into the transition region by diffusion and migration due to t...

  6. Membrane Automata with Priorities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luděk Cienciala; Lucie Ciencialová

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the one-way P automata with priorities are introduced. Such automata are P systemshere the membranes are only allowed to consume objects from parent membranes, under the given conditions. The result of computation of these systems is the set of multiset sequences consumed by skin membrane intc the system. The rules associated in some order with each membrane cannot modify any objects, they can only move them through membrane. We show that P automata with priorities and two membranes can accept every recursively enumerated language.

  7. Essays on Economic Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hudík, Marek

    2009-01-01

    The main thesis of these essays is that social phenomena are different from psychological phenomena and thus social sciences do not belong to behavioural sciences. Chapter 1 introduces the fundamental problem of the rational choice theory ("Macaulay's problem"): either the theory is empirical and false or it is without empirical content and true. Various suggested solutions to this problem are reviewed and criticized. It is argued that the problem is evaded once it is admitted that rational c...

  8. e-Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, C.; Merrilees, B; Jayawardhena, C; Wright, L T

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The primary purpose of this article is to bring together apparently disparate and yet interconnected strands of research and present an integrated model of e-consumer behaviour. It has a secondary objective of stimulating more research in areas identified as still being underexplored. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is discursive, based on analysis and synthesis of econsumer literature. Findings – Despite a broad spectrum of disciplines that investigate e-cons...

  9. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  10. Internet user behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Radbâță, A.

    2011-01-01

    Internet is a useful tool for everybody in a technologically advanced world. As Internet appears and develops, it creates a totally new network environment. The development of commerce on the Internet based on virtual communities has become one of the most successful business models in the world. After analyzing the concept of internet, the e-commerce market and its marketing mix and the benefits and limitations of the Internet, we have presented a few studies on Internet user behaviour. Furt...

  11. Adsorption behaviour of bulgur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbaş, Mustafa; Aykın, Elif; Arslan, Sultan; Durak, Atike N

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the adsorption behaviour of bulgur. Three different particle sizes (2dry matter and 4.96-16.57, respectively. Constant k was between 0.85 and 0.93, and GAB equation was determined to fit very well for bulgur adsorption, because of %E values lower than 10%. Bulgur must be stored below 70% relative humidity and with less than 10 g water per 100 g of dry mater. PMID:26575716

  12. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  13. Technology and progress of bimodal polyethylene%双峰聚乙烯的生产技术及工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付吉江; 闵文武

    2000-01-01

    介绍了国内外双峰聚乙烯生产技术进展概况,重点介绍了串联反应釜生产工艺,并以Unipol Ⅱ和Borstar技术为例,对其工艺流程及技术特性进行了论述。%The technology and progress of bimodal polyethylene production were introduced. The process of reaction kettles in series was stated, the examaples of Unipol Ⅱ and Borstar' s cascade double reactors process of bimodal polyethylene were also presented.

  14. Development of a Prototype Web GIS-Based Disaster Management System for Safe Operation of the Next Generation Bimodal Tram, South Korea—Focused Flooding and Snowfall

    OpenAIRE

    Won Seok Jang; Jonggun Kim; Bernard A. Engel; Sung Won Kang; Youngkon Park; Heetaek Yoon; Kyoung Jae Lim; Younghun Jung; Yongchul Shin

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Railroad Research Institute (KRRI) has developed a bimodal tram and advanced bus rapid transit (BRT) system which is an optimized public transit system created by mixing the railway’s punctual operation and the bus’ easy and convenient access. The bimodal tram system provides mass-transportation service with an eco-friendly and human-centered approach. Natural disasters have been increasing worldwide in recent years, including floods, snow, and typhoons disasters. Flooding is th...

  15. Bimodal distribution of risk for childhood obesity in urban Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Schwartz, Norah; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-08-01

    In Mexico, higher socioeconomic status (SES) has been found to be associated with increased risk for obesity in children. Within developed urban areas, however, there may be increased risk among lower SES children. Students in grades 4-6 from five public schools in Tijuana and Tecate, Mexico, were interviewed and weight, height and waist circumference (WC) measurements were taken. Interviews consisted of questions on food frequency, food insecurity, acculturation, physical activity and lifestyle practices. Multivariate logistic models were used to assess risk factors for obesity (having a body mass index [BMI] ≥95th percentile) and abdominal obesity (a WC >90th percentile) using Stata 11.0. Five hundred and ninety students were enrolled; 43.7% were overweight or obese, and 24.3% were obese and 20.2% had abdominal obesity. Independent risk factors for obesity included watching TV in English (odds ratio [OR] 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.41) and perceived child food insecurity (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.05-2.36). Decreased risk for obesity was associated with female sex (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.96), as was regular multivitamin use (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.94). Risk obesity was also decreased with increased taco consumption (≥1×/week; OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.96). Independent risk factors for abdominal obesity included playing video games ≥1×/week (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11-2.96) and older age group (10-11 years, OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.29-4.73 and ≥12 years, OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.09-4.49). Increased consumption of tacos was also associated with decreased risk for abdominal obesity (≥1×/week; OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.40-1.00). We found a bimodal distribution for risk of obesity and abdominal obesity in school aged children on the Mexican border with the United States. Increased risk for obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with factors indicative of lower and higher SES including watching TV in English, increased video game playing and perceived food insecurity

  16. Conventional and Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Artificial Gravity Mars Transfer Vehicle Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of countermeasures have been developed to address the debilitating physiological effects of "zero-gravity" (0-g) experienced by cosmonauts and astronauts during their approximately 0.5-1.2 year long stays in LEO (Low Earth Orbit). Longer interplanetary flights, combined with possible prolonged stays in Mars orbit, could subject crewmembers to up to approximately 2.5 years of weightlessness. In view of known and recently diagnosed problems associated with 0-g, an artificial gravity spacecraft offers many advantages and may indeed be an enabling technology for human flights to Mars. A number of important human factors must be taken into account in selecting the rotation radius, rotation rate, and orientation of the habitation module or modules. These factors include the gravity gradient effect, radial and tangential Coriolis forces, along with cross-coupled acceleration effects. Artificial gravity (AG) Mars transfer vehicle (MTV) concepts are presented that utilize both conventional NTR, as well as, enhanced "bimodal" nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR) propulsion. The NTR is a proven technology that generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (I (sub sp)) capability of approximately 900 s - twice that of today's best chemical rockets. The AG/MTV concepts using conventional NTP carry twin cylindrical "ISS-type" habitation modules with their long axes oriented either perpendicular or parallel to the longitudinal spin axis of the MTV and utilize photovoltaic arrays (PVAs) for spacecraft power. The twin habitat modules are connected to a central operations hub located at the front of the MTV via two pressurized tunnels that provide the rotation radius for the habitat modules. For the BNTR AG/MTV option, each engine has its own "closed" secondary helium-xenon gas loop and Brayton rotating unit that can generate tens of kilowatts (kW (sub e)) of spacecraft electrical power during the mission coast phase eliminating the need for large PVAs. A single inflatable

  17. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  18. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  19. Mating behaviours of Daphnia pulicaria, a cyclic parthenogen: comparisons with copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    The pre-and post-contact mating behaviours of Daphnia pulicaria are investigated by direct observations of vertical distributions, swimming behaviours and male-female interactions. Analysis of vertical distributions in a 1 m deep, thermally stratified migration chamber reveals that females were always located in the upper layer of the water column but males exhibited a bimodal depth distribution, in which an individual's depth was a function of body length and water temperature. The observed distributions of males may be the result of several interacting pressures; predation avoidance, life-history optimization, and avoidance of assortative mating. Male swimming behaviour was faster and orthogonal to that of females, which is in agreement with the predictions of encounter-rate maximization models. Video recordings of males and females interacting in a 1-litre vessel showed that males both pursued and contacted other males more often than females. Thus, there was no evidence that Daphnia are able to use water-borne chemical signals to locate and identify potential mates. However, the average duration of male-female contacts (13.8 s) was much longer than those between males (1.6 s), suggesting that males can determine the sex of contacted individuals.Daphnia mating behaviour is significantly more complex than previously acknowledged. In contrast to the conventional view of Daphnia males swimming more-or-less randomly and mating with any individual encountered, they exhibit behaviours which increase the potential of mating with females while reducing the risk of predation. Several male behaviours, such as 'scanning' and the performance of area-restricted spirals upon encounter, are similar to those reported for some copepods and may be common to zooplankton that lack sophisticated chemosensory abilities. The possibility that Daphnia may also be able to assess such important female attributes as species and reproductive status is discussed.

  20. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....